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1

Soil washing and radioactive contamination  

SciTech Connect

Soil washing, a technique combining both physical and chemical processes to produce significant volume reduction of contaminated soils, is widely regarded as a panacea for the huge inventory of contaminated soils in the DOE Complex. While the technology has been demonstrated for organics and to some extent for metals, review of the publications available on the practical applications to radioactive sites, indicates that most volume reduction is a product of unique circumstances such as screening or floating out non-soil materials containing most of the contaminants, or leaching contaminants (uranium or TRU) that exist as anionic complexes (Grant, 1991) which are not held by the soil cation-exchange-capacity. In either case, the potential for success of the technology is extremely site and contaminant specific. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) guidance on soil washing treatability studies suggests a 50% reduction of contamination in particles over 2mm as a reasonable cutoff for choosing soil washing for further development (EPA, 1991).

Gombert, D.; Bosley, J.B.

1992-03-20

2

Soil washing and radioactive contamination  

SciTech Connect

Soil washing, a technique combining both physical and chemical processes to produce significant volume reduction of contaminated soils, is widely regarded as a panacea for the huge inventory of contaminated soils in the DOE Complex. While the technology has been demonstrated for organics and to some extent for metals, review of the publications available on the practical applications to radioactive sites, indicates that most volume reduction is a product of unique circumstances such as screening or floating out non-soil materials containing most of the contaminants, or leaching contaminants (uranium or TRU) that exist as anionic complexes (Grant, 1991) which are not held by the soil cation-exchange-capacity. In either case, the potential for success of the technology is extremely site and contaminant specific. The Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) guidance on soil washing treatability studies suggests a 50% reduction of contamination in particles over 2mm as a reasonable cutoff for choosing soil washing for further development (EPA, 1991).

Gombert, D.; Bosley, J.B.

1992-03-20

3

Study on ARCL estimation method for radioactivity-contaminated soil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim of present work is to discuss the estimation method of allowable residual contamination levels (ARCL) in radioactivity-contaminated soil near by the nuclear facilities under decommissioning or to be decommissioned. The estimation method would help...

Liu Keqiang Wang Zhiming Ji Guoqing

1996-01-01

4

Sequential extraction evaluation of soil washing for radioactive contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experimental plan for evaluating soil washing technology for potential application to radioactively contaminated soils at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The sequential extraction methodology is based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. A mechanism-specific extractant has the potential for greater removal efficiency than

Gombert

1992-01-01

5

Bioremediation of a soil contaminated with radioactive elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some agricultural lands located in the Vromos Bay area, near the Black Sea coast, Southeastern Bulgaria, have been contaminated with radioactive elements (uranium, radium and thorium) and toxic heavy metals (copper, cadmium and lead) as a result of mining and mineral processing of polymetallic ores. Laboratory experiments carried out with soil samples from these lands revealed that an efficient remediation

S. N Groudev; P. S Georgiev; I. I Spasova; K Komnitsas

2001-01-01

6

Decontamination of radioactively contaminated soil at the Russian Science Center Kurchatov Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main results of startup operations and experimental operation of a facility for decontaminating radioactively contaminated\\u000a soil are presented. The facility was developed on the basis of water-gravity and mechanical separation of soil, making it\\u000a possible to separate the soil into fractions according to grain size and to identify and remove the finely dispersed fraction\\u000a which is characterized by high

V. G. Volkov; Yu. A. Zverkov; O. P. Ivanov; S. M. Koltyshev; S. G. Semenov; V. E. Stepanov; A. D. Shisha

2007-01-01

7

Remediation of a radioactively contaminated soil using a mobile soil-washing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain free-release of a former uranium mining site in Texas, it was required that the surface soil meet specific radiological guidelines. The soil has been contaminated with uranium and radium as a result of the spillage of well-drilling material, process solutions, and ion exchange resins during mining. To meet the required guidelines, the contaminated soil had to

D. C. Grant; E. J. Lahoda; A. J. Dietrich; D. H. Weigle; C. P. Keegan; J. D. Sachse

1993-01-01

8

Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive heavy metal contaminants. Quarterly report, January--March 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and develop a physico- chemical treatment process for the removal of uranium and heavy metals from contaminated soil to achieve target contamination levels below 35 pCi/g of soil and a target for non-radioactive heavy metals below concentration levels permissible for release of the soil. Ex- situ pilot-scale soil decontamination and leachate treatment test using Chalk River Chemical Pit soil are nearing completion. Soil decontamination tests using Fernald Incinerator Area soil originally scheduled for February 1995 was postponed to May 1995 as result of unexpected delays in the preparation of two drums of soils.

NONE

1995-05-01

9

A proposed methodology for evaluating low-level radioactively-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared to support the development of residual radioactivity criteria for disposition of contaminated soil locations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The criteria is primarily for use in making decisions regarding disposition of sites at the INEL that have low levels of radioactive contamination that are not already in an Operable Unit (OU) or Waste Area Group (WAG) identified under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFA/CO) process in place at the INEL. The report describes the development of screening level concentrations for selected radionuclides in soils in the environment at the INEL. These screening levels are based on environmental conditions at the INEL and are generically applicable to the site. They are intended to provide a consistent technical basis for operational decisions regarding the disposition of sites contaminated with low levels of radioactivity prior to final remediation. They are not intended to be used in lieu of the remediation process defined under the FFA/CO, nor as clean-up levels for locations where remediation is required. This report presents the development of screening levels that are based on a site-specific pathway analysis using the DOE-recommended RESRAD code. RESRAD results for screening level calculations are presented in Appendix A.

Alexander, D.R.; Clarke, G.W. [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dickson, R.L. [USDOE Idaho Operations Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

10

Vadose zone characterization of highly radioactive contaminated soil at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site in south-central Washington State contains over 1500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 remedial investigation is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 investigation on the Hanford Site that involves drilling into highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste site within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling the waste site, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. Predicted modeling concentrations compared favorably to analytical data collected during the initial characterization activities.

Buckmaster, M.A.

1993-05-01

11

On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site is an interesting case study for decommissioning due to the extremely large

O. Reistad; M. Dowdall; Ø. G. Selnæs; W. J. F. Standring; S. Hustveit; F. Steenhuisen; A. Sørlie

2008-01-01

12

Triple digging — a simple method for restoration of radioactively contaminated urban soil areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

External radiation doses to urban or suburban populations after the Chernobyl accident in 1986 are often dominated by contributions from soil areas near dwellings. Previously reported procedures for reclamation of contaminated soil are generally inadequate or expensive to carry out in this type of area. Therefore, a new technique has been examined in a heavily contaminated area of Russia. The

Jørn Roed; Kasper G. Andersson; Christian L. Fogh; Anatoli N. Barkovski; Boris F. Vorobiev; Viktor N. Potapov; Alexander V. Chesnokov

1999-01-01

13

Uptake of radioactive and stable Co and Zn isotopes by barley plants under mixed radioactive and chemical contamination of soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Co and Zn on the accumulation of 60Co and 65Zn by plants was studied in experiments with growing barley on a soddy-podzolic soil and a chernozem containing the radionuclide\\u000a and increasing concentrations (from the background level to a high degree of contamination) of the corresponding metal. The\\u000a root uptake of 60Co was directly related to the soil

S. V. Kruglov; G. V. Lavrent’eva; Yu. A. Pivovarova; V. S. Anisimov

2010-01-01

14

Uptake of radioactive and stable Co and Zn isotopes by barley plants under mixed radioactive and chemical contamination of soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Co and Zn on the accumulation of 60Co and 65Zn by plants was studied in experiments with growing barley on a soddy-podzolic soil and a chernozem containing the radionuclide and increasing concentrations (from the background level to a high degree of contamination) of the corresponding metal. The root uptake of 60Co was directly related to the soil

S. V. Kruglov; G. V. Lavrent'eva; Yu. A. Pivovarova; V. S. Anisimov

2010-01-01

15

Effects of low-level radioactive soil contamination and sterilization on the degradation of radiolabeled wheat straw.  

PubMed

After the explosion of reactor 4 in the nuclear power plant near Chernobyl, huge agricultural areas became contaminated with radionuclides. In this study, we want to elucidate whether (137)Cs and (90)Sr affect microorganisms and their community structure and functions in agricultural soil. For this purpose, the mineralization of radiolabeled wheat straw was examined in lab-scale microcosms. Native soils and autoclaved and reinoculated soils were incubated for 70 days at 20 °C. After incubation, the microbial community structure was compared via 16S and 18S rDNA denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The radioactive contamination with (137)Cs and (90)Sr was found to have little effect on community structure and no effect on the straw mineralization. The autoclaving and reinoculation of soil had a strong influence on the mineralization and the community structure. Additionally we analyzed the effect of soil treatment on mineralization and community composition. It can be concluded that other environmental factors (such as changing content of dissolved organic carbon) are much stronger regulating factors in the mineralization of wheat straw and that low-level radiation only plays a minor role. PMID:22248931

Niedrée, Bastian; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

2012-01-15

16

Hanford Site surface soil radioactive contamination control plan for fiscal year 1993  

SciTech Connect

The Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure Program ensures safe and cost-effective surveillance, maintenance, and decommissioning of surplus facilities and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closures at the Hanford Site and reports to the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. This program also manages the Radiation Area Remedial Action, which includes the surveillance, maintenance, decontamination, and/or interim stabilization of inactive burial grounds, cribs, ponds, trenches, and unplanned release sites. This report addresses only the Radiation Area Remedial Action activity requirements for managing and controlling the contaminated surface soil areas associated with these inactive sites until they are remediated as part of the Hanford Site environmental restoration process.

Winship, R.A.; Hughes, M.C.

1992-09-01

17

Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL\\/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil

J. A. Roybal; R. Conway; B. Galloway; E. Vinsant; P. Slavin; D. Guerin

1998-01-01

18

Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive heavy metal contaminants. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and develop a physico-chemical treatment process for the removal of uranium and heavy metals from contaminated soil to achieve target contamination levels below 35 pCi/g of soil and a target for non-radioactive heavy metals below concentration levels permissible for release of the soil. The work will involve bench-scale and pilot-scale tests, using chelation-flotation, chemical leaching and ultrasonic leaching techniques, in conjunction with cross-flow microfiltration and filter-press operations. The effectiveness of an integrated process to treat leachates generated from soil processing will be demonstrated. Process flow-sheets suitable for in-situ and ex-situ applications will be developed and preliminary costs will be provided for the soil and leachate treatment technologies.

Not Available

1994-11-01

19

Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive heavy metal contaminants. Ninth quarterly technical and financial progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and develop a physico-chemical treatment process for the removal of uranium and heavy metals from contaminated soil to achieve target contamination levels below 35 pCi/g of soil and a target for non-radioactive heavy metals below concentration levels permissible for release of the soil. The work will involve bench-scale and pilot-scale tests, using chelation-flotation, chemical leaching and ultrasonic leaching techniques, in conjunction with cross-flow microfiltration and filter-press operations. The effectiveness of an integrated process to treat leachates generated from soil processing will be demonstrated. Process flow-sheets suitable for in-situ and ex-situ applications will be developed and preliminary costs will be provided for the soil and leachate treatment technologies. In accordance with 10CFR 600.31 (d)(i), an extension of the project period including final report submission to 31 July 1995 was made in anticipation of potential delays in receiving Fernald soil samples at Chalk River Laboratories for the planned pilot-scale verification tests. Ex-situ pilot-scale soil decontamination and leachate treatment tests using Chalk River Chemical Pit soil are nearing completion. Soil decontamination tests using Fernald Incinerator Area soil originally scheduled for February 1995 was postponed to May 1995 as result of unexpected delays in the preparation of two drums of soils ({approximately}416 kg) by FERMCO and paperwork required to arrange for export/import licenses.

NONE

1995-05-01

20

Dynamics of radiostrontium leaching from radioactively contaminated floodplain soils of the Yenisei River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gleyzation-mediated leaching of radiostrontium from floodplain soils of the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC)\\u000a activity zone [Atamanovskii Island (front part), Oseredysh Island (front part), and Berezovyi Island (rear part)] is studied\\u000a with model systems. Leaching of radiostrontium from waterlogged soils is analyzed in terms of the model of anaerobic biosolubilization\\u000a of gel films. The leaching of radiostrontium is found

E. K. Legin; Yu. I. Trifonov; M. L. Khokhlov; D. N. Suglobov; E. E. Legina; V. K. Legin

2008-01-01

21

Microfiltration of radioactive contaminants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cross-flow microfiltration processing of radioactive liquids has been in use at Chalk River Laboratories for about four years. The separation process removes suspended particles from radioactive waste solutions. The clean liquid can then be treated with c...

L. P. Buckley J. A. Slade S. Vijayan C. F. Wong

1993-01-01

22

Soil treatment to remove uranium and related mixed radioactive heavy metal contaminants. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and develop a physico-chemical treatment process for the removal of uranium and heavy metals from contaminated soil to achieve target contamination levels below 35 pCi/g of soil and a target for non-radioactive heavy metals below concentration levels permissible for release of the soil. The work will involve bench-scale and pilot-scale tests, using chelation-flotation, chemical leaching and ultrasonic leaching techniques, in conjunction with cross-flow microfiltration and filter-press operations. The effectiveness of an integrated process to treat leachates generated from soil processing will be demonstrated. Process flow-sheets suitable for in-situ and ex-situ applications will be developed and preliminary costs will be provided for the soil and leachate treatment technologies. The Task 2 Topical Report (milestone No. 4) summarizing contaminant removal results obtained from bench-scale studies using Fernald uranium soils and Chalk River Laboratories Chemical Pit soils was completed and issued on August 8, 1994. The results have shown that the soils containing uranium (about 400 pCi/g of soil) and strontium-90 (about 1200 pCi/g of soil) can be decontaminated to the target level of 35 pCi/g of treated soil in the presence of an ultrasonic field. Preliminary results obtained from the in-situ soil leaching tests are the average strontium-90 concentration in the cell was about 250 pCi/g; and the use of a dilute mineral acid (0. 1 mol/L HCl) removed in excess of 85% of strontium-90 originally present in the soil.

Buckley, L.P.

1994-12-31

23

Environmental geochemistry of radioactive contamination.  

SciTech Connect

This report attempts to describe the geochemical foundations of the behavior of radionuclides in the environment. The information is obtained and applied in three interacting spheres of inquiry and analysis: (1) experimental studies and theoretical calculations, (2) field studies of contaminated and natural analog sites and (3) model predictions of radionuclide behavior in remediation and waste disposal. Analyses of the risks from radioactive contamination require estimation of the rates of release and dispersion of the radionuclides through potential exposure pathways. These processes are controlled by solubility, speciation, sorption, and colloidal transport, which are strong functions of the compositions of the groundwater and geomedia as well as the atomic structure of the radionuclides. The chemistry of the fission products is relatively simple compared to the actinides. Because of their relatively short half-lives, fission products account for a large fraction of the radioactivity in nuclear waste for the first several hundred years but do not represent a long-term hazard in the environment. The chemistry of the longer-lived actinides is complex; however, some trends in their behavior can be described. Actinide elements of a given oxidation state have either similar or systematically varying chemical properties due to similarities in ionic size, coordination number, valence, and electron structure. In dilute aqueous systems at neutral to basic pH, the dominant actinide species are hydroxy- and carbonato-complexes, and the solubility-limiting solid phases are commonly oxides, hydroxides or carbonates. In general, actinide sorption will decrease in the presence of ligands that complex with the radionuclide; sorption of the (IV) species of actinides (Np, Pu, U) is generally greater than of the (V) species. The geochemistry of key radionuclides in three different environments is described in this report. These include: (1) low ionic strength reducing waters from crystalline rocks at nuclear waste research sites in Sweden; (2) oxic water from the J-13 well at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the site of a proposed repository for high level nuclear waste (HLW) in tuffaceous rocks; and (3) reference brines associated with the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The transport behaviors of radionuclides associated with the Chernobyl reactor accident and the Oklo Natural Reactor are described. These examples span wide temporal and spatial scales and include the rapid geochemical and physical processes important to nuclear reactor accidents or industrial discharges as well as the slower processes important to the geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Application of geochemical information to remediating or assessing the risk posed by radioactive contamination is the final subject of this report. After radioactive source terms have been removed, large volumes of soil and water with low but potentially hazardous levels of contamination may remain. For poorly-sorbing radionuclides, capture of contaminated water and removal of radionuclides may be possible using permeable reactive barriers and bioremediation. For strongly sorbing radionuclides, contaminant plumes will move very slowly. Through a combination of monitoring, regulations and modeling, it may be possible to have confidence that they will not be a hazard to current or future populations. Abstraction of the hydrogeochemical properties of real systems into simple models is required for probabilistic risk assessment. Simplifications in solubility and sorption models used in performance assessment calculations for the WIPP and the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain are briefly described.

Bryan, Charles R.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean

2003-09-01

24

Significant radioactive contamination of soil around a coal-fired thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil samples were collected around a coal-fired power plant from 81 different locations. Brown coal, unusually rich in uranium, is burnt in this plant that lies inside the confines of a small industrial town and has been operational since 1943. Activity concentrations of the radionuclides 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K were determined in the samples. Considerably elevated concentrations of

Z Papp; Z Dezs?; S Daróczy

2002-01-01

25

Evaluating Soil Contamination  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This compilation was designed to help U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service contaminant specialists evaluate the degree of contamination of a soil, based on chemical analyses. Included are regulatory criteria, opinions, brief descriptions of scientific articles, and miscellaneous information that might be useful in making risk assessments. The intent was to make hard-to-obtain material readily available to contaminant specialists, but not to critique the material or develop new criteria. The compilation is to be used with its index, which includes about 200 contaminants. There are several entries for a few of the most thoroughly studied contaminants, but for most of them the information available is meager. Entries include soil contaminant criteria from other countries, contaminant guidelines for applying sewage sludge to soil, guidelines for evaluating sediments, background soil concentrations for various elements, citations to scientific articles that may help estimate the potential movement of soil contaminants into wildlife food chains, and a few odds and ends. Articles on earthworms were emphasized because they are a natural bridge between soil and many species of wildlife.

Beyer, W.N.

1990-01-01

26

Radioactive Contamination Control Work Practices  

SciTech Connect

At Hanford, loose radioactive material can be found in plant systems, rooms, ventilation ducts, fuel pools, and outside radiological work facilities. Work practices used to accomplish radiological work in nuclear facilities often concern keeping radioactive contamination from spreading. This is not an easy task as the contamination activity levels can be very high and the material can be very unstable. Most of the time, the contamination is not visible, so we have to rely on surveys taken by Radiological Controls personnel to tell workers where the contamination is located and the activity levels present. The work practices used by workers are critical in controlling contamination spread, but it is impossible to document all of the work practices a worker should use. Many times, something will happen during the job that could result in a contamination spread. We rely on the workers knowledge and experience to realize when a potential spread of contamination is occurring, and take the actions necessary to prevent it from happening. It is important that a worker understand the concepts of contamination control in order to make the right decisions when work is accomplished. In facilities that work with ''fissile'' materials there is increased concern that nothing be done that increases the chance that a ''criticality accident'' might occur during work. Criticality safety personnel need to be consulted and approve contamination control practices that could increase the potential for a criticality accident. This Workshop includes a discussion of fundamental contamination control practices and new techniques used for radiological work. This is intended to be very informative and include hands-on exercises to provide the attendees with an appreciation of the methods being used to confine contamination spread.

WAGGONER, L.O.

2002-10-01

27

Radioactive contamination of the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a review of foreign works on the study of radioactive contamination of the atmosphere due primarily to diffusion of fission fragments from atomic tests. Several properties of fission fragment activity, namely its decay rate and the composition of its radiation, are considered, and methods are described for monitoring the fallout from the atmosphere and calculating the resulting

L. I. Gedeonov

1957-01-01

28

Environmental Geochemistry of Radioactive Contamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Psychometric studies of public perception of risk have shown that dangers associated with radioactive contamination are considered the most dreaded and among the least understood hazards (Slovic, 1987). Fear of the risks associated with nuclear power and associated contamination has had important effects on policy and commercial decisions in the last few decades. In the US, no new nuclear power plants were ordered between 1978 and 2002, even though it has been suggested that the use of nuclear power has led to significantly reduced CO2 emissions and may provide some relief from the potential climatic changes associated with fossil fuel use. The costs of the remediation of sites contaminated by radioactive materials and the projected costs of waste disposal of radioactive waste in the US dwarf many other environmental programs. The cost of disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain will likely exceed 10 billion. The estimated total life cycle cost for remediation of US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons production sites ranged from 203-247 billion dollars in constant 1999 dollars, making the cleanup the largest environmental project on the planet (US DOE, 2001). Estimates for the cleanup of the Hanford site alone exceeded $85 billion through 2046 in some of the remediation plans.Policy decisions concerning radioactive contamination should be based on an understanding of the potential migration of radionuclides through the geosphere. In many cases, this potential may have been overestimated, leading to decisions to clean up contaminated sites unnecessarily and exposing workers to unnecessary risk. It is important for both the general public and the scientific community to be familiar with information that is well established, to identify the areas of uncertainty and to understand the significance of that uncertainty to the assessment of risk.

Siegel, M. D.; Bryan, C. R.

2003-12-01

29

Assessing inhalation exposure from airborne soil contaminants  

SciTech Connect

A method of estimation of inhalation exposure to airborne soil contaminants is presented. this method is derived from studies of airborne soil particles with radioactive tags. The concentration of contaminants in air (g/m{sup 3}) can be derived from the product of M, the suspended respirable dust mass concentration (g/m{sup 3}), S, the concentration of contaminant in the soil (g/g), and E{sub f}, an enhancement factor. Typical measurement methods and values of M, and E{sub f} are given along with highlights of experiences with this method.

Shinn, J.H.

1998-04-01

30

Evaluating Potential Groundwater Contamination from Contaminated Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contamination of soils at toxic and hazardous waste sites can adversely affect groundwater and surface water. Water soluble materials can move in soil by leaching and percolation and by runoff. The project evaluated the toxicity of leachable toxicants fro...

J. R. Pratt P. V. McCormick K. W. Pontasch J. Cairns

1987-01-01

31

Contaminated soil stabilization demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Long-term herbicide control along with a shotcrete cover was constructed at the Hanford Site in May 1991. The cover system allows for maintenance-free containment of contaminants by preventing wind and water transport of contaminants from the soil surface, preventing plant uptake of contaminants, and minimizing water infiltration through the soil column. The cover is composed of two parts: a commercial nonwoven geotextile material impregnated with trifluralin, and a >5-centimeter top cover of shotcrete containing polyethylene fibers. The herbicide-impregnated geotextile functions to prevent plant root growth into contaminated soil if any holes or cracks develop in the shotcrete layer. The herbicide component, trifluralin, is mixed into polymer nodules that degrade slowly over many years, thus releasing trifluralin slowly over time. The shotcrete topcover was sprayed using a sludge pump and air compressor to form a hard, impenetrable surface that prevents wind erosion and reduces water infiltration through the contaminated materials underneath. The benefits of the cover system are expected to last 20 to 30 years. 2 refs., 4 figs.

Kemp, C.J.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Sampson, A.E.; Phillips, S.J.

1991-10-01

32

Radioactive contamination of Russia's Techa River  

SciTech Connect

From 1949 to 1956, the ecosystem of the Techa River in the Chelyabinsk region of Russia was contaminated by the discharge of liquid radioactive wastes from the radiochemical production complex [open quotes]Mayak.[close quotes] Further distribution of radionuclides resulted in contamination of riverside territories such as the settlement Muslyumovo and was most pronounced in places used as pastures, for laying in fodder, and for fishing and swimming. First, the Techa River is simultaneously a depository-dump and the main source of such radionuclides as [sup 137]Cs, [sup 90]Sr, and [sup 239]Pu in the riverside environment. Secondly, the land formations and geochemical properties of the soils and sediments in the Techa River floodplain promote the accumulation of radionuclides in vegetation and, as a result, their further migration to animals that come in contact with or consume the vegetation. In addition, the contamination of Muslyumovo is exacerbated by high levels of radioactive contamination of living organisms with [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr, as well as by the presence of alpha-emitting isotopes. Data suggest that the respiratory system in humans is the most probable path of exposure to alpha-emitters. 4 refs.

Khotuleva, M.V. (Socio-Ecological Union, Moscow (Russian Federation)); Chechetkin, V.A. (Coordination Committee on Radiation Safety of the Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)); Melnichenko, N.A.

1993-04-01

33

49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section...Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A carrier...contact by any person with Class 7 (radioactive) materials that may have been...

2012-10-01

34

49 CFR 175.705 - Radioactive contamination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radioactive contamination. 175.705 Section...Classification of Material § 175.705 Radioactive contamination. (a) A carrier...contact by any person with Class 7 (radioactive) materials that may have been...

2011-10-01

35

Natural radioactivity in Spanish soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program of studies and surveys of natural radiation and radioactivity in Spain organized by our research group at the end of the 1980s included a 4-y national survey to determine the concentrations of natural radionuclides in soil. Results obtained from measurements of soil samples collected nationwide at >900 sampling sites are reported and discussed in this paper. Correlations between

L. S. Quindos; P. L. Fernandez; J. Soto; C. Rodenas; J. Gomez

1994-01-01

36

Magnetic extraction of radioactive contaminations from Chernobyl NPP regions  

SciTech Connect

In this paper preliminary experimental data on decontamination of the soil of a 30-km-zone around ChNPP from radioactive contaminants by dry magnetic separation are presented. The facility used for performing the experiments is briefly described. The first run of experiments confirmed the feasibility of partial decontamination of various-type soils. The second run of experiments helped to clarify the effect of preheating (up to 500{degrees}C) and repeated decontamination of the soil samples on the degree of soil decontamination.

Pereverzev, V.V.; Piskunov, A.N.; Fedorov, V.K.; Kheruvimov, A.N.; Cheremnykh, P.A. (I.V. Kurchatov Inst. of Atomic Energy, Moscow (SU))

1992-01-01

37

Radioactivity concentration in soil in Jeddah area, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of radioactivity in soil was measured in Jeddah area. Cs concentration was determined as an indication of the degree of contamination from Chernobyl accident. Natural uranium and thorium radioactive series, as well as K concentration levels have been determined. These radioisotopes contribute to the background exposure both indoor and outdoor. The concentration of Bi a member of U

Waleed Abulfaraj

1992-01-01

38

Measurement of radioactivity in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of soils originating from different rock types has been examined for their radioactive contents. The activities due to Ra 226 plus daughters, Th 232 plus daughters and K 40 were determined in 3 kg samples on a stablilized scintillation -ray spectrometer. The resulting pulse-height spectra were analysed by a least squares method using existing computer programmes. The purpose

Maria Vassilaki; L. Salmon; J. A. B. Gibson

1966-01-01

39

Perspectives of Radioactive Contamination in Nuclear War  

PubMed Central

The degrees of risk associated with the medical, industrial and military employment of nuclear energy are compared. The nature of radioactive contamination of areas and of persons resulting from the explosion of nuclear weapons, particularly the relationship between the radiation exposure and the amount of physical debris, is examined. Some theoretical examples are compared quantitatively. It is concluded that the amount of radio-activity that may be carried on the contaminated person involves a minor health hazard from gamma radiation, compared to the irradiation arising from contaminated areas.

Waters, W. R.

1967-01-01

40

Leachate tests with sewage sludge contaminated by radioactive cesium.  

PubMed

The sewer systems of eastern Japan have transported radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident to wastewater treatment plants, where the radioisotopes have accumulated. To better understand the potential problems associated with the disposal of contaminated sewage sludge in landfills, leachate tests were conducted with radioactive incinerator ash, cement solidification incinerator ash, and dewatered sludge cake. Radioactivity was undetectable in the eluate from incinerator ash and dewatered sludge cake, but about 30% of the radioactivity initially in cement solidification incinerator ash appeared in the eluate during the leaching experiments. Moreover, modification of test conditions revealed that the presence of Ca(2+) ions and strong alkali in the water that contacted the incinerator ash enhanced leaching of cesium. Lastly, the capacity of pit soil to absorb radioactive cesium was estimated to be at least 3.0 Bq/g (dry). PMID:23947711

Tsushima, Ikuo; Ogoshi, Masashi; Harada, Ichiro

2013-01-01

41

Waste reduction by separation of contaminated soils during environmental restoration  

SciTech Connect

During cleanup of contaminated sites, Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) frequently encounters soils with low-level radioactive contamination. The contamination is not uniformly distributed, but occurs within areas of clean soil. Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. This practice results in the commingling and disposal of clean and contaminated material as low-level waste (LLW), or possibly low-level mixed waste (LLMW). Until recently, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended on manual screening and analysis of samples, which is a costly and impractical approach and does not uphold As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principles. To reduce the amount of LLW and LLMW generated during the excavation process, SNL/NM is evaluating two alternative technologies. The first of these, the Segmented Gate System (SGS), is an automated system that located and removes gamma-ray emitting radionuclides from a host matrix (soil, sand, dry sludge). The matrix materials is transported by a conveyor to an analyzer/separation system, which segregates the clean and contaminated material based on radionuclide activity level. The SGS was used to process radioactively contaminated soil from the excavation of the Radioactive Waste Landfill. The second technology, Large Area Gamma Spectroscopy (LAGS), utilizes a gamma spec analyzer suspended over a slab upon which soil is spread out to a uniform depth. A counting period of approximately 30 minutes is used to obtain a full-spectrum analysis for the isotopes of interest. The LAGS is being tested on the soil that is being excavated from the Classified Waste Landfill.

Roybal, J.A.; Conway, R.; Galloway, B.; Vinsant, E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Slavin, P. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Guerin, D. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-06-01

42

Soils: man-caused radioactivity and radiation forecast  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: One of the main tasks of the radiation safety guarantee is non-admission of the excess over critical radiation levels. In Russia they are man-caused radiation levels. Meanwhile any radiation measurement represents total radioactivity. That is why it is hard to assess natural and man-caused contributions to total radioactivity. It is shown that soil radioactivity depends on natural factors including radioactivity of rocks and cosmic radiation as well as man-caused factors including nuclear and non-nuclear technologies. Whole totality of these factors includes unpredictable (non-deterministic) factors - nuclear explosions and radiation accidents, and predictable ones (deterministic) - all the rest. Deterministic factors represent background radioactivity whose trends is the base of the radiation forecast. Non-deterministic factors represent man-caused radiation treatment contribution which is to be controlled. This contribution is equal to the difference in measured radioactivity and radiation background. The way of calculation of background radioactivity is proposed. Contemporary soils are complicated technologically influenced systems with multi-leveled spatial and temporary inhomogeneity of radionuclides distribution. Generally analysis area can be characterized by any set of factors of soil radioactivity including natural and man-caused factors. Natural factors are cosmic radiation and radioactivity of rocks. Man-caused factors are shown on Fig. 1. It is obvious that man-caused radioactivity is due to both artificial and natural emitters. Any result of radiation measurement represents total radioactivity i.e. the sum of activities resulting from natural and man-caused emitters. There is no gauge which could separately measure natural and man-caused radioactivity. That is why it is so hard to assess natural and man-caused contributions to soil radioactivity. It would have been possible if human activity had led to contamination of soil only by artificial radionuclides. But we can view a totality of soil radioactivity factors in the following way. (author)

Gablin, Vassily [Scientific-Industrial Association 'Radon', 7th Rostovsky Lane, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

43

Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr, with lesser amounts of [sup 6O]Co, [sup 241]Am, and [sup 239,240]Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the [sup 137]Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 241]Am, or [sup 239,240]Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500[degrees]C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Dunbar, N.W. (New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States)); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-11-01

44

Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL  

SciTech Connect

A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, with lesser amounts of {sup 6O}Co, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 239,240}Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the {sup 137}Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, or {sup 239,240}Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500{degrees}C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dunbar, N.W. [New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Socorro, NM (United States); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-11-01

45

Radioactivity of the soil in Vojvodina (northern province of Serbia and Montenegro)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread public belief that during the bombardment of Vojvodina (Yugoslavia) this region was contaminated by depleted uranium has recently raised public concern with respect to the potential contamination of agricultural products due to soil radioactivity. Based on the gamma-spectrometric analysis of 50 soil samples taken from the region of Vojvodina we concluded that there is no increase of radioactivity

I. Bikit; J. Slivka; Lj. ?onki?; M. Krmar; M. Veskovi?; N. Žiki?-Todorovi?; E. Varga; S. ?ur?i?; D. Mrdja

2004-01-01

46

Phytoremediation of Mixed Soil Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were conducted to study the influence of non-ionic surfactants Triton X-100 and Tween 80 on the removal of mixed contaminants\\u000a from a sandy soil using phytoremediation. Cd(II) and Pb(II) were used to form the inorganic contaminant, while used engine\\u000a oil was selected to form the organic contaminant. The Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) plant was the plant chosen for phytoremediation

Armuthur S. Ramamurthy; Ramin Memarian

47

Jet Grouting in Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jet grouting technique has gained wider acceptance in the U.S. over the past few years as a viable tool for such geotechnical applications as the improvement of foundation soils, slope stabilization, and underpinning (Welsh and Burke, 1991). Jet grouting; however, has recently been used as a method of performing block stabilization of contaminated soils as well as for the

Herff N. Gazaway; Brian H. Jasperse

48

TRANSPORT OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE SOIL AT DEEP-OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE  

EPA Science Inventory

Transport studies were conducted to assess ocean disposal of soil contaminated with low-level natural radioisotopes. he experimental approach involved characterization of the soil for parameters affecting transport and fate of radionuclides- Radioactivity was associated with disc...

49

[Examination of radioactive contamination in foods].  

PubMed

Following the Fukushima nuclear plant accident in Mar. 2011, the examination of radioactive contamination in foods is being carried out in Nagoya. During the period between 30 Mar. 2011 and 31 Oct. 2012, a total of 300 food samples were collected and the concentrations of radioactive nuclides were determined by means of ?-ray spectrometry using a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector. The results of analysis indicate that the concentrations of radioactive iodine (I) and cesium (Cs) were below the regulatory limits. Radioactive I ((131)I) was detected in 7 samples which belonged to the categories of green and yellow vegetables and other vegetables. Radioactive Cs ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) was detected in 60 samples which belonged to the categories of rice and its processed products, potatoes and its processed products, nuts and seeds, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, fruits, mushrooms, fishes and shellfishes, processed sea foods, meat, milk and dairy products and other beverages. PMID:23676695

Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Tsuchiyama, Tomoyuki; Terada, Hisaya

2013-01-01

50

Remediation of groundwater contaminated with radioactive compounds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Both naturally radioactive isotopes and isotopes from man-made sources may appear in groundwater. Depending on the physical and chemical characteristics of the contaminant, different types of treatment methods must be applied to reduce the concentration. The following chapter discusses treatment opt...

51

Johnston Atoll Plutonium Contaminated Soil Cleanup Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During this production period, the Scope of Work included movement of soil to and from the plant, processing contaminated soil through the Segmented Gate System (SGS) and Soil Washing System, packaging of waste soil for shipment, identification and implem...

R. H. Grant R. W. Doane

1996-01-01

52

10 CFR 39.69 - Radioactive contamination control.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radioactive contamination control. 39.69 Section 39.69 Energy...WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.69 Radioactive contamination control. (a) If the licensee...

2013-01-01

53

Radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on observational data in the period 1971–1993, radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River ecosystem was analysed within 2000 km of the site of discharges from the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Industrial Complex. Data on the content of 24Na, 32P, 46Sc, 51Cr, 54Mn, 56Mn, 58Co, 60Co, 59Fe, 65Zn, 90Sr, 95Zr, 95Nb, 103Ru, 106Ru, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140Ba, 141Ce, 144Ce and 239Np

E. G. Tertyshnik

1995-01-01

54

PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY  

DOEpatents

A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

1958-09-16

55

Contaminant resorption during soil washing  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the applicability of soil washing to a specific site requires some basic research in how contaminants are bound. Much can be learned from sequential extraction methodology based on micronutrient bioavailability studies wherein the soil matrix is chemically dissected to selectively remove particular fixation mechanisms independently. This procedure uses a series of progressively more aggressive solvents to dissolve the principle phases that make up a soil, however, the published studies do not appear to consider the potential for a contaminant released from one type of site to resorb on another site during an extraction. This physical model assumes no ion exchange or adsorption at sites either previously occupied by other ions, or exposed by the dissolution. Therefore, to make engineering use of the sequential extraction data, the release of contamination must be evaluated relative to the effects of resorption. Time release studies were conducted to determine the optimum duration for extraction to maximize complete destruction of the target matrix fraction while minimizing contaminant resorption. Tests with and without a potassium brine present to inhibit cesium resorption indicated extraction efficiency could be enhanced by as much as a factor of ten using the brine.

Gombert, D.

1993-10-01

56

Optimization of Composting for Explosives Contaminated Soil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A composting optimization field study for explosives contaminated soil was conducted at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA) in order to maximize the quantity of soil treated per unit time. Different amendments and soil loading levels were investigated...

P. J. Marks R. T. Williams

1991-01-01

57

Procedures for sampling radium-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Two procedures for sampling the surface layer (0 to 15 centimeters) of radium-contaminated soil are recommended for use in remedial action projects. Both procedures adhere to the philosophy that soil samples should have constant geometry and constant volume in order to ensure uniformity. In the first procedure, a ''cookie cutter'' fashioned from pipe or steel plate, is driven to the desired depth by means of a slide hammer, and the sample extracted as a core or plug. The second procedure requires use of a template to outline the sampling area, from which the sample is obtained using a trowel or spoon. Sampling to the desired depth must then be performed incrementally. Selection of one procedure over the other is governed primarily by soil conditions, the cookie cutter being effective in nongravelly soils, and the template procedure appropriate for use in both gravelly and nongravelly soils. In any event, a minimum sample volume of 1000 cubic centimeters is recommended. The step-by-step procedures are accompanied by a description of the minimum requirements for sample documentation. Transport of the soil samples from the field is then addressed in a discussion of the federal regulations for shipping radioactive materials. Interpretation of those regulations, particularly in light of their application to remedial action soil-sampling programs, is provided in the form of guidance and suggested procedures. Due to the complex nature of the regulations, however, there is no guarantee that our interpretations of them are complete or entirely accurate. Preparation of soil samples for radium-226 analysis by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy is described.

Fleischhauer, H.L.

1985-10-01

58

The total amounts of radioactively contaminated materials in forests in Fukushima, Japan.  

PubMed

There has been leakage of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A heavily contaminated area (? ¹³?,¹³?Cs 1000?kBq m?²) has been identified in the area northwest of the plant. The majority of the land in the contaminated area is forest. Here we report the amounts of biomass, litter (small organic matter on the surface of the soil), coarse woody litter, and soil in the contaminated forest area. The estimated overall volume and weight were 33?Mm³ (branches, leaves, litter, and coarse woody litter are not included) and 21 Tg (dry matter), respectively. Our results suggest that removing litter is an efficient method of decontamination. However, litter is being continuously decomposed, and contaminated leaves will continue to fall on the soil surface for several years; hence, the litter should be removed promptly but continuously before more radioactive elements are transferred into the soil. PMID:22639724

Hashimoto, Shoji; Ugawa, Shin; Nanko, Kazuki; Shichi, Koji

2012-05-25

59

Soil Vapor Extraction Column Experiments on Gasoline Contaminated Soil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a technique that is used to remove volatile organic compounds from unsaturated soils. Air is pumped through and from the contaminated zone to remove vapor phase constituents. In the work, laboratory soil column experiments w...

