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Sample records for radiochemotherapie auf die

  1. Die Untersuchung auf gentechnische Veränderungen ("GVO-Analytik``)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waiblinger, Hans-Ulrich

    Bei einer gentechnischen Veränderung werden Gene, die für eine bestimmte Information verantwortlich sind, von einer Spezies, in der das Gen vorhanden ist, auf eine andere, in der das Gen natürlicherweise nicht vorkommt ist, übertragen. Häufig werden bakterielle Gene auf Pflanzen übertragen, um diese beispielsweise resistent gegen ein Herbizid zu machen. Organismen, denen mithilfe molekularbiologischer Mittel Gene auf eine Art übertragen wurden, die natürlicherweise nicht möglich ist, bezeichnet man als gentechnisch veränderte Organismen (GVO) oder transgene Organismen.

  2. Einfluss der Korrosion auf die Schirmdämpfung versilberter Gestricke und Gewebe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasser, M.; Wehnert, G.

    2007-06-01

    Zur Abschirmung elektromagnetischer Strahlung werden unter anderem metallisierte Gestricke eingesetzt, die versilbertes Polyamid enthalten. Solche Materialien finden beispielsweise Anwendungen als flexible Verpackungen oder als Strumpfmaterialien im medizinischen Bereich, z.B. bei der Therapie des Phantomschmerzes. Versilbertes Polyamid ist dem korrosiven Angriff schwefelhaltiger Verbindungen ausgesetzt, welche die Schirmdämpfungswirkung aufgrund der Ausbildung von Silbersulfidschichten herabsetzen. Untersucht wurde, inwieweit Silbersulfidbildung die Schirmdämpfung beeinträchtigt und ob die Silbersulfidbildung durch Schutzschichten aus Titandioxid (TiO2) verhindert werden kann. Die Silbersulfidschichten wurden mit Hilfe einer alkalischen Natriumsulfid-Lösung (Tuccillo-Nielsen-Lösung) hergestellt. Titandioxid-Schichten wurden durch ein Sol-Gel-Verfahren abgeschieden. Die untersuchten versilberten Gestricke zeigten im Bereich von 300 MHz bis 4 GHz eine weitgehend konstante Schirmdämpfung von ca. 40 dB, abhängig von der Strickart. Durch Belegung der Oberfläche mit Silbersulfid nahm die Schirmdämpfung auf ca. 5-10 dB ab. Dünne, durch Sol-Gel-Verfahren abgeschiedene TiO2 -Schichten verhinderten nicht die Ausbildung von Silbersulfidschichten. Durch Reduktion des Silbersulfids mit Aluminium in Natriumchlorid-Lösung konnte die Schirmdämpfung teilweise wiederhergestellt werden, was sich an einem Anstieg der Schirmdämpfung auf ca. 25 dB zeigte.

  3. Modellierung des Einflusses der Landnutzung auf die Hochwasserentstehung in der Mesoskala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehoff, Daniel

    2001-10-01

    Seit 1990 waren mehrere der großen Flussgebiete Mitteleuropas wiederholt von extremen Hochwassern betroffen. Da sowohl die Landoberfläche als auch die Flusssysteme weiter Teile Mitteleuropas in der Vergangenheit weitreichenden Eingriffen ausgesetzt gewesen sind, wird bei der Suche nach den Ursachen für diese Häufung von Extremereignissen auch die Frage nach der Verantwortung des Menschen hierfür diskutiert. Gewässerausbau, Flächenversiegelung, intensive landwirtschaftliche Bodenbearbeitung, Flurbereinigung und Waldschäden sind nur einige Beispiele und Folgen der anthropogenen Eingriffe in die Landschaft. Aufgrund der Vielfalt der beteiligten Prozesse und deren Wechselwirkungen gibt es allerdings bislang nur Schätzungen darüber, wie sehr sich die Hochwassersituation hierdurch verändert hat. Vorrangiges Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, mit Hilfe eines hydrologischen Modells systematisch darzustellen, in welcher Weise, in welcher Größenordnung und unter welchen Umständen die Art der Landnutzung auf die Hochwasserentstehung Einfluss nimmt. Dies wird anhand exemplarischer Modellanwendungen in der hydrologischen Mesoskala untersucht. Zu diesem Zweck wurde das deterministische und flächendifferenzierte hydrologische Modell wasim-eth ausgewählt, das sich durch eine ausgewogene Mischung aus physikalisch begründeten und konzeptionellen Ansätzen auszeichnet. Das Modell wurde im Rahmen dieser Arbeit um verschiedene Aspekte erweitert, die für die Charakterisierung des Einflusses der Landnutzung auf die Hochwasserentstehung wichtig sind: (1) Bevorzugtes Fließen in Makroporen wird durch eine Zweiteilung des Bodens in Makroporen und Bodenmatrix dargestellt, die schnelle Infiltration und Perkolation jenseits der hydraulischen Leitfähigkeit der Bodenmatrix ermöglicht. (2) Verschlämmung äußert sich im Modell abhängig von Niederschlagsintensität und Vegetationsbedeckungsgrad als Verschlechterung der Infiltrationsbedingungen an der Bodenoberfläche. (3) Das

  4. Wirkungen biogener Amine auf die Erregungs-Sekretions-Kopplung in der Speicheldrüse von Periplaneta americana (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietdorf, Katja

    2003-07-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit habe ich wichtige Teilmechanismen der Erregungs-Sekretionskopplung in der Speicheldrüse der Schabe Periplaneta americana (L.) untersucht. Die Speicheldrüse ist von dopaminergen und serotonergen Fasern innerviert (Baumann et al., 2002). Beide Transmitter stimulieren eine unterschiedliche Reaktion der Drüse: Dopamin (DA) stimuliert die P-Zellen der Acini und die Ausführgangzellen, während Serotonin (5-HT) die P- und C-Zellen der Acini stimuliert, nicht jedoch die Ausführgangzellen. Der Endspeichel ist nach einer DA-Stimulierung proteinfrei. Dagegen enthält er nach einer 5-HT-Stimulierung Proteine, die von den C-Zellen sezerniert werden (Just & Walz, 1996). Im ersten Teil meiner Arbeit habe ich mittels Kapillarelektrophoretischer Analyse (CE-Analyse) die Elektrolytkonzentrationen im Endspeichel untersucht sowie die Raten der Flüssigkeitssekretion gemessen. Damit wollte ich klären, welche Transporter an der Sekretion des Primärspeichels und an dessen Modifikation beteiligt sind. Ausserdem wollte ich die Rolle der transportaktiven Epithelzellen der Ausführgänge für die Modifikation des Primärspeichels untersuchen. Dafür habe ich einen Vergleich der Elektrolytkonzentrationen im DA- und 5-HT-stimulierten Endspeichel durchgeführt. Der Elektrolytgehalt des DA- und 5-HT-stimulierten Endspeichels unterscheidet sich nicht signifikant voneinander. Er ist nach beiden Stimulierungen hypoosmotisch zum verwendeten Ringer. Die Ausführgangzellen werden durch DA stimuliert und modifizieren den Primärspeichel durch eine netto-Ionenreabsorption. Meine Versuche zeigen jedoch, dass auch die während einer 5-HT-Stimulierung der Drüse unstimulierten Ausführgangzellen den Primärspeichel modifizieren. In einer nachfolgenden Versuchsreihe habe ich den Einfluss von Ouabain, einem Hemmstoff der Na+-K+-ATPase, und Bumetanid, einem Hemmstoff des NKCC, auf die Raten der Flüssigkeitssekretion sowie den Elektrolytgehalt des Endspeichels untersucht. Ich

