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1

Immobilization of radioactive strontium in contaminated soils by phosphate treatment  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of in situ phosphate- and metal- (calcium, aluminum, and iron) solution treatment for {sup 90}Sr immobilization was investigated. Batch and column experiments were performed to find optimum conditions for coprecipitation of {sup 90}Sr with Ca-, Al-, and Fe-phosphate compounds in contaminated soils. Separate columns were packed with artificially {sup 85}Sr-contaminated acid soil as well as {sup 90}Sr-contaminated soil from the Oak Ridge Reservation. After metal-phosphate treatment, the columns were then leached successively with either tapwater or 0.001 M CaCl{sub 2} solution. Most of the {sup 85}Sr coprecipitated with the metal phosphate compounds. Immobilization of {sup 85}Sr and {sup 90}Sr was affected by such factors as solution pH, metal and phosphate concentration, metal-to-phosphate ratio, and soil characteristics. Equilibration time after treatments also affected {sup 85}Sr immobilization. Many technology aspects still need to be investigated before field applications are feasible, but these experiments indicate that phosphate-based in situ immobilization should prevent groundwater contamination and will be useful as a treatment technology for {sup 90}Sr-contaminated sites. 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Kim, K.H.; Ammons, J.T. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science); Lee, S.Y. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-01-01

2

Micro-PIXE evaluation of radioactive cesium transfer in contaminated soil samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-PIXE analysis has been performed on two soil samples with high cesium activity concentrations. These soil samples were contaminated by fallout from the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. One exhibits a radioactive cesium transfer of ˜0.01, and the other shows a radioactive cesium transfer of less than 0.001, even though both samples have high cesium activity concentrations exceeding 10,000 Bq/kg. X-ray spectra and elemental images of the soil samples revealed the presence of chlorine, which can react with cesium to produce an inorganic soluble compound, and phosphorus-containing cesium-capturable organic compounds.

Fujishiro, F.; Ishii, K.; Matsuyama, S.; Arai, H.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Sugai, H.; Kusano, K.; Nozawa, Y.; Yamauchi, S.; Karahashi, M.; Oshikawa, S.; Kikuchi, K.; Koshio, S.; Watanabe, K.; Suzuki, Y.

2014-01-01

3

[Probabilistic assessment of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination].  

PubMed

A number of models have been developed to assess the risks of radionuclide accumulation in agricultural products and to determine the permissible levels of soil radioactive contamination. The proposed approach takes into account uncertainties of some parameters that describe the radionuclide content in different links of food chains. The models are implemented in the form of software for on-line computations. The validity of applying the probabilistic methods for assessing the impacts of radioactive fallout as compared with the deterministic ones is demonstrated on some specific examples. A universal nature of the dependence between the risks of radionuclide content in products and the density of soil contamination is shown. Contamination limits of the agricultural land are found to vary significantly as a function of the risk size. Directions for further research are defined within the framework of this research. PMID:23700840

Spiridonov, S I; Ivanov, V V

2013-01-01

4

Bioavailability of caesium-137 from chernozem soils with high and low levels of radioactive contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioavailability of Cs-137 in "soil-plant" system of radioactively contaminated terrestrial ecosystems is the most important factor in the understanding of ecological situation. There are many factors affecting the features of Cs-137 biogeochemical cycle: period since an accident, type and intensity of radioactive fallout, general properties of landscape and the specifics of soil and plant covers, etc. In order to evaluate the importance of soil contamination level for the process of Cs-137 translocation from soil to plant the research in forest-steppe areas of Russia with similar natural properties, but contrasting high (Tula region) and low (Kursk region) levels of radioactive Chernobyl fallout (about 25 years after accident) was conducted. Soil cover of both sites is presented by chernozems with bulk density 1.1-1.2 g/cm3, 6-7% humus and neutral pH 6.5-7.2; plant cover under investigation consist of dry and wet meadows with bioproductivity 1.6-2.5 kg/m2 and 85-90% of biomass concentrated underground, that is typical for Russian forest-steppe landscapes. At the same time levels of soil regional contamination with Cs-137 differ by an order - 620-710 Bq/kg (210-250 kBq/m2) in Tula region and 30-55 Bq/kg (10-20 kBq/m2) in Kursk region. At a higher level of soil radioactive contamination specific activity of Cs-137 in vegetation of meadows is noticeably increased (103-160 Bq/kg in Tula region versus 12-14 Bq/kg in Kursk region) with correlation coefficient r 0.87. Increasing of Cs-137 in the underground parts of plants plays a decisive role in this process, while the specific radionuclide's activity in the aboveground parts of different sites is almost invariant (and ubiquitously roots contain 2-5 times more Cs-137 than shoots). The values of transfer factors for Cs-137 (the ratio of the specific Cs-137 activities in the plant tissue and in the soil) at various levels of soil radioactive contamination vary within a relatively narrow range 0.1-0.4, that confirms the discrimination in the radionuclide root uptake. And the higher the level of soil contamination, the more pronounced decreasing of Cs-137 transfer factors with correlation coefficient r -0.89. Further, transfer factors of Cs-137 for aboveground parts of meadow vegetation consist of 0.03-0.012 and always are 2-4 times lower than transfer factors for underground parts. This suggests an existence of biological barrier between the roots and shoots and suppression in the translocation of Cs-137s into aboveground parts of plants. Moreover bioavailability of Cs-137 in the sites of wet meadows is, in accordance with the transfer factors values, even a few more then in the sites of dry meadows regardless of the level of soil radioactive contamination. Thus, general parameters of radionuclide's accumulation in vegetation is closely dependent on its supplies in soil. However, the proportion of Cs-137 root uptake isn't determined by the level of soil radioactive contamination, but mostly by the biological features of vegetation. Study was conducted with the support from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 14-05-00903).

Paramonova, Tatiana; Shamshurina, Eugenia; Machaeva, Ekaterina; Belyaev, Vladimir

2014-05-01

5

Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive heavy metal contaminants. Quarterly report, January--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and develop a physico- chemical treatment process for the removal of uranium and heavy metals from contaminated soil to achieve target contamination levels below 35 pCi/g of soil and a target for non-radioactive heavy metals below concentration levels permissible for release of the soil. Ex- situ pilot-scale soil decontamination and leachate treatment test using Chalk River Chemical Pit soil are nearing completion. Soil decontamination tests using Fernald Incinerator Area soil originally scheduled for February 1995 was postponed to May 1995 as result of unexpected delays in the preparation of two drums of soils.

NONE

1995-05-01

6

Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive contaminants. Final report September 1992--October 1995  

SciTech Connect

A research and development project to remove uranium and related radioactive contaminants from soil by an ultrasonically-aided chemical leaching process began in 1993. The project objective was to develop and design, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale experimental studies, a cost-effective soil decontamination process to produce a treated soil containing less than 35 pCi/g. The project, to cover a period of about thirty months, was designed to include bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to remove primarily uranium from the Incinerator Area soil, at Fernald, Ohio, as well as strontium-90, cobalt-60 and cesium-137 from a Chalk River soil, at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario. The project goal was to develop, design and cost estimate, on the basis of bench-scale and pilot-scale ex-situ soil treatment studies, a process to remove radionuclides form the soils to a residual level of 35 pCi/g of soil or less, and to provide a dischargeable water effluent as a result of soil leaching and a concentrate that can be recovered for reuse or solidified as a waste for disposal. In addition, a supplementary goal was to test the effectiveness of in-situ soil treatment through a field study using the Chalk River soil.

NONE

1996-07-01

7

Speciation of radioactive soil particles in the Fukushima contaminated area by IP autoradiography and microanalyses.  

PubMed

Radioactive soil particles several tens of micrometers in size were collected from litter soil in the radiation contaminated area by the Fukushima nuclear plant accident and characterized using electron and X-ray microanalyses. The radioactive particles were discriminated by autoradiography using imaging plates (IP) on which microgrids were formed by laser ablation in order to find the particles under microscopy. Fifty radioactive particles were identified and classified into three types from their morphology and chemical composition, namely: (1) aggregates of clay minerals, (2) organic matter containing clay mineral particulates, and (3) weathered biotite originating from local granite. With respect to the second type, dissolution of the organic matter did not reduce the radiation, suggesting that the radionuclides were also fixed by the clay minerals. The weathered biotite grains have a plate-like shape with well-developed cleavages inside the grains, and kaolin group minerals and goethite filling the cleavage spaces. The reduction of the radiation intensity was measured before and after the trimming of the plate edges using a focused ion beam (FIB), to examine whether radioactive cesium primarily sorbed at frayed edges. The radiation was attenuated in proportion to the volume decrease by the edge trimming, implying that radioactive cesium was sorbed uniformly in the porous weathered biotite. PMID:25343443

Mukai, Hiroki; Hatta, Tamao; Kitazawa, Hideaki; Yamada, Hirohisa; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Toshihiro

2014-11-18

8

Lateral migration of Caesium-137 as a heterogeneity factor of soil radioactive contamination within small catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Caesium-137 is long-lived artificial radionuclide with half-life of about 30.17 years. Due to Chernobyl accident in 1986 were received 270-280 PBq of 137Cs. The radioactive material is spread in different directions and then fell to the vast territory on the earth's surface as part of rainfall and under the influence of gravity. The deposition of 137Cs was very heterogeneous due to significant impact of changing weather conditions during the accident. Fixing 137Cs in the soil is because of the high content in the upper layer of fine fractions (especially clay) and organic substances that increase the sorption properties of soil. As a result of small vertical migration down the soil profile, the main migration processes of 137Cs is lateral migration which may occur in soil particles under the deflation but mainly water erosion.The aim of this study was to analyze the main factors of changing the current radioecological situation of small catchments in Chernozem zone of European Russia. The 1st small catchment with total area 1.98 km2 is located in the Kursk Region, where 137Cs soil inventories currently does not exceed 37 kBq/m2. The 2nd small catchment with total area 0.99 km2 is located in the Tula Region called "Plavsk Cs deposition hotspot" was highly contaminated with radioactive fallout with levels up to 600 kBq/m2.For reconstruction of 137Cs initial fallout was defined 4 references sites in Kursk Region and 5 sites in Tula Region. All reference sites were located at the flat interfluve areas in or nearby the study catchment. The analysis of 137Cs inventory within 1st study site references did not show significant differences between them which indicates the absence of the initial fallout heterogeneity. The mean values of 137Cs inventory is 8,7±0,5 kBq/m2 and Cv varies in a range of 13-22%, which are typical for the faraway from Chernobyl territory. Based on 4 references was created the map of initial Chernobyl fallout using the formula of radioactive decay. The next step was creation map of 137Cs contamination of soils using data from slopes and bottoms and its comparison with the map of initial Chernobyl fallout. Subsequently, the 137Cs inventory of soil on slopes and watersheds decreased due to the processes of radioactive decay and removal 137Cs with soil erosion but increased on foot of the slopes and bottoms as a result of accumulation processes. In the bottom of catchment formed zones with 2 times excess of the 137Cs initial fallout which is associated with concentrating runoff of soil material from large areas to the bottom, which occupies about 1 % of the total catchment area.The 137Cs inventory within 2nd study site references varies in a range of 82-211 kBq/m2. There is notable spatial trend on the map of initial fallout have been determined in submeridional direction but no trend in sublatitudinal direction. In 2013 the 137Cs inventories within small catchment bottom also in 1.5-2 times higher than the inventories within watershed. Soil erosion significantly changes composition of 137Cs contaminaition in catchment within no polluted area and no changes within heavily polluted area because of heterogeneous deposition.

Shamshurina, Evgeniya

2014-05-01

9

Investigations on the radioactive contamination of crop plants as a result of H-bomb detonation (Part 1) Radioactive contamination of crop plants and soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since radioactive rain-out covered Japan in March-May 1954, due to the H-bomb detonation at Bikini atoll, the authors started assaying the possibie radioactive contamination of crop plants grown at Tokyo district.

Shingo Mitsui; Sueo Aso; Kiyoshi Tensho; Kikuo Kumazawa; Kenzo Miyawaki

1955-01-01

10

(Contaminated soil)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Contaminated Soil, held in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Conference was a status conference for worldwide research and practice in contaminated soil assessment and environmental restoration, with more than 1500 attendees representing over 26 countries. The traveler made an oral presentation and presented a poster. At the Federal Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, the traveler met with Dr. Z. Filip, Director and Professor, and Dr. R. Smed-Hildmann, Research Scientist. Detailed discussions were held regarding the results and conclusions of a collaborative experiment concerning humic substance formation in waste-amended soils.

Siegrist, R.L.

1991-01-08

11

Comparing radiation dose rates in soils and riverine sediment to track the dispersion of radioactive contamination in Fukushima coastal rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident that occurred in March 2011 led to the formation of a 3000-km² radioactive pollution plume on soils located up to 70 km to the northwest of the damaged site. Forests and paddy fields are the dominant land uses in this mountainous region drained to the Pacific Ocean by several rivers that flow across densely inhabited coastal plains. It is then crucial to track the dispersion of radioactive material conveyed by those rivers to estimate the continental supply of radionuclides to the Ocean and to assess redistribution of radioactive sediment in those catchments. Radiations emitted by this contaminated material may indeed lead to an external exposure threat for local populations. As river discharge and sediment concentration data were not available during the first two years that followed the accident, alternative methods had to be developed to track this dispersion. We therefore organized field campaigns every six months and conducted local ground dose rate measurements to estimate whether fresh sediment drape deposits were more or less contaminated compared to local soils. Overall, our results showed that, in those regions exposed to violent typhoons and spring snowmelt, transfers of sediment are massive and episodic, and that they followed a seasonal cycle in 2011-2012. Then, in May 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. This could have indicated a drying-up of the upstream sources of contamination. However, after the violent typhoons that occurred during summer in 2013, dose rates measured in fresh sediment deposits in November 2013 increased again systematically across the region. We thereby suggest that remobilization of contaminated sediment by typhoons and their storage in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represent the most crucial issues to protect the local populations and manage the most contaminated catchments.

Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Lepage, Hugo; Chartin, Caroline; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Bonté, Philippe; Ayrault, Sophie

2014-05-01

12

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY SUMMARY: VITRIFICATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY HAZARDOUS AND/OR RADIOACTIVE WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

A performance summary of an advanced multifuel-capable combustion and melting system (CMS) for the vitrification of hazardous wastes is presented. Vortex Corporation has evaluated its patented CMS for use in the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclid...

13

Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory  

E-print Network

Risø-R-462 Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory after Core-melt Accidents at the Barsebäck;#12;RIS0-R-462 RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF DANISH TERRITORY AFTER CORE-MELT ACCIDENTS AT THE BARSEBACK. An assessment is made of the radioactive contamination of Danish territory in the event of a core-melt accident

14

Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory  

E-print Network

» & Risø-R-462 Radioactive Contamination of Danish Territory after Core-melt Accidents 1982 Risø National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark #12;RIS�-R-462 RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION. Heikel Vinther, L. Warming and A. Aarkrog Abstract. An assessment is made of the radioactive

15

In situ vitrification: Immobilizing radioactive contaminants in place by melting soils into man-made rocks  

SciTech Connect

From 1951 to 1966 over 1 [times] 10[sup 6] Ci of Cs-137, Sr-90, and other radioisotopes in liquid wastes were disposed of in shallow seepage pits at ORNL. In situ methods to stabilize these sites are being investigated because of radiation exposure risks to personnel during excavation and removal activities. A field test at ORNL of In Situ Vitrification (ISV) was performed to evaluate its ability to resistance heating through graphite electrodes to melt contaminated soils in place. The resulting small lava lake cools and solidifies to a rock consisting of glassy and crystalline material. Volatile products released from the surface of the melt are collected and treated. The Sr-90 was incorporated into mineral phases and residual glass that form upon solidification. The Cs-137, however, is incompatible with the mineral structures and is concentrated into the small amount of residual glass that is trapped in the interstices between mineral grains. Leach tests were performed on samples of sludge, sludge + soil, crushed ISV rock, crushed ISV rock + soil, and low surface area fragments of ISV rock. First, sequential extractions with 0.1 N CaCl[sub 2] were used. Then, sequential treatments with 0.1 N HCl were used. Approximately 10% of the Sr-90 was released from the sludge, with or without soil, after CaCl[sub 2] was applied. Subsequent treatment with HCl released essentially all the Sr-90. The Sr-90 in the crushed ISV rock was resistant to cation exchange, with only 0.4% leached after treatment with CaCl[sub 2]. Treatment with HCl released only 4% of the total Sr-90 present in the crushed ISV rock. The low surface area fragments, more representative of expected field conditions, released 10 [times] less of the Sr-90 than the crushed ISV rock samples. The Cs-137 was not significantly leached from any of the samples of sludge or ISV rock.

Jacobs, G.K.; Spalding, B.P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Tixier, J.S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-01-01

16

Estimation of radioactive contamination of soils from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" technical areas of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.  

PubMed

In spite of the long history of the research, radioactive contamination of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan has not been adequately characterized. Our cartographic investigation has demonstrated highly variable radioactive contamination of the SNTS. The Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Am-241 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Balapan" site were 42.6-17646, 96-18250, 1.05-11222, 0.6-4865, 0.23-4893, and 1.2-1037 Bq kg(-1), correspondingly. Cs-137 and Sr-90 activity concentrations in soil samples from the "Experimental field" site were varied from 87 up to 400 and from 94 up to 1000 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Activity concentrations of Co-60, Eu-152, and Eu-154 were lower than the minimum detectable activity of the method used. Concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (K-40, Ra-226, U-238, and Th-232) in the majority of soil samples from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites did not exceed typical for surrounding of the SNTS areas levels. Estimation of risks associated with radioactive contamination based on the IAEA clearance levels for a number of key radionuclides in solid materials shows that soils sampled from the "Balapan" and the "Experimental field" sites might be considered as radioactive wastes. Decrease in specific activity of soil from the sites studied up to safety levels due to Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Eu-152, Eu-154 radioactive decay and Am-241 accumulation-decay will occur not earlier than 100 years. In contrast, soils from the "Experimental field" and the "Balapan" sites (except 0.5-2.5 km distance from the "Chagan" explosion point) cannot be regarded as the radioactive wastes according safety norms valid in Russia and Kazakhstan. PMID:22285594

Evseeva, T; Belykh, E; Geras'kin, S; Majstrenko, T

2012-07-01

17

Mineralogical and geomicrobial examination of soil contamination by radioactive Cs due to 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil contamination by radioactive Cs from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident was investigated. Absorption and desorption experiments of Cs were conducted for several phyllosillicates (kaolinite, sericite, montmorillonite, vermiculite, chrysotile and biotite), zeolite and solid organic matter (dead and green leaves). The results confirmed the characteristic sorption and desorption of Cs by these materials. The 2:1 type phyllosilicate, especially, vermiculite and montmorillonite absorbed Cs well. Heated vermiculite for agricultural use and weathered montmorillonite also adsorbed Cs. Leaves also absorbed Cs considerably but easily desorbed it. In summary, the relative capacity and strength of different materials for sorption of Cs followed the order: zeolite (clinoptilolite) > 2:1 type clay mineral > 1:1 type clay mineral > dead and green leaves. Culture experiments using bacteria of both naturally living on dead leaves in Iitate village, Fukushima Pref. and bacterial strains of Bacillus subtillis, Rhodococus erythropolis, Streptomyces aomiensis and Actinomycetospora chlora were carried out. Non-radioactive 1% Cs solution (CsCl) was added to the culture media. Two types of strong or considerable bacterial uptakes of Cs were found in bacterial cells. One is that Cs was contained mainly as globules inside bacteria and the other is that Cs was absorbed in the whole bacterial cells. The globules consisted mainly of Cs and P. Based on all these results, future diffusion and re-circulation behavior of Cs in the surface environment was discussed.

Akai, Junji; Nomura, Nao; Matsushita, Shin; Kudo, Hisaaki; Fukuhara, Haruo; Matsuoka, Shiro; Matsumoto, Jinko

18

Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive heavy metal contaminants. Ninth quarterly technical and financial progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and develop a physico-chemical treatment process for the removal of uranium and heavy metals from contaminated soil to achieve target contamination levels below 35 pCi/g of soil and a target for non-radioactive heavy metals below concentration levels permissible for release of the soil. The work will involve bench-scale and pilot-scale tests, using chelation-flotation, chemical leaching and ultrasonic leaching techniques, in conjunction with cross-flow microfiltration and filter-press operations. The effectiveness of an integrated process to treat leachates generated from soil processing will be demonstrated. Process flow-sheets suitable for in-situ and ex-situ applications will be developed and preliminary costs will be provided for the soil and leachate treatment technologies. In accordance with 10CFR 600.31 (d)(i), an extension of the project period including final report submission to 31 July 1995 was made in anticipation of potential delays in receiving Fernald soil samples at Chalk River Laboratories for the planned pilot-scale verification tests. Ex-situ pilot-scale soil decontamination and leachate treatment tests using Chalk River Chemical Pit soil are nearing completion. Soil decontamination tests using Fernald Incinerator Area soil originally scheduled for February 1995 was postponed to May 1995 as result of unexpected delays in the preparation of two drums of soils ({approximately}416 kg) by FERMCO and paperwork required to arrange for export/import licenses.

NONE

1995-05-01

19

Dynamics of radiostrontium leaching from radioactively contaminated floodplain soils of the Yenisei River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gleyzation-mediated leaching of radiostrontium from floodplain soils of the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC)\\u000a activity zone [Atamanovskii Island (front part), Oseredysh Island (front part), and Berezovyi Island (rear part)] is studied\\u000a with model systems. Leaching of radiostrontium from waterlogged soils is analyzed in terms of the model of anaerobic biosolubilization\\u000a of gel films. The leaching of radiostrontium is found

E. K. Legin; Yu. I. Trifonov; M. L. Khokhlov; D. N. Suglobov; E. E. Legina; V. K. Legin

2008-01-01

20

Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power plants were ordered between 1978 and 2002, even though it has been suggested that the use of nuclear power has led to significantly reduced CO2 emissions and may provide some relief from the potential climatic changes associated with fossil fuel use. The costs of the remediation of sites contaminated by radioactive materials and the projected costs of waste disposal of radioactive waste in the US dwarf many other environmental programs. The cost of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will likely exceed 10 billion. The estimated total life cycle cost for remediation of US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production sites ranged from 203-247 billion dollars in constant 1999 dollars, making the cleanup the largest environmental project on the planet (US DOE, 2001). Estimates for the cleanup of the Hanford site alone exceeded $85 billion through 2046 in some of the remediation plans.Policy decisions concerning radioactive contamination should be based on an understanding of the potential migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. In many cases, this potential may have been overestimated, leading to decisions to clean up contaminated sites unnecessarily and exposing workers to unnecessary risk. It is important for both the general public and the scientific community to be familiar with information that is well established, to identify the areas of uncertainty and to understand the significance of that uncertainty to the assessment of risk.

Siegel, M. D.; Bryan, C. R.

2003-12-01

21

Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants  

SciTech Connect

A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

Shinn, J.H.

1998-04-01

22

New regulations for radiation protection for work involving radioactive fallout emitted by the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi APP accident--disposal of contaminated soil and wastes.  

PubMed

The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Atomic Power Plant that accompanied the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, released a large amount of radioactive material. To rehabilitate the contaminated areas, the government of Japan decided to carry out decontamination work and manage the waste resulting from decontamination. In the summer of 2013, the Ministry of the Environment planned to begin a full-scale process for waste disposal of contaminated soil and wastes removed as part of the decontamination work. The existing regulations were not developed to address such a large amount of contaminated wastes. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), therefore, had to amend the existing regulations for waste disposal workers. The amendment of the general regulation targeted the areas where the existing exposure situation overlaps the planned exposure situation. The MHLW established the demarcation lines between the two regulations to be applied in each situation. The amendment was also intended to establish provisions for the operation of waste disposal facilities that handle large amounts of contaminated materials. Deliberation concerning the regulation was conducted when the facilities were under design; hence, necessary adjustments should be made as needed during the operation of the facilities. PMID:24856781

Yasui, Shojiro

2014-01-01

23

Evaluating potential groundwater contamination from contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of soils at toxic and hazardous-waste sites can adversely affect groundwater and surface water. Water-soluble materials can move in soil by leaching and percolation and by runoff. The project evaluated the toxicity of leachable toxicants from seven soils, five of which were obtained from designated toxic or hazardous-waste sites. Acidified, dechlorinated tap water was used to extract toxic materials from surface soils. Extracts were used as complex mixtures in acute-toxicity tests using Daphnia and in chronic-effect tests using microcosms. Three classes of effects were observed. Some leachates (including control soils) showed no toxicity. Some soil leachates had moderate acute toxicity (50-80% diluted leachate) and no chronic toxicity. Very toxic soils showed both acute and chronic toxicity at <3% leachate. Toxicological evaluations of contaminants in waste-site soils can provide information not available from chemical analyses and may be useful in verifying the effectiveness of cleanup effort.

Pratt, J.R.; McCormick, P.V.; Pontasch, K.W.; Cairns, J.

1987-01-01

24

Radiocesium fallout in the grasslands on Sakhalin, Kunashir and Shikotan Islands due to Fukushima accident: the radioactive contamination of soil and plants in 2011.  

PubMed

The accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant has resulted in radioactive contamination of environmental media and food in the Far East of Russia, particularly in the Sakhalin Region. To obtain the knowledge about the (134)Cs and (137)Cs spatial distribution in the Sakhalin Region, soil samples were collected at 31 representative grassland sites on Sakhalin, Kunashir and Shikotan islands (43.80°-46.40° N and 142.73°-146.84° E) in the middle of May and around the end of September to early October 2011. In the autumn, vegetation samples (mixed grass/forb crop and bamboo, Sasa sp.) were collected together with soil samples. Maximum measured activity concentrations (on dry weight) of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in soil were 30 Bq kg(-1) and 210 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Within soil profile, (134)Cs activity concentrations declined rapidly with depth. Although for both sampling occasions (in the spring and autumn) the radionuclide was completely retained in the upper 3-4 cm of soil, a deeper penetration of the contaminant into the ground was observed in the autumn. In contrast with (134)Cs, activity concentrations of (137)Cs demonstrated a broad range of the vertical distribution in soil; at most sites, the radionuclide was found down to a depth of 20 cm. This resulted from interfering the aged pre-accidental (137)Cs and the new Fukushima-borne (137)Cs. To calculate contribution of these sources to the inventory of (137)Cs, the (134)Cs:(137)Cs activity ratio of 1:1 in Fukushima fallout (the reference date 15 March 2011) was used. The maximum deposition density of Fukushima-derived (137)Cs was found on Shikotan and Kunashir Islands with average density of 0.124 ± 0.018 kBq m(-2) and 0.086 ± 0.026 kBq m(-2), respectively. Sakhalin Island was less contaminated by Fukushima-derived (137)Cs of 0.021 ± 0.018 kBq m(-2). For the south of Sakhalin Island, the reference inventory of pre-Fukushima (137)Cs was calculated as 1.93 ± 0.25 kBq m(-2) (reference date 15 March 2011). For Shikotan and Kunashir Islands, the pre-Fukushima reference levels of (137)Cs ground contamination appeared to be higher: on average, 2.81 ± 0.35 kBq m(-2). Maximum measured activity concentrations (on wet weight) of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the vegetation were 5 Bq kg(-1) and 18 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Soil-to-plant aggregated transfer factors, T(ag)s, for (134)Cs were more than an order of magnitude higher than those for (137)Cs. For the above-ground biomass density of 1 kg per m(2) (wet weight), plant contamination may contribute approximately 2% and 0.1% to the ground deposition of Fukushima-derived and pre-accidental (137)Cs, respectively. PMID:23344426

Ramzaev, V; Barkovsky, A; Goncharova, Yu; Gromov, A; Kaduka, M; Romanovich, I

2013-04-01

25

Natural radioactivity contamination problems. Report no. 2. (final)  

SciTech Connect

Levels of naturally occurring radionuclides associated with the bauxite, columbium-tantalum, phosphate, tin, pumice, and titanium mineral extraction industries are reported. Data is also presented on radioactivity measurements in ground water, in selected geothermal waters, and in oil production brines. Radiation protection guidance is provided for uranium recovery from wet-process phosphate plants, for soil contamination limits, and for radiological exposure in natural caves. Dose pathways from incidental uses of naturally occurring radioactive materials are presented. Model state regulations for protecting public health and safety from use and disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material are outlined.

Not Available

1981-09-01

26

Soil contamination standards for protection of personnel  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to recommend soil contamination levels that will ensure that radionuclide intakes by unprotected workers are likely to give internal doses below selected dose limits during the working year. The three internal dose limits are 1, 100, and 500 mrem per year. In addition, photon, beta, and alpha instrument readings are estimated for these soil concentration limits. Two exposure pathways are considered: the first is inhalation of resuspended dust and the second is ingestion of trace amounts of soil. In addition, radioactive decay and ingrowth of progeny during the year of exposure is included. External dose from the soil contamination is not included because monitoring and control of external exposures is carried out independently from internal exposures, which are the focus of this report. The methods used are similar to those used by Carbaugh and Bihl (1993) to set bioassay criteria for such workers.

Rittmann, P.D.

1998-04-16

27

Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.  

PubMed

The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry). PMID:23947711

Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

2013-01-01

28

ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible.

R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

2003-02-27

29

Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration  

SciTech Connect

During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. This practice results in the commingling and disposal of clean and contaminated material as low-level waste (LLW), or possibly low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Until recently, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended on manual screening and analysis of samples, which is a costly and impractical approach and does not uphold As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. To reduce the amount of LLW and LLMW generated during the excavation process, SNL/NM is evaluating two alternative technologies. The first of these, the Segmented Gate System (SGS), is an automated system that located and removes gamma-ray emitting radionuclides from a host matrix (soil, sand, dry sludge). The matrix materials is transported by a conveyor to an analyzer/separation system, which segregates the clean and contaminated material based on radionuclide activity level. The SGS was used to process radioactively contaminated soil from the excavation of the Radioactive Waste Landfill. The second technology, Large Area Gamma Spectroscopy (LAGS), utilizes a gamma spec analyzer suspended over a slab upon which soil is spread out to a uniform depth. A counting period of approximately 30 minutes is used to obtain a full-spectrum analysis for the isotopes of interest. The LAGS is being tested on the soil that is being excavated from the Classified Waste Landfill.

Roybal, J.A.; Conway, R.; Galloway, B.; Vinsant, E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Slavin, P. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guerin, D. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-06-01

30

Applications of RESRAD family of computer codes to sites contaminated with radioactive residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RESIL4D family of computer codes was developed to provide a scientifically defensible answer to the question ''How clean is clean?'' and to provide useful tools for evaluating human health risk at sites contaminated with radioactive residues. The RESRAD codes include (1) RESRAD for soil contaminated with radionuclides; (2) RESRAD-BUILD for buildings contaminated with radionuclides; (3) RESRAD-CHEM for soil contaminated

C. Yu; S. Kamboj; J.-J. Cheng; D. LePoire; E. Gnanapragasam; A. Zielen; W. A. Williams; A. Wallo; H. Peterson

1999-01-01

31

Soils: man-caused radioactivity and radiation forecast  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: One of the main tasks of the radiation safety guarantee is non-admission of the excess over critical radiation levels. In Russia they are man-caused radiation levels. Meanwhile any radiation measurement represents total radioactivity. That is why it is hard to assess natural and man-caused contributions to total radioactivity. It is shown that soil radioactivity depends on natural factors including radioactivity of rocks and cosmic radiation as well as man-caused factors including nuclear and non-nuclear technologies. Whole totality of these factors includes unpredictable (non-deterministic) factors - nuclear explosions and radiation accidents, and predictable ones (deterministic) - all the rest. Deterministic factors represent background radioactivity whose trends is the base of the radiation forecast. Non-deterministic factors represent man-caused radiation treatment contribution which is to be controlled. This contribution is equal to the difference in measured radioactivity and radiation background. The way of calculation of background radioactivity is proposed. Contemporary soils are complicated technologically influenced systems with multi-leveled spatial and temporary inhomogeneity of radionuclides distribution. Generally analysis area can be characterized by any set of factors of soil radioactivity including natural and man-caused factors. Natural factors are cosmic radiation and radioactivity of rocks. Man-caused factors are shown on Fig. 1. It is obvious that man-caused radioactivity is due to both artificial and natural emitters. Any result of radiation measurement represents total radioactivity i.e. the sum of activities resulting from natural and man-caused emitters. There is no gauge which could separately measure natural and man-caused radioactivity. That is why it is so hard to assess natural and man-caused contributions to soil radioactivity. It would have been possible if human activity had led to contamination of soil only by artificial radionuclides. But we can view a totality of soil radioactivity factors in the following way. (author)

Gablin, Vassily [Scientific-Industrial Association 'Radon', 7th Rostovsky Lane, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

32

Radioactivity of the soil in Vojvodina (northern province of Serbia and Montenegro)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread public belief that during the bombardment of Vojvodina (Yugoslavia) this region was contaminated by depleted uranium has recently raised public concern with respect to the potential contamination of agricultural products due to soil radioactivity. Based on the gamma-spectrometric analysis of 50 soil samples taken from the region of Vojvodina we concluded that there is no increase of radioactivity

I. Bikit; J. Slivka; Lj. ?onki?; M. Krmar; M. Veskovi?; N. Žiki?-Todorovi?; E. Varga; S. ?ur?i?; D. Mrdja

2004-01-01

33

Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr, with lesser amounts of [sup 6O]Co, [sup 241]Am, and [sup 239,240]Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the [sup 137]Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 241]Am, or [sup 239,240]Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500[degrees]C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Dunbar, N.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-11-01

34

Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, with lesser amounts of {sup 6O}Co, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 239,240}Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the {sup 137}Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, or {sup 239,240}Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500{degrees}C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dunbar, N.W. [New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-11-01

35

TRANSPORT OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE SOIL AT DEEP-OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

Transport studies were conducted to assess ocean disposal of soil contaminated with low-level natural radioisotopes. he experimental approach involved characterization of the soil for parameters affecting transport and fate of radionuclides- Radioactivity was associated with disc...

36

Decontamination of protective clothing against radioactive contamination.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to describe the experimental results of external surface mechanical decontamination of the studied materials forming selected suits. Seven types of personal protective suits declaring protection against radioactive aerosol contamination in different price ranges were selected for decontamination experiments. The outcome of this study is to compare the efficiency of a double-step decontamination process on various personal protective suits against radioactive contamination. A comparison of the decontamination effectiveness for the same type of suit, but for the different chemical mixtures ((140)La in a water-soluble or in a water-insoluble compound), was performed. PMID:25084793

Vošahlíková, I; Otáhal, P

2014-11-01

37

Bioremediation of contaminated surface soils  

SciTech Connect

Biological processes, including microbial degradation, have been identified as critical mechanisms for attenuating organic contaminants during transit through the vadose zone to the groundwater. On-site soil remedial measures using biological processes can reduce or eliminate groundwater contamination, thus reducing the need for extensive groundwater monitoring and treatment requirements. On-site remedial systems that utilize the soil as the treatment system accomplish treatment by using naturally occurring microorganisms to treat the contaminants. Treatment often may be enhanced by a variety of physical/chemical methods, such as fertilization, tilling, soil pH adjustment, moisture control, etc. The development of a bioremediation program for a specific contaminated soil system includes: (1) a thorough site/soil/waste characterization; (2) treatability studies; and (3) design and implementation of the bioremediation plan. Biological remediation of soils contaminated with organic chemicals has been demonstrated to be an alternative treatment technology that can often meet the goal of achieving a permanent clean-up remedy at hazardous waste sites.

Sims, J.L.; Sims, R.C.; Matthews, J.E.

1989-08-01

38

Bioremediating herbicide-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Combinations of landfarming and biostimulation were evaluated for remediating pesticide wastes. Various amounts of soil contaminated with alachlor and trifluralin (> or = 100 mg/kg each) and metolachlor and atrazine (> or = 20 mg/kg each) were applied to field plots, and sewage sludge or corn meal was incorporated into designated plots. Plots were also treated with fresh spray mixtures in amounts similar to those applied as contaminated soil. Soil bioactivity and dissipation of parent herbicides were monitored after the treatments. During 100 d, soil dehydrogenase activities were highest in organic-material-amended plots. During the same period, the levels of alachlor had declined by 85-95% in amended, contaminated soil-treated plots and by 75-85% in corresponding unamended plots. In freshly sprayed plots, 95-100% of the initial doses of alachlor had dissipated in amended plots, and 85-95% was lost in corresponding unamended plots. The levels of trifluralin had declined by 70-80% in corn-meal-amended plots and by 60-75% in unamended plots. There were no significant differences between dissipation of trifluralin applied as contaminated soil or fresh sprays. PMID:8323266

Dzantor, E K; Felsot, A S; Beck, M J

1993-01-01

39

Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs.

Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1990-01-01

40

BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Biological remediation of soils contaminated with organic chemicals is an alternative treatment technology that can often meet the goal of achieving a permanent clean-up remedy at hazardous waste sites, as encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) for impl...

41

Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing  

SciTech Connect

The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work, (2) working conditions, (3) type of anti-contamination material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-contamination clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Reichelt, R.A.; Clay, M.E.; Eichorst, A.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-01-01

42

Radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on observational data in the period 1971–1993, radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River ecosystem was analysed within 2000 km of the site of discharges from the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Industrial Complex. Data on the content of 24Na, 32P, 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn, 56Mn, 58Co, 60Co, 59Fe, 65Zn, 90Sr, 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce and 239Np

E. G. Tertyshnik

1995-01-01

43

Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing  

SciTech Connect

The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

1996-10-01

44

ION-EXCHANGE PROCESSES FOR REMOVING RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION FROM MILK  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY These studies on removing radioactive contamination from milk were carried on for the purpose of developing a feasible standby process for use in dairy plants in the event that radioactive fallout should reach hazardous levels. Current levels of all the radioactive contaminants are far below what is con- sidered hazardous levels; Iodine-131 is essentially undetectable in all milk supplies.

L. E. Edmondson

1964-01-01

45

Decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination.  

PubMed

  When radionuclides are accidentally ingested or inhaled, blood circulation or tissue/organ deposition of the radionuclides causes systemic or local radiation effects. In such cases, decorporation therapy is used to reduce the health risks due to their intake. Decorporation therapy includes reduction and/or inhibition of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, isotopic dilution, and the use of diuretics, adsorbents, and chelating agents. For example, penicillamine is recommended as a chelating agent for copper contamination, and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid is approved for the treatment of internal contamination with plutonium. During chelation therapy, the removal effect of the drugs should be monitored using a whole-body counter and/or bioassay. Some authorities, such as the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements and International Atomic Energy Agency, have reported recommended decorporation agents for each radionuclide. However, few drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and many are off-label-use agents. Because many decontamination agents are drugs that have been available for a long time and have limited efficacy, the development of new, higher-efficacy drugs has been carried out mainly in the USA and France. In this article, in addition to an outline of decorporation agents for internal radioactive contamination, an outline of our research on decorporation agents for actinide (uranium and plutonium) contamination and for radio-cesium contamination is also presented. PMID:25832835

Ohmachi, Yasushi

2015-01-01

46

The total amounts of radioactively contaminated materials in forests in Fukushima, Japan  

PubMed Central

There has been leakage of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A heavily contaminated area (? 134, 137Cs 1000?kBq m?2) has been identified in the area northwest of the plant. The majority of the land in the contaminated area is forest. Here we report the amounts of biomass, litter (small organic matter on the surface of the soil), coarse woody litter, and soil in the contaminated forest area. The estimated overall volume and weight were 33?Mm3 (branches, leaves, litter, and coarse woody litter are not included) and 21?Tg (dry matter), respectively. Our results suggest that removing litter is an efficient method of decontamination. However, litter is being continuously decomposed, and contaminated leaves will continue to fall on the soil surface for several years; hence, the litter should be removed promptly but continuously before more radioactive elements are transferred into the soil. PMID:22639724

Hashimoto, Shoji; Ugawa, Shin; Nanko, Kazuki; Shichi, Koji

2012-01-01

47

Phytoremediation of Metal-Contaminated Soils  

SciTech Connect

Recent concerns regarding environmental contamination have necessitated the development of appropriate technologies to assess the presence and mobility of metals in soil and estimate possible ways to decrease the level of soil metal contamination. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that may be used to cleanup contaminated soils. Successful application of phytoremediation, however, depends upon various factors that must be carefully investigated and properly considered for specific site conditions. To efficiently affect the metal removal from contaminated soils we used the ability of plants to accumulate different metals and agricultural practices to improve soil quality and enhance plant biomass. Pot experiments were conducted to study metal transport through bulk soil to the rhizosphere and stimulate transfer of the metals to be more available for plants' form. The aim of the experimental study was also to find fertilizers that could enhance uptake of metals and their removal from contaminated soil.

Shtangeeva, I.; Laiho, J.V-P.; Kahelin, H.; Gobran, G.R.