M. E. Miller T. A. Pedersen C. A. Kaslick G. E. Hoag C. Y. Fan

1992-01-01

60

Soil contamination: Dealing with petroleum spills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil is often contaminated when petroleum leaks out of storage tanks or is lost during loading and transfer operations. This article presents a brief review of the constituents found in the most common petroleum products, and discusses their toxicity and behavior in soil. It also reviews some analytical methods and state-mandated cleanup protocols for petroleum-contaminated soil. Such information is needed

S. K. Stokman; B. J. Sogorka

1997-01-01

61

Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated polar soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioremediation is increasingly viewed as an appropriate remediation technology for hydrocarbon-contaminated polar soils. As for all soils, the successful application of bioremediation depends on appropriate biodegradative microbes and environmental conditions in situ. Laboratory studies have confirmed that hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria typically assigned to the genera Rhodococcus, Sphingomonas or Pseudomonas are present in contaminated polar soils. However, as indicated by the persistence

Jackie Aislabie; David J. Saul; Julia M. Foght

2006-01-01

62

Packaging and transportation of radioactively contaminated lead  

SciTech Connect

Under the management of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) the government of the United Kingdom has launched an ambitious program to remediate the nation's nuclear waste legacy. Over a twenty-five year period NDA plans to decommission several first generation nuclear power plants and other radioactive facilities. The use innovative, safe 'fit for purpose' technologies will be a major part of this complex program. This paper will present a case study of a recently completed project undertaken in support of the nuclear decommissioning activities at the Sellafield site in the United Kingdom. The focus is on an innovative application of new packaging technology developed for the safe transportation of radioactively contaminated lead objects. Several companies collaborated on the project and contributed to its safe and successful conclusion. These companies include British Nuclear Group, Gravatom Engineering, W. F. Bowker Transport, Atlantic Container Lines, MHF Logistical Solutions and Energy Solutions. New containers and a new innovative inter-modal packaging system to transport the radioactive lead were developed and demonstrated during the project. The project also demonstrated the potential contribution of international nuclear recycling activities as a safe, economic and feasible technical option for nuclear decommissioning in the United Kingdom. (authors)

Gleason, Eugene [MHF Logistical Solutions, UK, Limited (United Kingdom); Holden, Gerard [Gravatom Engineering Limited (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01

63

Phytoremediation of Metal-Contaminated Soils  

SciTech Connect

Recent concerns regarding environmental contamination have necessitated the development of appropriate technologies to assess the presence and mobility of metals in soil and estimate possible ways to decrease the level of soil metal contamination. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that may be used to cleanup contaminated soils. Successful application of phytoremediation, however, depends upon various factors that must be carefully investigated and properly considered for specific site conditions. To efficiently affect the metal removal from contaminated soils we used the ability of plants to accumulate different metals and agricultural practices to improve soil quality and enhance plant biomass. Pot experiments were conducted to study metal transport through bulk soil to the rhizosphere and stimulate transfer of the metals to be more available for plants' form. The aim of the experimental study was also to find fertilizers that could enhance uptake of metals and their removal from contaminated soil.

Shtangeeva, I.; Laiho, J.V-P.; Kahelin, H.; Gobran, G.R.

2004-03-31

64

Rhizosphere microbial populations in contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizosphere microbial populations may increase bioremediation of soil contaminated with organic chemicals. A growth chamber\\u000a study was conducted to evaluate rhizosphere microbial populations in contaminated and non-contaminated soil. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and alpine bluegrass (Poa alpina L.) were grown in soil containing a mixture of organic chemicals for 14 weeks. The equal millimolar mixture of hexadecane,\\u000a (2,2-dimethylpropyl)benzene, cis-decahydronaphthalene (decalin),

T. D. Nichols; D. C. Wolf; H. B. Rogers; C. A. Beyrouty; C. M. Reynolds

1997-01-01

65

Distribution of soil animals in patchily contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution of soil animals with respect to patchy chemical contamination was studied in microcosms containing reconstituted coniferous forest floor. Soil materials were defaunated and soil organisms were reinoculated into a mesh basket in the centre of each microcosm. Part of the humus layer was contaminated with three concentrations of sodiumpentachlorophenate (0, 50 or 500 mg PCP kg?1 of dry humus)

J. Salminen; P. Sulkava

1996-01-01

66

Evaluating soluble toxicants in contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex mixtures of water soluble materials from contaminated soils can move into groundwater and surface water by leaching, percolation, and runoff. We evaluated the potential toxicity of leachable materials from seven soils. Five soil samples were obtained at designated toxic or hazardous waste sites, and two additional soils samples were obtained from a coal storage area and from an agricultural

J. R. Pratt; P. V. McCormick; K. W. Pontasch; J. Cairns

1988-01-01

67

Radioactivity in the industrial effluent disposed soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on radiation and radioactivity distribution in the soils of effluent disposed from the sugar industry in India have been conducted. The external gamma dose rates in air and natural radionuclides activities in the soils were measured using an Environmental Radiation Dosimeter and a Gamma-ray Spectrometer respectively. The soil samples were also subject to various physico-chemical analyses. This study revealed some remarkable results that are discussed in the article.

Senthilkumar, R. D.; Narayanaswamy, R.; Meenashisundaram, V.

2012-04-01

68

Improvements in detergency precision with radioactive soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on the use of seven-component, doubly labeled radioactive soil to evaluate deter-gency has depended on the analyses\\u000a of the fabric for residual soil. Because of the variation of soil concentration within and between fabric swatches, considerable\\u000a replication was required to lower the standard deviations to ?10%. A method for the analysis of wash water has been developed\\u000a which

W. T. Shebs; B. E. Gordon

1968-01-01

69

In Situ Vitrification of PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyl)-Contaminated Soils: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Situ Vitrification (ISV) is a patented process developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy as an in-place stabilization technique for radioactive contaminated soils. In addition, the process is being evaluated for potentia...

C. L. Timmerman

1986-01-01

70

SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY TESTS FOR PESTICIDE- CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1987 Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 record of decision (ROD) identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides, and metals. Initial treatability tests conducted to assess the applicability...

71

Hydrogen peroxide treatment of TCE contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

Solvent contaminated soils are ubiquitous in the industrial world and represent a significant environmental hazard due to their persistence and potentially negative impacts on human health and the environment. Environmental regulations favor treatment of soils with options which reduce the volume and toxicity of contaminants in place. One such treatment option is the in-situ application of hydrogen peroxide to soils contaminated with chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). This study investigated hydrogen peroxide mass loading rates on removal of TCE from soils of varying organic matter content. Batch experiments conducted on contaminated loam samples using GC headspace analysis showed up to 80% TCE removal upon peroxide treatment. Column experiments conducted on sandy loam soils with high organic matter content showed only 25% TCE removal, even at hydrogen peroxide additions of 25 g peroxide per kg soil.

Hurst, D.H.; Robinson, K.G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Siegrist, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

1993-12-31

72

In situ removal of contamination from soil  

DOEpatents

A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

Lindgren, Eric R. (Albuquerque, NM); Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01

73

In situ removal of contamination from soil  

DOEpatents

A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination. The process also uses further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed. 5 figs.

Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V.

1997-10-14

74

Enhancing pyrene mineralization in contaminated soil by the addition of humic acids or composted contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of composted PAH-contaminated soil to PAH-contaminated soil spiked with 14C-labeled pyrene resulted in rapid mineralization of pyrene (more than 57% after 21 days compared with 3.4% in unamended soil). The addition of the humic acid fraction of the composted soil also increased the mineralization potential of the soil significantly, but to a lesser extent (37.5% mineralization after 106

A. Haderlein; R. Legros; B. Ramsay

2001-01-01

75

Device for measuring radioactive contamination of a body  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A device for measuring radioactive contamination of a body includes a scintillator crystal (1) sensitive to gamma radiation emitted during disintegration of the radioactive elements (I, Cs, Co) contaminating a body to which the end of scintillator (1) is applied. A photodiode (2) converts the photons generated in scintillator (1) by the gamma radiation into electric charges. A mechanism (3, 7) converts these charges into amplified, frequency-filtered voltage pulses. Pulse counts in a plurality of bands and deconvolution effected by an electronic mechanism (8) built into the device allow measurement of the contamination of the body by each of the radioactive elements in question.

1993-06-08

76

Radioactive Waste Disposal Implications of Extending Part IIA to cover Radioactively Contaminated Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA to address radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of the radioactive wastes arising from remediation.

DJ Nancarrow

77

SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION COLUMN EXPERIMENTS ON GASOLINE CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a technique that is used to remove volatile organic compounds from unsaturated soils. ir is pumped through and from the contaminated zone to remove vapor phase constituents. n this work, laboratory soil column experiments were conducted using a gaso...

78

SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION COLUMN EXPERIMENTS ON GASOLINE CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a technique that is used to remove volatile organic compounds from unsaturated soils. Air is pumped through and from the contaminated zone to remove vapor phase constituents. In the work, laboratory soil column experiments were conducted using a gas...

79

Guidelines for Handling Decedents Contaminated with Radioactive Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detonation of a nuclear weapon or activation of a radiological dispersal device could cause radioactively contaminated decedents. These guidelines are designed to address both of these scenarios. They could also be applicable in other instances where dece...

C. M. Wood F. DePaolo R. D. Whitaker

2007-01-01

80

Incineration Treatment of Arsenic-Contaminated Soil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An incineration test program was conducted at the US Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbroo...

L. R. Waterland C. King M. K. Richards R. C. Thurnau

1991-01-01

81

Estimate of Soils Contaminated With Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides the results of a study that examined the quantities of soils at Army installations in the United States contaminated with metals in order to understand the user requirements for environmental technology research and development work. ...

M. F. Broder R. A. Westmoreland

1999-01-01

82

Estimate of Soils Contaminated with Secondary Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides the results of a study that examined the quantities of explosives-contaminated soils at Army installations in the United States in order to understand the user requirements for environmental technology research and development work. T...

M. F. Broder R. A. Westmoreland

1998-01-01

83

RESRAD: A computer code for evaluating radioactively contaminated sites  

SciTech Connect

This document briefly describes the uses of the RESRAD computer code in calculating site-specific residual radioactive material guidelines and radiation dose-risk to an on-site individual (worker or resident) at a radioactively contaminated site. The adoption by the DOE in order 5400.5, pathway analysis methods, computer requirements, data display, the inclusion of chemical contaminants, benchmarking efforts, and supplemental information sources are all described. (GHH)

Yu, C.; Zielen, A.J.; Cheng, J.J. [and others

1993-12-31

84

Soil Vapor Extraction of PCE/TCE Contaminated Soil  

SciTech Connect

The A/M Area of the Savannah River Site soil and groundwater is contaminated with tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). Contamination is the result of previous waste disposal practices, once considered state-of-the-art. Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE) units have been installed to remediate the A/M Area vadose zone. SVE is a proven in-situ method for removing volatile organics from a soil matrix with minimal site disturbance. SVE alleviates the infiltration of contaminants into the groundwater and reduces the total time required for groundwater remediation. Lessons learned and optimization of the SVE units are also discussed.

Bradley, J.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Morgenstern, M.R. [Bechtel, , ()

1998-08-01

85

Early-stage bioassay for monitoring radioactive contamination in living livestock.  

PubMed

Soil samples from the ground surface and feces and blood from a mixed-breed male pig were collected on April 10, 2011 at a farm within 20 km of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The radioactivity of each sample was measured using a Ge semiconductor detector. Despite the fact that the pig had been fed non-contaminated imported feed, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the feces, and (134)Cs and (137)Cs were detected in the blood clots. Because it is considerably difficult to measure radioactive contamination in the edible muscle of living livestock, bioassays are an option for the screening of radioactive contamination in living livestock to ensure food safety. PMID:22864411

Yamaguchi, Toshiro; Sawano, Kaita; Kishimoto, Miori; Furuhama, Kazuhisa; Yamada, Kazutaka

2012-08-03

86

14. Protective measures for activities in Chernobyl's radioactively contaminated territories.  

PubMed

Owing to internally absorbed radionuclides, radiation levels for individuals living in the contaminated territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia have been increasing steadily since 1994. Special protective measures in connection with agriculture, forestry, hunting, and fishing are necessary to protect the health of people in all the radioactively contaminated territories. Among the measures that have proven to be effective in reducing levels of incorporated radionuclides in meat production are food additives with ferrocyanides, zeolites, and mineral salts. Significant decreases in radionuclide levels in crops are achieved using lime/Ca as an antagonist of Sr-90, K fertilizers as antagonists of Cs-137, and phosphoric fertilizers that form a hard, soluble phosphate with Sr-90. Disk tillage and replowing of hayfields incorporating applications of organic and mineral fertilizers reduces the levels of Cs-137 and Sr-90 three- to fivefold in herbage grown in mineral soils. Among food technologies to reduce radionuclide content are cleaning cereal seeds, processing potatoes into starch, processing carbohydrate-containing products into sugars, and processing milk into cream and butter. There are several simple cooking techniques that decrease radionuclides in foodstuffs. Belarus has effectively used some forestry operations to create "a live partition wall," to regulate the redistribution of radionuclides into ecosystems. All such protective measures will be necessary in many European territories for many generations. PMID:20002058

Nesterenko, Alexey V; Nesterenko, Vassily B

2009-11-01

87

Chemical fixation of arsenic in contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic-contaminated soils have been successfully treated using fixation methods whereby chemicals are added to prevent As mobilization. However, the chemistry of the fixation process used in the field is poorly understood. We have examined one process which succeeded in immobilizing 0. I to 0.2 weight % As in soil at a 69 a old dump site through the addition of

Remy J.-C. Hennet; S. L. Brantley

1996-01-01

88

Mycoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Out of a number of white-rot fungal cultures, strains of Irpex lacteus and Pleurotus ostreatus were selected for degradation of 7 three- and four-ring unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in two contaminated industrial soils. Respective data for removal of PAH in the two industrial soils by I. lacteus were: fluorene (41 and 67%), phenanthrene (20 and 56%), anthracene (29 and 49%), fluoranthene (29 and 57%), pyrene (24 and 42%), chrysene (16 and 32%) and benzo[a]anthracene (13 and 20%). In the same two industrial soils P. ostreatus degraded the PAH with respective removal figures of fluorene (26 and 35%), phenanthrene (0 and 20%), anthracene (19 and 53%), fluoranthene (29 and 31%), pyrene (22 and 42%), chrysene (0 and 42%) and benzo[a]anthracene (0 and 13%). The degradation of PAH was determined against concentration of PAH in non-treated contaminated soils after 14 weeks of incubation. The fungal degradation of PAH in soil was studied simultaneously with ecotoxicity evaluation of fungal treated and non-treated contaminated soils. Compared to non-treated contaminated soil, fungus-treated soil samples indicated decrease in inhibition of bioluminescence in luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischerii) and increase in germinated mustard (Brassica alba) seeds. PMID:12094734

Bhatt, M; Cajthaml, T; Sasek, V

2002-01-01

89

RISK ANALYSIS OF TCDD CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper provides a methodology for estimating the human exposure and cancer risk associated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD contaminated soil. Five exposure pathways are addressed: dust inhalation, fish ingestion, dermal absorption, soil ingestion, and beef/dairy products ingestion. For eac...

90

Speciation of Lead in Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead contaminated soils from various origins were sampled and analyzed for total Pb content, dissolved Pb, soil pH, soil organic matter content and Mo-reactive phosphate in solution. The concentration of free Pb2+ ionic species in solution was determined using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), assuming that ASV-labile Pb excludes organo–Pb complexes. The dataset shows the solubility relationships between the

Sébastien Sauvé; Murray B. McBride; William H. Hendershot

1997-01-01

91

Non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination. I. Non-radioactive tests. [High-pressure, hot water decontamination  

SciTech Connect

Candidate non-radioactive materials for use as a stand-in for radioactive contamination during application of a high-pressure, hot water decontamination were identified and evaluated. A stand-in for radioactive contamination is needed to evaluate the decontaminability of replacement canyon cranes at the manufacturers location where actual radioactive contamination cannot be used. This evaluation was conducted using high-pressure, hot-water at 420 psi, 190/sup 0/F, and 20 gal/min through a 1/8-in.-diam nozzle, the decontamination technique preferred by SRP Separations Department for this application. A non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination was desired that would be removed by direct blast stream contact but would remain intact on surfaces where direct contact does not occur. This memorandum describes identification of candidate non-radioactive stand-in materials and evaluation of these materials in screening tests and tests with high-pressure, hot-water blasting. The following non-radioactive materials were tested: carpenter's line chalk; typing correction fluid; dye penetrant developer; latex paint with attapulyite added; unaltered latex paint; gold enamel; layout fluid; and black enamel. Results show that blue layout fluid and gold enamel have similar adherence that is within the range expected for actual radioactive contamination. White latex paint has less adherence than expected for actual radioactive contamination. The film was removed at a rate of <1 sec/in./sup 2/. Black enamel has more adherence than expected from actual radioactive contamination. In these tests ASTM No. 2B surfaces were harder to clean than either ASTM No. 1 or electropolished surfaces which had similar cleaning properties. A 90/sup 0/ blast angle was more effective than a 45/sup 0/ blast angle. In these tests there was no discernible effect of blast distance between 1 and 3 ft.

Rohe, M.J.; Rankin, W.N.; Postles, R.L.

1985-10-08

92

Surfactant screening of diesel-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

At one installation, approximately 60,000 gal of No. 2 diesel fuel leaked into the subsurface environment, with contamination at depths of 6 to 34 m below the surface. Argonne National Laboratory was contracted to perform treatability studies for site remediation. The treatability studies focused on four separate phases: (1) leachability studies on the various contaminated soil borings, (2) air stripping studies, (3) bioremediation studies, and (4) surfactant screening/surfactant flooding studies. This paper summarizes the fourth phase of the research program in which twenty-one surfactants were screened for possible use to mobilize the organics from the contaminated soil prior to bioremediation. Anionic surfactants resulted in the greatest degree of diesel mobilization. The most promising surfactants will be employed on actual contaminated soil samples obtained from the site. 18 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

Peters, R.W.; Montemagno, C.D.; Shem, L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Lewis, B.A. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

1990-01-01

93

CONTAMINATED SOIL VOLUME ESTIMATE TRACKING METHODOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting a cleanup of radiologically contaminated properties under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The largest cost element for most of the FUSRAP sites is the transportation and disposal of contaminated soil. Project managers and engineers need an estimate of the volume of contaminated soil to determine project costs and schedule. Once excavation activities begin and additional remedial action data are collected, the actual quantity of contaminated soil often deviates from the original estimate, resulting in cost and schedule impacts to the project. The project costs and schedule need to be frequently updated by tracking the actual quantities of excavated soil and contaminated soil remaining during the life of a remedial action project. A soil volume estimate tracking methodology was developed to provide a mechanism for project managers and engineers to create better project controls of costs and schedule. For the FUSRAP Linde site, an estimate of the initial volume of in situ soil above the specified cleanup guidelines was calculated on the basis of discrete soil sample data and other relevant data using indicator geostatistical techniques combined with Bayesian analysis. During the remedial action, updated volume estimates of remaining in situ soils requiring excavation were calculated on a periodic basis. In addition to taking into account the volume of soil that had been excavated, the updated volume estimates incorporated both new gamma walkover surveys and discrete sample data collected as part of the remedial action. A civil survey company provided periodic estimates of actual in situ excavated soil volumes. By using the results from the civil survey of actual in situ volumes excavated and the updated estimate of the remaining volume of contaminated soil requiring excavation, the USACE Buffalo District was able to forecast and update project costs and schedule. The soil volume tracking methodology helped the USACE Buffalo District track soil quantity changes from projected excavation work over time and across space, providing the basis for an explanation of some of the project cost and schedule variances.

Durham, L.A.; Johnson, R.L.; Rieman, C.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

2003-02-27

94

SOIL WASHING TREATABILITY FOR PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1987 Record of Decision for Sand Creek Operable Unit 5 identified soil washing as the selected technology to remediate soils contaminated with high levels of organochlorine pesticides, herbicides and metals. nitial treatability tests conducted to assess the application of soi...

95

Measurement of residual radioactive surface contamination by 2-D laser heated TLD  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of applying and adapting a two-dimensional laser heated thermoluminescence dosimetry system to the problem of surveying for radioactive surface contamination was studied. The system consists of a CO{sub 2} laser-based reader and monolithic arrays of thin dosimeter elements. The arrays consist of 10,201 thermoluminescent phosphor elements of 40 micron thickness, covering a 900 cm{sup 2} area. Array substrates are 125 micron thick polyimide sheets, enabling them to easily conform to regular surface shapes, especially for survey of surfaces that are inaccessible for standard survey instruments. The passive, integrating radiation detectors are sensitive to alpha and beta radiation at contamination levels below release guideline limits. Required contact times with potentially contaminated surfaces are under one hour to achieve detection of transuranic alpha emission at 100 dpm/100 cm{sup 2}. Positional information obtained from array evaluation is useful for locating contamination zones. Unique capabilities of this system for survey of sites, facilities and material include measurement inside pipes and other geometrical configurations that prevent standard surveys, and below-surface measurement of alpha and beta emitters in contaminated soils. These applications imply a reduction of material that must be classified as radioactive waste by virtue of its possibility of contamination, and cost savings in soil sampling at contaminated sites.

Jones, S.C.

1997-06-01

96

Speciation of zinc in contaminated soils.  

PubMed

The chemical speciation of zinc in soil solutions is critical to the understanding of its bioavailability and potential toxic effects. We studied the speciation of Zn in soil solution extracts from 66 contaminated soils representative of a wide range of field conditions in both North America and Europe. Within this dataset, we evaluated the links among the dissolved concentrations of zinc and the speciation of Zn(2+), soil solution pH, total soil Zn, dissolved organic matter (DOM), soil organic matter (SOM) and the concentrations of different inorganic anions. The solid-liquid partitioning coefficient (K(d)) for Zn ranged from 17 to 13,100 L kg(-1) soil. The fraction of dissolved Zn bound to DOM varied from 60% to 98% and the soil solution free Zn(2+) varied from 40% to 60% of the labile Zn. Multiple regression equations to predict free Zn(2+), dissolved Zn and the solid-liquid partitioning of Zn are given for potential use in environmental fate modeling and risk assessment. The multiple regressions also highlight some of the most important soil properties controlling the solubility and chemical speciation of zinc in contaminated soils. PMID:18222022

Stephan, Chadi H; Courchesne, François; Hendershot, William H; McGrath, Steve P; Chaudri, Amar M; Sappin-Didier, Valérie; Sauvé, Sébastien

2008-01-25

97

Remediation of uranium-contaminated soil using the Segmented Gate System and containerized vat leaching techniques: a cost effectiveness study  

SciTech Connect

Because it is difficult to characterize heterogeneously contaminated soils in detail and to excavate such soils precisely using heavy equipment, it is common for large quantities of uncontaminated soil to be removed during excavation of contaminated sites. Until now, volume reduction of radioactively contaminated soil depended upon manual screening and analysis of samples, a costly and impractical approach, particularly with large volumes of heterogeneously contaminated soil. The baseline approach for the remediation of soils containing radioactive waste is excavation, pretreatment, containerization, and disposal at a federally permitted landfill. However, disposal of low-level radioactive waste is expensive and storage capacity is limited. ThermoNuclean`s Segmented Gate System (SGS) removes only the radioactively contaminated soil, in turn greatly reducing the volume of soils that requires disposal. After processing using the SGS, the fraction of contaminated soil is processed using the containerized vat leaching (CVL) system developed at LANL. Uranium is leached out of the soil in solution. The uranium is recovered with an ion exchange resin, leaving only a small volume of liquid low-level waste requiring disposal. The reclaimed soil can be returned to its original location after treatment with CVL.

Cummings, M.; Booth, S.R.

1996-09-01

98

Phytoremediation of soils contaminated by cadmium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytoremediation is a technique to clean up soils contaminated with heavy metals. Advantages of this method are that (1) This technique is suitable to cleanup soils slightly contaminated with heavy metals in relatively wide area. (2) The expense for clean up is lower than civil engineering techniques. (3) This method can remove heavy metals fundamentally from contaminated. (4) The heavy metals are able to recycle by ashing of plants. Many researches have been done on the phytoremediation up to now, but almost all these researches were devoted to clarify the phytoremediation from the view point of plants themselves. However, few efforts have been devoted to analyze the migrations of heavy metals in soils during the phytoremediation process. The objective of this study is to clarify the features of Cd migration when plant roots are absorbing Cd from the ambient soils. Especially, we focused on finding the Cd migration pattern by changing the soil condition such as plant growing periods, planting densities, and the initial Cd concentration in soils. We planted sunflowers in columns filled with Cd contaminated soils because sunflower is a well-known hyperaccumulator of Cd from soils. By cutting the shoots of plants at the soil surface, and by keeping the plant roots in the soils without disturbance, the Cd concentrations, moisture contents, pH distributions, EC distributions, and dry weight of residual roots in the soils were carefully analyzed. The experimental results showed that (1)The growth of the planted sunflowers were suffered by applying of Cd. (2)The decrease of suction was affected by water uptake by roots at the depth from 0 to 5 cm. Water contents with plants in soils decrease more than without plants. (3)Cd adsorption by roots was predominant within 5cm from soil surface. In addition, it was also shown that there was an optimal Cd concentration where Cd is most effectively adsorbed by the plant. In this experiment we found that 40 to 60 mg kg-1 was the optimal concentration. By a trial calculation, it was revealed that more than 30 times of planting-cultivating processes were needed to decrease the Cd concentration from 9.75 to 0.4 mg Cd kg-1. When the sunflower was not planted, Cd did not move in the soils even when the soil water the sunflower was planted, Cd in the soil moved toward the plant roots associating with the water uptake by the roots. This Cd movement may have enhanced by the secretion of organic acid from plant roots.

Watai, H.; Miyazaki, T.; Fujikawa, T.; Mizoguchi, M.

2004-12-01

99

STUDIES ON THE DEPOSITION AND REMOVAL OF RADIOACTIVE SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of deposition and removal of a radioactive milk soil from ; several surfaces have been studied. The nature of the surface exhibited a small ; but measurable effect on the rate of deposition of a radioactive milk soil on the ; surfaces tested. However, the surfaces showed no significant effect on the rate ; of soil removal. The

I. J. Pflug; T. I. Hedrick; O. W. Kaufmann; R. A. Keppeler; C. G. Pheil

1961-01-01

100

Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on 137Cs release from contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio pollutant removal is one of several priority restoration strategies for the environment. This study assessed the effect of low molecular weight organic acid on the lability and mechanisms for release of 137Cs from contaminated soils. The amount of 137Cs radioactivity released from contaminated soils reacting with 0.02M low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) specifically acetic, succinic, oxalic, tartaric, and

Po Neng Chiang; Ming Kuang Wang; Pan Ming Huang; Jeng Jong Wang

2011-01-01

101

Electroosmotic flow behaviour of metal contaminated expansive soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to study the flow behaviour through soil during electrokinetic extraction of contaminants to understand their removal mechanism. The flow through the expansive soil containing montmorillonite is monitored during laboratory electrokinetic extraction of heavy metal contaminants. The permeability of soil, which increases due to the presence of contaminants, is further enhanced during electrokinetic extraction of contaminants due to

P. V. Sivapullaiah; B. S. Nagendra Prakash

2007-01-01

102

Effects of radioactive contamination on Scots pines in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident.  

PubMed

A 6 year study of Scots pine populations inhabiting sites in the Bryansk region of Russia radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident is presented. In six study sites, (137)Cs activity concentrations and heavy metal content in soils, as well as (137)Cs, (90)Sr and heavy metal concentrations in cones were measured. Doses absorbed in reproduction organs of pine trees were calculated using a dosimetric model. The maximum annual dose absorbed at the most contaminated site was about 130 mGy. Occurrence of aberrant cells scored in the root meristem of germinated seeds collected from pine trees growing on radioactively contaminated territories for over 20 years significantly exceeded the reference levels during all 6 years of the study. The data suggest that cytogenetic effects occur in Scots pine populations due to the radioactive contamination. However, no consistent differences in reproductive ability were detected between the impacted and reference populations as measured by the frequency of abortive seeds. Even though the Scots pine populations have occupied radioactively contaminated territories for two decades, there were no clear indications of adaptation to the radiation, when measured by the number of aberrant cells in root meristems of seeds exposed to an additional acute dose of radiation. PMID:21451948

Geras'kin, Stanislav; Oudalova, Alla; Dikareva, Nina; Spiridonov, Sergey; Hinton, Thomas; Chernonog, Elena; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

2011-03-31

103

Contaminant enrichment and properties of soil adhering to skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adhesion of contaminated soil to skin has potentially important health implications, because the contaminants may ultimately be ingested or absorbed through the skin. Previous studies indicated that the adhering soil is enriched in contaminant concentration relative In the original soil because of the selective adhesion of finer particles. This study investigated this enrichment using 11 markedly different soils. Two

S. C. Sheppard; W. G. Evenden

1994-01-01

104

Bioremediation of soils contaminated with explosives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large-scale industrial production and processing of munitions such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the past 100 years led to the disposal of wastes containing explosives and nitrated organic by-products into the environment. In the US, the Army alone has estimated that over 1.2 million tons of soil have been contaminated with explosives, and the impact of explosives contamination in other

Thomas A Lewis; David A Newcombe; Ronald L Crawford

2004-01-01

105

Contamination analysis of radioactive samples in focused ion beam instruments.  

PubMed

The use of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) instrument's to analyze and prepare samples that are radioactive requires attentiveness to the materials that are dislodged and free inside the chamber. Radioactive sputtered material must be understood even when observed at trace concentrations. Measurements using liquid scintillation counting and high purity germanium detectors were used to evaluate contamination on accessible surfaces inside a focused ion beam chamber that was used in the preparation of samples that were radioactive. The maximum removable contamination found was 0.27 0.4 Bq cm(-2), on the focused ion beam wall with 0.24 0.019 Bq cm(-2) on the door. Although these magnitudes of removable contamination are inconsequential for activation products, these same magnitudes of actinides, for example 239Pu, would represent 3.2% of an Annual Limit of Intake. This might be considered significant if one examines the relatively infrequent use of this device for the preparation of radioactive samples. Predicted activities of sputtered material were found using the software Transport of Ions in Matter, estimating that 0.003% of a radioactive samples activity is released into the FIB chamber. A used secondary electron detector's activity was measured to be 383.7 8.1 Bq. Preferential build-up of sputtered materials due to temperature or static charge gradients was considered. No temperature gradients were observed. Static charge gradients were measured inside the chamber varying between 0.057% below the mean to 34% higher than the mean. However, the magnitudes of contamination measured did not correlate to static charge gradients. Deposition in the chamber appears to have no mechanical cause but rather is sporadic however, measureable. Experience to date has been limited to samples of low activity; nevertheless, contamination inside the chamber was observed. Users should anticipate higher levels of readily dispersible radioactive contamination within the FIB as sample activity increases. PMID:23287516

Evelan, Audrey Ruth; Brey, Richard R

2013-02-01

106

Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume  

PubMed Central

Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons to the coastal plains as soon as by November 2011. This export was amplified during snowmelt and typhoons in 2012. In 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. We thereby suggest that storage of contaminated sediment in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represents the most crucial issue.

Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lefevre, Irene; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottle, Catherine; Bonte, Philippe

2013-01-01

107

Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume.  

PubMed

Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons to the coastal plains as soon as by November 2011. This export was amplified during snowmelt and typhoons in 2012. In 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. We thereby suggest that storage of contaminated sediment in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represents the most crucial issue. PMID:24165695

Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottlé, Catherine; Bonté, Philippe

2013-10-29

108

Integrated system for remediation of contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale study was conducted to evaluate an integrated system for the remediation of soils contaminated primarily with pentachlorophenol (PCP), a wood preserver. The integrated soil remediation system consisting of three unit processes (1) Soil solvent washing; (2) solvent recovery; and (3) biotreatment of the contaminant residual. Pilot-scale countercurrent solvent washing was carried out using a 95% ethanol solution--a solvent that in an earlier bench-scale study was found to be effective in removing PCP and hydrocarbons (HCs) from soils. Three-stage countercurrent solvent washing of a field-contaminated soil was performed using batches of 7.5 kg of soil and 30 L of solvent. The washed soil was rinsed with water in a single stage after three countercurrent wash stages. Pilot-scale, three-stage countercurrent solvent washing with 95% ethanol reduced the PCP and HC contamination on the soil by 98 and 95%, respectively. The spent solvent and the spent rinse water were combined as the spent wash fluid for further treatment. A pilot-scale distillation unit was used to recover the ethanol from the spent wash fluid. The HC constituents of the spent wash fluid were removed by pH adjustment prior to feeding the spent wash fluid to a distillation unit. Greater than 96% of the ethanol in the spent wash fluid was recovered in the distillate stream, whereas PCP was captured in the bottoms stream. The bottoms stream was treated sequentially in anaerobic and aerobic granular-activated carbon fluidized-bed reactors. Complete mineralization of PCP was achieved using this treatment train.

Khodadoust, A.P.; Sorial, G.A.; Wilson, G.J.; Suidan, M.T.; Griffiths, R.A.; Brenner, R.C.

1999-11-01

109

Mycoremediation of PAH-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Out of a number of white-rot fungal cultures, strains ofIrpex lacteus andPleurotus ostreatus were selected for degradation of 7 three- and four-ring unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in two contaminated industrial\\u000a soils. Respective data for removal of PAH in the two industrial soils byI. lacteus were: fluorene (41 and 67%), phenanthrene (20 and 56%), anthracene (29 and 49%), fluoranthene (29 and

M. BIIATT; T. Cajthaml; V. Šašek

2002-01-01

110

Radioactivity in Virgin Soils and Soils from Some Areas with Closed Uranium Mining Facilities in Bulgaria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soil radioecology is an important part of the environmental research in the country. Since the beginning of the 1970's regular monitoring of the content of different radionuclides in Bulgarian soils has been done. Objective of the studies were virgin soils from high mountain areas, hills and plains (the region of Kozloduy NPP and the Danube river valley). Natural and men-made radionuclides were observed. In the 25-year period after the the contamination with radionuclides due to the 1986 Chernobyl NPP accident a rich data base has been collected, recording the radiation status of the soils in Bulgaria. Special attention has been paid to the contamination with the long-lived technogenic radionuclides caesium-137 and strontium-90. This paper presents a summary of the obtained results. Caesium-137 and strontium-90 were the main men-made radionuclides detected in the examined Bulgarian soils few years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Their content in the soils from high mountain areas (Rodopa and Rila mountains) is several times higher than that in the soils from North Bulgaria and Sofia fields. High non-homogenity in the pollution within small areas (even as small as several square meters) has been observed. Natural radioactivity was also studied. Averaged values for natural radionuclides like uranium-238, thorium-232, and radium-226 in virgin soils from different areas in the country are presented. A comparison of the dynamics of their behavior throughout the years is done. Bulgaria is a country with intensive uranium mining activities in the past years. That is why radiological monitoring of closed uranium mining facilities in different regions of the country are obligatory and of great interest. This work presents results from such investigations made in regions where remediation has been done. The results have been evaluated according to the Bulgarian radionuclide environment contamination legislation. The necessity of permanent environmental monitoring is assessed.

Yordanova, I.; Staneva, D.; Misheva, L.; Bineva, Ts.; Banov, M.

2012-04-01

111

Identification of contaminated soils by dielectric constant and electrical conductivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop effective decontamination methods, characterization and identification of contaminated soils are needed. However, current methods of environmental soil characterization involve either soil sampling and analysis for targeted species in the laboratory or soil electrical conductivity measurements. Soil sampling and analyzing in the laboratory involves the risk of sample contamination during handling and testing. Furthermore, it is destructive. To overcome

Abidin Kaya; Hsai-Yang Fang

1997-01-01

112

Venting Remediation of Unsaturated Soil Contaminated by Diesel Hydrocarbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The petroleum pollution was one of the main environmental problems to the soil and groundwater safety. Efficient remediation of contaminant soil has significance to the organic pollution control of soil and groundwater. The remediation efficiency of pulse soil venting with low air flow to the soil contaminated with diesel fuel for a long time was studied through indoor sandbox test.

Wei He; Honghan Chen; Fei Liu; Jinfeng Yang; Yanying Sun

2009-01-01

113

Arsenic in contaminated soil and river sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different areas in the Erzgebirge mountains are contaminated by high arsenic concentration which is caused by the occurrence of ore and industrial sources. The study showed clearly a high concentration of arsenic in the surface and under soil (A and B horizons) in the Freiberg district. The distribution of the arsenic concentration in the area, the content of water soluble

G. Bombach; A. Pierra; W. Klemm

1994-01-01

114

INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

An incineration test program was conducted at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. The p...

115

INCINERATION TREATMENT OF ARSENIC-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

An incineration test program was conducted at the US Environmental Protection Agency's Incineration Research Facility to evaluate the potential of incineration as a treatment option for contaminated soils at the Baird and McGuire Superfund site in Holbrook, Massachusetts. he purp...

116

REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

117

REMEDIATION OF RADIUM FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of a physico-chemical separation process for the removal of radium from a sample of contaminated soil at the Ottawa, Illinois, site near Chicago. The size/activity distribution analyzed among the particles coarser tha...

118

THERMAL DESORPTION OF PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently funded a study which addresses the treatment of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons using low temperature thermal desorption (LTTD). he proposed paper will summarize some of the results of that study. TTD has become a maj...

119

Radioactive contamination mapping using optically stimulated luminescent films  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for in situ measurement of the distribution and activity of radioactive contaminants that have been dispersed throughout an extended area and that have settled on, or have become embedded in surfaces is described. The method involves the use of doped fused quartz phosphor materials that exhibit optically stimulated luminescence. These glass phosphors are ground into a powder and

A. L. Huston; B. L. Justus

2007-01-01

120

Radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs, July-September 1953  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude and extent of radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs during July, August, and September, 1953, were determined from the results of over 20,000 samples and surveys obtained by the Regional Survey forces of the Biophysics Section. Various samples of material in the liquid, solid, and gaseous states were analyzed by the Control Laboratory. The subsequent counting rates obtained

Paas

1953-01-01

121

Optimal route for evacuating people from a radioactively contaminated region  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main problems of civil defense is evacuation of people by motor transport from regions contaminated with radioactive substances during a serious accident at a nuclear power plant. The solution of this problem reduces to choosing the optimal route where the dose loads are minimal. Besides o~anizational problems, this problem is complicated by the fact that it is

A. P. Elokhin

1999-01-01

122

Fluvial Placement of Radioactive Contaminants a Weldon Spring Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of the Weldon Spring Uranium Feed Materials Plant in St. Charles, MO between 1958 and 1966 resulted in the migration and emplacement of radioactive contaminants into surface water drainage systems. Multiple drainage systems, receiving from a variety of waste discharge points, combined to create unique and unexpected depositional environment. Discovery and investigation of the depositional environments was a

2002-01-01

123

Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems following the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems (1986–1990) is considered on the basis of observational data in the near and distant zones of the Chernobyl fallout (the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) cooling pond, the Pripyat River, the Dnieper reservoirs, and the Kopor inlet of the Gulf of Finland). Radionuclide accumulation in aquatic biota is analyzed.The results obtained indicate

I. I. Kryshev

1995-01-01

124

Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage.

Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

1992-08-04

125

The Distribution in Soils of Radioactivity from Weapons Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of the vertical profiles of radioactivity from weapons tests in several soils from New Jersey are presented. Four radionuclides, strontium 90, ruthenium 106, cesium 137, and cerium 144, were examined, and in general the cumulative activities agreed with the quantities estimated from the observed concentrations of the nuclides in precipitation. Vertical distributions of radioactivity within soils appear to vary

Alan Walton

1963-01-01

126

Solvent washing of aged PCP contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

The study evaluates the removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP), a wood preserving agent, from soils that have been contaminated over a period of time. Previously, equal proportions of ethanol and water were found to have the highest PCP removal efficiencies for above ground batch extractions at variouS soil:solvent ratios. In addition, the 50% and 75% ethanol solutions achieved higher removal efficiencies at low solvent throughputs in in-situ soil flushing experiments. In batch extraction tests, the 50% ethanol solution obtained higher PCP removal efficiencies for all soil fractions than the DI water and 100% ethanol solution. The PCP removal efficiency for in-situ above ground soil washing experiments was consistently higher for the 100x140 U.S. mesh soil, regardless of the aging period. In addition, for both in-situ flushing and above ground tests, a lower PCP removal efficiency was obtained for the 20x40 U.S. mesh soil conditioned at 60 C than that for the same soil fraction aged at room temperature. (Copyright (c) 1993 Water Environment Federation).

Khodadoust, A.P.; Wagner, J.A.; Suidan, M.T.; Safferman, S.I.