  5. Grundsätze über die Anlagen neuer Sternwarten mit Beziehung auf die Sternwarte der Universität Göttingen. Von Georg Heinrich Borheck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuermann, Klaus; Borheck, Georg Heinrich

    Die Göttinger Sternwarte, Wirkungsstätte des berühmten Gelehrten Carl Friedrich Gauß, ist ein bedeutendes Baudenkmal. Im Jahre 2005 wird sie gemeinsam von der Georg-August-Universität und der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen renoviert, um dann als repräsentatives Gebäude der Universität und Arbeitsstätte der Akademie zu dienen. Die Nutzung der historischen Räume für Ausstellungen macht diesen imposanten Bau erstmals der Öffentlichkeit zugänglich. Die Sternwarte war bei ihrer Errichtung vor 200 Jahren ein nach seinerzeit neuesten wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen konzipierter Bau, der die Universität Göttingen in eine der vordersten Stellen Europa rückte. Auch aufgrund ihrer Architektur ist sie ein großer Wurf des Göttinger Universitätsbaumeisters Georg Heinrich Borheck. Durch die Kriegswirren der Napoleonischen Zeit zerschlug sich Borhecks Versuch einer Publikation seiner Beschreibung des Baus der Göttinger Sternwarte 1805. Doch seine Schrift ist auch heute noch aktuell und wird mit diesem Band erstmals einer breiten Öffentlichkeit zugängig gemacht. Er zeigt die Grundsätze, nach denen damals öffentliche Bauten konzipiert wurden, erläutert die Bedeutung des Baus aus kunst- und wissenschaftshistorischer Sicht und informiert über die Pläne zur Restaurierung der Sternwarte in einem separaten Beitrag und im Geleitwort des Präsidenten der Georg-August Universität Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. Kurt von Figura.

  6. Dünne Beschichtungen auf Biomaterialien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, Doris; Lahann, Jörg; Plüster, Wilhelm

    Ein Schwerpunkt der Implantatentwicklung liegt in der Synthese und Verarbeitung geeigneter Biomaterialien, die bezüglich ihrer mechanischen Eigenschaften und ihrer Stabilität die erwünschte Funktion im Organismus erfüllen sollen. Die biologische Antwort auf Biomaterialien im Implantateinsatz wird jedoch hauptsächlich von der chemischen Zusammensetzung und der Struktur der Implantatoberfläche bestimmt [1]. Sie ist entscheidend für die Langzeitverträglichkeit eines Implantats. Geeignete Ansätze zur Verbesserung der Grenzflächenverträglichkeit von Biomaterialien, ohne die mechanischen Eigenschaften und die Funktionalität des Implantates zu verändern, beruhen auf die Aufbringung einer definierten, falls erforderlich biologisch aktiven Beschichtung auf die Werkstoffoberfläche. Bei den eingesetzten Beschichtungsverfahren handelt es sich vielfach um bekannte Verfahren zur Oberflächenmodifizierung technischer Werkstoffe, die auf physikalischen und chemischen Prozessen basieren. Je nach Beschichtungsverfahren können unterschiedliche Schichtdicken erzielt werden. Zur Charakterisierung der Zusammensetzung und Struktur der beschichteten Biomaterialoberflächen ist der Einsatz oberflächensensitiver Analytik unverzichtbar. Vielfach wird eine Kombination von Methoden eingesetzt, die sich hinsichtlich ihrer Informationstiefe und Informationsaussage unterscheiden [1].

  7. Preoperative treatment with radiochemotherapy for locally advanced gastroesophageal junction cancer and unresectable locally advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ratosa, Ivica; Oblak, Irena; Anderluh, Franc; Velenik, Vaneja; But-Hadzic, Jasna; Ermenc, Ajra Secerov; Jeromen, Ana

    2015-01-01

    patients (5.6% of all treated patients or 8.8% of all operated patients). Down-staging was recorded in 49 patients (86%), in one patient (1.8%) the stage after radiochemotherapy was unchanged while in seven patients (12.3%) the pathological stage was higher than clinical, mainly due to higher pN stage. No death was recorded during preoperative radiochemotherapy. Most grade 3 and 4 toxicities were due to vomiting, nausea and bone marrow suppression (granulocytopenia). Twenty-six (45.6%) patients died due to GEJ or gastric carcinoma, one died because of septic shock following the surgery and a reason for two deaths was unknown. Twenty-eight patients (49.1%) were disease free at the time of analysis, while 29 patients (50.9%) developed the recurrence, mostly as distant metastases. At two years, locoregional control, disease-free survival, disease-specific survival and overall survival were 82.9%, 43.9%, 56.9% and 53.9%, respectively. Conclusions. Preoperative radiochemotherapy was feasible in our group of patients and had acceptable toxicity. Majority of patients achieved down-staging, allowing greater proportion of radical resections (R0), which are essential for patients’ cure. PMID:26029028

  8. Nanophysik: Wärmeübertrag auf der Nanometerskala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Achim

    2006-01-01

    Gegen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts waren die grundlegenden Prozesse des Wärmeaustauschs verstanden. Die Gesetze dienten dann als Grundlage für die Quantenmechanik. Doch gelten diese Gesetze auch auf der Nanometerskala? In den 1970er-Jahren wurde eine Theorie für den Wärmeübertrag im atomaren Bereich entwickelt. Physiker der Universität Oldenburg überprüften deren Vorhersagen und stießen dabei auf signifikante Abweichungen, welche auf einen Zusammenbruch der klassischen, makroskopischen Elektrodynamik hindeuten.

  9. Toxicity after radiochemotherapy for glioblastoma using temozolomide - a retrospective evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Retrospective evaluation of toxicity and results after radiochemotherapy for glioblastoma. Methods 46 patients with histopathologically proven glioblastoma received simultaneous radiochemotherapy (RCT). The mean age at the beginning of therapy was 59 years, the mean Karnofsky performance index 80%. 44 patients had been operated on before radiotherapy, two had not. A total dose of 60 Gy was applied in daily single fractions of 2.0 Gy within six weeks, 75 mg/m2/day Temozolomide were given orally during the whole radiotherapy period. Results A local progression could be diagnosed in 34/46 patients (70%). The median survival time amounted to 13.6 months resulting in one-year and two-year survival probabilities of 48% and 8%, respectively. Radiotherapy could be applied completely in 89% of the patients. Chemotherapy could be completed according to schedule only in 56.5%, the main reason being blood toxicity (50% of the interruptions). Most of those patients suffered from leucopenia and/or thrombopenia grade III and IV CTC (Common toxicity criteria). Further reasons were an unfavourable general health status or a rise of liver enzymes. The mean duration of thrombopenia and leucopenia amounted to 64 and 20 days. In two patients, blood cell counts remained abnormal until death. In two patients we noticed a rise of liver enzymes. In one of these in the healing phase of hepatitis a rise of ASAT and ALAT CTC grade IV was diagnosed. These values normalized after termination of temozolomide medication. One patient died of pneumonia during therapy. Conclusion Our survival data were well within the range taken from the literature. However, we noticed a considerable frequency and intensity of side effects to bone marrow and liver. These lead to the recommendations that regular examinations of blood cell count and liver enzymes should be performed during therapy and temozolomide should not be applied or application should be terminated according to the criteria given by the