2004-03-31

48

Rhizosphere microbial populations in contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizosphere microbial populations may increase bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals. A growth chamber\\u000a study was conducted to evaluate rhizosphere microbial populations in contaminated and non-contaminated soil. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and alpine bluegrass (Poa alpina L.) were grown in soil containing a mixture of organic chemicals for 14 weeks. The equal millimolar mixture of hexadecane,\\u000a (2,2-dimethylpropyl)benzene, cis-decahydronaphthalene (decalin),

T. D. Nichols; D. C. Wolf; H. B. Rogers; C. A. Beyrouty; C. M. Reynolds

1997-01-01

49

RHIZOSPHERE MICROBIAL POPULATIONS IN CONTAMINATED SOILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizosphere microbial populations may increase bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals. A growth chamber study was conducted to evaluate rhizosphere microbial populations in contaminated and non-contaminated soil. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and alpine bluegrass (Poa alpina L.) were grown in soil containing a mixture of organic chemicals for 14 weeks. The equal millimolar mixture of hexadecane, (2,2-dimethyl-propyl)-benzene, cis-decahydronaphthalene (decalin),

T. D. NICHOLS; D. C. WOLF; H. B. ROGERS; C. A. BEYROUTY; C. M. REYNOLDS

1997-01-01

50

Extraction of Chromium from Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chromium contaminated soil area was studied, in order to recover metals present as contaminants in soils, associated to the soil remediation. A leaching solution of HCl (0,1 M) and NaCl (1,9 M) was used to extract the chromium content. The concentration of chromium in the leached solutions was analysed. For each contaminated sample, the evolution with time of chromium

Joao C. N. Lourenço; Maria C. m. Alvim-ferraz

1999-01-01

51

PHYTOREMEDIATION: USING GREEN PLANTS TO CLEAN UP CONTAMINATED SOIL, GROUNDWATER, AND WASTEWATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation, an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost, is defined as the engineered use of green plants (including grasses, forbs, and woody species) to remove, contain, or render harmless such environmental contaminants as heavy metals, trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive compounds in soil or water. A greenhouse experiment on zinc

Ray R. Hinchman; Edward G. Gatliff

1997-01-01

52

Phytoremediation: using green plants to clean up contaminate soil, groundwater, and wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation, an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost, is defined as the engineered use of green plants (including grasses, forbs, and woody species) to remove, contain, or render harmless such environmental contaminants as heavy metals, trace elements, organic compounds and radioactive compounds in soil or water. Our research includes a successful

M. C. Negri; R. R. Hinchman; E. G. Gatliff

1996-01-01

53

REMEDIATION OF LEAD CONTAMINATED SOIL WITH COMPOSTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many soils have become contaminated by lead use for industries, vehicles and homes. In general, soil Pb comprises greatest risk thru soil/dust ingestion by infants and children, not thru uptake into the edible part of garden foods. To protect young children from adverse health effects of soil Pb, ...

54

48 CFR 945.603-71 - Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property. 945.603-71...603-71 Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property. Special procedures...regarding the disposal of radioactively contaminated property may be found at 41 CFR...

2012-10-01

55

48 CFR 945.603-71 - Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property. 945.603-71...603-71 Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property. Special procedures...regarding the disposal of radioactively contaminated property may be found at 41 CFR...

2011-10-01

56

48 CFR 945.670-2 - Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property. 945.670-2...670-2 Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property. Special procedures...regarding the disposal of radioactively contaminated property may be found at 41 CFR...

2014-10-01

57

48 CFR 945.603-71 - Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property. 945.603-71...603-71 Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property. Special procedures...regarding the disposal of radioactively contaminated property may be found at 41 CFR...

2010-10-01

58

48 CFR 945.670-2 - Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property. 945.670-2...670-2 Disposal of radioactively contaminated personal property. Special procedures...regarding the disposal of radioactively contaminated property may be found at 41 CFR...

2013-10-01

59

SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY TESTS FOR PESTICIDE- CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1987 Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 record of decision (ROD) identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides, and metals. Initial treatability tests conducted to assess the applicability...

60

Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated by Chlorinnated Hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the possible use of deep rooted plants for phytoremediation of soil contaminants has been offered as a potential alternative for waste management, particularly for in situ remediation of large volumes of contaminated soils. Major objectives of this study are to evaluate the effectiveness of a warm season grass (Eastern Gamagrass) and a cool season prairie grass (Annual

C. Cho; K. Sung; M. Corapcioglu

2001-01-01

61

Solid phase bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid phase bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil involves aerobic biodegradation in an above grade treatment bed. This treatment technology is proposed for remediating soils contaminated by petroleum from leaking underground fuel storage tanks at various sites at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The treatment technology uses bacteria to degrade the petroleum hydrocarbons. The environmentally safe end products of the biodegradation

1992-01-01

62

Improving soil contamination monitoring in Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of national surveys and monitoring activities of soil contamination is currently one of the most important challenges in soil protection studies. In Hungary, the national Soil Information and Monitoring System (SIMS) has been established aiming to estimate changes in soil contaminants in agricultural lands and identify contaminated sites. However, besides the relatively high sample sizes of TIM (1236 point measurements) accuracies of the derived information on soil contamination are not known. The objectives of MONTABIO project are (1) to estimate the accuracy of SIMS by using additional up-to-date samplings of the typical soil contaminants using new field measurement methods; and (2) to develop spatial sampling design to improve the accuracy of the monitoring system. Towards aim (1) we measured toxic inorganic pollutants: heavy-metals, organic pollutants: pesticide residues and hydrocarbons in fields with different agricultural practices. Soil, soil water sampling and chemical analyses were completed according to standards. Differences and statistical power of the datasets provided by SIMS and our field sampling will be evaluated. In the interest of aim (2) regionalization of soil contamination coupled with further information (actual agricultural practices, soil physical and chemical parameters) will be conducted to optimize the spatial allocation of sampling points, to identify the relevant affecting factors and to minimize the required sample sizes.

Dombos, M.; Szabó, J.; Anton, A.; Pásztor, L.

2009-04-01

63

The Accumulation of Radioactive Contaminants in Drinking Water Distribution Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution systems has been documented and the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of particular concern because of their known health eff...

64

In situ removal of contamination from soil  

DOEpatents

A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination. The process also uses further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed. 5 figs.

Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V.

1997-10-14

65

In situ removal of contamination from soil  

DOEpatents

A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01

66

Vitrification testing of soil fines from contaminated Hanford 100 Area and 300 Area soils  

SciTech Connect

The suitability of Hanford soil for vitrification is well known and has been demonstrated extensively in other work. The tests reported here were carried out to confirm the applicability of vitrification to the soil fines (a subset of the Hanford soil potentially different in composition from the bulk soil) and to provide data on the performance of actual, vitrified soil fines. It was determined that the soil fines were generally similar in composition to the bulk Hanford soil, although the fraction <0.25 mm in the 100 Area soil sample appears to differ somewhat from the bulk soil composition. The soil fines are readily melted into a homogeneous glass with the simple additions of CaO and/or Na{sub 2}O. The vitrified waste (plus additives) occupies only 60% of the volume of the initial untreated waste. Leach testing has shown the glasses made from the soil fines to be very durable relative to natural and man-made glasses and has demonstrated the ability of the vitrified waste to greatly reduce the release of radionuclides to the environment. Viscosity and electrical conductivity measurements indicate that the soil fines will be readily processable, although with levels of additives slightly greater than used in the radioactive melts. These tests demonstrate the applicability of vitrification to the contaminated soil fines and the exceptional performance of the waste form resulting from the vitrification of contaminated Hanford soils.

Ludowise, J.D.

1994-05-01

67

Highly reduced mass loss rates and increased litter layer in radioactively contaminated areas.  

PubMed

The effects of radioactive contamination from Chernobyl on decomposition of plant material still remain unknown. We predicted that decomposition rate would be reduced in the most contaminated sites due to an absence or reduced densities of soil invertebrates. If microorganisms were the main agents responsible for decomposition, exclusion of large soil invertebrates should not affect decomposition. In September 2007 we deposited 572 bags with uncontaminated dry leaf litter from four species of trees in the leaf litter layer at 20 forest sites around Chernobyl that varied in background radiation by more than a factor 2,600. Approximately one quarter of these bags were made of a fine mesh that prevented access to litter by soil invertebrates. These bags were retrieved in June 2008, dried and weighed to estimate litter mass loss. Litter mass loss was 40% lower in the most contaminated sites relative to sites with a normal background radiation level for Ukraine. Similar reductions in litter mass loss were estimated for individual litter bags, litter bags at different sites, and differences between litter bags at pairs of neighboring sites differing in level of radioactive contamination. Litter mass loss was slightly greater in the presence of large soil invertebrates than in their absence. The thickness of the forest floor increased with the level of radiation and decreased with proportional loss of mass from all litter bags. These findings suggest that radioactive contamination has reduced the rate of litter mass loss, increased accumulation of litter, and affected growth conditions for plants. PMID:24590204

Mousseau, Timothy A; Milinevsky, Gennadi; Kenney-Hunt, Jane; Møller, Anders Pape

2014-05-01

68

Earthworm survival in oil contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms are an important component of the soil biota and their response to oil pollution needs to be better understood. Laboratory investigations were undertaken to determine the concentrations of crude oil in soil that leads to death of Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida and to determine the propensity of L. terrestris to move away from contaminated soil. Clemville sandy clay

Safwat H. Shakir Hanna; R. W. Weaver

2002-01-01

69

Analysis of soils contaminated with petroleum constituents  

SciTech Connect

This symposium was held in Atlanta, Georgia on June 24, 1993. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for exchange of information on petroleum contaminated soils. When spilled on the ground, petroleum products can cause massive problems in the environment. In this Special Technical Publication (STP), papers were selected in two categories; the analytical procedures for soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and the behavior of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

O'Shay, T.A. (ed.) (Gordon and Lawton Inc., Austin, TX (United States)); Hoddinott, K. (ed.) (Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States))

1994-01-01

70

A petroleum contaminated soil bioremediation facility  

SciTech Connect

The amount of petroleum contaminated soil (PCS) at the Savannah River site (SRS) that has been identified, excavated and is currently in storage has increased several fold during the last few years. Several factors have contributed to this problem: (1) South Carolina Department of Health ad Environmental control (SCDHEC) lowered the sanitary landfill maximum concentration for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil from 500 to 100 parts per million (ppm), (2) removal and replacement of underground storage tanks at several sites, (3) most recently SCDHEC disallowed aeration for treatment of contaminated soil, and (4) discovery of several very large contaminated areas of soil associated with leaking underground storage tanks (LUST), leaking pipes, disposal areas, and spills. Thus, SRS has an urgent need to remediate large quantities of contaminated soil that are currently stockpiled and the anticipated contaminated soils to be generated from accidental spills. As long as we utilize petroleum based compounds at the site, we will continue to generate contaminated soil that will require remediation.

Lombard, K.; Hazen, T.

1994-06-01

71

APPROACH TO BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Biological processes, including microbial degradation, have been identified as critical mechanisms for attenuating organic contaminants during transit through the vadose zone to the groundwater. n-site soil remedial measures using biological processes can reduce or eliminate grou...

72

Restoration of water environment contaminated by radioactive cesium released from Fukushima Daiichi NPP  

SciTech Connect

In the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident, large amounts of volatile radioactive nuclides, such as {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs, were released to the atmosphere and huge areas surrounding the nuclear site were contaminated by the radioactive fallout. In this study, a combined process with a hydrothermal process and a coagulation settling process was proposed for the separation of radioactive Cs from contaminated soil and sewage sludge. The coagulation settling operation uses Prussian Blue (Ferric ferrocyanide) and an inorganic coagulant. The recovery of Cs from sewage sludge sampled at Fukushima city (100.000 Bq/kg) and soil at a nearby village (55.000 Bq/kg), was tested. About 96% of Cs in the sewage sludge was removed successfully by combining simple hydrothermal decomposition and coagulation settling. However, Cs in the soil was not removed sufficiently by the combined process (Cs removal is only 56%). The hydrothermal decomposition with blasting was carried out. The Cs removal from the soil was increased to 85%. When these operations were repeated twice, the Cs recovery was over 90%. The combined process with hydrothermal blasting and coagulation settling is applicable to the removal of Cs from highly contaminated soil.

Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, H. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 157-8550 (Japan); Jinbo, Y. [CDM Cosulting Co.Ltd., 1-13-13 Tsukiji Chuo-ku Tokyo 104-0045 (Japan); Ishido, A. [Radwaste and Decommissioning Center, 1-7-6 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

2013-07-01

73

Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal An International Approach to Monitoring, Interception & Managing  

E-print Network

Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal An International Approach to Monitoring, Interception of uncontrolled radioactive source incidents. Aside from radiation exposure to workers and the public, this unwanted radioactive scrap material causes environmental and facility contamination with cleanup costs

74

RISK ANALYSIS OF TCDD CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper provides a methodology for estimating the human exposure and cancer risk associated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD contaminated soil. Five exposure pathways are addressed: dust inhalation, fish ingestion, dermal absorption, soil ingestion, and beef/dairy products ingestion. For eac...

75

PHYTOREMEDIATION OF CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATED SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant selection and soil amendments are important for successful phytoremediation. The goal of this research was to evaluate the use of phytoremediation to clean up soils contaminated with weathered crude oil. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect of N rates on the growth of three warm-season grasses and a warm-season legume. Alkane, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH), and

P. M. White; W. D. Kirkpatrick; D. C. Wolf; G. J. Thoma

76

Release of Chemicals from Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

At sites that contain contaminated soils, there can be questions about the magnitude of risk posed by the chemicals in the soils and about the cleanup levels that should be achieved. Knowledge about the rate of release of chemicals is important to answers to such questions. This article: (1) describes a laboratory protocol to obtain rate of release information for

Derek G. Williamson; Raymond C. Loehr; Yosuke Kimura

1998-01-01

77

MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REMEDIATING CONTAMINATED SOILS: A CRITICAL REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulatory compliance requires the cleanup of soils contaminated with toxic organic and metallic compounds. Several chemical and thermal detoxification technologies have been tested on soils excavated from contaminated sites. Soil washing with aqueous solutions transfers the cont...

78

Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

At one installation, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of the research program in which twenty-one surfactants were screened for possible use to mobilize the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on actual contaminated soil samples obtained from the site. 18 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Lewis, B.A. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

1990-01-01

79

Soil washing of fluorine contaminated soil using various washing solutions.  

PubMed

Bench-scale soil washing experiments were conducted to remove fluoride from contaminated soils. Five washing solutions including hydrochloric acid (HCl), nitric acid (HNO3), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and tartaric acid (C4H6O6) were tested. The concentration of the washing solutions used ranged from 0.1 to 3 M with a liquid to solid ratio of 10. The soil washing results showed that the most effective washing solution for the removal of fluoride from contaminated soils was HCl. The highest fluoride removal results of approximately 97 % from the contaminated soil were obtained using 3 M HCl. The fluoride removal efficiency of the washing solution increases in the following order: C4H6O6 < NaOH < H2SO4 < HNO3 < HCl. PMID:25552323

Moon, Deok Hyun; Jo, Raehyun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Park, Jeong-Hun

2015-03-01

80

Some aspects of remediation of contaminated soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils are essential components of the environment, a limited precious and fragile resource, the quality of which should be preserved. The concentration, chemical form and distribution of potential harmful elements in soils depends on parent rocks, weathering, soil type and soil use. However, their concentration can be altered by mismanagement of industrial and mining activities, energy generation, traffic increase, overuse of agrochemicals, sewage sludge and waste disposal, causing contamination, environmental problems and health concerns. Heavy metals, some metalloids and radionuclides are persistent in the environment. This persistence hampers the cost/efficiency of remediation technologies. The choice of the most appropriate soil remediation techniques depends of many factors and essentially of the specific site. This contribution aims to offer an overview of the main remediation methods in contaminated soils. There are two main groups of technologies: the first group dealing with containment and confinement, minimizing their toxicity, mobility and bioavailability. Containment measures include covering, sealing, encapsulation and immobilization and stabilization. The second group, remediation with decontamination, is based on the remotion, clean up and/or destruction of contaminants. This group includes mechanical procedures, physical separations, chemical technologies such as soil washing with leaching or precipitation of harmful elements, soil flushing, thermal treatments and electrokinetic technologies. There are also two approaches of biological nature: bioremediation and phytoremediation. Case studies from Chile, Ecuador, Italy, Korea, Peru, Portugal, Russia and Spain, will be discussed in accordance with the time available.

Bech, Jaume; Korobova, Elena; Abreu, Manuela; Bini, Claudio; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roca, Núria

2014-05-01

81

SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY FOR PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1987 Record of Decision for Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides and metals. nitial treatability tests conducted to assess the application of soi...

82

Remediation processes for heavy metals contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides information on selected technologies available for remediation of metal contaminated soils and industrial effluent solutions. Because some of the industrial sites are contaminated with organics (solvents, gasolines and oils), an effort has been made to introduce the most frequently used cost-effective cleanup methods, such as {open_quotes}bioventing{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}composting.{close_quotes} The microorganisms involved in these processes are capable of degrading organic soil contaminants to environmentally harmless compounds: water and carbon dioxide. Heavy metals and radionuclides contaminated mining and industrial sites can be remediated by using adapted heap and dump leaching technologies, which can be chemical in nature or bio-assisted. The importance of volume reduction by physical separation is discussed. A special attention is devoted to the remediation of soils by leaching (soil washing) to remove heavy metal contaminants, such as chromium, lead, nickel and cadmium. Furthermore, the applicability of biosorption technology in the remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides contaminated industrial waste waters and acidic mining effluent solutions was indicated. 60 refs., 9 figs.

Torma, G.A.; Torma, A.E. [AMROT International, Rio Rancho, NM (United States); Hsu, Pei-Cheng [Mining and Waste Management, Arvado, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

83

Activated Natural Zeolites on Textiles: Protection from Radioactive Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clothing designed to protect against radioactive contamination was based on a simple principle. It was important not to inhale contaminated dust and air and to ensure that contaminated particles could not reach the skin. Therefore, the density of the textile was crucial. New developments, keeping in mind that textile should be lightweight, are focused on textiles which can chemically bind the contamination particles and not allow them either to diffuse to the skin or spread back into the environment. A great success would be if the clothing were made reusable (e.g., for use in the space station). Therefore, new methods (or chemical preparations) are being proposed for developing intelligent textiles.

Grancaric, A. M.; Prlic, I.; Tarbuk, A.; Marovic, G.

84

Phytoremediation: Using green plants to clean up contaminated soil, groundwater, and wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation, an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost, is defined as the engineered use of green plants (including grasses, forbs, and woody species) to remove, contain, or render harmless such environmental contaminants as heavy metals, trace elements, organic compounds ({open_quotes}organics{close_quotes}), and radioactive compounds in soil or water. Current research at Argonne

M. C. Negri; R. R. Hinchman

1996-01-01

85

Simplified method for detecting tritium contamination in plants and soil.  

PubMed

Cost-effective methods are needed to identify the presence and distribution of tritium near radioactive waste disposal and other contaminated sites. The objectives of this study were to (i) develop a simplified sample preparation method for determining tritium contamination in plants and (ii) determine if plant data could be used as an indicator of soil contamination. The method entailed collection and solar distillation of plant water from foliage, followed by filtration and adsorption of scintillation-interfering constituents on a graphite-based solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The method was evaluated using samples of creosote bush [Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Coville], an evergreen shrub, near a radioactive disposal area in the Mojave Desert. Laboratory tests showed that a 2-g SPE column was necessary and sufficient for accurate determination of known tritium concentrations in plant water. Comparisons of tritium concentrations in plant water determined with the solar distillation-SPE method and the standard (and more laborious) toluene-extraction method showed no significant difference between methods. Tritium concentrations in plant water and in water vapor of root-zone soil also showed no significant difference between methods. Thus, the solar distillation-SPE method provides a simple and cost-effective way to identify plant and soil contamination. The method is of sufficient accuracy to facilitate collection of plume-scale data and optimize placement of more sophisticated (and costly) monitoring equipment at contaminated sites. Although work to date has focused on one desert plant, the approach may be transferable to other species and environments after site-specific experiments. PMID:12809299

Andraski, B J; Sandstrom, M W; Michel, R L; Radyk, J C; Stonestrom, D A; Johnson, M J; Mayers, C J

2003-01-01

86

Development of gamma-ray\\/x-ray spectrometric methods for monitoring the contamination of soil with 241 Am and Pu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal sources of plutonium and americium entering the environment are tests of nuclear weapons, the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, and discharges from radiochemical factories. It is necessary to monitor the contamination of soil these produce from the levels caused by global radioactive fallout. The 241pu content in plutonium contaminating soil can vary by an appreciable factor

A. V. Bushuev; V. N. Zubarev; E. V. Petrova; V. I. Popov; I. M. Proshin; O. I. Yaroshevich; I. V. Zhuk; E. M. Lomonosova; M. K. Kievets; N. N. Glubokiî; V. P. Mironov; V. P. Kudryashov; L. E. Grushevich; S. F. Bulyga; V. S. Shkol'nik; O. G. Tyupkina; M. A. Akhmetov

1997-01-01

87

Contamination analysis of radioactive samples in focused ion beam instruments.  

PubMed

The use of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) instrument's to analyze and prepare samples that are radioactive requires attentiveness to the materials that are dislodged and free inside the chamber. Radioactive sputtered material must be understood even when observed at trace concentrations. Measurements using liquid scintillation counting and high purity germanium detectors were used to evaluate contamination on accessible surfaces inside a focused ion beam chamber that was used in the preparation of samples that were radioactive. The maximum removable contamination found was 0.27 0.4 Bq cm(-2), on the focused ion beam wall with 0.24 0.019 Bq cm(-2) on the door. Although these magnitudes of removable contamination are inconsequential for activation products, these same magnitudes of actinides, for example 239Pu, would represent 3.2% of an Annual Limit of Intake. This might be considered significant if one examines the relatively infrequent use of this device for the preparation of radioactive samples. Predicted activities of sputtered material were found using the software Transport of Ions in Matter, estimating that 0.003% of a radioactive samples activity is released into the FIB chamber. A used secondary electron detector's activity was measured to be 383.7 8.1 Bq. Preferential build-up of sputtered materials due to temperature or static charge gradients was considered. No temperature gradients were observed. Static charge gradients were measured inside the chamber varying between 0.057% below the mean to 34% higher than the mean. However, the magnitudes of contamination measured did not correlate to static charge gradients. Deposition in the chamber appears to have no mechanical cause but rather is sporadic however, measureable. Experience to date has been limited to samples of low activity; nevertheless, contamination inside the chamber was observed. Users should anticipate higher levels of readily dispersible radioactive contamination within the FIB as sample activity increases. PMID:23287516

Evelan, Audrey Ruth; Brey, Richard R

2013-02-01

88

Assessment of health risk from exposure to contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk to human health posed by contaminated soil in a residential area depends on the potential extent of exposure to soil and on the toxic properties of the contaminants. A detailed soil exposure analysis is presented for young children, older children, and adults living in a house surrounded by contaminated soil. From this analysis, a lifetime exposure model is

John K. Hawley

1985-01-01

89

Radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators  

E-print Network

The radioactive contamination of ZnWO4 crystal scintillators has been measured deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN in Italy with a total exposure 3197 kg x h. Monte Carlo simulation, time-amplitude and pulse-shape analyses of the data have been applied to estimate the radioactive contamination of the ZnWO4 samples. One of the ZnWO4 crystals has also been tested by ultra-low background gamma spectrometry. The radioactive contaminations of the ZnWO4 samples do not exceed 0.002 -- 0.8 mBq/kg (depending on the radionuclide), the total alpha activity is in the range: 0.2 - 2 mBq/kg. Particular radioactivity, beta active 65Zn and alpha active 180W, has been detected. The effect of the re-crystallization on the radiopurity of the ZnWO4 crystal has been studied. The radioactive contamination of samples of the ceramic details of the set-ups used in the crystals growth has been checked by low background gamma spectrometry. A project scheme on further improvement of the radiopurity level of the ZnWO4 crystal scintillators is briefly addressed.

P. Belli; R. Bernabei; F. Cappella; R. Cerulli; F. A. Danevich; A. M. Dubovik; S. d'Angelo; E. N. Galashov; B. V. Grinyov; A. Incicchitti; V. V. Kobychev; M. Laubenstein; L. L. Nagornaya; F. Nozzoli; D. V. Poda; R. B. Podviyanuk; O. G. Polischuk; D. Prosperi; V. N. Shlegel; V. I. Tretyak; I. A. Tupitsyna; Ya. V. Vasiliev; Yu. Ya. Vostretsov

2010-09-05

90

Emergency department management of patients internally contaminated with radioactive material.  

PubMed

After a radiation emergency that involves the dispersal of radioactive material, patients can become externally and internally contaminated with 1 or more radionuclides. Internal contamination can lead to the delivery of harmful ionizing radiation doses to various organs and tissues or the whole body. The clinical consequences can range from acute radiation syndrome to the long-term development of cancer. Estimating the amount of radioactive material absorbed into the body can guide the management of patients. Treatment includes, in addition to supportive care and long term monitoring, certain medical countermeasures like Prussian blue, calcium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and zinc DTPA. PMID:25455668

Kazzi, Ziad; Buzzell, Jennifer; Bertelli, Luiz; Christensen, Doran

2015-02-01

91

Bioremediation of oil sludge-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil-polluted environments by the use of indigenous or selected microbial flora. Several factors such as aeration, use of inorganic nutrients or fertilizers and the type of microbial species play a major role in the remediation of oil-contaminated sites. Experiments were undertaken for bioremediation of oil sludge-contaminated soil in the presence

N Vasudevan; P Rajaram

2001-01-01

92

Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale study was conducted to evaluate the application of land-farming techniques in bioremediating a soil highly contaminated with petroleum products. A commercial biosupplement, and one prepared with indigenous microorganisms from the contaminated soil, were tested. Application of either of the biosupplements, in addition to the control of pH, moisture, and oxygen levels, resulted in a 94% reduction of the initial total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (TPHC) (32% mass/mass) over a 70-day period. Implementation of these findings at full scale to bioremediate highly weathered petroleum products showed an average reduction of 89% over 5.5 months. Target levels of 1,400 mg/kg soil were reached from an initial average TPHC concentration of 12,200 mg/kg soil.

Pearce, K.; Snyman, H.G.; Oellermann, R.A.; Gerber, A. [CSIR Div. of Water Technology, Pretoria (South Africa)

1995-12-31

93

[On the problem of biodiagnostics under conditions of radioactive contamination].  

PubMed

The possibilities of biodiagnostics methods (bioindication and bioassay) have been analyzed for conditions of radioactive contamination of natural ecosystems components. The prospects of using biodiagnostics data to address some practical radioecology problems are discussed. The data on dynamics of long-term indicators in the ecosystems contaminated after the Chernobyl accident are shown. The authors have formulated a number of provisions relating to the accumulative bioindication for structural components of forest ecosystems (arboreal and herbaceous vegetation, mosses, lichens, higher fungi). PMID:25775831

2014-01-01

94

Chelant soil-washing technology for metal-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

We demonstrate here, in a pilot-scale experiment, the feasibility of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)based washing technology for soils contaminated with potentially toxic metals. Acid precipitation coupled to initial alkaline toxic metal removal and an electrochemical advanced oxidation process were used for average recovery of 76 +/- 2% of EDTA per batch and total recycle of water in a closed process loop. No waste water was generated; solid wastes were efficiently bitumen-stabilized before disposal. The technology embodiment, using conventional process equipment, such as a mixer for soil extraction, screen for soil/gravel separation, filter chamber presses for soil/liquid and recycled EDTA separation and soil rinsing, continuous centrifuge separator for removal of precipitated metals and electrolytic cells for process water cleansing, removed up to 72%, 25% and 66% of Pb, Zn and Cd from garden soil contaminated with up to 6960, 3797 and 32.6 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively, in nine 60kg soil batches. Concentrations of Pb and Zn remaining in the remediated soil and bioaccessible from the simulated human intestinal phase soil were reduced by 97% and 96% and were brought under the level of determination for Cd. In the most cost-effective operation mode, the material and energy costs of remediation amounted to 50.5 Euros ton(-1) soil and the total cost to 299 Euros ton(-1). PMID:24701937

Voglar, David; Lestan, Domen

2014-01-01

95

Radioactive Elements in Soils of Siberia (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance Department in Krasnoyarsk Territory, Krasnoyarsk In the course of long-term research a great deal of information on the content of natural and artificial radionuclides in soils of the Siberian regions has been obtained and summarized (Altai and Krasnoyarsk Territories, Altai Republic, Buryatia, Yakutia, Khakassia, Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk Oblasts and a number of other Siberian regions). The content level of U(Ra), Th and K in soil of studied areas is within the range of values obtained for soil of other areas of Russia and the world and defined, first of all, by radioactivity of parent rocks. The authors have studied the total level of specific activity for 137Cs most completely in soils of different Siberian regions. The maximum density of such sites with global fallouts (nuclear air explosions in Novaya Zemlya, Lop Nor, Semipalatinsk etc.) is typical for the areas of Altai Territory and Buryatia Republic. Elevated level of radiocesium (to 1000 and more than Bq/kg) is characteristic for the sites adjacent to the area of NFP (Seversk, Zheleznogorsk). Our data obtained in determination of plutonium in soils of different Siberian regions excess remarkably its background accepted for Siberia. Particularly high accumulation levels of Pu in soil were observed in the zones of NFP operation (Seversk, Tomsk Oblast; Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Territory, in the sites of accidents fallouts at underground nuclear explosions in Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Abnormally high ratio of 238Pu/239,240Pu in soils of Sakha republic, Aginsk Buryatia Autonomous District, Krasnoyarsk Territory has engaged our attention.

Baranovskaya, N. V.; Rikhvanov, L. P.; Matveenko, I. N.; Strakhovenko, V. D.; Malikova, I. N.; Shcherbakov, B. L.; Sukhorukov, F. V.; Aturova, V. P.

2012-04-01

96

Evaluation of soil washing for radiologically contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Soil washing has been applied internationally to decontaminate soils due to the widespread increase in environmental awareness manifested in the United States by promulgation of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, yet we continue to lack understanding on why the technique works in one application and not in another. A soil washing process typically integrates a variety of modules, each designed to decontaminate the matrix by destroying a particular phase or segregating a particle size fraction in which the contaminants are concentrated. The more known about how the contaminants are fixed, the more likely the process will succeed. Much can be learned from bioavailability studies on heavy metals in soils. Sequential extraction experiments designed to destroy one fixation mechanism at a time can be used to determine how contaminants are bound. This knowledge provides a technical basis for designing a processing strategy to efficiently decontaminate soil while creating a minimum of secondary wastes. In this study, a soil from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was physically and chemically characterized, then sequentially extracted to determine if soil washing could be effectively used to remove cesium, cobalt and chromium.

Gombert, D. II

1994-03-01

97

SRXRF for investigation of plants in conditions of radioactive contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray fluorescence analysis using synchrotron radiation (SRXRF) was applied to determine element composition in the aboveground part of Pentaphylloides fruticosa (bush cinquefoil) under conditions of man-caused radionuclide contamination. It is ascertained that Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Zr, and Ba content increases and S, Mn, Ag, Sn, I, and Cd content decreases in plants from the contaminated area in comparison with those from locations with background radiation. Significant changes are determined in element ratios Fe/Mn, Cu/Zn, Ba/Ca, and K/Rb, which indicate adverse conditions of bush cinquefoil growing. These findings allow using these plants as a phytometer of radioactive contamination.

Chankina, O. V.; Khramova, E. P.; Koutsenogii, K. P.; Krylova, E. I.; Syeva, S. Ya.; Tarasov, O. V.

2007-05-01

98

Determination of 226Ra contamination depth in soil using the multiple photopeaks method.  

PubMed

Radioactive contamination presents a diverse range of challenges in many industries. Determination of radioactive contamination depth plays a vital role in the assessment of contaminated sites, because it can be used to estimate the activity content. It is determined traditionally by measuring the activity distributions along the depth. This approach gives accurate results, but it is time consuming, lengthy and costly. The multiple photopeaks method was developed in this work for (226)Ra contamination depth determination in a NORM contaminated soil using in-situ gamma spectrometry. The developed method bases on linear correlation between the attenuation ratio of different gamma lines emitted by (214)Bi and the (226)Ra contamination depth. Although this method is approximate, but it is much simpler, faster and cheaper than the traditional one. This method can be applied for any case of multiple gamma emitter contaminant. PMID:24292393

Haddad, Kh; Al-Masri, M S; Doubal, A W

2014-02-01

99

SOLVENT WASHING OF AGED PCP CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

This study evaluates the removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP), a wood preserving agent, from soils that have been contaminated over a period of time. reviously, equal proportions of ethanol and water were found to have the highest PCP removal efficiencies for above ground batch ext...

100

REMEDIATION OF PCB IN CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot-scale study will be conducted to evaluate the bioremedial techniques of natural attenuation, sequenced anaerobic/aerobic treatment, and addition of a commercially available microbial amendment product for use in treating PCB contaminated soils at Air Force Base sites. Th...

101

REMEDIATION OF RADIUM FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of a physico-chemical separation process for the removal of radium from a sample of contaminated soil at the Ottawa, Illinois, site near Chicago. The size/activity distribution analyzed among the particles coarser tha...

102

Cadmium Removal from Contaminated Soil by Tunable  

E-print Network

, cadmium, nickel, zinc, and copper (2). Unlike most other organic pollutants, heavy metals cannotCadmium Removal from Contaminated Soil by Tunable Biopolymers G I R I D H A R P R A B H U K U M A R-binding biopolymer with high affinity toward cadmium. By taking advantage of the property of ELPH12 to undergo

Chen, Wilfred

103

INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The p...

104

INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

An incineration test program was conducted at the US Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. he purp...

105

Evaluation of soil radioactivity data from the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Since 1951, 933 nuclear tests have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and test areas on the adjacent Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR). Until the early 1960s. the majority of tests were atmospheric, involving detonation of nuclear explosive devices on the ground or on a tower, suspended from a balloon or dropped from an airplane. Since the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, most tests have been conducted underground, although several shallow subsurface tests took place between 1962 and 1968. As a result of the aboveground and near-surface nuclear explosions, as well as ventings of underground tests, destruction of nuclear devices with conventional explosives, and nuclear-rocket engine tests, the surface soil on portions of the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides. Relatively little consideration was given to the environmental effects of nuclear testing during the first two decades of operations at the NTS. Since the early 1970s, however, increasingly strict environmental regulations have forced greater attention to be given to contamination problems at the site and how to remediate them. One key element in the current environmental restoration program at the NTS is determining the amount and extent of radioactivity in the surface soil. The general distribution of soil radioactivity on the NTS is already well known as a result of several programs carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. However, questions have been raised as to whether the data from those earlier studies are suitable for use in the current environmental assessments and risk analyses. The primary purpose of this preliminary data review is to determine to what extent the historical data collected at the NTS can be used in the characterization/remediation process.

NONE

1995-03-01

106

Zinc Speciation in a Smelter-Contaminated Soil Profile  

E-print Network

Zinc Speciation in a Smelter-Contaminated Soil Profile Using Bulk and Microspectroscopic Techniques. One significant metal contaminant in soils is zinc, which is mined in 50 countries and smelted in 21

Sparks, Donald L.

107

77 FR 4398 - Safety Advisory Notice: Return of Radioactively Contaminated Tissue Holders Purchased From Bed...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...States, are radioactively contaminated. The highest identified radioactivity...has posted notices on its web site: http://www.bedbathandbeyond...identify and remove all of the contaminated tissue holders. Information...Regulatory Commission's Web site at:...

2012-01-27

108

Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage.

Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

1992-08-04

109

Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; Nikolich, George; Campbell, Scott A.

2012-02-01

110

Method for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants  

DOEpatents

A method for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil to decompose the organic compounds. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

Wickramanayake, Godage B. (Cranbury, NJ)

1993-01-01

111

Soil Properties Controlling Zn Speciation and Fractionation in Contaminated Soils  

SciTech Connect

We determined the speciation of Zn in 49 field soils differing widely in pH (4.1-7.7) and total Zn content (251-30,090 mg/kg) by using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. All soils had been contaminated since several decades by inputs of aqueous Zn with runoff-water from galvanized power line towers. Pedogenic Zn species identified by EXAFS spectroscopy included Zn in hydroxy-interlayered minerals (Zn-HIM), Zn-rich phyllosilicates, Zn-layered double hydroxide (Zn-LDH), hydrozincite, and octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated sorbed or complexed Zn. Zn-HIM was only observed in (mostly acidic) soils containing less than 2000 mg/kg of Zn, reflecting the high affinity but limited sorption capacity of HIM. Zn-bearing precipitates, such as Zn-LDH and Zn-rich trioctahedral phyllosilicates, became more dominant with increasing pH and increasing total Zn content relative to available adsorption sites. Zn-LDH was the most abundant Zn-precipitate and was detected in soils with pH > 5.2. Zn-rich phyllosilicates were detected even at lower soil pH, but were generally less abundant than Zn-LDH. Hydrozincite was only identified in two calcareous soils with extremely high Zn contents. In addition to Zn-LDH, large amounts of Zn in highly contaminated soils were mainly accumulated as sorbed/complexed Zn in tetrahedral coordination. Soils grouped according to their Zn speciation inferred from EXAFS spectroscopy mainly differed with respect to soil pH and total Zn content. Clear differences were observed with respect to Zn fractionation by sequential extraction: From Zn-HIM containing soils, most of the total Zn was recovered in the exchangeable and the most recalcitrant fractions. In contrast, from soils containing the highest percentage of Zn-precipitates, Zn was mainly extracted in intermediate extraction steps. The results of this study demonstrate that soil pH and Zn contamination level relative to available adsorption sites are the most important factors controlling the formation of pedogenic Zn-species in aerobic soils and, consequently, Zn fractionation by sequential extraction.

Jacquat, O.; Voegelin, A; Kretzschmar, R

2009-01-01

112

Soil properties controlling Zn speciation and fractionation in contaminated soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determined the speciation of Zn in 49 field soils differing widely in pH (4.1-7.7) and total Zn content (251-30,090 mg/kg) by using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. All soils had been contaminated since several decades by inputs of aqueous Zn with runoff-water from galvanized power line towers. Pedogenic Zn species identified by EXAFS spectroscopy included Zn in hydroxy-interlayered minerals (Zn-HIM), Zn-rich phyllosilicates, Zn-layered double hydroxide (Zn-LDH), hydrozincite, and octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated sorbed or complexed Zn. Zn-HIM was only observed in (mostly acidic) soils containing less than 2000 mg/kg of Zn, reflecting the high affinity but limited sorption capacity of HIM. Zn-bearing precipitates, such as Zn-LDH and Zn-rich trioctahedral phyllosilicates, became more dominant with increasing pH and increasing total Zn content relative to available adsorption sites. Zn-LDH was the most abundant Zn-precipitate and was detected in soils with pH > 5.2. Zn-rich phyllosilicates were detected even at lower soil pH, but were generally less abundant than Zn-LDH. Hydrozincite was only identified in two calcareous soils with extremely high Zn contents. In addition to Zn-LDH, large amounts of Zn in highly contaminated soils were mainly accumulated as sorbed/complexed Zn in tetrahedral coordination. Soils grouped according to their Zn speciation inferred from EXAFS spectroscopy mainly differed with respect to soil pH and total Zn content. Clear differences were observed with respect to Zn fractionation by sequential extraction: From Zn-HIM containing soils, most of the total Zn was recovered in the exchangeable and the most recalcitrant fractions. In contrast, from soils containing the highest percentage of Zn-precipitates, Zn was mainly extracted in intermediate extraction steps. The results of this study demonstrate that soil pH and Zn contamination level relative to available adsorption sites are the most important factors controlling the formation of pedogenic Zn-species in aerobic soils and, consequently, Zn fractionation by sequential extraction.

Jacquat, Olivier; Voegelin, Andreas; Kretzschmar, Ruben

2009-09-01

113

[Migration of industrial radionuclides in soils and benthal deposits at the coastal margins of the temporary waste storage facility (TWSF) of the Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and its influence on the possible contamination of the sea offshore waters].  

PubMed

For obtaining the integral information about the current radiation situation in the sea offshore waters of the temporary waste storage facility (TWSF) of the Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management "SevRAO" in the Andreeva Bay and in the settle Gremikha with a purpose of a comprehensive assessment of its condition there was performed radiation-ecological monitoring of the adjacent sea offshore waters of the TWSF. It was shown that in the territory of industrial sites of the TWSF as a result of industrial activity there are localized areas of pollution by man-made radionuclides. As a result of leaching of radionuclides by tidal stream, snowmelt and rainwater radioactive contamination extends beyond the territory of the sanitary protection zone and to the coastal sea offshore waters. To confirm the coastal pollution of the sea offshore waters the levels of mobility of 90Sr and 137Cs in environmental chains and bond strength of them with the soil and benthal deposits were clarified by determining with the method of detection of the forms of the presence of radionuclides in these media. There was established a high mobility of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils and benthal deposits (desorption coefficient (Kd) of 137Cs and 90Sr (in soils - 0.56 and 0.98), in the sediments - 0.82). The migration of radionuclides in environmental chains can lead to the contamination of the environment, including the sea offshore waters. PMID:25051732

Filonova, A A; Seregin, V A

2014-01-01

114

Soil Contamination from PCB-Containing Buildings  

PubMed Central

Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in construction materials, such as caulking used around windows and expansion joints, may constitute a source of PCB contamination in the building interiors and in surrounding soil. Several studies of soil contamination have been conducted around buildings where the caulking has been removed by grinding or scraping. The PCBs in soil may have been generated in the process of removing the caulking, but natural weathering and deterioration of the caulking may have also been a source. Objectives The objectives of this study were to measure PCB levels in soil surrounding buildings where PCB-containing caulk was still in place, and to evaluate the mobility of the PCBs from caulking using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 1311). Discussion We found soil PCB contamination ranging from 3.3 to 34 mg/kg around buildings with undisturbed caulking that contained 10,000–36,200 mg/kg PCBs. The results of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (leachate concentrations of 76–288 mg PCB/L) suggest that PCBs in caulking can be mobilized, apparently as complexes with dissolved organic matter that also leach off the caulking material. Conclusions and Recommendations Although these new findings are based on a small sample size, they demonstrate the need for a national survey of PCBs in building materials and in soil surrounding these buildings. Because the buildings constructed during the time the PCB caulking was in use (1960s and 1970s) include schools, hospitals, and apartment buildings, the potential for exposure of children is a particular concern. It is necessary to reconsider the practice of disposing of old PCB caulking removed during building renovations in conventional landfills, given the apparent mobility of PCBs from the caulking material. Disposal of some caulking material in nonhazardous landfills might lead to high PCB levels in landfill leachate. PMID:17384760

Herrick, Robert F.; Lefkowitz, Daniel J.; Weymouth, George A.

2007-01-01

115

Evaluation of uranium and arsenic retention by soil from a low level radioactive waste management site using sequential extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR) and Chunguo sequential extraction procedures were employed to evaluate the retention of U and As by a soil contaminated with low level radioactive waste. Modifications were made to both procedures to optimize the measurement of soil and extractant samples using epithermal neutron activation analysis. Based on the BCR procedure, approximately 20% of the

R. T. Dhoum; G. J. Evans

1998-01-01

116

Evidence of the Generation of Isosaccharinic Acids and Their Subsequent Degradation by Local Microbial Consortia within Hyper-Alkaline Contaminated Soils, with Relevance to Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal.  