1993-01-01

127

Monitoring Potential Transport of Radioactive Contaminants in Shallow Ephemeral Channels  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Nevada Site Office (NSO), Environmental Restoration Soils Activity has authorized the Desert Research Institute (DRI) to conduct field assessments of potential sediment transport of contaminated soil from Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 550, Area 8 Smoky Contamination Area (CA), during precipitation runoff events. CAU 550 includes Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 08-23-03, 08-23-04, 08-23-06, and 08-23-07; these CASs are associated with tests designated Ceres, Smoky, Oberon, and Titania, respectively.

Miller Julianne J.,Mizell Steve A.,Nikolich George,Campbell Scott A.

2012-02-01

128

Soil Contamination from PCB-Containing Buildings  

PubMed Central

Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in construction materials, such as caulking used around windows and expansion joints, may constitute a source of PCB contamination in the building interiors and in surrounding soil. Several studies of soil contamination have been conducted around buildings where the caulking has been removed by grinding or scraping. The PCBs in soil may have been generated in the process of removing the caulking, but natural weathering and deterioration of the caulking may have also been a source. Objectives The objectives of this study were to measure PCB levels in soil surrounding buildings where PCB-containing caulk was still in place, and to evaluate the mobility of the PCBs from caulking using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 1311). Discussion We found soil PCB contamination ranging from 3.3 to 34 mg/kg around buildings with undisturbed caulking that contained 10,000–36,200 mg/kg PCBs. The results of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (leachate concentrations of 76–288 mg PCB/L) suggest that PCBs in caulking can be mobilized, apparently as complexes with dissolved organic matter that also leach off the caulking material. Conclusions and Recommendations Although these new findings are based on a small sample size, they demonstrate the need for a national survey of PCBs in building materials and in soil surrounding these buildings. Because the buildings constructed during the time the PCB caulking was in use (1960s and 1970s) include schools, hospitals, and apartment buildings, the potential for exposure of children is a particular concern. It is necessary to reconsider the practice of disposing of old PCB caulking removed during building renovations in conventional landfills, given the apparent mobility of PCBs from the caulking material. Disposal of some caulking material in nonhazardous landfills might lead to high PCB levels in landfill leachate.

Herrick, Robert F.; Lefkowitz, Daniel J.; Weymouth, George A.

2007-01-01

129

Evaluation of uranium and arsenic retention by soil from a low level radioactive waste management site using sequential extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Communities Bureau of Reference (BCR) and Chunguo sequential extraction procedures were employed to evaluate the retention of U and As by a soil contaminated with low level radioactive waste. Modifications were made to both procedures to optimize the measurement of soil and extractant samples using epithermal neutron activation analysis. Based on the BCR procedure, approximately 20% of the

R. T. Dhoum; G. J. Evans

1998-01-01

130

Radioactivity concentrations in soils of the Xiazhuang granite area, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural radioactivity of soils at the Xiazhuang granite massif of Southern China has been studied. The radioactivities of 55 samples have been measured with a low-background HPGe detector. The radioactivity concentrations of 238U and 40K ranged from 40.2 to 442 and from 442 to 913Bq\\/kg, respectively, while the radioactivity concentration of 232Th varied only slightly. In order to evaluate

Ya-xin Yang; Xin-min Wu; Zhong-ying Jiang; Wei-xing Wang; Ji-gen Lu; Jun Lin; Lei-Ming Wang; Yuan-fu Hsia

2005-01-01

131

Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

2003-02-24

132

Bioremediation of uranium contaminated soils and wastes  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (1) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (2) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

Francis, A.J.

1998-12-31

133

Evaluation of Electrokinetic Remediation of Arsenic-contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of electrokinetic (EK) remediation technology has been successfully demonstrated for the remediation of heavy\\u000a metal-contaminated fine-grained soils through laboratory scale and field application studies. Arsenic contamination in soil\\u000a is a serious problem affecting both site use and groundwater quality. The EK technology was evaluated for the removal of arsenic\\u000a from two soil samples; a kaolinite soil artificially contaminated

Soon-Oh Kim; Won-Seok Kim; Kyoung-Woong Kim

2005-01-01

134

Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction  

SciTech Connect

Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L. [National Management Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1996-12-31

135

Auxiliary analyses in support of performance assessment of a hypothetical low-level waste facility: Two-phase flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated soils with application to low-level radioactive waste disposal. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

A numerical model of multiphase air-water flow and contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone is presented. The multiphase flow equations are solved using the two-pressure, mixed form of the equations with a modified Picard linearization of the equations and a finite element spatial approximation. A volatile contaminant is assumed to be transported in either phase, or in both phases simultaneously. The contaminant partitions between phases with an equilibrium distribution given by Henry`s Law or via kinetic mass transfer. The transport equations are solved using a Galerkin finite element method with reduced integration to lump the resultant matrices. The numerical model is applied to published experimental studies to examine the behavior of the air phase and associated contaminant movement under water infiltration. The model is also used to evaluate a hypothetical design for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. The model has been developed in both one and two dimensions; documentation and computer codes are available for the one-dimensional flow and transport model.

Binning, P. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia); Celia, M.A.; Johnson, J.C. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Operations Research

1995-05-01

136

Soil Washing Experiment for Decontamination of Contaminated NPP Soil  

SciTech Connect

The preliminary experiment was performed to obtain the operating conditions of soil washing decontamination process such as decontamination agent, decontamination temperature, decontamination time and ratio of soil and decontamination agent. To estimate decontamination efficiency, particle size of soil was classified into three categories; {>=} 2.0 mm, 2.0 {approx} 0.21 mm and {<=} 0.21 mm. Major target of this experiment was decontamination of Cs-137. The difference of decontamination efficiency using water and neutral salts as decontamination agent is not high. It is concluded that the best temperature of decontamination agent is normal temperature and the best decontamination time was about 60 minutes. And the best ratio of soil and decontamination agent is 1:10. In case of Cs decontamination for fine soils, the decontamination results using neutral salts such as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} shows some limits while using strong acid such as sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid shows high decontamination efficiency ({>=}90%). But we conclude that decontamination using strong acid is also inappropriate because of the insufficiency of decontamination efficiency for highly radioactive fine soils and the difficulty for treatment of secondary liquid waste. It is estimated that the best decontamination process is to use water as decontamination agent for particles which can be decontaminated to clearance level, after particle size separation. (authors)

Son, J.K.; Kang, K.D.; Kim, K.D.; Ha, J.H.; Song, M.J. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, P.O. Box 149, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

137

The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites.

Hung, H. -W.; Daniel, Sheng, G.; Lin, T. -F.; Su, Y.; Chiou, C. T.

2009-01-01

138

Bioremediation of soils contaminated with explosives.  

PubMed

The large-scale industrial production and processing of munitions such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the past 100 years led to the disposal of wastes containing explosives and nitrated organic by-products into the environment. In the US, the Army alone has estimated that over 1.2 million tons of soil have been contaminated with explosives, and the impact of explosives contamination in other countries is of similar magnitude. In recent years, growing concern about the health and ecological threats posed by man-made chemicals have led to studies of the toxicology of explosives, which have identified toxic and mutagenic effects of the common military explosives and their transformation products (Bruns-Nagel et al., 1999a; Fuchs et al., 2001; Homma-Takeda et al., 2002; Honeycutt et al., 1996; Rosenblatt et al., 1991; Spanggord et al., 1982; Tan et al., 1992 and Won et al., 1976). Because the cleanup of areas contaminated by explosives is now mandated because of public health concerns, considerable effort has been invested in finding economical remediation technologies. Biological treatment processes are often considered, since these are usually the least expensive means of destroying organic pollution. This review examines the most important groups of chemicals that must be treated at sites contaminated by explosives processing, the chemical and biological transformations they undergo, and commercial processes developed to exploit these transformations for treatment of contaminated soil. We critically examine about 150 papers on the topic, including approximately 60 published within the past 5 years. PMID:15016438

Lewis, Thomas A; Newcombe, David A; Crawford, Ronald L

2004-04-01

139

Bioventing of Gasoline-Contaminated Soil: Some Aspects for Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underground storage tank leakage is a concern in North America because gasoline contaminated soil can cause significant groundwater contamination. São Paulo (Brazil) has leakage rates similar to North America. The typical in-situ remediation process is soil vapour extraction (SVE), but experience shows that tailing usually occurs. Bioventing is an innovative technology to address tailing in the remediation of contaminated sites,

Stella M. C. Bezerra; Richard G. Zytner

140

ISOCELL trademark proof-of-concept for retrieval of wastes and contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

ISOCELL{sup TM} cryogenic technology is designed to immobilize buried hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste and contaminated soil by creating a block of frozen waste and soil that can be safely retrieved, stored, transported, and treated with a minimum of dust or aerosol production. A proof-of-concept'' test of the ISOCELL process was conducted in clean soil by RKK, Ltd., for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Results indicate ISOCELL technology successfully froze moist soil into a solid block capable of being lifted and retrieved. Test conditions were compared to characteristics of possible buried waste sites in the INEL.

Chatwin, T.D. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Krieg, R.K. (RKK, Ltd., Bellevue WA (United States))

1992-01-01

141

ISOCELL{trademark} proof-of-concept for retrieval of wastes and contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

ISOCELL{sup TM} cryogenic technology is designed to immobilize buried hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste and contaminated soil by creating a block of frozen waste and soil that can be safely retrieved, stored, transported, and treated with a minimum of dust or aerosol production. A ``proof-of-concept`` test of the ISOCELL process was conducted in clean soil by RKK, Ltd., for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Results indicate ISOCELL technology successfully froze moist soil into a solid block capable of being lifted and retrieved. Test conditions were compared to characteristics of possible buried waste sites in the INEL.

Chatwin, T.D. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Krieg, R.K. [RKK, Ltd., Bellevue WA (United States)

1992-08-01

142

The Radioactive Contamination of Food Following Nuclear Attack  

PubMed Central

The relative radiation hazards from early and delayed fallout following a nuclear attack have been reviewed. It is indicated that the hazard to life from whole-body gamma irradiation from early fallout far outweighs the hazard from radioactive contamination of food. Nevertheless, because of the possible effects of iodine-131, the consumption by infants of fresh milk from animals which have ingested contaminated fodder should be avoided if possible during the first few weeks after attack. During the same period, water from covered supplies should be used in preference to that from open reservoirs. It is more important, however, to alleviate hunger and thirst in both man and animal than to prevent the temporary ingestion of food which may be contaminated by fallout.

Massey, E. E.

1967-01-01

143

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction of lead from contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoextraction, a remediation strategy for lead (Pb)-contaminated soils that removes soil Pb through plant uptake and harvest, may be enhanced by use of synthetic chelates. The authors evaluated Pb desorption from four contaminated soils by seven chelates (CDTA, DTPA, EDDHA, EFTA, HEDTA, HEIDA, and NTA) at three rates. The three most effective chelates (CDTA, DTPA, and HEDTA) were used in

E. M. Cooper; J. T. Sims; S. D. Cunningham; J. W. Huang; W. R. Berti

1999-01-01

144

Extractability and Subsequent Biodegradation of PAHs from Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been well documented; however, the biodegradation of PAHs in contaminated soil has proved to be problematic. Sorption of PAHs to soil over time can significantly decrease their availability for extraction much less than for biodegradation. In this study the ability of various organic solvents to extract PAHs from coal tar-contaminated soil obtained from

John J. Kilbane; S. Mt

1998-01-01

145

Soil migration, plant uptake and volatilisation of radio-selenium from a contaminated water table.  

PubMed

The properties of (79)Se make it of likely potential importance in safety studies for geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Despite a substantial literature on toxic and nutritional aspects of selenium in the environment little consideration has been given to the behaviour of radioactive selenium and its potential transfer from a radioactive waste repository to the biosphere. Column experiments (15 x 50 cm), using a sandy loam soil, indicated that the upwards migration of (75)Se (as a surrogate for (79)Se) from a contaminated water table was dependent upon the redox status of the soil. Low redox conditions within the water table strongly limited upwards (75)Se soil migration, presumably due to the immobilisation of reduced Se species. Under natural conditions, (79)Se from a radioactive waste repository is therefore likely to accumulate at considerable depth. As a consequence, its absence from the rooting zone is likely to limit its transfer into plants. Nevertheless, the column experiments indicated that when an overlap between roots and soil contamination occurs, uptake into the plant is observed. Quantification of (75)Se volatilisation from the column surfaces suggested that this is a significant pathway by which (79)Se may move either directly from soil to the atmosphere, or from soil to plants and then to the atmosphere. PMID:16887170

Ashworth, D J; Shaw, G

2006-08-02

146

BIOREMEDIATION OF URANIUM CONTAMINATED SOILS AND WASTES.  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of soils, water, and sediments by radionuclides and toxic metals from uranium mill tailings, nuclear fuel manufacturing and nuclear weapons production is a major concern. Studies of the mechanisms of biotransformation of uranium and toxic metals under various microbial process conditions has resulted in the development of two treatment processes: (i) stabilization of uranium and toxic metals with reduction in waste volume and (ii) removal and recovery of uranium and toxic metals from wastes and contaminated soils. Stabilization of uranium and toxic metals in wastes is accomplished by exploiting the unique metabolic capabilities of the anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium sp. The radionuclides and toxic metals are solubilized by the bacteria directly by enzymatic reductive dissolution, or indirectly due to the production of organic acid metabolites. The radionuclides and toxic metals released into solution are immobilized by enzymatic reductive precipitation, biosorption and redistribution with stable mineral phases in the waste. Non-hazardous bulk components of the waste such as Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na released into solution are removed, thus reducing the waste volume. In the second process uranium and toxic metals are removed from wastes or contaminated soils by extracting with the complexing agent citric acid. The citric-acid extract is subjected to biodegradation to recover the toxic metals, followed by photochemical degradation of the uranium citrate complex which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. The toxic metals and uranium are recovered in separate fractions for recycling or for disposal. The use of combined chemical and microbiological treatment process is more efficient than present methods and should result in considerable savings in clean-up and disposal costs.

FRANCIS,A.J.

1998-09-17

147

Effect of soil depth on phytoremediation efficiency for petroleum contaminants.  

PubMed

Biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil may be enhanced by the presence of vegetation. Evaluating the effect of soil depth on phytoremediation efficiency may provide researchers and regulators with a clearer understanding of contaminant clean-up. A column study with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and diesel-contaminated soil was conducted over a 147-day period of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) growth. Analysis of the contaminants and plant biomass was conducted along with microbial enumeration at three soil depths in 49-day intervals. Remediation proceeded rapidly near the surface of the soil (0-20 cm) for both vegetated and unvegetated columns, but the effect of vegetation relative to an unvegetated control only was significant in the lower soil depths. Contaminant dissipation in the 20-40 and 40-60 cm layers was not significantly different between vegetated and unvegetated soil. PMID:18161552

Keller, Jeffrey; Banks, M Katherine; Schwab, A P

2008-01-01

148

REVIEW OF SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR TREATING PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Pesticide contamination results from manufacturing, improper storage, handling, or disposal of pesticides, and from agricultural processes. Since most pesticides are mixtures of different compounds, selecting a remedy for pesticide-contaminated soils can be a complicated process....

149

Extraction of pesticides from contaminated soil using supercritical carbon dioxide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The demand for processes to clean up contaminated soils without generating additional contaminants, such as hazardous solvents, is increasing. One approach to minimizing this problem is to use supercritical fluids like light hydrocarbons and CO(sub 2) to ...

G. B. Hunter

1991-01-01

150

Electrochemical Processes for In-situ Treatment of Contaminated Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soils at typical DOE (Department of Energy) waste sites are known to be contaminated by a host of hazardous organic chemicals, heavy metals and radionuclides. Typical hazardous organic contaminants include chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (T...

2004-01-01

151

Bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil with composting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective of this research was to find the appropriate mix ratio of organic amendments for enhancing diesel oil degradation during contaminated soil composting. Sewage sludge or compost was added as an amendment for supplementing organic matter for composting of contaminated soil. The ratios of contaminated soil to organic amendments were 1:0.1, 1:0.3, 1:0.5, and 1:1 as wet weight

Wan Namkoong; Eui-Young Hwang; Joon-Seok Park; Jung-Young Choi

2002-01-01

152

System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors  

DOEpatents

A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources.

Weidner, Jerry R. (Iona, ID); Downs, Wayne C. (Sugar City, ID); Kaser, Timothy G. (Ammon, ID); Hall, H. James (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01

153

System for the removal of contaminant soil-gas vapors  

DOEpatents

A system extracts contaminated vapors from soil or other subsurface regions by using changes in barometric pressure to operate sensitive check valves that control air entry and removal from wells in the ground. The system creates an efficient subterranean flow of air through a contaminated soil plume and causes final extraction of the contaminants from the soil to ambient air above ground without any external energy sources. 4 figs.

Weidner, J.R.; Downs, W.C.; Kaser, T.G.; Hall, H.J.

1997-12-16

154

Effect of soil depth on phytoremediation efficiency for petroleum contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil may be enhanced by the presence of vegetation. Evaluating the effect of soil depth on phytoremediation efficiency may provide researchers and regulators with a clearer understanding of contaminant clean-up. A column study with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and diesel-contaminated soil was conducted over a 147-day period of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) growth. Analysis of the

Jeffrey Keller; M. Katherine Banks; A. P. Schwab

2007-01-01

155

Effectiveness of complex fertilizers of new generation on radioactive contaminated lands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic and general remediation principles of agricultural lands affected by technological contamination are presented. One of the perspective method of soil fertility rising is ap-plication of natural clays and minerals. This is the most effective measure on contaminated lands. We can reduce the uptake of 137Cs in 3-5 times because of retention of radionuclides in crystal structures of minerals and its transformation in unapproachable form for plants. Nowdays a special attention pays to sorbents. The stores of natural sorbents (trepel and pa-lygorskit clay) are founded in a grate amount in Kaluga region. A complex sorbent has been developed and on its basis a fundamentally new compound manufactured which combines properties of both sorbent and complex long-acting fertilizer ("Suprodit") that contains NPK (patent on the invention No. 2336257). The base of complex sorbent is SiO2 enriched mineral - trepel. Complex sorbent is a mixture of hydrothermally processed permutite and silicagel with significant sorption properties for radionuclides. This sorbent may be used for fertility rising of the contaminated lands and grain yield, and also for reducing of pollutants uptake. The most effectiveness of "Suprodit" was on fodder lands contaminated with 500-920 kBk137Cs/m2. It has been found that the use of resource-saving technologies with using "Suprodit" increased the yield of barley by 10-40% and the productivity of sowing grasses by 4-5 times. "Suprodit" decreased the concentration of 137Cs in sowing grasses by 1,8-4,0 times. It has been studied the effect of "Suprodit" and industrial fertilizers (NPK and «nitropfoska») on the biological activity of soddy-podzolic soil, contaminated of 137Cs (100 kBk/kg). "Suprodit" increased the CO2 emission rate on radioactively contaminated soil by 1,5 times in comparison with NPK and «nitropfoska», accordingly.

Ratnikov, A. N.; Sanzharova, N. I.; Sviridenko, D. G.; Zhigareva, T. L.

2012-04-01

156

Health effects associated with exposure to radioactively contaminated gold rings  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to assess the health risks associated with exposure to radioactively contaminated gold rings. A group of 135 exposed individuals, who were identified through a statewide jewelry screening program, were studied to determine the frequency of carcinoma and other skin problems on the ring finger. Severity of skin problems increased with increasing length of wear. Forty-one of the exposures were associated with mild to severe skin problems. Nine of the individuals studied were diagnosed as having histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinomas at the site of exposure. The incidence of skin cancer on the ring finger was eleven times that expected for men and forty-five times that expected for women. These data indicate that physicians who have patients with skin lesions of the ring finger should be aware of the possibility of exposure to a radioactive gold ring.

Baptiste, M.S.; Rothenberg, R.; Nasca, P.C.; Janerich, D.T.; Stutzman, C.D.; Rimawi, K.; O'Brien, W.; Matuszek, J.

1984-06-01

157

Environmental review of options for managing radioactively contaminated carbon steel  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to develop a strategy for the management of radioactively contaminated carbon steel (RCCS). Currently, most of this material either is placed in special containers and disposed of by shallow land burial in facilities designed for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or is stored indefinitely pending sufficient funding to support alternative disposition. The growing amount of RCCS with which DOE will have to deal in the foreseeable future, coupled with the continued need to protect the human and natural environment, has led the Department to evaluate other approaches for managing this material. This environmental review (ER) describes the options that could be used for RCCS management and examines the potential environmental consequences of implementing each. Because much of the analysis underlying this document is available from previous studies, wherever possible the ER relies on incorporating the conclusions of those studies as summaries or by reference.

NONE

1996-10-01

158

Pilot?scale devices for remediation of munitions contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equipment is described for the remediation of (TNT) contaminated soil in pilot scale setting. Devices were developed for the preparation of soil samples and for the removal of water from soil after treatment of a soil slurry in a 60 L air?lift reactor, which was a prototype of larger commercial unit. The method was applied to clean up TNT?polluted

M. Arienzo; S. D. Comfort; M. Zerkoune; Z. M. Li; P. J. Shea

1998-01-01

159

DEVELOPMENT OF A ONE STEP DECONTAMINATION PROCESS FOR OILS CONTAINING BOTH PCBs AND RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is inevitable that lubricating, hydraulic and vacuum pump oil used in process industries become contaminated with process fluids and piping system corrosion products. When the process industry is associated with nuclear power production, the contaminants can also be radioactive. Good waste segregation practices are essential to keep certain hazardous contaminants such as PCB containing oils from mixing with radioactive

J. Krasznai; J. Janis; R. Cabanus

160

Natural radioactivity in soil samples of Kocaeli basin, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The city of Kocaeli is in the western part of Anatolia in Turkey and has a population of approximately 1.000.000. There is no information about radioactivity in the Kocaeli soils samples so far. For this reason, the concentrations of the natural radionuclides in soil samples from 27 different sampling stations in Kocaeli Basin and its surroundings have been determined. The

B. Karakelle; N. Öztürk; A. Köse; A. Varinlio?brevelu; A. Y. Erkol; F. Yilmaz

2002-01-01

161

Heavy metals, organics and radioactivity in soil of western Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western Serbia is a region well-known for potato production. Concentrations of selected metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and radioactivity were measured in the soil in order to evaluate the quality and characteristics. The examined soils (Luvisol and Pseudogley) showed unsuitable agrochemical characteristics (acid reaction, low content of organic matter and potassium). Some samples contained Ni, Mn and Cr above the

Goran Dugalic; Dragana Krstic; Miodrag Jelic; Dragoslav Nikezic; Biljana Milenkovic; Mira Pucarevic; Tijana Zeremski-Skoric

2010-01-01

162

THE RADIOACTIVE POLLUTED SOILS DECONTAMINATION USING THE ULTRASOUND FIELD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present contribution presents an intensive procedure used for the decontamination of the radioactively polluted soils. The procedure used was the washing in intensive conditions and the decontamination degree is comparatively presented depending on the ultrasounds presence and absence. The lab testes were performed on five types of soils, characterized of the size distribution, structural and chemical composition; all these

Eugenia Panturu; Rozalia Radulescu; Cosmin Jinescu; Gabriela Isopencu; Antoneta Filcenco-Olteanu; Gheorghita Jinescu

163

ADSORPTION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY SAVANNAH RIVER PLANT SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of radioisotopes on soil was investigated in the ; laboratory to determine the behavior of lowlevel radioactive waste solutions ; discharged to the ground. Strontium, cesium, and plutonium distributions between ; soil and waste solution were studied. The effects of cation concentration and ; acidity were determined. The results of the distribution experiments, and ; material balance considerations,

W. E. PROUT

1958-01-01

164

12. Chernobyl's radioactive contamination of food and people.  

PubMed

In many European countries levels of I-131, Cs-134/137, Sr-90, and other radionuclides in milk, dairy products, vegetables, grains, meat, and fish increased drastically (sometimes as much as 1,000-fold) immediately after the catastrophe. Up until 1991 the United States imported food products with measurable amounts of Chernobyl radioactive contamination, mostly from Turkey, Italy, Austria, West Germany, Greece, Yugoslavia, Hungary, Sweden, and Denmark. These products included juices, cheeses, pasta, mushrooms, hazelnuts, sage, figs, tea, thyme, juniper, caraway seeds, and apricots. In Gomel, Mogilev, and Brest provinces in Belarus 7-8% of milk and 13-16% of other food products from small farms exceeded permissible levels of Cs-137, even as recently as 2005-2007. As of 2000, up to 90% of the wild berries and mushrooms exceeded permissible levels of Cs-137 in Rovno and Zhytomir provinces, Ukraine. Owing to weight and metabolic differences, a child's radiation exposure is 3-5 times higher than that of an adult on the same diet. From 1995 to 2007, up to 90% of the children from heavily contaminated territories of Belarus had levels of Cs-137 accumulation higher than 15-20 Bq/kg, with maximum levels of up to 7,300 Bq/kg in Narovlya District, Gomel Province. Average levels of incorporated Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the heavily contaminated territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia did not decline, but rather increased from 1991 to 2005. Given that more than 90% of the current radiation fallout is due to Cs-137, with a half-life of about 30 years, we know that the contaminated areas will be dangerously radioactive for roughly the next three centuries. PMID:20002056

Nesterenko, Alexey V; Nesterenko, Vassily B; Yablokov, Alexey V

2009-11-01

165

Layer of organic pine forest soil on top of chlorophenol-contaminated mineral soil enhances contaminant degradation.  

PubMed

Chlorophenols, like many other synthetic compounds, are persistent problem in industrial areas. These compounds are easily degraded in certain natural environments where the top soil is organic. Some studies suggest that mineral soil contaminated with organic compounds is rapidly remediated if it is mixed with organic soil. We hypothesized that organic soil with a high degradation capacity even on top of the contaminated mineral soil enhances degradation of recalcitrant chlorophenols in the mineral soil below. We first compared chlorophenol degradation in different soils by spiking pristine and pentachlorophenol-contaminated soils with 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in 10-L buckets. In other experiments, we covered contaminated mineral soil with organic pine forest soil. We also monitored in situ degradation on an old sawmill site where mineral soil was either left intact or covered with organic pine forest soil. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol was rapidly degraded in organic pine forest soil, but the degradation was slower in other soils. If a thin layer of the pine forest humus was added on top of mineral sawmill soil, the original chlorophenol concentrations (high, ca. 70 ?g g(-1), or moderate, ca. 20 ?g g(-1)) in sawmill soil decreased by >40 % in 24 days. No degradation was noticed if the mineral soil was kept bare or if the covering humus soil layer was sterilized beforehand. Our results suggest that covering mineral soil with an organic soil layer is an efficient way to remediate recalcitrant chlorophenol contamination in mineral soils. The results of the field experiment are promising. PMID:22752813

Sinkkonen, Aki; Kauppi, Sari; Simpanen, Suvi; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Strömmer, Rauni; Romantschuk, Martin

2012-07-01

166

Levels of sup 137 Cs and natural radioactivity in Saudi Arabian soil  

SciTech Connect

After the Chernobyl accident, there was concern about contamination from the radioactive plume reaching Saudi Arabia. Cesium-137 concentration in the soil was measured to determine the degree of contamination from the accident. The concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 214}Bi, and {sup 228}Ac were determined as well. Bismuth-214 is a member of the {sup 238}U series, while {sup 228}Ac is from the {sup 238}Th series. Each of these isotopes emits several well-resolved photons of relatively high intensity per disintegration.

Abulfarai, W.; Abdul-Majid, S. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia))

1991-01-01

167

Levels of sup 137 Cs and natural radioactivity in Saudi Arabian soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Chernobyl accident, there was concern about contamination from the radioactive plume reaching Saudi Arabia. Cesium-137 concentration in the soil was measured to determine the degree of contamination from the accident. The concentrations of ⁴°K, ²¹⁴Bi, and ²²⁸Ac were determined as well. Bismuth-214 is a member of the ²³⁸U series, while ²²⁸Ac is from the ²³⁸Th series. Each of

W. Abulfarai; S. Abdul-Majid

1991-01-01

168

Chemical methods and phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chemical amendments (calcium carbonate (CC), steel sludge (SS) and furnace slag (FS)) on the growth and uptake of cadmium (Cd) by wetland rice, Chinese cabbage and wheat grown in a red soil contaminated with Cd were investigated using a pot experiment. The phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with vetiver grass was also studied in a field

H. M Chen; C. R Zheng; C Tu; Z. G Shen

2000-01-01

169

Probabilistic prediction of exposures to arsenic contaminated residential soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic modelling using Monte Carlo simulation has been proposed as a more scientifically valid method of estimating soil contaminant exposures than conservative deterministic methods currently used by regulatory agencies. A retrospective application of probabilistic modelling to an exposure scenario involving arsenic-contaminated residential soil near the former ASARCO smelter near Tacoma, Washington is presented. The population of interest is children, aged

Robert C. Lee; John C. Kissel

1995-01-01

170

Electrokinetic remediation of anionic contaminants from unsaturated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in the DOE weapons complex, and for the nation as a whole. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. In previous studies at Sandia National Laboratories, the electromigration of chromate ions and anionic dye ions have been demonstrated. This paper reports

E. R. Lindgren; M. W. Kozak; E. D. Mattson

1992-01-01

171

Electrokinetic remediation of anionic contaminants from unsaturated soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in the DOE weapons complex, and for the nation as a whole. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. In p...

E. R. Lindgren M. W. Kozak E. D. Mattson

1992-01-01

172

BIOAVAILABILITY OF METALS IN CONTAMINATED SOIL AND DUST  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to widespread metal contamination, it is necessary to characterize soils suspected of metal contamination and determine if the metal levels in these soils pose a hazard. Metal toxicity is often not directly related to the total concentration of metals present due to a numb...

173

Operating and life-cycle costs for uranium-contaminated soil treatment technologies  

SciTech Connect

The development of a nuclear industry in the US required mining, milling, and fabricating a large variety of uranium products. One of these products was purified uranium metal which was used in the Savannah River and Hanford Site reactors. Most of this feed material was produced at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facility formerly called the Feed Materials Production Center at Fernald, Ohio. During operation of this facility, soils became contaminated with uranium from a variety of sources. To avoid disposal of these soils in low-level radioactive waste burial sites, increasing emphasis has been placed on the remediating soils contaminated with uranium and other radionuclides. To address remediation and management of uranium-contaminated soils at sites owned by DOE, the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD) evaluates and compares the versatility, efficiency, and economics of various technologies that may be combined into systems designed to characterize and remediate uranium-contaminated soils. Each technology must be able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from soil, (3) treat or dispose of resulting waste streams, (4) meet necessary state and federal regulations, and (5) meet performance assessment objectives. The role of the performance assessment objectives is to provide the information necessary to conduct evaluations of the technologies. These performance assessments provide the basis for selecting the optimum system for remediation of large areas contaminated with uranium. One of the performance assessment tasks is to address the economics of full-scale implementation of soil treatment technologies. The cost of treating contaminated soil is one of the criteria used in the decision-making process for selecting remedial alternatives.

Douthat, D.M.; Armstrong, A.Q. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Stewart, R.N. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-09-01

174

Partitioning of heavy metals in contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Three soils and a sediment which had undergone massive prior additions of heavy metals were sequentially extracted so that Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn could be partitioned into five operationally defined geochemical fractions: exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to organic matter, and residual. The highest amount of Cd (ca. 37%) was found in the exchangeable fraction, and Cu was the only metal significantly associated with the organic fraction. The Fe-Mn oxide fraction contained 23, 24, 26 and 39%, and the residual fractions 15, 34, 55, and 14%, of the Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn respectively. The following hazard order may be proposed for these highly contaminated materials: Cd > Zn > Cu > Ni. Bio-Gel P-2 was used to separate Cu-organic complexes from inorganic-Cu. Continuous elution with 0.03 ..mu..g ml/sup -1/ Cu, Cd, and Zn in 50 mM KCl prevented adsorption of metals by the gel and subsequent dissociation of labile metal-organic complexes. Overestimates of exchangeable Cd, Cu, and Zn can result from anion complexation and formation of soluble metal-organic complexes. Two soils, contaminated with heavy metals, were extracted with 1.0 M MgCl/sub 2/, Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, and Mg(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/. Gel chromatography was used to quantify the amounts of inorganic and organically complexed metals. MgCl/sub 2/ and Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ extraction overestimated the truly exchangeable Cd and Zn. 1.0 M Mg(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ provided a good estimate of truly exchangeable Cd and Zn and of water soluble Cu. Extraction with this solution may be a good measure of potential environmental hazard.

Hickey, M.G.

1982-01-01

175

Bacterial Biodiversity in Soil with an Emphasis on Chemically-Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms isolated from soil are sources of known and new microorganisms and genetic material. This review examines general principles of soil bacterial biodiversity, limitations in sampling soils, and examples of bacterial diversity in chemically-contaminated soils. Both conventional and molecular methods used to assess microbial biodiversity in soils will be addressed as well as selected examples of the effects of organic

J. T. Trevors

1998-01-01

176

40 CFR 267.116 - What must I do with contaminated equipment, structure, and soils?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...contaminated equipment, structure, and soils? 267.116 Section 267.116 Protection...contaminated equipment, structure, and soils? You must properly dispose of or decontaminate...contaminated equipment, structures, and soils during the partial and final closure...

2013-07-01

177

40 CFR 267.116 - What must I do with contaminated equipment, structure, and soils?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...must I do with contaminated equipment, structure, and soils? 267.116...must I do with contaminated equipment, structure, and soils? You must...decontaminate all contaminated equipment, structures, and soils during the...

2010-07-01

178

40 CFR 267.116 - What must I do with contaminated equipment, structure, and soils?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...must I do with contaminated equipment, structure, and soils? 267.116...must I do with contaminated equipment, structure, and soils? You must...decontaminate all contaminated equipment, structures, and soils during the...

2009-07-01

179

40 CFR 267.116 - What must I do with contaminated equipment, structure, and soils?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...contaminated equipment, structure, and soils? 267.116 Section 267.116 Protection...contaminated equipment, structure, and soils? You must properly dispose of or decontaminate...contaminated equipment, structures, and soils during the partial and final closure...

2012-07-01

180

Evaluation and ranking of restoration strategies for radioactively contaminated sites.  

PubMed

An international project, whose aim was the development of a transparent and robust method for evaluating and ranking restoration strategies for radioactively contaminated sites (RESTRAT), was carried out under the Fourth Framework of the Nuclear Fission Safety Programme of the EU. The evaluation and ranking procedure used was based on the principles of justification and optimisation for radiation protection. A multi-attribute utility analysis was applied to allow for the inclusion of radiological health effects, economic costs and social factors. Values of these attributes were converted into utility values by applying linear utility functions and weighting factors, derived from scaling constants and expert judgement. The uncertainties and variabilities associated with these utility functions and weighting factors were dealt with by a probabilistic approach which utilised a Latin Hypercube Sampling technique. Potentially relevant restoration techniques were identified and their characteristics determined through a literature review. The methodology developed by this project has been illustrated by application to representative examples of different categories of contaminated sites; a waste disposal site, a uranium tailing site and a contaminated freshwater river. PMID:11446122

Zeevaert, T; Bousher, A; Brendler, V; Jensen, P H; Nordlinder, S

2001-01-01

181

Fluvial Placement of Radioactive Contaminants a Weldon Spring Case Study  

SciTech Connect

The operation of the Weldon Spring Uranium Feed Materials Plant in St. Charles, MO between 1958 and 1966 resulted in the migration and emplacement of radioactive contaminants into surface water drainage systems. Multiple drainage systems, receiving from a variety of waste discharge points, combined to create unique and unexpected depositional environment. Discovery and investigation of the depositional environments was a significant technical challenge due to the complex nature of sediment movement and emplacement. The objective of this investigation was to show that application of the knowledge of geomorphic processes is an essential element of a complete stream characterization, pursuant to risk analysis and remediation. This paper sets out to describe many of the expected and unexpected findings of the investigations by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) into the placement and rework of contaminated sediments in stream systems. Information from this paper will be useful to other agencies and contractor personnel faced with the challenge of locating and quantifying contaminated sediments in seemingly haphazard fluvial depositional conditions.

Meier, J.

2002-02-26

182

Evaporation of petroleum products from contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation can remove petroleum products from soil that has been contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks, but abiotic processes such as evaporation can contribute significantly to the overall removal process. The mathematical model described in this paper was developed to predict the evaporation rate of volatile liquids from petroleum-contaminated sand. The model is based on simple concepts relating to molecular diffusion embodied in the theory underlying the estimation of binary diffusivities using measurements made with an Arnold diffusion cell. The model in its simplified form indicates that the rate of evaporation for a particular volatile liquid is proportional to the square root of the product of diffusivity and partial pressure divided by the molecular weight of the liquid. This in part explains why evaporative losses from sand are so much higher for gasoline than for diesel fuel. The model also shows that the time for evaporation is directly proportional to the square of the depth dried out and inversely proportional to the vapor pressure of the volatile liquid. The model was tested using gravimetric measurements of the evaporation of n-heptane, unleaded gasoline, and diesel fuel from sand under laboratory conditions.

Kang, S.H. [Kwangwoon Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Environmental Engineering; Oulman, C.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

1996-05-01

183

ENHANCEMENT OF BIOREMEDIATION PROCESS APPLIED TO DIESEL OIL CONTAMINATED SOILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contamination of soil with fuel hydrocarbons is a wide-spread environmental problem, mainly on account of contamination by leakage from underground storage tanks. The application of bioremediation processes to clean-up contaminated sites is nowadays gaining ground due to its efficiency and lower cost when compared to other technologies. The purpose of the present study is to investigate possible methods to

Adriano Pinto Mariano; Daniel Marcos Bonotto

184

Comparison of forest soils and waste-contaminated soils as sources of polysaccharide-degrading microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was conducted to determine the suitable soil types that can be used as sources of polysaccharide-degrading microbes. A comparison was done of the potential of isolating such microbes from non-polluted areas (forest soils) and waste-contaminated soils. Methodology and Results: Waste-contaminated soils have more isolates producing polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (polysaccharases) than forest soils. In vitro plate screening using dye-labeled

Ting ASY; Chan HY; Jalan Genting Kelang

2008-01-01

185

Germination and development of Mimosa pilulifera in petroleum-contaminated soil and bioremediated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000 there was an oil spill at the Getúlio Vargas Refinery (REPAR\\/PETROBRÁS) in Paraná, Brazil. Nearly five years after contamination and the use of bioremediation, a study was carried out to identify the effects of the contaminated soil and the bioremediated soil on the germination and initial growth of Mimosa pilulifera seedlings. The experiment consisted of three treatments: petroleum-contaminated

Renata Charvet Inckot; Gedir de Oliveira Santos; Luiz Antonio de Souza; Cleusa Bona

2011-01-01

186

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer installation modifications in a radioactive contaminated laboratory for the analysis of DOE radioactive waste streams  

SciTech Connect

The operation and maintenance of a complex analytical instrument such as an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in a radioactive contaminated environment presents unique problems and challenges that have to be considered in the purchasing and installation process. Considerations such as vendor experience, typical radiation levels, sample matrices encountered during sample analysis, instrument accessibility for maintenance, and upkeep must be incorporated into the decision process. The Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recently purchased and installed an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for the analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste streams. This presentation will outline the purchasing decision, installation of the instrument, and how the modifications needed to operate in a radioactive contaminated laboratory do not significantly impact the daily operation and maintenance requirements of the instrument. Also, a contamination survey of the system will be presented which demonstrates the contamination levels in the instrument from the sample introduction system to the detector.

Giaquinto, J.M.; Keller, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

1997-04-01

187

In situ bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soil: A soil column study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ bioremediation of soil contaminated with explosives was studied using columns packed with contaminated soil. Several operating strategies were investigated, including continuous flooding of the soil column with dilute molasses or succinate solution, and periodic operating cycles consisting of flooding followed by draining and aeration. Two control columns were also used, which were flooded with deionized water. All of

R. Boopathy; D. L. Widrig; J. F. Manning

1997-01-01

188

Effects of electrokinetic treatment of a heavy metal contaminated soil on soil enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a growing concern on the potential application of a direct current (DC) electric field to soil for removing contaminants, but little is known about its impact on soil enzyme activities. This study investigated the change of enzyme activities of a heavy metal contaminated soil before and after electrokinetic (EK) treatments at lab-scale and the mechanisms of EK treatment

Long Cang; Dong-Mei Zhou; Quan-Ying Wang; Dan-Ya Wu

2009-01-01

189

Relative bioavailability of arsenic contaminated soils in a mouse model  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to As contaminated soils compels extensive soil cleanups so that human health risks are minimized. In order to improve exposure estimates and potentially reduce remediation costs, determination of the bioavailability of As in soils is needed. The objective of this study ...