  10. Die zwei Kulturen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankolekar, Anupriya; Krötzsch, Markus; Tran, Than; Vrandecic, Denny

    Oft werden zwei mögliche Entwicklungen des Webs diskutiert - das Web 2.0 und das Semantic Web. Wenn wir diese zwei Visionen für das zukünftige Web unter die Lupe nehmen, dann lässt sich feststellen, dass sich die Ideen in ihrem Kern und ihren Technologien gegenseitig ergänzen. Dementsprechend können und sollen beide Visionen von den Erfahrungen und Stärken der anderen profitieren. Wir glauben daran, dass zukünftige Webanwendungen den Web 2.0-Fokus auf Community und Benutzerfreundlichkeit beibehalten und, darüber hinaus, auch von Technologien des Semantic Web zur Vereinfachung der mashupähnlichen Datenintegration profitieren werden. Auf Basis eines Semantic Blog-Szenarios werden wir hier die Vorteile einer möglichen Kombination von Semantic Web und Web 2.0 illustrieren, die zeitnah realisiert werden kann. Wir werden auch auf technische Probleme eingehen, die bei der Erweiterung dieses Szenarios entstehen. Wir stellen dar, wie aktuelle Entwicklungen in der Semantic Web Forschung diese Probleme angehen können, und setzen zugleich auch Schwerpunkte für die zukünftige Forschung, die in diesem Zusammenhang relevant sind.

  11. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  12. Effect of Cisplatin on Parotid Gland Function in Concomitant Radiochemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hey, Jeremias; Setz, Juergen; Gerlach, Reinhard; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian R.; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin on parotid gland tissue complication probability. Methods and Materials: Patients treated with either radiotherapy (n = 61) or concomitant radiochemotherapy with cisplatin (n = 36) for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively evaluated. The dose and volume distributions of the parotid glands were noted in dose-volume histograms. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured before, during the 2nd and 6th weeks and at 4 weeks and 6 months after the treatment. The data were fit using the normal tissue complication probability model of Lyman. Complication was defined as a reduction of the salivary flow rate to less than 25% of the pretreatment flow rate. Results: The normal tissue complication probability model parameter TD{sub 50} (the dose leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 32.2 Gy at 4 weeks and 32.1 Gy at 6 months for concomitant radiochemotherapy and 41.1 Gy at 4 weeks and 39.6 Gy at 6 months for radiotherapy. The tolerated dose for concomitant radiochemotherapy was at least 7 to 8 Gy lower than for radiotherapy alone at TD{sub 50}. Conclusions: In this study, the concomitant radiochemotherapy tended to cause a higher probability of parotid gland tissue damage. Advanced radiotherapy planning approaches such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy may be partiticularly important for parotid sparing in radiochemotherapy because of cisplatin-related increased radiosensitivity of glands.

  13. Zahlen und Rechenvorgänge auf unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsniveaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödler, Klaus

    "Das Verständnis geht langsam vor sich!" Diesen wichtigen Satz hörte ich bei einem Vortrag von Martin Lowsky. Auf die hier behandelte Fragestellung übertragen heißt das: Was eine Zahl ist und wie ich sie im Rechenvorgang einsetzen und interpretieren kann, das erschließt sich erst allmählich. Die Zahl des Rechenanfängers ist nicht dieselbe wie die des kompetenten Rechners und es ist nicht die Zahl des Lehrers oder der Lehrerin. Die Zahlen sind nur auf der Oberfläche der Worte und Zeichen gleich. Im Innern, im Verständnis, sind sie völlig verschieden! Ich glaube, dass die Missachtung dieser Divergenz dazu führt, dass manche Kinder in für den Lehrer und Lehrerin nicht nachvollziehbaren Routinen stecken bleiben, einfachste Informationen nicht wirklich integrieren. Die auf beiden Seiten wachsende Verunsicherung durch die nicht erkannte und daher nicht kommunizierbare Diskrepanz im inneren Zahlkonzept stört den allmählichen Aufbau strukturierter Zahlvorstellungen.

  14. Thirty years of phase I radiochemotherapy trials: Latest development.

    PubMed

    Rivoirard, Romain; Vallard, Alexis; Langrand-Escure, Julien; Ben Mrad, Majed; Wang, Guoping; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Diao, Peng; Dubanchet, Alexandre; Deutsch, Eric; Rancoule, Chloe; Magne, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Radiochemotherapy is undergoing a complete expansion. Currently, possibilities of treatment combination are skyrocketting, with different anticancer and targeted molecules, different radiotherapy techniques, and dose escalation with each therapy. The development of a modern phase I radiochemotherapy trial becomes more and more complex and should be fully investigated. In the literature, there are no exhaustive reviews describing the necessity of their characteristics. The present article explores historical and current phase I clinical trials involving a combination of radiation therapy and anticancer therapies. Selected trials were identified by searching in PubMed databases. A total of 228 studies were identified in the last three decades, and a portrait of their characteristics is presented. As expected, most frequently studied malignancies were head and neck cancers, followed by non-small cell lung cancer and brain cancer. Toxicity is reported in more than 90% of the studies. Most studies were published since 2010, at the area of targeted therapies, but mainly concerned classical chemotherapies (cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil). The present review highlights some limits. Indeed, methodology seems not optimised and could be based on more accurate methods of dose-escalation. The present portrait of phase I radiochemotherapy trials suggests that radiochemotherapy notion must be reinvented and trials should be adapted to its complexity. Step by step method does not sound like an option anymore. Let us build the future of radiochemotherapy on past evidences. PMID:26922167

  15. Die Evolution der Religiosität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voland, Eckart

    Ein konsequent darwinischer Blick auf den Menschen bedeutet, auch im Denken, Fühlen und Handeln biologische Anpassungsgeschichte zu suchen, denn auch die psychischen und mentalen Eigenheiten des Homo sapiens unterliegen der natürlichen Selektion. Lässt sich die religiöse Lebenspraxis von Menschen daher auch aus einer Fitnessperspektive betrachten?

  16. Kamera-basierte Erkennung von Geschwindigkeitsbeschränkungen auf deutschen Straen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhüser, Dennis; Ziegenmeyer, Marco; Gumpp, Thomas; Scholl, Kay-Ulrich; Zöllner, J. Marius; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    An Fahrerassistenzsysteme im industriellen Einsatz werden hohe Anforderungen bezüglich Zuverlässigkeit und Robustheit gestellt. In dieser Arbeit wird die Kombination robuster Verfahren wie der Hough-Transformation und Support-Vektor-Maschinen zu einem Gesamtsystem zur Erkennung von Geschwindigkeitsbeschränkungen beschrieben. Es setzt eine Farbvideokamera als Sensorik ein. Die Evaluation auf Testdaten bestätigt durch die ermittelte hohe Korrektklassifikationsrate bei gleichzeitig geringer Zahl Fehlalarme die Zuverlässigkeit des Systems.