PubMed

The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0) soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the ? and ? stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW) inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF) concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration. PMID:25748643

Rout, Simon P; Charles, Christopher J; Garratt, Eva J; Laws, Andrew P; Gunn, John; Humphreys, Paul N

2015-01-01

117

Evidence of the Generation of Isosaccharinic Acids and Their Subsequent Degradation by Local Microbial Consortia within Hyper-Alkaline Contaminated Soils, with Relevance to Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal  

PubMed Central

The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0) soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the ? and ? stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW) inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF) concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration. PMID:25748643

Rout, Simon P.; Charles, Christopher J.; Garratt, Eva J.; Laws, Andrew P.; Gunn, John; Humphreys, Paul N.

2015-01-01

118

Radon emanation from NORM-contaminated pipe scale and soil at petroleum industry sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radon-222 emanation fractions were determined for barite scale deposits associated with petroleum production tubing and soil contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Samples were analyzed for 226Ra concentration, the results of which were used to calculate the 222Rn emanation fraction for the sample. An important parameter determining the overall Rn activity flux from a solid medium, 222Rn emanation fraction

Gregory J. White; Arthur S. Rood

2001-01-01

119

Bioremediation of uranium contaminated soils and wastes  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (1) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (2) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

Francis, A.J.

1998-12-31

120

Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soil and countermeasures in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many heavy metals exist in minute amounts in natural agricultural soil. However, when their amounts exceed a certain level\\u000a due to pollutants brought from outside, soil contamination occurs and agricultural products become contaminated. There have\\u000a been many cases in Japan of heavy metal contamination originating from old mines and smelters, and soil contamination of agricultural\\u000a land has become a social

Tomohito Arao; Satoru Ishikawa; Masaharu Murakami; Kaoru Abe; Yuji Maejima; Tomoyuki Makino

2010-01-01

121

Defining the Glass Composition Limits for SRS Contaminated Soils  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated soil resulting from the excavation, repair, and decommissioning of facilities located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently being disposed of by shallow land burial or is being stored when considered only hazardous. Vitrification of this waste is being investigated, since it will bind the hazardous and radioactive species in a stable and durable glass matrix, which will reduce the risk of ground water contamination. However, the composition limits for producing durable glass have to be determined before the technology can be applied. Glass compositions, consisting of SRS soil and glass forming additives, were tested on a crucible-scale in three ternary phase systems. Nine different glass compositions were produced, with waste loadings ranging from 43 to 58 weight percent. These were characterized using varoius chemical methods and tested for durability in both alkaline and acidic environments. All nine performed well in alkaline environments, but only three met the strictest criteria for the acidic environment tests. Although the glasses did not meet all of the limits for the acidic tests, the test was performed on very conservative size samples, so the results were also conservative. Therefore, enough evidence was found to provide proof that SRS soil can be vitrified in a durable glass matrix

Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Crews, W.O. [Clemson University, Anderson, SC (United States)

1995-05-12

122

Evaluation of Electrokinetic Remediation of Arsenic-contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of electrokinetic (EK) remediation technology has been successfully demonstrated for the remediation of heavy\\u000a metal-contaminated fine-grained soils through laboratory scale and field application studies. Arsenic contamination in soil\\u000a is a serious problem affecting both site use and groundwater quality. The EK technology was evaluated for the removal of arsenic\\u000a from two soil samples; a kaolinite soil artificially contaminated

Soon-Oh Kim; Won-Seok Kim; Kyoung-Woong Kim

2005-01-01

123

Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels: FY 2012  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Management’s Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively. Field measurements at the T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, CAU 370, suggest that radioactive material may have migrated along a shallow ephemeral drainage that traverses the site (NNSA/NSO, 2009). (It is not entirely clear how contaminated soils got into their present location at the T-4 Site, but flow to the channel has been redirected and the contamination does not appear to be migrating at present.) Although DRI initially looked at the CAU 370 site, given that it could not be confirmed that migration of contamination into the channel was natural, an alternate study site was selected at CAU 550. Aerial surveys in selected portions of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) also suggest that radioactivity may be migrating along ephemeral channels in Areas 3, 8, 11, 18, and 25 (Colton, 1999). Figure 1 shows the results of a low-elevation aerial survey (Colton, 1999) in Area 8. The numbered markers in Figure 1 identify ground zero for three safety experiments conducted in 1958 [Oberon (number 1), Ceres (number 2), and Titania (number 4)] and a weapons effects test conducted in 1964, Mudpack (number 3). This survey suggests contaminants may be migrating down the ephemeral channels that traverse CAU 550. Note particularly the lobe of higher concentration extending southeastward at the south end of the high concentration area marked as number 3 in Figure 1. CAU 550 in Area 8 of the NNSS was selected for the study because the aerial survey indicates that a channel mapped on the United States Geological Survey topographic map of the area traverses the south end of the area of surface contamination; this channel lies south of the point marked number 3 in Figure 1, and anecdotal information indicates that sediment has been deposited on the road bordering the southeast boundary of the CAU from an adjacent channel (Traynor, J, personal communication, 2011). Because contamination is particularly close to the boundary of CAU 550, Smoky CA, it is important to know if contaminants are moving, what meteorological conditions result in movement of contaminated soils, and what particle size fractions associated with contamination are involved. Closure plans are being developed for the CAUs on the NNSS. The closure plans may include post-closure monitoring for possible release of radioactive contaminants. Determining the potential for transport of contaminated soils under ambient climatic conditions will facilitate an appropriate closure design and post-closure monitoring program.

Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve A.; McCurdy, Greg; Campbell, Scott A.

2012-09-01

124

Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry`s Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model.

Binning, P. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia); Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Operations Research

1995-05-01

125

The accumulation of radioactive contaminants in drinking water distribution systems.  

PubMed

The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution system sediment and scales has been documented, raising concerns that the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential human exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of concern because of their known health effects and because of their persistence within associated distribution system materials. The objective of this work was to measure the amount of a number of radioactive contaminants (radium, thorium, and uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity) in distribution solids collected from water systems in four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas). The water utilities chosen had measurable levels of radium in their source waters. In addition, 19 other elements in the solids were quantified. Water systems provided solids primarily collected during routine fire hydrant flushing. Iron was the dominant element in nearly all of the solids and was followed by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, silicon, aluminum and barium in descending order. Gross alpha and beta radiation averaged 255 and 181 pCi/g, and were as high as 1602 and 1169 pCi/g, respectively. Total radium, thorium and uranium averaged 143, 40 and 6.4 pCi/g, respectively. Radium-226 and -228 averaged 74 and 69 pCi/g, and were as high as 250 and 351 pCi/g, respectively. PMID:24275108

Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas; Wang, Lili; Chen, Abe

2014-03-01

126

Trench ‘Bathtubbing’ and Surface Plutonium Contamination at a Legacy Radioactive Waste Site  

PubMed Central

Radioactive waste containing a few grams of plutonium (Pu) was disposed between 1960 and 1968 in trenches at the Little Forest Burial Ground (LFBG), near Sydney, Australia. A water sampling point installed in a former trench has enabled the radionuclide content of trench water and the response of the water level to rainfall to be studied. The trench water contains readily measurable Pu activity (?12 Bq/L of 239+240Pu in 0.45 ?m-filtered water), and there is an associated contamination of Pu in surface soils. The highest 239+240Pu soil activity was 829 Bq/kg in a shallow sample (0–1 cm depth) near the trench sampling point. Away from the trenches, the elevated concentrations of Pu in surface soils extend for tens of meters down-slope. The broader contamination may be partly attributable to dispersion events in the first decade after disposal, after which a layer of soil was added above the trenched area. Since this time, further Pu contamination has occurred near the trench-sampler within this added layer. The water level in the trench-sampler responds quickly to rainfall and intermittently reaches the surface, hence the Pu dispersion is attributed to saturation and overflow of the trenches during extreme rainfall events, referred to as the ‘bathtub’ effect. PMID:24256473

2013-01-01

127

Aromatic plant production on metal contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Field and container experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of growing aromatic crops in metal contaminated areas and the effect of metals on herbage and oil productivity. The field experiments were conducted in the vicinities of the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (Zn-Cu smelter) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria using coriander, sage, dill, basil, hyssop, lemon balm, and chamomile grown at various distances from the smelter. Herbage essential oil yields of basil, chamomile, dill, and sage were reduced when they were grown closer to the smelter. Metal removal from the site with the harvestable plant parts was as high as 180 g ha(-1) for Cd, 660 g ha(-1) for Pb, 180 g ha(-1) for Cu, 350 g ha(-1) for Mn, and 205 g ha(-1) for Zn. Sequential extraction of soil demonstrated that metal fractionation was affected by the distance to the smelter. With decreasing distance to the smelter, the transfer factor (TF) for Cu and Zn decreased but increased for Cd, while the bioavailability factor (BF) for Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Zn decreased. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalyses of contaminated soil verified that most of the Pb, Cd, Mn, Cu, and Zn were in the form of small (<1 microm) particles, although there were larger particles (1-5 microm) with high concentrations of individual metals. This study demonstrated that high concentrations of heavy metals in soil or growth medium did not result in metal transfer into the essential oil. Of the tested metals, only Cu at high concentrations may reduce oil content. Our results demonstrated that aromatic crops may not have significant phytoremediation potential, but growth of these crops in metal contaminated agricultural soils is a feasible alternative. Aromatic crops can provide economic return and metal-free final product, the essential oil. PMID:18353428

Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Craker, Lyle E; Xing, Baoshan; Nielsen, Niels E; Wilcox, Andrew

2008-06-01

128

The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity.  

PubMed

Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (C(om)) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (C(s)). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the C(s) values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites. PMID:19647354

Hung, Hsu-Wen; Sheng, G Daniel; Lin, Tsair-Fuh; Su, Yuhong; Chiou, Cary T

2009-11-01

129

ISOCELL{trademark} proof-of-concept for retrieval of wastes and contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

ISOCELL{sup TM} cryogenic technology is designed to immobilize buried hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste and contaminated soil by creating a block of frozen waste and soil that can be safely retrieved, stored, transported, and treated with a minimum of dust or aerosol production. A ``proof-of-concept`` test of the ISOCELL process was conducted in clean soil by RKK, Ltd., for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Results indicate ISOCELL technology successfully froze moist soil into a solid block capable of being lifted and retrieved. Test conditions were compared to characteristics of possible buried waste sites in the INEL.

Chatwin, T.D. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Krieg, R.K. [RKK, Ltd., Bellevue WA (United States)

1992-08-01

130

ISOCELL trademark proof-of-concept for retrieval of wastes and contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

ISOCELL{sup TM} cryogenic technology is designed to immobilize buried hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste and contaminated soil by creating a block of frozen waste and soil that can be safely retrieved, stored, transported, and treated with a minimum of dust or aerosol production. A proof-of-concept'' test of the ISOCELL process was conducted in clean soil by RKK, Ltd., for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Results indicate ISOCELL technology successfully froze moist soil into a solid block capable of being lifted and retrieved. Test conditions were compared to characteristics of possible buried waste sites in the INEL.

Chatwin, T.D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Krieg, R.K. (RKK, Ltd., Bellevue WA (United States))

1992-01-01

131

Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using vegetation. A microbial study  

SciTech Connect

The degradation of selected petroleum hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere of alfalfa was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Petroleum contaminated and uncontaminated soils were spiked with 100 ppm of polynuclear aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Unspiked, uncontaminated soil was used as a control. Microbial counts for soils with and without plants for each soil treatment were performed 4, 8, 16, and 24 weeks after planting. Microbial numbers were substantially greater in soil with plants when compared to soil containing no plants, indicating that plant roots enhanced microbial populations in contaminated soil. Soil treatments had no effect on microbial numbers in the presence of plants. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Lee, E.; Banks, M.K. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States))

1993-12-01

132

Soil contamination of plant surfaces from grazing and rainfall interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contaminants often attach to soil particles, and their subsequent environmental transport is largely determined by processes that govern soil movement. We examined the influence of grazing intensity on soil contamination of pastures. Four different grazing densities of sheep were tested against an ungrazed control plot. Scandium concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis and was used as a tracer of

T. G. Hinton; J. M. Stoll; L. Tobler

1995-01-01

133

Reclamation of a Petroleum-Contaminated Calcareous Soil Using Phytostimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil contamination by hydrocarbons poses a threat to groundwater and food chains. Hence, the elimination of these compounds from contaminated soil is vital. In this study, we investigated the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the rhizosphere of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.), agropyron (Agropyron smithii L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), and sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) at three soil

Ali A. Besalatpour; Mohamad A. Hajabbasi; Amir H. Khoshgoftarmanesh

2010-01-01

134

Assessment of Bermudagrass Cultivars for Phytoremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation is an alternative to other technologies for the clean up of petroleum contaminated soil. Ten vegetatively propagated cultivars of bermudagrass were examined for their potential to reduced oil sludge contaminated in soil and select the most efficient cultivar. Soil was mixed with different rates of oil sludge (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% (w\\/w) to obtain 0, 2, 4,

Khorshid Razmjoo; Zohrab Adavi

2012-01-01

135

Assessment of bermudagrass cultivars for phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation is an alternative to other technologies for the clean up of petroleum contaminated soil. Ten vegetatively propagated cultivars of bermudagrass were examined for their potential to reduced oil sludge contaminated in soil and select the most efficient cultivar. Soil was mixed with different rates of oil sludge (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% (w\\/w) to obtain 0, 2, 4,

Khorshid Razmjoo; Zohrab Adavi

2011-01-01

136

Phytoremediation of metal contaminated soils: current state and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great increase in the number of heavy metal polluted soils following anthropogenic activities such as mining, industrial and military practices is a real public health concern due to the consumption of contaminated plants, animals or water. Physical and chemical techniques of soil decontamination are expensive and difficult to use. Phytoremediation of metal contaminated soils, including phytostabilization and phytoextraction, represents

Laurence Marquès

137

BIOREMEDIATION OF URANIUM CONTAMINATED SOILS AND WASTES.  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (i) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (ii) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na released into solution are removed, thus reducing the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

FRANCIS,A.J.

1998-09-17

138

Effectiveness of complex fertilizers of new generation on radioactive contaminated lands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic and general remediation principles of agricultural lands affected by technological contamination are presented. One of the perspective method of soil fertility rising is ap-plication of natural clays and minerals. This is the most effective measure on contaminated lands. We can reduce the uptake of 137Cs in 3-5 times because of retention of radionuclides in crystal structures of minerals and its transformation in unapproachable form for plants. Nowdays a special attention pays to sorbents. The stores of natural sorbents (trepel and pa-lygorskit clay) are founded in a grate amount in Kaluga region. A complex sorbent has been developed and on its basis a fundamentally new compound manufactured which combines properties of both sorbent and complex long-acting fertilizer ("Suprodit") that contains NPK (patent on the invention No. 2336257). The base of complex sorbent is SiO2 enriched mineral - trepel. Complex sorbent is a mixture of hydrothermally processed permutite and silicagel with significant sorption properties for radionuclides. This sorbent may be used for fertility rising of the contaminated lands and grain yield, and also for reducing of pollutants uptake. The most effectiveness of "Suprodit" was on fodder lands contaminated with 500-920 kBk137Cs/m2. It has been found that the use of resource-saving technologies with using "Suprodit" increased the yield of barley by 10-40% and the productivity of sowing grasses by 4-5 times. "Suprodit" decreased the concentration of 137Cs in sowing grasses by 1,8-4,0 times. It has been studied the effect of "Suprodit" and industrial fertilizers (NPK and «nitropfoska») on the biological activity of soddy-podzolic soil, contaminated of 137Cs (100 kBk/kg). "Suprodit" increased the CO2 emission rate on radioactively contaminated soil by 1,5 times in comparison with NPK and «nitropfoska», accordingly.

Ratnikov, A. N.; Sanzharova, N. I.; Sviridenko, D. G.; Zhigareva, T. L.

2012-04-01

139

PROSPECTS FOR IN SITU CHEMICAL TREATMENT FOR CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Treating large volumes of contaminated soil at Superfund sites is costly. he Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) have provisions, which regulate the removal treatment, and ultimate disposal of contaminated soi...

140

REVIEW OF SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATING PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Pesticide contamination results from manufacturing, improper storage, handling, or disposal of pesticides, and from agricultural processes. Since most pesticides are mixtures of different compounds, selecting a remedy for pesticide-contaminated soils can be a complicated process....

141

Phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: principles and applications  

E-print Network

Phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils: principles and applications R. Kamath, J. A of relatively inexpensive remediation schemes, such as phytoremediation. Research and application of phytoremediation for treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination over the past fifteen years has provided much

Alvarez, Pedro J.

142

Natural and man-made radioactivity: Chernobyl soils.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1986 a reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Plant suffered a large explosion. The result had wide-ranging impacts. 31 severely exposed emergency workers died from acute radiation syndrome and 19 more later died from different causes. The perhaps controversial prediction by some authors is that around 4,000 will eventually die as a result of the increased cancer risk. A 19-mile restriction zone exists around the former reactor, but during the past 25 years radiation levels have fallen and it is now possible to take part in conducted tours of the deserted city of Pripyat, and the Chernobyl reactor site. Soil levels, however, remain highly radioactive, particularly in the restricted area. Kingston University holds:- • Soil profile sets from 3 locations in Belarus, with repeats at same location 1996 and 2000. • Lake sediment core samples. • Soil profiles at forestry sites. • Surface samples in a region suspected to have actinide content at 200km from Chernobyl. In addition to the above the impact of naturally occurring radon on human health around Chernobyl should not be ignored. About 23 per cent of homes in Ukraine are estimated to have radon levels above 100 Bq m-3, whilst concentrations of 10,000 Bq m-3 or more are known to exist in public water supplies. Some researchers have also suggested that mean annual doses of irradiation of the population caused by radon and it's progeny in air in buildings exceeds the doses received now by inhabitants of settlements located in the territories polluted by Chernobyl-derived nuclides in the Mogilev and Gomel regions in Belarus. This project incorporates a temporal comparison of transport results in undisturbed soils variously over a number of years, demonstrating relative measurements using both the original and new samples. This project will also focus on lake sediments from Southern Belarus and is a 'work in progress'. However, what we can say at this stage is that it is notable that the long lived isotopes of Cs-137 and Sr-90 strongly chemically bind into both the sandy and clay soils found in Southern Belarus, consequently have low solubility, and hence the temporal radiation levels from soil contamination change only slowly at near the half-life of these isotopes, with weathering being a minor contribution to reducing the radiation dose rates, in regions with such soil chemistry.

Gillmore, Gavin; Flowers, Alan

2014-05-01

143

Natural radioactivity measurements in soil samples of central Kutahya (Turkey).  

PubMed

Measurement of the natural radioactivity of surface soils at 20 locations in central Kutahya has been made using gamma ray spectroscopy. Natural gamma ray radioactivity of the terrestrial nuclides in soil samples and the absorbed gamma ray dose rates of these radionuclides in the air have been calculated throughout different areas of central Kutahya. The average annual effective dose equivalent for a person living in central Kutahya was found to be approximately 57 microSv. PMID:18801755

Sahin, Latife; Cavas, Mustafa

2008-01-01

144

Soils as a buffer of contaminants in catchments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities deliver large quantities of contaminants into the environment through atmospheric emissions or direct releases. As many of those contaminants are particle-reactive, they bind strongly to the finest particles or on their organic matter fraction once they deposit onto soils. Contaminants may subsequently migrate in depth of the soil depending on their physico-chemical characteristics. They may also be redistributed along hillslopes in association with particles during soil erosion events and may be subsequently supplied to rivers, preventing to meet the international environmental targets (e.g. in the framework of the EU Water Framework Directive). In regions where soil erosion rates are low to moderate, a large quantity of particle-reactive contaminants may accumulate in soils that constitute a reservoir of pollutants that may be delivered to rivers during decades or centuries. This session will focus on the specific role played by soils as a reservoir of contaminants at the catchment scale. A better understanding of this role and a quantification of the persistence of contaminants in this reservoir will provide crucial insights to guide the implementation of efficient mitigation measures. Contributions to this session may address any aspect of particle-borne contaminant transfer at the catchment scale, with an emphasis on the role played by soils in their storage and transfer. Field-based or modeling studies may focus either on specific pollutants or on a wider range of substances, e.g. metals, radionuclides, organic contaminants. Key themes may include: • Contaminant budget at the hillslope vs. the catchment scales; • Evaluation of the contribution of the regional vs. local contamination sources; • Evaluation of the contaminant removal from soils by degradation vs. soil erosion; • Quantifying the persistence of contaminants in soils; • Discrimination between the legacy and the contemporary supply of contaminants to soils.

Evrard, Olivier

2014-05-01

145

Bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil with composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective of this research was to find the appropriate mix ratio of organic amendments for enhancing diesel oil degradation during contaminated soil composting. Sewage sludge or compost was added as an amendment for supplementing organic matter for composting of contaminated soil. The ratios of contaminated soil to organic amendments were 1:0.1, 1:0.3, 1:0.5, and 1:1 as wet weight

Wan Namkoong; Eui-Young Hwang; Joon-Seok Park; Jung-Young Choi

2002-01-01

146

Effect of soil depth on phytoremediation efficiency for petroleum contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil may be enhanced by the presence of vegetation. Evaluating the effect of soil depth on phytoremediation efficiency may provide researchers and regulators with a clearer understanding of contaminant clean-up. A column study with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and diesel-contaminated soil was conducted over a 147-day period of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) growth. Analysis of the

Jeffrey Keller; M. Katherine Banks; A. P. Schwab

2007-01-01

147

System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors  

DOEpatents

A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources. 4 figs.

Weidner, J.R.; Downs, W.C.; Kaser, T.G.; Hall, H.J.

1997-12-16

148

System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors  

DOEpatents

A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources.

Weidner, Jerry R. (Iona, ID); Downs, Wayne C. (Sugar City, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Ammon, ID); Hall, H. James (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01

149

Chemical extraction of arsenic from contaminated soil.  

PubMed

A series of batch extraction experiments were conducted using a fortified soil with different extracting solutions such as inorganic acids (hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), perchloric acid (HClO4), or nitric acid (HNO3)), organic acids (acetic acid (C2H4O2), citric acid (C6H8O7)) and alkaline agent (NaOH). Various concentrations were used to investigate the removal efficiency and to optimise the concentration of each extractant. In the present investigation a Kuroboku soil contaminated with arsenite (As(III)) was used as a model soil. Arsenic was extracted most efficiently by 5% H3PO4 with a maximum of more than 99% from the model soil. Sulfuric acid also showed high percentage extraction efficiency. On the other hand, C2H4O2 and oxidizing acids such as HNO3 and HClO4 showed low efficiency of As extraction compared with C6H8O7. Although, NaOH also showed higher extraction efficiencies compared with organic and oxidizing acids but mainly arsenate (As(V)) was found to be the major component. A significant fraction of the As(III) was oxidized to As(V) during mineral acid and alkaline extraction and extraction efficiency also varied with the concentration of the acid and alkali solution. PMID:16779937

Alam, G M; Tokunaga, S

2006-01-01

150

PHOSPHATE-INDUCED LEAD IMMOBILIZATION IN CONTAMINATED SOIL JOONKI YOON  

E-print Network

PHOSPHATE-INDUCED LEAD IMMOBILIZATION IN CONTAMINATED SOIL By JOONKI YOON A THESIS PRESENTED .....................................................................................6 Phosphate Induced Lead Immobilization............................................................................................9 Phosphate rock

Ma, Lena

151

Radioactive contamination of fishes in lake and streams impacted by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.  

PubMed

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident in March 2011 emitted radioactive substances into the environment, contaminating a wide array of organisms including fishes. We found higher concentrations of radioactive cesium ((137)Cs) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) than in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus nerka), and (137)Cs concentrations in brown trout were higher in a lake than in a stream. Our analyses indicated that these differences were primarily due to differences in diet, but that habitat also had an effect. Radiocesium concentrations ((137)Cs) in stream charr (Salvelinus leucomaenis) were higher in regions with more concentrated aerial activity and in older fish. These results were also attributed to dietary and habitat differences. Preserving uncontaminated areas by remediating soils and releasing uncontaminated fish would help restore this popular fishing area but would require a significant effort, followed by a waiting period to allow activity concentrations to fall below the threshold limits for consumption. PMID:24657366

Yoshimura, Mayumi; Yokoduka, Tetsuya

2014-06-01

152

The effect of contaminant aging upon soil washing removal efficiencies for lead contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to investigate lead removal efficiencies from various soils using a variety of washing solutions. Most soil types have a strong affinity for lead. Thus, it is plausible to expect washing solutions that are capable of removing lead could also remove other divalent heavy metals. Four soil samples from the eastern US were collected and characterized for this study. The study soils were then spiked to approximate lead concentrations of 1,000 and 10,000 mg Pb/kg soil. The efficiencies of six washing solutions in removing lead from the contaminated soils were then investigated via lab-scale batch washing experiments. Unlike current field-scale soil washing practices, all particle size fractions were washed and recovered in these experiments. (Solutions investigated include: tap water, HCl, EDTA, HNO{sub 3}, CH{sub 3}COOH, and CaCl{sub 2}.) In order to examine the effect of aging upon soil washing efficiencies, some of the spiked soils were washed a second time after an aging period of nearly 2 years.

Cline, S.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Reed, B.E.; Moore, R.E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1994-10-01

153

Radiolytic treatment of dioxin contaminated soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent work in our laboratory has demonstrated that ?-radiolysis is a feasible method by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can be converted to products of negligible toxicity. In the presence of 25% water, 2.5% non-ionic surfactant and at a dose of 800 kGy greater than 98% destruction was achieved in a standard soil artificially contaminated with 100 ppb TCDD. By-product analysis has illustrated that the destruction occurs via step-wise reductive dechlorination producing a suite of lesser chlorinated dioxins. These results in combination with scavenger studies, target theory calculations and yields indicate that direct radiation effects account for the major route of destruction. Radiolysis has also been conducted on a real soil contaminated with TCDD and other chlorinated aromatic compounds verifying the results of model studies. Based on the data of these experiments some designs of batch gamma systems are considered and a discussion of estimated capital and operating costs associated with ?-radiolysis is presented. Given the high costs of the alternatives (i.e. incineration), radiolysis appears to be not only technically feasible, but it may also be economically competitive.

Gray, Kimberly A.; Hilarides, Roger J.

1995-09-01

154

Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil using vegetation: A microbial study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degradation of selected petroleum hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere of alfalfa was investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Petroleum contaminated and uncontaminated soils were spiked with 100 ppm of polynuclear aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Unspiked, uncontaminated soil was used as a control. Microbial counts for soils with and without plants for each soil treatment were performed 4, 8, 16, and 24

Euisang Lee; M. K. Banks

1993-01-01

155

Testing amendments for remediation of military range contaminated soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Military range soils are often strongly contaminated with metals. Information on effectiveness of remediation techniques on these soils is scarce. We tested effectiveness of compost and mineral treatments for remediation of military range soil collected in Aberdeen, MD. The soil was barren due to...

156

ADSORPTION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of radioisotopes on soil was investigated in the ; laboratory to determine the behavior of lowlevel radioactive waste solutions ; discharged to the ground. Strontium, cesium, and plutonium distributions between ; soil and waste solution were studied. The effects of cation concentration and ; acidity were determined. The results of the distribution experiments, and ; material balance considerations,

W. E. PROUT

1958-01-01

157

Dioxin removal from contaminated soils by ethanol washing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential utility of ethanol washing for remediating soils contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), as a cost-efficient alternative to conventional remediation methods of PCDD/F-contaminated soils. Initially, screening experiments were performed with a two-level full factorial design to examine the effects of temperature, extraction time and ethanol concentration on the removal efficiency. The screening experiments showed that the ethanol concentration was the most important parameter. In addition, repeated washing cycles considerably improved the results. Ethanol washing conditions were then selected (10 wash cycles with 75% ethanol at 60 degrees C), and applied to four soils with different soil characteristics and contamination levels to test the robustness of the selected method. Treatment efficiencies of 81% and 85% were obtained for a lightly contaminated sandy-silty soil and a highly contaminated clay soil rich in graphite particles, respectively. Even higher treatment efficiencies (> or = 97%) were obtained for two other highly contaminated soils, one of which contained high amounts of organic matter. PCDD/Fs were found to both dissolve in the solvent and migrate into it as species adsorbed to particles. The relative contributions of these mechanisms and the overall efficiency of the removal seem to depend on contaminant concentration, the types of carbon in the soil matrix and the particle size distribution. The study shows that ethanol washing has effective remediation potential for a variety of PCDD/F-contaminated soils. PMID:20399556

Jonsson, Sofia; Lind, Henrik; Lundstedt, Staffan; Haglund, Peter; Tysklind, Mats

2010-07-15

158

Performance study and influence of radiation emission energy and soil contamination level on ?-radiation shielding of stabilised/solidified radionuclide-polluted soils.  

PubMed

This work focuses on the stabilisation/solidification (S/S) of radionuclide-polluted soils at different (232)Th levels using Portland cement alone and with barite aggregates. The potential of S/S was assessed applying a full testing protocol and calculating ?-radiation shielding (?RS) index, that included the measurement of soil radioactivity before and after the S/S as a function of the emission energy and soil contamination level. The results indicate that setting processes are strongly dependent on the contaminant concentration, and for contamination level higher than 5%, setting time values longer than 72 h. The addition of barite aggregates to the cement gout leads to a slight improvement of the S/S performance in terms of durability and contaminant leaching but reduces the mechanical resistance of the treated soils samples. Barite addition also causes an increase in the ?-rays shielding properties of the S/S treatment up to about 20%. Gamma-ray measurements show that ?RS strongly depends on the energy, and that the radioactivity with the contamination level was governed by a linear trend, while, ?RS index does not depend on the radionuclide concentration. Results allow the calculated ?RS values and those available from other experiments to be applied to hazard radioactive soil contaminations. PMID:25710096

Falciglia, Pietro P; Puccio, Valentina; Romano, Stefano; Vagliasindi, Federico G A

2015-05-01

159

Reducing logistical barriers to radioactive soil remediation after the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an updated assessment of soil contamination due to the nuclear accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant on 11 March 2011. A safe limit for the spatial dose rate (micro-Sv/h) of gamma rays from 134,137Cs has been established in this work. Based on this value, the highly contaminated region within Fukushima Prefecture that must be decontaminated could be defined. Moreover, a conceptual model for the chemical speciation that occurred during the accident has been delineated. The compound model Cs2CO3 was found to be meaningful and practical (non-radioactive) to simulate contamination in our decontamination experiments. Finally, we explain the mechanism of action of our soil remediation technique, which effectively reduces the total volume of contaminated soil by isolating the highly Cs-adsorptive clay fraction. The adsorption of non-radioactive Cs atoms on clay particles with diameters <25 ?m were analyzed using micro-particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE).

Ishii, K.; Terakawa, A.; Matsuyama, S.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fujishiro, F.; Ishizaki, A.; Osada, N.; Arai, H.; Sugai, H.; Takahashi, H.; Nagakubo, K.; Sakurada, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Kim, S.

2014-01-01

160

BIOAVAILABILITY OF METALS IN CONTAMINATED SOIL AND DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to widespread metal contamination, it is necessary to characterize soils suspected of metal contamination and determine if the metal levels in these soils pose a hazard. Metal toxicity is often not directly related to the total concentration of metals present due to a numb...

161

ELECTROCHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR IN-SITU TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will study electrochemical processes for the in situ treatment of soils contaminated by mixed wastes, i.e., organic and inorganic. Soil samples collected from selected DOE waste sites will be characterized for specific organic and metal contaminants and hydraulic per...

162

Rhizosphere Microbial Characterization in Petroleum-Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of soil with petroleum compounds is of concern worldwide. Although there are a variety of physical and chemical technologies available to remediate petroleum waste sites, biological methods are often used due to lower cost and public acceptance. Growth and enhanced activity of microbial communities in contaminated soil is a key factor for the success of bioremediation. Establishing vegetation in

M. Katherine Banks; Hadessa Mallede; Karrie Rathbone

2003-01-01

163

Bioremediation of Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil by Composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composting technology was used in the laboratory to simulate the remediation of the crude oil-contaminated soil collected from Jilin oil field. Consequently the contaminants removal paths and mechanism were discussed. The results showed that this method was effective in the remediation process. After 40 days, 45% crude oil was removed from the soil given the original oil content at 7.00

Li-Mao hua; Jiangtao He; Ye Li

2009-01-01

164

Porous biocarrier-enhanced biodegradation of crude oil contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil contamination with crude oil from petrochemicals and oil exploitation is an important worldwide issue. Comparing available remediation techniques, bioremediation is widely considered to be a cost-effective choice; however, slow degradation of crude oil is a common problem due to the low numbers of bacteria capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons and the low bioavailability of contaminants in soil. To promote

Yuting Liang; Xu Zhang; Dongjuan Dai; Guanghe Li

2009-01-01

165

Chemical methods and phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chemical amendments (calcium carbonate (CC), steel sludge (SS) and furnace slag (FS)) on the growth and uptake of cadmium (Cd) by wetland rice, Chinese cabbage and wheat grown in a red soil contaminated with Cd were investigated using a pot experiment. The phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with vetiver grass was also studied in a field

H. M Chen; C. R Zheng; C Tu; Z. G Shen

2000-01-01

166

Operating and life-cycle costs for uranium-contaminated soil treatment technologies  

SciTech Connect

The development of a nuclear industry in the US required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To avoid disposal of these soils in low-level radioactive waste burial sites, increasing emphasis has been placed on the remediating soils contaminated with uranium and other radionuclides. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) evaluates and compares the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium-contaminated soils. Each technology must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Stewart, R.N. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-09-01

167

Fluvial Placement of Radioactive Contaminants a Weldon Spring Case Study  

SciTech Connect

The operation of the Weldon Spring Uranium Feed Materials Plant in St. Charles, MO between 1958 and 1966 resulted in the migration and emplacement of radioactive contaminants into surface water drainage systems. Multiple drainage systems, receiving from a variety of waste discharge points, combined to create unique and unexpected depositional environment. Discovery and investigation of the depositional environments was a significant technical challenge due to the complex nature of sediment movement and emplacement. The objective of this investigation was to show that application of the knowledge of geomorphic processes is an essential element of a complete stream characterization, pursuant to risk analysis and remediation. This paper sets out to describe many of the expected and unexpected findings of the investigations by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) into the placement and rework of contaminated sediments in stream systems. Information from this paper will be useful to other agencies and contractor personnel faced with the challenge of locating and quantifying contaminated sediments in seemingly haphazard fluvial depositional conditions.

Meier, J.

2002-02-26

168

40 CFR 267.116 - What must I do with contaminated equipment, structure, and soils?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...contaminated equipment, structure, and soils? 267.116 Section 267.116 Protection...contaminated equipment, structure, and soils? You must properly dispose of or decontaminate...contaminated equipment, structures, and soils during the partial and final closure...

2010-07-01

169

Contaminant Bioavailability in Soils, Sediments, and Aquatic Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous concentrations of heavy metals in soils, sediments, and aquatic environments frequently are controlled by the dissolution and precipitation of discrete mineral phases. Contaminant uptake by organisms as well as contaminant transport in natural systems typically occurs through the solution phase. Thus, the thermodynamic solubility of contaminant-containing minerals in these environments can directly influence the chemical reactivity, transport, and

Samuel J. Traina; Valerie Laperche

1999-01-01

170

Transport of radioactive ions in soil by electrokinetics  

SciTech Connect

An electrokinetic approach is being evaluated for in situ soil remediation at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This approach uses an applied electric field to induce transport of both radioactive and hazardous waste ions in soil. The work discussed in this paper involves the development of a new method to monitor the movement of the radioactive ions within the soil during the electrokinetic process. A closed cell and a gamma counter were used to provide iii situ measurements of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co movement in Hanford soil. Preliminary results show that for an applied potential of 200 V over approximately 200 hr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}60 were transported a distance of 4 to 5 in. The monitoring technique demonstrated the feasibility of using electrokinetics for soil separation applications.

Buehler, M.F.; Surma, J.E.; Virden, J.W.

1994-10-01

171

Study on magnetic separation for decontamination of cesium contaminated soil by using superconducting magnet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant caused the diffusion of radioactive cesium over the wide area. We examined the possibility of applying magnetic separation method using the superconducting magnet, which can process a large amount of the soil in high speed, to the soil decontamination and volume reduction of the radioactive cesium contaminated soil. Clay minerals are classified as 2:1 and 1:1 types by the difference of their layer structures, and these types of minerals are respectively paramagnetic and diamagnetic including some exception. It is known that most of the radioactive cesium is strongly adsorbed on the clay, especially on 2:1 type clay minerals. It is expected that the method which can separate only 2:1 type clay minerals selectively from the mixture clay minerals can enormously contribute to the volume reduction of the contaminated soil. In this study, the components in the clay before and after separation were evaluated to estimate the magnetic separation efficiency by using X-ray diffraction. From the results, the decontamination efficiency and the volume reduction ratio were estimated in order to examine the appropriate separation conditions for the practical decontamination of the soil.

Igarashi, Susumu; Nomura, Naoki; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko

2014-09-01

172

Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.  

PubMed

Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether. PMID:24516570

Kim, Brent F; Poulsen, Melissa N; Margulies, Jared D; Dix, Katie L; Palmer, Anne M; Nachman, Keeve E

2014-01-01

173

Urban Community Gardeners' Knowledge and Perceptions of Soil Contaminant Risks  

PubMed Central

Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether. PMID:24516570

Kim, Brent F.; Poulsen, Melissa N.; Margulies, Jared D.; Dix, Katie L.; Palmer, Anne M.; Nachman, Keeve E.

2014-01-01

174

Remediation of petroleum contaminated soils through composting and rhizosphere degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composting along with rhizodegradation was used to remediate petroleum-contaminated soils in the Yellow River Delta, China. The average concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in these soils was reduced from 7900–17,900mgkg?1 to 1400–3700mgkg?1 after field composting. The best volume ratio of amendment to contaminated soil was 2\\/1 and the best C\\/N ratio was 15\\/1. After composting, four local dominant plant

Zhenyu Wang; Ying Xu; Jian Zhao; Fengmin Li; Dongmei Gao; Baoshan Xing

2011-01-01

175

Germination and development of Mimosa pilulifera in petroleum-contaminated soil and bioremediated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000 there was an oil spill at the Getúlio Vargas Refinery (REPAR\\/PETROBRÁS) in Paraná, Brazil. Nearly five years after contamination and the use of bioremediation, a study was carried out to identify the effects of the contaminated soil and the bioremediated soil on the germination and initial growth of Mimosa pilulifera seedlings. The experiment consisted of three treatments: petroleum-contaminated

Renata Charvet Inckot; Gedir de Oliveira Santos; Luiz Antonio de Souza; Cleusa Bona

2011-01-01

176

Micrometeorological methods for measurements of mercury emissions over contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

As part of a larger study involving development and application of field and laboratory methods (micrometeorological, dynamic enclosure chamber, and controlled laboratory chamber methods) to measure the air/surface exchange of Hg vapor, we performed a series of preliminary measurements over contaminated soils. From March--April 1993, we used the modified Bowen ratio (MBR) method to measure emission rates of mercury over a floodplain contaminated with mercury near Oak Ridge, TN. The mercury emission rates measured from contaminated EFPC soils using the MBR method during early spring show that (1) in all cases, the contaminated soils acted as a source of mercury to the atmosphere with source strengths ranging from 17 to 160 ng m{sup {minus}2} h{sup {minus}1}; and (2) the strengths of mercury emissions can be greatly influenced by the combined effects of surface soil temperature, residence time of air masses over the source area, and turbulence conditions. The mercury fluxes measured in a controlled flow chamber indicate that contaminated soils can exhibit up to an order of magnitude higher emission rates of Hg under conditions of elevated soil temperature, soil structure disturbance, and high turbulence. Mercury emissions from contaminated soils exceeded emissions from background soils by one to two orders of magnitude.

Kim, K.H.; Lindberg, S.E.; Hanson, P.J.; Owens, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Myers, T.P. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Air Resources Lab. Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Div.

1993-12-31

177

Remediation of contaminated soils and sludges by green plants  

SciTech Connect

The potential of green plants to remove, contain, or render harmless contaminants in soils and sludges is actively being explored in an increasing number of laboratories throughout the world. This approach, which has been termed phytoremediation, exploits plants, soil amendments, and plant-associated microbiota to remediate contaminated soils. As an in situ stabilization technique, soil amendment with fertilizers, biosolids, or certain industrial by-products alters the chemical and physical nature of the contaminant in the soil matrix, thus reducing its available to biological processes. The site is then vegetated with plants that can (1) grow in the resulting soil matrix; (2) reduce leaching through the soil profile by absorbing, sequestering, or degrading residual contaminants in the soil solution; and (3) minimize wind and rain erosion. The process is known as phytostabilization, or simply site stabilization, and borrows heavily on mine reclamation techniques. As a site decontamination technique, the soil is treated to increase the availability of the contaminant to biological processes and then planted with plants that (1) accumulate the contaminant and are harvested for further pollutant destruction, sequestration, or reclamation or (2) use plant or plant-associated microbial processes to destroy the pollutant in situ.

Cunningham, S.D.; Berti, W.R.; Huang, J.W. [DuPont Co., Newark, DE (United States)

1995-12-31

178

Apparatus for treatment of soils contaminated with organic pollutants  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for treating soil contaminated by organic compounds wherein an ozone containing gas is treated with acid to increase the stability of the ozone in the soil environment and the treated ozone applied to the contaminated soil in a manner adapted to decompose the organic compounds; one embodiment of the apparatus comprises a means to supply ozone as a gas-ozone mixture, a stability means to treat ozone obtained from the supply and distribution means to apply the stabilized gas-ozone to soil. The soil may be treated in situ or may be removed for treatment and refilled.

Wickramanayake, Godage B. (Columbus, OH)

1993-01-01

179

THE IMPORTANCE OF BIOAVAILABILITY IN REMEDIATION OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Reduction in exposure to soil metal contamination has typically been accomplished by soil removal and off site disposal, by covering, or by diluting with uncontaminated soil. Cost, logistical concerns, and regulatory requirements associated with excavation and disposal or ex-situ...

180

Relative bioavailability of arsenic contaminated soils in a mouse model  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to As contaminated soils compels extensive soil cleanups so that human health risks are minimized. In order to improve exposure estimates and potentially reduce remediation costs, determination of the bioavailability of As in soils is needed. The objective of this study ...