190

Stimulation of indigenous microbes to bioremediate oil-contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of bioremediation of two oil-contaminated soils by stimulating indigenous oil-degrading microbes. The soil treatment consisted of tilling, liming, and fertilizing, and bioremediation was monitored by changes in the microbial populations (MPs) and by changes in total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in the soils. Location one was a 12 x 12 ft

J. R. Stewart; D. L. Williams; K. D. Kriel

1994-01-01

191

Phenanthrene Contaminated Soil Biotreatment Using Slurry Phase Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Statement: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected toxins that accumulate in soils and sediments due to their inso lubility in water and lack of volatility. Slurry-ph ase biological treatment is one of the innovative techn ologies that involve the controlled treatment of excavated soil in a bioreactor. Due to highly soil contamination from petroleum compounds in crude oil extraction

M. Arbabi; M. Sadeghi; Ch. Anyakora

2009-01-01

192

COLUMN VAPOR EXTRACTION EXPERIMENTS ON GASOLINE CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a technique that is used to remove volatile organic compounds from unsaturated soils. ir is pumped from the contaminated area and the chemicals are removed from the resulting vapor stream. n this work laboratory, soil column experiments were conduct...

193

Spectral induced polarization signature of contaminated soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral induced polarization (SIP) signatures of porous media contaminated with non aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) were measured using an accurate impedance meter. The samples were prepared by mixing air-dried sand with 15% by weight of bentonite clay, tap water and either diesel fuel or motor oil. Next, the soil was packed in a column and left for 24 hr before electrical measurements were performed. For all the samples, water saturation was constant (Sw = 0.47) and the NAPL saturation was 0 (control), 5, or 15 percent. Counter-intuitively, the results show that addition of NAPL to the porous media resulted in an increase of the real part of the complex conductivity. Evidently, for each type of contaminant, an increase in the contaminant saturation resulted in an increase in the real part of the conductivity. The imaginary part of the complex conductivity showed a reversed behavior: higher NAPL saturation resulted in a reduction of the imaginary part of the complex conductivity. For both the real and the imaginary part of the complex conductivity, the effect of NAPL on the complex electrical conductivity was more significant for motor oil than for diesel fuel. In addition to the electrical measurements, we also performed an extraction experiment to examine the effect of the presence of NAPL on the electrical conductivity (EC) of the pore water. The results from the extraction experiment showed that addition of NAPL to the porous media resulted in an increase of the pore water EC. We argue that this increase in the real part of the complex conductivity is related to adsorption of organic polar compounds from the NAPL onto the mineral surface and the associated release of inorganic ions from the mineral surface to the pore water. These exchange processes affect both the surface and the pore water conductivity. In addition, we suggest that the decrease in polarization (associated with the imaginary part of the complex conductivity) of the NAPL contaminated porous media is related to stronger binding of the adsorbed NAPL polar compounds to the mineral surface. Ongoing experiments are targeted at further elucidating these phenomena.

Schwartz, N.; Huisman, J. A.; Shefer, I.; Furman, A.

2012-04-01

194

Natural Radioactivity of Soils in the Netherlands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forty percent of the natural radiation exposure of man is caused by the primordial radionuclides - U-238, Th-232 and K-40 - and their daughters in the soil. It is shown that the activity concentrations of these nuclides vary between Dutch soils and that t...

D. W. Bannink A. Keen H. W. Koester R. M. J. Pennders J. H. Winkel

1986-01-01

195

Radioactive contamination of the environment and the possible consequences.  

PubMed

To find the optimum solution to the problem of how to protect the environment from pollution by industrial waste, it is necessary, first and foremost, to obtain information on the existing levels of various forms of pollution and the damage caused by them. In this review data are given on all the main sources of contamination of the environment by radioactive substances. The pathways by which these substances reach and affect the human body are discussed, the doses incurred are characterized and the possible consequences of existing levels of exposure are assessed in the light of the latest data on the dose-effect relationship. The wisdom of treating the evaluation of radiation hazards arising from the use of atomic energy not in isolation but as part of a whole complex of ecological factors - including the use of conventional fuels for power generation and transport - is duly noted. PMID:1173780

Knizhnikov, V A; Barkhudarov, R M

1975-06-01

196

Radioactive waste disposal implications of extending Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act to cover radioactively contaminated land  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short study has been carried out of the potential radioactive waste disposal issues associated with the proposed extension of Part IIA of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 to include radioactively contaminated land, where there is no other suitable existing legislation. It was found that there is likely to be an availability problem with respect to disposal at landfills of

D. J. Nancarrow; M. M. White

2004-01-01

197

MERCURY BAKEOFF: TECHNOLOGY COMPARISON FOR THE TREATMENT OF MIXED WASTE MERCURY CONTAMINATED SOILS AT BNL  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Over440 yd,of radioactively contaminated soil containing toxic mercury was generated during a ComprehensiveEnvironmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action atBrookhaven,National Laboratory (BNL). The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Scienceand,Technology Mixed Waste Focus Area (DOE MWFA) is sponsoring a comparison of severaltechnologies that may be used to treat these wastes and similar wastes at BNL and

P. D. KALB; J. W. ADAMS; L. W. MILIAN; G. PENNY; J. BROWER; A. LOCKWOOD

1999-01-01

198

Bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil using poultry litter  

SciTech Connect

Contaminated soil, excavated from around a leaking underground gasoline storage tank, is commonly subjected to thermal degradation to remove the gasoline. Bioremediation as an alternative treatment technology is now becoming popular. The important hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria include Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Poultry litter contains a large number of microorganisms, including Pseudomonas, as well as many inorganic nutrients and organic biomass that may assist in biodegrading gasoline in contaminated soil. During bioremediation of contaminated soil, microbial densities are known to increase by 2-3 orders of magnitude. However, bioremediation may result in a increase in the toxic characteristics of the soil due to the production of potentially toxic degradation intermediates. The objective of this research was to study the influence of the addition of poultry litter on the bioremediation of gasoline-contaminated soil by quantifying the changes in the densities of microorganisms and by monitoring the toxicity of the degradation products. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Gupta, G; Tao, J. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States)

1996-10-01

199

Public perceptions of a radioactively contaminated site: concerns, remediation preferences, and desired involvement.  

PubMed Central

A public attitudes survey was conducted in neighborhoods adjacent to a radioactively contaminated site whose remediation is now under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The survey's purpose was to ascertain levels of actual and desired public involvement in the remediation process; to identify health, environmental, economic, and future land-use concerns associated with the site; and to solicit remediation strategy preferences. Surface water and groundwater contamination, desire for public involvement, and potential health risks were found to be the most highly ranked site concerns. Preferred remediation strategies included treatment of contaminated soil and excavation with off-site disposal. Among on-site remediation strategies, only institutional controls that leave the site undisturbed and do not require additional excavation of materials were viewed favorably. Cost of remediation appeared to influence remediation strategy preference; however, no strategy was viewed as a panacea. Respondents were also concerned with protecting future generations, better assessment of risks to health and the environment, and avoiding generation of additional contaminated materials.

Feldman, D L; Hanahan, R A

1996-01-01

200

Fixation of Radioactive Strontium in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE contamination of agricultural areas by fission products from nuclear events is a possibility, and would in turn lead to contamination of plants. Of special importance is the long-lived strontium-90, as it has been shown1 that this isotope is taken up by plants to a much greater extent than any of the other long-lived fission products. Much work2-5 has, therefore,

Birte Gregers-Hansen

1964-01-01

201

Radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works for the period July, August, September 1952  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results obtained from a three-month study of monitoring for radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford Works. Radioactive contamination originating as a result of the operation of the Hanford Works and from naturally occurring isotopes was monitored in the liquid, gaseous, and solid states. Data obtained from the radiochemical analysis of samples of various materials

Paas

1953-01-01

202

Radiological surveys of properties contaminated by residual radioactive materials from uranium processing sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report examines methods for determining the extent and nature of contamination on properties contaminated by residual radioactive materials from uranium processing sites. Methods are also examined for verifying the success of remedial actions in removing the residual radioactive materials. Using literature review and practical experiences from the Edgemont, South Dakota survey program a critical review is made of sampling

J. A. Young; P. O. Jackson; V. W. Thomas

1983-01-01

203

Combustion aerosols formed during burning of radioactively contaminated materials: Experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases. Radioactive aerosols generated by fires were investigated in experiments in which combustible solids and liquids were contaminated with radioactive materials and burned. Uranium in powder and liquid form was used to contaminate five fuel types: polychloroprene, polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, cellulose, and a mixture

M. A. Halverson; M. Y. Ballinger; G. W. Dennis

2010-01-01

204

Radioactive Soil Characterization Of The State Of Sao Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

For proper management of soil and groundwater quality, background levels of toxic elements in a given ecosystem must be known. The aim of this study is to determine quality reference values for radioactive content in representative soils from the São Paulo State, Brazil. Thirty samples were collected and the concentration of U-nat, Th-nat, 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 137Cs and 40K were

Goro Hiromoto; Ana Claudia Peres; Maria Helena Tadei; Marcio Roberto Soares; Luis Reynaldo Ferracciu Alleoni

2010-01-01

205

Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. III. Weldon Spring Storage Site  

SciTech Connect

The Weldon Spring Storage Site (WSSS), which includes both the chemical site and the quarry, became radioactively contaminated as the result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering various remedial action options for the WSSS. This report describes the results of geochemical investigations carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support these activities and to help quantify various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples were characterized, and uranium and radium sorption ratios were measured in site soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. Soil samples from various locations around the raffinate pits were found to contain major amounts of silica, along with illite as the primary clay constituent. Particle sizes of the five soil samples were variable (50% distribution point ranging from 12 to 81 ..mu..m); the surface areas varied from 13 to 62 m/sup 2//g. Elemental analysis of the samples showed them to be typical of sandy clay and silty clay soils. Groundwater samples included solution from Pit 3 and well water from Well D. Anion analyses showed significant concentrations of sulfate and nitrate (>350 and >7000 mg/L, respectively) in the solution from Pit 3. These anions were also present in the well water, but in lower concentrations. Uranium sorption ratios for four of the soil samples contacted with the solution from Pit 3 were moderate to high (approx. 300 to approx. 1000 mL/g). The fifth sample had a ratio of only 12 mL/g. Radium sorption ratios for the five samples were moderate to high (approx. 600 to approx. 1000 mL/g). These values indicate that soil at the WSSS may show favorable retardation of uranium and radium in the groundwater. 13 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

1985-02-01

206

Electrokinetic remediation of anionic contaminants from unsaturated soils  

SciTech Connect

Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in the DOE weapons complex, and for the nation as a whole. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. In previous studies at Sandia National Laboratories, the electromigration of chromate ions and anionic dye ions have been demonstrated. This paper reports on a series of experiments that were conducted to study the effect of moisture content on the electromigration rate of anionic contaminants in unsaturated soil and determine the limiting moisture content for which electromigration occurs.

Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mattson, E.D. [SAT-UNSAT, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1992-11-01

207

Electrokinetic remediation of anionic contaminants from unsaturated soils  

SciTech Connect

Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in the DOE weapons complex, and for the nation as a whole. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. In previous studies at Sandia National Laboratories, the electromigration of chromate ions and anionic dye ions have been demonstrated. This paper reports on a series of experiments that were conducted to study the effect of moisture content on the electromigration rate of anionic contaminants in unsaturated soil and determine the limiting moisture content for which electromigration occurs.

Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Mattson, E.D. (SAT-UNSAT, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

1992-01-01

208

The tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare the initial method for phytoremediation involving germination and transplantation. The study was also to determine the tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum (Purple guinea grass) and Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil. It was found that the transplantation of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus was more suitable than germination as the initiate method of nano-phytoremediation potting test. The study also showed that Panicum maximum was more tolerance than Helianthus annuus in TNT and nZVI-contaminated soil. Therefore, Panicum maximum in the transplantation method should be selected as a hyperaccumulated plant for nano-phytoremediation potting tests. Maximum tolerance dosage of Panicum maximum to TNT-concentration soil was 320 mg/kg and nZVI-contaminated soil was 1000 mg/kg in the transplantation method. PMID:22702809

Jiamjitrpanich, Waraporn; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Laurent, François; Kosanlavit, Rachain

2012-01-01

209

Background in the context of land contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive material.  

PubMed

The financial implications of choosing a particular threshold for clearance of radioactively contaminated land are substantial, particularly when one considers the volume of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) created each year by the production and combustion of fossil fuels and the exploitation of industrial minerals. Inevitably, a compromise needs to be reached between the level of environmental protection sought and the finite resources available for remediation. In the case of natural series radionuclides, any anthropogenic input is always superimposed on the inventory already present in the soil; this 'background' inventory is conventionally disregarded when assessing remediation targets. Unfortunately, the term is not well defined and the concept of 'background dose' is open to alternative interpretations. In this paper, we address the issue of natural background from a geochemical rather than from a solely radiological perspective, illustrating this with an example from the china clay industry. We propose a simple procedure for decision making based on activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides and their progeny. Subsequent calculations of dose need to take into account the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the contamination, which in the case of NORM are invariably reflected in uranium series disequilibrium. PMID:23519083

Read, D; Read, G D; Thorne, M C

2013-03-21

210

Bioremediation of pentachlorophenol-contaminated soil by bioaugmentation using activated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an indigenous microbial consortium, pollutant-acclimated and attached to soil particles (activated soil), was\\u000a studied as a bioaugmentation method for the aerobic biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in a contaminated soil. A 125-l\\u000a completely mixed soil slurry (10% soil) bioreactor was used to produce the activated soil biomass. Results showed that the\\u000a bioreactor was very effective in producing a

C. Barbeau; L. Deschênes; D. Karamanev; Y. Comeau; R. Samson

1997-01-01

211

Phytoremediation of oil-sludge-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to select plant species that could be effective in the phytoremediation ofa former oil-sludge pit. Seven crop plants (Triticum aestivum L., Secale cereale L., Avena sativa L., Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor L Moench, Panicum miliaceum L, and Zea mays L.),five wild grasses (Lolium perenne L., Bromopsis inermis, Agropyron cristatum L., Agropyrum tenerum L., and Festuca pratensis Huds.), and three legumes (Medicago sativa L., Trifolium pratense L., and Onobrychis antasiatica Khin.) were screened for phytotoxicity, including the assessment of germination, shoot biomass, and root biomass, in a pot experiment. The estimation of oil-sludge degradation in the root zone of the tested plants showed that rye accelerated cleanup most effectively, degrading all of the main contaminant fractions in the oil sludge by a total of 52%. Although alfalfa had a lower phytoremediation potential than did rye, it maintained large numbers of soil microorganisms, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, in its rhizosphere. Rye and alfalfa were chosen for a large-scale study to remediate an oil-sludge pit on the grounds of a petroleum refinery. Remediation monitoring confirmed the effectiveness of rye: the oil-sludge content decreased consistently for 3 years and remained low in comparison with the results from other plant species. PMID:19260228

Muratova, A Y; Dmitrieva, T V; Panchenko, L V; Turkovskaya, O V

212

Earthworm metabolomic responses after exposure to aged PCB contaminated soils.  

PubMed

(1)H NMR metabolomics was used to measure earthworm sub-lethal responses to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in historically contaminated (>30 years) soils (91-280 mg/kg Aroclor 1254/1260) after two and 14 days of exposure. Although our previous research detected a distinct earthworm metabolic response to PCBs in freshly spiked soil at lower concentrations (0.5-25 mg/kg Aroclor 1254), the results of this study suggest only weak or non-significant relationships between earthworm metabolic profiles and soil PCB concentrations. This concurs with the expectation that decades of contaminant aging have likely decreased PCB bioavailability and toxicity in the field. Instead of being influenced by soil contaminant concentration, earthworm metabolic profiles were more closely correlated to soil properties such as total soil carbon and soil inorganic carbon. Overall, these results suggested that (1)H NMR metabolomics may be capable of detecting both site specific responses and decreased contaminant bioavailability to earthworms after only two days of exposure, whereas traditional toxicity tests require much more time (e.g. 14 days for acute toxicity and >50 days for reproduction tests). Therefore, there is significant opportunity to develop earthworm metabolomics as a sensitive tool for rapid assessment of the toxicity associated with contaminated field soils. PMID:22623111

Whitfield Åslund, Melissa; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, André J; Zeeb, Barbara A; Rutter, Allison

2012-05-24

213

Bioventing soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bioventing combines the capabilities of soil venting and enhanced bioremediation to cost-effectively remove light and middle distillate hydrocarbons from vadose zone soils and the groundwater table. Soil venting removes the more volatile fuel components from unsaturated soil and promotes aerobic biodegradation by driving large volumes of air into the subsurface. In theory, air is several thousand times more effective

Ronald E. Hoeppel; Robert E. Hinchee; Mick F. Arthur

1991-01-01

214

Radioactive contamination screening with laser-induced fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

The ability to induce, detect and discriminate fluorescence of uranium oxides makes available new capabilities for screening the surface of large complex facilities for uranium. This paper will present the results of field tests evaluate laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) as a contamination screening tool and report on the progress to produce a field portable instrument for uranium surveys on exposed surfaces. The principal effect is to illuminate the surface of an object or an area with a remotely-located light source, and to evaluate the re-radiated emission energy. A gated intensified CCD camera was used with ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation to discriminate the phosphorescent (persistent) green uranium emission from the prompt background fluorescence which results from excitation of plants, concrete, soils, and other background materials.

Sheely, R. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Di Benedetto, J. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations

1994-06-01

215

Resuspension of Contaminated Soil as a Source of Airborne Lead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although airborne Pb levels have declined significantly in California over the past two decades, levels above 65 microg/cu m are still occasionally observed. Suspension of contaminated soils by wind or mechanical abrasion is suspected as a possible source...

T. M. Young D. A. Heeraman G. Sirin L. Ashbaugh

2001-01-01

216

Comparing statistical tests for detecting soil contamination greater than background.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) recently issued a report that provides guidance on statistical issues regarding investigation and cleanup of soil and groundwater contamination under the Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. Includ...

J. W. Hardin R. O. Gilbert

1993-01-01

217

Remediation of Lead contaminated Soil at Greenbury Point, Annapolis, Maryland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The remedial investigation is satisfied through compilation of information required to adequately characterize Greenbury Point. Information includes data on lead, applicable regulatory requirements, soils types, contamination, site maps, field investigati...

K. A. Stewart

1997-01-01

218

Decreasing the contamination and toxicity of a heavily contaminated soil by in situ bioremediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental plot of 140 m2 consisting of acidic soil heavily contaminated with uranium, non-ferrous metals (mainly Cu, Zn and Cd) and arsenic was treated in situ under real field conditions using the activity of the indigenous soil microflora. This activity was enhanced by suitable changes of some essential environmental factors such as pH and water, oxygen and nutrient contents of the soil. The treatment was connected with solubilization and removal of contaminants from the top soil layers (horizon A) due to the joint action of the soil microorganisms (mainly acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria) and leach solutions (diluted sulphuric acid). The dissolved contaminants were transferred to the soil horizon B and were removed from the soil profile through a system of drainage collecting pipes. The contaminated soil effluents were treated by means of a multi-component passive system consisting of an anoxic alkalizing drain, a permeable reactive multibarrier and a rock filter. The contamination and toxicity of the soil were regularly tested during the cleaning procedure and were considerably decreased at the end of the treatment.

Groudev, Stoyan; Georgiev, Plamen; Spasova, Irena; Nikolova, Marina

2013-04-01

219

Remediation of diesel-oil-contaminated soil using peat  

SciTech Connect

The authors investigated a remediation process for diesel-contaminated soil, in which water was used to remove the diesel from the soil and peat was used to absorb the diesel layer formed on the surface of the water. The percolation of water through the soil was uniform. The time required for water to percolate the soil and for the layers (soil, water, and diesel) to separate depended on the soil depth. Both the depth of soil and mixing affected the thickness of the diesel layer and thus diesel recovery from the contaminated soil. Higher diesel recovery was achieved with smaller soil depth and mixing. The initial moisture content and the lower heating value of the peat were 7.1% and 17.65 MJ/kg, respectively. The final moisture content and lower heating value of the diesel-contaminated peat obtained from the experiment with mixing were 8.65--10.80% and 32.57--35.81 MJ/kg, respectively. The energy content of the diesel-contaminated peat is much higher than that of coal, and the moisture content is within the range recommended for biomass gasification.

Ghaly, R.A.; Pyke, J.B.; Ghaly, A.E.; Ugursal, V.I. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

1999-11-01

220

Ecological effects of soil contamination at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

SciTech Connect

Assessment of the ecological condition of contaminated soil was conducted in portions of the U.S. Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland as part of an ecological risk assessment. This area is covered by open fields, woods and nontidal marshes. Chemicals disposed of in open burning pits included methylphosphonothioic acid, dichlorodiethyl sulfide, and titanium tetrachloride and sulfur trioxide/chlorosulfonic acid. Previous soil analysis showed extensive surface soil contamination with metals, nitrate, PCBs and pesticides. This assessment included characterizing soil biota, biologically-mediated processes in soil and aboveground biomass. Field surveys of the soil invertebrate communities showed significant reductions in the total abundance of animals, reductions in the abundance of several taxonomic and functional groups of soil invertebrates, and changes in the activity of epigeic arthropods in contaminated areas when compared with the local [open quotes]background[close quotes] area. Laboratory toxicity tests also demonstrated that microbial activity and success of egg hatching of ground beetle Harpalus pensylvanicus were reduced in contaminated soils. These results suggest that impacts to soil ecosystems should be explicitly considered in ecological risk assessment.

Kuperman, R.G.; Dunn, C.P. (Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States))

1994-06-01

221

Toxicity testing of trinitrotoluene-contaminated soil composts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mutatox{trademark} assay and earthworm acute toxicity test were employed to evaluate the efficacy of composting in reducing the toxicity of TNT-contaminated soils. The Mutatox assay is a proprietary bacterial bioluminescence test that determines the mutagenic potential of sample extracts. The earthworm acute toxicity test was chosen because it exposes the organisms to the unaltered contaminant\\/solid matrix. Rockeye soil, a

M. E. Honeycutt; V. A. McFarland; A. S. Jarvis

1997-01-01

222

Heavy metal movement in metal-contaminated soil profiles  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metal movement in soil profiles is a major environmental concern because even slow transport through the soil may eventually lead to deterioration of groundwater quality. In this study, three metal-contaminated soil (Fuquay, Dothan, and Clarendon) were selected from cropland were a high-metal flue dust had been applied annually for 6 years to raise soil pH, with application ending 4 years before sampling. One uncontaminated soil (Tifton) from the same physiographic area was also sampled as a control. Soil samples were collected in 15-cm increments from the surface to 105 cm in depth. Total contents of Zn, Cd, and Pb in the soils samples were determined. To better understand metal movement in relation to metal fractions in the soil profile, soil samples were also extracted sequentially for exchangeable (EXC), organic matter (OM), Mn oxide (MNO), amorphous Fe oxide (AFEO), crystalline Fe oxide (CFEO), and residual (RES) fractions. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Li, Zhenbin; Shuman, L.M. [Univ. of Georgia, Griffin, GA (United States)

1996-10-01

223

Phytoremediation and rhizoremediation of organic soil contaminants: Potential and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few decades there has been avid interest in developing in situ strategies for remediation of environmental contaminants. Major foci have been on persistent organic chemicals and metals. Phytoremediation, a strategy that uses plants to degrade, stabilize, and\\/or remove soil contaminants, has been extensively investigated. Rhizoremediation, a specific type of phytoremediation that involves both plants and their associated

Karen E. Gerhardt; Xiao-Dong Huang; Bernard R. Glick; Bruce M. Greenberg

2009-01-01

224

Leaching of metals from soil contaminated by mining activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stabilization\\/solidification (s\\/s) is one of the most effective methods of dealing with heavy metal contaminated sites. The ability of lime and cement stabilization to immobilize Pb, Cu and Fe contained in a contaminated soil originating from an old mining and smelting area located along the Mediterranean Sea shore in northern Cyprus was investigated. The stabilization was evaluated by applying leaching

Mehmet Ali Yukselen; Bilge Alpaslan

2001-01-01

225

Phytoextraction of metals and metalloids from contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of inorganic contaminants by plants is termed phytoextraction. Recent studies have looked at the feasibility of phytoextraction, and demonstrate that both good biomass yields and metal hyperaccumulation are required to make the process efficient. Adding chelating agents to soil to increase the bioavailability of contaminants can sometimes induce hyperaccumulation in normal plants, but may produce undesirable environmental risks.

Steve P McGrath; Fang-Jie Zhao

2003-01-01

226

Leaching Behaviors of Five Arsenic-Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vadose zone is susceptible to anthropogenic arsenic contamination and may serve as a long-term source of arsenic to ground water. Understanding the processes governing the distribution of arsenic between the aqueous phase and the solid phase is crucial to minimizing the environmental impact of vadose zone contamination. Arsenic can be retained by several soil components through adsorption. The magnitude

Y. Qi; R. J. Donahoe; E. Y. Graham

2005-01-01

227

Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils and groundwaters  

DOEpatents

An in situ method for extraction of arsenic contaminants from a soil medium and remediation of the medium including contacting the medium with an extractant solution, directing the solution within and through the medium, and collecting the solution and contaminants. The method can also be used for arsenate and/or arsenite removal.

Peters, Robert W. (Naperville, IL); Frank, James R. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Feng, Xiandong (West Richland, WA)

1998-01-01

228

Bioremediation of soils and sediments contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review discusses the prospects of using the potential of microorganisms for bioremediation of PCB-contaminated natural\\u000a environments (soil, sediments, and sewage sludge) under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. A detailed analysis of the research\\u000a conditions of original works has shown that the efficiency of bioremediation of PCB-contaminated matrices strongly depends\\u000a on the character and degree of contamination. In the case of

G. K. Vasilyeva; E. R. Strijakova

2007-01-01

229

ENGINEERING ISSUE: IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED UNSATURATED SUBSURFACE SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

An emerging technology for the remediation of unsaturated subsurface soils involves the use of microorganisms to degrade contaminants which are present in such soils. Understanding the processes which drive in situ bioremediation, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of th...

230

RELEASE OF CHEMICALS FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS. (R822721C529)  

EPA Science Inventory

At sites that contain contaminated soils, there can be questions about the magnitude of risk posed by the chemicals in the soils and about the cleanup levels that should be achieved. Knowledge about the rate of release of chemicals is important to answers to such questions. Th...

231

Characterization of mercury forms in contaminated floodplain soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The chemical form or speciation of Hg in the floodplain soils of the East Fork Poplar Creek in Oak Ridge TN, a site contaminated from past industrial activity, was investigated. Hg speciation in the soils is an important factor in controlling the fate and...

M. O. Barnett R. R. Turner T. J. Henson L. A. Harris R. E. Melton

1994-01-01

232

Kinetics of Degradation of Hydrocarbons in the Contaminated Soil Layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents kinetic parameters of the removal of hydrocarbons in the course of bioremediation of the soil contaminated with crude and oil derivatives, with special emphasis paid to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Bioremediation was carried out on a laboratory scale, with continuous and discontinuous recirculation of water through the soil column inoculated with the adapted bacterial population. Biodegradation of hydrocarbons

S. Roncevic ´; B. Dalmacija; I Ivan?ev-Tumbas; J Tri?kovi?; O Petrovi?; M Klašnja; J Agbaba

2005-01-01

233

Extractants for the Removal of Mixed Contaminants from Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of improved and effective remediation technologies for soils contaminated by heavy metals as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has emerged as a significant environmental priority. One technology that appears to have considerable promise is the ex-situ soil washing that involves the use of extracting agents such as surfactants, cosolvents, cyclodextrins, chelants, and weak acids. This study investigates

Kranti Maturi; Krishna R. Reddy

2008-01-01

234

Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current state of the art regarding the use of chelating agents to extract heavy metal contaminants has been addressed. Results are presented for treatability studies conducted as worst-case and representative soils from Aberdeen Proving Ground's J-Field for extraction of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The particle size distribution characteristics of the soils determined from hydrometer tests are

Robert W Peters

1999-01-01

235

Toxicity testing of trinitrotoluene-contaminated soil composts  

SciTech Connect

The Mutatox{trademark} assay and earthworm acute toxicity test were employed to evaluate the efficacy of composting in reducing the toxicity of TNT-contaminated soils. The Mutatox assay is a proprietary bacterial bioluminescence test that determines the mutagenic potential of sample extracts. The earthworm acute toxicity test was chosen because it exposes the organisms to the unaltered contaminant/solid matrix. Rockeye soil, a TNT-contaminated soil collected from a military installation, was composted using two methods. This yielded five samples, Rockeye, Compost A composting. Soil extracts were prepared for Mutatox using the sonification method. Ten serial dilution samples were tested soils/artificial soil were tested in the earthworm toxicity test. In the Rockeye soil samples, a toxic response was shown in both test methods. Mutatox indicated no toxicity in Composts A and B after composting but did not show a positive mutagenic response in the lower serial dilutions. The LC50s for Compost A and B after composting in the earthworm toxicity test were 35.3% and 100%, respectively. Using Mutatox and the earthworm toxicity test together provides a sensitive means of monitoring the effectiveness of various composting techniques for remediating TNT-contaminated soils.

Honeycutt, M.E. [TNRCC TARA, Austin, TX (United States); McFarland, V.A.; Jarvis, A.S. [USAEWES, Vicksburg, MS (United States)

1997-10-01

236

Identifying Metals Contamination in Soil: A Geochemical Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geochemical evaluation methodology described in this paper is used to distinguish contaminated samples from those that contain only naturally occurring levels of inorganic constituents. Site-to-background comparisons of trace elements in soil based solely on statistical techniques are prone to high false positive indications. Trace element distributions in soil tend to span a wide range of concentrations and are highly

JONATHAN MYERS; KAREN THORBJORNSEN

2004-01-01

237

Ecological effects of soil contamination at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of the ecological condition of contaminated soil was conducted in portions of the U.S. Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland as part of an ecological risk assessment. This area is covered by open fields, woods and nontidal marshes. Chemicals disposed of in open burning pits included methylphosphonothioic acid, dichlorodiethyl sulfide, and titanium tetrachloride and sulfur trioxide\\/chlorosulfonic acid. Previous soil analysis

R. G. Kuperman; C. P. Dunn

1994-01-01

238

IN SITU BIOREMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED UNSATURATED SUBSURFACE SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

An emerging technology for the remediation of unsaturated subsurface soils involves the use of microorganisms to degrade contaminants which are present in such soils. nderstanding the processes which drive in situ bioremediation, as well as the effectiveness and efficiency of the...

239

Remediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Soils by Iron Amendments: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) in soil is a serious environmental issue, and although As occurs naturally in soil, anthropogenic activities have greatly increased As soil contamination. Several technologies can be used to reduce arsenic contamination in soils, among them in situ chemical immobilization by application of inorganic amendments, which are incorporated and mixed with the contaminated soil. The binding of As to

Patricia Miretzky; Alicia Fernandez Cirelli

2010-01-01

240

Levels and trends of radioactive contaminants in the Greenland environment.  

PubMed

Levels of radioactive contaminants in various Greenland environments have been assessed during 1999-2001. The source of 137Cs, 90Sr and (239,240)Pu in terrestrial and fresh water environments is mainly global fallout. In addition, the Chernobyl accident gave a small contribution of 137Cs. Reindeer and lamb contain the largest observed 137Cs concentrations in the terrestrial environment--up to 80 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight have been observed in reindeer. Due to special environmental conditions, 137Cs is transferred to landlocked Arctic char with extremely high efficiency in South Greenland leading to concentrations up to 100 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight. In these cases very long ecological half-lives are seen. Concentrations of 99Tc, 137Cs and 90Sr in seawater and in marine biota decrease in the order North-East Greenland and the coastal East Greenland current > South-West Greenland > Central West Greenland and North-West Greenland > Irmiger Sea-Faroe Islands. The general large-scale oceanic circulation combined with European coastal discharges and previous contamination of the Arctic Ocean causes this. As the same tendency is seen for the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) DDT and PCB in marine biota, it is suggested that long-distance oceanic transport by coastal currents is a significant pathway also for POPs in the Greenland marine environment. The peak 99Tc discharge from Sellafield 1994-1995 has only been slightly visible in the present survey year 2000. The concentrations are expected to increase in the future, especially in East Greenland. The Bylot Sound at the Thule Airbase (Pituffik) in North-West Greenland was contaminated with plutonium and enriched uranium in a weapons accident in 1968. Biological activity has mixed accident plutonium efficiently into the new sediments resulting in continued high surface sediment concentrations three decades after the accident. Transfer of plutonium to benthic biota is low--and lower than observed in the Irish Sea. This is supposed to be caused by the physico-chemical form of the accident plutonium. A recent study indicates that 'hot particles' hold considerably more plutonium than previously anticipated and that the Bylot Sound sediments may account for the major part of the un-recovered plutonium after the accident, i.e. approximately 3 kg. PMID:15325141

Dahlgaard, Henning; Eriksson, Mats; Nielsen, Sven P; Joensen, Hans Pauli

2004-09-20

241

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SEPARATION/CONCENTRATION TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Pesticide contamination includes a wide variety of compounds and may result from manufacturing improper storage, handling, disposal; or agricultural processes. It can occur in soil and can lead to secondary contamination of groundwater. Remediation of pesticide-contaminated soils...

242

Soil and groundwater contamination by oil spills; problems and remedies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large scale transport and storage of hydrocarbons constitute a threat to the soil ecosystems and to the ground?water reserves. To clean?up oil spilled on soils or polluting groundwaters, one has either to remove mechanically the soil impregnated with oil or to collect and remove by pumping the contaminated groundwater reserves. A third and ultimately more complete clean?up method consists of

R. Vanloocke; R. De Borger; J. P. Voets; W. Verstraete

1975-01-01

243

Solvent washing of aged PCP-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

The study evaluates the removal of pentachlorophenol (PCP), a wood preserving agent, from soils that have been contaminated over a period of time. Previously, equal proportions of ethanol and water were found to have the highest PCP removal efficiencies for above ground batch extractions at various soil:solvent ratios. In addition, the 50% and 75% ethanol solutions achieved higher removal efficiencies at low solvent throughputs in in-situ soil flushing experiments.

Khodadoust, A.P.; Wagner, J.A.; Suidan, M.T.; Safferman, S.I.

1993-01-01

244

40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil. 268.49 Section 268.49 Protection...LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil. (a) Applicability. You must comply with LDRs prior to placing soil that exhibits a characteristic...

2013-07-01

245

40 CFR 268.49 - Alternative LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil. 268.49 Section 268.49 Protection...LDR treatment standards for contaminated soil. (a) Applicability. You must comply with LDRs prior to placing soil that exhibits a characteristic...

2012-07-01

246

Full-scale anaerobic bioremediation of trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anaerobic bioremediation process for the degradation of nitroaromatic compounds in soil was demonstrated. Thisex situ process was demonstrated full-scale at a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated site near Weldon Spring, MO. A bioreactor\\u000a was loaded with approx 23 m3 of TNT-contaminated soil in the form of a 50?50 soil: water slurry. This slurry was augmented with a starchy carbon source\\u000a (1–2% w\\/v)

S. B. Funk; D. L. Crawford; R. L. Crawford; G. Mead; W. Davis-Hoover

1995-01-01

247

Corrosion of low level vitrified radioactive waste in a loamy soil  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of high sodium borosilicate glass K-26 was examined over 16 years of storage in a loamy soil. An altered layer was formed on the glass surface which is inhomogeneous in thickness and composition. This layer is mostly amorphous with small crystalline inclusions. The pH of the groundwater in contact with the radioactive glass gradually from 7·5 to 7·9 and the groundwater was slightly contaminated with 137Cs at levels from ~20 to below 10 Bq/L after 16 years. The corrosion rate of glass diminishes with time and is 0·22 µg/cm2 day after 16 years.

Ojovan, Michael I.; Lee, William; Barinov, Alexandore; Startsceva, I. V.; Bacon, Diana H.; McGrail, B. PETER; Vienna, John D.

2006-04-01

248

Microemulsion-enhanced remediation of soils contaminated with organochlorine pesticides.  

PubMed

Soil contaminated by organic pollutants, especially chlorinated aromatic compounds such as DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane), is an environmental concern because of the strong sorption of organochlorine pesticide onto the soil matrix and persistence in the environment. The remediation of organochlorine pesticide contaminated soils through microemulsion is an innovative technology to expedite this process. The remediation efficiency was evaluated by batch experiments through studying the desorption of DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (y-HCH) and sorption of microemulsion composed of Triton X-100, 1-pentanol and linseed oil in the soil-surfactant-water suspension system. The reduction of desorption efficiency caused by the sorption loss of microemulsion components onto the soil could be corrected by the appropriate adjustment of C/S (Cosurfactant/Surfactant) and O/S (Oil/Surfactant) ratio. The C/S and O/S ratios of 1:2 and 3:20 were suitable to desorb DDT and gamma-HCH from the studied soils because of the lower sorption of Triton X-100 onto the soil. Inorganic salts added in microemulsion increased the pesticides desorption efficiency of pesticides and calcium chloride has a stronger ability to enhance the desorption of DDT than sodium chloride. From the remediation perspective, the balance of surfactant or cosurfactant sorbed to soil and desorption efficiency should be taken into consideration to enhance the remediation of soils contaminated by organochlorine pesticides. PMID:22439580

Zhang, Yanlin; Wong, Jonathan W C; Zhao, Zhenyong; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

2011-12-01

249

The Allium cepa chromosome aberration test reliably measures genotoxicity of soils of inhabited areas in the Ukraine contaminated by the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accident on the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant reactor IV in April 1986 led to the release of an enormous amount of radioactive material into the biosphere and to the formation of a complex pattern of nuclear contamination over a large area. As a consequence more than 5 million km2 of the soil in the Ukraine became contaminated with more

Olga Kovalchuk; Igor Kovalchuk; Andrey Arkhipov; Polina Telyuk; Barbara Hohn; Larisa Kovalchuk

1998-01-01

250

Reactive soil barriers for removal of chromium(VI) from contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this project was to find effective reactive materials as use in soil-bed barriers, for remediation of soil contaminated\\u000a with chromium at Stallbacka industrial area in Sweden. Materials with different reduction\\/ adsorption capacities of Cr(VI)\\/Cr(III)\\u000a were tested in laboratory and in a field pilot-scale experiment. Concentrations of total Cr and Cr(VI) in the soil, highly\\u000a contaminated with ferrochrome

Ann-Margret Strömvall; Malin Norin; H Inanta

251

Clean-up criteria for remediation of contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

{open_quotes}How clean is clean?{close_quotes} is a question commonly raised in the remediation of contaminated soils. To help with the answer, criteria are proposed to serve as guidelines for remedial actions and to define a clean-up level such that the remaining contaminant residuals in the soil will not violate the Drinking Water Standards (DWS). The equations for computing those criteria are developed from the principle of conservation of mass and are functions of the maximum concentration level in the water (MCL) and the sorption coefficient. A multiplier, ranging from 10 to 1000, is also factored into the soil standard equation to reflect the effectiveness of various remediation techniques. Maximum allowable concentration in the soil (MSCL) is presented for several contaminants which are being regulated at the present time. Future modifications are recommended for better estimates of the MSCLs as additional transport mechanisms are incorporated to account for other potentially dominant effects.