  17. Untersuchung der Störwirkung von LTE auf SRD Anwendungen bei 868 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welpot, M.; Wunderlich, S.; Gaspard, I.

    2014-11-01

    Moderne Hausautomatisierungssysteme, Alarmanlagen oder auch Funk-Zugangssysteme in Haus und Automobil setzen auf frei nutzbare Frequenzen in ISM/SRD-Bändern. Die rasante Zunahme an privaten und kommerziell genutzten Applikationen im SRD-Band bei 868 MHz und der Ausbau der LTE-Mobilfunknetze im Frequenzbereich unterhalb von 1 GHz ("Digital Dividend") wirft zunehmend die Frage nach der Funkverträglichkeit dieser Systeme untereinander auf. Während die SRD-Funkmodule auf eine geringe Sendeleistung von ~ +14 dBm beschränkt sind (Ralf and Thomas, 2009), beträgt die maximale LTE-Sendeleistung im Uplink nach (ETSI-Norm, 2011) +23 dBm. Zusammen mit der Einführung von LTE im Frequenzbereich unterhalb 1 GHz als DSL-Ersatz vor allem in ländlichen Gebieten, ergibt sich damit als mögliches Störszenario, dass durch die Aussendung des LTE-Endgerätes im Bereich von ca. 850 MHz die SRD-Funkverbindungen bei 868 MHz insbesondere dann gestört werden, wenn die Antennen beider Funksysteme räumlich nahe zueinander angeordnet sind und folglich nur eine geringe zusätzliche Entkopplung der Systeme bieten. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das LTE-Störpotential auf SRD-Empfänger praxisnah untersucht.

  18. Durch Raum und Zeit reisen - Eine Theorie gibt Antworten auf alte Fragen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, Bernd; Weiß, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Im Rahmen der Relativitätstheorie, sei es die spezielle oder auch allgemeine, kommt man zwangsläufig auf die Fragestellung, ob Zeitreisen möglich sind oder nicht. Es gibt darüber sehr viele Veröffentlichungen, da dieses Thema offensichtlich viele Leute beschäftigt: Naturwissenschaftler, Philosophen, Filmautoren. Wir wollen hier nur einige grundlegende Fragestellungen aufgreifen: Kann man in die Zukunft reisen? Gibt es Reisen mit Überlichtgeschwindigkeit? Wie sieht es aus mit Reisen in die Vergangenheit? Wir unterschieden dabei zwischen mathematischen, physikalischen und technischen Lösungen, die Zeitreisen entweder erlauben oder unmöglich machen.

  19. Detektion von fahrspuren und kreuzungen auf nichtmarkierten straen zum autonomen führen von fahrzeugen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacek, Stefan; Bürkle, Cornelius; Schröder, Joachim; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    Das Wissen über Position und Verlauf der Straße ist eine der wichtigsten Informationen, die zum Führen autonomer Straßenfahrzeuge benötigt wird. Die meisten Arbeiten gehen davon aus, dass Markierungen auf der Straße vorhanden sind, die die Erkennung enorm erleichtern. Üblicherweise werden die Fahrbahnränder detektiert und die Fahrspur mit Hilfe eines Kaiman-Filters geschätzt [1]. Andere Arbeiten verwenden zusätzlich die Straßenfarbe und kombinieren die verschiedenen Hinweise in einem Partikel-Filter [2]. Ein allgemeiner Überblick über Verfahren zur Fahrspurdetektion findet sich in [3].

  20. Reinraumtechnik für die Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petek, Max; Jungbluth, Martin; Krampe, Erhard

    Die Reinraumtechnik ist heute ein unverzichtbarer Bestandteil bei der Fertigung von Produkten der Life Sciences, den Bereichen Pharma, Lebensmittel, Kosmetik und Medizintechnik. In Anbetracht der langen Historie der Medizintechnik ist sie jedoch eine sehr junge Disziplin. Die Bedeutung von Keimen und die richtige Einschätzung ihrer Größe wurden zwar sehr früh bereits durch Paracelsus erkannt, jedoch wurden daraus noch keine speziellen oder kontinuierlich umgesetzten Hygienevorschriften abgeleitet. Die erste bekannte technische Umsetzung von Hygieneempfehlungen geht auf den Franzosen François Nicolas Appert zurück, der eine aseptische Abfüllmethode für Lebensmittel entwickelte und diese 1810 veröffentlichte [1]. Die erste dokumentierte medizinische Umsetzung stellten Hygienevorschriften für Ärzte dar, die Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis nach 1847 in der Wiener Klinik für Geburtshilfe einführte [2].

  1. Die Kultur von Halicystis parvula (Codiales, Chlorophyta) auf kalkhaltigem Substrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornmann, P.

    1981-09-01

    The vesicular thallus of Halicystis is generally embedded in crusts of coralline algae by a rhizoidal part. Only in former unsuccessful attempts to elucidate the development of Halicystis has this fact been regarded as being important. Starting from Derbesia zoospores, the gametophyte Halicystis was attained in free culture. These vesicles, however, are unlike those of the natural plants in morphological aspect: they develop as a local increase of a rhizoidal filament. To grow into vesicles of natural shape in culture, the zoospores of Derbesia need a calcareous substratum, e. g. fragments of oyster-shell.

  2. SPHERICAL DIE

    DOEpatents

    Livingston, J.P.

    1959-01-27

    A die is presented for pressing powdered materials into a hemispherical shape of uniforin density and wall thickness comprising a fcmale and male die element held in a stationary spaced relation with the space being equivalent to the wall thickness and defining the hemispherical shape, a pressing ring linearly moveable along the male die element, an inlet to fill the space with powdered materials, a guiding system for moving the pressing ring along the male die element so as to press the powdered material and a heating system for heating the male element so that the powdered material is heated while being pressed.

  3. Ein stochastisches Modell zur Beschreibung von Signalen in digitalen Schaltungen basierend auf quadratischer Optimierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleeberger, V. B.; Maier, P.; Schlichtmann, U.

    2013-07-01

    Die kontinuierlich fortschreitende Miniaturisierung in integrierten Schaltungen führt zu einem erhöhten Modellierungsbedarf verschiedenster Effekte, wie z.B. Alterung oder Stromverbrauch. Diese hängen von den auftretenden Signalen innerhalb der Schaltung ab, wodurch deren statistische Modellierung ein zentrales Problem darstellt. Dieser Beitrag stellt eine neue Methode zur stochastischen Signalmodellierung basierend auf quadratischer Optimierung vor. Die Methode wird mit Hilfe von realen Daten mit existierenden Ansätzen verglichen. Die Testergebnisse zeigen hierbei im vorgestellten Modell einen Genauigkeitszuwachs von bis zu einem Faktor 10 im Vergleich zu bereits existierenden Modellen.