181

Restoration of Petroleum-Contaminated Soil Using Phased Bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual approach is presented for the restoration of petroleum-contaminated sites by combining bioremediation with revegetation using native plants. Phased bioremediation includes active and passive treatment options for soil containing greater than 1% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). Phase I is used when initial soil TPH exceeds 1%. Phase I utilizes either active land treatment, with regular soil tillage, or passive

James L Brown; Royal J Nadeau

2002-01-01

182

COLUMN VAPOR EXTRACTION EXPERIMENTS ON GASOLINE CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a technique that is used to remove volatile organic compounds from unsaturated soils. ir is pumped from the contaminated area and the chemicals are removed from the resulting vapor stream. n this work laboratory, soil column experiments were conduct...

183

Public perceptions of a radioactively contaminated site: concerns, remediation preferences, and desired involvement.  

PubMed Central

A public attitudes survey was conducted in neighborhoods adjacent to a radioactively contaminated site whose remediation is now under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The survey's purpose was to ascertain levels of actual and desired public involvement in the remediation process; to identify health, environmental, economic, and future land-use concerns associated with the site; and to solicit remediation strategy preferences. Surface water and groundwater contamination, desire for public involvement, and potential health risks were found to be the most highly ranked site concerns. Preferred remediation strategies included treatment of contaminated soil and excavation with off-site disposal. Among on-site remediation strategies, only institutional controls that leave the site undisturbed and do not require additional excavation of materials were viewed favorably. Cost of remediation appeared to influence remediation strategy preference; however, no strategy was viewed as a panacea. Respondents were also concerned with protecting future generations, better assessment of risks to health and the environment, and avoiding generation of additional contaminated materials. PMID:9118878

Feldman, D L; Hanahan, R A

1996-01-01

184

Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil  

SciTech Connect

This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

2005-11-14

185

Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. III. Weldon Spring Storage Site  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring Storage Site (WSSS), which includes both the chemical site and the quarry, became radioactively contaminated as the result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering various remedial action options for the WSSS. This report describes the results of geochemical investigations carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support these activities and to help quantify various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples were characterized, and uranium and radium sorption ratios were measured in site soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. Soil samples from various locations around the raffinate pits were found to contain major amounts of silica, along with illite as the primary clay constituent. Particle sizes of the five soil samples were variable (50% distribution point ranging from 12 to 81 ..mu..m); the surface areas varied from 13 to 62 m/sup 2//g. Elemental analysis of the samples showed them to be typical of sandy clay and silty clay soils. Groundwater samples included solution from Pit 3 and well water from Well D. Anion analyses showed significant concentrations of sulfate and nitrate (>350 and >7000 mg/L, respectively) in the solution from Pit 3. These anions were also present in the well water, but in lower concentrations. Uranium sorption ratios for four of the soil samples contacted with the solution from Pit 3 were moderate to high (approx. 300 to approx. 1000 mL/g). The fifth sample had a ratio of only 12 mL/g. Radium sorption ratios for the five samples were moderate to high (approx. 600 to approx. 1000 mL/g). These values indicate that soil at the WSSS may show favorable retardation of uranium and radium in the groundwater. 13 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

1985-02-01

186

Rhizoremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil using Australian native grasses.  

PubMed

Rhizoremediation involves the breakdown of contaminants in soil resulting from microbial activity that is enhanced in the plant root zone. The objective of this study was to assess Australian native grasses for their ability to stimulate removal of aliphatic hydrocarbons from a mine site soil. Time-course pot experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with three grass species (Cymbopogon ambiguus, Brachiaria decumbens, and Microlaena stipoides) in a mine site soil experimentally contaminated with a 60:40 diesel:oil mixture at 1% (w/w) concentration. Plants were cultivated for 100days with periodic evaluation of changes in soil total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration, soil lipase activity, and abundance of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms. Results were compared to unplanted control treatments. Significantly lower endpoint TPH concentrations were recorded in planted soil compared to unplanted soil (p=0.01). Final TPH concentrations and rates of TPH removal varied between grass species, with total TPH removal of between 50% and 88% achieved in planted treatments. The presence of grasses significantly increased the abundance of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and soil lipase activity relative to unplanted soil (p<0.05). Residual TPH concentration was found to be closely (negatively) correlated with abundance of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and to a lesser extent with soil lipase activity. Australian native grass species were identified that effectively enhance the remediation of diesel/oil contaminated soil, without any requirement for nutrient supplementation. Results may have extensive application to the nationwide problems associated with hydrocarbon contaminated sites. PMID:20569970

Gaskin, Sharyn E; Bentham, Richard H

2010-08-01

187

Biosurfactant technology for remediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils.  

PubMed

This research focuses on column experiments conducted to evaluate the potential of environmentally compatible rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain BS2 to remove heavy metals (Cd and Pb) from artificially contaminated soil. Results have shown that di-rhamnolipid removes not only the leachable or available fraction of Cd and Pb but also the bound metals as compared to tap water which removed the mobile fraction only. Washing of contaminated soil with tap water revealed that approximately 2.7% of Cd and 9.8% of Pb in contaminated soil was in freely available or weakly bound forms whereas washing with rhamnolipid removed 92% of Cd and 88% of Pb after 36 h of leaching. This indicated that di-rhamnolipid selectively favours mobilization of metals in the order of Cd>Pb. Biosurfactant specificity observed towards specific metal will help in preferential elution of specific contaminant using di-rhamnolipid. It was further observed that pH of the leachates collected from heavy metal contaminated soil column treated with di-rhamnolipid solution was low (6.60-6.78) as compared to that of leachates from heavy metal contaminated soil column treated with tap water (pH 6.90-7.25), which showed high dissolution of metal species from the contaminated soil and effective leaching of metals with treatment with biosurfactant. The microbial population of the contaminated soil was increased after removal of metals by biosurfactant indicating the decrease of toxicity of metals to soil microflora. This study shows that biosurfactant technology can be an effective and nondestructive method for bioremediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soil. PMID:17399765

Juwarkar, Asha A; Nair, Anupa; Dubey, Kirti V; Singh, S K; Devotta, Sukumar

2007-08-01

188

Pleasure Boatyard Soils are Often Highly Contaminated  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contamination in pleasure boatyards has been investigated. Measured concentrations of copper, zinc, lead, mercury, cadmium, tributyltin (TBT), the 16 most common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (?16 PAHs), and the seven most common polychlorinated biphenyls (?7 PCBs) from investigations at 34 boatyards along the Swedish coast have been compiled. The maximum concentrations were 7,700 for Cu, 10,200, for Zn, 40,100 for Pb, 188 for Hg, 18 for Cd, 107 for TBT, 630 for carcinogenic PAHs, 1,480 for ?16 PAHs, and 3.8 mg/kg DW for ?7 PCB; all 10-2,000 higher than the Swedish environmental qualitative guidelines. In addition, the mean of the median values found at the 34 places shows that the lower guidance value for sensitive use of land was exceeded for the ?7 PCBs, carcinogenic PAHs, TBT, Pb, Hg, and Cu by a factor of 380, 6.8, 3.6, 2.9, 2.2 and 1.7, respectively. The even higher guideline value for industrial use was exceeded for the ?7 PCBs and TBT by a factor of 15 and 1.8, respectively. TBT, PAHs, Pb, Cd, and Hg are prioritized substances in the European Water Framework Directive and should be phased out as quickly as possible. Because of the risk of leakage from boatyards, precautions should be taken. The high concentrations measured are considered to be dangerous for the environment and human health and highlight the urgent need for developing and enforcing pleasure boat maintenance guidelines to minimize further soil and nearby water contamination.

Eklund, Britta; Eklund, David

2014-05-01

189

Background in the context of land contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material.  

PubMed

The financial implications of choosing a particular threshold for clearance of radioactively contaminated land are substantial, particularly when one considers the volume of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) created each year by the production and combustion of fossil fuels and the exploitation of industrial minerals. Inevitably, a compromise needs to be reached between the level of environmental protection sought and the finite resources available for remediation. In the case of natural series radionuclides, any anthropogenic input is always superimposed on the inventory already present in the soil; this 'background' inventory is conventionally disregarded when assessing remediation targets. Unfortunately, the term is not well defined and the concept of 'background dose' is open to alternative interpretations. In this paper, we address the issue of natural background from a geochemical rather than from a solely radiological perspective, illustrating this with an example from the china clay industry. We propose a simple procedure for decision making based on activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides and their progeny. Subsequent calculations of dose need to take into account the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the contamination, which in the case of NORM are invariably reflected in uranium series disequilibrium. PMID:23519083

Read, D; Read, G D; Thorne, M C

2013-06-01

190

Evaluation of biosurfactants for crude oil contaminated soil washing  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of the ability of aqueous biosurfactant solutions (aescin, lecithin, rhamnolipid, saponin and tannin) for possible applications in washing crude oil contaminated soil was carried out. The biosurfactants behaviour in soil–water, water–oil and oil–soil systems (such as foaming, solubilization, sorption to soil, emulsification, surface and interfacial tension) was measured and compared with a well-known chemical surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate,

Kingsley Urum; Turgay Pekdemir

2004-01-01

191

Solidification/stabilization of hexavalent chromium contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

Cement-based solidification/stabilization (S/S) procedure is one of the cost effective methods for treating metal waste in situ. Hence its efficiency in treating hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), contaminated soils was evaluated in this study. Due to its oxidizing potential and high solubility in water Cr(VI) is highly toxic. Contaminated soils were prepared in the laboratory by spiking soils with hexavalent chromium (K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}) up to a concentration of 25,000 mg/kg. The control soil was prepared by mixing sand, kaolinite clay and organic matter to represent a clayey soil. Contaminated soils were treated with cement with and without a reducing agent ferrous chloride. Cement-to-soil ratio was varied from 0.2 to 1.0 in the treatment study. Treated soils were cured for 28 days before testing. Contaminated soil with 500 mg/kg of K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} was effectively treated with cement (cement-to-soil ratio of 0.2) to meet the TCLP limit of 5 mg/L. However, S/S treatment was not successful with the contaminated soil with a contamination level of 25,000 mg/kg K{sub 2}CrO{sub 4}. Increasing the cement-to-soil ratio reduced the leaching of chromium and improved the unconfined compressive strength. Reaction products after treatment were identified using X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Ferrous chloride (FeCl{sub 2}) (4% by weight) was used in S/S treatment to reduce the leaching of chromium by reducing the soluble Cr(VI) to some insoluble forms of chromium. However, adding FeCl{sub 2} had a deleterious effect on cement setting and strength. An empirical model was used to predict the leaching of total chromium and Cr(VI) from the binder matrix.

Vipulanandan, C.; Wang, S. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

1997-12-31

192

Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil contamination: the heritage of industrial development Contamination is only a part of a whole set of soil degradation processes, but it is one of paramount importance since soil pollution greatly influences the quality of water, food and human health. Soil contamination has been identified as an important issue for action in the European strategy for soil protection, it has been estimated that 3.5 million of sites are potentially contaminated in Europe. Contaminated soils have been essentially discovered in industrial sites landfills and energy production plants, but accumulation of heavy metals and organic compounds can be found also in agricultural land . Remediation strategies. from incineration to bioremediation The assessment of soil contamination is followed by remedial action. The remediation of contaminated soils started using consolidates technologies (incineration inertization etc.) previously employed in waste treatment,. This has contributed to consider a contaminated soil as an hazardous waste. This rough approximation was unfortunately transferred in many legislations and on this basis soil knowledge have been used only marginally in the clean up procedures. For many years soil quality has been identified by a value of concentration of a contaminant and excavation and landfill disposal of soil has been largely used. In the last years the knowledge of remediation technology has rapidly grown, at present many treatment processes appear to be really feasible at field scale, and soil remediation is now based on risk assessment procedures. Innovative technologies, largely dependent on soil properties, such as in situ chemical oxidation, electroremediation, bioventing, soil vapor extraction etc. have been successfully applied. Hazardous organic compounds are commonly treated by biological technologies, biorememdiation and phytoremediation, being the last partially applied also for metals. Technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on eliminating the source of pollution, but also on blocking the pathways from contaminants to receptors or reducing the exposure to contaminants,. Future challenge integration of sustainability into remediation decision-making. Soil is not a waste! There is a growing interest in the clean up approaches that maintain soil quality after remediation treatments. This issue is of great importance in the U.S.A. where the EPA from 2009 is promoting innovative clean-up strategies (Green Remediation). Green remediation is defined as the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy and incorporating options to maximize environmental benefit of cleanup actions . These remediation strategies restore contaminated sites to productive use with a great attention to the global environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality according to the following principles: use minimally invasive technologies; use passive energy technologies such as bioremediation and phytoremediation as primary remedies or finishing steps where possible and effective; minimize soil and habitat disturbance; minimize bioavailability of contaminants trough adequate contaminant source and plume control If we move from the current definition of remedial targets based on total concentrations, technologies with low impact on the environment can be utilized reducing the wrong choice to disposal soil in landfill destroying quickly a not renewable essential resource.

Petruzzelli, G.

2012-04-01

193

Phytoremediation of oil-sludge-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to select plant species that could be effective in the phytoremediation ofa former oil-sludge pit. Seven crop plants (Triticum aestivum L., Secale cereale L., Avena sativa L., Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor L Moench, Panicum miliaceum L, and Zea mays L.),five wild grasses (Lolium perenne L., Bromopsis inermis, Agropyron cristatum L., Agropyrum tenerum L., and Festuca pratensis Huds.), and three legumes (Medicago sativa L., Trifolium pratense L., and Onobrychis antasiatica Khin.) were screened for phytotoxicity, including the assessment of germination, shoot biomass, and root biomass, in a pot experiment. The estimation of oil-sludge degradation in the root zone of the tested plants showed that rye accelerated cleanup most effectively, degrading all of the main contaminant fractions in the oil sludge by a total of 52%. Although alfalfa had a lower phytoremediation potential than did rye, it maintained large numbers of soil microorganisms, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, in its rhizosphere. Rye and alfalfa were chosen for a large-scale study to remediate an oil-sludge pit on the grounds of a petroleum refinery. Remediation monitoring confirmed the effectiveness of rye: the oil-sludge content decreased consistently for 3 years and remained low in comparison with the results from other plant species. PMID:19260228

Muratova, A Y; Dmitrieva, T V; Panchenko, L V; Turkovskaya, O V

2008-01-01

194

Assessment of bermudagrass cultivars for phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation is an alternative to other technologies for the clean up of petroleum contaminated soil. Ten vegetatively propagated cultivars of bermudagrass were examined for their potential to reduced oil sludge contaminated in soil and select the most efficient cultivar. Soil was mixed with different rates of oil sludge (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% (w/w) to obtain 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs). Ten cultivars of bermudagrass were planted in pots filled with respected mixtures of soil and sludge. Shoot and root weights and percent reduction in the contamination level were measured after six months. Shoot weight reduced as contamination level increased. The root weight increased up to 6% TPHs level. As contamination level increased, the percent reduction in contamination increased. Reduction was 37.7, 41.0, 35.0, 34.0, 45.0, 41.3, 34.5, 41.3, 34.5, 41.3, 55.0, and 43.6% under Tifdwarf, Tifgreen, Tifway, ISF1, ISF2, JP1, JP2, and Midlawn, 3200W18-4 and 3200W19-9 at the highest contamination level 3200W18-4 was the most effective cultivar followed by ISF2, 3200W19-9, JPI, and Midlawn, respectively. The results suggested that bermudagrass is an efficient species for phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil and the selection for more tolerant and efficient cultivar is possible. PMID:22567691

Razmjoo, Khorshid; Adavi, Zohrab

2012-01-01

195

Kinetics of Cd Release from Some Contaminated Calcareous Soils  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of soils with heavy metals may pose long-term risk to groundwater quality leading to health implications. Bioavailability of heavy metals, like cadmium (Cd) is strongly affected by sorption and desorption processes. The release of heavy metals from contaminated soils is a major contamination risks to natural waters. The release of Cd from contaminated soils is strongly influenced by its mobility and bioavailability. In this study, the kinetics of Cd desorption from ten samples of contaminated calcareous soils, with widely varying physicochemical properties, were studied using 0.01 M EDTA extraction. The median percentage of Cd released was about 27.7% of the total extractable Cd in the soils. The release of Cd was characterized by an initial fast release rate (of labile fractions) followed by a slower release rate (of less labile fractions) and a model of two first-order reactions adequately describes the observed release of Cd from the studied soil samples. There was positive correlation between the amount of Cd released at first phase of release and Cd in exchangeable fraction, indicating that this fraction of Cd is the main fraction controlling the Cd in the kinetic experiments. There was strongly negative correlation between the amount of Cd released at first and second phases of release and residual fraction, suggesting that this fraction did not contribute in Cd release in the kinetic experiments. The results can be used to provide information for evaluation of Cd potential toxicity and ecological risk from contaminated calcareous soils.

Sajadi Tabar, S.; Jalali, M., E-mail: jalali@basu.ac.ir [Bu-Ali Sina University, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-03-15

196

Radioactive contamination screening with laser-induced fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

The ability to induce, detect and discriminate fluorescence of uranium oxides makes available new capabilities for screening the surface of large complex facilities for uranium. This paper will present the results of field tests evaluate laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) as a contamination screening tool and report on the progress to produce a field portable instrument for uranium surveys on exposed surfaces. The principal effect is to illuminate the surface of an object or an area with a remotely-located light source, and to evaluate the re-radiated emission energy. A gated intensified CCD camera was used with ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation to discriminate the phosphorescent (persistent) green uranium emission from the prompt background fluorescence which results from excitation of plants, concrete, soils, and other background materials.

Sheely, R. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Di Benedetto, J. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations

1994-06-01

197

Laboratory and greenhouse assessment of phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum and associated priority pollutants was evaluated in greenhouse and laboratory experiments. Mineralization of several PAHs was measured in rhizosphere soil, non-rhizosphere soil, and sterile soil amended with simulated root exudates. The least amount of mineralization was observed in sterile soil, but there were no differences among all other soils. Mineralization of 14 C-benzo[a]pyrene was determined in chambers to determine the effects of tall fescue on dissipation of this compound. After 180 days, the soils with fescue had more than twice the mineralization than soils without plants. In the soils with plants, evolution of 14CO2 from the soil was five times greater than from the plant biomass. These experiments demonstrate that the presence of plants is a necessary part of the phytoremediation process. There appears to be no residual rhizosphere effect, and the simple exudation of organic compounds does not mimic fully the presence of roots.

Banks, M.K.; Schwab, A.P.; Wang, X. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

1996-12-31

198

Molecular diagnostics for polychlorinated biphenyl degradation in contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Molecular diagnostic methods using DNA hybridization with specific gene probes are being developed for the monitoring of microbial populations capable of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degradation in contaminated soils. Evaluation of composite samples from contaminated electrical substation soil by gas chromatography (GC) indicated that the PCBs present in the soil (approximately 200 ppm) resulted from contamination with Aroclor 1248. The PCBs have been weathered or degraded so that the lower molecular weight PCB congeners are no longer present. Microbiological and molecular site characterizations are in progress to determine the abundance of PCB degradative organisms and catabolic genes present. Cloned DNA fragments for the bphC gene (2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl dioxygenase) from the biphenyl/chlorobiphenyl degradative pathways of different organisms were used as gene probes to identify indigenous microorganisms with bphC gene sequences. In colony hybridization experiments, positive signals with the pDA251 gene probe were detected in cultures from both contaminated and uncontaminated soils. The degradative abilities of indigenous microorganisms and an added PCB-degradative bacterial strain were also monitored with [14C]4-chlorobiphenyl mineralization assays and gas chromatography of PCB residues extracted from the soils. Enrichment of the contaminated soil with biphenyl and chlorobiphenyls did not stimulate the indigenous microorganisms to degrade the soil PCB. Nevertheless, enrichment of the contaminated soil with biphenyl and chlorobiphenyl and addition of the PCB-degrading strain Alcaligenes eutrophus GG4202 did result in additional degradation of the soil PCB. The results obtained from these experiments should assist in developing and monitoring a remediation plan for these PCB-contaminated soils. PMID:8010689

Layton, A C; Lajoie, C A; Easter, J P; Jernigan, R; Beck, M J; Sayler, G S

1994-05-01

199

IN-SITU TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Techniques were investigated for in-situ treatment of hazardous wastes that could be applied to contaminated soils. Included were chemical treatment methods, biological treatment, photochemical transformations and combination methods. Techniques were developed based on fundamenta...

200

Assessing soil and groundwater contamination in a metropolitan redevelopment project.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess contaminated soil and groundwater for the urban redevelopment of a rapid transit railway and a new mega-shopping area. Contaminated soil and groundwater may interfere with the progress of this project, and residents and shoppers may be exposed to human health risks. The study area has been remediated after application of first remediation technologies. Of the entire area, several sites were still contaminated by waste materials and petroleum. For zinc (Zn) contamination, high Zn concentrations were detected because waste materials were disposed in the entire area. For petroleum contamination, high total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and hydrocarbon degrading microbe concentrations were observed at the depth of 7 m because the underground petroleum storage tank had previously been located at this site. Correlation results suggest that TPH (soil) concentration is still related with TPH (groundwater) concentration. The relationship is taken into account in the Spearman coefficient (?). PMID:23307052

Yun, Junki; Lee, Ju Young; Khim, Jeehyeong; Ji, Won Hyun

2013-08-01

201

X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Contaminant characterization and three dimensional spatial modeling  

SciTech Connect

Fine-textured soils and sediments contaminated by trichloroethylene (TCE) and other chlorinated organics present a serious environmental restoration challenge at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. DOE and Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. initiated a research and demonstration project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The goal of the project was to demonstrate a process for closure and environmental restoration of the X-231B Solid Waste Management Unit at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The X-231B Unit was used from 1976 to 1983 as a land disposal site for waste oils and solvents. Silt and clay deposits beneath the unit were contaminated with volatile organic compounds and low levels of radioactive substances. The shallow groundwater was also contaminated, and some contaminants were at levels well above drinking water standards. This document begins with a summary of the subsurface physical and contaminant characteristics obtained from investigative studies conducted at the X-231B Unit prior to January 1992 (Sect. 2). This is then followed by a description of the sample collection and analysis methods used during the baseline sampling conducted in January 1992 (Sect. 3). The results of this sampling event were used to develop spatial models for VOC contaminant distribution within the X-231B Unit.

West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Mitchell, T.J.; Pickering, D.A.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.; Jenkins, R.A.

1993-11-01

202

Decreasing the contamination and toxicity of a heavily contaminated soil by in situ bioremediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental plot of 140 m2 consisting of acidic soil heavily contaminated with uranium, non-ferrous metals (mainly Cu, Zn and Cd) and arsenic was treated in situ under real field conditions using the activity of the indigenous soil microflora. This activity was enhanced by suitable changes of some essential environmental factors such as pH and water, oxygen and nutrient contents of the soil. The treatment was connected with solubilization and removal of contaminants from the top soil layers (horizon A) due to the joint action of the soil microorganisms (mainly acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria) and leach solutions (diluted sulphuric acid). The dissolved contaminants were transferred to the soil horizon B and were removed from the soil profile through a system of drainage collecting pipes. The contaminated soil effluents were treated by means of a multi-component passive system consisting of an anoxic alkalizing drain, a permeable reactive multibarrier and a rock filter. The contamination and toxicity of the soil were regularly tested during the cleaning procedure and were considerably decreased at the end of the treatment.

Groudev, Stoyan; Georgiev, Plamen; Spasova, Irena; Nikolova, Marina

2013-04-01

203

Leaching potential of metallic elements from contaminated soils under anoxia.  

PubMed

Understanding metallic element (ME) behaviour in soils subjected to alternating redox conditions is of significant environmental importance, particularly for contaminated soils. Although variations in the hydrological status of soils may lead to the release of ME, redox-driven changes in ME dynamics are still not sufficiently understood. We studied the effects of alternating redox cycles on the release, leaching and redistribution of Zn, Cu and Pb in metal mine-contaminated and non-contaminated soils by means of a column experiment. Although the release of Zn was promoted by the onset of reductive conditions, successive redox cycles favoured metal partitioning in less labile fractions limiting its further mobilization. The release of Cu in soil pore waters and redistribution in the solid phase towards more labile pools were strongly dependent on the alternation between oxidizing and reducing conditions. In contaminated soils, the presence of chalcopyrite could have determined the release of Cu under oxic conditions and its relative immobilization under subsequent anoxic conditions. The behaviour of Pb did not seem to be influenced by the redox status, although higher concentrations in the column leachates with respect to soil pore waters suggested that alternating redox conditions could nonetheless result in substantial mobilization. This study provides evidence that the alternation of soil redox conditions may play a more important role in determining the release and leaching of ME from soils with respect to reducing or oxidizing conditions considered separately. PMID:24365993

Balint, Ramona; Nechifor, Gheorghe; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco

2014-02-01

204

Ecological effects of soil contamination at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

Assessment of the ecological condition of contaminated soil was conducted in portions of the U.S. Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland as part of an ecological risk assessment. This area is covered by open fields, woods and nontidal marshes. Chemicals disposed of in open burning pits included methylphosphonothioic acid, dichlorodiethyl sulfide, and titanium tetrachloride and sulfur trioxide/chlorosulfonic acid. Previous soil analysis showed extensive surface soil contamination with metals, nitrate, PCBs and pesticides. This assessment included characterizing soil biota, biologically-mediated processes in soil and aboveground biomass. Field surveys of the soil invertebrate communities showed significant reductions in the total abundance of animals, reductions in the abundance of several taxonomic and functional groups of soil invertebrates, and changes in the activity of epigeic arthropods in contaminated areas when compared with the local [open quotes]background[close quotes] area. Laboratory toxicity tests also demonstrated that microbial activity and success of egg hatching of ground beetle Harpalus pensylvanicus were reduced in contaminated soils. These results suggest that impacts to soil ecosystems should be explicitly considered in ecological risk assessment.

Kuperman, R.G.; Dunn, C.P. (Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States))

1994-06-01

205

Toxicity testing of trinitrotoluene-contaminated soil composts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mutatox{trademark} assay and earthworm acute toxicity test were employed to evaluate the efficacy of composting in reducing the toxicity of TNT-contaminated soils. The Mutatox assay is a proprietary bacterial bioluminescence test that determines the mutagenic potential of sample extracts. The earthworm acute toxicity test was chosen because it exposes the organisms to the unaltered contaminant\\/solid matrix. Rockeye soil, a

M. E. Honeycutt; V. A. McFarland; A. S. Jarvis

1997-01-01

206

The existence state in the soil of radioactive cesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident by imaging plate photograph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the wide area in east Japan was polluted seriously with radioactive cesium. But, unlike Chernobyl, reactor core explosion did not occur in Fukushima. Therefore, it is thought that many radioactive nuclides emitted into the atmosphere were in the gas state and aerosol. However, when the imaging plate photographs of the surface soils in Fukushima was observed, many granular radionuclides existed. Then, in order to confirm a radioactive cesium of particle state, the treatment for the soils contaminated with radioactive cesium by using chemical operation was tried. Three type soils, that is, paddy soil, river sediment, and sea sand, were made applicable to research. The contaminated soil samples were collected in Fukushima and Ibaraki prefecture. Radioactivity concentrations of 137Cs and 134Cs were measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry with a high pure germanium (HPGe) detector. After the radioactively measurement, soils had been burned in oven for five hours in 500 degree Celsius. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to soil samples, and they were heated for three hours. These samples were divided into residue and elution by centrifugal separation, and then radioactivity of cesium contained in residue was measured. After chemical operations, 70% and 85% of radioactive cesium from river sediment and sea sand were extracted approximately into elution, respectively. In contrast, in the soil of the paddy field, only 30% of radioactive cesium was approximately eluted. When radiation image photograph of the residues of all three types of soils were taken and observed, the granular radioactive nuclides remained clearly in paddy soil and river sediment. In contrast, all the granular radioactive nuclides in sea sand disappeared after treatment. The results of above things that desorption of radioactive cesium depend on the kind of soil. Furthermore, it was suggested that there was radioactive cesium of particle state in paddy soil and river sediment. It is a possibility that the substances on which radioactive cesium are concentrated depends on the kind of soil. The necessity of clarifying adsorption objects and particle state in the actual condition was suggested to elucidate Fukushima accident in more detail.

Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke

2013-04-01

207

Heavy metal movement in metal-contaminated soil profiles  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metal movement in soil profiles is a major environmental concern because even slow transport through the soil may eventually lead to deterioration of groundwater quality. In this study, three metal-contaminated soil (Fuquay, Dothan, and Clarendon) were selected from cropland were a high-metal flue dust had been applied annually for 6 years to raise soil pH, with application ending 4 years before sampling. One uncontaminated soil (Tifton) from the same physiographic area was also sampled as a control. Soil samples were collected in 15-cm increments from the surface to 105 cm in depth. Total contents of Zn, Cd, and Pb in the soils samples were determined. To better understand metal movement in relation to metal fractions in the soil profile, soil samples were also extracted sequentially for exchangeable (EXC), organic matter (OM), Mn oxide (MNO), amorphous Fe oxide (AFEO), crystalline Fe oxide (CFEO), and residual (RES) fractions. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Li, Zhenbin; Shuman, L.M. [Univ. of Georgia, Griffin, GA (United States)] [Univ. of Georgia, Griffin, GA (United States)

1996-10-01

208

Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils and groundwaters  

DOEpatents

An in situ method is described for extraction of arsenic contaminants from a soil medium and remediation of the medium including contacting the medium with an extractant solution, directing the solution within and through the medium, and collecting the solution and contaminants. The method can also be used for arsenate and/or arsenite removal. 8 figs.

Peters, R.W.; Frank, J.R.; Feng, X.

1998-06-23

209

Mercury speciation in contaminated soils by thermal release analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal release analysis of mercury species in contaminated soils was performed by temperature controlled continuous heating of the samples in a furnace coupled to an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). It was shown that this method allows the identification of different redox states of Hg-species through their characteristic releasing temperature ranges. The method was applied to Hg-contaminated samples from an inactive

Cláudia Carvalhinho Windmöller; Rolf-Dieter Wilken; Wilson De Figueiredo Jardim

1996-01-01

210

Phytoremediation of No. 2 Fuel Oil-Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation has been implemented at an industrial site in Wisconsin to promote in situ remediation of No. 2 fuel oil-contaminated soil. The goal of the project is to utilize microbial-enhancing processes within the rhizosphere of trees to stimulate biodegradation of diesel range organics (DROs) within four contaminated hot spots at the site. Between 40 and 90% reductions in the concentrations

Eric P. Carman; Tom L. Crossman; Edward G. Gatliff

1998-01-01

211

Multi-Species Ecotoxicity Assessment of Petroleum-Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1992, a study was begun to compare the effect of landfarming vs. natural attenuation on the restoration of soil that had been contaminated with crude oil. Each of three lysimeters was filled with a sandy loam topsoil, and crude oil was applied to two of the lysimeters. One of the contaminated lysimeters was tilled, watered, and received a one-time

Kathleen Duncan; Eleanor Jennings; Paul Buck; Harrington Wells; Ravindra Kolhatkar; Kerry Sublette; William T. Potter; Timothy Todd

2003-01-01

212

Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils and groundwaters  

DOEpatents

An in situ method for extraction of arsenic contaminants from a soil medium and remediation of the medium including contacting the medium with an extractant solution, directing the solution within and through the medium, and collecting the solution and contaminants. The method can also be used for arsenate and/or arsenite removal.

Peters, Robert W. (Naperville, IL); Frank, James R. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Feng, Xiandong (West Richland, WA)

1998-01-01

213

Radioactive contamination in Croatia by phosphate fertilizer production.  

PubMed

The contents of natural radionuclides (radium, uranium and potassium) were measured in the area of a phosphate fertilizer factory in central Croatia, as a part of extended and still ongoing monitoring program of radioactive contamination of human environment in Croatia that is performed by the Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb. Activity concentrations in all analysed media (waste water, trickling water from piezometers, phosphogypsum deposit and final products) considerably fluctuated, especially in phosphogypsum and waste water. Mean (226)Ra activity concentration in waste phosphogypsum was measured to be 483+/-190 Bqkg(-1). Based on that value, it was estimated that 4 million m(3) of phosphogypsum that have been deposited up to now contain about 4.3 x 10(12) Bq, i.e. about 200 g of (226)Ra. However, effective dose for an adult that would be incurred by consumption of water from nearby wells was estimated to be 5.3+/-1.3 microSv. The results show that (226)Ra activities cause effective doses, which are below the recommended maximum as the estimated annual (226)Ra effective dose does not exceed 0.1 mSv as recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:18619732

Bituh, Tomislav; Marovic, Gordana; Franic, Zdenko; Sencar, Jasminka; Bronzovic, Maja

2009-03-15

214

Uncertainty in assessing risks from current radioactive surface contamination standards  

SciTech Connect

Release standards for materials with radioactive surface contamination have been in existence in the United States for about two decades. Such standards include those issued by the American National Standards Institute, (ANSI), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The standards were based on the measured surface concentrations; in other words, they were [open quotes]instrumentation based.[close quotes] However, significant advancement has taken place in the area of radiation protection in the past two decades, The more stringent regulatory environment has resulted in lower dose limits; newer and more sophisticated dosimetric models have also been made available for more accurate estimates of human exposures and health risks. Moreover, the trend of standard setting has moved toward the [open quotes]risk-based[close quotes] approach away from the traditional [open quotes]instrumentation-based[close quotes] approach. It is thus necessary to reevaluate the current standards with the risk-based approach. Results of such evaluation would enable the future standard-setting activities.

Chen, S.Y.; LePoire, D.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1993-01-01

215

Contaminated Soils (II): In Vitro Dermal Absorption of Nickel (Ni63) and Mercury (Hg203) in Human Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dermal absorption of heavy metal soil contaminants was tested in vitro with chloride salts of radioactive nickel (Ni-63) and mercury (Hg-203). Aqueous soil suspensions, spiked with either Ni-63 or Hg-203, were applied to fresh viable human breast skin tissue in Bronaugh diffusion cells perfused with Hanks HEPES buffered (pH 7.4) receptor containing 4% bovine serum albumin (BSA). Receptor fractions were

Richard P. Moody; Julie Joncas; Mark Richardson; Sanya Petrovic; Ih Chu

2009-01-01

216

Combined chemical and biological treatment of oil contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined chemical (Fenton-like and ozonation) and biological treatment for the remediation of shale oil and transformer oil contaminated soil has been under study. Chemical treatment of shale oil and transformer oil adsorbed in peat resulted in lower contaminants’ removal and required higher addition of chemicals than chemical treatment of contaminants in sand matrix. The acidic pH (3.0) conditions favoured Fenton-like

Anna Goi; Niina Kulik; Marina Trapido

2006-01-01

217

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SEPARATION/CONCENTRATION TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Pesticide contamination includes a wide variety of compounds and may result from manufacturing improper storage, handling, disposal; or agricultural processes. It can occur in soil and can lead to secondary contamination of groundwater. Remediation of pesticide-contaminated soils...

218

IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED UNSATURATED SUBSURFACE SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

An emerging technology for the remediation of unsaturated subsurface soils involves the use of microorganisms to degrade contaminants which are present in such soils. nderstanding the processes which drive in situ bioremediation, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of the...

219

Toxicity testing of trinitrotoluene-contaminated soil composts  

SciTech Connect

The Mutatox{trademark} assay and earthworm acute toxicity test were employed to evaluate the efficacy of composting in reducing the toxicity of TNT-contaminated soils. The Mutatox assay is a proprietary bacterial bioluminescence test that determines the mutagenic potential of sample extracts. The earthworm acute toxicity test was chosen because it exposes the organisms to the unaltered contaminant/solid matrix. Rockeye soil, a TNT-contaminated soil collected from a military installation, was composted using two methods. This yielded five samples, Rockeye, Compost A composting. Soil extracts were prepared for Mutatox using the sonification method. Ten serial dilution samples were tested soils/artificial soil were tested in the earthworm toxicity test. In the Rockeye soil samples, a toxic response was shown in both test methods. Mutatox indicated no toxicity in Composts A and B after composting but did not show a positive mutagenic response in the lower serial dilutions. The LC50s for Compost A and B after composting in the earthworm toxicity test were 35.3% and 100%, respectively. Using Mutatox and the earthworm toxicity test together provides a sensitive means of monitoring the effectiveness of various composting techniques for remediating TNT-contaminated soils.

Honeycutt, M.E. [TNRCC TARA, Austin, TX (United States); McFarland, V.A.; Jarvis, A.S. [USAEWES, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

1997-10-01

220

Remediation of soil contaminated with dioxins by subcritical water extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of subcritical water extraction (SCWE) was examined for removing dioxins from contaminated soil. Most dioxins in the soil sample were reduced at 300 °C or more, but decreased dioxin concentrations were also observed at 150 °C. After 4 h of extraction, 99.4%, 94.5% and 60% of PCDDs were removed from samples at 350, 300 and 150 °C, respectively.

Shunji Hashimoto; Kiyohiko Watanabe; Kazutoshi Nose; Masatoshi Morita

2004-01-01

221

Microbiological resilience of soils contaminated with crude oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of simulated crude oil soil contamination on microbial biomass, its activity and capacity to degrade crude oil hydrocarbons were examined in different soil types under different crop managements. The effect of the addition of different organic amendments (glucose, maize stalks and maize stalk compost) on microbial survival and crude oil degradation was also investigated. Microbial biomass was measured

I Franco; M Contin; G Bragato; M De Nobili

2004-01-01

222

A New Member for Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil in Daqing oil field was collected which had been contaminated with crude oil for more than ten years. The bacteria in the soil were cultured in the enrichment medium containing crude oil and mineral salts.The strains which could display Blood-plate hemolysis were picked out as the target strains with possibility to create biosurfactant. Then by the same way, the

Yang Wang; Qiuyu Wang

2011-01-01

223

Assessing Plants for Phytoremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Soils  

E-print Network

24 Assessing Plants for Phytoremediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Soils Nandita Singh and Lena Q. Ma. Phytoremediation is potentially a cost-effective and environmentally benign method of extracting pollutants from soils. Key Words: Arsenic (As); hyperaccumulation; phytoremediation; Pteris vittata. 1. Introduction

Ma, Lena

224

ACID EXTRACTION TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Acid Extraction Treatment System (AETS) reduces the concentrations and/or leachability of heavy metals in contaminated soils so the soil can be returned to the site from which it originated. he objective of the project was to determine the effectiveness and commercial viabili...

225

ENGINEERING ISSUE: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED UNSATURATED SUBSURFACE SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

An emerging technology for the remediation of unsaturated subsurface soils involves the use of microorganisms to degrade contaminants which are present in such soils. Understanding the processes which drive in situ bioremediation, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of th...

226

Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current state of the art regarding the use of chelating agents to extract heavy metal contaminants has been addressed. Results are presented for treatability studies conducted as worst-case and representative soils from Aberdeen Proving Ground's J-Field for extraction of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The particle size distribution characteristics of the soils determined from hydrometer tests are

Robert W Peters

1999-01-01

227

The Allium cepa chromosome aberration test reliably measures genotoxicity of soils of inhabited areas in the Ukraine contaminated by the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant reactor IV in April 1986 led to the release of an enormous amount of radioactive material into the biosphere and to the formation of a complex pattern of nuclear contamination over a large area. As a consequence more than 5 million km2 of the soil in the Ukraine became contaminated with more

Olga Kovalchuk; Igor Kovalchuk; Andrey Arkhipov; Polina Telyuk; Barbara Hohn; Larisa Kovalchuk

1998-01-01

228

Patterns and inventories of radioactive contamination of island sites of the Yenisey River, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of radioactive contamination at three island sites downstream from the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine (KMCC) was studied with the objectives of mapping contamination levels, interpreting radionuclide distributions through consideration of alluvial processes and determining radionuclide inventories. Contamination was measured using in situ gamma spectrometry and landforms characterised using topographic surveying methods. Maximum 137Cs contamination densities (700kBqm?2) were

V. G. Linnik; J. E. Brown; M. Dowdall; V. N. Potapov; A. V. Nosov; V. V. Surkov; A. V. Sokolov; S. M. Wright; S. Borghuis

2006-01-01

229

Toxicity tests of soil contaminated by recycling of scrap plastics  

SciTech Connect

The present investigation studied the toxicity of soil contaminated by untreated discharge from a factory that recycles used plastics. The nearby agricultural areas and freshwater fish ponds were polluted with high concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Mn. Water extracts from the contaminated soil retarded root growth of Brassica chinensis (Chinese white cabbage) and Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) where their seeds were obtained commercially. The contaminated populations of C. dactylon, Panicum repen (panic grass), and Imperata cylindrica (wooly grass) were able to withstand higher concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Mn, especially C. dactylon, when compared with their uncontaminated counterparts.

Wong, M.H.; Chui, V.W. (Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon (Hong Kong))

1990-03-01

230

40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil. 268.49 Section 268.49 Protection...LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil. (a) Applicability. You must comply with LDRs prior to placing soil that exhibits a characteristic...

2010-07-01

231

Soil and groundwater contamination by oil spills; problems and remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large scale transport and storage of hydrocarbons constitute a threat to the soil ecosystems and to the ground?water reserves. To clean?up oil spilled on soils or polluting groundwaters, one has either to remove mechanically the soil impregnated with oil or to collect and remove by pumping the contaminated groundwater reserves. A third and ultimately more complete clean?up method consists of

R. Vanloocke; R. De Borger; J. P. Voets; W. Verstraete

1975-01-01

232

Soil Biological Activities in Monitoring the Bioremediation of Diesel Oil-Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two different biological treatments on hydrocarbon degradation and on soil biological activities were determined\\u000a during a 100-d incubation period. An evaluation of soil biological activities as a monitoring instrument for the decontamination\\u000a process of diesel-oil contaminated soil was made using measurements of organic carbon content, soil microbial respiration,\\u000a soil ATP and dehydrogenase, ?-glucosidase, lipase enzyme activities. Five

R. Riffaldi; R. Levi-Minzi; R. Cardelli; S. Palumbo; A. Saviozzi

2006-01-01

233

Bioremediation Techniques of Oil Contaminated Soils in Ohio  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop environmentally sound and cost-effective remediation techniques for crude oil contaminated soils. By providing a guidance manual to oil and gas operators, the Ohio Division of Oil and Gas regulatory authority hopes to reduce remediation costs while improving voluntary compliance with soil clean-up requirements. This shall be accomplished by conducting a series of field tests to define the optimum range for nutrient and organic enhancement to biologically remediate soils contaminated with brines and crude oil having a wide rage of viscosity.