Nguyen, H.D.; Wilson, J.R. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Sato, Chikashi [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States). College of Engineering

1997-08-01

252

The remediation of lead contaminated soils using solvent extraction chelation techniques. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes preliminary work leading to the development of an innovative technology for treating a mixed waste problem at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The specific problem being addressed by this research is the result of research activity at the Meson Physics Facility (LAMPH). The LAMPH facility conducts high energy neutron research. Lead BB`s were placed in containers and used as shielding during experiments.This lead was stored in piles on the ground when it was not in use, and it sometimes sat for extended periods of time, perhaps as long as 20 years. The lead was mobilized overtime, and contaminated the underlying soil. Because of the neutron bombardment, a portion of the lead {sup 207}Pb became radioactive {sup 210}Pb, and the lead became both a listed waste and radioactive, which classified it as a mixed waste. The contaminated soil has been removed from the site and placed in drums for storage until a suitable treatment technology can be identified. The contents of the barrels consists of a mixture of lead contaminated soil and lead BB`s.

Price, M.; Hanson, A.T.; Rudd, B.; Pickins, D.; Krause, K. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

1998-08-01

253

In situ vitrification: Providing a comprehensive solution for remediation of contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment technology being developed for remediation of contaminated soils. The process transforms easily leached, contaminated soils into a leach-resistant, vitreous and crystalline monolith. The process is applicable to a wide range of soil types and conditions that include virtually any combination of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste contaminants. The process is currently applicable to sites that are less than 5-m deep and that do not contain sealed containers. The range of capabilities and limitations of the process is discussed in the paper. Also discussed are the results of two recent demonstrations, one a pilot-scale test on a model radioactive site at Oak Ridge, TN, the other a full-scale test on a mixed waste disposal crib at Hanford, WA. These and other successful tests have led to preparation for three near-term future demonstrations at these sites; a discussion of the plans and expectations for the demonstrations is also included in the paper.

Tixier, J.S.; Thompson, L.E.

1993-09-01

254

Patterns and inventories of radioactive contamination of island sites of the Yenisey River, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of radioactive contamination at three island sites downstream from the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine (KMCC) was studied with the objectives of mapping contamination levels, interpreting radionuclide distributions through consideration of alluvial processes and determining radionuclide inventories. Contamination was measured using in situ gamma spectrometry and landforms characterised using topographic surveying methods. Maximum 137Cs contamination densities (700kBqm?2) were

V. G. Linnik; J. E. Brown; M. Dowdall; V. N. Potapov; A. V. Nosov; V. V. Surkov; A. V. Sokolov; S. M. Wright; S. Borghuis

2006-01-01

255

Thermal Remediation of Tar-Contaminated Soil and Oil-Contaminated Gravel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot plant studies were carried out to evaluate the feasibility of remediation of coal tar- contaminated soil and oil-contaminated gravel by incineration with environmentally acceptable performance. In addition to adequate decontamination and emission control, effort was devoted to treating the special feedstocks with difficult handling properties by use of conventional combustion and feeding systems. Analysis of the results showed that

Edward J. Anthony; Jinsheng Wang; Dave Martin

256

Interactions of low-level, liquid radioactive wastes with soils. 1. Behavior of radionuclides in soil-waste systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of radioactive wastes and soils vary over a wide range. Liquid radioactive waste entering the environment will eventually contact the soil or geological matrix; interactions will be determined by the chemical and physical nature of the liquid, as well as the soil matrix. We report here the results from an investigation of certain of those characteristics as they

E. B. Fowler; E. H. Essington; W. L. Polzer

1981-01-01

257

Effect of Soil Contamination with Treflan 480 EC on Biochemical Properties of Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of soil contamination by treflan 480 EC on biochemi- cal properties of soil and on the growth and development of crops (spring rape and white mustard). The tests were conducted on leached brown soil formed from clay slightly dusty sand of 5.8 pH in 1 M KCl, to which the

J. Wyszkowska

258

Inorganic Soil Contamination from Cemetery Leachate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing number of cemeteries has caused concern about the possibility of releasing hazardous chemicals and metals into the surroundings. Moreover, many studies use cemeteries for 'background' sampling. This study attempts to identify whether cemeteries are indeed good 'background' areas, or whether they themselves are sources of contamination. Possible contaminants include poisonous chemicals, such as arsenic and mercury, which were

Alison L. Spongberg; Paul M. Becks

2000-01-01

259

Measurement of natural radioactivity levels in soil in Tripoli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity concentration of radionuclides in surface soil around Tripoli metropolitan area have been measured using gamma-ray spectrometry. The average radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K are 10.5, 9.5 and 270 Bq kg?1 respectively. The average outdoor terrestrial absorbed dose rate in air from gamma-radiation 1 m above the ground surface 23 nGy h?1.

M. A. Shenber

1997-01-01

260

External gamma dose responses from residual radioactive materials in soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

External gamma dose responses from radioactive soils have previously been calculated as air-absorbed doses in a point receptor above the ground. Such responses, however, are not accurate measures for estimating the effective dose equivalent (H{sub E}) for assessing radiological risks to humans, as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The ambient dose equivalent H*(10), as defined by

S. Y. Chen; Y. C. Yuan

1989-01-01

261

Electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil: conditioning of anolyte.  

PubMed

The feasibility of anolyte conditioning on electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil was investigated with a field soil. The initial concentration of fluorine, pH and water content in the soil were 414mg/kg, 8.91 and 15%, respectively. Because the extraction of fluorine generally increased with the soil pH, the pH of the anode compartment was controlled by circulating strong alkaline solution to enhance the extraction of fluorine during electrokinetic remediation. The removal of fluorine increased with the concentration of the alkaline solution and applied current density and fluorine removed up to 75.6% within 14 days. Additionally, anolyte conditioning sharply increased the electro-osmotic flow, which enhanced the removal of fluorine in this study. In many respects, anolyte conditioning in electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil will be a promising technology. PMID:18462872

Kim, Do-Hyung; Jeon, Chil-Sung; Baek, Kitae; Ko, Sung-Hwan; Yang, Jung-Seok

2008-03-26

262

Sources of Arsenic and Fluoride in Highly Contaminated Soils Causing Groundwater Contamination in Punjab, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly contaminated groundwater, with arsenic (As) and fluoride (F?) concentrations of up to 2.4 and 22.8 mg\\/L, respectively, has been traced to anthropogenic inputs to the soil. In the present\\u000a study, samples collected from the soil surface and sediments from the most heavily polluted area of Punjab were analyzed to\\u000a determine the F? and As distribution in the soil. The surface

Abida Farooqi; Harue Masuda; Rehan Siddiqui; Muhammad Naseem

2009-01-01

263

Analyses of soils at commercial radioactive waste disposal sites  

SciTech Connect

Brookhaven National Laboratory, in order to provide technical assistance to the NRC, has measured a number of physical and chemical characteristics of soils from three commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Samples were collected from an area adjacent to the disposal site at Sheffield, IL, and from two operating sites: one at Barnwell, SC, and the other near Richland, WA. The soil samples, which were analyzed from each site, were believed to include soil which was representative of that in contact with buried waste forms. Results of field measurements of earth resistivity and of soil pH will be presented. Additionally, the results of laboratory measurements of resistivity, moisture content, pH, exchange acidity and the soluble ion content of the soils will be discussed. The soluble ion content of the soils was determined by analysis of aqueous extracts of saturated soil pastes. The concentrations of the following ions were determined: Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, Cl/sup -/, S/sup 2 -/.

Piciulo, P.L.; Shea, C.E.; Barletta, R.E.

1983-01-01

264

Results of Measurements of the Radioactive Contamination of the Biosphere in the Netherlands, Compiled by the CCRX (Coordinating Committee for the Monitoring of Radioactive and Xenobiotic Substances) 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this internal annual report results are given of measurements of the radioactive contamination of the biosphere in the Netherlands. These measurements are coordinated by the Coordinating Committee for the Monitoring of Radioactive and Xenobiotic Substa...

1983-01-01

265

Soil contamination with emissions of non-ferrous metallurgical plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper soil horizons are strongly contaminated in the area influenced by the Mid-Urals copper smelter. In the technogenic desert and impact zones, the contents of a number of elements (Cu, Zn, As, Pb, P, and S) by many times exceed their clarke values and the maximum permissible concentrations (or provisional permissible concentrations). The degree of technogeneity (Tg) for these elements is very high in these zones. In the far buffer zone, Tg is about zero for many elements and increases up to Tg = 27-42% for four heavy elements (Cu, Zn, Pb, and As) and up to 81-98% for P and S. The buffer capacity of the humus horizon depends on the soil's location within the technogeochemical anomaly and also on the particular pollutant. In the impact zone, it is equal to 70-77% for lead and arsenic, although other technogenic elements (Zn, Cr, S, and P) are poorly retained and readily migrate into the deeper horizons (the buffer capacity is equal to 14-25%). Nearly all the heavy metals enter the soil in the form of sulfides. The soils in the area affected by the Noril'sk mining and smelting metallurgical enterprise are subdivided into two groups according to the degree of their contamination, i.e., the soils within Noril'sk proper and the soils in its suburbs to a distance of 4-15 km. The strongest soil contamination is recorded in the city: the clarke values are exceeded by 287, 78, 16, 4.1, and 3.5 times for Cu, Ni, Cr, Fe, and S, respectively. The major pollutants enter the soil from the ferruginous slag. The soil's contamination degree is lower in the suburbs, where heavy metal sulfides reach the soils with the aerial emission from the enterprise.

Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Plekhanova, I. O.; Prokopovich, E. V.; Savichev, A. T.

2011-02-01

266

Effects of radioactive fallout on soil animal populations in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl atomic power station.  

PubMed

Studies were carried out during July and September 1986, April 1987, and October 1988. Radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl atomic power station (APS) accident induced catastrophic effects on populations of small pine-litter faunae within the 3 km zone around the station. Effects on soil faunae were not so marked due to shielding by the soil, or on litter faunae at the edge of the 30 km zone due to distance from the source. Thirty-gray doses did not directly affect adult animals in the soil and litter, but impacted their eggs and juveniles. Resident populations recovered slowly during the first year after the accident. Insect migration into the contaminated area was the primary source of soil animal population recovery. After 2-2.5 years, marked differences between populations in the contaminated and control areas were no longer found. PMID:1574706

Krivolutzkii, D A; Pokarzhevskii, A D

1992-02-01

267

Biochemical Properties of Soil Contaminated by Petrol  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experiment the effects of lead and lead-free petrol applied at the following doses of: 0, 2, 4 and 6 cm 3 • kg' 1 of soil on growth and development of triticale and biochemical properties of the soil were studied. For detoxication of petrol organic amendment with barley straw was applied. The experiment was performed in two experimental

J. Wyszkowska; J. Kucharski

268

RESULTS OF TREATMENT EVALUATIONS OF CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil and debris from Superfund sites must be treated to minimize their threat to human health and the environment as part of remedial actions at such sites. Studies were conducted on the effectiveness with which five treatment processes removed or immobilized synthetic soils cont...

269

Biomediation of HD-Contaminated Soil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Artificial soil was spiked with HD at a concentration of 3.3381 g HD/500 g soil. The HD used was a mixture of C-14 radiolabeled HD (0.0381 g) and aged HD (3.3 g), which had been recovered from a munition in an excavation site (Spring Valley, Washington, D...

S. P. Harvey M. L. Crimi

1996-01-01

270

Radioactive contamination monitoring for the Korean public following Fukushima nuclear accident.  

PubMed

On March 11, 2011, as a result of the Great East Japan Earthquake, severe damage to the Fukushima nuclear power plant caused the release of radioactive materials. We conducted radioactive contamination monitoring for Korean residents in Japan and Korean travelers to East Japan after the accident. More than 800 members of the Korean public were surveyed for personal monitoring. Measured levels of external and internal contamination were within the screening levels for each monitoring method. PMID:23541790

Ha, Wi-Ho; Yoo, Jaeryong; Yoon, Seokwon; Pak, Min-Jeong; Park, Seyong; Kim, Mi-Ryeong; Lee, Seung-Sook

2013-03-16

271

Combustion aerosols formed during burning of radioactively contaminated materials: Experimental results  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases. Radioactive aerosols generated by fires were investigated in experiments in which combustible solids and liquids were contaminated with radioactive materials and burned. Uranium in powder and liquid form was used to contaminate five fuel types: polychloroprene, polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, cellulose, and a mixture of 30% tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. Heat flux, oxygen concentration, air flow, contaminant concentration, and type of ignition were varied in the experiments. The highest release (7.1 wt %) came from burning TBP/kerosene over contaminated nitric acid. Burning cellulose contaminated with uranyl nitrate hexahydrate liquid gave the lowest release (0.01 wt %). Rate of release and particle size distribution of airborne radioactive particles were highly dependent on the type of fuel burned.

Halverson, M.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Dennis, G.W.

1987-03-01

272

Coupling Sorption to Soil Weathering during Reactive Transport: Impacts of Mineral Transformation and Sorbate Aging on Contaminant Speciation and Mobility  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford subsurface has become contaminated with highly alkaline, radioactive waste generated as a result of weapons production. The radioactive brine was stored in underground storage tanks, a number of which developed leaks and contaminated the surrounding subsurface. The high pH and ionic strength of these wastes has been predicted to accelerate the degree of soil weathering to produce new mineral phases--cancrinite and sodalite among the most abundant. Previous work has demonstrated that Cs and Sr, which along with I represent the most radioactive components in the waste, are sequestered by these neo-formed solids. The present work is aimed at assessing the stability of these neo-formed solids, with special emphasis on the degree of Cs, Sr and I release under ambient (neutral pH, low ionic strength) conditions expected to return to the Hanford area after the caustic radioactive brine waste is removed.

Carl I. Steefel; Aaron Thompson; Jon Chorover

2006-06-01

273

Packaging, Transportation, and Disposal Logistics for Large Radioactively Contaminated Reactor Decommissioning Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The packaging, transportation and disposal of large, retired reactor components from operating or decommissioning nuclear plants pose unique challenges from a technical as well as regulatory compliance standpoint. In addition to the routine considerations associated with any radioactive waste disposition activity, such as characterization, ALARA, and manifesting, the technical challenges for large radioactively contaminated components, such as access, segmentation, removal,

Mark S

2008-01-01

274

Residual radioactive contamination at the peaceful underground nuclear explosion sites "Craton-3" and "Crystal" in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).  

PubMed

In this paper, results are reported on the concentrations and activity ratios of 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 238Pu in soils, lichen and bottom sediments collected at the peaceful underground nuclear explosion sites "Craton-3" and "Crystal" (Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), North-East Siberia). At the "Craton-3" site, 239- 240Pu concentrations in the range 6.2 mBq/g to 5.9 Bq/g in surface soils (0-5 cm) and 239+240Pu concentrations up to 7.4 Bq/g in lichen were observed. The 137Cs concentration in measured soils range from 0.52 to 216 Bq/g for the near-plume and from 1.65 to 21.5 Bq/g for the far-plume. In lichen, 137Cs concentration varied from a global background level up to 251 Bq/g. Radioactive contamination at "Crystal" demonstrates an extremely irregular distribution of 239,240Pu and 137Cs in environmental samples taken at locations within 150 m radius of the site. Further work on compiling detailed maps of radioactive contamination of the territory around "Craton-3" and "Crystal" is discussed. PMID:11936609

Gedeonov, A D; Petrov, E R; Alexeev, I N; Kuleshova, V G; Savopulo, M L; Burtsev, I S; Shkroev, V Yu; Arkhipov, V I

2002-01-01

275

Landfarming Process Effects on Biochemical Properties of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of petroleum contaminants in soil may be toxic to humans, plants, and soil microorganisms. Therefore, remediation of these compounds from the environment is vital. In this study, bioremediation of two petroleum-contaminated soils (S1 and S2) using a landfarming technique was evaluated. Investigation of the effect of this technique on biological and chemical properties of contaminated soil was also

A. Besalatpour; M. A. Hajabbasi; A. H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; V. Dorostkar

2011-01-01

276

Natural radioactivity in soil in the Baluchistan province of Pakistan.  

PubMed

The measurements of natural radioactivity and the assessment of radiological hazards in the soil samples of Baluchistan province of Pakistan have been carried out using HPGe detector. The soil gas radon activities in these areas have also been measured using lucas cell technique. The measured activities of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were found in the range of 15-27, 20-37 and 328-648 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The calculated absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose were in the range of 35-59 nGy h(-1) and 0.17-0.29 mSv, respectively. Radon activity in the soil gas was found in the range of 357-2476 Bq m(-3). PMID:20406741

Mujahid, S A; Hussain, S

2010-04-20

277

Assessment of soil contamination by the content of heavy metals in the soil profile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new soil-ecological definition of the maximal permissible concentration (MPC) of heavy metals in soils is suggested that regulates the sampling in contaminated territories. Instead of the shallow pits usually used for collecting surface samples for soil-hygienic and other investigations, it is proposed to fulfill a detailed analysis along the entire soil profile including not only the determination of the heavy element content in certain horizons but also the soil density in these horizons. For the polyelemental contamination Zc (according to the Saet equation) based on the background (clarke) excess, the established Zc values ranging from 1 to 128, may reach absurd values of 800-900 upon taking into consideration only one surface layer. At the same time, the use of the weighted average content of the metals in the soil profile adjusts the Zc values for the existing natural conditions. Upon aerial impact, the consideration of the heavy metal contents along the soil profile instead of their contents in the surface horizon only leads to a decrease in the indices of the soil contamination degree. Upon the hydrogenic impact, the transition from the heavy metal contents in the surface horizon to their contents in the soil profile gives higher values of the soil contamination.

Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Yakovlev, A. S.

2011-03-01

278

Phytoremediation potential of Brassica juncea in Cu-pyrene co-contaminated soil: Comparing freshly spiked soil with aged soil.  

PubMed

A comparison was made between the dissipation of pyrene as well as the uptake of copper (Cu) in soil freshly spiked with Cu, pyrene or Cu + pyrene and in aged soil. The potential of B juncea for phytoremediation was also investigated. The biomass of Brassica juncea significantly decreased (>50% reduction) in freshly spiked soil when compared to aged soil in all treatments. However, the accumulation of Cu in shoot was significantly reduced (60-88%) in aged soil after 60 days of planting. The total removal of Cu from co-contaminated soil was always higher (>2-3 fold) in aged soil than in freshly spiked soil when lower Cu concentration (50 mg kg(-1)) was co-contaminated with 250 or 500 mg kg(-1) of pyrene while in other co-contaminated treatments, the total removal of Cu from aged soil were significantly lower. The level of pyrene in both planted and un-planted freshly spiked soil decreased significantly (>67%) over the 60 days of plant trial. In aged soils, there were no significant differences in residual pyrene concentration between planted and unplanted soil. This suggests that the presence of B. juncea in aged soil did not enhance the dissipation of pyrene and that the prediction of pyrene dissipation in laboratory prepared soil may not have reflected the true situation in the fields. PMID:23792886

Chigbo, Chibuike; Batty, Lesley

2013-06-20

279

Method for simultaneous measurement of total and radioactive carbon in soils, soil extracts and plant materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid procedure is proposed for simultaneous measurement of total and radioactive carbon in soils, soil extracts and plant materials. The procedure involves dry or wet combustion of the sample, total carbon determination with an automatic analyser and C14O2 absorbtion in a liquid for scintillation measurement. The use of methyl-cellosolve plus mono-ethanolamine as a CO2 absorber allows measurements of weakly

P. Bottner; F. R. Warembourg

1976-01-01

280

Immobilization of uranium in contaminated soil by natural apatite addition  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Serbian natural mineral apatite as soil additive for reducing the migration of uranium from contaminated sediments. In laboratory study we investigated the sorption properties of domestic apatite upon different experimental conditions, such as pH, adsorbent mass, reaction period, concentration of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} in apatite, solid/liquid ratio. In second part of study, we did the quantification of uranium in soil samples, taken from uranium mine site 'Kalna', by sequential extraction method. The same procedure was, also, used for uranium determination in contaminated soil samples after apatite addition, in order to determine the changes in U distribution in soil fraction. The obtained results showed the significant level of immobilization (96.7%) upon certain conditions. Increase of %P{sub 2}O{sub 5} in apatite and process of mechano-chemical activation led to increase of immobilization capacity from 17.50% till 91.64%. The best results for uranium binding were obtained at pH 5.5 and reaction period 60 days (98.04%) The sequential extraction showed the presence of uranium (48.2%) in potentially available soil fractions, but with the apatite addition uranium content in these fractions decreased (30.64%), what is considering environmental aspect significant fact. In situ immobilization of radionuclide using inexpensive sequestering agents, such as apatite, is very adequate for big contaminated areas of soil with low level of contamination. This investigation study on natural apatite from deposit 'Lisina' Serbia was the first one of this type in our country. Key words: apatite, uranium, immobilization, soil, contamination. (authors)

Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Stojanovic, Mirjana; Milosevic, Sinisa; Iles, Deana; Zildzovic, Snezana [Institute for Technology of Nuclear and other Mineral Raw Materials, Franche d' Epere 86, Belgrade (Serbia)

2007-07-01

281

Radioactive contamination and radionuclide migration in groundwater. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the contamination of groundwater with radionuclides and their subsequent migration. Monitoring surveys of existing sites with actual or potential radioactive groundwater contamination are included. Transport and migration models for radionuclides in groundwater are discussed. Natural radiation and accidental releases are considered in addition to anthropogenic sources of radioactive pollution such as waste storage and disposal. Contributions to radioactive pollution from uranium mining and processing are discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1997-12-01

282

Analytical procedures for measuring the amount and distribution of radioactive constituents in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a research project on the evaluation and distribution of radioactive pollutants in Biscay's plants and soils, it was necessary to establish an analytical procedure to detect and measure extremely low amounts of radioactive elements. For the project 15 cm cores of fourteen soils were taken and divided into three depth levels. Some of these soil samples (<2 mm) were

C. Elejalde; M. Herranz; F. Romero; F. Legarda; E. Ruiz

1993-01-01

283

Processing plutonium-contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a cleanup project to process plutonium- and americium-contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll for volume reduction. Thermo Analytical`s (TMA`s) segmented gate system (SGS) for this remedial operation has been in successful on-site operation since 1992. Topics covered include the basis for development, a description of the Johnston Atoll; the significance of results; the benefits of the technology; applicability to other radiologically contaminated sites. 7 figs., 1 tab.

Moroney, K.; Moroney, J. III; Turney, J. [and others

1994-07-01

284

Depleted uranium mobility and fractionation in contaminated soil (Southern Serbia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  During the Balkan conflict in 1999, soil in contaminated areas was enriched in depleted uranium (DU) isotopic signature, relative\\u000a to the in-situ natural uranium present. After the military activities, most of kinetic DU penetrators or their fragments remained\\u000a buried in the ground in certain geomorphological and geochemical environments exposed to local weathering conditions. The\\u000a contamination distribution, mobility

Mirjana B. Radenkovi?; Svjetlana A. Cupa?; Jasminka D. Joksi?; Dragana J. Todorovi?

2008-01-01

285

Leaching Behaviors of Five Arsenic-Contaminated Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vadose zone is susceptible to anthropogenic arsenic contamination and may serve as a long-term source of arsenic to ground water. Understanding the processes governing the distribution of arsenic between the aqueous phase and the solid phase is crucial to minimizing the environmental impact of vadose zone contamination. Arsenic can be retained by several soil components through adsorption. The magnitude and controlling factors of arsenic adsorption by these individual components have been investigated by a number of researchers. The desorption behavior of arsenic in bulk soil from actual contaminated sites, however, is rarely reported. Soil samples were collected from five sites contaminated with herbicide containing arsenic trioxide. The environmentally available element concentrations of each soil were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion (MWD) and ICP-AES analysis. A ferrous sulfate solution was applied to the contaminated soil to precipitate ferric hydroxide as an arsenic fixation method. Sequential leaching experiments were performed upon the treated and untreated soil samples to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment method. Supernatant leachate solutions were analyzed for total arsenic by ICP-AES. MWD results showed that the original soils contain 47 to 316 ppm arsenic, on a dry weight basis. The arsenic concentrations in the initial leachate ranged from 0.42 to 1.37 ppm for the untreated soils. Due to the high Kd values of the rainwater leachable portion of the soil arsenic, 500 to 4000 pore volumes of SPLP solution were required to bring the leachate arsenic concentration below the MCL for arsenic (50 ppb). In contrast, the ferrous sulfate treatment successfully transferred the loosely adsorbed portion of the soil arsenic to strongly bonded adsorption sites on ferric hydroxide. After treatment, the two soil samples with low calcium content lost their pH buffer capacity and their leachate maintained a pH value of 4.5. No arsenic was detected in the leachate of these two treated samples during three months of sequential leaching. For the other three soils with higher buffer capacity, the treated samples also showed significant decrease in both initial (56-86% decrease) and overall (43-62% decrease) release of arsenic.

Qi, Y.; Donahoe, R. J.; Graham, E. Y.

2005-12-01

286

Prospects for in-situ chemical treatment for contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

Treating large volumes of contaminated soil at Superfund sites is costly. These factors have led the U.S. EPA's Superfund Program to consider in situ chemical treatment as an alternative technology for treatment of contaminated soil. Oxidation, reduction, neutralization, hydrolysis, dehalogenation, and UV/photolysis are chemical processes currently used for above-ground treatment. Temperature, physical and chemical characteristics of soil, are some operating parameters that control the effectiveness of these processes. Improvements in mixing treatment materials in soil, and methods for recovering unreacted material reaction products, are needed to allow wider application of these treatments in situ. Excalibur catalytic ozone technology, Exxon and Rio Linda cyanide destruction, and Trinity ultrasonic detoxification are innovative technologies that are being considered.

Davila, B.; Roulier, M.H.

1991-12-01

287

Extraction of pesticides from contaminated soil using supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The demand for processes to clean up contaminated soils without generating additional contaminants, such as hazardous solvents, is increasing. One approach to minimizing this problem is to use supercritical fluids like light hydrocarbons and CO[sub 2] to extract contaminants from soils. Gases exhibit unique properties under supercritical conditions. They retain the ability to diffuse through the interstitial spaces of solid materials, plus they have the solvating power of liquids. Some examples of extractions using SCFs are caffeine from coffee, cholesterol from eggs, drugs from plants, and nicotine from tobacco. Supercritical CO[sub 2] is an attractive, alternative extraction medium for removal of pesticides from soils. Carbon dioxide is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and if recycled, nonpolluting. Contaminants may be easily recovered by evaporating the CO[sub 2] into an expansion vessel. Supercritical fluid extraction technology is discussed and results are given for the extraction of atrazine, bentazon, alachlor, and permethrin from contaminated soil prepared in the laboratory. Initial studies show >95% removal for these pesticides.

Hunter, G.B.

1991-01-01

288

Extraction of pesticides from contaminated soil using supercritical carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The demand for processes to clean up contaminated soils without generating additional contaminants, such as hazardous solvents, is increasing. One approach to minimizing this problem is to use supercritical fluids like light hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} to extract contaminants from soils. Gases exhibit unique properties under supercritical conditions. They retain the ability to diffuse through the interstitial spaces of solid materials, plus they have the solvating power of liquids. Some examples of extractions using SCFs are caffeine from coffee, cholesterol from eggs, drugs from plants, and nicotine from tobacco. Supercritical CO{sub 2} is an attractive, alternative extraction medium for removal of pesticides from soils. Carbon dioxide is readily available, relatively inexpensive, and if recycled, nonpolluting. Contaminants may be easily recovered by evaporating the CO{sub 2} into an expansion vessel. Supercritical fluid extraction technology is discussed and results are given for the extraction of atrazine, bentazon, alachlor, and permethrin from contaminated soil prepared in the laboratory. Initial studies show >95% removal for these pesticides.

Hunter, G.B.

1991-12-31

289

Magnetic susceptibility properties of pesticide contaminated volcanic soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pesticides, unfortunately, are still widely used in many countries as way to eradicate agricultural pests. As they are being used continuously over a long period of time, they accumulate as residues in soils posing serious threats to the environment. In this study, we study the changes in magnetite-rich volcanic soils that were deliberately contaminated by pesticide. Such changes, in any, would be useful in the detection of pesticide residue in contaminated soils. Two different types of magnetically strong volcanic soil from the area near Lembang, West Java, Indonesia were used in this study where they were contaminated with varying concentrations of pesticide. The samples were then measured for magnetic susceptibility at two different frequencies. The measurements were then repeated after a period of three months. We found a reduction of magnetic susceptibility as well as a reduction in SP (superparamagnetic) grains proportion in contaminated soil. These might be caused by pesticide-induced magnetic dissolution as supported by SEM analyses. However the impact of pesticide concentration as well as exposure time on magnetic dissolution is still inconclusive.

Agustine, Eleonora; Fitriani, Dini; Safiuddin, La Ode; Tamuntuan, Gerald; Bijaksana, Satria

2013-09-01

290

Exogenous isolation of conjugative plasmids from pesticide contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exogenous plasmid isolation method was used to assess conjugative plasmids conferring pesticide tolerance\\/multiple metal and\\u000a antibiotic resistance from contaminated soil using bacteria detached from soil samples as a donor and rifampicin resistant\\u000a E. coli HMS as a recipient strain on mineral salt agar medium supplemented with ?-HCH, and antibiotics ampicillin, tetracycline,\\u000a chloramphenicol and kanamycin. Transconjugants were obtained on ampicillin (10 ?g\\/ml)

Reshma Anjum; Elisabeth Grohmann; Abdul Malik

291

Catalyzed Hydrogen Peroxide Treatment of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Contaminated Sandy Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of the treatment of polychlorinatedbiphenyl (PCB) contaminated sandy soils (100 mg kg-1 Aroclor 1242) with the Fenton advanced oxidation process (AOP). The results obtained in the various assays permitted the\\u000a optimization of conditions as follows: 5% H2O2; 100 ppm of Fe3+; and a ratio of sandy soil mass\\/volume of oxidizing solution (m\\/V) of 1\\/3 g

M. A. Manzano; J. A. Perales; D. Sales; J. M. Quiroga

2004-01-01

292

Speciation of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the activity of free cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) ions and analyze their dependence on pH and other soil properties, ten contaminated soils were sampled and analyzed for total contents of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn (CdT, CuT, PbT, and ZnT, respectively), 0.43 MHNO3?extractable Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn (CdN, CuN, PbN, and ZnN,

Qixiang Wu; William H. Hendershot; William D. Marshall; Ying Ge

2000-01-01

293

Necrophytoremediation of phenanthrene and pyrene in contaminated soil.  

PubMed

In this study, the effect of necrophytoremediation, using pea and wheat straws on the remediation soil contaminated with two common polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene and pyrene alone or in combination was investigated. In addition, monitoring of the population of PAH-utilising microorganisms together with PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE)-sequencing methods were used to further elucidate the effect of straw addition on the bacterial, fungal and nidA gene (a functional gene involved in the degradation of PAHs) communities. The addition of pea straw had a positive effect on the degradation of PAHs, especially for pyrene. For example, the addition of pea straw to pyrene-contaminated soil resulted in an increase in the degradation of pyrene from 15% (66 mg kg(-1)) in the corresponding control to 70% (301 mg kg(-1)). The results from the most probable number (MPN) of PAH-utilising microorganisms and PCR-DGGE-sequencing methods indicated that the addition of straw led to an increase in microbial hydrocarbonoclastic biomass rather than changes in microbial diversity. For example, in pyrene-contaminated soil, the number of PAH-utilising microorganisms in the soil amended with pea straw reached 5.6 log10 CFU g(-1) dry soil, ~13-fold increase when compared with the numbers present in the control soil (4.5 log10 CFU g(-1) dry soils); however, the Shannon diversity index did not increase significantly. The sequencing of bands of interest from DGGE profiles revealed the presence of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria in the bacterial community. For fungi, sequenced bands belonged to Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mucoromycotina. In summary, this study has shown that necrophytoremediation using pea straw represents a promising biostimulation and cost effective agent which can be used for the bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. PMID:23567029

Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Adetutu, Eric M; Anderson, Peter A; Ball, Andrew S

2013-04-10

294

Removal of arsenic from contaminated soils using different salt extractants.  

PubMed

This study presents an environmental-friendly and cost effective method for the extraction of arsenic from contaminated soils. Laboratory experiments using inorganic salts, potassium phosphate (KH2PO4), potassium chloride (KCl), potassium nitrate (KNO3), potassium sulfate (K2SO4), and sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) were evaluated as arsenic extractants. An Andosol soil was artificially contaminated with arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. The soil was washed in a batch process with different salt solutions in the pH range 3-11 for 24 hours at 20 degrees C. Among the various potassium and sodium salts tested, KH2PO4 was found to be highly effective in extracting arsenic from As(III)-soil attaining more than 80% and 40% from As(V)-soil in neutral pH range. Other salts were particularly ineffective in extraction of arsenic from both soils. More arsenic was extracted more from the As(III)-soil than the As(V)-soil. PMID:17365314

Alam, M G M; Tokunaga, S; Stagnitti, F

2007-03-01

295

Soil immobilization: New concept for biotreatment of soil contaminants  

SciTech Connect

A new concept for the development of microbial consortia for the degradation of persistent soil pollutants and for pollutant treatment is proposed. The concept defined as soil immobilization is based on the entrapment of soil particles, showing microbial activity in degrading the target pollutant, into a solid membrane with a large pore size distribution. The particular hydrodynamic and mass transfer properties of this system result in a very efficient process. A new type of bioreactor is proposed for carrying out the immobilized soil process. The performance of the system was tested by developing a microbial system for the mineralization of pentachlorophenol (PCP). The results show that the volumetric efficiency of the process for PCP mineralization in the immobilized soil bioreactor is 1--3 orders of magnitude higher than reported literature values. Chlorine and carbon atoms of PCP are both nearly completely (99%) mineralized.

Karamanev, D.G.; Chavarie, C.; Samson, R. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

1998-02-20

296

Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination  

SciTech Connect

Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous-asbestos mixed-waste stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles in based solely on bore sampling, which is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started 1998 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

2000-06-01

297

Real-Time Identification and Characterization of Asbestos and Concrete Materials with Radioactive Contamination  

SciTech Connect

Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous building materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. This intractable radioactive-and-hazardous- asbestos mixed-waste-stream has created a tremendous challenge to DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) project managers. The current practice to identify asbestos and to characterize radioactive contamination depth profiles involve bore sampling, and is inefficient, costly, and unsafe. A three-year research project was started on 10/1/98 at Rensselaer with the following ultimate goals: (1) development of novel non-destructive methods for identifying the hazardous asbestos in real-time and in-situ, and (2) development of new algorithms and apparatus for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profile in real-time and in-situ.

Xu, George; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

1999-06-01

298

Ozone treatment of soil contaminated with aniline and trifluralin.  

PubMed

Column studies were conducted to determine the ability of ozone to degrade aniline and trifluralin in soil. Ozone rapidly degraded aniline from soil under moist soil conditions, 5% (wt). Removal of 77-98% of [UL-14C]-aniline was observed from soil columns (15 ml, i.d. = 2.5 cm), exposed to 0.6% O(3) (wt) at 200 ml/min after 4 min. Initial ozonation products included nitrosobenzene and nitrobenzene, while further oxidation led to CO(2). Ring-labeled-[UL-14C]-trifluralin removal rates were slower, requiring 30 min to achieve removals of 70-97%. Oxidation and cleavage of the N-propyl groups of trifluralin was observed, affording 2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)-aniline, 2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-benzamine, and 2,6-dinitro-N-propyl-N-acetonyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-benzamine. Base solutions revealed that trifluralin was similarly oxidized to CO(2), where 72-83% of the activity recovered comprised 14CO(2). Use of ozone-rich water improved contaminant removal in trifluralin-amended soil columns, but did not improve removal in aniline, pentachloroaniline, hexachlorobenzene amended soil columns, suggesting that ozonated water may improve contaminant removal for reactive contaminants of low solubility. PMID:12531708

Pierpoint, Anthony C; Hapeman, Cathleen J; Torrents, Alba

2003-03-01

299

Remediation of Contaminated Soils By Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contaminants that can be found in soils are many, inorganic, like heavy metals, as well as organic. Among the organic contaminants, oil and coal refineries are responsi- ble for several cases of soil contamination with PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocar- bons). Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic, carcinogenic and mu- tagenic effects. Limits have been set on the concentration of most contaminants, and growing concern is focusing on soil contamination issues. USA regulations set the maximum acceptable level of contamination by PAHs equal to 40 ppm at residential sites and 270 ppm at industrial sites. Stricter values are usually adopted in European Countries. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a possible alternative technology to remove volatile organic compounds from contaminated soils. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) offers many advantages over conventional solvent extraction. Super- critical fluids combine gaseous properties as a high diffusion coefficient, and liquid properties as a high solvent power. The solvent power is strongly pressure-dependent near supercritical conditions: selective extractions are possible without changing the solvent. Solute can be separate from the solvent depressurising the system; therefore, it is possible to recycle the solvent and recover the contaminant. Carbon dioxide is frequently used as supercritical fluid, because it has moderate critical conditions, it is inert and available in pure form. In this work, supercritical fluid extraction technology has been used to remove a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon from contaminated soils. The contaminant choice for the experiment has been naphthalene since several data are available in literature. G. A. Montero et al. [1] studied soil remediation with supercrit- ical carbon dioxide extraction technology; these Authors have found that there was a mass-transfer limitation. In the extraction vessel, the mass transfer coefficient in- creases with the superficial velocity of the supercritical carbon dioxide; therefore, the mass transfer resistance can be reduced increasing such velocity. In this work, higher values of superficial velocity were investigated. The experimental apparatus includes a pump, an extraction vessel, an adjustable restrictor and a trap to collect the extracted substance. Liquid carbon dioxide coming from a cylinder with a dip-tube is cooled by a cryostatic bath and then it is compressed by a pneumatic drive pump (the max- imum available pressure is 69 MPa). Subsequently, the pressurised current flows into 1 a heating coil and then into the extraction vessel, which is contained in a stove; the outlet flow is depressurised in an adjustable restrictor and the extracted substance is collected in a trap by dissolution into a solvent. The extracted naphthalene quantity was obtained by weighting the solvent and measuring the naphthalene concentration with a gas chromatograph. The soil sample is a sandy soil geologically representative of the North of Italy that was sampled and physically and chemically characterized: particle-size distribution analysis, diffractometric analysis, Cation Exchange Capac- ity, Total Organic Carbon, iron content and manganese content in order to evaluate the potential sorption degree. The soil was artificially polluted by means of a naphta- lene and methylene chloride solution. The experimental work consists in a number of naphthalene extractions from the spiked soil, that were carried out at different operat- ing conditions, temperature, pressure and flow rate by means of supercritical carbon dioxide evaluating the corresponding recovery efficiencies. The results obtained were analysed and compared in order to determine which parameters influence the system. [1] G. A. Montero, T.D. Giorgio, and K. B. Schnelle, Jr..Removal of Hazardous ,1994, Contaminants form Soils by Supercritical Fluid Extraction. Innovations in Supercriti- cal Fluids. ACS Symposium Series, 608, 280-197. 2

Ferri, A.; Zanetti, M. C.; Banchero, M.; Fiore, S.; Manna, L.

300

Interactions of low-level, liquid radioactive wastes with soils. 2. Differences in radionuclide distribution among four surface soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reacted four soils of widely different characteristics with liquid radioactive wastes in an experiment designed to evaluate differences in the abilities of the soils to sorb or to enhance mobilization of the radionuclides. Cesium-137 was sorbed almost completely by all four soils, whereas we noted large differences in the degree of sorption among soils for plutonium, uranium, and americium-241.

E. H. Essington; E. B. Fowler; W. L. Polzer

1981-01-01

301

Assessing Metal Contamination in Lead Arsenate Contaminated Orchard Soils Using Near and Mid-Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Historic use of lead-arsenate as pesticide in apple orchards left many soils contaminated with arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Notorious health effects and their severe soil contamination are of primary concerns for major regulatory agencies, and community at large. Wet chemistry methods for soil anal...

302

Effect of arsenic contamination on microbial biomass and its activities in arsenic contaminated soils of Gangetic West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to see the effect of arsenic contamination on soil quality indicators, viz., microbial biomass, soil respiration, fluorescein diacetate and dehydrogenase (DHG) activity in arsenic contaminated soils of West Bengal. All the parameters were significantly and negatively correlated with all the form of arsenic (bioavailable and total) but the microbial metabolic quotient was significantly and positively correlated

A. K. Ghosh; P. Bhattacharyya; R. Pal

2004-01-01

303

Dirty Soil and Clean Consciences: Examining Communication of Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification and remediation of contaminated sites in Europe is a continuous undertaking that includes different aspects.\\u000a There are many variables to take into consideration such as the nature of the contaminants, the risks they pose, the location\\u000a of the site and possible future usages. Also, possible negative effects on the local residents or the environment have to\\u000a be considered.