  4. Sind die klassischen Methoden zur mykologischen Diagnostik noch "State-of-the-Art"?

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Bauer, Andrea; Brasch, Jochen; Nenoff, Pietro; Schaller, Martin; Mayser, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Elsner, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Die Labordiagnose einer Pilzinfektion der Haut basiert traditionell auf dem Nativpräparat und der Anzucht des Erregers aus dem klinischen Material. Auch der dermato- histologischer Nachweis von Pilzelementen ist möglich. Diese Methoden sind, sofern sie korrekt ausgeführt werden, in der Regel zum Pilznachweis geeignet. Im Zuge der personalisierten Medizin und den daraus erwachsenden Aufgaben werden jedoch neue Verfahren erforderlich, welche einfach, spezifisch und schnell sind. Der zusätzliche Einsatz von DNA-basierten molekularen Methoden erhöht die Empfindlichkeit sowie die diagnostische Spezifität und reduziert die zum Teil wochenlange Durchführungszeit der konventionellen mykologischen Diagnostik auf 24 bis 48 Stunden. Im Zuge der stetigen Weiterentwicklung im Bereich der personalisierten Medizin sind einfache Analysensysteme auf PCR-Basis denkbar, die in der Hautarztpraxis eine Dermatophyten-Sofort-Diagnostik erlauben (Point-of-Care-Tests). PMID:27119469

  5. Sphincter-preserving surgery after preoperative radiochemotherapy for T3 low rectal cancers

    PubMed Central

    BAI, XUE; LI, SHIYONG; YU, BO; SU, HONG; JIN, WEISEN; CHEN, GANG; DU, JUNFENG; ZUO, FUYI

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of preoperative radiochemotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision (TME) and sphincter-preserving procedures for T3 low rectal cancer. Patients with rectal cancer and T3 tumors located within 1–6 cm of the dentate line received preoperative radiochemotherapy. Concurrent 5-fluorouracil-based radiochemotherapy was used. Radical resection with TME and sphincter-preserving procedures were performed during the six to eight weeks following radiotherapy. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The anal function was evaluated using the Wexner score. The clinical response rate was 83.5%, overall downstaging of T classification was 75.3% and pathological complete response was 15.3%. The anastomotic fistula rate was 4.7%. A median follow-up of 30 months showed the local recurrence rate to be 4.7% and the distant metastasis rate to be 5.9%. The three-year overall survival rate was 87%. The degree of anal incontinence as measured using the Wexner score decreased over time, and the anal sphincter function in the majority of patients gradually improved. Preoperative radiochemotherapy was found to improve tumor downstaging, reduces local recurrence, increase the sphincter preservation rate, and is therefore of benefit to patients with T3 low rectal cancer. PMID:22783445

  6. Geobasisdaten für die Planung?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zölitz-Möller, Reinhard

    2002-09-01

    Die Nutzer von Geobasisdaten der Vermessungs- und Katasterverwaltungen finden heute vor allem in ATKIS (Amtliches Topographisch-Kartographisches Informationssystem) und in der ALK (automatisiert geführte Liegenschaftskarte; hier noch eingeschränkt) flächendeckende und für eine Fachdatenintegration geeignete Geodatenbestände vor. Gleichwohl wird von Nutzerseite häufig ein differenziertes und in Teilen kritisches Bild gezeichnet. Die Kritik richtet sich v.a. auf die Probleme, die ATKIS-Anwender mit dem Nutzerkomfort, dem komplexen Datenmodell, unrichtigen Flächennutzungsangaben, inkompatiblen Objektdefinitionen, den Preisen sowie mangelnder Aktualität und Vollständigkeit haben. Dennoch gibt es für viele Zwecke auch in der Planung langfristig keine echte Alternative zu den Geobasisdaten.

  7. [Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced rectal tumors].

    PubMed

    Rápolti, Edit; Szigeti, András; Farkas, Róbert; Bellyei, Szabolcs; Boronkai, Arpád; Papp, András; Gömöri, Eva; Horváth, Ors Péter; Mangel, László

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the response rate and side effects of simultaneous, neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT) in locally advanced rectal cancer. Between 2005 and 2007, we treated 112 patients in stage II-III rectal carcinoma at the Institute of Oncotherapy, University of Pécs. For staging abdomino-pelvic CT (112) and transrectal US (49) or pelvic MR (10), or PET-CT (1) was performed. Radiation therapy was delivered with 3D CRT-based technique using belly-board with 18 MV photon energy, while patients in prone position. A total dose of 45 Gy (single dose 1.8 Gy) was delivered to the tumor and the pelvic lymph nodes. 5-FU and Ca-folinate was administered concomitantly in the 1st and 5th week of radiotherapy. Four weeks after delivering neoadjuvant RCT the patients' control CT was evaluated according to RECIST criteria. RCT was followed by surgery in 6-9 weeks. We graded the histology using the Mandard regression score system. Side effects were registered using CTCAE v 3.0. Grade 1, 2 or 3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity occurred in 12%, grade 3 hematological toxicity in 9.5% of the patients. The response rate determined by using control CT was 64.85%. According to the Mandard regression score, TRG1 occurred in 15%, TRG2 in 30.4%, TRG3 in 28%, TRG4 in 24% and TRG5 in 2.6% of the cases. Radical surgery was performed in 89 cases, 72 with R0 resection. By assessing the histological samples we found downstaging in 46% of the T and 34.5% of the N stage. We have no information on increased postoperative complications. We followed 86 patients after neoadjuvant therapy. Until March 2009 there was no progression in 48 of our patients. In 13 cases local relapse occurred, and in 25 cases the disease progressed because of distant metastasis, although local control was maintained. 10 patients had local relapse and distant metastases. 17 patients passed away. As a conclusion, neoadjuvant RCT of Stage II-III patients is an effective and well tolerated treatment, allowing for high R0

  8. Echtzeit-Ultraschallsimulation auf Grafik-Prozessoren mit CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichl, Tobias; Passenger, Josh; Acosta, Oscar; Salvado, Olivier

    Trotz der zunehmenden Verbreitung jüngerer bildgebender Verfahren bleibt medizinischer Ultraschall (US) weiterhin ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel bei chirurgischen Eingriffen und der klinischen Diagnose. Viele US-gestützte medizinische Prozeduren erfordern allerdings ausgiebiges Training, so dass es wünschenswert ist, eine realistische Simulation von US-Bildern zur Verfügung zu stellen. Im Gegensatz zu früheren Ansätzen simulieren wir solche Bilder auf der "Graphics Processing Unit“. Wir erweitern hierzu eine Methode, die von Wein et al. für die Abschätzung von US-Reflexionen aus Daten der Computertomographie (CT) vorgeschlagen wurde, zu einer leichter zu berechnenden Form. Zusätzlich schätzen wir die US-Absorption aus den CT-Daten ab. Mit Hilfe von NVIDIAs "Compute Unified Device Architecture“ (CUDA) simulieren wir Reflexion, Verschattung, Rauschen und radiale Unschärfe, ausgehend von unbearbeiteten CT-Daten in Echtzeit und ohne Vorausberechnung.

  9. Verknüpfung von DQ-Indikatoren mit KPIs und Auswirkungen auf das Return on Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Frank

    Häufig ist nicht klar, welche Beziehungen zwischen Datenqualitätsindikatoren (DQI, Definition folgt weiter unten) und Key Performance Indicators (KPI, s. Abschnitt 1.3 für weitere Details) eines Unternehmens oder einer Organisation bestehen. Dies ist insbesondere deshalb von Bedeutung, da die Kenntnis dieser Beziehungen maßgeblich die Ausprägung eines Datenqualitätsprojekts beeinflusst. Sie ist als Entscheidungsgrundlage unabdingbar und gibt Antworten auf folgende Fragen: Was kostet unserem Unternehmen/unserer Organisation1 schlechte Datenqualität? Können wir uns das leisten?