Hodges, David

1996-10-03

234

Selection of plants for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Remediation of soil contaminated with radionuclides typically requires that soil be removed from the site and treated with various dispersing and chelating chemicals. Numerous studies have shown that radionuclides are generally not leached from the top 0.4 meters of soil, where plant roots actively accumulate elements. Restoration of large areas of land contaminated with low levels of radionuclides may be feasible using phytoremediation. Criteria for the selection of plants for phytoremediation, molecular approaches to increase radio nuclide uptake, effects of cultural practices on uptake and assessment of environmental effects of phytoremediation will be discussed.

Entry J.A. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Vance, N.C. [PNW Research Station, Corvallis, OR (United States); Watrud, L.S. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1996-12-31

235

The remediation of lead contaminated soils using solvent extraction chelation techniques. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes preliminary work leading to the development of an innovative technology for treating a mixed waste problem at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The specific problem being addressed by this research is the result of research activity at the Meson Physics Facility (LAMPH). The LAMPH facility conducts high energy neutron research. Lead BB`s were placed in containers and used as shielding during experiments.This lead was stored in piles on the ground when it was not in use, and it sometimes sat for extended periods of time, perhaps as long as 20 years. The lead was mobilized overtime, and contaminated the underlying soil. Because of the neutron bombardment, a portion of the lead {sup 207}Pb became radioactive {sup 210}Pb, and the lead became both a listed waste and radioactive, which classified it as a mixed waste. The contaminated soil has been removed from the site and placed in drums for storage until a suitable treatment technology can be identified. The contents of the barrels consists of a mixture of lead contaminated soil and lead BB`s.

Price, M.; Hanson, A.T.; Rudd, B.; Pickins, D.; Krause, K. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

1998-08-01

236

In situ vitrification: Providing a comprehensive solution for remediation of contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment technology being developed for remediation of contaminated soils. The process transforms easily leached, contaminated soils into a leach-resistant, vitreous and crystalline monolith. The process is applicable to a wide range of soil types and conditions that include virtually any combination of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste contaminants. The process is currently applicable to sites that are less than 5-m deep and that do not contain sealed containers. The range of capabilities and limitations of the process is discussed in the paper. Also discussed are the results of two recent demonstrations, one a pilot-scale test on a model radioactive site at Oak Ridge, TN, the other a full-scale test on a mixed waste disposal crib at Hanford, WA. These and other successful tests have led to preparation for three near-term future demonstrations at these sites; a discussion of the plans and expectations for the demonstrations is also included in the paper.

Tixier, J.S.; Thompson, L.E.

1993-09-01

237

Chemical oxidation of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Chemical oxidation of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) was evaluated in (i) artificially spiked sand with HCH isomers (?, ?, ? and ?) and (ii) contaminated soil sampled from a former gravel pit backfilled with wastes of lindane (?-HCH). Following oxidation treatments were employed: hydrogen peroxide alone (HP), hydrogen peroxide with soluble Fe(II) (Fenton-F), sodium persulfate alone (PS), Fe(II) activated persulfate (AP) and permanganate (PM). GC-MS results revealed a significant degradation of all isomers in spiked soil in the order: F>PS>AP>HP>PM. Soluble Fe(II) enhanced the efficiency of H2O2 but decreased the reactivity of persulfate. Similar trend was observed in contaminated soil, but with less degradation probably caused by scavenging effect of organic matter and soil minerals and/or pollutant unavailability. No significant increase in oxidation efficiency was observed after using availability-enhancement agents in contaminated soil. Other limitation factors (oxidant dose, pH, catalyst type etc.) were also addressed. Among all the isomers tested, ?-HCH was the most recalcitrant one which could be explained by higher metabolic and chemical stability. No by-products were observed by GC-MS regardless of the oxidant used. For being the premier study reporting chemical oxidation of HCH isomers in contaminated soils, it will serve as a base for in-situ treatments of sites contaminated by HCH isomers and other persistent organic pollutants. PMID:24486498

Usman, M; Tascone, O; Faure, P; Hanna, K

2014-04-01

238

Clean-up criteria for remediation of contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}How clean is clean?{close_quotes} is a question commonly raised in the remediation of contaminated soils. To help with the answer, criteria are proposed to serve as guidelines for remedial actions and to define a clean-up level such that the remaining contaminant residuals in the soil will not violate the Drinking Water Standards (DWS). The equations for computing those criteria are developed from the principle of conservation of mass and are functions of the maximum concentration level in the water (MCL) and the sorption coefficient. A multiplier, ranging from 10 to 1000, is also factored into the soil standard equation to reflect the effectiveness of various remediation techniques. Maximum allowable concentration in the soil (MSCL) is presented for several contaminants which are being regulated at the present time. Future modifications are recommended for better estimates of the MSCLs as additional transport mechanisms are incorporated to account for other potentially dominant effects.

Nguyen, H.D.; Wilson, J.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Sato, Chikashi [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). College of Engineering

1997-08-01

239

Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously.

P. Binning; M. A. Celia; J. C. Johnson

1995-01-01

240

Characterization of organic contamination in soil at military bases  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing concern over organic chemical residues in soil at military bases as potential point sources of contamination. In order to characterize the extent of contamination and to monitor remediation activities, soil and air sampling methods are currently under development. Soil samples obtained from USAF and US Army sites were studied by HPLC, GC and GC/MS. Soil extractions by both conventional solvent (soxhlet) and supercritical CO{sub 2} were compared for effectiveness of recovery of the contaminants. The principal organophosphate (OP) ester soil contaminant was identified as tricresyl phosphate, a component of hydraulic fluids and a known neurotoxicant. Other OP compounds under study are tributyl and triphenyl phosphate. Sampling methods for determining sources of airborne OPs were also developed. Soil samples taken from munitions ponds at a US Army base were analyzed for Trinitrotoluene (TNT) and Trinitrobenzene (TNB), the primary photolysis product of TNT. Methods for decontaminating soil containing OPs or TNT/TNB are under study, to include both chemical and biological characterization.

David, M.D.; Wujcik, C.E.; Seiber, J. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Center for Environmental Science and Engineering

1994-12-31

241

Radioactivities vs. depth in Apollo 16 and 17 soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radioactivities of Ar-37, Ar-39, and H-3 measured at a number of depths for Apollo 16 and 17 soil are reported. The Ar-37 activities vs depth in the Apollo 16 drill string increased with depth and reached a broad maximum in the neighborhood of 50 g per sq cm before decreasing. The Ar-39 activities in Apollo 17 soil were higher than in Apollo 16 soil, probably owing to the higher Fe and Ti contents. The H-3 activities in Apollo 16 and 17 soil were quite similar and indicate that the 4 August 1972 flare produced very little H-3 compared to the amount produced by solar flares during the previous 50 years.

Fireman, E. L.; D'Amico, J.; Defelice, J.

1973-01-01

242

REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS BY SOLVENT FLUSHING  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent flushing is a potential technique for remediating a waste disposal/spill site contaminated with organic chemicals. his technique involves the injection of a solvent mixture (e.g., water plus alcohols) that enhances contaminant solubility, reduces the retardation factor, a...

243

REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS BY SOLVENT FLUSHING  

EPA Science Inventory

Solvent flushing is a potential technique for remediating a waste disposal/spill site contaminated with organic chemicals. This technique involves the injection of a solvent mixture (e.g., water plus alcohols) that enhances contaminant solubility, reduces the retardation factor, ...

244

Sorption of radioactive contaminants by sediment from the Kara Sea  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to quantify some of the parameters needed to perform near-field modeling of sites in the Kara Sea that were impacted by the disposal of radioactive waste. The parameters of interest are: the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) for several important radionuclides, the mineralogy of the sediment, and the relationship of K{sub d} to liquid to solid ratio. Sediment from the Kara Sea (location: 73{degrees} 00` N, 58{degrees} 00` E) was sampled from a depth of 287 meters on August 23/24, 1992, during a joint Russian/Norwegian scientific cruise. Analysis of the material included mineralogy, grain size and total organic carbon. Uptake kinetics were determined for {sup 85}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 125}I, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}U, and {sup 241}Am and distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) were determined for these radionuclides using batch type experiments. Sorption isotherms were developed for {sup 85}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs to examine the effect that varying the concentration of a tracer has on the quantity of that tracer taken up by the solid. The effect of liquid to solid ratio on the uptake of contaminants was determined for {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs. In another set of experiments, the sediment was separated into four size fractions and uptake was determined for each fraction for {sup 85}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 137}Cs. In addition, the sediment was analyzed to determine if it contains observable concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides.

Fuhrmann, M.; Zhou, H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Neiheisel, J.; Dyer, R.

1995-02-01

245

Difference in PAH release processes from tar-oil contaminated soil materials with similar contamination history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tar-oil contaminated sites, for example, former manufactured gas- and tar-processing sites, pose a continuing threat to soil and groundwater in Europe. In this study, the release processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of five soil materials from four locations in Germany are discussed. All materials were investigated by means of column outflow experiments. Variable flow conditions were applied to reveal

Markus Wehrer; Kai Uwe Totsche

2009-01-01

246

Solubility measurement of uranium in uranium-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

A short-term equilibration study involving two uranium-contaminated soils at the Fernald site was conducted as part of the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. The goal of this study is to predict the behavior of uranium during on-site remediation of these soils. Geochemical modeling was performed on the aqueous species dissolved from these soils following the equilibration study to predict the on-site uranium leaching and transport processes. The soluble levels of total uranium, calcium, magnesium, and carbonate increased continually for the first four weeks. After the first four weeks, these components either reached a steady-state equilibrium or continued linearity throughout the study. Aluminum, potassium, and iron, reached a steady-state concentration within three days. Silica levels approximated the predicted solubility of quartz throughout the study. A much higher level of dissolved uranium was observed in the soil contaminated from spillage of uranium-laden solvents and process effluents than in the soil contaminated from settling of airborne uranium particles ejected from the nearby incinerator. The high levels observed for soluble calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are probably the result of magnesium and/or calcium carbonate minerals dissolving in these soils. Geochemical modeling confirms that the uranyl-carbonate complexes are the most stable and dominant in these solutions. The use of carbonate minerals on these soils for erosion control and road construction activities contributes to the leaching of uranium from contaminated soil particles. Dissolved carbonates promote uranium solubility, forming highly mobile anionic species. Mobile uranium species are contaminating the groundwater underlying these soils. The development of a site-specific remediation technology is urgently needed for the FEMP site.

Lee, S.Y.; Elless, M.; Hoffman, F.

1993-08-01

247

SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND SOIL WASHING TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOILS FROM WOOD PRESERVING SITES: BENCH SCALE STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Bench-scale solvent extraction and soil washing studies were performed on soil samples obtained from three abandoned wood preserving sites that included in the NPL. The soil samples from these sites were contaminated with high levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pentachlo...

248

Coupling Sorption to Soil Weathering during Reactive Transport: Impacts of Mineral Transformation and Sorbate Aging on Contaminant Speciation and Mobility  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford subsurface has become contaminated with highly alkaline, radioactive waste generated as a result of weapons production. The radioactive brine was stored in underground storage tanks, a number of which developed leaks and contaminated the surrounding subsurface. The high pH and ionic strength of these wastes has been predicted to accelerate the degree of soil weathering to produce new mineral phases--cancrinite and sodalite among the most abundant. Previous work has demonstrated that Cs and Sr, which along with I represent the most radioactive components in the waste, are sequestered by these neo-formed solids. The present work is aimed at assessing the stability of these neo-formed solids, with special emphasis on the degree of Cs, Sr and I release under ambient (neutral pH, low ionic strength) conditions expected to return to the Hanford area after the caustic radioactive brine waste is removed.

Carl I. Steefel; Aaron Thompson; Jon Chorover

2006-06-01

249

External gamma dose responses from residual radioactive materials in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

External gamma dose responses from radioactive soils have previously been calculated as air-absorbed doses in a point receptor above the ground. Such responses, however, are not accurate measures for estimating the effective dose equivalent (H{sub E}) for assessing radiological risks to humans, as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The ambient dose equivalent H*(10), as defined by

S. Y. Chen; Y. C. Yuan

1989-01-01

250

Laboratory scale vitrification of low-level radioactive nitrate salts and soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

INEL has radiologically contaminated nitrate salt and soil waste stored above and below ground in Pad A and the Acid Pit at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Pad A contain uranium and transuranic contaminated potassium and sodium nitrate salts generated from dewatered waste solutions at the Rocky Flats Plant. The Acid Pit was used to dispose of liquids containing waste mineral acids, uranium, nitrate, chlorinated solvents, and some mercury. Ex situ vitrification is a high temperature destruction of nitrates and organics and immobilizes hazardous and radioactive metals. Laboratory scale melting of actual radionuclides containing INEL Pad A nitrate salts and Acid Pit soils was performed. The salt/soil/additive ratios were varied to determine the range of glass compositions (resulted from melting different wastes); maximize mass and volume reduction, durability, and immobilization of hazardous and radioactive metals; and minimize viscosity and offgas generation for wastes prevalent at INEL and other DOE sites. Some mixtures were spiked with additional hazardous and radioactive metals. Representative glasses were leach tested and showed none. Samples spiked with transuranic showed low nuclide leaching. Wasteforms were two to three times bulk densities of the salt and soil. Thermally co-processing soils and salts is an effective remediation method for destroying nitrate salts while stabilizing the radiological and hazardous metals they contain. The measured durability of these low-level waste glasses approached those of high-level waste glasses. Lab scale vitrification of actual INEL contaminated salts and soils was performed at General Atomics Laboratory as part of the INEL Waste Technology Development and Environmental Restoration within the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program.

Shaw, P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Anderson, B. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States). NRT Div.; Davis, D. [Envitco Inc., Toledo, OH (United States)

1993-07-01

251

Biochar: an effective amendment for remediating contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Biochar is a carbon-rich material derived from incomplete combustion of biomass.Applying biochar as an amendment to treat contaminated soils is receiving increasing attention, and is a promising way to improve soil quality. Heavy metals are persistent and are not environmentally biodegradable. However, they can be stabilized in soil by adding biochar. Moreover, biochar is considered to be a predominant sorptive agent for organic pollutants, having a removal efficiency of about 1 order of magnitude higher than does soil/sediment organic matter or their precursor substances alone.When trying to stabilize organic and inorganic pollutants in soil, several features of biochar' s sorption capacity should be considered, viz., the nature of the pollutants to be remediated, how the biochar is prepared, and the complexity of the soil systemin which biochar may be used. In addition, a significant portion of the biochar or some of its components that are used to remediate soils do change over time through abiotic oxidation and microbial decomposition. This change process is commonly referred to as "aging:" Biochar "aging" in nature is inevitable, and aged biochar exhibits an effect that is totally different than non-aged biochar on stabilizing heavy metals and organic contaminants in soils.Studies that have been performed to date on the use of biochar to remediate contaminated soil are insufficient to allow its use for wide-scale field application.Therefore, considerable new data are necessary to expand both our understanding of how biochar performs in the field, and where it can be best used in the future for soil remediation. For example, how biochar and soil biota (microbial and faunal communities)interact in soils is still poorly understood. Moreover, studies are needed on how to best remove new species of heavy metals, and on how biochar aging affects sorption capacity are also needed. PMID:24162093

Kong, Lu-Lu; Liu, Wei-Tao; Zhou, Qi-Xing

2014-01-01

252

Combined chemical and biological treatment of oil contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Combined chemical (Fenton-like and ozonation) and biological treatment for the remediation of shale oil and transformer oil contaminated soil has been under study. Chemical treatment of shale oil and transformer oil adsorbed in peat resulted in lower contaminants' removal and required higher addition of chemicals than chemical treatment of contaminants in sand matrix. The acidic pH (3.0) conditions favoured Fenton-like oxidation of oil in soil. Nevertheless, it was concluded that remediation of contaminated soil using in situ Fenton-like treatment will be more feasible at natural soil pH. Both investigated chemical processes (Fenton-like and ozonation) allowed improving the subsequent biodegradability of oil. Moderate doses of chemical oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, ozone) should be applied in combination of chemical treatment (both, Fenton-like or ozonation) and biotreatment. For remediation of transformer oil and shale oil contaminated soil Fenton-like pre-treatment followed by biodegradation was found to be the most efficient. PMID:16293288

Goi, Anna; Kulik, Niina; Trapido, Marina

2006-06-01

253

Environmental projects. Volume 14: Removal of contaminated soil and debris  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous diverse activities at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC) are carried out in support of six parabolic dish antennas. Some of these activities can result in possible spills or leakages of hazardous materials and wastes stored both above ground in steel drums and below ground in underground storage tanks (UST's). These possible leaks or spills, along with the past practice of burial of solid debris and waste in trenches and pits, could cause local subsurface contamination of the soil. In 1987, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), retained Engineering-Science, Inc. (E-S), Pasadena, California, to identify the specific local areas within the GDSCC with subsurface soil contamination. The E-S study determined that some of the soils at the Apollo Site and the Mars Site were contaminated with hydrocarbons, while soil at a nonhazardous waste dumpsite at the Mojave Base site was contaminated with copper. This volume is a JPL-expanded version of the PE209 E-S report, and it also reports that all subsurface contaminated soils at the GDSCC were excavated, removed, and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable way, and the excavations were backfilled and covered in accordance with accepted Federal, State, and local environmental rules and regulations.

Kushner, Len

1992-01-01

254

Decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory East Area radioactively contaminated surplus facilities: Final report  

SciTech Connect

ANL has decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) seven radiologically contaminated surplus facilities at its Illinois site: a ''Hot'' Machine Shop (Building 17) and support facilities; Fan House No. 1 (Building 37), Fan House No. 2 (Building 38), the Pangborn Dust Collector (Building 41), and the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (Building 34) for exhaust air from machining of radioactive materials. Also included were a Nuclear Materials Storage Vault (Building 16F) and a Nuclear Research Laboratory (Building 22). The D and D work involved dismantling of all process equipment and associated plumbing, ductwork, drain lines, etc. After radiation surveys, floor and wall coverings, suspended ceilings, room partitions, pipe, conduit and electrical gear were taken down as necessary. In addition, underground sewers were excavated. The grounds around each facility were also thoroughly surveyed. Contaminated materials and soil were packaged and shipped to a low-level waste burial site, while nonactive debris was buried in the ANL landfill. Clean, reusable items were saved, and clean metal scrap was sold for salvage. After the decommissioning work, each building was torn down and the site relandscaped. The project was completed in 1985, ahead of schedule, with substantial savings.

Kline, W.H.; Fassnacht, G.F.; Moe, H.J.

1987-07-01

255

RESULTS OF TREATMENT EVALUATIONS OF CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil and debris from Superfund sites must be treated to minimize their threat to human health and the environment as part of remedial actions at such sites. Studies were conducted on the effectiveness with which five treatment processes removed or immobilized synthetic soils cont...

256

Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil pollution, a very important environmental problem, has been attracting considerable public attention over the last decades. Unfortunately, the enormous costs associated with the removal of pollutants from soils by means of traditional physicochemical methods have been encouraging companies to ignore the problem. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants to clean up pollutants in the environment. As overwhelmingly

Itziar Alkorta; Carlos Garbisu

2001-01-01

257

Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils by composting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composting oil-contaminated soils under field conditions with the simultaneous optimization of their physicochemical and agrochemical parameters revealed the high efficiency of the soil purification, including that from benz[a]pyrene. The application of fertilizers and lime favored the intense development of indigenous microcenoses and the effective destruction of the oil. During the 95-day experimental period, the average daily rate of the oil decomposition was 157 mg/kg of soil. After the completion of the process, the soil became ecologically pure.

Golodyaev, G. P.; Kostenkov, N. M.; Oznobikhin, V. I.

2009-08-01

258

Release of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

A variety of process wastes generated from manufactured gas production (MGP) have contaminated soils and groundwater at production and disposal sites. Coal tar, consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons present as a nonaqueous phase liquid, makes up a large portion of MGP wastes. Of the compounds in coal tar, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the major constituents of environmental concern due to their potential mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards. Characterization of the release of PAHs from the waste-soil matrix is essential to quantifying long-term environmental impacts in soils and groundwater. Currently, conservative estimates for the release of PAHs to the groundwater are made assuming equilibrium conditions and using relationships derived from artificially contaminated soils. Preliminary work suggests that aged coal tar contaminated soils have much lower rates of desorption and a greater affinity for retaining organic contaminants. To obtain better estimates of desorption rates, the release of PAHs from a coal tar soil was investigated using a flow-interruption, miscible displacement technique. Methanol/water solutions were employed to enhance PAH concentrations above limits of detection. For each methanol/water solution employed, a series of flow interrupts of varying times was invoked. Release rates from each methanol/water solution were estimated from the increase in concentration with duration of flow interruption. Aqueous-phase release rates were then estimated by extrapolation using a log-linear cosolvency model.

Priddy, N.D.; Lee, L.S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Agronomy

1996-11-01

259

Effects of past copper contamination and soil structure on copper leaching from soil.  

PubMed

Copper contamination affects biological, chemical, and physical soil properties and associated ecological functions. Changes in soil pore organization as a result of Cu contamination can dramatically affect flow and contaminant transport in polluted soils. This study assessed the influence of soil structure on the movement of water and Cu in a long-term polluted soil. Undisturbed soil cores collected along a Cu gradient (from about 20 to about 3800 mg Cu kg soil) were scanned using X-ray computed tomography (CT). Leaching experiments were performed to analyze tracer transport, colloid leaching, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Cu losses. The 5% arrival time () and apparent dispersivity (?) for tracer breakthrough were calculated by fitting the experimental data to a nonparametric, double-lognormal probability density function. Soil bulk density, which did not follow the Cu gradient, was the main driver of preferential flow, while macroporosity determined by X-ray CT (for pores >180 ?m) proved the best predictor of solute transport. Higher preferential flow due to the presence of well-aligned pores and small cracks controlled water movement in compacted soil. Transport of Cu was rapid during the first flush (?1 pore volume) in association with the movement of colloid particles, followed by slower transport in association with the movement of DOC in the soil solution. The relative amount of Cu released was strongly correlated with macroporosity as determined by X-ray CT, indicating the promising potential of this visualization technique for predicting contaminant transport through soil. PMID:25602425

Paradelo, Marcos; Moldrup, Per; Arthur, Emmanuel; Naveed, Muhammad; Holmstrup, Martin; López-Periago, Jose E; de Jonge, Lis W

2013-11-01

260

DEVELOPMENTS IN CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development (ORD) is examining processes for remedial action at Superfund sites, and corrective action at operating disposal sites. ecent legislation emphasizes destruction and detoxification of contaminants, rathe...

261

The Effect of Radioactive Contamination Caused by the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident on Diplopoda Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedobiological studies were carried out in biogeocenoses of broad-leaved and pine forests located in the zone of radioactive contamination in Belarus. There were considerable differences found in the number of species among biogeocenoses with different levels of contamination. It has been established that a higher radionuclide content results in the suppression of Diplopoda, i.e. their density and zoomass decreases. The

Svetlana Maksimova

2002-01-01

262

EXPERIMENT ON THE SOLIDIFICATION OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATED WASTE BY MEANS OF INGLOBING IN CONCRETE BLOCKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the processes used on the water treatment are sometimes usefully ; adopted for the removal of the radioactivity from low-level contaminated wastes. ; The radionuclides are removed from the liquid phase and transferred in the ; sludges, which are formed by the processes themselves. The methods actually used ; for the contaminated sludges' disposal are mentioned. The migration

G. Branca; P. DElia; L. Mendia

1962-01-01

263

Germination and initial growth of Campomanesia xanthocarpa O. Berg. (Myrtaceae), in petroleum-contaminated soil and bioremediated soil.  

PubMed

In 2000 there was an oil spill at the Getúlio Vargas Refinery (REPAR) in Paraná. Nearly five years after contamination and the use of bioremediation, a study was carried out to identify the effects of the contaminated soil and the bioremediated soil on the germination and initial growth of C. xanthocarpa. The experiment was established with soil from REPAR, with three treatment groups: contaminated soil (C), bioremediated soil (B) and uncontaminated soil (U); with five repetitions of 50 seeds each. There was no significant difference in the percentage of germination and the speed of germination index. The production of total biomass (30 - 60 days) and shoot biomass (60 days) was greater in the bioremediated soil compared to the other treatments. The averages for the root biomass were lower in the contaminated soil than in the bioremediated soil. The shoot length and the total length of the seedling in the contaminated soil and uncontaminated soil were lower than in the bioremediated soil. PMID:21180902

Gogosz, A M; Bona, C; Santos, G O; Botosso, P C

2010-11-01

264

Imaging plant leaves to determine changes in radioactive contamination status in Fukushima, Japan.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of plant leaves often reflects environmental contamination. The authors analyzed images of plant leaves to investigate the regional radioactivity ecology resulting from the 2011 accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant, Japan. The present study is not an evaluation of the macro radiation dose per weight, which has been performed previously, but rather an image analysis of the radioactive dose per leaf, allowing the capture of various gradual changes in radioactive contamination as a function of elapsed time. In addition, the leaf analysis method has potential applications in the decontamination of food plants or other materials. PMID:24670905

Nakajima, Hiroo; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Tanihata, Isao; Saito, Tadashi; Matsuda, Norihiro; Todo, Takeshi

2014-05-01

265

Radioactive contamination and radionuclide migration in groundwater. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of groundwater with radionuclides and their subsequent migration. Monitoring surveys of existing sites with actual or potential radioactive groundwater contamination are included. Transport and migration models for radionuclides in groundwater are discussed. Natural radiation and accidental releases are considered in addition to anthropogenic sources of radioactive pollution such as waste storage and disposal. Contributions to radioactive pollution from uranium mining and processing are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1996-10-01

266

Radioactive contamination and radionuclide migration in groundwater. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of groundwater with radionuclides and their subsequent migration. Monitoring surveys of existing sites with actual or potential radioactive groundwater contamination are included. Transport and migration models for radionuclides in groundwater are discussed. Natural radiation and accidental releases are considered in addition to anthropogenic sources of radioactive pollution such as waste storage and disposal. Contributions to radioactive pollution from uranium mining and processing are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1995-12-01

267

Radioactive contamination and radionuclide migration in groundwater. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of groundwater with radionuclides and their subsequent migration. Monitoring surveys of existing sites with actual or potential radioactive groundwater contamination are included. Transport and migration models for radionuclides in groundwater are discussed. Natural radiation and accidental releases are considered in addition to anthropogenic sources of radioactive pollution such as waste storage and disposal. Contributions to radioactive pollution from uranium mining and processing are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-12-01

268

Soil Contamination Detected Using Bacterial and Plant Mutagenicity Tests and Chemical Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil contaminants are common in industrialized countries, causing widespread contamination directly of soil and indirectly of ground water and food. Among these pollutants particular attention should be paid to soil mutagens and carcinogens due to their potentially hazardous effects on animal populations and human health. The aim of this research was to evaluate the genotoxicity of contaminated soils by means

Silvano Monarca; Donatella Feretti; Ilaria Zerbini; Adriana Alberti; Claudia Zani; Sergio Resola; Umberto Gelatti; Giuseppe Nardi

2002-01-01

269

Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess1 contaminated soils2  

E-print Network

chemicals that may contaminate22 soils located in the vicinity of plants. Soil pollutants include polycyclic1 Comparison of solid and liquid-phase bioassays using ecoscores to assess1 contaminated soils2 3 on aqueous and solid phases of contaminated soils were compared,18 belonging to a wide array of trophic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

270

Landfarming Process Effects on Biochemical Properties of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of petroleum contaminants in soil may be toxic to humans, plants, and soil microorganisms. Therefore, remediation of these compounds from the environment is vital. In this study, bioremediation of two petroleum-contaminated soils (S1 and S2) using a landfarming technique was evaluated. Investigation of the effect of this technique on biological and chemical properties of contaminated soil was also

A. Besalatpour; M. A. Hajabbasi; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; V. Dorostkar

2011-01-01

271

Microwave thermal remediation of crude oil contaminated soil enhanced by carbon fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal remediation of the soil contaminated with crude oil using microwave heating enhanced by carbon fiber (CF) was explored. The contaminated soil was treated with 2.45 GHz microwave, and CF was added to improve the conversion of microwave energy into thermal energy to heat the soil. During microwave heating, the oil contaminant was removed from the soil matrix and recovered

Dawei LI; Yaobin ZHANG; Xie QUAN; Yazhi ZHAO

2009-01-01

272

The relationship between soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds and indoor air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds and indoor air quality was examined. Measurements in the soil and indoor air were taken in 77 houses built on different types of contaminated soil. In seven houses, the influence of soil contamination on indoor air quality was detected. Repeated measurements showed that the contribution to indoor air pollution was consistent,

J. Kliest; T. Fast; J. S. M. Boleij; H. van de Wiel; H. Bloemen

1989-01-01

273

Magnetic mineralogy of heavy metals-contaminated soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils around mine and in urban areas are often contaminated by heavy metals derived from industrial and human activities [1, 2]. These contaminated soils are often characterized by a magnetic enhancement on topsoils. Many studies demonstrated that there are significant correlations between heavy metals and various magnetic parameters in contaminated soils, indicating a strong affinity of heavy metals to magnetic minerals. The magnetic particles in contaminated soils were separated by a magnetic separation technique. The rock magnetism, XRD, field emission scanning electron microscopy equiped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (FESEM/EDX) were used to characterize their magnetic mineralogy. Results of XRD analysis indicated that the magnetic particles separated from heavy metal-contaminated soils are composed of quartz, magnetite, and hematite. Based on the X-ray diffraction peak intensity, the Fe3O4 was identified as the predominant magnetic mineral phase. The high-temperature magnetization (Ms-T) curves of magnetic particles extracted from contaminated soils show a sharp Ms decrease at about 580C (the Curie temperature of magnetite), suggesting that magnetite is the dominant magnetic carrier. The hysteresis loops of contaminated soils are closed at about 100-200 mT which is consistent with the presence of a dominant ferrimagnetic mineral phase. The FESEM analysis showed a great variety of shapes of magnetic particles in contaminated soils. The most common morphology are observed in the form of spherules, with the sizes ranging from 20 to 100 um. The chemical composition of magnetic particles consist mainly of Fe, Si, Al, and Ca with minor heavy metal elements (Cu, Zn, Hg, and Cr). The semi-quantitative Fe content identified by FESEM/EDX ranged from 40 to 90%. Combined studies of rock magnetism, XRD, and FESEM/EDX indicated that magnetic mineral phases responsible for the magnetic enhancement of contaminated soils are anthropogenic origin which are coarse-grained multi-domain (MD) ferrimagnetic minerals. These spherical magnetic particles in contaminated soils are most likely related to airborne particles from coal combusition and industrial activities. Coal burning, metallurgical and industrial dusts contain a significant fraction of ferrimagnetic minerals. The magnetic particles in fly ash from coal-burning power plant have a typical spherical morphology, ranging from 10 to 100 ?m. Vehicle emissions have been suggested to be another source of magnetic particles. These anthropogenic ferrimagnetic mineral phases are directly responsible for the magnetic enhancement in the contaminated soils. Therefore, the strong magnetic signature in contaminated soils can be used as an effective tool for identifying pollution sources and quantifying pollution level of heavy metals. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 41171182 and 40971131) and the Ph.D. Programs Foundation of Ministry of Education of China (20090101110088). [1] Lu, S.G. & Bai, S.Q. (2006) J. Appl. Geophys., 60, 1-12. [2] Lu, S.G., Bai, S.Q. & Xue, Q.F. (2007) Geophys. J. Inter., 171, 568-580.

Shenggao, L.

2012-04-01

274

Bioaugmentation of TNT-contaminated soil  

E-print Network

test period. The soil treatments in this study included: (1) the Bacillus sp., (2) the existing indigenous microorganisms, and (3) a sterile control. The disappearance of TNT, as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was compared...

Bokelmann, Annamarie

1999-01-01

275

Phytoremediation of Aged Aromatic Contaminants in Soil Using White Lupin Principle Investigators  

E-print Network

Jose A. Amador Josef Gorres #12;Background Soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated at an initial concentration 100 g per kg soil. Treatments were as follows: I. Contaminant aged 0 weeks ­ Planted II. Contaminant aged 0 weeks ­ Not planted III. Contaminant aged 4 weeks ­ Planted IV. Contaminant

Rhode Island, University of

276

Extraction of pesticides from contaminated soil using supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The demand for processes to clean up contaminated soils without generating additional contaminants, such as hazardous solvents, is increasing. One approach to minimizing this problem is to use supercritical fluids like light hydrocarbons and CO[sub 2] to extract contaminants from soils. Gases exhibit unique properties under supercritical conditions. They retain the ability to diffuse through the interstitial spaces of solid materials, plus they have the solvating power of liquids. Some examples of extractions using SCFs are caffeine from coffee, cholesterol from eggs, drugs from plants, and nicotine from tobacco. Supercritical CO[sub 2] is an attractive, alternative extraction medium for removal of pesticides from soils. Carbon dioxide is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and if recycled, nonpolluting. Contaminants may be easily recovered by evaporating the CO[sub 2] into an expansion vessel. Supercritical fluid extraction technology is discussed and results are given for the extraction of atrazine, bentazon, alachlor, and permethrin from contaminated soil prepared in the laboratory. Initial studies show >95% removal for these pesticides.

Hunter, G.B.

1991-01-01

277

Extraction of pesticides from contaminated soil using supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The demand for processes to clean up contaminated soils without generating additional contaminants, such as hazardous solvents, is increasing. One approach to minimizing this problem is to use supercritical fluids like light hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} to extract contaminants from soils. Gases exhibit unique properties under supercritical conditions. They retain the ability to diffuse through the interstitial spaces of solid materials, plus they have the solvating power of liquids. Some examples of extractions using SCFs are caffeine from coffee, cholesterol from eggs, drugs from plants, and nicotine from tobacco. Supercritical CO{sub 2} is an attractive, alternative extraction medium for removal of pesticides from soils. Carbon dioxide is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and if recycled, nonpolluting. Contaminants may be easily recovered by evaporating the CO{sub 2} into an expansion vessel. Supercritical fluid extraction technology is discussed and results are given for the extraction of atrazine, bentazon, alachlor, and permethrin from contaminated soil prepared in the laboratory. Initial studies show >95% removal for these pesticides.

Hunter, G.B.

1991-12-31

278

Leaching Behaviors of Five Arsenic-Contaminated Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vadose zone is susceptible to anthropogenic arsenic contamination and may serve as a long-term source of arsenic to ground water. Understanding the processes governing the distribution of arsenic between the aqueous phase and the solid phase is crucial to minimizing the environmental impact of vadose zone contamination. Arsenic can be retained by several soil components through adsorption. The magnitude and controlling factors of arsenic adsorption by these individual components have been investigated by a number of researchers. The desorption behavior of arsenic in bulk soil from actual contaminated sites, however, is rarely reported. Soil samples were collected from five sites contaminated with herbicide containing arsenic trioxide. The environmentally available element concentrations of each soil were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion (MWD) and ICP-AES analysis. A ferrous sulfate solution was applied to the contaminated soil to precipitate ferric hydroxide as an arsenic fixation method. Sequential leaching experiments were performed upon the treated and untreated soil samples to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment method. Supernatant leachate solutions were analyzed for total arsenic by ICP-AES. MWD results showed that the original soils contain 47 to 316 ppm arsenic, on a dry weight basis. The arsenic concentrations in the initial leachate ranged from 0.42 to 1.37 ppm for the untreated soils. Due to the high Kd values of the rainwater leachable portion of the soil arsenic, 500 to 4000 pore volumes of SPLP solution were required to bring the leachate arsenic concentration below the MCL for arsenic (50 ppb). In contrast, the ferrous sulfate treatment successfully transferred the loosely adsorbed portion of the soil arsenic to strongly bonded adsorption sites on ferric hydroxide. After treatment, the two soil samples with low calcium content lost their pH buffer capacity and their leachate maintained a pH value of 4.5. No arsenic was detected in the leachate of these two treated samples during three months of sequential leaching. For the other three soils with higher buffer capacity, the treated samples also showed significant decrease in both initial (56-86% decrease) and overall (43-62% decrease) release of arsenic.

Qi, Y.; Donahoe, R. J.; Graham, E. Y.

2005-12-01

279

Chemical and toxicological testing of composted explosives-contaminating soil  

SciTech Connect

Static-pile and mechanically stirred composts of explosives-contaminated soil at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA, Umatilla, OR) in a field composting optimization study were characterized chemically and toxicologically. The concentrations of extractable explosives (e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) in the composts and their aqueous leachates, the mutagenicity of organic solvent extracts from the composts, and the toxicity of compost aqueous leachates to Ceriodaphnia dubia all decreased considerably with 20 d of composting. After 44 d or 90 d of composting, the toxicity, mutagenicity, and concentrations of extractable explosives decreased more than 90% in some cases. The composting efficiency was generally inversely proportional to the percentage (v/v) of contaminated soil. Composting in static piles was efficient up to about 20% (v/v) of contaminated soil; composting in the mechanically stirred composters was efficient up to about 25% soil. Mechanical composting was more efficient than composting in static piles. The main conclusion of this study is that composting can effectively remediate explosives contaminated soil and sediment. However, low levels of explosives and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable toxicity to Ceriodaphnia may remain after composting. The sources of residual toxicity and mutagenicity and the ultimate fate of the explosives are unknown.

Griest, W.H.; Steward, A.J.; Tyndall, R.L.; Caton, J.E.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1993-06-01

280

Eco-toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contaminated soil samples were collected from Shengli Oilfield of China. Toxicity analysis was carried out based on earthworm acute toxicity, plant growth experiment and luminescent bacteria test. The soil was contaminated by-petroleum hydrogcarbons with TPH concentration of 10.57%. With lethal and sub-lethal rate as endpoint, earthworm test showed that the LD50 (lethal dose 50%) values in 4 and 7 days were 1.45% and 1.37% respectively, and the inhibition rate of earthworm body weight increased with higher oil concentration. TPH pollution in the soil inhibited seed germination in both wheat and maize experiment when the concentration of petroleum was higher than 0.1%. The EC50 (effective concentration 50%) for germination is 3.04% and 2.86% in maize and wheat, respectively. While lower value of EC50 for root elongation was to be 1.11% and 1.64% in maize and wheat, respectively, suggesting higher sensitivity of root elongation on petroleum contamination in the soil. The EC50 value in luminescent bacteria test was 0.47% for petroleum in the contaminated soil. From the experiment result, it was concluded that TPH content of 1.5% is considered to be a critical value for plant growth and living of earthworm and 0.5% will affect the activity of luminescent bacteria. PMID:21790059

Tang, Jingchun; Wang, Min; Wang, Fei; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Qixing

2011-01-01

281

Magnetic susceptibility properties of pesticide contaminated volcanic soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pesticides, unfortunately, are still widely used in many countries as way to eradicate agricultural pests. As they are being used continuously over a long period of time, they accumulate as residues in soils posing serious threats to the environment. In this study, we study the changes in magnetite-rich volcanic soils that were deliberately contaminated by pesticide. Such changes, in any, would be useful in the detection of pesticide residue in contaminated soils. Two different types of magnetically strong volcanic soil from the area near Lembang, West Java, Indonesia were used in this study where they were contaminated with varying concentrations of pesticide. The samples were then measured for magnetic susceptibility at two different frequencies. The measurements were then repeated after a period of three months. We found a reduction of magnetic susceptibility as well as a reduction in SP (superparamagnetic) grains proportion in contaminated soil. These might be caused by pesticide-induced magnetic dissolution as supported by SEM analyses. However the impact of pesticide concentration as well as exposure time on magnetic dissolution is still inconclusive.

Agustine, Eleonora; Fitriani, Dini; Safiuddin, La Ode; Tamuntuan, Gerald; Bijaksana, Satria

2013-09-01

282

Phytoremediation of contaminated soils: Progress and promise  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}Phytoremediation{close_quotes} refers to the use of green plants, including plant-associated microflora, to remediated contaminated sites. The talk addresses the remediation of solids only, although green-plant based systems are well established in waste-water treatment and air pollution control. Phytoremediation has potential significant economic, regulatory and aesthetic advantages over many engineering-based solutions. The technology can be targeted to both inorganic and organic contaminants. The focus of this talk will be on lead (Pb). A brief overview of activities in organic remediation will be included at the end of the talk.

Cunningham, S.D.; Berti, D.R.; Dupont, E.I. [Glasgow Business Community, Newark, DE (United States)

1993-12-31

283

Potential for phytoextraction of PCBs from contaminated soils using weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive investigation of the potential of twenty-seven different species of weeds to phytoextract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated soil was conducted at two field sites (Etobicoke and Lindsay) in southern Ontario, Canada. Soil concentrations were 31?g\\/g and 4.7?g\\/g at each site respectively. All species accumulated PCBs in their root and shoot tissues. Mean shoot concentrations at the two sites

Sarah A. Ficko; Allison Rutter; Barbara A. Zeeb

2010-01-01

284

Potential for phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-(PCB-)contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Weathered soils contaminated with commercial-grade Aroclor 1260 from three sites in Canada were used to investigate the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) phytoextraction potential of nine plant species (Festuca arundinacea, Glycine max, Medicago sativa, Phalaris arundinacea, Lolium multiflorum, Carex normalis, and three varieties of Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) under controlled greenhouse conditions. The soils used varied in PCB concentration (90-4200 microg/g) and total organic content (0.06-2.02%). Greenhouse experiments controlled for PCB volatilization through the use of a vented enclosure and by isolating the contaminated soils with parafilm. After 8 wks, PCB concentrations of 47-6700 microg/g were observed in root tissues. Although PCB concentrations in shoot tissues were lower (< 1-470 microg/g), the absolute amounts of PCBs observed in shoot tissue were significant (1.7-290 microg) once shoot biomass was accounted for. Congener signatures indicated that tetra- to hexa-chlorobiphenyls contributed the largest proportions to shoot tissues, but hepta-to nona-chorobiphenyls were also present in measurable amounts. Overall, the results indicate that varieties of C. pepo were more effective at extracting PCBs from soil than other plants screened The evidence suggests that this was mainly due to root uptake of PCBs and tranlocation to the shoots, rather than volatilization of PCBs from soil. All plants screened showed signs of stress in the most highly contaminated soil (4200 microg/g), but not in the two lower PCB contaminated soils (250 and 90 microg/g, respectively). No detectable decreases in soil PCB concentrations were observed in these short-term greenhouse experiments, but the results suggest that this may be achievable through multiple plantings. PMID:17120525

Zeeb, Barbara A; Amphlett, Jane S; Rutter, Allison; Reimer, Kenneth J

2006-01-01

285

Potential for Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl(PCB)Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weathered soils contaminated with commercial-grade Aroclor 1260 from three sites in Canada were used to investigate the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) phytoextraction potential of nine plant species (Festuca arundinacea, Glycine max, Medicago sativa, Phalaris arundinacea, Lolium multiflorum, Carex normalis, and three varieties of Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) under controlled greenhouse conditions. The soils used varied in PCB concentration (90–4200 ?g\\/g) and

Barbara A. Zeeb; Jane S. Amphlett; Allison Rutter; Kenneth J. Reimer

2006-01-01

286

Removal of arsenic from contaminated soils using different salt extractants.  