Tina Wiséen; Misse Wester-Herber

2007-01-01

304

Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils*  

PubMed Central

Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has its negative impact on human health and agriculture. Rhizosphere, as an important interface of soil and plant, plays a significant role in phytoremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, in which, microbial populations are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes, and therefore, have potential to enhance phytoremediation processes. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria have received more and more attention. This article paper reviews some recent advances in effect and significance of rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. There is also a need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the transfer and mobilization of heavy metals by rhizobacteria and to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programmes.

Jing, Yan-de; He, Zhen-li; Yang, Xiao-e

2007-01-01

305

Anaerobic incorporation of the radiolabeled explosive TNT and metabolites into the organic soil matrix of contaminated soil after different treatment procedures.  

PubMed

Four bioreactor designs were performed to evaluate the level of incorporation of 14C-labeled 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and metabolites into the organic soil matrix of different anaerobically treated contaminated soils. The contaminated soils were amended with molasses slivers (80:20% per weight) as auxiliary substrate to enhance microbial activity. After 5 weeks (bioreactors 1 and 2), 8 weeks (bioreactor 3) and 12 weeks (bioreactor 4) of anaerobic incubation, we determined 41%, 58%, 72%, and 54%, respectively, of the initially applied radioactivity immobilized in various soil fractions. After alkaline hydrolyses of the solvent-extracted soils, low quantities of radiolabel were found in the humic and fulvic acid fractions, whereas the bulk of 14C activity was found to be strongly bound to the humin fraction (solid soil residues). The amounts of solvent extractable radioactivity were 53%, 40%, 16%, and 29% for bioreactors 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The level of TNT transformation at the end of the experiments was within 90-94%. Regarding the results presented in this study, we can assume that there is the possibility of high incorporation levels of TNT metabolites into the soil organic matrix mediated by microbial cometabolism under strictly anoxic conditions. PMID:10101860

Drzyzga, O; Bruns-Nagel, D; Gorontzy, T; Blotevogel, K H; von Löw, E

1999-04-01

306

Uptake and transport of radioactive cesium and strontium into grapevines after leaf contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1989 to 1993 the foliar uptake of radioactive strontium (Sr-85) and cesium (Cs-134) by selected leaves of grapevine plants and the subsequent redistribution within the plants was examined under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. The radionuclides were applied as chlorides. These plants were grown in large pots containing a mixture of local soil and peat. Plant and soil samples

H. J. Zehnder; P. Kopp; J. Eikenberg; U. Feller; J. J. Oertli

1995-01-01

307

Recycling Ni from Contaminated and Mineralized Soils.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rare plant species accumulate potentially valuable concentrations of some metals. Alyssum murale readily accumulates over 2% Ni in aboveground dry matter when grown on Ni-mineralized serpentine soils in Oregon, allowing production of “hay” biomass with at least 400 kg Ni ha-1 with low levels of fer...

308

The Radioactive Contamination of Food Following Nuclear Attack.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relative radiation hazards from early and delayed fallout following a nuclear attack have been reviewed. It is indicated that the hazard to life from whole-body gamma irradiation from early fallout far outweighs the hazard from radioactive contaminati...

E. E. Massey

1966-01-01

309

Phytoremediation: using green plants to clean up contaminate soil, groundwater, and wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation, an emerging cleanup technology for contaminated soils, groundwater, and wastewater that is both low-tech and low-cost, is defined as the engineered use of green plants (including grasses, forbs, and woody species) to remove, contain, or render harmless such environmental contaminants as heavy metals, trace elements, organic compounds and radioactive compounds in soil or water. Our research includes a successful field demonstration of a plant bioreactor for processing the salty wastewater from petroleum wells; the demonstration is currently under way at a natural gas well site in Oklahoma, in cooperation with Devon Energy Corporation. A greenhouse experiment on zinc uptake in hybrid poplar (Populus sp.) was initiated in 1995. These experiments are being conducted to confirm and extend field data indicating high levels of zinc (4,200 ppm) in leaves of hybrid poplar growing as a cleanup system at a site with zinc contamination in the root zone of some of the trees. Analyses of soil water from experimental pots that had received several doses of zinc indicated that the zinc was totally sequestered by the plants in about 4 hours during a single pass through the root system. The data also showed concentrations of sequestered metal of >38,000 ppm Zn in the dry root tissue. These levels of sequestered zinc exceed the levels found in either roots or tops of many of the known ``hyperaccumulator`` species. Because the roots sequester most of the contaminant taken up in most plants, a major objective of this program is to determine the feasibility of root harvesting as a method to maximize the removal of contaminants from soils. Available techniques and equipment for harvesting plant roots, including young tree roots, are being evaluated and modified as necessary for use with phytoremediation plants.

Negri, M.C.; Hinchman, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gatliff, E.G. [Applied Natural Sciences, Inc., Hamilton, OH (United States)

1996-07-01

310

Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on (137)Cs release from contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Radio pollutant removal is one of several priority restoration strategies for the environment. This study assessed the effect of low molecular weight organic acid on the lability and mechanisms for release of (137)Cs from contaminated soils. The amount of (137)Cs radioactivity released from contaminated soils reacting with 0.02 M low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) specifically acetic, succinic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric acid over 48 h were 265, 370, 760, 850, and 1002 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The kinetic results indicate that (137)Cs exhibits a two-step parabolic diffusion equation and a good linear relationship, indicating that the parabolic diffusion equation describes the data quite well, as shown by low p and high r(2) values. The fast stage, which was found to occur within a short period of time (0.083-3 h), corresponds to the interaction of LMWOAs with the surface of clay minerals; meanwhile, during the slow stage, which occurs over a much longer time period (3-24 h), desorption primarily is attributed to inter-particle or intra-particle diffusion. After a fifth renewal of the LMWOAs, the total levels of (137)Cs radioactivity released by acetic, succinic, oxalic, tartaric, and citric acid were equivalent to 390, 520, 3949, 2061, and 4422 Bq kg(-1) soil, respectively. H(+) can protonate the hydroxyl groups and oxygen atoms at the broken edges or surfaces of the minerals, thereby weakening Fe-O and Al-O bonds. After protonation of H(+), organic ligands can attack the OH and OH(2) groups in the minerals easily, to form complexes with surface structure cations, such as Al and Fe. The amounts of (137)Cs released from contaminated soil treated with LMWOAs were substantially increased, indicating that the LMWOAs excreted by the roots of plants play a critical role in (137)Cs release. PMID:21398133

Chiang, Po Neng; Wang, Ming Kuang; Huang, Pan Ming; Wang, Jeng Jong

2011-03-02

311

Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field  

SciTech Connect

The use of plants and associated microorganisms to remove, contain, inactivate, or degrade harmful environmental contaminants (generally termed phytoremediation) and to revitalize contaminated sites is gaining more and more attention. In this review, prerequisites for a successful remediation will be discussed. The performance of phytoremediation as an environmental remediation technology indeed depends on several factors including the extent of soil contamination, the availability and accessibility of contaminants for rhizosphere microorganisms and uptake into roots (bioavailability), and the ability of the plant and its associated microorganisms to intercept, absorb, accumulate, and/or degrade the contaminants. The main aim is to provide an overview of existing field experience in Europe concerning the use of plants and their associated microorganisms whether or not combined with amendments for the revitalization or remediation of contaminated soils and undeep groundwater. Contaminations with trace elements (except radionuclides) and organics will be considered. Because remediation with transgenic organisms is largely untested in the field, this topic is not covered in this review. Brief attention will be paid to the economical aspects, use, and processing of the biomass. It is clear that in spite of a growing public and commercial interest and the success of several pilot studies and field scale applications more fundamental research still is needed to better exploit the metabolic diversity of the plants themselves, but also to better understand the complex interactions between contaminants, soil, plant roots, and microorganisms (bacteria and mycorrhiza) in the rhizosphere. Further, more data are still needed to quantify the underlying economics, as a support for public acceptance and last but not least to convince policy makers and stakeholders (who are not very familiar with such techniques).

Vangronsveld, J.; van der Lelie, D.; Herzig, R.; Weyens, N.; Boulet, J.; Adriaensen, K.; Ruttens, A.; Thewys, T.; Vassilev, A.; Meers, E.; Nehnevajova, E.; Mench, M.

2009-11-01

312

Transfer of soil contaminants to home-produced eggs and preventive measures to reduce contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake studies have shown that chickens foraging on soils contaminated with environmental pollutants accumulate these compounds into their eggs. Home-produced eggs thereby show higher contamination levels than commercially produced eggs. It was the aim of this study to identify the major source of two environmental pollutants in home-produced eggs, i.e. dioxins and lead, to formulate preventive measures to reduce the

Nadia Waegeneers; Hans De Steur; Ludwig De Temmerman; Sarah Van Steenwinkel; Xavier Gellynck; Jacques Viaene

2009-01-01

313

Transfer of soil contaminants to home-produced eggs and preventive measures to reduce contamination.  

PubMed

Uptake studies have shown that chickens foraging on soils contaminated with environmental pollutants accumulate these compounds into their eggs. Home-produced eggs thereby show higher contamination levels than commercially produced eggs. It was the aim of this study to identify the major source of two environmental pollutants in home-produced eggs, i.e. dioxins and lead, to formulate preventive measures to reduce the contamination levels of such eggs, and to assess the feasibility of the formulated measures in terms of the perception and behavior of private egg producers towards such measures. The major source of dioxins and lead in eggs, i.e. the soil, was identified by transfer calculations of the pollutants from the feed and soil towards eggs. Preventive measures to reduce soil intake or geophagy and hence egg contamination levels, were formulated and their feasibility evaluated through interviews with private chicken owners. The results show that a paved surface inside the henhouse, an indoor feeding place and providing a sufficient surface area per chicken were considered the most appropriate in terms of feasibility and willingness to apply the measures by the private chicken owners. To enhance the effect of the measures, a combination of measures supported and promoted at policy level is considered as a good strategy to reduce contamination levels in home-produced eggs. PMID:19162298

Waegeneers, Nadia; De Steur, Hans; De Temmerman, Ludwig; Van Steenwinkel, Sarah; Gellynck, Xavier; Viaene, Jacques

2009-01-21

314

Physicochemical soil-contaminant interactions during electrokinetic extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using electrokinetics to extract contaminants from soils has been established by bench-scale laboratory experiments and small-scale field tests. However, the physics and chemistry associated with the innovative remediation technology are not yet fully understood. Many physicochemical reactions occur simultaneously during the process. These reactions may enhance or reduce the cleanup efficiency of the process. They are particularly

Albert T. Yeung; Cheng-non Hsu; Rajendra M. Menon

1997-01-01

315

USING PLANTS TO REMEDIATE PETROLEUM-CONTAMINATED SOIL: PROJECT CONTINUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Crude oil contamination of soil often occurs adjacent to wellheads and storage facilities. Phytoremediation is a promising tool that can be used to remediate such sites and uses plants and agronomic techniques to enhance biodegradation of hydrocarbons. This project has conduct...

316

AN ESTIMATE OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH SECONDARY EXPLOSIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report provides the results of a study that examined the quantities of explosives-contaminated soils at Army installations in the United States in order to understand the user requirements for environmental technology research and development work. This report provides a tim...

317

Remediation with surfactant foam of PCP-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was made into evaluating the capability of surfactants in the form of foam for removing the contaminant pentachlorophenol (PCP), a highly toxic, wood preservative, from soil. Several surfactants were investigated for their ability to make foam. Two of them, Triton X-100 and JBR425 (a rhamnolipid biosurfactant), generated foam with higher quality (99%) and higher stability than other surfactants.

Catherine N. Mulligan; Farzad Eftekhari

2003-01-01

318

Enhanced electrokinetic remediation of contaminated manufactured gas plant soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates different flushing agents to enhance the efficiency of electrokinetic remediation of a manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. Because of high concentrations, PAHs were of environmental concern and required to be removed to acceptable levels. Four flushing agents, which included two surfactants (3% Tween 80, and 5% Igepal CA-720),

Krishna R. Reddy; Prasanth R. Ala; Saurabh Sharma; Surendra N. Kumar

2006-01-01

319

Effect of compost in phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of compost on phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils was investigated using 130 small (200 g) containers in two screening tests. The experiments were conducted in a controlled environment using ryegrass from seed. Containers were destructively sampled at various times and analyzed for plant mass and total petroleum hydrocarbons. The results indicate that the presence of diesel reduces grass growth,

J. Vouillamoz; M. W. Milke

320

LINKING WATERFOWL WITH CONTAMINANT SPECIATION IN RIPARIAN SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes the results of Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 38, Linking Waterfowl with Contaminant Speciation in Riparian Soils, implemented and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and jointly administered by EPA and the U...

321

HANDBOOK ON IN SITU TREATMENT OF HAZARDOUS WASTE- CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

This handbook comprises an update of Volume1 of the 1984 USEPA document entitled "Review of In-Place Treatment Techniques for Contaminated Surface Soils." The purpose of this handbook is the same as that of the original document - to provide state-of-the-art information on in sit...

322

Contamination of terrestrial ecosystem components with 90Sr, 137Cs, and 226Ra caused by the deterioration of the multibarrier protection of radioactive waste storages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatial-temporal features of the radioactive contamination of terrestrial ecosystem components caused by the deterioration of the multibarrier protection of regional radioactive waste storages of the State Research Center of the Russian Federation-Leipunskii Institute of Physics and Power Engineering at the input of radionuclides into the soil and ground water were studied. The composition of the radioactive contamination was determined, and the hydrological and geochemical processes resulting in the formation of large radioactive sources were described. The natural features of the radioactive waste storage areas favoring the entry of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 226Ra into the soils and their inclusion in the biological turnover were characterized. The directions of the horizontal migration of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 226Ra and the sites of their accumulation within the superaquatic and aquatic landscapes of a near-terrace depression were studied; the factors of the 90Sr accumulation in plants and cockles were calculated. The results of the studies expand the theoretical concepts of the mechanisms, processes, and factors controlling the behavior of radionuclides at the deterioration of the multibarrier protection of radioactive waste storages. The presented experimental data can be used for solving practical problems related to environmental protection in the areas of industrial nuclear complexes.

Latynova, N. E.

2010-03-01

323

Geochemistry Of Lead In Contaminated Soils: Effects Of Soil PhysicoChemical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead (Pb) is an environmental contaminant with proven human health effects. When assessing human health risks associated with Pb, one of the most common exposure pathways typically evaluated is soil ingestion by children. However, bioaccessibility of Pb primarily depends on the solubility and hence, the geochemical form of Pb, which in turn is a function of site specific soil chemistry.

S. Saminathan; D. Sarkar; R. Datta; S. P. Andra

2006-01-01

324

Soil ventilation: Effects on microbial populations in gasoline-contaminated subsurface soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short- and long-term effects of vapor extraction (VE) in an unsaturated subsurface soil and in situ biodegradation of gasoline were evaluated in a field study. Subsurface temperature, moisture, solid- and gas-phase contaminant levels, atmospheric gases, nutrient levels, and microbial population densities were measured during and after soil VE for 462 d. Microbial activity, based on in situ Oâ consumption rates,

W. J. Hickey

1995-01-01

325

EFFECT OF SOIL MODIFYING FACTORS ON THE BIOAVAILABILITY AND TOXICITY OF METAL CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

Heavy metal and organic chemical contamination of soils is a worldwide problem posing a risk to humans and more directly, soil organisms. Metal toxicity is often not directly related to the total concentration of metals present due to a number of modifying factors that depend,...

326

Status of Activities on Rehabilitation of Radioactively Contaminated Facilities and the Stie of Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute.'  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the program, the status, and the course of activities on rehabilitation of radioactively contaminated facilities and the territory of temporary radioactive waste (radwaste) disposal at the Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute'...

V. G. Volkov N. N. Ponomarev-Stepnoi E. S. Melkov E. P. Ryazantsev V. S. Dikarev

2003-01-01

327

Results of Measurements of the Radioactive Contamination of the Biosphere in the Netherlands, Compiled by the CCRX 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report results are given of measurements of the radioactive contamination of the biosphere in the Netherlands. These measurements are coordinated by the Coordinating Committee for the Monitoring of Radioactive and Xenobiotic Substances (CCRX). The...

1986-01-01

328

Results of Measurements of the Radioactive Contamination of the Biosphere in the Netherlands, Compiled by the CCRX 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report results are given of measurements of the radioactive contamination of the biosphere in the Netherlands. These measurements are coordinated by the Coordinating Committee for the Monitoring of Radioactive and Xenobiotic Substances (CCRX). The...

J. C. Cornelis

1983-01-01

329

Results of Measurements of the Radioactive Contamination of the Biosphere in the Netherlands, Compiled by the CCRX 1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this report results are given of measurments of the radioactive contamination of the biosphere in the Netherlands. These measurements are coordinated by the Coordinating Committee for the Monitoring of Radioactive and Xenobiotic Substances (CCRX). Anal...

1984-01-01

330

EVALUATION OF SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION AS A BEST DEMONSTRATED AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTAMINATED SOILS  

EPA Science Inventory

This project involved the evaluation of solidification/stabilization technology as a BDAT for contaminated soil. Three binding agents were used on four different synthetically contaminated soils. Performance evaluation data included unconfined compressive strength (UCS) and the T...

331

Chemical Extraction of Arsenic from Contaminated Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of batch extraction experiments were conducted using a fortified soil with different extracting solutions such as inorganic acids (hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), perchloric acid (HClO4), or nitric acid (HNO3)), organic acids (acetic acid (C2H4O2), citric acid (C6H8O7)) and alkaline agent (NaOH). Various concentrations were used to investigate the removal efficiency and to optimise

M. G. M. ALAM; S. TOKUNAGA

2006-01-01

332

Multiscale structure of Cs-137 soil contamination on the Bryansk Region (Russia) due to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cs-137 contamination of the Bryansk Region occurred in the period from April 27 to May 10 into several stages. The complicated character of the soil radionuclide contamination on the Bryansk Region is caused by different nature of the radioactive fallout: dry and wet. Thus, in a number of cases Cs-137 soil pollution is directly connected with the rain intensity, which is well known, have multifractal nature. In some parts of contaminated territory the overlay of different types of fallout was observed. The radioactive contamination of the landscape is a result from nonlinear interplay of geophysical factors which intervene over a large range of scale. As a result of the fallout Cs-137 pattern can be described as a multifractal. Consequently, fields of contamination observed have an extreme spatial variability, frequently cited "hot spots" or "leopard's skin. As an estimate of background radiation levels, we relied on a dataset of air-gamma-survey of the Bryansk Region, carried out by SSC AEROGEOFIZIKA in the summer of 1993. This dataset includes geo-positioned data of Cs-137 deposition in a grid of 100x100 m with values range from 3 to 11*104 kBq/m2. Airborne gamma survey gave the smoothed values of the Cs-137 density of contamination in comparison with the data, obtained directly as a result of soil sampling. However, even in this case in the east part of the Bryansk test site we can observed the"hot spots" (by size several hundred meters) as natural phenomenon. The article presents the results of the geostatistical and multifractal analysis of the Cs-137 contamination. Scaling analysis was conducted to investigate the linkages between the spatial variability of soil Cs-137 contamination and some landscape characteristics.

Linnik, Vitaly; Sokolov, Alexander

2013-04-01

333

Phytoremediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil for Improving Food Safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contamination of the environment is a serious problem which provokes great interest in our society and in the whole scientific community. The input of metals into soils has increased during the last few decades as a consequence of different human activities (storage of industrial and municipal wastes, burning of fuels, mining and wastewater treatments, functioning of non-ferrous-metal-producing smelters, etc.). Nowadays, this type of contamination is one of the most serious concerning the chronic toxic effect which it renders on human health and the environment. As a consequence of all these activities, a huge number of toxic metals and metalloids, such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg and As, among many others, have been accumulated in soils, reaching toxic values. Unfortunately, much contaminated land is still in use for crop production, despite the danger that the metal content poses.

Shilev, Stefan; Benlloch, Manuel; Dios-Palomares, R.; Sancho, Enrique D.

334

Metallic contaminants in street soils of Moncton, New Brunswick, Canada  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, a good deal of attention has been focused toward the analysis of metal contents of street dusts and soils. Elements of major concern from a health hazards view point are Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni and Cu, since these are known for their toxic effects toward living organisms. Some of these elements result from automobile exhausts while others result from industrial operations. In our study we have attempted to evaluate metallic and saline contamination in the street soils of the city of Moncton. It is a small and relatively non-industrialized town (pop. 80,000) situated in eastern Canada. The elements Pb, Cd, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na and Ca in street soils have been determined by atomic absorption and flame photometric procedures. The objective was to compare such data with those of the larger industrial towns, where such contaminants have been encountered and documented.

Cool, M.; Marcoux, F.; Paulin, A.; Mehra, M.C.

1980-09-01

335

Heavy-metal contamination of soils in Saxony/Germany by foundry fumes and low-cost rapid analyses of contaminated soils by XRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy-metal contamination of soils in Saxony/Germany by foundry fumes and low-cost rapid analysis of contaminated soils by XRF Dieter Mucke, Rolf Kumann, Sebastian Baldauf GEOMONTAN Gesellschaft für Geologie und Bergbau mbH&Co.KG, Muldentalstrasse 56, 09603 Rothenfurth, Saxony/Germany For hundreds of years in the Ore Mountains between Bohemia and Saxony silver and other ores are produced and smelted. Sulphide- and sulpharsenide-ores needed to be roasted first. In doing so the sulphide sulphur was oxidised under formation of sulphur dioxide SO2 and arsenide conversed into elemental arsenic and arsenide trioxide As2O3 respectively. Also the metals lead, cadmium and zinc are components of hut smokes, in the field of nickel foundries also nickel. The contents of soils basically reflect the geogenic conditions, which are caused by decomposition- and relocation-effects of the mineralisations, in the area of foundries also with influences by with the hut smokes anthropogenic mobilised elements. The Saxonian Agency for Environment and Geology drafted in 1992 a Soil Investigation Program with the aim of investigation of the contamination of Saxonian soils with arsenic and toxic heavy metals. In order of this Agency GEOMONTAN investigated 1164 measuring points in the grid 4 * 4 km.soil profiles and extracted soil samples for analysis. In the result of the laboratory examinations the Agency edited the "Soil atlas of the Free State of Saxony". 27 elements, pH and PAK are shown in detailed maps and allow in whole Saxony the first assessment of the contamination of soils with arsenic and toxic heavy metals. Each of the investigated soil profiles represent an area of 16 km2. Already by the different use of the districts (agricultural, industrial, urban) restricts representative values. GEOMONTAN in the meantime used at the exploration of a copper deposit in Brandenburg/Germany with approx. 50,000 single tests at drill cores a very fast low-cost method: the X Ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) with a handheld instrument. Approx. 40 elements hereby are determined in a focussed X-ray spot of 3 mm of diameters. The device can be put directly on a section of the soil or measure loose substrata in a PVC bag through or in a cuvette. The measurement time is 30 seconds. In connection with the input of information, the relocating and the sample preparation 20 measurings can be carried out per hour. This leads at personnel expenditures of € 50/hour at a price of € 2.50/analysis of simultaneous 40 components. At requirement the transfer of the files from the instrument in Excel tables still would rise expenses. XRF is a fast low-cost method for the first assessment of the contamination of soils and the delimitation of areas of different contaminations. When exact laboratory analyses are still requested, the interesting areas from which bulk samples have to be taken for the laboratory examinations, with XRF can be fixed. The contamination with arsenic and toxic heavy metals is only subordinated by modern flue gas treatment in metallurgical plants and renunciation of thermal methods with hut smoke today. The whereabouts of arsenic and lead in the soil shows, though, that the soil has protected the groundwater against the contamination. GEOMONTAN has examined the Saxonian areas with radioactive fallout of the Chernobyl accident in the order of the BGR Hannover 1993. In the results of the analysis by BGR Cs-134 was already disintegrated and Cs-137 only 13 cm deep in the uppermost soil layers infiltrated during the 8 years after the accident. This means that soil protects groundwater against contaminations out of the air too. In the last years some German federal state governments decided the end of mine water winning for the public water supply and deregulated the water protection zones. The water supply was converted in water of water supply dams. The hazard of contamination of this open reservoirs by accidents or terrorism is increasing. Underground water bodies in karst caves and old mines without toxic mineralizations would be

Mucke, D.

2012-04-01

336

Particulate copper in soils and surface runoff from contaminated sandy soils under citrus production.  

PubMed

Soil contamination by copper (Cu) is a worldwide concern. Laboratory incubation and soil Cu characterization were conducted to examine the effects of external Cu loading and liming on Cu speciation in both bulk soil and particulates of an Alfisol and Spodosol under citrus production. Also, drainage water from the sites was evaluated for dissolved and particulate forms of Cu. Soil available Cu estimated by CaCl2, NH4OAc, or Mehlich-3 extraction significantly increased with external Cu loads and decreased with soil pH. Most increases in soil Cu occurred in the exchangeable and oxide-bound fractions. Organically bound Cu was the dominant fraction in both bulk soil and particulates, but more in particulates than bulk soil (P???0.001). Organically bound Cu was highly correlated with total recoverable Cu (P???0.01), increased significantly with external Cu loads (P???0.001), and decreased with soil pH (P???0.05). Lime addition converted part of Cu from available pools to more stable forms. Organically bound Cu complexes were found to dominate in soil solution or surface runoff. These results indicate that most Cu accumulated in the contaminated soils is highly mobile, and thus may impact citrus production and the environment. PMID:23740300

Bakshi, Santanu; He, Zhenli L; Harris, Willie G

2013-06-01

337

Residual Radioactive Contamination at Maralinga and Emu, 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An account is provided of residual contamination at Maralinga and Emu, in South Australia, where the United Kingdom Atomic Weapons Research Establishment conducted nuclear weapons development trials between 1953 and 1963. Detailed information is presented...

K. H. Lokan

1985-01-01

338

Impact of transgenic tobacco on trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated soil community.  

PubMed

Environmental contamination with recalcitrant toxic chemicals presents a serious and widespread problem to the functional capacity of soil. Soil bacteria play an essential role in ecosystem processes, such as nutrient cycling and decomposition; thus a decrease in their biomass and community diversity, resulting from exposure to toxic chemicals, negatively affects the functioning of soil. Plants provide the primary energy source to soil microorganisms and affect the size and composition of microbial communities, which in turn have an effect on vegetation dynamics. We have found that transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing a bacterial nitroreductase gene detoxify soil contaminated with the high explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), with a significantly increased microbial community biomass and metabolic activity in the rhizosphere of transgenic plants compared with wild type plants. This is the first report to demonstrate that transgenic plants engineered for the phytoremediation of organic pollutants can increase the functional and genetic diversity of the rhizosphere bacterial community in acutely polluted soil compared to wild type plants. PMID:17874797

Travis, Emma R; Hannink, Nerissa K; Van der Gast, Christopher J; Thompson, Ian P; Rosser, Susan J; Bruce, Neil C

2007-08-15

339

[Anolyte enhanced electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soils].  

PubMed

An experimental study was carried out in order to determine the characteristics of migration and its influencing factor of soil fluorine in the electrokinetic process under different applied voltage and concentration of anolyte. The feasibility of anolyte enhanced on electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil was analyzed. The results show that when deionized water is used as anolyte with the 1.0 V/cm voltage gradient, the cumulative mass of fluorine in catholyte and anolyte are 8.2 mg and 47.7 mg respectively and the removal rate of fluorine is only 8.8%. Anolyte enhanced electrokinetic process can promote effectively the migration of fluoride in soil. When 0.02 mol/L NaOH solutionis employed as the anolyte, the removal rates are 25.9%, 31.2% and 47.3% with 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 V/cm voltage gradient respectively. As the concentration of anolyte increased to 0.1 mol/L, the removal rates are 55.4%, 61.1% and 73.0%. The electromigration is the main transport mechanism and the electroosmotic flow has an effect on the migration of fluorine in soil. The voltage gradient and the concentration of anolyte are the main factors influencing the removal rate of fluorine in soil. Appropriate anolyte enhanced electrokinetic method can be applied to remediate fluorine from contaminated soil. PMID:19775012

Zhu, Shu-Fa; Yan, Chun-Li; Dong, Tie-You; Tang, Hong-Yan

2009-07-15

340

Some aspects of radioactive contamination after Chernobyl accident in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the Chernobyl disaster, the radioactive cloud passage over Romania beginning with the April 30th, 1986 caused fall-out of different intensities in different regions.. The principal contributors to the radioactive exposure during the month of May and rest of 1986 were the short and medium half-live radionuclides: 132Te+132I, 131I, 140Ba+140La, 103Ru+103Rh, 106Ru+106Rh, 95Zr+95Nb, 136Cs, 134Cs, 141Ce, 144Ce and 125Sb. After

C. Cosma

2002-01-01

341

Development of an innovative remediation methodology for contaminated soils and sediments using high-energy radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research objectives were to develop and demonstrate a remediation methodology for contaminated soils and sediments using high energy radiation, and develop predictive tools for process simulation. Proposed treatment involves irradiating and dewatering slurries, recycling wash water, and returning clean soil to original location. Extensive literature review of contaminated soils in environment was conducted. Processes affecting removal of contaminants were

Prasad V. Chittaluru

1997-01-01

342

[Phytoavailability and chemical speciation of cadmium in different Cd-contaminated soils with crop root return].  

PubMed

Pot experiments were conducted under greenhouse condition to investigate the effects of crop root return on succeeding crops growth, Cd uptake and soil Cd speciation in Cd-contaminated soil and artificial Cd-contaminated soil. The results showed that the amount of root residue returned to soil by corn and kidney bean growth successive for 3 times was 0.4%-1.1%. The Cd returned to soil by root residue was 1.3%-3.5% to the total soil Cd. There was no significant difference in the shoot dry weights of winter wheat and Chinese cabbage grown on the 2 Cd-contaminated soils with and without root return. While Cd concentration of Chinese cabbage increased significantly in the Cd-contaminated soil with corn or kidney bean root return. Light fraction of soil organic matter increased with root return in both of the Cd-contaminated soils. The percentage of Cd in the light fraction of soil organic matter increased with root return in the artificial Cd-contaminated soil. Soil carbonates-bound Cd concentration decreased significantly with corn root return in the Cd-contaminated soil. Soil exchangeable Cd concentration decreased and soil Fe-Mn oxide-bound Cd concentration increased significantly with kidney bean root return in the artificial Cd-contaminated soil. PMID:23668141

Zhang, Jing; Yu, Ling-Ling; Xin, Shu-Zhen; Su, De-Chun

2013-02-01

343

Effects of soil organic matter and ageing on remediation of diesel-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil was investigated for the effects of soil organic matter (SOM) and ageing time in two sets of experiments (Batch I and II, respectively). This study examined degradation efficiency in soil artificially contaminated with diesel oil (maximum total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration of 9000 mg/kg soil). Batch I data showed that the values of the first-order degradation rate, k, were relatively high in the low-SOM soil batches. The quantity of SOM negatively correlated with the TPH degradation rates and with the total TPH degradation efficiency (%). Introduction of rhamnolipid to the soil proved to be a useful solution to resolve the problem of the residual TPH in the soil with high SOM. In Batch II, the k values decreased with the length of ageing time: 0.0245, 0.0128 and 0.0090 l/d in samples ST0 (freshly contaminated), ST38 (aged for 38 days) and ST101 (aged for 101 days), respectively. The TPH degradation efficiency (%) also decreased along with the ageing time. The research also applied molecular technology to analyse the bacterial community dynamics during the bioremediation course. Multivariate statistics based on terminal-restriction fragment length data indicated: 1) the soils with different SOM resulted in separate bacterial community structures, 2) ageing time created a variety of bacterial communities, 3) the bacterial community dynamics was associated with the hydrocarbon consumption. The SOM content in soils affected the TPH degradation rate and efficiency and the bacterial community structures. Aged soil is more difficult to remediate than freshly contaminated soil, and the resulting bacterial community was less dynamic and showed a lack of succession. PMID:23437667

Liu, Pao-Wen Grace; Wang, Sih-Yu; Huang, Shen-Gzhi; Wang, Ming-Zhi

2012-12-01

344

Natural specific radioactivity in different soils. Transfer in the soil plant food chain.  

PubMed

In order to warrant customer's health we must pay attention to the quality of the environment and production processes; that means look all over alimentary chain. Media speak often about this topics, because of the interest of the public opinion regarding agribusiness; Nether the less much is know about soil radioactivity, but often scant attention is directed to the knowledge of the amount what remains in food and arrives to the man who is the last and main user of the product. As a consequence of that, we have done some originals studies concerning specific radioactivity in alimentary chain: soil-plant-food. These studies have been made in relation with geopedologic position of fields in volcanic, clayey, sandy soils of Latium. We have measured radioactive activity over some alimentary chains both annual (like turnip and garden cress) and pluriannual (such as vine). We made comparisons on the same soils studying the following natural markers: K40, Pb214, and Bi214; and Cs137, one of the main natural markers. PMID:15151320

Spera, G; Cardone, F; Cherubini, G; Leandri, A

2003-01-01

345

Subchronic exposure of mice to Love Canal soil contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The health hazard potential of soil collected from the surface of the Love Canal chemical dump site in Niagara Falls, New York, was assessed in 90-day exposure studies. Female CD-1 mice were exposed to two concentrations of the volatile components of 1 kg of soil with and without direct soil contact. Control mice were identically housed but without soil. The soil was replaced weekly and 87 compounds were detected in the air in the cages above fresh and 7-day-old soil as analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of many of these compounds decreased during the 7-day exposure cycle. Histopathologic, hematologic, and serum enzyme studies followed necropsy of all mice. There was no mortality of mice exposed for up to 90 days under any condition. Thymus and spleen weights relative to body weight were increased after 4 weeks of exposure by inhalation but not after 8 or 12 weeks of exposure. alpha-, beta-, and delta- Benzenehexachlorides , pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene were detected in liver tissue from these animals. Mice exposed to 5- to 10-fold elevated concentration of volatiles had increased body and relative kidney weights. There was no chemically induced lesion in any animal exposed only to the volatile soil contaminants. Mice exposed by direct contact with the soil without elevated volatile exposure had increased body (10%) and relative liver weights (169%). Centrolobular hepatocyte hypertrophy, which involved 40 to 70% of the lobules, was observed in all mice in this group.

Silkworth, J.B.; McMartin, D.N.; Rej, R.; Narang, R.S.; Stein, V.B.; Briggs, R.G.; Kaminsky, L.S.

1984-04-01

346

Geochemistry Of Lead In Contaminated Soils: Effects Of Soil Physico-Chemical Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead (Pb) is an environmental contaminant with proven human health effects. When assessing human health risks associated with Pb, one of the most common exposure pathways typically evaluated is soil ingestion by children. However, bioaccessibility of Pb primarily depends on the solubility and hence, the geochemical form of Pb, which in turn is a function of site specific soil chemistry. Certain fractions of ingested soil-Pb may not dissociate during digestion in the gastro-intestinal tract, and hence, may not be available for transport across the intestinal membrane. Therefore, this study is being currently performed to assess the geochemical forms and bioaccessibility of Pb in soils with varying physico-chemical properties. In order to elucidate the level of Pb that can be ingested and assimilated by humans, an in-vitro model that simulates the physiological conditions of the human digestive system has been developed and is being used in this study. Four different types of soils from the Immokalee (an acid sandy soil with minimal Pb retention potential), Millhopper (a sandy loam with high Fe/Al content), Pahokee (a muck soil with more than 80% soil organic matter), and Tobosa series (an alkaline soil with high clay content) were artificially contaminated with Pb as lead nitrate at the rate equivalent to 0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg dry soil. Analysis of soils by a sequential extraction method at time zero (immediately after spiking) showed that Immokalee and Millhopper soils had the highest amount of Pb in exchangeable form, whereas Pahokee and Tobosa soils had higher percentages of carbonate-bound and Fe/Al-bound Pb. The results of in-vitro experiment at time zero showed that majority of Pb was dissolved in the acidic stomach environment in Immokalee, Millhopper, and Tobosa, whereas it was in the intestinal phase in Pahokee soils. Because the soil system is not in equilibrium at time zero, the effect of soil properties on Pb geochemistry is not clear as yet. The subsequent analysis of soils (after 6 and 8 months months) is expected to better demonstrate the influence of soil properties on human bioaccessibility of Pb in contaminated soils. Furthermore, the geochemical forms of Pb will be correlated with bioaccessible Pb to identify those soil-Pb species with higher solubility in the human gastrointestinal system. Key words: Lead, Geochemical species, Bioaccessibility, In-vitro model, Health risk

Saminathan, S.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Andra, S. P.

2006-05-01

347

SIMPLE AND EFFECTIVE CHEMICAL DECONTAMINATION OF RADIOACTIVELY CONTAMINATED LEAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of pounds of lead has been used by the DOE and their contractors as radioactive shielding over the last fifty years. In the process, radioisotopes in different chemical forms have adhered or adsorbed into the surface corrosion matrices, making the lead metal a hazard and expensive to stabilize and bury at approved sites. Physical decontamination methods are generally applicable

Thomas C. Zietlow

348

Migration of contaminated soil and airborne particulates to indoor dust.  

PubMed

We have developed a modeling and measurement framework for assessing transport of contaminated soils and airborne particulates into a residence, their subsequent distribution indoors via resuspension and deposition processes, and removal by cleaning and building exhalation of suspended particles. The model explicitly accounts for the formation of house dust as a mixture of organic matter (OM) such as shed skin cells and organic fibers, soil tracked-in on footwear, and particulate matter (PM) derived from the infiltration of outdoor air. We derived formulas for use with measurements of inorganic contaminants, crustal tracers, OM, and PM to quantify selected transport parameters. Application of the model to residences in the U.S. Midwest indicates that As in ambient air can account for nearly 60% of the As input to floor dust, with soil track-in representing the remainder. Historic data on Pb contamination in Sacramento, CA, were used to reconstruct sources of Pb in indoor dust, showing that airborne Pb was likely the dominant source in the early 1980s. However, as airborne Pb levels declined due to the phase-out of leaded gasoline, soil resuspension and track-in eventually became the primary sources of Pb in house dust. PMID:19924944

Layton, David W; Beamer, Paloma I

2009-11-01

349

Migration of Contaminated Soil and Airborne Particulates to Indoor Dust  

PubMed Central

We have developed a modeling and measurement framework for assessing transport of contaminated soils and airborne particulates into a residence, their subsequent distribution indoors via resuspension and deposition processes, and removal by cleaning and building exhalation of suspended particles. The model explicitly accounts for the formation of house dust as a mixture of organic matter (OM) such as shed skin cells and organic fibers, soil tracked-in on footwear, and particulate matter (PM) derived from the infiltration of outdoor air. We derived formulas for use with measurements of inorganic contaminants, crustal tracers, OM, and PM to quantify selected transport parameters. Application of the model to residences in the U.S. Midwest indicates that As in ambient air can account for nearly 60% of the As input to floor dust, with soil track-in representing the remainder. Historic data on Pb contamination in Sacramento, CA, was used to reconstruct sources of Pb in indoor dust, showing that airborne Pb was likely the dominant source in the early 1980s. However, as airborne Pb levels declined due to the phase out of leaded gasoline, soil resuspension and track-in eventually became the primary sources of Pb in house dust.

Layton, David W.; Beamer, Paloma I.

2009-01-01

350

Uranium-contaminated soils: Ultramicrotomy and electron beam analysis  

SciTech Connect

Uranium-contaminated soils from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Site, Ohio, have been examined by a combination of scanning electron microscopy with backscattered electron imaging (SEM/BSE) and analytical electron microscopy (AEM). The inhomogeneous distribution of particulate uranium phases in the soil required the development of a method for using ultramicrotomy to prepare transmission electron microscopy (TEM) thin sections of the SEM mounts. A water-miscible resin was selected that allowed comparison between SEM and TEM images, permitting representative sampling of the soil. Uranium was found in iron oxides, silicates (soddyite), phosphates (autunites), and fluorite (UO{sub 2}). No uranium was detected in association with phyllosilicates in the soil.

Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Bates, J.K.; Cunnane, J.C.

1994-02-01

351

Sources of arsenic and fluoride in highly contaminated soils causing groundwater contamination in Punjab, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect

Highly contaminated groundwater, with arsenic (As) and fluoride (F{sup -}) concentrations of up to 2.4 and 22.8 mg/L, respectively, has been traced to anthropogenic inputs to the soil. In the present study, samples collected from the soil surface and sediments from the most heavily polluted area of Punjab were analyzed to determine the F{sup -} and As distribution in the soil. The surface soils mainly comprise permeable aeolian sediment on a Pleistocene terrace and layers of sand and silt on an alluvial flood plain. Although the alluvial sediments contain low levels of F, the terrace soils contain high concentrations of soluble F{sup -} (maximum, 16 mg/kg; mean, 4 mg/kg; pH > 8.0). Three anthropogenic sources were identified as fertilizers, combusted coal, and industrial waste, with phosphate fertilizer being the most significance source of F{sup -} accumulated in the soil. The mean concentration of As in the surface soil samples was 10.2 mg/kg, with the highest concentration being 35 mg/kg. The presence of high levels of As in the surface soil implies the contribution of air pollutants derived from coal combustion and the use of fertilizers. Intensive mineral weathering under oxidizing conditions produces highly alkaline water that dissolves the F{sup -} and As adsorbed on the soil, thus releasing it into the local groundwater.

Farooqi, A.; Masuda, H.; Siddiqui, R.; Naseem, M. [Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Science

2009-05-15

352

Evaluation of the Effect of Arsenic Contamination on Selected Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Diversity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental impact of different contaminants which enter the soil can alter the diversity of the soil microflora thus disrupting their ability to maintain soil quality and health. Due to the vital role played by the diverse soil microbes in soil, the measurement of the soil microbial diversity has...

353

Ecotoxicological risk assessment of undisturbed metal contaminated soil at two remote lighthouse sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecotoxicological risk assessments of contaminated soil are commonly completed using guideline values based on total concentrations. However, only certain fractions of contaminants are bioavailable and pose a hazard to the environment. This paper investigates the relationship between measured metal concentrations in soil and soil leachate, and the effects in organisms exposed to intact, undisturbed soil cores (wheat, Tricum aestivum) and

E. Emily V. Chapman; Göran Dave; John D. Murimboh

2010-01-01

354

LAND TREATMENT OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SOIL: PERFORMANCE MEASURED BY CHEMICAL AND TOXICITY ASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of a soil remediation process can be determined by measuring the reduction in target soil contaminant concentrations and by assessing the treatment's ability to lower soil toxicity. Land treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a ...

355

LAND TREATMENT OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SOIL: PERFORMANCE MEASURED BY CHEMICAL AND TOXICITY ASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The performance of a soil remediation process can be determined by measuring the reduction in target soil contaminant concentrations and by assessing the treatment's ability to lower soil toxicity. Land treatment of polycyclic armomatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a ...

356

Assessment of soil contamination--a functional perspective.  

PubMed

In many industrialized countries the use of land is impeded by soil pollution from a variety of sources. Decisions on clean-up, management or set-aside of contaminated land are based on various considerations, including human health risks, but ecological arguments do not have a strong position in such assessments. This paper analyses why this should be so, and what ecotoxicology and theoretical ecology can improve on the situation. It seems that soil assessment suffers from a fundamental weakness, which relates to the absence of a commonly accepted framework that may act as a reference. Soil contamination can be assessed both from a functional perspective and a structural perspective. The relationship between structure and function in ecosystems is a fundamental question of ecology which receives a lot of attention in recent literature, however, a general concept that may guide ecotoxicological assessments has not yet arisen. On the experimental side, a good deal of progress has been made in the development and standardized use of terrestrial model ecosystems (TME). In such systems, usually consisting of intact soil columns incubated in the laboratory under conditions allowing plant growth and drainage of water, a compromise is sought between field relevance and experimental manageability. A great variety of measurements can be made on such systems, including microbiological processes and activities, but also activities of the decomposer soil fauna. I propose that these TMEs can be useful instruments in ecological soil quality assessments. In addition a "bioinformatics approach" to the analysis of data obtained in TME experiments is proposed. Soil function should be considered as a multidimensional concept and the various measurements can be considered as indicators, whose combined values define the "normal operating range" of the system. Deviations from the normal operating range indicate that the system is in a condition of stress. It is hoped that more work along this line will improve the prospects for ecological arguments in soil quality assessment. PMID:12222954

van Straalen, Nico M

2002-01-01

357

Natural Attenuation Remediation of Lead-Contaminated Soils at a Former Open Burning Propellant Disposal Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lead-contaminated surface soils at an eleven-acre former open- burning propellant disposal site at the Badger Army Ammunition Plant were scheduled for remediation by phosphate-addition soil stabilization and soil cover construction. Laboratory treatabilit...

G. A. Haupt

1996-01-01

358

[The radioecological problems of Eurasia and the sources of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR].  

PubMed

There is three major sites of radioactive environmental contamination in the former USSR: the Chelyabinsk region in the Urals, Chernobyl NPP in Ukraine and Novaya Zemlya in the Arctic Ocean. The first mentioned is the most important with regard to local (potential) contamination, the last one dominates the global contamination. A number of sites and sources are less well known with regard to environmental contamination. This is thus the case for the plutonium production factories at Tomsk and Dodonovo. More information on nuclear reactors in lost or dumped submarines is also needed. From a global point of view reliable assessment of the radioactive run-off from land and deposits of nuclear waste in the Arctic Ocean are in particular pertinent. PMID:8469738

Polikarpov, G G; Aarkrog, A

359

Analysis of shallow soil moisture flux adjacent to the Area 5 radioactive waste management site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazardous waste requires significant isolation from the biosphere. Shallow land burial of radioactive waste is currently employed at Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site to prevent release of impounded radioactive materials. Soil covers have been proposed to limit the infiltration of precipitation into the waste. Appropriate design for these covers depends on knowledge of infiltration in the soils intended

William Albright; Scott Tyler; Sam Hokett

1997-01-01

360

Johnston Atoll Plutonium Contaminated Soil Cleanup Project. Quarterly report No. 3, 7 February-30 April 1994  

SciTech Connect

During this production period, the Scope of Work included movement of soil to and from the plant, processing contaminated soil through the Segmented Gate System (SGS) and Soil Washing System, packaging of waste soil for shipment, identification and implementation of process improvements, data collection and validation, and compliance with all applicable regulations governing environmental safety and health. The SGS utilizes arrays of sensitive radiation detectors coupled with sophisticated computer software to segregate contaminated soil from a moving feed supply on conveyor belts. Contaminated soil is diverted to a `hot` path for plutonium particles greater than 5000 Becquerels or to a supplemental soil washing process designed to remove dispersed low level contamination from a soil faction consisting of very small particles. Low to intermediate levels of contamination are removed from the soil to meet DNA`s criteria for unrestricted use of less than 500 Becquerels per kilogram of soil, with no `hot` particles.

Doane, R.W.; Grant, R.H.

1996-11-01

361

Functioning of metal contaminated garden soil after remediation.  

PubMed

The effect of remediation using three EDTA doses (10, 30, 60 mmol kg(-1)) on soil functioning was assessed using column experiment and Brassica rapa. Soil washing removed up to 77, 29 and 72% of metals from soil contaminated with 1378, 578 and 8.5 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. Sequential extraction indicated removal from the carbonate soil fraction. Metal oral-accessibility from the stomach phase was reduced by up to 75 and from the small intestine by up to 79% (Pb). Part of metals (up to 0.8% Cd) was lost due to leaching from columns. Remediation reduced toxic metal soil-root transfer by up to 61% but did not prevent metal accumulation in leaves. The fitness of plants grown on EDTA washed soils (gas exchange, fluorescence) was not compromised. Remediation initially reduced the soil DNA content (up to 29%, 30 mmol kg(-1) EDTA) and changed the structure of microbial population. PMID:23246748

Jelusic, Masa; Grcman, Helena; Vodnik, Dominik; Suhadolc, Metka; Lestan, Domen

2012-12-14

362

Simplified Model for Radioactive Contaminant Transport: The TRANSS Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simplified ground-water transport model called TRANSS was devised to estimate the rate of migration of a decaying radionuclide that is subject to sorption governed by a linear isotherm. Transport is modeled as a contaminant mass transmitted along a coll...

C. S. Simmons C. T. Kincaid A. E. Reisenauer

1986-01-01

363

Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site, Colonie, New York  

SciTech Connect

Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium in soil were derived for the Colonie site located in Colonie, New York. This site has been designated for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The site became contaminated with radioactive material as a result of operations conducted by National Lead (NL) Industries from 1958 to 1984; these activities included brass foundry operations, electroplating of metal products, machining of various components using depleted uranium, and limited work with small amounts of enriched uranium and thorium. The Colonie site comprises the former NL Industries property, now designated the Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS), and 56 vicinity properties contaminated by fallout from airborne emissions; 53 of the vicinity properties were previously remediated between 1984 and 1988. In 1984, DOE accepted ownership of the CISS property from NL Industries. Residual radioactive material guidelines for individual radionuclides and total uranium were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios. The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, was used in this evaluation; RESRAD implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for establishing residual radioactive material guidelines.

Dunning, D.

1996-05-01

364

Bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil -- A rate model  

SciTech Connect

Three rate equations, a modified Monod equation and two mass transfer rate equations, were used to calculate the biodegradation rate, oxygen transfer rate and oil transfer rate during a bioremediation process of oil-contaminated soil. Based on experimental rate constants, these three rates were calculated and compared. It was found the bioremediation rate of oil-contaminated soil could be controlled by the mass transfer process of oil into aqueous solution (0.12 mg BOD/(1-h)). When the oil transfer rate is enhanced by at least 10 times, the oxygen transfer process (0.1--1.0 mg BOD/(1-h)) becomes the rate-controlling step. For most of the cases, the biodegradation of oil in aqueous solution is not the limiting step unless the microbial population in the aqueous solution is less than 100 mg VSS/1.

Li, K.Y.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.

1995-12-31

365

PRACTICAL DIAGNOSIS OF BIOSTIMULATION FOR VOC CONTAMINATED SOIL AND GROUNDWATER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biostimulation has been widely used as a remediation of soil and groundwater contaminated by chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOC). The chemical and biological systems in actual field are so complicated that it is hard to know the mathematical modeling parameters prior to laboratory tests using contaminated soil and groundwater sampled from specific site. The paper addresses an diagnostic method to evaluate the parameters controlling the lag time an d the chemical reaction rate which are essential to predict efficiency of biostimulation in actual field. In this paper, laboratory test results of thirtyseven sites are stochastically reanalyzed to make clear the dependency of the lag time and the chemical reaction rate on groundwater quality indices, such as DO, ORP, pH, etc.

Suzuki, Keiichi; Ando, Takuya; Ito, Yoshitaka; Sato, Takeshi

366

COPING WITH CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AND SOILS IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT.  

SciTech Connect

Soils and sediments contaminated with toxic organic and inorganic compounds harmful to the environment and to human health are common in the urban environment. We report here on aspects of a program being carried out in the New York/New Jersey Port region to develop methods for processing dredged material from the Port to make products that are safe for introduction to commercial markets. We discuss some of the results of the program in Computational Environmental Science, Laboratory Environmental Science, and Applied Environmental Science and indicate some possible directions for future work. Overall, the program elements integrate the scientific and engineering aspects with regulatory, commercial, urban planning, local governments, and community group interests. Well-developed connections between these components are critical to the ultimate success of efforts to cope with the problems caused by contaminated urban soils and sediments.

JONES,K.W.; VAN DER LELIE,D.; MCGUIGAN,M.; ET AL.

2004-05-25

367

EFFECTIVE DOSIMETRIC HALF LIFE OF CESIUM 137 SOIL CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

In the early 1960s, an area of privately-owned swamp adjacent to the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS), known as Creek Plantation, was contaminated by site operations. Studies conducted in 1974 estimated that approximately 925 GBq of {sup 137}Cs was deposited in the swamp. Subsequently, a series of surveys--composed of 52 monitoring locations--was initiated to characterize and trend the contaminated environment. The annual, potential, maximum doses to a hypothetical hunter were estimated by conservatively using the maximum {sup 137}Cs concentrations measured in the soil. The purpose of this report is to calculate an 'effective dosimetric' half-life for {sup 137}Cs in soil (based on the maximum concentrations) and compare it to the effective environmental half-life (based on the geometric mean concentrations).

Jannik, T; P Fledderman, P; Michael Paller, M

2008-01-09

368

Advanced Assay Systems for Radionuclide Contamination in Soils  

SciTech Connect

Through the support of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Technical Assistance Program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed and deployed a suite of systems that rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The INL systems integrate detector systems with data acquisition and synthesis software and with global positioning technology to provide a real-time, user-friendly field deployable turn-key system. INL real-time systems are designed to characterize surface soil contamination using methodologies set forth in the Multi-Agency Radiation Surveys and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM). MARSSIM provides guidance for planning, implementing, and evaluating environmental and facility radiological surveys conducted to demonstrate compliance with a dose or risk-based regulation and provides real-time information that is immediately available to field technicians and project management personnel. This paper discusses the history of the development of these systems and describes some of the more recent examples and their applications.

J. R. Giles; L. G. Roybal; M. V. Carpenter; C. P. Oertel; J. A. Roach

2008-02-01

369

Reductive dissolution approaches to removal of uranium from contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Traditional approaches to uranium recovery from ores have employed oxidation of U(IV) minerals to form the uranyl cation which is subsequently complexed by carbonate or maintained in solution by strong acids. Reductive approaches for uranium decontamination have been limited to removing soluble uranium from solutions by formation of U{sup 4+} which readily hydrolyses and precipitates. As part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration, we have developed a reductive approach to solubilization of uranium from contaminated soils which employs reduction to destabilize U(VI) solid and sorbed species, and strong chelators for U(IV) to prevent hydrolysis and solubilize the reduced from. This strategy has particular application to sites where the uranium is present primarily as intractable U(VI) phases and where high fractions of the contamination must be removed to meet regulatory requirements.

Brainard, J.R.; Iams, H.D.; Strietelmeier, B.A.; Del-Rio Garcia, M.

1994-06-01

370

Effect of clays and cement on the solidification/stabilization of phenol-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Solidification/stabilization of phenol-contaminated soil was investigated by studying the interaction between soil, phenol and cement. The soil (with 20% kaolinite or bentonite clay) was contaminated with phenol up to 2,000 mg/kg. Type I Portland cement was used as the binder (20% by weight of contaminated soil) in the solidification/stabilization (S/S) treatment. In the phenol-cement interaction studies, the effect of various phenol concentrations on cement setting time, strength and pore fluid composition was studied. Phenol increased the initial and final setting time of cement and reduced the compressive strength. More than 85% of the phenol was desorped from the contaminated soils. The compressive strength of treated, contaminated soil decreased with higher phenol content but increased with curing time. Leachability of phenol from the solidified cement and treated, contaminated soil cured up to 180 days, was evaluated using the US EPA recommended Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and the American Nuclear Society`s ANS 16.1 leaching test. The percentage of phenol leached from the solidified contaminated soil was independent of the initial concentration of phenol in the contaminated soil. While the TCLP tests on treated soils showed that over 70% of phenol in the contaminated soil was leached out, the ANS 16.1 tests showed less than 35% phenol in the leachate. A simple model has been proposed to quantify the phenol leached from the cement-solidified, contaminated soil during both leaching tests.

Vipulanandan, C. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

371

Spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurement of NAPL contaminated soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential applicability of spectral induce polarization (SIP) as a tool to map NAPLs (non aqueous phase liquids) contaminants at the subsurface lead researchers to investigate the electric signature of those contaminant on the spectral response. However, and despite the cumulative efforts, the effect of NAPL on the electrical properties of soil, and the mechanisms that control this effect are largely unknown. In this work a novel experiment is designed to further examine the effect of NAPL on the electrical properties of partially saturated soil. The measurement system that used is the ZEL-SIP04 impedance meter developed at the Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany. The system accurately (nominal phase precision of 0.1 mrad below 1 kHz) measures the phase and the amplitude of a material possessing a very low polarization (such as soil). The sample holder has a dimension of 60 cm long and 4.6 cm in diameter. Current and potential electrodes were made of brass, and while the current electrodes were inserted in full into the soil, the contact between the potential electrode and the soil was made through an Agarose bridge. Two types of soils were used: clean quartz sand, and a mixture of sand with clean Bentonite. Each soil (sandy or clayey) was mixed with water to get saturation degree of 30%. Following the mixture with water, NAPL was added and the composite were mixed again. Packing was done by adding and compressing small portions of the soil to the column. A triplicate of each mixture was made with a good reproducible bulk density. Both for the sandy and clayey soils, the results indicate that additions of NAPL decrease the real part of the complex resistivity. Additionally, for the sandy soil this process is time depended, and that a further decrease in resistivity develops over time. The results are analyzed considering geometrical factors: while the NAPL is electrically insulator, addition of NAPL to the soil is expected to increase the connectivity of the water phase, and therefore a decrease in the real part of the complex resistivity occurs.

Schwartz, N.; Huisman, J. A.; Furman, A.

2010-12-01

372

Immunotoxicity of Explosives-Contaminated Soil Before and After Bioremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils from the Yorktown Naval Base contaminated with trinitrotoluene (TNT) and other explosives were used to prepare eluates\\u000a before and after bioremediation using microbial growth amendments in the presence (P1 eluates) or absence (P2 eluates) of\\u000a exogenous white rot fungus. Effectiveness of bioremediation was examined by several immunotoxicity assays—viability\\/growth\\u000a of lymphocytes, cytokine production, and expression of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor—using

L. A. Beltz; D. R. Neira; C. A. Axtell; S. Iverson; W. Deaton; T. J. Waldschmidt; J. A. Bumpus; C. G. Johnston

2001-01-01

373

Bioremediation of TNT-contaminated soil: A laboratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research presented a bench-scale investigation of an innovative approach to land farming for the bioremediation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soils. Molasses, which contains sugar, nitrogen, vitamins, and minerals, was used as cosubstrate and this process combines several advantages of conventional land farming with the use of molasses for the biological degradation of TNT and its derivatives. In the optimum treatment,

D. L. Widrig; R. Boopathy; J. F. Jr. Manning

1997-01-01

374

Phytoremediation of Metal-Contaminated Soil for Improving Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contamination of the environment is a serious problem which provokes great interest in our society and in the whole scientific\\u000a community. The input of metals into soils has increased during the last few decades as a consequence of different human activities\\u000a (storage of industrial and municipal wastes, burning of fuels, mining and wastewater treatments, functioning of non-ferrous-metal-producing\\u000a smelters, etc.).

Stefan Shilev; Manuel Benlloch; R. Dios-Palomares; Enrique D. Sancho

2009-01-01

375

In-situ characterization technique for screening contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative field sampling system for screening contaminated soils has been developed using laser ablation coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-AES) technology. This sampling approach provides in-situ real-time analysis of trace inorganic elements and is conducted through a mobile testing facility that consists of an instrumentation vehicle called the Mobile Demonstration Laboratory for Environmental Screening Technologies (MDLEST) and

Edward J. Jaselskis; Marvin S. Anderson; Arthur P. D'Silva; David P. Baldwin; Daniel S. Zamzow

1995-01-01

376

Bioremediation of soil and ground water impacted with organic contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two case studies demonstrate the controlled use of micro-organisms to degrade organic contaminants under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The aerobic study illustrates the degradation of hydrocarbons in a soil matrix. Data are presented that show a two-phase degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) from about 1,300 ppm TPH to cleanup levels of 100 ppm or less in two months. Total

1991-01-01

377

Mercury Mobilization in a Contaminated Industrial Soil for Phytoremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of using plants for mercury (Hg) removal from a contaminated industrial soil, increasing the metal's bioaccessibility by using mobilizing agents: ammonium thiosulphate [(NH4)2S2O3] and potassium iodide (KI). The selected plant species were Brassica juncea and Poa annua. The addition of the mobilizing agents promoted Hg uptake by plants, with respect

Francesca Pedron; Gianniantonio Petruzzelli; Meri Barbafieri; Eliana Tassi; Paolo Ambrosini; Leonardo Patata

2011-01-01

378

Bioaerosols and Particle Release During Composting of Contaminated Sawmill Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compost windrows for bioremediation of soil were built at a wood-preserving site contaminated with chlorophenols, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Sampling of airborne particles during the mixing of the compost windrows found concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs in different particle sizes. The congener distribution of PCDDs and PCDFs in the collected air particle fractions was similar to that

M. Minna Laine; Kirsten S. Jørgensen; Hannu Kiviranta; Terttu Vartiainen; Jouni K. Jokela; Abiodun Adibi; Mirja Salkinoja-Salonen

1999-01-01

379

Bioremediation of oil-contaminated desert soil: The Kuwaiti experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The remediation of the soil contaminated during the invasion of Kuwait is currently being considered. Three different bioremediation approaches were used: landfarming, windrow composting piles, and static bioventing piles. Up to 82.5 and 90.5% reduction in the total petroleum hydrocarbons and total alkanes, respectively, were removed within a 12-month period, depending on the bioremediation method used. Excellent results were produced

H. Chino; H. Tsuji; N. Al-Awadhi

1998-01-01

380

Bacterial adhesion to soil contaminants in the presence of surfactants  

SciTech Connect

It has been proposed that addition of surfactants to contaminated soil enhances the solubility of target compounds; however, surfactants may simultaneously reduce the adhesion of bacteria to hydrophobic surfaces. If the latter mechanism is important for the biodegradation of virtually insoluble contaminants, then the use of surfactants may not be beneficial. The adhesion of a Mycobacterium strain and a Pseudomonas strain, isolated from a creosote-contaminated soil, to the surfaces of highly viscous non-aqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) was measured. The NAPLs were organic material extracted from soils from two creosote-contaminated sites and two petroleum-contaminated sites. Cells suspended in media with and without surfactant were placed in test tubes coated with an NAPL, and the percentages of cells that adhered to the surface of the NAPL in the presence and absence of surfactant were compared by measuring optical density. Test tubes without NAPLs were used as controls. The presence of either Triton X-100 or Dowfax 8390 at a concentration that was one-half the critical micelle concentration (CMC) inhibited adhesion of both species of bacteria to the NAPLs. Both surfactants, when added at concentrations that were one-half the CMCs to test tubes containing previously adhered bacteria, also promoted the removal of the cells from the surfaces of the NAPL-coated test tubes. Neither surfactant was toxic to the bacteria. Further investigation showed that a low concentration of surfactant also inhibited the growth of both species on anthracene, indicating that the presence of a surfactant resulted in a reduction in the uptake of the solid carbon source.

Stelmack, P.L.; Gray, M.R.; Pickard, M.A. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1999-01-01

381

Bacterial Adhesion to Soil Contaminants in the Presence of Surfactants  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that addition of surfactants to contaminated soil enhances the solubility of target compounds; however, surfactants may simultaneously reduce the adhesion of bacteria to hydrophobic surfaces. If the latter mechanism is important for the biodegradation of virtually insoluble contaminants, then the use of surfactants may not be beneficial. The adhesion of a Mycobacterium strain and a Pseudomonas strain, isolated from a creosote-contaminated soil, to the surfaces of highly viscous non-aqueous-phase liquids (NAPLs) was measured. The NAPLs were organic material extracted from soils from two creosote-contaminated sites and two petroleum-contaminated sites. Cells suspended in media with and without surfactant were placed in test tubes coated with an NAPL, and the percentages of cells that adhered to the surface of the NAPL in the presence and absence of surfactant were compared by measuring optical density. Test tubes without NAPLs were used as controls. The presence of either Triton X-100 or Dowfax 8390 at a concentration that was one-half the critical micelle concentration (CMC) inhibited adhesion of both species of bacteria to the NAPLs. Both surfactants, when added at concentrations that were one-half the CMCs to test tubes containing previously adhered bacteria, also promoted the removal of the cells from the surfaces of the NAPL-coated test tubes. Neither surfactant was toxic to the bacteria. Further investigation showed that a low concentration of surfactant also inhibited the growth of both species on anthracene, indicating that the presence of a surfactant resulted in a reduction in the uptake of the solid carbon source.

Stelmack, Patricia L.; Gray, Murray R.; Pickard, Michael A.

1999-01-01

382

Final report: survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at environmental restoration sites, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the survey and removal of radioactive surface contamination at Sandia`s Environmental Restoration (ER) sites. Radiological characterization was performed as a prerequisite to beginning the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action process. The removal of radioactive surface contamination was performed in order to reduce potential impacts to human health and the environment. The predominant radiological contaminant of concern was depleted uranium (DU). Between October 1993 and November 1996 scanning surface radiation surveys, using gamma scintillometers, were conducted at 65 sites covering approximately 908 acres. A total of 9,518 radiation anomalies were detected at 38 sites. Cleanup activities were conducted between October 1994 and November 1996. A total of 9,122 anomalies were removed and 2,072 waste drums were generated. The majority of anomalies not removed were associated with a site that has subsurface contamination beyond the scope of this project. Verification soil samples (1,008 total samples) were collected from anomalies during cleanup activities and confirm that the soil concentration achieved in the field were far below the target cleanup level of 230 pCi/g of U-238 (the primary constituent of DU) in the soil. Cleanup was completed at 21 sites and no further radiological action is required. Seventeen sites were not completed since cleanup activities wee precluded by ongoing site activity or were beyond the original project scope.

Lambert, K.A.; Mitchell, M.M. [Brown and Root Environmental, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jean, D. [MDM/Lamb, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, C. [Environmental Dimensions, Inc., Albuquerque, NM 87109 (United States); Byrd, C.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-09-01

383

Bioremediation of TNT-contaminated soil: A laboratory study  

SciTech Connect

This research presented a bench-scale investigation of an innovative approach to land farming for the bioremediation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soils. Molasses, which contains sugar, nitrogen, vitamins, and minerals, was used as cosubstrate and this process combines several advantages of conventional land farming with the use of molasses for the biological degradation of TNT and its derivatives. In the optimum treatment, contaminated soil was amended with shredded grass and managed in an operating cycle where it was alternatively flooded with a dilute molasses solution, then drained, passively aerated, and finally tilled when moisture conditions were optimum. Soil TNT concentrations in all treatments receiving molasses were reduced from approximately 4,000-mg/kg levels initially to less than 100 mg/kg in 12 months, and to less than 1 mg/kg in the optimum treatment in this same time. Concentrations of the primary metabolic intermediates and bacterial populations were also tracked. Radiolabeling studies confirmed that the biomass enhanced by the treatments could mineralize approximately 20% of [{sup 14C}] from a contaminant spike after 22 d. A shredded grass amendment in the optimum treatment was shown to increase moisture retention during aeration phases. The results of this bench-scale study are promising with regard to transferring the process to full-scale applications.

Widrig, D.L.; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.F. Jr. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

1997-06-01

384

Uptake of cesium-137 by crops from contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

The Turkish tea crop was contaminated following the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Finding ways to dispose of the contaminated tea (Camellia sinensis L.) without damaging the environment was the goal of this research conducted at the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA). In this study, an investigation was made of {sup 137}Cs activities of the plants and the ratios of transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants when the contaminated tea was applied to the soil. Experiments were conducted in the field and in pots under greenhouse conditions. The activities of the tea applied in the field ranged from 12 500 to 72 800 Bq/m{sup 2}, whereas this activity was constant at 8000 Bq/pot in the greenhouse experiment. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from soil to the plants was between 0.037 and 1.057% for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), corn (Zea mays indentata Sturt), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and grass (Lolium perenne L.). The ratio of the transfer of {sup 137}Cs activity to plants increased as the activity {sup 137}Cs in tea applied to soil was increased. The activity in the plants increased due to increased uptake of {sup 137}Cs by plants. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Demirel, H.; Oezer, I.; Celenk, I.; Halitligil, M.B.; Oezmen, A. [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center (Turkey)

1994-11-01

385

Contamination of soil with helminth parasite eggs in Nepal.  

PubMed

Contamination of soil with helminth eggs in Kathmandu Valley (n=122) and outside of Valley (n=34) in Nepal was investigated with the use of centrifugal floatation technique using sucrose solution (sp gr 1.200). The overall soil contamination rate was 36.5% (57/156). The prevalence was uniform in Kathmandu Valley (36.9%) and outside of the valley (35.3%). A mean of six helminth eggs per sample were detected out of which more than half were embryonated (potentially infective). In Kathmandu Valley, soil contamination rate was higher (48.3%) during wet season compared with that observed in dry season (33.3%) but without significant difference (p>0.05). Multiple species of helminth eggs were detected in 22.8% of total positive samples (n=57). Altogether five species of nematoda (Ascaris lumbricoides, Toxocarta sp, Trichuris trichiura, Capillaria sp and Trichostrongylus sp) and two species of cestoda (Hymenolepis nana and H. diminuta) were recovered. A. lumbricoides was predominant in Kathmandu Valley while Trichostrongylus was the commonest one in outside of valley. PMID:11127345

Rai, S K; Uga, S; Ono, K; Rai, G; Matsumura, T

2000-06-01

386

Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes: II. St. Louis Airport Storage Site  

SciTech Connect

The St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLASS) became radioactively contaminated as a result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy is considering various remedial action options for the SLASS under the Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). This report describes the results of geochemical investigations, carried out to support the FUSRAP activities and to aid in quantifying various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples from the site were characterized, and sorption ratios for uranium and radium and apparent concentration limit values for uranium were measured in soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. The uranium and radium concentrations in soil samples were significantly above background near the old contaminated surface horizon (now at the 0.3/sup -/ to 0.9/sup -/m depth); the maximum values were 1566 ..mu..g/g and 101 pCi/g, respectively. Below about the 6/sup -/m depth, the concentrations appeared to be typical of those naturally present in soils of this area (3.8 +- 1.2 ..mu..g/g and 3.1 +- 0.6 pCi/g). Uranium sorption ratios showed stratigraphic trends but were generally moderate to high (100 to 1000 L/kg). The sorption isotherm suggested an apparent uranium concentration limit of about 200 mg/L. This relatively high solubility can probably be correlated with the carbonate content of the soil/groundwater systems. The lower sorption ratio values obtained from the sorption isotherm may have resulted from changes in the experimental procedure or the groundwater used. The SLASS appears to exhibit generally favorable behavior for the retardation of uranium solubilized from waste in the site. Parametric tests were conducted to estimate the sensitivity of uranium sorption and solubility to the pH and carbonate content of the system.

Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

1985-01-01

387

X-231B technology demonstration for in situ treatment of contaminated soil: Laboratory evaluation of chemical oxidation using hydrogen peroxide  

SciTech Connect

Treatability studies were conducted as part of a comprehensive research project initiated to demonstrate as well as evaluate in situ treatment technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radioactive substances in wet, slowly permeable soils. The site of interest for this project was the X-231B Oil Biodegradation unit at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility in southern Ohio. This report describes the treatability studies that investigated the feasibility of the application of low-strength hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) solutions to treat trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated soil.

Gates, D.D.; Siegrist, R.L.

1993-09-01

388

Presence of plutonium contamination in soils from Palomares (Spain).  

PubMed

More than 30 years after the occurrence of an aircraft accident which involved the detonation of two nuclear weapons in the surrounding area of the village of Palomares (Spain), the affected terrestrial area has been investigated for remaining transuranic contamination. Evidence from the presence of this contamination was initially found through the analysis of the 241Am inventories in superficial soil samples collected in the region, and was confirmed through the analysis of the (239+240)Pu inventories and their associated 238Pu/(239+240)Pu activity ratios in the same samples. However, it was also observed that a considerable fraction of the remaining contamination in the area was present in particulate form, i.e. as "hot particles". The work performed in our laboratory for identification, isolation and characterisation of these "hot particles" as well as some conclusions obtained from these analyses are outlined in this paper. PMID:16413954

Jiménez-Ramos, M C; García-Tenorio, R; Vioque, I; Manjón, G; García-León, M

2006-01-04

389

Chlorinated organics removal from contaminated soil and groundwater by microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

This research has focused on the development of remedial technology to rehabilitate contaminated soil and groundwater. Biological treatment was chosen because it is environmentally sound and less costly than alternative methods involving physical-chemical treatment. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was used as a model compound. PCP removal from contaminated groundwater and synthetic media was studied in batch tests. Complete removal and stoichiometric release of chloride ions was observed. The effects of different size sand particles on PCP biodegradation were tested to determine the rates of removal. Short and long sand columns were also tested to determine the rates of PCP removal in saturated and unsaturated flow conditions. The results show that the acclimated culture is capable of removing chlorinated organics from contaminated groundwater even in the presence of several hundred of mg/L of other organic pollutants.

Kim, C.J.

1986-01-01

390

In-Situ Contained And Of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-12-27

391

In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

Varvel, Mark Darrell

2005-12-27

392

Development of an In Vitro Digestion Model for Estimating the Bioaccessibility of Soil Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil ingestion can be a major route of human exposure to many immobile soil contaminants. The present risk assessment is based\\u000a on toxicity studies in which contaminants are typically ingested in liquid or food matrices. The difference in bioavailability\\u000a of contaminants ingested in a soil matrix is not taken into account. To become bioavailable, contaminants first need to become\\u000a bioaccessible,

A. G. Oomen; C. J. M. Rompelberg; M. A. Bruil; C. J. G. Dobbe; D. P. K. H. Pereboom; A. J. A. M. Sips

2003-01-01

393

Diffusive transport of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) from contaminated soil to overlying water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the transport mechanism of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and other compounds is necessary in order to implement an effective phyto- or bioremediation scheme for explosives-contaminated soil. The transport of TNT from two contaminated soils into overlying water was investigated using a laboratory sheet-flow leaching bed reactor (SLBR). Soil I had a low contamination of TNT (11±1 mg kg?1), whereas Soil II

K. T. Valsaraj; K. M. Qaisi; W. D. Constant; L. J. Thibodeaux; K. S. Ro

1998-01-01

394

Toxicological responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) exposed to metal-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicological responses of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) induced by field-contaminated, metal-polluted soils. Biochemical responses and DNA damage of earthworm exposed to two multi-metal-contaminated soils in a steel industry park and a natural reference soil in Zijin Mountain for 2, 7, 14, and 28 days were studied. Results showed that three enzyme activities, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and cellulase, in earthworm in metal-contaminated soils were significantly different from those of the reference soil. Cellulase and AChE were more sensitive than SOD to soil contamination. The Olive tail moment of the comet assay after 2-day exposure increased 56.5 and 552.0 % in two contaminated soils, respectively, compared to the reference soil. Our findings show that cellulase and DNA damage levels can be used as potential biomarkers for exposure of earthworm to metal-polluted soils. PMID:23589267

Zheng, Kai; Liu, Zhengtao; Li, Yajie; Cui, Yibin; Li, Mei

2013-04-16

395

Radioactive contamination in the environs of the Hanford works. April-June 1952  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes the results of measurements performed by the Regional Survey group to determine the magnitude and extent of radioactive contamination in the Hanford environs during April, May and June, 1952. Monitoring methods ad techniques used during this period were similar to those outlined in previous quarterly reports of this series. The counting rates obtained from these analyses were

Paas

1952-01-01

396

Decontamination and decommissioning of the Argonne National Laboratory East Area radioactively contaminated surplus facilities: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANL has decontaminated and decommissioned (D and D) seven radiologically contaminated surplus facilities at its Illinois site: a ''Hot'' Machine Shop (Building 17) and support facilities; Fan House No. 1 (Building 37), Fan House No. 2 (Building 38), the Pangborn Dust Collector (Building 41), and the Industrial Waste Treatment Plant (Building 34) for exhaust air from machining of radioactive materials.

W. H. Kline; G. F. Fassnacht; H. J. Moe

1987-01-01

397

REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION  

SciTech Connect

Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. To improve current practice in identifying hazardous materials and in characterizing radioactive contamination, an interdisciplinary team from Rensselaer has conducted research in two aspects: (1) to develop terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging system that can be used to analyze environmental samples such as asbestos in the field, and (2) to develop algorithms for characterizing the radioactive contamination depth profiles in real-time in the field using gamma spectroscopy. The basic research focused on the following: (1) mechanism of generating of broadband pulsed radiation in terahertz region, (2) optimal free-space electro-optic sampling for asbestos, (3) absorption and transmission mechanisms of asbestos in THz region, (4) the role of asbestos sample conditions on the temporal and spectral distributions, (5) real-time identification and mapping of asbestos using THz imaging, (7) Monte Carlo modeling of distributed contamination from diffusion of radioactive materials into porous concrete and asbestos materials, (8) development of unfolding algorithms for gamma spectroscopy, and (9) portable and integrated spectroscopy systems for field testing in DOE. Final results of the project show that the combination of these innovative approaches has the potential to bring significant improvement in future risk reduction and cost/time saving in DOE's D and D activities.

XU, X. George; Zhang, X.C.

2002-05-10

398

REAL-TIME IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ASBESTOS AND CONCRETE MATERIALS WITH RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Concrete and asbestos-containing materials were widely used in DOE building construction in the 1940s and 1950s. Over the years, many of these porous materials have been contaminated with radioactive sources, on and below the surface. Current practice to identify hazardous asbe...

399

Recommendations of treatment technologies for radioactively contaminated lead at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately one million pounds of radioactively contaminated lead are currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and must be treated according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This excess lead exists in various forms, including brick, sheet, shot, wool, blankets, steel-jacketed casks, scrap, and miscellaneous solids. Several lead treatment technologies were evaluated based on effectiveness, applicability, feasibility,

R. M. Neupauer; J. F. Zukauskas

1992-01-01

400

Analytical characterization of contaminated soils from former manufactured gas plants  

SciTech Connect

Detailed analytical characterization of the organic matter (OM) of aged polluted soils from five former manufactured gas plants (MGP) and of two coal tars was completed. It was aimed at obtaining information relevant to the physicochemical state of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants and to their in-situ evolution in time. Overall characterization of total OM (essentially polluting OM) was carried out directly on soil samples with or without prior extraction with solvent. It involved a technique of pyrolysis/oxidation coupled to flame ionization/thermal conductivity detection. Extracts in solvent were fractionated by liquid chromatography into saturated hydrocarbons, PAH, and resins, the first two fractions being further characterized by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The compositions of OM of soils were found to be very similar. A total of 28% of organic carbon, including all PAH, was extractable by solvent. The compositions of coal tars were qualitatively similar to those of OM of MGP soils but with a higher proportion (48%) of total extractable OM and of PAH, in particular lower PAH. Contamination of MGP soils appeared essentially as coal tar having undergone natural attenuation. The constant association of PAH with heavy OM in MGP soils is important with respect to the mobility and bioaccessibility of these pollutants.

Haeseler, F. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France). Div. Chimie et Physicochimie Appliquees]|[DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser, Karlsruhe (Germany); Blanchet, D.; Vandecasteele, J.P. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France). Chimie et Physicochimie Appliquees; Druelle, V. [Gaz De France, La Plaine-Saint-Denis (France). Direction de la Recherche; Werner, P. [DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser, Karlsruhe (Germany)]|[Technische Univ., Dresden, (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten

1999-03-15

401

Electrokinetic removal of uranium from contaminated, unsaturated soils  

SciTech Connect

Electrokinetic remediation of uranium-contaminated soil was studied in a series of laboratory-scale experiments in test cells with identical geometry using quartz sand at approximately 10 percent moisture content. Uranium, when present in the soil system as an anionic complex, could be migrated through unsaturated soil using electrokinetics. The distance that the uranium migrated in the test cell was dependent upon the initial molar ratio of citrate to uranium used. Over 50 percent of the uranium was recovered from the test cells using the citrate and carbonate complexing agents over of period of 15 days. Soil analyses showed that the uranium remaining in the test cells had been mobilized and ultimately would have been extracted. Uranium extraction exceeded 90 percent in an experiment that was operated for 37 days. Over 70 percent of the uranium was removed from a Hanford waste sample over a 55 day operating period. Citrate and carbonate ligand utilization ratios required for removing 50 percent of the uranium from the uranium-contaminated sand systems were approximately 230 moles ligand per mole uranium and 1320 moles ligand per mole uranium for the waste. Modifying the operating conditions to increasing the residence time of the complexants is expected to improved the utilization efficiency of the complexing agent.