  10. Polaprezinc prevents oral mucositis associated with radiochemotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tomoko; Ishihara, Masashi; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Mizuta, Keisuke; Itoh, Yoshinori

    2010-10-15

    Oral mucositis is frequent but serious adverse event associated with radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy in head and neck cancer severely impairs health-related quality of life, leading to poor prognosis due to discontinuation of the therapy. Although a number of compounds have been tested for prophylaxis of oral mucositis, few of them are satisfactory. We investigated the effect of polaprezinc (zinc L-carnosine), a gastric mucosal protective drug, on radiochemotherapy-induced oral mucositis, pain, xerostomia and taste disturbance in patients with head and neck cancer. Patients were randomly assigned to receive polaprezinc (n = 16) or azulene oral rinse as the control (n = 15). The incidence rates of mucositis, pain, xerostomia and taste disturbance were all markedly lower in polaprezinc group than in control. Moreover, the use of analgesics was significantly (p = 0.003) less frequent and the amount of food intake was significantly (p = 0.002) higher in polaprezinc group than in control. On the other hand, tumor response rate in patients with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy was not significantly affected by polaprezinc, in which the response rate (complete plus partial response) was 88% for polaprezinc and 92% for control (p = 1.000). Therefore, it is highly assumable that polaprezinc is potentially useful for prevention of oral mucositis and improvement of quality of life without reducing the tumor response. PMID:20104529

  11. Über die Methode der physikalischen Naturbeschreibung [33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenn es zu den Aufgaben der Philosophie und der wissensehaftlicher Theologie gehört, das Warum und Wie unserer Existenz und ihrer Umwelt zu ergründen, so muss als ihr Ausgangspunkt eine vollständige und möglichst übersichtliche Beschreibung unserer Empfindungen vorliegen. Einen Teil dieser Empfindungen fassen wir unter dem Namen Sinnesempfindungen zusammen. Ob ein solcher Aussehnitt genau abgegrenzt werden kann, soll hier nicht untersucht werden. Es kann sogar mit gewisser Berechtigung behauptet werden, dass eine Unterteilung gar nicht streng durchführbar ist. Der schon in der Philosophie der Antike uns entgegentretende Gedanke, dass die Welt nur in ihrer Gesamtheit rerständlich sein kann, kommt sicherlich der Wahrheit näher als die philosophischen Systeme des verflossenen Jahrhunderts, welche glaubten, dass alies aus unseren materialistischen Erkenntnissen heraus erklärt werden könne. Die Entstehung dieser Systeme, ich denke z. Â. an den Monisimis Haeckels, erklärt sich aus der Hybris, welche die Reaktion der Philosophie auf die bedeutenden Erfolge der exakten Naturwissenschaften war. Die ebenfalls nicht zu imterschätzenden Fortschritte unserer heutigen Kenntnisse auf diesem Gebiete zwingen din Naturforschung eher zu einer immer steigenden Bescheidenheit den "Welträtseln" gegenüber, deren letzte Konsequenz vielleicht darin liegen wird, dass sie die eingangs der Philosophie und Theologie zugewiesene Aufgabe als unlosbar bezeichnen muss..

  12. Subjective voice quality, communicative ability and swallowing after definitive radio(chemo)therapy, laryngectomy plus radio(chemo)therapy, or organ conservation surgery plus radio(chemo)therapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Szuecs, Marcella; Kuhnt, Thomas; Punke, Christoph; Witt, Gabriele; Klautke, Gunther; Kramp, Burkhard; Hildebrandt, Guido

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective analysis focusses on the impact of therapy on perceived long-term post-cancer treatment function. A validated questionnaire including items and components for the assessment of communicative ability, quality of voice and swallowing was sent to 129 patients. All patients were treated between 1998 and 2007. A total of 76 patients (58.9%) with carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx replied to the questionnaire. Data was evaluated retrospectively. Therapy delivered was definitive radio(chemo)therapy (defchRT/RT) (21/76, 28%), laryngectomy + radio(chemo)therapy (LE + chRT/RT) (28/76, 37%), or larynx conservation surgery + radio(chemo)therapy (LCS + chRT/RT) (27/76, 36%). Radiotherapy was administered using 2D- or 3D-conformal planning. The most common concomitant chemotherapy delivered was cisplatin + 5FU. For statistical analyses of the components, averages were calculated and tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the U-test of Mann and Whitney. Differences were assessed by the Monte Carlo method or Fisher's exact test. The single item rates were compared with Fisher's exact test. Mean follow-up was 56.7 months (range, 8-130 months). After defchRT/RT, patients trended towards more substantial-strong hoarseness compared with LCS + chRT/RT (P = 0.2). After LE, patients were dissatisfied with their artificial larynx/electrolarynx and the tone of their voice (P = 0.3, P = 0.07) and communicative ability (P = 0.005, P = 0.008) compared with those treated with defchRT/RT and LCS + chRT/RT, respectively. Dysphagia and additional percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding were more frequent after defchRT/RT in comparison with the other two groups (P < 0.05). Voice quality and communicative ability were slightly worse after defchRT/RT and LE + chRT/RT, but satisfying with all treatment modalities. Further development of the therapy approach is necessary to reduce long-term side effects, with measures of post-treatment function as important endpoints

  13. Subjective voice quality, communicative ability and swallowing after definitive radio(chemo)therapy, laryngectomy plus radio(chemo)therapy, or organ conservation surgery plus radio(chemo)therapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szuecs, Marcella; Kuhnt, Thomas; Punke, Christoph; Witt, Gabriele; Klautke, Gunther; Kramp, Burkhard; Hildebrandt, Guido

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective analysis focusses on the impact of therapy on perceived long-term post-cancer treatment function. A validated questionnaire including items and components for the assessment of communicative ability, quality of voice and swallowing was sent to 129 patients. All patients were treated between 1998 and 2007. A total of 76 patients (58.9%) with carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx replied to the questionnaire. Data was evaluated retrospectively. Therapy delivered was definitive radio(chemo)therapy (defchRT/RT) (21/76, 28%), laryngectomy + radio(chemo)therapy (LE + chRT/RT) (28/76, 37%), or larynx conservation surgery + radio(chemo)therapy (LCS + chRT/RT) (27/76, 36%). Radiotherapy was administered using 2D- or 3D-conformal planning. The most common concomitant chemotherapy delivered was cisplatin + 5FU. For statistical analyses of the components, averages were calculated and tested using the Kruskal–Wallis test and the U-test of Mann and Whitney. Differences were assessed by the Monte Carlo method or Fisher's exact test. The single item rates were compared with Fisher's exact test. Mean follow-up was 56.7 months (range, 8–130 months). After defchRT/RT, patients trended towards more substantial–strong hoarseness compared with LCS + chRT/RT (P = 0.2). After LE, patients were dissatisfied with their artificial larynx/electrolarynx and the tone of their voice (P = 0.3, P = 0.07) and communicative ability (P = 0.005, P = 0.008) compared with those treated with defchRT/RT and LCS + chRT/RT, respectively. Dysphagia and additional percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding were more frequent after defchRT/RT in comparison with the other two groups (P < 0.05). Voice quality and communicative ability were slightly worse after defchRT/RT and LE + chRT/RT, but satisfying with all treatment modalities. Further development of the therapy approach is necessary to reduce long-term side effects, with measures of post-treatment function as important