PubMed

This study presents an environmental-friendly and cost effective method for the extraction of arsenic from contaminated soils. Laboratory experiments using inorganic salts, potassium phosphate (KH2PO4), potassium chloride (KCl), potassium nitrate (KNO3), potassium sulfate (K2SO4), and sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) were evaluated as arsenic extractants. An Andosol soil was artificially contaminated with arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. The soil was washed in a batch process with different salt solutions in the pH range 3-11 for 24 hours at 20 degrees C. Among the various potassium and sodium salts tested, KH2PO4 was found to be highly effective in extracting arsenic from As(III)-soil attaining more than 80% and 40% from As(V)-soil in neutral pH range. Other salts were particularly ineffective in extraction of arsenic from both soils. More arsenic was extracted more from the As(III)-soil than the As(V)-soil. PMID:17365314

Alam, M G M; Tokunaga, S; Stagnitti, F

2007-03-01

287

Environmental effects of soil contamination by shale fuel oils.  

PubMed

Estonia is currently one of the leading producers of shale oils in the world. Increased production, transportation and use of shale oils entail risks of environmental contamination. This paper studies the behaviour of two shale fuel oils (SFOs)--'VKG D' and 'VKG sweet'--in different soil matrices under natural climatic conditions. Dynamics of SFOs' hydrocarbons (C10-C40), 16 PAHs, and a number of soil heterotrophic bacteria in oil-spiked soils was investigated during the long-term (1 year) outdoor experiment. In parallel, toxicity of aqueous leachates of oil-spiked soils to aquatic organisms (crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus and marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri) and terrestrial plants (Sinapis alba and Hordeum vulgare) was evaluated. Our data showed that in temperate climate conditions, the degradation of SFOs in the oil-contaminated soils was very slow: after 1 year of treatment, the decrease of total hydrocarbons' content in the soil did not exceed 25 %. In spite of the comparable chemical composition of the two studied SFOs, the VKG sweet posed higher hazard to the environment than the heavier fraction (VKG D) due to its higher mobility in the soil as well as higher toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial species. Our study demonstrated that the correlation between chemical parameters (such as total hydrocarbons or total PAHs) widely used for the evaluation of the soil pollution levels and corresponding toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial organisms was weak. PMID:24865504

Kanarbik, Liina; Blinova, Irina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Künnis-Beres, Kai; Kahru, Anne

2014-10-01

288

Assessment of combined electro-nanoremediation of molinate contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Molinate is a pesticide widely used, both in space and time, for weed control in rice paddies. Due to its water solubility and affinity to organic matter, it is a contaminant of concern in ground and surface waters, soils and sediments. Previous works have showed that molinate can be removed from soils through electrokinetic (EK) remediation. In this work, molinate degradation by zero valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) was tested in soils for the first time. Soil is a highly complex matrix, and pollutant partitioning between soil and water and its degradation rates in different matrices is quite challenging. A system combining nZVI and EK was also set up in order to study the nanoparticles and molinate transport, as well as molinate degradation. Results showed that molinate could be degraded by nZVI in soils, even though the process is more time demanding and degradation percentages are lower than in an aqueous solution. This shows the importance of testing contaminant degradation, not only in aqueous solutions, but also in the soil-sorbed fraction. It was also found that soil type was the most significant factor influencing iron and molinate transport. The main advantage of the simultaneous use of both methods is the molinate degradation instead of its accumulation in the catholyte. PMID:24946031

Gomes, Helena I; Fan, Guangping; Mateus, Eduardo P; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

2014-09-15

289

Managing radioactively contaminated infectious waste at a large biomedical facility.  

PubMed

Proper management of infectious waste containing radioactive material depends on three program elements. First, screening methods are required to identify medical waste containing radioactive material. Second, a means of managing the volume of waste identified has to be developed. Management includes identifying the radioisotopes, dealing with the physical requirements of the waste (e.g., the need for cold storage), and treating the material as a mixed waste. Finally, methods to limit production of waste at its source must be implemented. This includes educating the radioactive material users, enabling them with the means of reducing waste volume, and giving them feedback on how well they are implementing the waste reduction practices. PMID:8449714

Methé, B M

1993-02-01

290

Remediation of Contaminated Soils By Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contaminants that can be found in soils are many, inorganic, like heavy metals, as well as organic. Among the organic contaminants, oil and coal refineries are responsi- ble for several cases of soil contamination with PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocar- bons). Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic, carcinogenic and mu- tagenic effects. Limits have been set on the concentration of most contaminants, and growing concern is focusing on soil contamination issues. USA regulations set the maximum acceptable level of contamination by PAHs equal to 40 ppm at residential sites and 270 ppm at industrial sites. Stricter values are usually adopted in European Countries. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a possible alternative technology to remove volatile organic compounds from contaminated soils. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) offers many advantages over conventional solvent extraction. Super- critical fluids combine gaseous properties as a high diffusion coefficient, and liquid properties as a high solvent power. The solvent power is strongly pressure-dependent near supercritical conditions: selective extractions are possible without changing the solvent. Solute can be separate from the solvent depressurising the system; therefore, it is possible to recycle the solvent and recover the contaminant. Carbon dioxide is frequently used as supercritical fluid, because it has moderate critical conditions, it is inert and available in pure form. In this work, supercritical fluid extraction technology has been used to remove a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon from contaminated soils. The contaminant choice for the experiment has been naphthalene since several data are available in literature. G. A. Montero et al. [1] studied soil remediation with supercrit- ical carbon dioxide extraction technology; these Authors have found that there was a mass-transfer limitation. In the extraction vessel, the mass transfer coefficient in- creases with the superficial velocity of the supercritical carbon dioxide; therefore, the mass transfer resistance can be reduced increasing such velocity. In this work, higher values of superficial velocity were investigated. The experimental apparatus includes a pump, an extraction vessel, an adjustable restrictor and a trap to collect the extracted substance. Liquid carbon dioxide coming from a cylinder with a dip-tube is cooled by a cryostatic bath and then it is compressed by a pneumatic drive pump (the max- imum available pressure is 69 MPa). Subsequently, the pressurised current flows into 1 a heating coil and then into the extraction vessel, which is contained in a stove; the outlet flow is depressurised in an adjustable restrictor and the extracted substance is collected in a trap by dissolution into a solvent. The extracted naphthalene quantity was obtained by weighting the solvent and measuring the naphthalene concentration with a gas chromatograph. The soil sample is a sandy soil geologically representative of the North of Italy that was sampled and physically and chemically characterized: particle-size distribution analysis, diffractometric analysis, Cation Exchange Capac- ity, Total Organic Carbon, iron content and manganese content in order to evaluate the potential sorption degree. The soil was artificially polluted by means of a naphta- lene and methylene chloride solution. The experimental work consists in a number of naphthalene extractions from the spiked soil, that were carried out at different operat- ing conditions, temperature, pressure and flow rate by means of supercritical carbon dioxide evaluating the corresponding recovery efficiencies. The results obtained were analysed and compared in order to determine which parameters influence the system. [1] G. A. Montero, T.D. Giorgio, and K. B. Schnelle, Jr..Removal of Hazardous ,1994, Contaminants form Soils by Supercritical Fluid Extraction. Innovations in Supercriti- cal Fluids. ACS Symposium Series, 608, 280-197. 2

Ferri, A.; Zanetti, M. C.; Banchero, M.; Fiore, S.; Manna, L.

291

TREATMENT OF CONTAMINATED SOILS WITH AQUEOUS SURFACTANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of the project was to develop a technical base for decisions on the use of chemical countermeasures at releases of hazardous substances. Work included a literature search to determine the nature and quantities of contaminants at Superfund sites and the appli...

292

BIOCYCLE JUNE 2002 41 ETAL contaminated soils  

E-print Network

. As part of the development of remediation alternatives for the Jasper County mine wastes and contaminated plant and animal communi- ty on the mine wastes at a particular site, such as in Jasper County wildlife testing on such remediated sites. TAILOR-MADE MIXES There are three general approaches to re

Brown, Sally

293

Assessing Metal Contamination in Lead Arsenate Contaminated Orchard Soils Using Near and Mid-Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Historic use of lead-arsenate as pesticide in apple orchards left many soils contaminated with arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Notorious health effects and their severe soil contamination are of primary concerns for major regulatory agencies, and community at large. Wet chemistry methods for soil anal...

294

Phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils: Role of organic acids in triggering uranium hyperaccumulation in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium phytoextraction, the use of plants to extract U from contaminated soils, is an emerging technology. The authors report on the development of this technology for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils. In this research, they investigated the effects of various soil amendments on U desorption from soil to soil solution, studied the physiological characteristics of U uptake and accumulation in

Jianwei W. Huang; Michael J. Blaylock; Yoram Kapulnik; Burt D. Ensley

1998-01-01

295

Process for two phase vacuum extraction of soil contaminants  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for two phase removal of contaminants from a contaminated area of the ground, wherein the contaminated area has a subsurface water table and a vadose zone above the water table, contaminants being present in the vadose zone and below the water table. It comprises providing a borehole in a selected portion of the contaminated area; placing in the borehole a perforated riser pipe, wherein at least some of the perforations of the riser pipe are disposed below the water table; applying a vacuum to the riser pipe so as to draw soil gases and entrained liquid into the riser pipe and transport both the gases and the liquid to the surface as a common stream; forming from the common stream a stream which is primarily liquid and a stream which is primarily gaseous; and separately treating the separated liquid and gas streams.

Hess, R.E.; Hooper, A.A.; Morrow, S.R.; Walker, D.J.; Zimmerman, E.

1991-09-24

296

10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive...continuously monitor, with an appropriate radiation detection instrument or a logging tool with a radiation detector, the circulating fluids from the...

2013-01-01

297

10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive...continuously monitor, with an appropriate radiation detection instrument or a logging tool with a radiation detector, the circulating fluids from the...

2010-01-01

298

10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive...continuously monitor, with an appropriate radiation detection instrument or a logging tool with a radiation detector, the circulating fluids from the...

2012-01-01

299

10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive...continuously monitor, with an appropriate radiation detection instrument or a logging tool with a radiation detector, the circulating fluids from the...

2014-01-01

300

10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive...continuously monitor, with an appropriate radiation detection instrument or a logging tool with a radiation detector, the circulating fluids from the...

2011-01-01

301

Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils*  

PubMed Central

Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has its negative impact on human health and agriculture. Rhizosphere, as an important interface of soil and plant, plays a significant role in phytoremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, in which, microbial populations are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes, and therefore, have potential to enhance phytoremediation processes. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria have received more and more attention. This article paper reviews some recent advances in effect and significance of rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. There is also a need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the transfer and mobilization of heavy metals by rhizobacteria and to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programmes. PMID:17323432

Jing, Yan-de; He, Zhen-li; Yang, Xiao-e

2007-01-01

302

Phytoremediation: using green plants to clean up contaminate soil, groundwater, and wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation, an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost, is defined as the engineered use of green plants (including grasses, forbs, and woody species) to remove, contain, or render harmless such environmental contaminants as heavy metals, trace elements, organic compounds and radioactive compounds in soil or water. Our research includes a successful field demonstration of a plant bioreactor for processing the salty wastewater from petroleum wells; the demonstration is currently under way at a natural gas well site in Oklahoma, in cooperation with Devon Energy Corporation. A greenhouse experiment on zinc uptake in hybrid poplar (Populus sp.) was initiated in 1995. These experiments are being conducted to confirm and extend field data indicating high levels of zinc (4,200 ppm) in leaves of hybrid poplar growing as a cleanup system at a site with zinc contamination in the root zone of some of the trees. Analyses of soil water from experimental pots that had received several doses of zinc indicated that the zinc was totally sequestered by the plants in about 4 hours during a single pass through the root system. The data also showed concentrations of sequestered metal of >38,000 ppm Zn in the dry root tissue. These levels of sequestered zinc exceed the levels found in either roots or tops of many of the known ``hyperaccumulator`` species. Because the roots sequester most of the contaminant taken up in most plants, a major objective of this program is to determine the feasibility of root harvesting as a method to maximize the removal of contaminants from soils. Available techniques and equipment for harvesting plant roots, including young tree roots, are being evaluated and modified as necessary for use with phytoremediation plants.

Negri, M.C.; Hinchman, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gatliff, E.G. [Applied Natural Sciences, Inc., Hamilton, OH (United States)

1996-07-01

303

Phytoremediation: Using green plants to clean up contaminated soil, groundwater, and wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation, an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost, is defined as the engineered use of green plants (including grasses, forbs, and woody species) to remove, contain, or render harmless such environmental contaminants as heavy metals, trace elements, organic compounds ({open_quotes}organics{close_quotes}), and radioactive compounds in soil or water. Current research at Argonne National Laboratory includes a successful field demonstration of a plant bioreactor for processing the salty wastewater from petroleum wells; the demonstration is currently under way at a natural gas well site in Oklahoma, in cooperation with Devon Energy Corporation. A greenhouse experiment on zinc uptake in hybrid poplar (Populus sp.) was initiated in 1995. These experiments are being conducted to confirm and extend field data from Applied Natural Sciences, Inc. (our CRADA partner), indicating high levels of zinc (4,200 ppm) in leaves of hybrid poplar growing as a cleanup system at a site with zinc contamination in the root zone of some of the trees. Analyses of soil water from experimental pots that had received several doses of zinc indicated that the zinc was totally sequestered by the plants in about 4 hours during a single pass through the root system. The data also showed concentrations of sequestered metal of >38,000 ppm Zn in the dry root tissue. These levels of sequestered zinc exceed the levels found in either roots or tops of many of the known {open_quotes}hyperaccumulator{close_quotes} species. Because the roots sequester most of the contaminant taken up in most plants, a major objective of this program is to determine the feasibility of root harvesting as a method to maximize the removal of contaminants from soils. Available techniques and equipment for harvesting plant roots, including young tree roots, are being evaluated and modified as necessary for use with phytoremediation plants.

Negri, M.C.; Hinchman, R.R.

1996-05-01

304

[Influence of the consumption of radioactive contaminated food on the formation of the irradiation levels and health of the inhabitants of radioactive contaminated regions of Ukraine].  

PubMed

Within all these years after the Chernobyl disaster the population of contaminated areas of the Rivne region was shown to consume radioactive contaminated foodstuffs. The main components of the formation of the internal irradiation of the population in them were and remain locally sourced milk and meat, forest mushrooms and berries. After 1991, the largest annual internal doses in persons observed in 1997 varied from 2,2 to 1,45 mSv/year and in 2011--in the inhabitants of the village of El'no they were yet reaching 1.43 mSv/year. After 2003, exposure levels in most inhabitatants of affected areas exceeded the criterion specified by national legislation for residents of the tightened radioecological control zone (0,5 mSv/year). The long-term residence in the contaminated area, elevated levels of chronic internal exposure, lack of radioactively sound foodstuffs and involuntary consumption in 1987-2011 radioactively contaminated food of local production were noted to led to an increase in general morbidity, and incidence of endocrine diseases rate and their separate nosological forms. PMID:24749279

Khomenko, I M; Omel'yanets, N I

2014-01-01

305

Recycling Ni from Contaminated and Mineralized Soils.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rare plant species accumulate potentially valuable concentrations of some metals. Alyssum murale readily accumulates over 2% Ni in aboveground dry matter when grown on Ni-mineralized serpentine soils in Oregon, allowing production of “hay” biomass with at least 400 kg Ni ha-1 with low levels of fer...

306

Surfactants treatment of crude oil contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports experimental measurements investigating the ability of a biological (rhamnolipid) and a synthetic (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS) surfactant to remove the North Sea Ekofisk crude oil from various soils with different particle size fractions under varying washing conditions. The washing parameters and ranges tested were as follows: temperature (5 to 50°C), time (5 to 20 min), shaking speed (80

Kingsley Urum; Turgay Pekdemir; Mehmet Çopur

2004-01-01

307

Transport of agricultural contaminants through karst soil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Karst landscapes are common in many agricultural regions in the US. Well-developed karst landscapes are characterized by shallow soils, sinkholes, sinking streams, underground conduits, and springs. In these landscapes surface runoff is minimal and most recharge enters the subsurface relatively quic...

308

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Hydraulic fracturing is a physical process that creates fractures in silty clay soil to enhance its permeability. The technology, developed by the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) and the University of Cincinnati, creates sand-filled horizontal fractures up to 1 in. i...

309

Assessment of plant uptake of radioactive nickel from soils.  

PubMed

As a result of isotopic dilution, the availability to plants of radioisotopes introduced into the soil solution should be directly related to the size of the isotopically exchangeable pool (E(t))-value). This work was undertaken to test this hypothesis for the radionuclide 63Ni. The demonstration was based on pot experiments conducted with seven soils representing a large range of Ni content (from 9.9 mg kg(-1) to 862.6 mg kg(-1)) which were mixed with a 63NiCl2 solution (100 kBq kg(-1)). Three plant species varying in Ni uptake, Triticum aestivum (wheat), Trifolium pratense (clover), and the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale, were grown for 90 d, and their total Ni and 63Ni content determined at harvest. In parallel, the isotopically exchangeable kinetics method (IEK) was run on each soil sample to measure the E(t)-value. Results showed that plant uptake of radioactive nickel was negatively correlated with the E(t)-value with wheat and clover as a result of the dilution of 63Ni added in the isotopically exchangeable pool of soil Ni (alpha=5%); correlation was positive with the A. murale (alpha=10%). Hence, this provides a new approach for the assessment of soil-to-plant transfer of 63Ni at larger scale avoiding the carrying out of time consuming experiments. PMID:12171471

Denys, S; Echevarria, G; Leclerc-cessac, E; Massoura, S; Morel, J L

2002-01-01

310

Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field  

SciTech Connect

The use of plants and associated microorganisms to remove, contain, inactivate, or degrade harmful environmental contaminants (generally termed phytoremediation) and to revitalize contaminated sites is gaining more and more attention. In this review, prerequisites for a successful remediation will be discussed. The performance of phytoremediation as an environmental remediation technology indeed depends on several factors including the extent of soil contamination, the availability and accessibility of contaminants for rhizosphere microorganisms and uptake into roots (bioavailability), and the ability of the plant and its associated microorganisms to intercept, absorb, accumulate, and/or degrade the contaminants. The main aim is to provide an overview of existing field experience in Europe concerning the use of plants and their associated microorganisms whether or not combined with amendments for the revitalization or remediation of contaminated soils and undeep groundwater. Contaminations with trace elements (except radionuclides) and organics will be considered. Because remediation with transgenic organisms is largely untested in the field, this topic is not covered in this review. Brief attention will be paid to the economical aspects, use, and processing of the biomass. It is clear that in spite of a growing public and commercial interest and the success of several pilot studies and field scale applications more fundamental research still is needed to better exploit the metabolic diversity of the plants themselves, but also to better understand the complex interactions between contaminants, soil, plant roots, and microorganisms (bacteria and mycorrhiza) in the rhizosphere. Further, more data are still needed to quantify the underlying economics, as a support for public acceptance and last but not least to convince policy makers and stakeholders (who are not very familiar with such techniques).

Vangronsveld, J.; van der Lelie, D.; Herzig, R.; Weyens, N.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, K.; Ruttens, A.; Thewys, T.; Vassilev, A.; Meers, E.; Nehnevajova, E.; Mench, M.

2009-11-01

311

Accumulation of heavy metals from contaminated soil to plants and evaluation of soil remediation by vermiculite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the distribution of 15 metal ions, namely Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zn and Zr, in the soil of a contaminated site in Piedmont (Italy). This area was found to be heavily contaminated with Cu, Cr and Ni. The availability of these metal ions was studied using Tessier’s sequential extraction

Mery Malandrino; Ornella Abollino; Sandro Buoso; Agnese Giacomino; Carmela La Gioia; Edoardo Mentasti

2011-01-01

312

Laboratory-scale bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil of Kuwait with soil amendment materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A huge amount of oil-contaminated soil remains unremediated in the Kuwait desert. The contaminated oil has the potentiality to cause pollution of underground water and to effect the health of people in the neighborhood. In this study, laboratory scale bioremediation experiments were carried out.Hyponex (Hyponex, Inc.) and bark manure were added as basic nutrients for microorganisms, and twelve kinds of

Byung-Hoop Cho; Hiroyuki Chino; Hirokazu Tsuji; Takashi Kunito; Kazunari Nagaoka; Shigeto Otsuka; Kazuhiro Yamashita; Satoshi Matsumoto; Hiroshi Oyaizu

1997-01-01

313

Multiscale structure of Cs-137 soil contamination on the Bryansk Region (Russia) due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cs-137 contamination of the Bryansk Region occurred in the period from April 27 to May 10 into several stages. The complicated character of the soil radionuclide contamination on the Bryansk Region is caused by different nature of the radioactive fallout: dry and wet. Thus, in a number of cases Cs-137 soil pollution is directly connected with the rain intensity, which is well known, have multifractal nature. In some parts of contaminated territory the overlay of different types of fallout was observed. The radioactive contamination of the landscape is a result from nonlinear interplay of geophysical factors which intervene over a large range of scale. As a result of the fallout Cs-137 pattern can be described as a multifractal. Consequently, fields of contamination observed have an extreme spatial variability, frequently cited "hot spots" or "leopard's skin. As an estimate of background radiation levels, we relied on a dataset of air-gamma-survey of the Bryansk Region, carried out by SSC AEROGEOFIZIKA in the summer of 1993. This dataset includes geo-positioned data of Cs-137 deposition in a grid of 100x100 m with values range from 3 to 11*104 kBq/m2. Airborne gamma survey gave the smoothed values of the Cs-137 density of contamination in comparison with the data, obtained directly as a result of soil sampling. However, even in this case in the east part of the Bryansk test site we can observed the"hot spots" (by size several hundred meters) as natural phenomenon. The article presents the results of the geostatistical and multifractal analysis of the Cs-137 contamination. Scaling analysis was conducted to investigate the linkages between the spatial variability of soil Cs-137 contamination and some landscape characteristics.

Linnik, Vitaly; Sokolov, Alexander

2013-04-01

314

Soil contamination with emissions of non-ferrous metallurgical plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper soil horizons are strongly contaminated in the area influenced by the Mid-Urals copper smelter. In the technogenic desert and impact zones, the contents of a number of elements (Cu, Zn, As, Pb, P, and S) by many times exceed their clarke values and the maximum permissible concentrations (or provisional permissible concentrations). The degree of technogeneity (Tg) for these

Yu. N. Vodyanitskii; I. O. Plekhanova; E. V. Prokopovich; A. T. Savichev

2011-01-01

315

MUTAGENICITY OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SOILS DURING BIOREMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioremediation of contaminated soils is considered an effective method for reducing potential health hazards. Although it is assumed that (bio)remediation is a detoxifying process, degradation products of compounds such as polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) can be more toxic th...

316

Advanced Assay Systems for Radionuclide Contamination in Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Technical Assistance Program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed and deployed a suite of systems that rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The INL systems integrate detector systems with data acquisition and synthesis software and with global positioning technology to provide a real-time,

J. R. Giles; L. G. Roybal; M. V. Carpenter; C. P. Oertel; J. A. Roach

2008-01-01

317

[Bioremediation for petroleum-contaminated soil by composting technology].  

PubMed

With composting technology of off-site bioremediation, the bioremediation of soil contaminated by crude oil from Liaohe Oil Field was studied. 4 treatments units were set, each units being 118.5 cm in length, 65.5 cm in width, and 12.5 cm in height. The results showed that when the soil was contaminated with 5.22 g.100 g-1 TPH, the degradation rate of TPH reached 54.2% after 55 days operation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The results also indicated that the major factors that effected the TPH bioremediation results were the content of O2 and CO2, the amounts of microorganism that degraded petroleum hydrocarbons, and the changes of pH in contaminated soil. These factors could directly reflect the effect of composting treatment technology, and be used to optimize the operation conditions of composting technology to reach the best result. The treatment engineering adopted periodical aired means, operated very simple, and costed very cheap, whtch provided a practical technology for the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil. PMID:12561178

Ding, Keqiang; Yin, Rui; Liu, Shiliang; Zhang, Hairong; Sun, Tieheng

2002-09-01

318

SUMMARY PAPER: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED VADOSE ZONE SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory (RSKERL) has developed a number of Issue Papers and Briefing Documents which are designed to exchange up-to-date information related to the remediation of contaminated soil and ground water at hazardous waste sites. In an attem...

319

LINKING WATERFOWL WITH CONTAMINANT SPECIATION IN RIPARIAN SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 38, Linking Waterfowl with Contaminant Speciation in Riparian Soils, implemented and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U...

320

HANDBOOK ON IN SITU TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE- CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

This handbook comprises an update of Volume1 of the 1984 USEPA document entitled "Review of In-Place Treatment Techniques for Contaminated Surface Soils." The purpose of this handbook is the same as that of the original document - to provide state-of-the-art information on in sit...

321

USING PLANTS TO REMEDIATE PETROLEUM-CONTAMINATED SOIL: PROJECT CONTINUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Crude oil contamination of soil often occurs adjacent to wellheads and storage facilities. Phytoremediation is a promising tool that can be used to remediate such sites and uses plants and agronomic techniques to enhance biodegradation of hydrocarbons. This project has conduct...

322

Enhanced electrokinetic remediation of contaminated manufactured gas plant soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates different flushing agents to enhance the efficiency of electrokinetic remediation of a manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. Because of high concentrations, PAHs were of environmental concern and required to be removed to acceptable levels. Four flushing agents, which included two surfactants (3% Tween 80, and 5% Igepal CA-720),

Krishna R. Reddy; Prasanth R. Ala; Saurabh Sharma; Surendra N. Kumar

2006-01-01

323

Effect of compost in phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of compost on phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils was investigated using 130 small (200 g) containers in two screening tests. The experiments were conducted in a controlled environment using ryegrass from seed. Containers were destructively sampled at various times and analyzed for plant mass and total petroleum hydrocarbons. The results indicate that the presence of diesel reduces grass growth,

J. Vouillamoz; M. W. Milke

324

A NATIONWIDE FIELD TEST OF PETROLEUM-CONTAMINATED SOILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbon) subgroup of the RTDF (Remediation Technologies Develop- ment Forum) Phytoremediation Action Team has initiated a collaborative trial to test the use of vegetation to enhance treatment of surface soils contaminated with weathered petroleum hydrocarbons. Collaborators include PERF (Petroleum Environmental Research Forum), USEPA, DOD, major petroleum and energy corpora- tions, environmental consultants, and university participants. Petroleum

P. A. Kulakow; L. Erickson

325

DERMAL ABSORPTION OF CONTAMINANTS FROM SEDIMENTS/SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

The mechanisms by which contaminants are released from sediments/soils and absorbed into the skin are poorly understood. The project will first conduct invitro experiments to study the effects of particle layering and chemical saturation. Secondly, mechanistic models will be de...

326

APPLICATION, PERFORMANCE, AND COSTS OF BIOTREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

A critical review of biological treatment processes for remediation of contaminated soils is presented. The focus of the review is on documented cost and performance of biological treatment technologies demonstrated at full- or field-scale. Some of the data were generated b...

327

SUPERFUND ENGINEERING ISSUE: TREATMENT OF LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document summarizes the contents of a seminar on treatment of lead-contaminated soils presented on August 28, 1990, to Region V Superfund and RCRA personnel by members of EPA's Engineering and Treatment Technology Support Center located in the Risk Reduction Engineering Labo...

328

AN ESTIMATE OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH SECONDARY EXPLOSIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides the results of a study that examined the quantities of explosives-contaminated soils at Army installations in the United States in order to understand the user requirements for environmental technology research and development work. This report provides a tim...

329

Surfactant-enhanced remediation of contaminated soil: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracting aqueous solutions with or without additives are employed to solubilize contaminants in soil. Since water solubility is the controlling removing mechanism, additives are used to enhance efficiencies. These additives can reduce the time to treat a site compared to the use of water alone. Additives must be of low toxicity and biodegradable. The research in this area has focussed

C. N Mulligan; R. N Yong; B. F Gibbs

2001-01-01

330

Characterization of lead removal from contaminated soils by nontoxic soil-washing agents.  

PubMed

Few effective strategies exist for remediating and restoring metal-contaminated soils. We have evaluated the potential of two environmentally compatible, nondestructive, biological soil-washing agents for remediating aged, lead-contaminated soils. Two contaminated soils were washed with 10 mM rhamnolipid biosurfactant and 5.3% carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CMCD). The metal removal efficiency of these agents was compared with 10 mM diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 10 mM KNO3. Lead removal rates by both soil-washing agents exceeded the removal by KNO3, but were an order of magnitude less than removal by the synthetic chelator, DTPA. Analysis of soil extractions revealed that the Pb in the first soil (3780 mg kg(-1)) was primarily associated with the soluble, exchangeable, oxide, and residual fractions while the Pb in the second soil (23 900 mg kg(-1)) was found in the soluble, exchangeable, carbonate, and residual fractions. After 10 consecutive washes, rhamnolipid had removed 14.2 and 15.3% of the Pb from the first and second soils, respectively, and CMCD had removed 5 and 13.4% from the same two soils. The Pb removal rate by both agents either increased or was consistent throughout the 10 extractions, indicating a potential for continued removal with extended washing. Significant levels of Cu and Zn in both soils did not prevent Pb removal by either agent. Interestingly, the effectiveness of each agent varied as a function of Pb speciation in the soil. Rhamnolipid was more effective than CMCD in removing Pb bound to amorphous iron oxides, while both agents demonstrated similar potential for removing soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate-bound Pb. Neither agent demonstrated potential for the complete remediation of metal-contaminated soils. PMID:12809290

Neilson, Julia W; Artiola, Janick F; Maier, Raina M

2003-01-01

331

Assessing the bioavailability and risk from metal-contaminated soils and dusts  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to contaminated soil and dust is an important pathway in human health risk assessment. Physical and chemical characteristics, as well as biological factors, determine the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of soil and dust contaminants. Within a single sample, contaminat...

332

Phytoremediation of BTEX contaminated soil by Canna×generalis.  

PubMed

Bioaccumulation experiments showed that the canna (Canna×generalis) could accumulate BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) from root zone and rhizome zone soil and translocate these compounds to the shoot. A comparison among these compounds showed that the sequences for accumulation in the root, rhizome and shoot were strongly related to their physicochemical properties (i.e. K(ow) values and molecular weight). For removal efficiency, the canna could remove about 80% of BTEX in the root zone and rhizome zone soil in 21 days. In addition, the removal efficiency in BTEX contaminated soil with 40% water content was a little higher than that found with 20% soil water content. This result indicated that the soil water content should also be considered when phytoremediation is employed. PMID:21497398

Boonsaner, M; Borrirukwisitsak, S; Boonsaner, A

2011-09-01

333

Sources and remediation techniques for mercury contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Mercury (Hg) in soils has increased by a factor of 3 to 10 in recent times mainly due to combustion of fossil fuels combined with long-range atmospheric transport processes. Other sources as chlor-alkali plants, gold mining and cement production can also be significant, at least locally. This paper summarizes the natural and anthropogenic sources that have contributed to the increase of Hg concentration in soil and reviews major remediation techniques and their applications to control soil Hg contamination. The focus is on soil washing, stabilisation/solidification, thermal treatment and biological techniques; but also the factors that influence Hg mobilisation in soil and therefore are crucial for evaluating and optimizing remediation techniques are discussed. Further research on bioremediation is encouraged and future study should focus on the implementation of different remediation techniques under field conditions. PMID:25454219

Xu, Jingying; Bravo, Andrea Garcia; Lagerkvist, Anders; Bertilsson, Stefan; Sjöblom, Rolf; Kumpiene, Jurate

2015-01-01

334

Electrokinetic In Situ Treatment of Metal-Contaminated Soil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrokinetic technique has been developed as a means of in situ remediation of soils, sludges, and sediments that are contaminated with heavy metals. Examples of common metal contaminants that can be removed by this technique include cadmium, chromium, zinc, lead, mercury, and radionuclides. Some organic contaminants can also be removed by this technique. In the electrokinetic technique, a low-intensity direct current is applied between electrodes that have been implanted in the ground on each side of a contaminated soil mass. The electric current causes electro-osmosis and migration of ions, thereby moving aqueous-phase subsurface contaminants from one electrode to the other. The half reaction at the anode yields H+, thereby generating an acid front that travels from the anode toward the cathode. As this acid front passes through a given location, the local increase in acidity increases the solubility of cations that were previously adsorbed on soil particles. Ions are transported towards one electrode or the other which one depending on their respective electric charges. Upon arrival at the electrodes, the ionic contaminants can be allowed to become deposited on the electrodes or can be extracted to a recovery system. Surfactants and other reagents can be introduced at the electrodes to enhance rates of removal of contaminants. Placements of electrodes and concentrations and rates of pumping of reagents can be adjusted to maximize efficiency. The basic concept of electrokinetic treatment of soil is not new. What is new here are some of the details of application and the utilization of this technique as an alternative to other techniques (e.g., flushing or bioremediation) that are not suitable for treating soils of low hydraulic conductivity. Another novel aspect is the use of this technique as a less expensive alternative to excavation: The cost advantage over excavation is especially large in settings in which contaminated soil lies near and/or under industrial buildings and therefore excavation would be made even more expensive by the need to prevent damage to numerous underground pipes and cables.

Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian A., III; Geiger, Cherie; Reinhart, Debra

2004-01-01

335

Interactive effects of Cd and PAHs on contaminants removal from co-contaminated soil planted with hyperaccumulator plant Sedum alfredii  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soil contamination by multiple organic and inorganic contaminants is common but its remediation by hyperaccumulator plants is rarely reported. The growth of a cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii and removal of contaminants from Cd and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) co-contaminated s...

336

Phytoremediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil for Improving Food Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contamination of the environment is a serious problem which provokes great interest in our society and in the whole scientific community. The input of metals into soils has increased during the last few decades as a consequence of different human activities (storage of industrial and municipal wastes, burning of fuels, mining and wastewater treatments, functioning of non-ferrous-metal-producing smelters, etc.). Nowadays, this type of contamination is one of the most serious concerning the chronic toxic effect which it renders on human health and the environment. As a consequence of all these activities, a huge number of toxic metals and metalloids, such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg and As, among many others, have been accumulated in soils, reaching toxic values. Unfortunately, much contaminated land is still in use for crop production, despite the danger that the metal content poses.

Shilev, Stefan; Benlloch, Manuel; Dios-Palomares, R.; Sancho, Enrique D.

337

Chemical fingerprinting of hydrocarbon-contamination in soil.  

PubMed

Chemical fingerprinting analyses of 29 hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were performed to assess the soil quality and determine the main contaminant sources. The results were compared to an assessment based on concentrations of the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pointed out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPAPAH16) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). The chemical fingerprinting strategy proposed in this study included four tiers: (i) qualitative analysis of GC-FID chromatograms, (ii) comparison of the chemical composition of both un-substituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), (iii) diagnostic ratios of selected PACs, and (iv) multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized PAC concentrations. The assessment criteria included quantitative analysis of 19 PACs and C1-C4 alkyl-substituted homologues of naphthalene, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and chrysene; and 13 oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (O-PACs). The chemical composition of un-substituted and alkyl-substituted PACs and visual interpretation of GC-FID chromatograms were in combination successful in differentiating pyrogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbon sources and in assessing weathering trends of hydrocarbon contamination in the soils. Multivariate data analysis of sum-normalized concentrations could as a stand-alone tool distinguish between hydrocarbon sources of petrogenic and pyrogenic origin, differentiate within petrogenic sources, and detect weathering trends. Diagnostic ratios of PACs were not successful for source identification of the heavily weathered hydrocarbon sources in the soils. The fingerprinting of contaminated soils revealed an underestimation of PACs in petrogenic contaminated soils when the assessment was based solely on EPAPAH16. As alkyl-substituted PACs are dominant in petrogenic sources, the evaluation of the total load of PACs based on EPAPAH16 was not representative. Likewise, the O-PACs are not represented in soil quality assessments based on EPAPAH16 and TPH. The ?O-PACs ranged between contaminated soils contained considerable amount of O-PACs corresponding to between 6 and 18% of the ?EPAPAH16. PMID:25625139

Boll, Esther S; Nejrup, Jens; Jensen, Julie K; Christensen, Jan H

2015-03-11

338

EFFECT OF SOIL MODIFYING FACTORS ON THE BIOAVAILABILITY AND TOXICITY OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Heavy metal and organic chemical contamination of soils is a worldwide problem posing a risk to humans and more directly, soil organisms. Metal toxicity is often not directly related to the total concentration of metals present due to a number of modifying factors that depend,...

339

Changes in the structure and function of soil ecosystems in soils contaminated with heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of soil communities in an area with a wide range of concentrations of heavy metals was studied in portions of the U.S. Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The study included survey of soil macro- and microinvertebrate communities, soil microorganisms, enzyme activities and the rates of nutrient dynamics in soil. Soil macroinvertebrate communities showed significant reductions in the abundance of several taxonomic and functional groups in contaminated areas. The total numbers of nematodes and numbers of fungivore, bacterivore and omnivore-predator nematodes were lower in the more contaminated areas. The numbers of active bacteria and fungi were lower in areas of soil contamination. Significant reduction in the activities of all enzymes closely paralleled the increase in heavy metal concentrations. Ten-to-fifty fold reductions in enzyme activities were observed as heavy metal concentrations increased. These results suggest that soil contamination with heavy metals may have detrimental effects on soil biota and the rates of organic matter degradation and subsequent release of nutrients to aboveground communities in the area.

Kuperman, R.; Parmelee, R.; Carreiro, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)]|[Fordham Univ., Armonk, NY (United States)

1995-06-01

340

Changes in the structure and function of soil ecosystems in soils contaminated with heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of soil communities in an area with a wide range of concentrations of heavy metals was studied in portions of the U.S. Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The study included survey of soil macro- and microinvertebrate communities, soil microorganisms, enzyme activities and the rates of nutrient dynamics in soil. Soil macroinvertebrate communities showed significant reductions in the adundance of several taxonomic and functional groups in contaminated areas. The total numbers of nematodes and numbers of fungivore, bacterivore and omnivore-predator nematodes were lower in the more contaminated areas. The numbers of active bacteria and fungi were lower in areas of soil contamination. Significant reduction in the activities of all enzymes closely paralleled the increase in heavy metal concentrations. Ten-to-fifty fold reductions in enzyme activities were observed as heavy metal concentrations increased. These results suggest that soil contamination with heavy metals may have detrimental effects on soil biota and the rates of organic matter degradation and subsequent release of nutrients to aboveground communities in the area.

Kuperman, R.; Parmelee, R.; Carreiro, M. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)]|[Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)]|[Fordham Univ. Armonk, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

341

Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.  

PubMed

RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data. PMID:15551790

Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

2004-11-01

342

Measurement of radioactivity levels and assessment of radioactivity hazards of soil samples in Karaman, Turkey.  