Booher, W.F. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-01-01

402

Bioremediation potential of coal-tar-oil-contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

The bioremediation of coal tar oil contaminated soil was investigated in 90 day laboratory simulation experiments. The effect of soil moisture, humic acid amendment, and coal tar oil concentration on the rate of disappearance of individual coal tar oil constituents (PAHs and related compounds) was determined by methylene chloride extraction and gas chromatography. Mass balance experiments determined the fate of both the individual [sup 14]C-labeled PAHs phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene, and the total coal tar oil carbon. Mineralization, volatilization, incorporation into microbial biomass, disappearance of individual coal tar oil constitutents, and the distribution of residual [sup 14]C-activity in different soil fractions were measured. The rate of disappearance of coal tar oil constituents increased with increasing soil moisture over the experimental range. Humic acid amendment initially enhanced the rate of disappearance, but decreased the extent of disappearance. The amount of contamination removed decreased at higher coal tar oil concentrations. The practical limit for biodegradation in the system tested appeared to be between 1.0 and 2.5% coal tar oil. Mineralization accounted for 40 to 50% of the applied coal tar oil. Volatilization was a minor pathway of disappearance.

Lajoie, C.A.

1991-01-01

403

Spatial uncoupling of biodegradation, soil respiration, and PAH concentration in a creosote contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hotspots and coldspots of concentration and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) marginally overlapped at the 0.5–100 m scale in a creosote contaminated soil in southern Sweden, suggesting that concentration and biodegradation had little spatial co-variation. Biodegradation was substantial and its spatial variability considerable and highly irregular, but it had no spatial autocorrelation. The soil concentration of PAHs explained only 20–30%

Göran Bengtsson; Niklas Törneman; Xiuhong Yang

2010-01-01

404

Evaluation of a soil slurry reactor system for treating soil contaminated with munitions compounds  

SciTech Connect

Two 0.5-L semicontinuous soil slurry reactors were operated for seven months to evaluate the performance of the slurry reactor system in bioremediating soil contaminated with munitions compounds. Nitrogen and carbon were supplemented. The soil slurry was mixed continuously and aerated 10 min/day. Ten percent of the contaminated soil was replaced every week. The 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) concentration in soil began to drop after 15 days of treatment, falling to less than 0.5 mg/kg from 7800 mg/kg. Total plate counts in both reactors indicated that the bacterial population was maintained, with an average plate count of about 10{sup 8} CFU/mL. The soil slurry was slightly acidic. In addition to TNT, the slurry reactor also removed the other munitions compounds trinitrobenzene (TNB), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), RDX, and HMX. Radiolabeling studies on the reactor biomass showed that 23% of [{sup C}14]TNT was mineralized, while 27% was used as biomass and 8% was adsorbed on to the soil. The rest of the [{sup 14}C]TNT was accounted for as TNT metabolites. Increasing the frequency of soil replacement from once to two or three times weekly did not affect the TNT removal rates. However, the slurry system showed signs of stress, with highly acidic conditions and low oxygen uptake rates.

Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.; Montemagno, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kulpa, C.F. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

1994-05-01

405

Soil Phase Photodegradation of Toxic Organics at Contaminated Disposal Sites for Soil Renovation and Groundwater Quality Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accurate assessment of the potential for contaminated soil remediation requires detailed knowledge of the fate of waste constituents within the soil environment. For many non-biodegradable organics compounds, photochemical degradation may provide a potent...

W. M. Moore R. R. Dupont J. E. McLean

1989-01-01

406

Accumulation of heavy metals from contaminated soil to plants and evaluation of soil remediation by vermiculite.  

PubMed

We evaluated the distribution of 15 metal ions, namely Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sc, Ti, V, Y, Zn and Zr, in the soil of a contaminated site in Piedmont (Italy). This area was found to be heavily contaminated with Cu, Cr and Ni. The availability of these metal ions was studied using Tessier's sequential extraction procedure: the fraction of mobile species, which potentially is the most harmful for the environment, was much higher than that normally present in unpolluted soils. This soil was hence used to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with vermiculite to reduce the availability of the pollutants to two plants, Lactuca sativa and Spinacia oleracea, by pot experiments. The results indicated that the addition of vermiculite significantly reduces the uptake of metal pollutants by plants, confirming the possibility of using this clay in amendment treatments of metal-contaminated soils. The effect of plant growth on metal fractionation in soils was investigated. Finally, the sum of the metal percentages extracted into the first two fractions of Tessier's protocol was found to be suitable in predicting the phytoavailability of most of the pollutants present in the investigated soil. PMID:21055788

Malandrino, Mery; Abollino, Ornella; Buoso, Sandro; Giacomino, Agnese; La Gioia, Carmela; Mentasti, Edoardo

2010-11-04

407

Subchronic exposure of mice to Love Canal soil contaminants.  

PubMed

The health hazard potential of soil collected from the surface of the Love Canal chemical dump site in Niagara Falls, New York, was assessed in 90-day exposure studies. Female CD-1 mice were exposed to two concentrations of the volatile components of 1 kg of soil with and without direct soil contact. Control mice were identically housed but without soil. The soil was replaced weekly and 87 compounds were detected in the air in the cages above fresh and 7-day-old soil as analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of many of these compounds decreased during the 7-day exposure cycle. Histopathologic, hematologic, and serum enzyme studies followed necropsy of all mice. There was no mortality of mice exposed for up to 90 days under any condition. Thymus and spleen weights relative to body weight were increased after 4 weeks of exposure by inhalation but not after 8 or 12 weeks of exposure. alpha-, beta-, and delta- Benzenehexachlorides , pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene were detected in liver tissue from these animals. Mice exposed to 5- to 10-fold elevated concentration of volatiles had increased body and relative kidney weights. There was no chemically induced lesion in any animal exposed only to the volatile soil contaminants. Mice exposed by direct contact with the soil without elevated volatile exposure had increased body (10%) and relative liver weights (169%). Centrolobular hepatocyte hypertrophy, which involved 40 to 70% of the lobules, was observed in all mice in this group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6724196

Silkworth, J B; McMartin, D N; Rej, R; Narang, R S; Stein, V B; Briggs, R G; Kaminsky, L S

1984-04-01

408

Contribution from the Yenisei River to the total radioactive contamination of the Kara Sea  

SciTech Connect

An attempt is made to estimate the contribution from the Yenisei River and, therefore, the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Plant (MCP), which discharged wastewaters to the Yenisei, to the total contamination of the Kara Sea using results from a study of the radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River, Yenisei Bay, Yenisei Gulf, and the Kara Sea itself. Radionuclides generated from using river water in cooling circuits of production reactors make the largest contribution to the total activity. The radioactive contamination of the river decreased by more than 20 times after two of the three operating reactors were shut down. Only several wetlands are actually affected by MCP hundreds of kilometers from the discharge point.

Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Revenko, Yu.A.; Legin, V.K. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)] [and others

1995-07-01

409

Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of eastern Tennessee (USA). This area is characterized by deciduous forests dominated by hardwood and mixed mesophytic tree species. Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL, and contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory`s boundaries have been found to contain on the order of 10{sup {minus}12} to 10{sup {minus}6} Ci/g of {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Theoretical calculations indicate that nanocurie levels of {sup 90}Sr in bone can arise from relatively small amounts (1%) of contaminated browse vegetation in a deer`s diet. Measures that have been undertaken at ORNL to curtail the dispersal of radioactivity by animals are briefly reviewed.

Garten, C.T. Jr.

1992-03-27

410

Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province of eastern Tennessee (USA). This area is characterized by deciduous forests dominated by hardwood and mixed mesophytic tree species. Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL, and contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory's boundaries have been found to contain on the order of 10{sup {minus}12} to 10{sup {minus}6} Ci/g of {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs, and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Theoretical calculations indicate that nanocurie levels of {sup 90}Sr in bone can arise from relatively small amounts (1%) of contaminated browse vegetation in a deer's diet. Measures that have been undertaken at ORNL to curtail the dispersal of radioactivity by animals are briefly reviewed.

Garten, C.T. Jr.

1992-03-27

411

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Fluorine Species and Soil pH in Fluorine-contaminate Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, two kinds of fluorine-contaminate soils, fluvo-aquic soil and paddy soil, were cultivated by nitrogen fertilizer. Then, we studied the various fluorine species in the cultivated soil by sequential extraction method, and study the effect of main components in nitrogen fertilizer on pH of soils. After adding nitrogen fertilizer, the pH value of soil would increase, which consequently

Wen Chen

2010-01-01

412

Use of solvent extraction to remediate soils contaminated with hydrocarbons.  

PubMed

The main objective of this research is to exploit the possibility of using an ex situ solvent extraction technique for the remediation of soils contaminated with semi-volatile petroleum hydrocarbons. The composition of the organic phase was chosen in order to form a single phase mixture with an aqueous phase and simultaneously not being disturbed (forming stable emulsions) by the soil particles hauling the contaminants. It should also permit a regeneration of the organic solvent phase. As first, we studied the miscibility domain of the chosen ternary systems constituted by ethyl acetate-acetone-water. This system proved to satisfy the previous requirements allowing for the formation of a single liquid phase mixture within a large spectrum of compositions, and also allowing for an intimate contact with the soil. Contaminants in the diesel range within different functional groups were selected: xylene, naphthalene and hexadecane. The analytical control was done by gas chromatography with FID detector. The kinetics of the extractions proved to be fast, leading to equilibrium after 10 min. The effect of the solid-liquid ratio on the extraction efficiency was studied. Lower S/L ratios (1:8, w/v) proved to be more efficient, reaching recoveries in the order of 95%. The option of extraction in multiple contacts did not improve the recovery in relation to a single contact. The solvent can be regenerated by distillation with a loss around 10%. The contaminants are not evaporated and they remain in the non-volatile phase. The global results show that the ex situ solvent extraction is technically a feasible option for the remediation of semi-volatile aromatic, polyaromatic and linear hydrocarbons. PMID:16006033

Silva, Aurora; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Fiúza, A

2005-09-30

413

Degradation of trinitrotoluene in contaminated soils as affected by its initial concentrations and its binding to soil organic matter fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trinitrotoluene (TNT), a nitroaromatics, is a major pollutant in explosive contaminated soils. Present study reports the effect of initial concentration of TNT on its degradation kinetics in soils. Soils from two contaminated sites viz. Clausthal and Elsnig, Germany, were mixed with an uncontaminated reference soil to get different initial concentrations (mg\\/kg) viz Clausthal-1 (54.29), Clausthal-2 (30.86), Clausthal-3 (7.05) Elsnig-1 (879.67),

Neera Singh; Dieter Hennecke; Jennifer Hoerner; Werner Koerdel; Andreas Schaeffer

2008-01-01

414

Plant tolerance to diesel minimizes its impact on soil microbial characteristics during rhizoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil contamination due to petroleum-derived products is an important environmental problem. We assessed the impacts of diesel oil on plants (Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne) and soil microbial community characteristics within the context of the rhizoremediation of contaminated soils. For this purpose, a diesel fuel spill on a grassland soil was simulated under pot conditions at a dose of 12,000mgdieselkg?1

O. Barrutia; C. Garbisu; L. Epelde; M. C. Sampedro; M. A. Goicolea; J. M. Becerril

2011-01-01

415

Natural radioactivity in Jordanian soil and building materials and the associated radiation hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural radioactivity in soil and building materials was determined using gamma spectrometry. Samples were collected from the populated areas of Jordan. 232Th, 226Ra and 40K activities were determined. Soil samples collected from the Jordan valley showed high 40K concentrations which were due to the presence of a potash factory in the valley. One soil sample from southern sector showed very

N. Ahmad Matiullah; A. J. A. Hussein

1998-01-01

416

Contaminant transport in soil with depth-dependent reaction coefficients and time-dependent boundary conditions.  

PubMed

Predicting the fate and movement of contaminant in soils and groundwater is essential to assess and reduce the risk of soil contamination and groundwater pollution. Reaction processes of contaminant often decreased monotonously with depth. Time-dependent input sources usually occurred at the inlet of natural or human-made system such as radioactive waste disposal site. This study presented a one-dimensional convection-dispersion equation (CDE) for contaminant transport in soils with depth-dependent reaction coefficients and time-dependent inlet boundary conditions, and derived its analytical solution. The adsorption coefficient and degradation rate were represented as sigmoidal functions of soil depth. Solute breakthrough curves (BTCs) and concentration profiles obtained from CDE with depth-dependent and constant reaction coefficients were compared, and a constant effective reaction coefficient, which was calculated by arithmetically averaging the depth-dependent reaction coefficient, was proposed to reflect the lumped depth-dependent reaction effect. With the effective adsorption coefficient and degradation rate, CDE could produce similar BTCs and concentration profiles as those from CDE with depth-dependent reactions in soils with moderate chemical heterogeneity. In contrast, the predicted concentrations of CDE with fitted reaction coefficients at a certain depth departed significantly from those of CDE with depth-dependent reactions. Parametric analysis was performed to illustrate the effects of sinusoidally and exponentially decaying input functions on solute BTCs. The BTCs and concentration profiles obtained from the solutions for finite and semi-infinite domain were compared to investigate the effects of effluent boundary condition. The finite solution produced higher concentrations at the increasing limb of the BTCs and possessed a higher peak concentration than the semi-infinite solution which had a slightly long tail. Furthermore, the finite solution gave a higher concentration in the immediate vicinity of the exit boundary than the semi-infinite solution. The applicability of the proposed model was tested with a field herbicide and tracer leaching experiment in an agricultural area of northeastern Greece. The simulation results indicated that the proposed CDE with depth-dependent reaction coefficients was able to capture the evolution of metolachlor concentration at the upper soil depths. However, the simulation results at deep depths were not satisfactory as the proposed model did not account for preferential flow observed in the field. PMID:23490106

Gao, Guangyao; Fu, Bojie; Zhan, Hongbin; Ma, Ying

2013-02-26

417

Leaching of Contamination from Stabilization/Solidification Remediated Soils of Different Texture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of soil and groundwater remediation technologies is a matter of great importance to eliminate historically and currently contaminated sites. Stabilization/solidification (S/S) refers to binding of waste contaminants to a more chemically stable form and thus diminishing leaching of contamination. It can be performed using cement with or without additives in order to stabilize and solidify soil with the contamination in matrix. A series of experiments were done to determine leaching properties of spiked soils of different texture bound with cement. Results of experiments showed, that soil texture (content of sand, silt and clay particles) affects the leaching of heavy metals from stabilized soils.

Burlakovs, Juris; Kasparinskis, Raimonds; Klavins, Maris

2012-09-01

418

Vertical characterization of soil contamination using multi-way modeling – A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes application of chemometric multi-way modeling approach to analyze the dataset pertaining to soils of\\u000a industrial area with a view to assess the soil\\/sub-soil contamination, accumulation pathways and mobility of contaminants\\u000a in the soil profiles. The three-way (sampling depths, chemical variables, sampling sites) dataset on heavy metals in soil\\u000a samples collected from three different sites in an industrial

Kunwar P. Singh; Amrita Malik; Ankita Basant; Priyanka Ojha

2008-01-01

419

Soil contamination by organic and inorganic pollutants at the regional scale: the case of Piedmont, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  Diffuse soil contamination has often been neglected in scientific literature, as most studies focus on contaminants from point-sources\\u000a (either of industrial or agricultural origin). However, soil pollution from diffuse sources is recognized as one of the major\\u000a soil threats by the EU Soil Thematic Strategy. In fact, some pollutants are nowadays ubiquitarious in the soil system, and

Gabriele Fabietti; Mattia Biasioli; Renzo Barberis; Franco Ajmone-Marsan

2010-01-01

420

Efficacy of indigenous soil microbes in arsenic mitigation from contaminated alluvial soil of India.  

PubMed

Selected arsenic-volatilizing indigenous soil bacteria were isolated and their ability to form volatile arsenicals from toxic inorganic arsenic was assessed. Approximately 37 % of AsIII (under aerobic conditions) and 30 % AsV (under anaerobic conditions) were volatilized by new bacterial isolates in 3 days. In contrast to genetically modified organism, indigenous soil bacteria was capable of removing 16 % of arsenic from contaminated soil during 60 days incubation period while applied with a low-cost organic nutrient supplement (farm yard manure). PMID:23443943

Majumder, Aparajita; Bhattacharyya, Kallol; Kole, S C; Ghosh, Sagarmoy

2013-02-27

421

Bench?scale evaluation of asphalt emulsion stabilization of contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of ambient temperature asphalt emulsion stabilization technology to the environmental fixation of soils contaminated by organic contaminants, primarily hydrocarbons, was pioneered in 1987. Since that time, the process has seen many applications in recycling contaminated soils into an environmentally stable, structurally enhanced, paving base material. A bench?scale demonstration was undertaken to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the

Michael F. Conway P. E

1993-01-01

422

Groundwater contamination due to cattle slurry: modelling infiltration on the basis of soil column experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infiltration into soil of contaminants present in cattle slurry was studied. Column experiments were performed in order to characterize the release of contaminants at the slurry-soil interface after surface application of slurry, with subsequent rainfall or irrigation. A gradual decrease of contaminant concentrations was observed at this interface. The shape of the release curves suggests that the release of substances

E. López Periago; A. Núñez Delgado; F Diaz-Fierros

2000-01-01

423

ON-SITE ENGINEERING REPORT FOR THE LOW-TEMPERATURE THERMAL DESORPTION PILOT-SCALE TEST ON CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Performance of the thermal desorption process for removal of organic contaminants, mostly polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), from soils was evaluated. The Superfund Site soil tested was a fine sandy soil contaminated with creosote. An optimum operating temperature of 550 C...

424

ON-SITE ENGINEERING REPORT FOR THE LOW-TEMPERATURE THERMAL DESORPTION PILOT-SCALE TEST ON CONTAMINATED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Performance of the thermal desorption process for removal of organic contaminants, mostly polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), from soils was evaluated. he Superfund Site soil tested was a fine sandy soil contaminated with creosote. n optimum operating temperature of 550 deg...

425

Drilling and sampling highly radioactive contaminated soils at Hanford  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), on November 3, 1989, placed the 200 areas of the Hanford site on the National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). The action described in this paper is part of the continuing environmental restoration efforts at the Hanford site. These efforts are being addressed through the

M. A. Buckmaster; A. M. Kaczor

1992-01-01

426

Effect of oxygen amendments and soil pH on bioremediation of industrially contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by-products of coal conversion processes, have contaminated soils near coal plant sites either through accidental spills or systematic discharge. Because these compounds are carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic, remediation of such sites is a legitimate concern. For this study, contaminated soil samples were obtained from the Alberta Research Council (ARC) primary clean-up facility. Preliminary analysis of the soil was done for contaminant characterization and determination of initial contamination levels. Acinetobacter sp. was used for aerobic treatment of soil over a five-week period under optimum conditions. Because the rate of biodegradation is influenced by the pH, it is of interest to study the effect of pH on remediation efficiency in the physiological pH range of 5.0 to 9.0. Also, oxygen amendment via hydrogen peroxide solution was used to improve remediation in a packed bed, and the results were compared with those obtained under completely mixed conditions.

Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-04-01

427

RISK ASSESSMENT AND REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY MINING AND SMELTING OF LEAD, ZINC AND CADMIUM  

EPA Science Inventory

Mining nd smelting of Pb, Zn and Cd ores have caused widespread soil contamination in many countries. In locations with severe soil contamination, and strongly acidic soil or mine waste, ecosystems are devastated. Research has shown that An phytotoxicity, Pb-induced phosphate def...

428

Acid washing and stabilization of an artificial arsenic-contaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acid-washing process was studied on a laboratory scale to extract the bulk of arsenic(V) from a highly contaminated Kuroboku soil (Andosol) so as to minimize the risk of arsenic to human health and the environment. The sorption and desorption behavior of arsenic in the soil suggested the possibility of arsenic leaching under acidic conditions. Artificially contaminated Kuroboku soil (2830

Shuzo Tokunaga; Toshikatsu Hakuta

2002-01-01

429

An in vitro gastrointestinal method to estimate bioavailable arsenic in contaminated soils and solid media  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method was developed to simulate the human gastrointestinal environment and to estimate bioavailability of arsenic in contaminated soil and soil media. In this in vitro gastrointestinal (IVG) method, arsenic is sequentially extracted from contaminated soil with simulated gastric and intestinal solutions. A modified IVG-AB method, where iron hydroxide gel is used to simulate the absorption of arsenic, was also

Robin R. Rodriguez; Nicholas T. Basta; Stan W. Casteel; Lanny W. Pace

1999-01-01

430

Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils: The environmental restoration of a former railyard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petroleum contamination is a pervasive environmental problem. The common remedial solution has been to excavate and landfill the contaminated soils, which is hampered by high costs and space limitations at traditional disposal facilities. Bioremediation is a more attractive soil remediation alternative. This method is winning favor primarily because the soil can be treated on site, and the bioremediation systems can

D. S. Jackson; P. Scovazzo

1993-01-01

431

Assessing the bioavailability and risk from metal contaminated soils and dusts#  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure to contaminated soil and dust is an important pathway in human and ecological risk assessment and often is the "risk-driver" for metal contaminated soil. Site-specific soil physical and chemical characteristics, as well as biological factors, determine the bioavailabilit...

432

Soil and plant contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis after exposure to naturally contaminated mouflon feces.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in soil and colonization of different plant parts after deliberate exposure to mouflon feces naturally contaminated with different amounts of MAP. Samples of aerial parts of plants, their roots, and the soil below the roots were collected after 15 weeks and examined using IS900 real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and cultivation. Although the presence of viable MAP cells was not demonstrated, almost all samples were found to be positive using qPCR. MAP IS900 was not only found in the upper green parts, but also in the roots and soil samples (from 1.00 × 10(0) to 6.43 × 10(3)). The level of soil and plant contamination was influenced mainly by moisture, clay content, and the depth from which the samples were collected, rather than by the initial concentration of MAP in the feces at the beginning of the experiment. PMID:21279514

Pribylova, Radka; Slana, Iva; Kaevska, Marija; Lamka, Jiri; Babak, Vladimir; Jandak, Jiri; Pavlik, Ivo

2011-01-29

433

Field demonstration of technologies for delineating uranium contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

An Integrated Demonstration Program, hosted by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO), has been established for investigating technologies applicable to the characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium. An important part of this effort is the evaluation of field screening tools capable of acquiring high resolution information on the distribution of uranium contamination in surface soils in a cost-and-time efficient manner. Consistent with this need, four field screening technologies have been demonstrated at two hazardous waste sites at the FERMCO. The four technologies tested are wide-area gamma spectroscopy, beta scintillation counting, laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES), and long-range alpha detection (LRAD). One of the important findings of this demonstration was just how difficult it is to compare data collected by means of multiple independent measurement techniques. Difficulties are attributed to differences in measurement scale, differences in the basic physics upon which the various measurement schemes are predicated, and differences in the general performance of detector instrumentation. It follows that optimal deployment of these techniques requires the development of an approach for accounting for the intrinsic differences noted above. As such, emphasis is given in this paper to the development of a methodology for integrating these techniques for use in site characterization programs as well as the development of a framework for interpreting the collected data. The methodology described here also has general application to other field-based screening technologies and soil sampling programs.

Tidwell, V.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cunnane, J.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schwing, J. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Co., Springdale, OH (United States); Lee, S.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Perry, D.L. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Morris, D.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-11-01

434

Procedures for determining the pesticide sensitivity of indigenous soil algae: a possible bioindicator of soil contamination?  

PubMed

Soil algae are present in all kinds of soils, both arable and virgin, in large amounts and in great diversity. These photosynthetic microorganisms, which are concentrated in the top few centimeters of the soil profile, are organized in a community structure that varies depending on soil type, farming method and pesticide application. We first tested several extraction and conservation methods for soil algae, and a 14C incorporation procedure to evaluate the photosynthetic activity of these micro-organisms. In a second study, we assessed the sensitivity to atrazine of soil microalgae from two corn fields managed by different agricultural practices (conventional vs. organic). Changes in indigenous diatom communities were monitored, together with photosynthetic tests performed on the whole algal community. Comparison of the data for the treated field with those for the reference, untreated organic cornfield showed that previous atrazine application in the conventional cornfield had changed the species composition of the soil diatom communities. Short-term ecotoxicological tests, using photosynthetic activity as endpoint, also showed that the communities that had developed under pesticide stress were more tolerant to further atrazine application than the control communities. The stress caused by major environmental disturbances, such as ground dressing, was not sufficient to mask the difference between the two crops, suggesting that telluric microalgae could be used as indicators of xenobiotic contamination in soils. These initial findings about using soil microalgal communities as bioindicators are promising. In addition, their photosynthetic activity, which reflects their sensitivity to xenobiotic compounds, seems to be a relevant bioindicator of soil contamination. PMID:15025161

Bérard, A; Rimet, F; Capowiez, Y; Leboulanger, C

2004-01-01

435

Application, chemistry, and environmental implications of contaminant-immobilization amendments on agricultural soil and water quality.  

PubMed

Contaminants such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), arsenic (As), heavy metals, and infectious pathogens are often associated with agricultural systems. Various soil and water remediation techniques including the use of chemical amendments have been employed to reduce the risks associated with these contaminants. This paper reviews the use of chemical amendments for immobilizing principal agricultural contaminants, the chemistry of contaminant immobilization, and the environmental consequences associated with the use of these chemical products. The commonly used chemical amendments were grouped into aluminum-, calcium-, and iron-containing products. Other products of interest include phosphorus-containing compounds and silicate clays. Mechanisms of contaminant immobilization could include one or a combination of the following: surface precipitation, adsorption to mineral surfaces (ion exchange and formation of stable complexes), precipitation as salts, and co-precipitation. The reaction pH, redox potential, clay minerals, and organic matter are potential factors that could control contaminant-immobilization processes. Reviews of potential environmental implications revealed that undesirable substances such as trace elements, fluoride, sulfate, total dissolved solids, as well as radioactive materials associated with some industrial wastes used as amendment could be leached to ground water or lost through runoff to receiving water bodies. The acidity or alkalinity associated with some of the industrial-waste amendments could also constitute a substantial environmental hazard. Chemical amendments could introduce elements capable of inducing or affecting the activities of certain lithotrophic microbes that could influence vital geochemical processes such as mineral dissolution and formation, weathering, and organic matter mineralization. PMID:20832118

Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Eze, Peter N; Teboh, Jasper M; Stietiya, Mohammed H

2010-09-15

436

The sensitivity of different environments to radioactive contamination.  

PubMed

This paper describes modelling calculations carried out to determine the sensitivity of various rural and semi-natural environments to radionuclide contamination by (137)Cs, (90)Sr, and (131)I released during a major nuclear accident. Depositions of 1000 Bq/m(3) were assumed for each radionuclide. Four broad types of environments were considered: agricultural, forest or tundra, freshwater aquatic, and coastal marine. A number of different models were applied to each environment. The annual dose to a human population receiving most or all of its food and drinking water from a given environment was taken as a broad measure of sensitivity. The results demonstrated that environmental sensitivity was highly radionuclide specific, with (137)Cs generally giving the highest doses during the first year, especially for adults, in terrestrial and freshwater pathways. However, in coastal marine environments, (131)I and (239)Pu were more significant. Sensitivity was time dependent with doses for the first year dominating those for the 2nd and 10th years after deposition. In agricultural environments the ingestion dose from (137)Cs was higher for adults than other age groups, whereas for (90)Sr and (131)I, the ingestion dose was highest for infants. The dependence of sensitivity on social and economic factors such as individual living habits, food consumption preferences, and agricultural practices is discussed. PMID:23517769

Tracy, B L; Carini, F; Barabash, S; Berkovskyy, V; Brittain, J E; Chouhan, S; Eleftheriou, G; Iosjpe, M; Monte, L; Psaltaki, M; Shen, J; Tschiersch, J; Turcanu, C

2013-03-19

437

[Biological treatments for contaminated soils: hydrocarbon contamination. Fungal applications in bioremediation treatment].  

PubMed

Bioremediation is a spontaneous or controlled process in which biological, mainly microbiological, methods are used to degrade or transform contaminants to non or less toxic products, reducing the environmental pollution. The most important parameters to define a contaminated site are: biodegradability, contaminant distribution, lixiviation grade, chemical reactivity of the contaminants, soil type and properties, oxygen availability and occurrence of inhibitory substances. Biological treatments of organic contaminations are based on the degradative abilities of the microorganisms. Therefore the knowledge on the physiology and ecology of the biological species or consortia involved as well as the characteristics of the polluted sites are decisive factors to select an adequate biorremediation protocol. Basidiomycetes which cause white rot decay of wood are able to degrade lignin and a variety of environmentally persistent pollutants. Thus, white rot fungi and their enzymes are thought to be useful not only in some industrial process like biopulping and biobleaching but also in bioremediation. This paper provides a review of different aspects of bioremediation technologies and recent advances on ligninolytic metabolism research. PMID:15709784

Martín Moreno, Carmen; González Becerra, Aldo; Blanco Santos, María José

2004-09-01

438

Electrochemical Processes for In-situ Treatment of Contaminated Soils  

SciTech Connect

Soils at typical DOE (Department of Energy) waste sites are known to be contaminated by a host of hazardous organic chemicals, heavy metals and radionuclides. Typical hazardous organic contaminants include chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. It is also known that major toxic heavy metals such as Pb, Cr, As, Zn, Cu, Hg, and Cd and major radionuclides such as Tritium, U, Sr90, Pu, Cs137, and Tc are also commonly present at some DOE waste sites. Some of these chemicals are relatively mobile and can migrate down to the vadose zone and/or the aquifer region.

Huang, C.P.; Cha, Daniel

1999-06-01

439

Modification of soil microbial activity and several hydrolases in a forest soil artificially contaminated with copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils have long been exposed to the adverse effects of human activities, which negatively affect soil biological activity. As a result of their functions and ubiquitous presence microorganisms can serve as environmental indicators of soil pollution. Some features of soil microorganisms, such as the microbial biomass size, respiration rate, and enzyme activity are often used as bioindicators of the ecotoxicity of heavy metals. Although copper is essential for microorganisms, excessive concentrations have a negative influence on processes mediated by microorganisms. In this study we measured the response of some microbial indicators to Cu pollution in a forest soil, with the aim of evaluating their potential for predicting Cu contamination. Samples of an Ah horizon from a forest soil under oakwood vegetation (Quercus robur L.) were contaminated in the laboratory with copper added at different doses (0, 120, 360, 1080 and 3240 mg kg-1) as CuCl2×2H2O. The soil samples were kept for 7 days at 25 °C and at a moisture content corresponding to the water holding capacity, and thereafter were analysed for carbon and nitrogen mineralization capacity, microbial biomass C, seed germination and root elongation tests, and for urease, phosphomonoesterase, catalase and ß-glucosidase activities. In addition, carbon mineralization kinetics were studied, by plotting the log of residual C against incubation time, and the metabolic coefficient, qCO2, was estimated. Both organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization were lower in polluted samples, with the greatest decrease observed in the sample contaminated with 1080 mg kg-1. In all samples carbon mineralization followed first order kinetics; the C mineralization constant was lower in contaminated than in uncontaminated samples and, in general, decreased with increasing doses of copper. Moreover, it appears that copper contamination not only reduced the N mineralization capacity, but also modified the N mineralization process, since in the contaminated samples all of the inorganic nitrogen was present as ammonium, probably because of inhibition of nitrification. There was a marked decrease in biomass-C with addition of copper, and the decrease was more acute at intermediate doses (average decrease, 73%). Despite the decreases in microbial biomass and mineralized C, the value of qCO2 increased after the addition of copper. Urease activity was strongly affected by the presence of copper and the decrease was proportional to the dose; the activity at the highest dose was only 96% of that in the uncontaminated sample. Phosphomonoesterase activity was also affected by addition of copper; the reduction in activity was less than for urease and the greatest reduction was observed for the dose of 1080 mg kg-1 of copper. Catalase activity was affected by the contamination, but no clear trend was observed in relation to the dose of copper. ß-glucosidase was scarcely modified by the contamination but an increase in activity was observed at the highest dose of copper. Seed germination was not affected by copper contamination, since it only showed a clear decrease for the sample contaminated with the highest dose of copper, while root elongation decreased sharply with doses higher than 120 mg kg-1 of copper. The combined germination-elongation index followed a similar pattern to that of root elongation. For all investigated properties showing a reduction of more than 50%, the response to copper contamination was fitted to a sigmoidal dose-response model, in order to estimate the ED50 values. The ED50 values were calculated for microbial biomass, urease, root elongation and germination-elongation index, and similar values were obtained, ranging from 340 to 405 mg kg-1 Cu. The ED50 values may therefore provide a good estimation of soil deterioration.

Bellas, Rosa; Leirós, M? Carmen; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

2010-05-01

440

Interactions of low-level, liquid radioactive wastes with soils. 3. Interaction of waste radionuclides with soil from horizons of two soil series  

Microsoft Academic Search

We interacted a low-level radioactive waste with the respective horizons of two soils series, the Fuquay and the Fayette. The sorption of the soluble radionuclides was determined by batch reaction methods. Cesium-137 was sorbed to a very high degree, greater than 95 percent, and that degree of sorption was independent of both the soil horizon and the soil series. Uranium

W. L. Polzer; E. B. Fowler; E. H. Essington

1981-01-01

441

Chemical oxidation of cable insulating oil contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Leaking cable insulating oil is a common source of soil contamination of high-voltage underground electricity cables in many European countries. In situ remediation of these contaminations is very difficult, due to the nature of the contamination and the high concentrations present. Chemical oxidation leads to partial removal of highly contaminated soil, therefore chemical oxidation was investigated and optimized aiming at a subsequent bioremediation treatment. Chemical oxidation of cable oil was studied with liquid H(2)O(2) and solid CaO(2) as well as permanganate at pH 1.8, 3.0 and 7.5. Liquid H(2)O(2) most effectively removed cable oil at pH 7.5 (24%). At pH 7.5 poor oil removal of below 5% was observed with solid CaO(2) and permanganate within 2d contact time, whereas 18% and 29% was removed at pH 1.8, respectively. A prolonged contact time of 7d showed an increased oil removal for permanganate to 19%, such improvement was not observed for CaO(2). Liquid H(2)O(2) treatment at pH 7.5 was most effective with a low acid use and was best fit to a subsequent bioremediation treatment. To further optimize in situ chemical oxidation with subsequent bioremediation the effect of the addition of the iron catalyst and a stepwise liquid H(2)O(2) addition was performed. Optimization led to a maximum of 46% cable oil removal with 1469mM of H(2)O(2), and 6.98mM Fe(II) chelated with citric acid (H(2)O(2):FeSO(4)=210:1 (molmol(-1)). The optimum delivery method was a one step addition of the iron catalyst followed by step wise addition of H(2)O(2). PMID:21571353

Xu, Jinlan; Pancras, Tessa; Grotenhuis, Tim

2011-05-14

442

Experience in decontamination of radioactive soil on the grounds of the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience gained at the National Research Center Kurchatov Institute in decontamination of contaminated soil at old storage\\u000a sites for radwastes during rehabilitation of the grounds is described. The sequence of the work is described. The particulars\\u000a and results of the technology for handling contaminated soil, including a primary assessment of the composition of the contamination\\u000a and the volume of

V. G. Volkov; A. S. Danilovich; Yu. A. Zverkov; O. P. Ivanov; S. M. Koltyshev; A. V. Lemus; V. N. Potapov; S. G. Semenov; V. E. Stepanov; A. V. Chesnokov; A. D. Shisha

2011-01-01

443

Extraction of hydrocarbon contamination from soils using accelerated solvent extraction.  

PubMed

Accelerated solvent extraction was studied as a method for the extraction of hydrocarbon contamination from wet and dry soils. Temperatures from 125 to 200 degrees C and six different solvents were investigated. Nonpolar solvents could not achieve complete recovery from wet soils at the temperatures studied. Optimum conditions were found to be 175 degrees C with dichloromethane-acetone (1:1, v/v) with 8 min heat-up time and 5 min static time. Quantitative recoveries for diesel range organics (DROs) and waste oil organics (WOOs) were obtained using the optimized conditions. The recovery of DROs and WOOs from three matrices at two concentrations (5 and 2000 mg/kg) averaged 115%. These results show that accelerated solvent extraction can generate results comparable to those obtained using Soxhlet or sonication. PMID:10817360

Richter, B E

2000-04-01

444

Field trials to assess the uptake of arsenic by vegetables from contaminated soils and soil remediation with iron oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of arsenic (As) by plants from contaminated soils presents a health hazard that may affect the use of agricultural and former industrial land. Methods for limiting the hazard are desirable. A proposed remediation treatment comprises the precipitation of iron (Fe) oxides in the contaminated soil by adding ferrous sulfate and lime. The effects on As bioavailability were assessed

G. P. Warren; B. J. Alloway; N. W. Lepp; B. Singh; F. J. M. Bochereau; C. Penny

2003-01-01

445

Remediation of Cu-contaminated soil using chelant and EAOP.  

PubMed

An electrochemical advanced oxidation process (EAOP) was used for treatment of the washing solution obtained during leaching of Cu (364 +/- 2 mg kg(-1)) contaminated soil, with chelant S,S isomer of ethylenediamine disuccinate ([S,S]-EDDS). In the EAOP (constant current density 40 mA cm(-2)), a boron-doped diamond anode was used for the generation of hydroxyl radicals and oxidative decomposition of [S,S]-EDDS-metal complexes in the washing solution. The released Cu was mostly electro-deposited on the stainless-steel cathode. Three consecutive additions of 5 mmol kg(-1) [S,S]-EDDS removed 46% of the Cu from the soil, mostly from carbonate and oxide soil fractions (87 and 99% Cu reduction). The soil Cu oral availability in the simulated stomach and intestinal phases (in vitro physiologically based extraction test) was reduced by 5.5 and 4.6-times. Cu plant availability (in vitro diethylenetriamine pentaacetate test) was reduced by 3.6-times. The discharge solution was clear, almost colorless, with pH 8.4, 0.45 mg L(-1) Cu and 0.01 mM EDDS. PMID:19847704

Pociecha, Maja; Sircelj, Helena; Lestan, Domen

2009-09-01

446

Physical properties of soils contaminated by oil lakes, Kuwait  

SciTech Connect

In preparation for a marine assault by the coalition forces, the Iraqi Army heavily mined Kuwait`s coastal zone and the oil fields. Over a million mines were placed on the Kuwait soil. Burning of 732 oil wells in the State of Kuwait due to the Iraqi invasion caused damages which had direct and indirect effect on environment. A total of 20-22 million barrels of spilled crude oil were collected in natural desert depressions and drainage network which formed more than 300 oil lakes. The total area covered with oil reached 49 km{sup 2}. More than 375 trenches revealed the existence of hard, massive caliche (CaCO{sub 3}) subsoil which prevent leached oil from reaching deeper horizons, and limited the maximum depth of penetration to 1.75 m. Total volume of soil contaminated reached 22,652,500 m{sup 3} is still causing environmental problems and needs an urgent cleaning and rehabilitation. Kuwait Oil Company has recovered approximately 21 million barrels from the oil lakes since the liberation of Kuwait. In our examined representative soil profiles the oil penetration was not deeper than 45 cm. Infiltration rate, soil permeability, grain size distribution, aggregates formation and water holding capacity were assessed. 15 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Mohammad, A.S. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait); Wahba, S.A.; Al-Khatieb, S.O. [Arabian Gulf Univ. (Bahrain)

1996-08-01

447

Control Technologies for Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Waste Deposits at Superfund Lead Battery Recycling Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper primarily addresses remediation of contaminated soils and waste deposits at defunct lead-acid battery recycling sites (LBRS) via immobilization and separation processes. Metallic lead and lead compounds are generally the principal contaminants o...

M. D. Royer A. Selvakumar R. Gaire

1992-01-01