  14. Electrogustometry and contact endoscopy findings in patients with head and neck malignancies treated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Pavlos; Gouveris, Haralampos; Gorgulla, Harald; Hast, Hans-Jochem; Maurer, Jan

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate in parallel changes in gustatory function, changes in morphology of the fungiform papillae, as well as changes in the shape and density of the vessels of the tip of the tongue in patients treated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or radiochemotherapy. Twenty patients (7 females and 13 males; age range: 42-78 years) with head and neck malignancies (hypopharynx, larynx, oropharynx, and parotid) treated with radiochemotherapy (n = 8), chemotherapy (n = 8), or radiotherapy (n = 4) were prospectively studied. In all patients, electrogustometry and contact endoscopy were performed. Radiotherapy-treated patients exhibited higher electrogustometry thresholds and greater alterations in the morphology and vascularization of the fungiform papillae than the other two groups. Radiochemotherapy patients had less pronounced changes of the electrogustometry threshold and fungiform papillae structure compared with radiotherapy patients. Chemotherapy alone caused less severe change in both electrogustometry threshold and fungiform papillae structure than radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy. Radiotherapy alone caused greater disorders of taste-related anatomic parameters and electrogustometry thresholds compared with chemotherapy and combined radiochemotherapy. PMID:25715386

  15. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Application in Response Prediction before, during, and after Neoadjuvant Radiochemotherapy in Primary Rectal Cancer Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Musio, Daniela; De Felice, Francesca; Magnante, Anna Lisa; Rengo, Marco; Redler, Adriano; Laghi, Andrea; Raffetto, Nicola; Tombolini, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Our interest was to monitor treatment response using ADC value to predict response of rectal tumour to preoperative radiochemotherapy. Materials and Methods. Twenty-two patients were treated with long course of radiochemotherapy, followed by surgery. Patients were examined by diffusion-weighted imaging MRI at three-time points (prior, during, and after radiochemotherapy) and were classified as responders and nonresponders. Results. A statistical significant correlation was found between preradiochemotherapy ADC values and during treatment ADC values, in responders (F = 21.50, P value <0.05). An increase in ADC value during treatment was predictive of at least a partial response. Discussion. Response of tumour to neoadjuvant therapy cannot be easily evaluated, and such capability might be of great importance in clinical practice, because the number of irradiated and operated patients may be superior to the number of who will really benefit from this multimodal treatment. A reliable prediction of the final clinical TN stage would allow radiotherapist to adapt multidisciplinary approach to a less invasive management, sparing surgical procedure in responder patients or even allowing an early surgery in nonresponders, which would significantly reduce radiochemotherapy related toxicity. Conclusion. Early evaluation of response during neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy treatment shows great promise to predict tumour response. PMID:23936841

  16. Einführung in die Technische Chemie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Arno; Agar, David W.; Jörissen, Jakob

    Die "Technische Chemie" ist ein Lehrfach an Universitäten und Hochschulen. Nach dem die Studierenden der Chemie in den ersten Semestern ihres Studiums ausrei chen de theoretische Kenntnisse in Allgemeiner, Anorganischer, Organischer und Physikalischer Chemie erlangt haben, soll die Technische Chemie einen Blick auf die praktische Anwendung dieser Naturwissenschaft in unserer Wirtschaft lenken. Es gibt keine "biologische Industrie", "physikalische Industrie" oder "mathematische Industrie", wohl aber seit über 150 Jahren eine "chemische Industrie", die in dieser lan gen Zeit zahlreiche chemische Prozesse entwickelt und dazu vielfältige Methoden erarbeitet hat. Das Lehrfach Technische Chemie gibt einen Überblick über diese Pro zesse und Methoden und erleichtert dadurch den Schritt von der Universität zur be ruflichen Praxis.

  17. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C. Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation determined whether selected ion beam sputtered coatings on H-13 die steel would have the potential of improving the thermal fatigue behavior of the steel used as a die in aluminum die casting. The coatings were selected to test candidate insulators and metals capable of providing protection of the die surface. The studies indicate that 1 micrometer thick W and Pt coatings reduced the thermal fatigue more than any other coating tested and are candidates to be used on a die surface to increase die life.

  18. Combination of Recombinant Adenovirus-p53 with Radiochemotherapy in Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-luan; Cai, Yong; Zhang, Shan-wen; Xiao, Shao-wen; Li, Xiao-fan; Duan, You-jia; Li, Yong-heng; Xu, Bo; Yan, Kun

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety and efficacy of the combination of recombinant adenovirus-p53 (rAd-p53) with radiochemotherapy for treating unresectable pancreatic carcinoma. Methods The eligible patients received concurrent rAd-p53 intratumoral injection and radiochemotherapy. Intratumoral injection of rAd-p53 was guided by B ultrasound. Radiochemotherapy consisted of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) at two dose levels and intravenous gemcitabine (Gem). For radiotherapy, gross target volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) were 55-60 Gy and 45-55 Gy in 25-30 fractions, respectively. Concurrent intravenous gemcitabine was administered at 350 mg/m2, weekly, for 6 weeks. The primary end points included toxicity, clinical benefit response (CBR) and disease control rate (DCR). The secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Fifteen eligible patients were enrolled. Eight patients (53.3%) were evaluated as CBR and 12 (80%) achieved DCR. The median PFS and OS were 6.7 and 13.8 months, respectively. One-year PFS and OS were 40.0% and 51.1%, respectively. There were 8 (53.3%) patients reported grade 3 toxicities including neutropenia (6 patients, 40%), fever (1 patient, 6.7%) and fatigue (1 patient, 6.7%). There was no grade 4 toxicity reported. Conclusion Combination of rAd-p53 in unresectable pancreatic carcinoma showed encouraging efficacious benefit and was well tolerated. Long-term follow-up is needed to confirm the improvement of PFS and OS. PMID:23467436

  19. Use of Curcumin Mouthrinse in Radio-Chemotherapy Induced Oral Mucositis Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Guledgud, Mahima V.; Kulkarni, P.K.; Keshari, Deepika; Tayal, Srishti

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral Mucositis is a complex and distinct pathobiologic entity resulting in injuries in mucosa that is a common complication in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (CT) and radiation therapy (RT). Phytochemicals, such as Curcumin, turmeric extract, has attracted great attention for its therapeutic benefits in clinical oncology due to its chemopreventive, antitumoral, chemosensibilizing and radiosensibilizing activities against various types of cancers and the complications associated with their management. Aim To evaluate the efficacy and safety of curcumin mouthwash in the management of Oral Mucositis in cancer patients undergoing radio-chemotherapy. Materials and Methods The research group consisted of 20 adult cancer patients undergoing radio-chemotherapy at the Regional Oncology Centre, who were evaluated for signs and symptoms of oral mucositis and then randomly divided into two groups. Standard preventive oral care i.e. chlorhexidine mouthwash 0.2% was given to one group while the other group was provided with freshly prepared curcumin mouthwash; each to be used thrice daily. Oral mucositis was assessed at days 0, 10 and 20. The World Health Organization (WHO) scale, the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS), and a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS; patient reporting scale of 0-10) were used. Adverse events were tracked. Statistical Analysis Descriptive statistics, Independent sample t-test and repeated measure ANOVA test were performed. Results Statistically significant difference was found in the NRS (p=0.000), Erythema (p=0.050), ulceration (p=0.000) and WHO scores (p=0.003) between the two groups. Conclusion Curcumin was found to be better than chlorhexidine mouth wash in terms of rapid wound healing and better patient compliance in management of radio-chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. No oral or systemic complications were reported. PMID:26436049