PubMed

In this study, the levels of the natural and artificial radioactivity in soil samples collected from surrounding of Karaman in Turkey were measured. Activity concentrations of the concerned radionuclides were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium detector with a relative efficiency of 40 % at 1.332 MeV. The results obtained for the (238)U series ((226)Ra, (214)Pb and (214)Bi), (232)Th series ((228)Ac), (40)K and fission product (137)Cs are discussed. To evaluate the radiological hazard of radioactivity in samples, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose and the external (Hex) and internal hazard index (Hin) were calculated and presented in comparison with the data collected from different areas in the world and Turkey. PMID:24587487

Agar, O; Boztosun, I; Korkmaz, M E; Özmen, S F

2014-12-01

343

Heavy-metal contamination of soils in Saxony/Germany by foundry fumes and low-cost rapid analyses of contaminated soils by XRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy-metal contamination of soils in Saxony/Germany by foundry fumes and low-cost rapid analysis of contaminated soils by XRF Dieter Mucke, Rolf Kumann, Sebastian Baldauf GEOMONTAN Gesellschaft für Geologie und Bergbau mbH&Co.KG, Muldentalstrasse 56, 09603 Rothenfurth, Saxony/Germany For hundreds of years in the Ore Mountains between Bohemia and Saxony silver and other ores are produced and smelted. Sulphide- and sulpharsenide-ores needed to be roasted first. In doing so the sulphide sulphur was oxidised under formation of sulphur dioxide SO2 and arsenide conversed into elemental arsenic and arsenide trioxide As2O3 respectively. Also the metals lead, cadmium and zinc are components of hut smokes, in the field of nickel foundries also nickel. The contents of soils basically reflect the geogenic conditions, which are caused by decomposition- and relocation-effects of the mineralisations, in the area of foundries also with influences by with the hut smokes anthropogenic mobilised elements. The Saxonian Agency for Environment and Geology drafted in 1992 a Soil Investigation Program with the aim of investigation of the contamination of Saxonian soils with arsenic and toxic heavy metals. In order of this Agency GEOMONTAN investigated 1164 measuring points in the grid 4 * 4 km.soil profiles and extracted soil samples for analysis. In the result of the laboratory examinations the Agency edited the "Soil atlas of the Free State of Saxony". 27 elements, pH and PAK are shown in detailed maps and allow in whole Saxony the first assessment of the contamination of soils with arsenic and toxic heavy metals. Each of the investigated soil profiles represent an area of 16 km2. Already by the different use of the districts (agricultural, industrial, urban) restricts representative values. GEOMONTAN in the meantime used at the exploration of a copper deposit in Brandenburg/Germany with approx. 50,000 single tests at drill cores a very fast low-cost method: the X Ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) with a handheld instrument. Approx. 40 elements hereby are determined in a focussed X-ray spot of 3 mm of diameters. The device can be put directly on a section of the soil or measure loose substrata in a PVC bag through or in a cuvette. The measurement time is 30 seconds. In connection with the input of information, the relocating and the sample preparation 20 measurings can be carried out per hour. This leads at personnel expenditures of € 50/hour at a price of € 2.50/analysis of simultaneous 40 components. At requirement the transfer of the files from the instrument in Excel tables still would rise expenses. XRF is a fast low-cost method for the first assessment of the contamination of soils and the delimitation of areas of different contaminations. When exact laboratory analyses are still requested, the interesting areas from which bulk samples have to be taken for the laboratory examinations, with XRF can be fixed. The contamination with arsenic and toxic heavy metals is only subordinated by modern flue gas treatment in metallurgical plants and renunciation of thermal methods with hut smoke today. The whereabouts of arsenic and lead in the soil shows, though, that the soil has protected the groundwater against the contamination. GEOMONTAN has examined the Saxonian areas with radioactive fallout of the Chernobyl accident in the order of the BGR Hannover 1993. In the results of the analysis by BGR Cs-134 was already disintegrated and Cs-137 only 13 cm deep in the uppermost soil layers infiltrated during the 8 years after the accident. This means that soil protects groundwater against contaminations out of the air too. In the last years some German federal state governments decided the end of mine water winning for the public water supply and deregulated the water protection zones. The water supply was converted in water of water supply dams. The hazard of contamination of this open reservoirs by accidents or terrorism is increasing. Underground water bodies in karst caves and old mines without toxic mineralizations would be

Mucke, D.

2012-04-01

344

Heavy metals contamination of soils surrounding waste deposits in Romania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils contamination with heavy metals is one of the most severe aspects of environmental pollution in Romania, independently of the origin sources (domestic or industrial activities) or type of disposal (organised landfill or hazardous deposits)[l-2]. This fact is the consequence of the poor state of the existing waste deposits in Romania and of the significant costs involved by the establishing of a new landfill according with the international regulations. The present study is trying to emphasise the contamination of soils surrounding different categories of waste deposits (sewage sludge ponds, domestic and industrial waste landfills, hillocks, sterile deposits) from various regions of Romania. Some case studies show a special interest being localise in a protected area (Iron Gates Natural Park). In order to quantify the concentration of metals like Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mo in soil samples, analysis were performed using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Romanian standards were used as reference values[3].

Matache, M.; Rozylowicz, L.; Ropota, M.; Patroescu, C.

2003-05-01

345

Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by Jatropha curcas.  

PubMed

This study employed Jatropha curcas (bioenergy crop plant) to assist in the removal of heavy metals from contaminated field soils. Analyses were conducted on the concentrations of the individual metals in the soil and in the plants, and their differences over the growth periods of the plants were determined. The calculation of plant biomass after 2 years yielded the total amount of each metal that was removed from the soil. In terms of the absorption of heavy metal contaminants by the roots and their transfer to aerial plant parts, Cd, Ni, and Zn exhibited the greatest ease of absorption, whereas Cu, Cr, and Pb interacted strongly with the root cells and remained in the roots of the plants. J. curcas showed the best absorption capability for Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. This study pioneered the concept of combining both bioremediation and afforestation by J. curcas, demonstrated at a field scale. PMID:25236867

Chang, Fang-Chih; Ko, Chun-Han; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Wang, Ya-Nang; Chung, Chin-Yi

2014-12-01

346

Plant Uptake of Mercury from Contaminated Soil, Oxford, Alabama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury contamination in the Oxford, Alabama, area is well documented in soil tests in the Snow Creek watershed. In this investigation, mercury levels in soils as well as local plant species were examined. The objectives of the study were first determining the amount of mercury in the soil and then to determine to what degree this mercury is taken in by plant tissue from specimens at each survey site. Variation in accumulation within the individual plant species (leaves, stems) was also examined. Protocols developed for this study were used to achieve both objectives and also to ascertain if a particular plant species hyper accumulates this toxin at levels that would make it useful in bioremediation of mercury contamination in the area.

Steffy, D. A.; Nichols, A. C.

2005-12-01

347

Electrokinetic treatment of firing ranges containing tungsten-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Tungsten-based alloys and composites are being used and new formulations are being considered for use in the manufacturing of different types of ammunition. The use of tungsten heavy alloys (WHA) in new munitions systems and tungsten composites in small caliber ammunition could potentially release substantial amounts of this element into the environment. Although tungsten is widely used in industrial and military applications, tungsten's potential environmental and health impacts have not been thoroughly addressed. This necessitates the research and development of remedial technologies to contain and/or remove tungsten from soils that may serve as a source for water contamination. The current work investigates the feasibility of using electrokinetics for the remediation of tungsten-contaminated soils in the presence of other heavy metals of concern such as Cu and Pb with aim to removing W from the soil while stabilizing in situ, Pb and Cu. PMID:17686582

Braida, Washington; Christodoulatos, Christos; Ogundipe, Adebayo; Dermatas, Dimitris; O'Connor, Gregory

2007-11-19

348

Soil slurry reactors for the assessment of contaminant biodegradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slurry reactors are frequently used in the assessment of feasibility of biodegradation in natural soil systems. The rate of contaminant removal is usually quantified by zero- or first-order kinetics decay constants. The significance of such constants for the evaluation of removal rate in the field could be questioned because the slurry reactor is a water-saturated, well-stirred system without resemblance with an unsaturated fixed bed of soil. Nevertheless, a kinetic study with soil slurry reactors can still be useful by means of only slightly more sophisticated kinetic models than zero-/first-order decay. The use of kinetic models taking into account the role of degrading biomass, even in the absence of reliable experimental methods for its quantification, provides further insight into the effect of nutrient additions. A real acceleration of biodegradation processes is obtained only when the degrading biomass is in the growth condition. The apparent change in contaminant removal course can be useful to diagnose biomass growth without direct biomass measurement. Even though molecular biology techniques are effective to assess the presence of potentially degrading microorganism in a "viable-but-nonculturable" state, the attainment of conditions for growth is still important to the development of enhanced remediation techniques. The methodology is illustrated with reference to data gathered for two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway (continuous contamination by aircraft deicing fluids) and the Trecate site in Italy (aged contamination by crude oil spill). This research is part of SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7).

Toscano, G.; Colarieti, M. L.; Greco, G.

2012-04-01

349

Identifying root exudates in field contaminated soil systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon (C) compounds exuded from plant roots comprise a significant and reactive fraction of belowground C pools. These exudates substantially alter the soil directly surrounding plant roots and play a vital role in the global C cycle, soil ecology, and ecosystem mobility of both nutrients and contaminants. In soils, the solubility and bioavailability of metals such as iron, zinc, and cadmium are intricately linked to the quantity and chemical characteristics of the C compounds allocated to the soil by plants. Cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, forms stronger bonds with reduced S- and N-containing compounds than with carboxylic acids, which may influence exudate composition in hyperaccumulator and tolerant plants grown in Cd contaminated soils. We hypothesize that hyperaccumulator plants will exude a larger quantity of aromatic N and chelating di- and tri-carboxylic acid molecules, while plants that exclude heavy metals from uptake will exude a larger proportion of reduced S containing molecules. This study examines how a variety of techniques can measure the low concentrations of complex organic mixtures exuded by hyperaccumulator and non-hyperaccumulator plants grown in Cd-contaminated soils. Two congeneric plants, Thlaspi caerulescens (Ganges ecotype), and T. caerulescens (Prayon ecotype) were grown in 0.5 kg pots filled with Cd-contaminated field soils from Chicago, IL. Field soils were contaminated as a result of the application of contaminated biosolids in the 1960's and 1970's. Pots were fitted for rhizon soil moisture samplers, micro-lysimeters developed for in situ collection of small volumes in unsaturated soils, prior to planting. Plants were grown for 8 weeks before exudate collection. After the 8 weeks of growth, a pulse-chase isotope tracer method using the C stable isotope, 13C, was employed to differentiate plant-derived compounds from background soil and microbial-derived compounds. Plants were placed in a CO2 impermeable chamber, and the soil surface was covered by CO2 impermeable sheets to ensure that all 13C in the soil results from photoassimilated C released by roots and not soil-atmosphere gas exchange. Ambient CO2 was drawn down in the system until the CO2 concentration within the tent was less than 50 ppm, after which the labeled 13CO2 was introduced, returning the CO2 concentration to the ambient level (~375 ppm). The CO2 pulse lasted for 60 minutes to allow enough time for 13C assimilation within the plants. In order to determine the ideal sampling time, soil pore water samples were extracted every 1-2 hours following the 13C pulse application, over the course of 24 hours. Samples were analyzed for delta 13C as well as %C, and results indicate that the greatest plant-derived dissolved organic C is present at about 6 hours following the 13C pulse. A second experiment will also be conducted using a combination of NMR and mass spectrometry methods to obtain detailed information regarding chemical structures within exudate samples.

Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

2012-12-01

350

Stabilization of oil-contaminated soils using cement and cement by-pass dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To investigate the effect of cement and cement by-pass dust (CBPD) as a stabilizer on the geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated soils resulting from leaking underground storage tanks, or soils surrounding petroleum refineries and crude oil wells. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Oil-contaminated soil (untreated soil) and a soil treated by bio-remediation (treated soil) as well as a natural soil were obtained

Amer Al-Rawas; Hossam F. Hassan; Ramzi Taha; Abdulwahid Hago; Bader Al-Shandoudi; Yahia Al-Suleimani

2005-01-01

351

[An approach to the establishment of remediation standards for contaminated soils].  

PubMed

With the rapid development of remediation technology for contaminated soils in China, remediation standard has become a bottleneck in judging the effects of this technology. In this paper, some suggestions on the establishment of remediation standards for contaminated soils, e.g., choice of contaminants, methods of detection, classification of contaminated soils, protection of groundwater, and assessment of toxicological risks were put forward, based on the analysis of the disadvantages of Soil Environmental Quality Standard. PMID:16706064

Chao, Lei; Zhou, Qixing; Chen, Su

2006-02-01

352

Overcoming phytoremediation limitations. A case study of Hg contaminated soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytoremediation is a broad term that comprises several technologies to clean up water and soil. Despite the numerous articles appearing in scientific journals, very few field applications of phytoextraction have been successfully realized. The research here reported on Phytoextraction, the use the plant to "extract" metals from contaminated soil, is focused on implementations to overcome two main drawbacks: the survival of plants in unfavorable environmental conditions (contaminant toxicity, low fertility, etc.) and the often lengthy time it takes to reduce contaminants to the requested level. Moreover, to overcome the imbalance between the technology's potential and its drawbacks, there is growing interest in the use of plants to reduce only the fraction that is the most hazardous to the environment and human health, that is to target the bioavailable fractions of metals in soil. Bioavailable Contaminant Stripping (BCS) would be a remediation approach focused to remove the bioavailable metal fractions. BCS have been used in a mercury contaminated soil from Italian industrial site. Bioavailable fractions were determined by sequential extraction with H2O and NH4Cl.Combined treatments of plant hormone and thioligand to strength Hg uptake by crop plants (Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus) were tested. Plant biomass, evapotranspiration, Hg uptake and distribution following treatments were compared. Results indicate the plant hormone, cytokinine (CK) foliar treatment, increased evapotranspiration rate in both tested plants. The Hg uptake and translocation in both tested plants increased with simultaneous addition of CK and TS treatments. B. juncea was the most effective in Hg uptake. Application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to an increase in Hg concentration of 232% in shoots and 39% in roots with respect to control. While H. annuus gave a better response in plant biomass production, the application of CK to plants grown in TS-treated soil lead to an increase in Hg concentration of 248% in shoots and 185% in roots with respect to control plants. The BCS efficiency were evaluated analyzing the labile-Hg residue in the soil after the plant growing. Plants grown with CK and TS in one growing cycle significantly affected labile-Hg pools in soil characterized by sequential extraction, but did not significantly reduce the total metals in the soil. Moreover, if properly optimized, the use of a coupled phytohormone/thioligand system may be a viable strategy to strength Hg uptake by crop plants.

Barbafieri, Meri

2013-04-01

353

Effects of Changed Soil Conditions on the Mobility of Trace Metals in Moderately Contaminated Urban Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the soil chemical environment can be expected to increase the leaching of trace metals bound in soils. In this\\u000a study the mobility of trace metals was monitored in a column experiment for two contaminated urban soils. Four different treatments\\u000a were used (i.e. rain, acid rain, salt and bark). Leachates were analysed for pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and

Mats Linde; Ingrid Öborn; Jon Petter Gustafsson

2007-01-01

354

[An off site petroleum-contaminated soil bioremediation technology: soil compositing in windrow].  

PubMed

With off-site bioremediation technology, a soil contaminated by crude oil from Liaohe Oil Field was treated on a 20 x 10 m prepared bed. 8 composting windrow units were set, each measured 8 m in length, 2 m in width, and 0.35 m in height. The results showed that when the pollutant petroleum hydrocarbon(TPH) was within the range of 4.16-7.72 g.100 g-1 soil, the total degradation rate of TPH reached 45.19%-56.74% after 53 days operation, which indicated that a technological basis would be provided for the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil. PMID:11757381

Jiang, C; Sun, T; Li, P; Zhang, C; Zhang, H; Ma, X; Yao, D; Yang, G

2001-04-01

355

Evaluation of soil flushing of complex contaminated soil: An experimental and modeling simulation study.  

PubMed

The removal of heavy metals (Zn and Pb) and heavy petroleum oils (HPOs) from a soil with complex contamination was examined by soil flushing. Desorption and transport behaviors of the complex contaminants were assessed by batch and continuous flow reactor experiments and through modeling simulations. Flushing a one-dimensional flow column packed with complex contaminated soil sequentially with citric acid then a surfactant resulted in the removal of 85.6% of Zn, 62% of Pb, and 31.6% of HPO. The desorption distribution coefficients, KUbatch and KLbatch, converged to constant values as Ce increased. An equilibrium model (ADR) and nonequilibrium models (TSNE and TRNE) were used to predict the desorption and transport of complex contaminants. The nonequilibrium models demonstrated better fits with the experimental values obtained from the column test than the equilibrium model. The ranges of KUbatch and KLbatch were very close to those of KUfit and KLfit determined from model simulations. The parameters (R, ?, ?, ?, and f) determined from model simulations were useful for characterizing the transport of contaminants within the soil matrix. The results of this study provide useful information for the operational parameters of the flushing process for soils with complex contamination. PMID:25698434

Yun, Sung Mi; Kang, Christina S; Kim, Jonghwa; Kim, Han S

2015-04-28

356

Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries Graduate Seminar "Trees Adaptation to Mercury Contaminated Soils  

E-print Network

1 Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries Graduate Seminar "Trees Adaptation to Mercury Contaminated Soils contaminated soils along EFPC? · What is the primary symbiotic association? · Where is the mercury localized/sand media. · Inoculate with soil cores obtained from mercury contaminated sites along the creek allowed

Gray, Matthew

357

SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION TREATABILITY STUDY OF MERCURY CONTAMINATED SOIL FROM THE Y-12 SITE  

E-print Network

SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION TREATABILITY STUDY OF MERCURY CONTAMINATED SOIL FROM of Mercury Contaminated Soil from the Y-12 Site P.D. Kalb, L. Milian, S.P. Yim November 30, 2012 Prepared for-12 Plant) has extensive mercury-contamination in building structures, soils, storm sewer sediments

Johnson, Peter D.

358

Remediation of petroleum contaminated soils by joint action of Pharbitis nil L. and its microbial community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plot-culture experiments were conducted for examining the feasibility of Pharbitis nil L. and its microbial community to remedy petroleum contaminated soils. The petroleum contaminated soil, containing 10% (w\\/w) of the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), was collected from the Shengli Oil Field, Dongying City, Shandong Province, China. The collected soil was applied and diluted to a series of petroleum contaminated

Zhineng Zhang; Qixing Zhou; Shengwei Peng; Zhang Cai

2010-01-01

359

The Effects of Microbial Population on Phytoremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils Using Tall Fescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum contamination of soil is a serious problem throughout the south of Tehran and Khuzestan province of Iran. Vegetation may play an important role in the biodegradation of toxic organic chemicals in soil. For petroleum compounds, the presence of rhizosphere microflora may accelerate biodegradation of the contaminants. In a greenhouse study, petroleum contaminated soils from sites around Tehran Refinery Planet

JAHANGIR ABEDI-KOUPAI; REZA EZZATIAN; MANOUCHEHR VOSSOUGHI-SHAVARI; SOHEILA YAGHMAEI; MEHDI BORGHEI

360

A model to predict concentration enrichment of contaminants on soil adhering to plants and skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transfer of soil contaminants into the food chain has long been a concern. However, certain aspects of the pathways involved have not been fully investigated. One is the enrichment of contaminant concentrations through physical processes such as size-sorting of soil particles. Fine particles selected from soil by processes such as adhesion onto plants will have much higher contaminant concentrations than

S. C. Sheppard

1995-01-01

361

Arsenic and chromium partitioning in a podzolic soil contaminated by chromated copper arsenate  

E-print Network

impregnation salts at a contaminated site. Fresen. J. Anal.in a contaminated soil at a wood preserving site. Bull.contaminated by CCA using a combination of selective extractions and x-ray spectroscopic techniques. Experimental section Site

Hopp, Luisa

2008-01-01

362

Evaluation of treatment options for mercury/PCB contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to evaluate treatment alternatives for soil contaminated with mercury and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) aroclor 1268 at the LCP site, a former chlor-alkali plant, in Brunswick, GA. The site was operated as a petroleum refinery from 1919 to 1930. Based on past experience and a literature search, soil washing and thermal desorption were deemed to be the most promising technologies. A bulk soil sample was collected from the south process area and analyzed to have 190 mg/kg mercury and 405 mg/kg of PCB aroclor 1268. The soil was screened to {1/4} treatability tests. Testing was performed in three parts consisting of a round of geophysical and chemical analyses to determine matrix characteristics; thermal desorption tests at temperatures ranging from 100 C to 700 C to determine the volatility of mercury and PCB aroclor 1268; and a soil-washing study matrix to evaluate the effect of chemical additives such as acids, oxidizers, and surfactants to physically and chemically remove contaminants from the soil matrix.

Camacho, J.M. [EPA/Environmental Response Team Center, Edison, NJ (United States); Tobia, R.J. [Roy F. Weston, Inc./REAC, Edison, NJ (United States); Peronard, P. [EPA/Region IV, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-12-31

363

Particulate copper in soils and surface runoff from contaminated sandy soils under citrus production.  

PubMed

Soil contamination by copper (Cu) is a worldwide concern. Laboratory incubation and soil Cu characterization were conducted to examine the effects of external Cu loading and liming on Cu speciation in both bulk soil and particulates of an Alfisol and Spodosol under citrus production. Also, drainage water from the sites was evaluated for dissolved and particulate forms of Cu. Soil available Cu estimated by CaCl2, NH4OAc, or Mehlich-3 extraction significantly increased with external Cu loads and decreased with soil pH. Most increases in soil Cu occurred in the exchangeable and oxide-bound fractions. Organically bound Cu was the dominant fraction in both bulk soil and particulates, but more in particulates than bulk soil (P ? 0.001). Organically bound Cu was highly correlated with total recoverable Cu (P ? 0.01), increased significantly with external Cu loads (P ? 0.001), and decreased with soil pH (P ? 0.05). Lime addition converted part of Cu from available pools to more stable forms. Organically bound Cu complexes were found to dominate in soil solution or surface runoff. These results indicate that most Cu accumulated in the contaminated soils is highly mobile, and thus may impact citrus production and the environment. PMID:23740300

Bakshi, Santanu; He, Zhenli L; Harris, Willie G

2013-12-01

364

Risk assessment of cadmium-contaminated soil on plant DNA damage using RAPD and physiological indices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact assessment of contaminants in soil is an important issue in environmental quality study and remediation of contaminated land. A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) ‘fingerprinting’ technique was exhibited to detect genotoxin-induced DNA damage of plants from heavy metal contaminated soil. This study compared the effects occurring at molecular and population levels in barley seedlings exposed to cadmium (Cd) contamination

Wan Liu; Y. S. Yang; P. J. Li; Q. X. Zhou; L. J. Xie; Y. P. Han

2009-01-01

365

[The radioecological problems of Eurasia and the sources of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR].  

PubMed

There is three major sites of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR: the Chelyabinsk region in the Urals, Chernobyl NPP in Ukraine and Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean. The first mentioned is the most important with regard to local (potential) contamination, the last one dominates the global contamination. A number of sites and sources are less well known with regard to environmental contamination. This is thus the case for the plutonium production factories at Tomsk and Dodonovo. More information on nuclear reactors in lost or dumped submarines is also needed. From a global point of view reliable assessment of the radioactive run-off from land and deposits of nuclear waste in the Arctic Ocean are in particular pertinent. PMID:8469738

Polikarpov, G G; Aarkrog, A

1993-01-01

366

Electrokinetic treatment of contaminated soils, sludges, and lagoons. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The electrokinetic process is an emerging technology for in-situ soil decontamination, in which chemical species, both ionic and nonionic are transported to an electrode site in soil. These products are subsequently removed from the ground via collection systems engineered for each specific application. Electrokinetics refer to movement of water, ions and charged particles relative to one another under the action of an applied direct current electric field. In a porous compact matrix of surface charged particles such as soil, the ion containing pore fluid may be made to flow to collection sites under the applied field. This report describes the effort undertaken to investigate electrokinetically enhanced transport of soil contaminants in synthetic systems. These systems consisted of clay or clay-sand mixtures containing known concentration of a selected heavy metal salt solution or an organic compound. Metals, surrogate radio nuclides and organic compounds evaluated in the program were representatives of those found at a majority of DOE sites. Degree of removal of these metals from soil by the electrokinetic treatment process was assessed through the metal concentration profiles generated across the soil between the electrodes. The best removals, from about 85 to 95% were achieved at the anode side of the soil specimens. Transient pH change had an effect on the metal movement via transient creation of different metal species with different ionic mobilities, as well as changing of the surface characteristics of the soil medium.

Wittle, J.K. [Electro-Petroleum, Inc., Wayne, PA (United States); Pamukcu, S. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1993-04-01

367

Subchronic exposure of mice to Love Canal soil contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The health hazard potential of soil collected from the surface of the Love Canal chemical dump site in Niagara Falls, New York, was assessed in 90-day exposure studies. Female CD-1 mice were exposed to two concentrations of the volatile components of 1 kg of soil with and without direct soil contact. Control mice were identically housed but without soil. The soil was replaced weekly and 87 compounds were detected in the air in the cages above fresh and 7-day-old soil as analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of many of these compounds decreased during the 7-day exposure cycle. Histopathologic, hematologic, and serum enzyme studies followed necropsy of all mice. There was no mortality of mice exposed for up to 90 days under any condition. Thymus and spleen weights relative to body weight were increased after 4 weeks of exposure by inhalation but not after 8 or 12 weeks of exposure. alpha-, beta-, and delta- Benzenehexachlorides , pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene were detected in liver tissue from these animals. Mice exposed to 5- to 10-fold elevated concentration of volatiles had increased body and relative kidney weights. There was no chemically induced lesion in any animal exposed only to the volatile soil contaminants. Mice exposed by direct contact with the soil without elevated volatile exposure had increased body (10%) and relative liver weights (169%). Centrolobular hepatocyte hypertrophy, which involved 40 to 70% of the lobules, was observed in all mice in this group.

Silkworth, J.B.; McMartin, D.N.; Rej, R.; Narang, R.S.; Stein, V.B.; Briggs, R.G.; Kaminsky, L.S.

1984-04-01

368

Relationship between the {sup 137}Cs whole-body counting results and soil and food contamination in farms near Chernobyl  

SciTech Connect

The authors measured the radioactivity in the soil and child food samples from farms near Mogilev (56--270 GBq km{sup {minus}2} {sup 137}Cs), Gomel (36--810 GBq km{sup {minus}2} {sup 137}Cs), and Klincy (59--270 GBq km{sup {minus}2} {sup 137}Cs), who had whole-body {sup 137}Cs counting results measured as part of a health examination in the Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project. Soil contamination on the family farm seems to be the main source of human contamination because most of the people in the area live on small farms and they and their domestic animals eat crops from the farms. A clear correlation was found between the children's whole-body {sup 137}Cs counting results and the radioactivity in their food (correlation coefficient: 0.76; confidence level of correlation: 3.2 x 10{sup {minus}9}). There were also significant correlations between the whole-body {sup 137}Cs counting results and both the radioactivity of the soil samples (correlation coefficient: 0.22; confidence level of correlation: 0.0107) and the average contamination level of their current residence (correlation coefficient: 0.20; confidence level of correlation: 0.0174).

Takatsuji, Toshihiro; Sato, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun [and others] [and others

2000-01-01

369

Geochemistry Of Lead In Contaminated Soils: Effects Of Soil Physico-Chemical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead (Pb) is an environmental contaminant with proven human health effects. When assessing human health risks associated with Pb, one of the most common exposure pathways typically evaluated is soil ingestion by children. However, bioaccessibility of Pb primarily depends on the solubility and hence, the geochemical form of Pb, which in turn is a function of site specific soil chemistry. Certain fractions of ingested soil-Pb may not dissociate during digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract, and hence, may not be available for transport across the intestinal membrane. Therefore, this study is being currently performed to assess the geochemical forms and bioaccessibility of Pb in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. In order to elucidate the level of Pb that can be ingested and assimilated by humans, an in-vitro model that simulates the physiological conditions of the human digestive system has been developed and is being used in this study. Four different types of soils from the Immokalee (an acid sandy soil with minimal Pb retention potential), Millhopper (a sandy loam with high Fe/Al content), Pahokee (a muck soil with more than 80% soil organic matter), and Tobosa series (an alkaline soil with high clay content) were artificially contaminated with Pb as lead nitrate at the rate equivalent to 0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg dry soil. Analysis of soils by a sequential extraction method at time zero (immediately after spiking) showed that Immokalee and Millhopper soils had the highest amount of Pb in exchangeable form, whereas Pahokee and Tobosa soils had higher percentages of carbonate-bound and Fe/Al-bound Pb. The results of in-vitro experiment at time zero showed that majority of Pb was dissolved in the acidic stomach environment in Immokalee, Millhopper, and Tobosa, whereas it was in the intestinal phase in Pahokee soils. Because the soil system is not in equilibrium at time zero, the effect of soil properties on Pb geochemistry is not clear as yet. The subsequent analysis of soils (after 6 and 8 months months) is expected to better demonstrate the influence of soil properties on human bioaccessibility of Pb in contaminated soils. Furthermore, the geochemical forms of Pb will be correlated with bioaccessible Pb to identify those soil-Pb species with higher solubility in the human gastrointestinal system. Key words: Lead, Geochemical species, Bioaccessibility, In-vitro model, Health risk

Saminathan, S.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Andra, S. P.

2006-05-01

370

Renewed soil erosion and remobilisation of radioactive sediment in Fukushima coastal rivers after the 2013 typhoons.  

PubMed

Summer typhoons and spring snowmelt led to the riverine spread of continental Fukushima fallout to the coastal plains of Northeastern Japan and the Pacific Ocean. Four fieldwork campaigns based on measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine riverine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand were conducted between November 2011 and May 2013 to document the spread of fallout by rivers. After a progressive decrease in the fresh riverine sediment doses rates between 2011 and early spring in 2013, a fifth campaign conducted in November 2013 showed that they started to increase again after the occurrence of violent typhoons. We show that this increase in dose rates was mostly due to remobilization of contaminated material that was temporarily stored in river channels or, more importantly, in dam reservoirs of the region during the typhoons. In addition, supply of particles from freshly eroded soils in autumn 2013 was the most important in areas where decontamination works are under progress. Our results underline the need to monitor the impact of decontamination works and dam releases in the region, as they may provide a continuous source of radioactive contamination to the coastal plains and the Pacific Ocean during the coming years. PMID:24694549

Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Lepage, Hugo; Cerdan, Olivier; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie

2014-01-01

371

Renewed soil erosion and remobilisation of radioactive sediment in Fukushima coastal rivers after the 2013 typhoons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Summer typhoons and spring snowmelt led to the riverine spread of continental Fukushima fallout to the coastal plains of Northeastern Japan and the Pacific Ocean. Four fieldwork campaigns based on measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine riverine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand were conducted between November 2011 and May 2013 to document the spread of fallout by rivers. After a progressive decrease in the fresh riverine sediment doses rates between 2011 and early spring in 2013, a fifth campaign conducted in November 2013 showed that they started to increase again after the occurrence of violent typhoons. We show that this increase in dose rates was mostly due to remobilization of contaminated material that was temporarily stored in river channels or, more importantly, in dam reservoirs of the region during the typhoons. In addition, supply of particles from freshly eroded soils in autumn 2013 was the most important in areas where decontamination works are under progress. Our results underline the need to monitor the impact of decontamination works and dam releases in the region, as they may provide a continuous source of radioactive contamination to the coastal plains and the Pacific Ocean during the coming years.

Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Lepage, Hugo; Cerdan, Olivier; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie

2014-04-01

372

A humic acid extract from lignite for reclaiming contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

A unique form of a humic compound was developed by A.I. Shulgin, A.A. Shapovalov and U.G. Putsykin of Moscow, Russia using a patented process from lignite coal. This material appears to have properties that complexes certain heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Cd, etc. as well as PCB's. This study was restricted to its interaction with Pb. Both greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted from a quantity of humic acid (Stabilite) from the SET company in Louisville, KY. Although Stabilite contains some Pb, in the laboratory study, significant reductions in Pb concentration occurred. Stabilite also reduced Pb levels of an artificially contaminated soil having 1,000 ppm Pb for both the residual soil as well as water leached through this soil. Corn grown in this did not extract Pb from the Stabilite treated soil.

Barnhisel, R.I.

1999-07-01

373

Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of eastern Tennessee (USA). Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL. Contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory's boundaries have been found to contain {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs on the order of 10{sup -2}-10{sup 4} Bqg{sup -1} and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Animals that are capable of flight and animals with behavior patterns or developmental life stages involving contact with sediments in radioactive ponds, like benthic invertebrates, present the greatest potential for dispersal of radioactivity. The emigration of frogs and turtles from waste ponds also presents a potential for dispersal of radioactivity but over distances < 5 km. Mud-dauber wasps (Hymenoptera) and swallows (Hirundinidae) may transport radioactive mud for nest building, but also over relatively short distances (0.2-1 km). Movement by small mammals is limited by several factors, including physical barriers and smaller home ranges. Larger animals, like white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), are potential vectors of radioactivity due to their greater body size, longer life expectancy, and larger home range. Larger animals contain greater amounts of total radioactivity than smaller animals, but tissue concentrations of {sup 137}Cs generally decline with body size.

Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

1995-12-01

374

Sources of arsenic and fluoride in highly contaminated soils causing groundwater contamination in Punjab, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Highly contaminated groundwater, with arsenic (As) and fluoride (F{sup -}) concentrations of up to 2.4 and 22.8 mg/L, respectively, has been traced to anthropogenic inputs to the soil. In the present study, samples collected from the soil surface and sediments from the most heavily polluted area of Punjab were analyzed to determine the F{sup -} and As distribution in the soil. The surface soils mainly comprise permeable aeolian sediment on a Pleistocene terrace and layers of sand and silt on an alluvial flood plain. Although the alluvial sediments contain low levels of F, the terrace soils contain high concentrations of soluble F{sup -} (maximum, 16 mg/kg; mean, 4 mg/kg; pH > 8.0). Three anthropogenic sources were identified as fertilizers, combusted coal, and industrial waste, with phosphate fertilizer being the most significance source of F{sup -} accumulated in the soil. The mean concentration of As in the surface soil samples was 10.2 mg/kg, with the highest concentration being 35 mg/kg. The presence of high levels of As in the surface soil implies the contribution of air pollutants derived from coal combustion and the use of fertilizers. Intensive mineral weathering under oxidizing conditions produces highly alkaline water that dissolves the F{sup -} and As adsorbed on the soil, thus releasing it into the local groundwater.

Farooqi, A.; Masuda, H.; Siddiqui, R.; Naseem, M. [Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Science

2009-05-15

375

Effect Of Soil Properties On The Geochemical Speciation Of Arsenic In Contaminated Soils: A Greenhouse Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-applied arsenical pesticides have contributed elevated soil arsenic (As) levels. Many baseline risk assessments As-contaminated sites assume that all As present in the soil is bioavailable, thereby potentially overestimating the actual health risk. However, risk from As exposure is associated only with those forms of As that are potentially extractable by the human gastrointestinal juices. It has been demonstrated that As may exist in several geochemical forms depending on soil chemical properties, which may or may not be bioavailable. The current study aims at addressing the issue of soil variability on As bioavailability as a function of soil physico-chemical properties in a greenhouse setting involving dynamic interactions between soil, water and plants. Four different soils were chosen based on their potential differences with respect to As reactivity: Immokalee, an acid sand with low extractable Fe/Al, having minimal arsenic retention capacity; Millhopper, an acid sandy loam with high extractable Fe/Al oxides; Pahokee Muck soil with 85% soil organic matter (SOM) as well as high Fe/Al content; and Orelia soil with high clay and Fe/Al content. Soils were amended with sodium arsenate (675 and 1500 mg/Kg). Rice (Oryza sativa) was used as the test crop. A sequential extraction scheme was employed to identify the geochemical forms of As in soils (soluble, exchangeable, organic, Fe/Al-bound, Ca/Mg-bound, residual) immediately after spiking; after 3 mo; and after 6 mo of equilibration time. Concentrations of these As forms were correlated with the in-vitro bioavailable As fractions to identify those As fractions that are most likely to be bioavailable. Results from this study showed that there was little to no plant growth in the contaminated soils. Sequential extractions of the soil indicated that arsenic is strongly adsorbed onto soil amorphous iron/aluminum oxides, and the degree of arsenic retention is a direct function of equilibration time.

Sharma, S.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.

2005-05-01

376

AQUEOUS Pb REDUCTION IN Pb-CONTAMINATED SOILS BY FLORIDA PHOSPHATE ROCKS  

E-print Network

effectively immobilized Pb from 13 Pb- contaminated soils, but its effectiveness was affected by soil pH to acceptable levels. Bioavailability can be approximated by Pb solubility in soil, because dissolved PbAQUEOUS Pb REDUCTION IN Pb-CONTAMINATED SOILS BY FLORIDA PHOSPHATE ROCKS LENA Q. MA and GADE N. RAO

Ma, Lena

377

LAND TREATMENT OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SOIL: PERFORMANCE MEASURED BY CHEMICAL AND TOXICITY ASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of a soil remediation process can be determined by measuring the reduction in target soil contaminant concentrations and by assessing the treatment's ability to lower soil toxicity. Land treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a ...

378

LAND TREATMENT OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SOIL: PERFORMANCE MEASURED BY CHEMICAL AND TOXICITY ASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of a soil remediation process can be determined by measuring the reduction in target soil contaminant concentrations and by assessing the treatment's ability to lower soil toxicity. Land treatment of polycyclic armomatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a ...

379

Ecotoxicological risk assessment of undisturbed metal contaminated soil at two remote lighthouse sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecotoxicological risk assessments of contaminated soil are commonly completed using guideline values based on total concentrations. However, only certain fractions of contaminants are bioavailable and pose a hazard to the environment. This paper investigates the relationship between measured metal concentrations in soil and soil leachate, and the effects in organisms exposed to intact, undisturbed soil cores (wheat, Tricum aestivum) and

E. Emily V. Chapman; Göran Dave; John D. Murimboh

2010-01-01

380

Assessing the Educational Needs of Urban Gardeners and Farmers on the Subject of Soil Contamination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation in urban agriculture is growing throughout the United States; however, potential soil contaminants in urban environments present challenges. Individuals in direct contact with urban soil should be aware of urban soil quality and soil contamination issues to minimize environmental and human health risks. The study reported here…

Harms, Ashley Marie Raes; Presley, DeAnn Ricks; Hettiarachchi, Ganga M.; Thien, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

381

Electrokinetic electrode system for extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soils  

DOEpatents

An electrokinetic electrode assembly is described for use in extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soil in situ. The assembly includes a housing for retaining a liquid comprising an electrolyte solution, pure water, and soil water, the housing being in part of porous material capable of holding a vacuum. An electrode is mounted in the housing. The housing is provided with a vacuum orifice for effecting a vacuum within the housing selectively to control flow of soil water through the housing into the chamber and to control outflow of the liquid from the chamber. The assembly further includes conduit means for removing the liquid from the housing and returning the electrolyte solution to the housing, and a conduit for admitting pure water to the housing. An electrode system and method are also revealed for extraction of soil contaminants. The system and method utilize at least two electrode assemblies as described above. 5 figs.

Lindgren, E.R.; Mattson, E.D.

1995-07-25

382

Electrokinetic electrode system for extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soils  

DOEpatents

There is presented an electrokinetic electrode assembly for use in extraction of soil contaminants from unsaturated soil in situ. The assembly includes a housing for retaining a liquid comprising an electrolyte solution, pure water, and soil water, the housing being in part of porous material capable of holding a vacuum. An electrode is mounted in the housing. The housing is provided with a vacuum orifice for effecting a vacuum within the housing selectively to control flow of soil water through the housing into the chamber and to control outflow of the liquid from the chamber. The assembly further includes conduit means for removing the liquid from the housing and returning the electrolyte solution to the housing, and a conduit for admitting pure water to the housing. There is further presented an electrode system and method for extraction of soil contaminants, the system and method utilizing at least two electrode assemblies as described above.

Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Mattson, Earl D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01

383

Metal Transport and Bioavailability in Soil Contaminated with CCA-Treated Wood Leachates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was conducted to investigate metal transport and accumulation within soils contaminated with As, Cr, and Cu from CCA-treated wood leachates. New blocks of CCA-treated wood were leached using synthetic rainwater. Soil columns were constructed and filled with three different soils, including a sandy soil, an organic soil and a clay soil. The leachate was applied intermittently until

Roi Dagan; Gabriel Bitton; Timothy G. Townsend

2006-01-01

384

Influence of organic and inorganic soil amendments on plant growth in crude oil-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation can be a viable alternative to traditional, more costly remediation techniques. Three greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate plant growth with different soil amendments in crude oil-contaminated soil. Growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., cultivar: Riley), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L., cultivar: Common), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis, cultivar: Large), fescue (Lolium arundinaceum Schreb., cultivar: Kentucky 31), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., cultivar: Marshall) was determined in crude oil-contaminated soil amended with either inorganic fertilizer, hardwood sawdust, papermill sludge, broiler litter or unamended (control). In the first study, the addition of broiler litter reduced seed germination for ryegrass, fescue, and alfalfa. In the second study, bermudagrass grown in broiler litter-amended soil produced the most shoot biomass, bermudagrass produced the most root biomass, and crabgrass and bermudagrass produced the most root length. In the third study, soil amended with broiler litter resulted in the greatest reduction in gravimetric total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels across the six plant treatments following the 14-wk study. Ryegrass produced more root biomass than any other species when grown in inorganic fertilizer- or hardwood sawdust + inorganic fertilizer-amended soil. The studies demonstrated that soil amendments and plant species selection were important considerations for phytoremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil. PMID:14750564

White, P M; Wolf, D C; Thoma, G J; Reynolds, C M

2003-01-01

385

National remediation program of radioactively contaminated sites in the Republic of Croatia  

SciTech Connect

The national remediation program in Croatia consists of three stages: (1) identification and characterization of radioactively contaminated sites; (2) preparing activities for restoration; and (3) physical restoration at selected (high-prioritized) sites. The program is coordinated by the APO and, in the first stage, performed by both national research institutes of Ruder Boskovi and Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health. The program supervisors are Ministry of Health, Ministry of Economy (Department of Energy) and State Administration for Environmental Protection. There were more than thirty sites suspected to be radioactively contaminated in Croatia. They were classified into four contamination type groups: (1) dumps containing contaminated coal slag and ash; (2) dumps containing contaminated phosphates and phospho-gypsum resulting from fertilizers industry; (3) geothermal springs and gas/oil wells; and (4) sites containing natural radioactive materials (e.g. brickyards, ceramics factories, cement industry etc.). Site prioritization, based on rough characterization of suspected sites, as well as more detailed investigation at one of the high prioritized sites, have been performed so far. The following three sites of highest priority were found: (a) INA-VINIL PVC-factory at Kastel Suurac (contamination group 1); (b) coal-fired power plant PLOMIN (group 2); and (c) INA-VINIL fertilizers factory at Kutina (group 2).

Schaller, A. [APO-Hazardous Waste Management Agency, Zagreb (Croatia); Barisi, D. [Inst. Ruder Boskovi, Zagreb (Croatia)

1995-12-31

386

Tracking the origin and dispersion of contaminated sediments transported by rivers draining the Fukushima radioactive contaminant plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted in several catchments draining the main Fukushima Dai-ichi Power Plant contaminant plume in Fukushima prefecture, Japan. We collected soils and sediment drape deposits (n = 128) and investigated the variation in 137Cs enrichment during five sampling campaigns, conducted every six months, which typically occurred after intense erosive events such as typhoons and snowmelt. We show that upstream contaminated soils are eroded during summer typhoons (June-October) before being exported during the spring snowmelt (March-April). However, this seasonal cycle of sediment dispersion is further complicated by the occurrence of dam releases that may discharge large amounts of contaminants to the coastal plains during the coming years.

Lepage, H.; Evrard, O.; Onda, Y.; Chartin, C.; Lefevre, I.; Sophie, A.; Bonte, P.

2015-03-01

387

Two dimensional imaging of radiation accidents and radioactive contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accident in a nuclear power plant caused by an unpredictable event such as an explosion, fire and earthquake is so serious that we have to carefully and precisely detect any radiation leakage from the plants, given that the number of nuclear power plants is recently increasing in order to cope with the contamination of air due to carbon dioxide

Tomoya Ogawa; Nobuhiko Sarukura; Masahito Watanabe; Tsuguo Fukuda; Nobuhito Nango

2010-01-01

388

Remediation of Mercury Contaminated Soils at the Miramas Site - 12243  

SciTech Connect

Beneficial 'new' use of the Miramas Site is the remediation objective for a former light isotope manufacturing facility. Remediation operations will remove contaminated soils and materials and deconstruct facilities. The remediation objective is faced with project challenges and regulatory requirements that dictate/influence the outcome. The operation consists of the remediation of approximately 100,000 cubic meters of soil and the decommissioning of facilities. The types and ranges of waste are the result of historical processing activities (chemical facilities, pyrotechnic components storage, mining component treatment and light isotope manufacturing activities). Mercury is the primary component of the waste, but metals and organic compounds are also possible waste components. A thermal desorption process is used to remove Mercury from the polluted soil while a biological treatment is considered to the organic nitrate compound removal. A focus is done on the technologies used to remediate the Mercury contaminated soil. After few months of operation, the first results confirm that the technology choices were relevant and the soil remediation project is a success. The first successful month of operation at an industrial scale demonstrate that the Thermal Desorption is an efficient and relevant process to remediate large quantity of mercury contaminated soils. The project is on cost and the mercury removal should be end by 2014. The scrubbing is a good way to limit the volume of material to be treated with the Thermal Desorption Unit. The biological treatment is a promising process for the organic nitrate compound removal and testing at a pilot scale will be done in 2012. (authors)

Potier, G.; Chambon, F. [AREVA NC (France)

2012-07-01

389

Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with toxic elements and radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

At many US Department of Energy (US DOE) facilities and other sites, surface soils over relatively large areas are contaminated with heavy metals, radionuclides, and other toxic elements, often at only a relatively small factor above regulatory action levels. Cleanup of such sites presents major challenges, because currently available soil remediation technologies can be very expensive. In response, the US DOE`s Office of Technology Development, through the Western Environmental Technology Office, is sponsoring research in the area of phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses higher plants to transfer toxic elements and radionuclides from surface soils into aboveground biomass. Some plants, termed hyperaccumulators, take up toxic elements in substantial amounts, resulting in concentrations in aboveground biomass over 100 times those observed with conventional plants. After growth, the plant biomass is harvested, and the toxic elements are concentrated and reclaimed or disposed of. As growing, harvesting, and processing plant biomass is relatively inexpensive, phytoremediation can be a low-cost technology for remediation of extensive areas having lightly to moderately contaminated soils. This paper reviews the potential of hyper- and moderate accumulator plants in soil remediation, provides some comparative cost estimates, and outlines ongoing work initiated by the US DOE.

Cornish, J.E.; Goldberg, W.C. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Levine, R.S. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Technology Development; Benemann, J.R.

1995-12-31

390

Phytoremediation of mercury-contaminated soils by Jatropha curcas.  

PubMed

Jatropha curcas plants species were tested to evaluate their phytoremediation capacity in soils contaminated by different levels of mercury. The experimental treatments consisted of four levels of mercury concentrations in the soil - T0, T1, T5, and T10 (0, 1, 5, and 10?g Hg per g soil, respectively). The total mercury content absorbed by the different plant tissues (roots, stems and leaves) was determined during four months of exposure. The growth behavior, mercury accumulation, translocation (TF) and bioconcentration (BCF) factors were determined. The different tissues in J. curcas can be classified in order of decreasing accumulation Hg as follows: roots>leaves>stems. The highest cumulative absorption of the metal occurred between the second and third month of exposure. Maximum TF was detected during the second month and ranged from 0.79 to 1.04 for the different mercury concentrations. Values of BCF ranged from 0.21 to 1.43. Soils with T1 showed significantly higher BCF (1.43) followed by T10 (1.32) and T5 (0.91), all of them at the fourth month. On the other hand TFs were low (range 0.10-0.26) at the en of the experiment. The maximum reduction of biomass (16.3%) occurred for T10 (10?g Hg g(-1)). In sum, J. curcas species showed high BCFs and low TFs, and their use could be a promising approach to remediating mercury-contaminated soils. PMID:25655698

Marrugo-Negrete, José; Durango-Hernández, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Díez, Sergi

2015-05-01

391

Remediation of PCB contaminated soils using iron nano-particles.  

PubMed

In this study, iron nano-particles were used to remediate PCB contaminated soil and an attempt was made to maximize PCB destruction in each treatment step. The results show that nano-particles do aid in the dechlorination process and high PCB destruction efficiencies can be achieved. The destruction efficiency during the preliminary treatment (mixing of soil and iron nano-particles in water) can be increased by increasing the water temperature. The maximum thermal destruction (pyrolysis/combustion of soil after preliminary treatment) of soil-bound PCBs occurs at 300 degrees C in air. A minimum total PCB destruction efficiency of 95% can be achieved by this process. The effect of changing treatment parameters such as type of mixing, time of mixing and mixing conditions and application of other catalysts like iron oxide and V(2)O(5)/TiO(2) was also investigated. It was found that at 300 degrees C in air, iron oxide and V(2)O(5)/TiO(2) are also good catalysts for remediating PCB contaminated soils. PMID:16962632

Varanasi, Patanjali; Fullana, Andres; Sidhu, Sukh

2007-01-01

392

Release of antimony from contaminated soil induced by redox changes.  

PubMed

Soil contamination by toxic antimony (Sb) released from corroding ammunition has become an issue of public concern in various countries. Many of these soils are at least occasionally subject to waterlogging; yet mechanisms controlling Sb mobility under anaerobic conditions are still poorly understood. We investigated Sb concentration and speciation dynamics in a calcareous shooting range soil in terms of changing redox conditions using microcosm experiments. The transition to reducing conditions invoked by indigenous microbial activity at first led to the immobilization of Sb, as Sb(V) was converted to Sb(III), which binds more extensively to iron (hydr)oxides. When reducing conditions continued, the previously sorbed Sb(III) was gradually released into solution due to reductive dissolution of the iron (hydr)oxides. Speciation measurements in the solid phase by Sb K-edge XANES spectroscopy and in the soil solution by liquid chromatography ICP-MS provided the first evidence that Sb(III) predominated at low redox conditions (Eh <0.05 V) in both phases. The results show that Sb(V) is less stable in reducing environments than commonly assumed. Given that Sb(III) is generally more toxic than Sb(V), the mobilization of Sb(III) under Fe-reducing conditions may significantly increase (eco)toxicological risks arising from Sb-contaminated soils that are prone to flooding or waterlogging. PMID:24862348

Hockmann, Kerstin; Lenz, Markus; Tandy, Susan; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Janousch, Markus; Schulin, Rainer

2014-06-30

393

Washing of various lead compounds from a contaminated soil column  

SciTech Connect

Soil samples artificially contaminated with 10 different lead compounds to produce 5,000 mg/kg Pb were washed with acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions. For variable pH, the highest washing efficiencies were achieved at pH 2, the lowest value examined. Washing with EDTA enhanced the removal of lead, the removal increasing with an increase in the EDTA:lead molar ratio. High removals (70--106%) of adsorbed lead (as lead nitrate), lead carbonate, basic lead carbonate, lead sulfate, and lead oxide were achieved with both types of washing. Although not washed effectively with acid, significant lead dioxide removal occurred with EDTA wash. The removals of lead sulfide, lead paint, lead dimethyldithiocarbamate, and elemental lead were low (near 0--16%) under all washing conditions. The removal efficiency of the lead is affected by the compound solubility, lead solid dissolution kinetics, and lead sorption into the soil. Results clearly indicate the importance of the form of lead contamination in determining the success of a soil washing operation. Comparison of these results with other suggests that soil washing success and soil lead bioaccessibility are related phenomena.

Davis, A.P.; Hotha, B.V. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

1998-11-01

394

Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Colonie site located in Colonie, New York. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site became contaminated with radioactive material as a result of operations conducted by National Lead (NL) Industries from 1958 to 1984; these activities included brass foundry operations, electroplating of metal products, machining of various components using depleted uranium, and limited work with small amounts of enriched uranium and thorium. The Colonie site comprises the former NL Industries property, now designated the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), and 56 vicinity properties contaminated by fallout from airborne emissions; 53 of the vicinity properties were previously remediated between 1984 and 1988. In 1984, DOE accepted ownership of the CISS property from NL Industries. Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines.

Dunning, D.

1996-05-01

395

Final report: survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at environmental restoration sites, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at Sandia`s Environmental Restoration (ER) sites. Radiological characterization was performed as a prerequisite to beginning the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action process. The removal of radioactive surface contamination was performed in order to reduce potential impacts to human health and the environment. The predominant radiological contaminant of concern was depleted uranium (DU). Between October 1993 and November 1996 scanning surface radiation surveys, using gamma scintillometers, were conducted at 65 sites covering approximately 908 acres. A total of 9,518 radiation anomalies were detected at 38 sites. Cleanup activities were conducted between October 1994 and November 1996. A total of 9,122 anomalies were removed and 2,072 waste drums were generated. The majority of anomalies not removed were associated with a site that has subsurface contamination beyond the scope of this project. Verification soil samples (1,008 total samples) were collected from anomalies during cleanup activities and confirm that the soil concentration achieved in the field were far below the target cleanup level of 230 pCi/g of U-238 (the primary constituent of DU) in the soil. Cleanup was completed at 21 sites and no further radiological action is required. Seventeen sites were not completed since cleanup activities wee precluded by ongoing site activity or were beyond the original project scope.

Lambert, K.A.; Mitchell, M.M. [Brown and Root Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jean, D. [MDM/Lamb, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, C. [Environmental Dimensions, Inc., Albuquerque, NM 87109 (United States); Byrd, C.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-09-01

396

COPING WITH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AND SOILS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT.  

SciTech Connect

Soils and sediments contaminated with toxic organic and inorganic compounds harmful to the environment and to human health are common in the urban environment. We report here on aspects of a program being carried out in the New York/New Jersey Port region to develop methods for processing dredged material from the Port to make products that are safe for introduction to commercial markets. We discuss some of the results of the program in Computational Environmental Science, Laboratory Environmental Science, and Applied Environmental Science and indicate some possible directions for future work. Overall, the program elements integrate the scientific and engineering aspects with regulatory, commercial, urban planning, local governments, and community group interests. Well-developed connections between these components are critical to the ultimate success of efforts to cope with the problems caused by contaminated urban soils and sediments.

JONES,K.W.; VAN DER LELIE,D.; MCGUIGAN,M.; ET AL.

2004-05-25

397

Evaluation of Sequestering Agents for Cadmium Contaminated Soils  

SciTech Connect

A goal of in situ remediation is environmental risk reduction through control of the fraction of toxic elements that are potentially mobile or bioavailable. This study evaluated the efficacy of various sequestering agents in reducing Cd availability in contaminated soil. Sequestering agents reduced metal mobility by decreasing the mobile fraction of Cd and increasing its value in the stable fractions. The effectiveness of applied sequestering agents was also evaluated by the availability indices such as bioavailability factor (BF), recalcitrant factor (RF), and the transfer factor (TF). Results from this study indicated that sequestering agent application to metal contaminated soil resulted in decreased values for BF and TF. Such improvements suggest promising remediation techniques and the application of availability indices to risk assessment and monitoring.

Knox, A.S.

2002-11-26

398

Reductive dissolution approaches to removal of uranium from contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Traditional approaches to uranium recovery from ores have employed oxidation of U(IV) minerals to form the uranyl cation which is subsequently complexed by carbonate or maintained in solution by strong acids. Reductive approaches for uranium decontamination have been limited to removing soluble uranium from solutions by formation of U{sup 4+} which readily hydrolyses and precipitates. As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration, we have developed a reductive approach to solubilization of uranium from contaminated soils which employs reduction to destabilize U(VI) solid and sorbed species, and strong chelators for U(IV) to prevent hydrolysis and solubilize the reduced from. This strategy has particular application to sites where the uranium is present primarily as intractable U(VI) phases and where high fractions of the contamination must be removed to meet regulatory requirements.

Brainard, J.R.; Iams, H.D.; Strietelmeier, B.A.; Del-Rio Garcia, M.

1994-06-01

399

Advanced Assay Systems for Radionuclide Contamination in Soils  

SciTech Connect

Through the support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Technical Assistance Program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed and deployed a suite of systems that rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The INL systems integrate detector systems with data acquisition and synthesis software and with global positioning technology to provide a real-time, user-friendly field deployable turn-key system. INL real-time systems are designed to characterize surface soil contamination using methodologies set forth in the Multi-Agency Radiation Surveys and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM provides guidance for planning, implementing, and evaluating environmental and facility radiological surveys conducted to demonstrate compliance with a dose or risk-based regulation and provides real-time information that is immediately available to field technicians and project management personnel. This paper discusses the history of the development of these systems and describes some of the more recent examples and their applications.

J. R. Giles; L. G. Roybal; M. V. Carpenter; C. P. Oertel; J. A. Roach

2008-02-01

400

Decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory East Area radioactively contaminated surplus facilities: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANL has decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) seven radiologically contaminated surplus facilities at its Illinois site: a ''Hot'' Machine Shop (Building 17) and support facilities; Fan House No. 1 (Building 37), Fan House No. 2 (Building 38), the Pangborn Dust Collector (Building 41), and the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (Building 34) for exhaust air from machining of radioactive materials.

W. H. Kline; G. F. Fassnacht; H. J. Moe

1987-01-01

401

Spatial Data Analysis and Modeling of Radioactively-Contaminated Territories: Lessons Learned from Chernobyl  

E-print Network

Chernobyl M. Kanevski1 , L. Bolshov2 , V. Demyanov3 , E. Savelieva4 , V. Timonin5 , S. Chernov6 Abstract territories after the Chernobyl accident. The Chernobyl accident resulted in radioactive contamination, concerning environmental spatial data analysis. The spatial patterns of the Chernobyl fallout are very

402

REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

2002-05-10

403

FINAL REPORT: REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying ha...

404

REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. Current practice to identify hazardous asbe...

405

Radioactive artifacts: historical sources of modern radium contamination.  

PubMed

Radium has been distributed in a wide variety of devices during the early part of this century. Antique objects containing significant amounts of radium turn up at flea markets, antique shows, and antique dealers, in a variety of locations. These objects include radium in devices which were used by legitimate medical practitioners for legitimate medical purposes such as therapy, as well as a wide variety of "quack cures." These devices may contain anywhere from a few nanocuries to as much as several hundred microcuries of radium. In addition to medical sources, a large variety of scientific instruments utilize radium in luminous dials. These instruments include compasses, azimuth indicators, and virtually any object which might require some form of calibration. In addition, the consumer market utilized a large amount of radium in the production of wrist watches, pocket watches, and clocks with luminous dials. Some of these watches contained as much as 4.5 microCi of radium, and between 1913 and 1920 about 70 gm was produced for the manufacture of luminous compounds. In addition to the large amount of radium produced for scientific and consumer utilization, there were a number of materials produced which were claimed to contain radium but in fact did not, further adding to the confusion in this area. The wide availability of radium is a result of the public's great fascination with radioactivity during the early part of this century and a belief in its curative properties. A number of objects were produced in order to trap the emanations of radium in water for persons to drink in order to benefit from their healing effects. Since the late 20s and early 30s the public's attitude towards radiation has shifted 180 degrees and it is now considered an extremely dangerous and harmful material. However, even as late as the 1950s, there were still some items produced containing radioactivity which today would be unthinkable. The "Buck Rogers Mystery Ring" of the 1950s was activated with polonium. With the shift in public attitudes towards radioactivity, and increasing problems in disposal of radioactive materials, the disposal of radium presents a particularly perplexing problem. The radium which was produced in the early part of the century is still around in various forms and is extremely difficult to dispose of. All objects discovered claiming to contain radium should be taken seriously and should be properly surveyed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3278386

Blaufox, M D

1988-01-01

406

Dose assessment for radioactive contamination of a child  

E-print Network

Table 9 ICRP weighted equivalent organ doses and effective doses (mSv) from 1 mCi/100 cm2 radionuclide contamination for 1 hour ............ 23 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION With the growing threat of radiological terrorism... radiological release. This scenario may be caused from a radiological dispersal device, or RDD, but also include non- terrorism events, such as reactor or material accidents. An RDD differs from a nuclear weapon in that it uses conventional explosives...

Kowalczik, Jeffrey Aaron

2009-05-15

407

Soil contamination with emissions of non-ferrous metallurgical plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upper soil horizons are strongly contaminated in the area influenced by the Mid-Urals copper smelter. In the technogenic\\u000a desert and impact zones, the contents of a number of elements (Cu, Zn, As, Pb, P, and S) by many times exceed their clarke\\u000a values and the maximum permissible concentrations (or provisional permissible concentrations). The degree of technogeneity\\u000a (Tg) for these

Yu. N. Vodyanitskii; I. O. Plekhanova; E. V. Prokopovich; A. T. Savichev

2011-01-01

408

Bioremediation of oil-contaminated desert soil: The Kuwaiti experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remediation of the soil contaminated during the invasion of Kuwait is currently being considered. Three different bioremediation approaches were used: landfarming, windrow composting piles, and static bioventing piles. Up to 82.5 and 90.5% reduction in the total petroleum hydrocarbons and total alkanes, respectively, were removed within a 12-month period, depending on the bioremediation method used. Excellent results were produced

H. Chino; H. Tsuji; N. Al-Awadhi

1998-01-01

409

The potential of Thlaspi caerulescens for phytoremediation of contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake of Cd, Zn, Pb and Mn by the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens was studied by pot trials in plant growth units and in populations of wild plants growing over Pb\\/Zn base-metal mine wastes at Les Malines in the south of France. The pot trials utilised metal-contaminated soils from Auby in the Lille area. Zinc and Cd concentrations in wild plants

Brett H. Robinson; Marc Leblanc; Daniel Petit; Robert R. Brooks; John H. Kirkman; Paul E. H. Gregg

1998-01-01

410

Remediation of Cu-contaminated soil using chelant and EAOP  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was used for treatment of the washing solution obtained during leaching of Cu (364 ± 2 mg kg) contaminated soil, with chelant S,S isomer of ethylenediamine disuccinate ([S,S]-EDDS). In the EAOP (constant current density 40 mA cm), a boron-doped diamond anode was used for the generation of hydroxyl radicals and oxidative decomposition of [S,S]-EDDS-metal

Maja Pociecha; Helena Sircelj; Domen Lestan

2009-01-01

411

Washing of various lead compounds from a contaminated soil column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples artificially contaminated with 10 different lead compounds to produce 5,000 mg\\/kg Pb were washed with acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solutions. For variable pH, the highest washing efficiencies were achieved at pH 2, the lowest value examined. Washing with EDTA enhanced the removal of lead, the removal increasing with an increase in the EDTA:lead molar ratio. High removals

Allen P. Davis; Bhaumik V. Hotha

1998-01-01

412

A method to estimate the concentration of elements in smoke from burning vegetation growing in contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site has areas where soil is contaminated with metals and/or radionuclides. Many of these areas are surrounded by native vegetation which is growing adjacent to the area and where the roots have penetrated into the contaminated soil of the area. In some cases vegetation has actually invaded the contaminated area. Even though the volume of contaminated vegetation is small, there are problems associated with its disposal. Vegetation decomposes quickly after burial and the volume of buried vegetation can decrease. The voids left can lead to subsidence and possible failure of the clay cap constructed over hazardous and/or radioactive waste burial grounds. An alternative to burying the wood is to burn it and bury the ash. However, burning will introduce the contamination in the vegetation into the air where there is potential for inhalation of the contaminants. A procedure is described to assess the hazard associated with inhalation of contamination from burning of vegetation growing in contaminated soil. The procedure is applied to evaluation of the consequence of burning vegetation grown adjacent to and in the SRL Seepage Basins. The results indicate that burning the vegetation during the day could introduce a level of contaminants to the atmosphere that could cause an exposure greater than the 1 mrem recommended as negligible by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements but lower than the US Department of Energy 100 mrem release guide. A scenario is also investigated where the largest volume of wood, associated with the least contaminated area, is burned. The air concentrations are significantly decreased by this strategy although the total dose commitment due to all radionuclides is still above the 1 mrem dose guide.

Murphy, C.E. Jr.

1991-03-04

413

Coupling bioleaching and electrokinetics to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils.  

PubMed

In this study, bioleaching was coupled with electrokinetics (BE) to remove heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb) from contaminated soil. For comparison, bioleaching (BL), electrokinetics (EK), and the chemical extraction method were also applied alone to remove the metals. The results showed that the BE method removed more heavy metals from the contaminated soil than the BL method or the EK method alone. The BE method was able to achieve metal solubilization rates of more than 70 % for Cu, Zn and Cr and of more than 40 % for Pb. Within the range of low current densities (<1 mA cm(-2)), higher current density led to more metal removal. However, the metal solubilization rates did not increase with increasing current density when the current density was higher than 1 mA cm(-2). Therefore, it is suggested that bioleaching coupled with electrokinetics can effectively remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils and that preliminary tests should be conducted before field operation to detect the lowest current density for the greatest metal removal. PMID:25680933

Huang, Qingyun; Yu, Zhen; Pang, Ya; Wang, Yueqiang; Cai, Zhihong

2015-04-01

414

Uptake of cesium-137 by crops from contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

The Turkish tea crop was contaminated following the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Finding ways to dispose of the contaminated tea (Camellia sinensis L.) without damaging the environment was the goal of this research conducted at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA). In this study, an investigation was made of {sup 137}Cs activities of the plants and the ratios of transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants when the contaminated tea was applied to the soil. Experiments were conducted in the field and in pots under greenhouse conditions. The activities of the tea applied in the field ranged from 12 500 to 72 800 Bq/m{sup 2}, whereas this activity was constant at 8000 Bq/pot in the greenhouse experiment. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from soil to the plants was between 0.037 and 1.057% for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays indentata Sturt), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and grass (Lolium perenne L.). The ratio of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants increased as the activity {sup 137}Cs in tea applied to soil was increased. The activity in the plants increased due to increased uptake of {sup 137}Cs by plants. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Demirel, H.; Oezer, I.; Celenk, I.; Halitligil, M.B.; Oezmen, A. [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (Turkey)

1994-11-01

415

In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell

2005-12-27

416

In-Situ Contained And Of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-12-27

417

Eco-toxicity and metal contamination of paddy soil in an e-wastes recycling area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paddy soil samples taken from different sites in an old primitive electronic-waste (e-waste) processing region were examined for eco-toxicity and metal contamination. Using the environmental quality standard for soils (China, Grade II) as reference, soil samples of two sites were weakly contaminated with trace metal, but site G was heavily contaminated with Cd (6.37mgkg?1), and weakly contaminated with Cu (256.36mgkg?1)

Zhang Jun-hui; Min Hang

2009-01-01

418

Remediation of AMD Contaminated Soil by Two Types of Reeds.  

PubMed

Acid mine drainage (AMD) adversely impacts many regions in the world. The interactions among citric acid (CA), rhizosphere bacteria and metal uptake in different types of Phragmites australis cultured in spiked AMD contaminated soil were investigated. Compared with non-contaminated reeds cultured under the same conditions, wild reeds harvested from a contaminated site accumulated more metals into tissues. Rhizosphere iron oxidizing bacteria (Fe(II)OB) enhanced the development of Fe plaque but had no significant impact on the formation of Mn and Al plaque on the root surface of either reeds. Plaque may restrain the accumulation of Fe and Mn into tissues of reeds. CA inhibited the growth of Fe(II)OB, reduced the formation of metal plaque and significantly elevated metal accumulations into both underground and aboveground biomass of reeds. The concentrations of Fe, Al and Mn were higher in belowground organs than aboveground tissues. The roots contained 0.28 ± 0.01 mg/g Mn, 3.09 ± 0.51 mg/g Al, 94.47 ± 5.75 mg/g Fe, while the stems accumulated 0.19 ± 0.01 mg/g Mn, 1.34 ± 0.02 mg/g Al, 10.32 ± 0.60 mg/g Fe in wild reeds cultured in soil added with 33,616 ppm CA. Further field investigations may be required to study the effect of CA to enhance phytoremediation of metals from real AMD contaminated sites. PMID:25409253

Guo, Lin; Cutright, Teresa J

2015-01-01

419

Toxicological responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) exposed to metal-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicological responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) induced by field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils. Biochemical responses and DNA damage of earthworm exposed to two multi-metal-contaminated soils in a steel industry park and a natural reference soil in Zijin Mountain for 2, 7, 14, and 28 days were studied. Results showed that three enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and cellulase, in earthworm in metal-contaminated soils were significantly different from those of the reference soil. Cellulase and AChE were more sensitive than SOD to soil contamination. The Olive tail moment of the comet assay after 2-day exposure increased 56.5 and 552.0 % in two contaminated soils, respectively, compared to the reference soil. Our findings show that cellulase and DNA damage levels can be used as potential biomarkers for exposure of earthworm to metal-polluted soils. PMID:23589267

Zheng, Kai; Liu, ZhengTao; Li, YaJie; Cui, YiBin; Li, Mei

2013-12-01

420

Contribution from the Yenisei River to the total radioactive contamination of the Kara Sea  

SciTech Connect

An attempt is made to estimate the contribution from the Yenisei River and, therefore, the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Plant (MCP), which discharged wastewaters to the Yenisei, to the total contamination of the Kara Sea using results from a study of the radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River, Yenisei Bay, Yenisei Gulf, and the Kara Sea itself. Radionuclides generated from using river water in cooling circuits of production reactors make the largest contribution to the total activity. The radioactive contamination of the river decreased by more than 20 times after two of the three operating reactors were shut down. Only several wetlands are actually affected by MCP hundreds of kilometers from the discharge point.

Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Revenko, Yu.A.; Legin, V.K. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)] [and others

1995-07-01

421

Electrokinetic removal of uranium from contaminated, unsaturated soils  

SciTech Connect

Electrokinetic remediation of uranium-contaminated soil was studied in a series of laboratory-scale experiments in test cells with identical geometry using quartz sand at approximately 10 percent moisture content. Uranium, when present in the soil system as an anionic complex, could be migrated through unsaturated soil using electrokinetics. The distance that the uranium migrated in the test cell was dependent upon the initial molar ratio of citrate to uranium used. Over 50 percent of the uranium was recovered from the test cells using the citrate and carbonate complexing agents over of period of 15 days. Soil analyses showed that the uranium remaining in the test cells had been mobilized and ultimately would have been extracted. Uranium extraction exceeded 90 percent in an experiment that was operated for 37 days. Over 70 percent of the uranium was removed from a Hanford waste sample over a 55 day operating period. Citrate and carbonate ligand utilization ratios required for removing 50 percent of the uranium from the uranium-contaminated sand systems were approximately 230 moles ligand per mole uranium and 1320 moles ligand per mole uranium for the waste. Modifying the operating conditions to increasing the residence time of the complexants is expected to improved the utilization efficiency of the complexing agent.

Booher, W.F. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-01-01

422

Assessing soil and groundwater contamination from biofuel spills.  

PubMed

Future modifications of fuels should include evaluation of the proposed constituents for their potential to damage environmental resources such as the subsurface environment. Batch and column experiments were designed to simulate biofuel spills in the subsurface environment and to evaluate the sorption and desorption behavior of target fuel constituents (i.e., monoaromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbons) in soil. The extent and reversibility of the sorption of aromatic biofuel constituents onto soil were determined. When the ethanol content in ethanol-blended gasoline exceeded 25%, enhanced desorption of the aromatic constituents to water was observed. However, when biodiesel was added to diesel fuel, the sorption of target compounds was not affected. In addition, when the organic carbon content of the soil was higher, the desorption of target compounds into water was lower. The empirical relationships between the organic-carbon normalized sorption coefficient (Koc) and water solubility and between Koc and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) were established. Column experiments were carried out for the comparison of column effluent concentration/mass from biofuel-contaminated soil. The dissolution of target components depended on chemical properties such as the hydrophobicity and total mass of biofuel. This study provides a basis for predicting the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds in the event of a biofuel spill. The spill scenarios generated can assist in the assessment of biofuel-contaminated sites. PMID:25582782

Chen, Colin S; Shu, Youn-Yuen; Wu, Suh-Huey; Tien, Chien-Jung

2015-03-11

423

Cleaning Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contaminated Garden Soil by Phytoremediation.  

PubMed

A poplar planted system resulted in the complete removal of at least 19 of the 29 potential polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners detected in trace amounts (37.9 ng g(-1) in total) in a commercial garden soil, while the unplanted soil only had 2 congeners completely removed after 96 days. In addition, the most recalcitrant congener, PCB 52, only decreased by 0.1% in the unplanted reactors while declining by 22.3% in the planted system. There was also greater removal of a PCB 77 spike in the planted system when compared to the unplanted system, 17.2% in the planted system versus 2.8% in the unplanted system. The results suggest that phytoremediation may be an effective tool in cleaning commercially available garden soils that are lightly contaminated with PCBs. PMID:24409084

Meggo, Richard E; Schnoor, Jerald L

2013-01-01

424

[Stabilization and long-term effect of chromium contaminated soil].  

PubMed

Short-term (3 d and 28 d) and long-term (1 a) stabilization effects of Cr contaminated soil were investigated through nature curing, using four amendments including ferrous sulfide, ferrous sulfate, zero-valent iron and sodium dithionite. The results indicated that ferrous sulfide and zero-valent iron were not helpful for the stabilization of Cr(VI) when directly used because of their poor solubility and immobility. Ferrous sulfate could effectively and rapidly decrease total leaching Cr and Cr(VI) content. The stabilization effect was further promoted by the generation of iron hydroxides after long-term curing. Sodium dithionite also had positive effect on soil stabilization. Appropriate addition ratio of the two chemicals could help maintain the soil pH in range of 6-8. PMID:24364328

Wang, Jing; Luo, Qi-Shi; Zhang, Chang-Bo; Tan, Liang; Li, Xu

2013-10-01

425

Evaluation of the phytostabilisation efficiency in a trace elements contaminated soil using soil health indicators.  

PubMed

The efficiency of a remediation strategy was evaluated in a mine soil highly contaminated with trace elements (TEs) by microbiological, ecotoxicological and physicochemical parameters of the soil and soil solution (extracted in situ), as a novel and integrative methodology for assessing recovery of soil health. A 2.5-year field phytostabilisation experiment was carried out using olive mill-waste compost, pig slurry and hydrated lime as amendments, and a native halophytic shrub (Atriplex halimus L.). Comparing with non-treated soil, the addition of the amendments increased soil pH and reduced TEs availability, favoured the development of a sustainable vegetation cover (especially the organic materials), stimulated soil microorganisms (increasing microbial biomass, activity and functional diversity, and reducing stress) and reduced direct and indirect soil toxicity (i.e., its potential associated risks). Therefore, under semi-arid conditions, the use of compost and pig slurry with A. halimus is an effective phytostabilisation strategy to improve soil health of nutrient-poor soils with high TEs concentrations, by improving the habitat function of the soil ecosystem, the reactivation of the biogeochemical cycles of essential nutrients, and the reduction of TEs dissemination and their environmental impact. PMID:24468528

Pardo, T; Clemente, R; Epelde, L; Garbisu, C; Bernal, M P

2014-03-15

426

VAPOR EMISSIONS FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS INTO BUILDINGS: COIV1PAR1SON BETWEEN PREDICTIONS FROM TRANSPORT MODELS AND FIELD MEASUREMENTS  

E-print Network

VAPOR EMISSIONS FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS INTO BUILDINGS: COIV1PAR1SON BETWEEN PREDICTIONS FROM: contaminated soil, soil-vapor émissions into buildings, field measurements, models prédictions 1. Summary Soil at sites contaminated with Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). In thé case of VOCs contamination

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

427

Research Spotlight: Potential pathways of radioactive contaminants to surface waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the 1940s to the end of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy maintained production facilities for manufacturing nuclear weapons along the Columbia River north of Richland, Wash. Known as the Hanford Site, the Rhode Island-sized area contains more than 53 million gallons of radioactive waste and is the location of a massive environmental cleanup. Of particular concern is that when the facility was active, fluids containing 33-59 tons of uranium were discharged into the shallow subsurface aquifer underneath Hanford. Studies suggest that this pollution is pervasively moving with the groundwater in the direction of the Columbia River. (Water Resources Research, doi:10.1029/2010WR009110, 2010)

Kumar, Mohi

2011-02-01

428

Soil microbial community responses to antibiotic-contaminated manure under different soil moisture regimes.  

PubMed

Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is an antibiotic frequently administered to livestock, and it alters microbial communities when entering soils with animal manure, but understanding the interactions of these effects to the prevailing climatic regime has eluded researchers. A climatic factor that strongly controls microbial activity is soil moisture. Here, we hypothesized that the effects of SDZ on soil microbial communities will be modulated depending on the soil moisture conditions. To test this hypothesis, we performed a 49-day fully controlled climate chamber pot experiments with soil grown with Dactylis glomerata (L.). Manure-amended pots without or with SDZ contamination were incubated under a dynamic moisture regime (DMR) with repeated drying and rewetting changes of >20 % maximum water holding capacity (WHCmax) in comparison to a control moisture regime (CMR) at an average soil moisture of 38 % WHCmax. We then monitored changes in SDZ concentration as well as in the phenotypic phospholipid fatty acid and genotypic 16S rRNA gene fragment patterns of the microbial community after 7, 20, 27, 34, and 49 days of incubation. The results showed that strongly changing water supply made SDZ accessible to mild extraction in the short term. As a result, and despite rather small SDZ effects on community structures, the PLFA-derived microbial biomass was suppressed in the SDZ-contaminated DMR soils relative to the CMR ones, indicating that dynamic moisture changes accelerate the susceptibility of the soil microbial community to antibiotics. PMID:24743980

Reichel, Rüdiger; Radl, Viviane; Rosendahl, Ingrid; Albert, Andreas; Amelung, Wulf; Schloter, Michael; Thiele-Bruhn, Sören

2014-01-01

429

Subchronic exposure of mice to Love Canal soil contaminants.  

PubMed

The health hazard potential of soil collected from the surface of the Love Canal chemical dump site in Niagara Falls, New York, was assessed in 90-day exposure studies. Female CD-1 mice were exposed to two concentrations of the volatile components of 1 kg of soil with and without direct soil contact. Control mice were identically housed but without soil. The soil was replaced weekly and 87 compounds were detected in the air in the cages above fresh and 7-day-old soil as analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of many of these compounds decreased during the 7-day exposure cycle. Histopathologic, hematologic, and serum enzyme studies followed necropsy of all mice. There was no mortality of mice exposed for up to 90 days under any condition. Thymus and spleen weights relative to body weight were increased after 4 weeks of exposure by inhalation but not after 8 or 12 weeks of exposure. alpha-, beta-, and delta- Benzenehexachlorides , pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene were detected in liver tissue from these animals. Mice exposed to 5- to 10-fold elevated concentration of volatiles had increased body and relative kidney weights. There was no chemically induced lesion in any animal exposed only to the volatile soil contaminants. Mice exposed by direct contact with the soil without elevated volatile exposure had increased body (10%) and relative liver weights (169%). Centrolobular hepatocyte hypertrophy, which involved 40 to 70% of the lobules, was observed in all mice in this group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6724196

Silkworth, J B; McMartin, D N; Rej, R; Narang, R S; Stein, V B; Briggs, R G; Kaminsky, L S

1984-04-01

430

REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD-TREATMENT CHEMICALS (PCP AND CREOSOTE)  

EPA Science Inventory

PCP and creosote PAHs are found in most of the contaminated soils at wood-treatment sites. The treatment methods currently being used for such soils include soil washing, incineration, and biotreatment. Soil washing involves removal of the hazardous chemicals from soils ...

431

Monitoring of radioactive contamination of water systems after Chernobyl accident  

SciTech Connect

The contamination of the water systems within the Russian North-West region, the Danube river and the reservoir of the Dnieper River during the period from June 1986 to 1992 was studied. The water reservoirs in the vicinity of the Chernobyl NPP contained suspended matter and the bottom sediments contained a wide range of radionuclides, including the isotopes of Pu and TPE. In the Baltic Sea and the allied river and lake reservoirs the concentrations of {sup 137}Cs ({sup 134}Cs was also detected) increased drastically, however, the concentrations of {sup 90}Sr and plutonium isotopes remained essentially at the global level. The Danube River contained increased concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr as compared with 1985; no rise in the concentration of plutonium was observed. In subsequent years (1987--1990) the concentration of cesium isotopes in the reservoirs decreased sharply; but, on the other hand, their concentrations in sediments increased.

Kuznetsov, Y.V. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Dept. of Radioecological Monitoring and Waste Management

1993-12-31

432

Survey on radioactive contamination in Beijing following the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

The radioactive contamination in Beijing caused by the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident was monitored. In this research, samples of air, rainwater, surface water and vegetables in Beijing were collected and measured to estimate the radioactive contamination levels in Beijing. During the period from the 15th to the 41st day after the first emission of radioactive material (first emission) from the Japanese Fukushima nuclear power station (NPS) on 12 March 2011, obvious radioactive contamination was found in the Beijing air samples. The maximum concentration of I-131 was 5.89 mBq m(-3) in the air samples detected on the 22nd day after the first emission, and the maximum concentration of Cs-137 and Cs-134 was found on the 20th day after the first emission. Except for one sample of rainwater, no artificial radionuclides associated with Fukushima were found in surface water. The measurement results showed that there was no harm to the health of local Beijing residents. PMID:23803226

Lou, Yun; Wan, Ling; Ma, Yongzhong; Li, Huijuan; Meng, Qinghua; Kong, Yuxia; Zhu, Weijie; Wu, Dapeng; Cui, Limeng

2013-09-01

433

Soil moisture pre-treatment effects on enzyme activities as indicators of heavy metal-contaminated and reclaimed soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal contamination can inhibit soil functions but it is often difficult to determine the degree of pollution or when soil reclamation is complete. Enzyme assays offer potential as indicators of biological functioning of soils. However, antecedent water content of soil samples may affect the outcome of biological measurements. In Mediterranean regions, for much of the year ‘field moist’ surface

M. Belén Hinojosa; José A. Carreira; Roberto García-Ruíz; Richard P. Dick

2004-01-01

434

Natural radioactivity content in soil and indoor air of Chellanam.  

PubMed

Contribution of terrestrial radiation due to the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil and air constitutes a significant component of the background radiation exposure to the population. The concentrations of natural radionuclides in the soil and indoor air of Chellanam were investigated with an aim of evaluating the environmental radioactivity level and radiation hazard to the population. Chellanam is in the suburbs of Cochin, with the Arabian Sea in the west and the Cochin backwaters in the east. Chellanam is situated at ?25 km from the sites of these factories. The data obtained serve as a reference in documenting changes to the environmental radioactivity due to technical activities. Soil samples were collected from 30 locations of the study area. The activity concentrations of (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K in the samples were analysed using gamma spectrometry. The gamma dose rates were calculated using conversion factors recommended by UNSCEAR [United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR (2000)]. The ambient radiation exposure rates measured in the area ranged from 74 to 195 nGy h(-1) with a mean value of 131 nGy h(-1). The significant radionuclides being (232)Th, (238)U and (40)K, their activities were used to arrive at the absorbed gamma dose rate with a mean value of 131 nGy h(-1) and the radium equivalent activity with a mean value of 162 Bq kg(-1). The radon progeny levels varied from 0.21 to 1.4 mWL with a mean value of 0.6 mWL. The thoron progeny varied from 0.34 to 2.9 mWL with a mean value of 0.85 mWL. The ratio between thoron and radon progenies varied from 1.4 to 2.3 with a mean of 1.6. The details of the study, analysis and results are discussed. PMID:22951996

Mathew, S; Rajagopalan, M; Abraham, J P; Balakrishnan, D; Umadevi, A G

2012-11-01

435

Comparison of bioassays by testing whole soil and their water extract from contaminated sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The harmful effects of contaminants on the ecosystems and humans are characterised by their environmental toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess applicability and reliability of several environmental toxicity tests, comparing the result of the whole soils and their water extracts. In the study real contaminated soils were applied from three different inherited contaminated sites of organic and

Laura Leitgib; Judit Kálmán; Katalin Gruiz

2007-01-01

436

LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON CONTENT FLY ASH  

E-print Network

1 LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS STABILIZED WITH HIGH CARBON CONTENT FLY ASH the stabilization of petroleum- contaminated soils (PCSs) using another recycled material, high carbon content fly; however, the level of petroleum contamination has a significant effect on the leaching properties

Aydilek, Ahmet

437

Soil contamination by organic and inorganic pollutants at the regional scale: the case of Piedmont, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Diffuse soil contamination has often been neglected in scientific literature, as most studies focus on contaminants from point-sources\\u000a (either of industrial or agricultural origin). However, soil pollution from diffuse sources is recognized as one of the major\\u000a soil threats by the EU Soil Thematic Strategy. In fact, some pollutants are nowadays ubiquitarious in the soil system, and

Gabriele Fabietti; Mattia Biasioli; Renzo Barberis; Franco Ajmone-Marsan

2010-01-01

438

Artificial radioactivity in environmental media (air, rainwater, soil, vegetation) in Austria after the Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

Several environmental media in Austria were monitored for artificial radionuclides released during the Fukushima nuclear accident. Air (up to 1.2 mBq/m(3) particulate (131)I) and rainwater (up to 5.2 Bq/L (131)I) proved to be the media best suited for the environmental monitoring, allowing also a temporal resolution of the activity levels. Significant regional differences in the wet deposition of (131)I with rain could be observed within the city of Vienna during the arrival of the contaminated air masses. Forward-trajectory analysis supported the hypothesis that the contaminated air masses coming from the northwest changed direction to northeast over Northern Austria, leading to a strong activity concentration gradient over Vienna. In the course of the environmental monitoring of the Fukushima releases, this phenomenon-significant differences of (131)I activity concentrations in rainwater on a narrow local scale (8.1 km)-appears to be unique. Vegetation (grass) was contaminated with (131)I and/or (137)Cs at a low level. Soil (up to 22 Bq/kg