  20. Prophylaxis with povidone-iodine against induction of oral mucositis by radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Adamietz, I A; Rahn, R; Böttcher, H D; Schäfer, V; Reimer, K; Fleischer, W

    1998-07-01

    Oral mucositis is a frequent complication of radiochemotherapy. The origin of radiation-induced mucosal lesions is iatrogenic in nature, although further development of mucositis is essentially influenced by infection. It can be assumed that disinfection measures should decrease the severity of mucositis induced by radiochemotherapy. Therefore, in a prospective randomised study the efficacy of prophylactic oral rinsing with a disinfection agent was investigated. A randomised, prospective comparative trial was conducted with 40 patients undergoing radiochemotherapy of the head and neck region because of malignant disease. The treatment scheme consisted of irradiation to the tumour region and adjacent lymph nodes, with a total dose of 71.3 Gy, and simultaneous chemotherapy with carboplatin (60 mg/m2) on days 1-5 and 29-34. In all patients mucositis prophylaxis with nystatin, rutosides, panthenol and immunoglobulin was undertaken. In addition, 20 patients rinsed the oral cavity 4 times daily with povidone-iodine solution, while the group for comparison rinsed with sterile water. Clinical examination of the oral mucosa was performed weekly. Onset, grading and duration of mucositis were used as the main variables. Clinically manifest oral mucositis was observed in 14 patients in the iodine group (mean grading: 1.0) and in all 20 patients in the control group (mean grading: 3.0). The total duration (mean) of clinically observed mucositis was 2.75 weeks in treatment patients and 9.25 weeks in control patients. Median AUC (area under curve for grade vs duration) was 2.5 in the iodine rinsing patients and 15.75 in control patients. All differences found between the two groups were statistically significant. Increased iodine incorporation was not observed. A pathologic rise in thyroid hormone levels was not found in the iodine group. The results obtained indicate that incidence, severity and duration of radiochemotherapy-induced mucositis can be significantly reduced by oral

  1. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  2. Wege in die Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauermann, Göran; Mosler, Karl

    Die Zukunft stellt große Herausforderungen an die Arbeit der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft. Sie betreffen die gestiegenen Anforderungen der Nutzer von Statistik, die Kommunikationsmöglichkeiten des Internets sowie die Dynamik der statistischen Wissenschaften und ihrer Anwendungsgebiete. Das Kapitel 5 beschreibt, wie sich die Gesellschaft diesen Herausforderungen stellt und welche Ziele sie sich in der wissenschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit und im Kampf gegen das Innumeratentum gesetzt hat.

  3. Negative prognostic impact of regulatory T cell infiltration in surgically resected esophageal cancer post-radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Semeraro, Michaela; Enot, David P; Chaba, Kariman; Poirier Colame, Vichnou; Dartigues, Peggy; Perier, Aurelie; Villa, Irene; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Gronnier, Caroline; Goéré, Diane; Mariette, Christophe; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-08-28

    Ever accumulating evidence indicates that the long-term effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy largely depend on the induction (or restoration) of an anticancer immune response. Here, we investigated this paradigm in the context of esophageal carcinomas treated by neo-adjuvant radiochemotherapy, in a cohort encompassing 196 patients. We found that the density of the FOXP3+ regulatory T cell (Treg) infiltrate present in the residual tumor (or its scar) correlated with the pathological response (the less Tregs the more pronounced was the histological response) and predicted cancer-specific survival. In contrast, there was no significant clinical impact of the frequency of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. At difference with breast or colorectal cancer, a loss-of-function allele of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) improved cancer-specific survival of patients with esophageal cancer. While a loss-of-function allele of purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7 (P2RX7) failed to affect cancer-specific survival, its presence did correlate with an increase in Treg infiltration. Altogether, these results corroborate the notion that the immunosurveillance seals the fate of patients with esophageal carcinomas treated with conventional radiochemotherapy. PMID:26369701

  4. Radiochemotherapy plus 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, NSC #663249) in Advanced-Stage Cervical and Vaginal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kunos, Charles A.; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Waggoner, Steven; Debernardo, Robert; Zanotti, Kristine; Resnick, Kimberly; Fusco, Nancy; Adams, Ramon; Redline, Raymond; Faulhaber, Peter; Dowlati, Afshin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cervical and vaginal cancers have virally-mediated or mutated defects in DNA damage repair responses, making these cancers sensible targets for ribonucleotide reductase inhibition during radiochemotherapy. Methods We conducted a phase II study evaluating 3x weekly 2-hour intravenous 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-AP, 25 mg/m2) co-administered with 1x weekly intravenous cisplatin (40 mg/m2) and daily pelvic radiation (45 Gy) in women with stage IB2-IVB cervical (n = 22) or stage II-IV vaginal (n = 3) cancers. Brachytherapy followed (40 Gy). Toxicity was monitored by common terminology criteria for adverse events (version 3.0). The primary end point of response was assessed by 3-month posttherapy 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (PET/CT) and clinical examination. Results 3-AP radiochemotherapy achieved clinical responses in 24 (96% [95% confidence interval: 80-99%]) of 25 patients (median follow-up 20 months, range 2-35 months). 23 (96% [95% confidence interval: 80-99%]) of 24 patients had 3-month posttherapy PET/CT scans that recorded metabolic activity in the cervix or vagina equal or less than that of the cardiac blood pool, suggesting complete metabolic responses. The most frequent 3-AP radiochemotherapy-related adverse events included fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, and reversible hematological and electrolyte abnormalities. Conclusions The addition of 3-AP to cisplatin radiochemotherapy was tolerable and produced high rates of clinical and metabolic responses in women with cervical and vaginal cancers. Future randomized phase II and III clinical trials of 3-AP radiochemotherapy are warranted. PMID:23603372

  5. KomTronic® - Aktorische Werkzeugsysteme für die Einsatzerweiterung von Standard-Bearbeitungszentren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronius, Jürgen

    Die Entwickler spanender Fertigungssysteme stehen seit geraumer Zeit unter erhöhtem Innovationsdruck. Neben dem entscheidenden Aspekt der Stückkosten spielt das gesteigerte Umweltbewusstsein eine zunehmende Rolle. Die aktuelleKrise des Kreditwesens tut ein Übriges um den Forderungen nach geringen Investitionskosten und damit geringem Kreditbedarf oder erhöhter Flexibilität zur Kosteneinsparung bei Serienumstellung, geringem Energiebedarfund ressourcenschonendem Betrieb neuen Nachdruck zu verschaffen. Auf genau diesen Forderungskatalog wurde die KomTronic® - Produktpalette zugeschnitten. Ausgangspunkt war die Flexibilität die besonders bei komplexen, asymmetrischen Bauteilen eine Herausforderung darstellt. Quaderförmige Bauteile wie Hydraulikventilblöcke oder Zylinderköpfe von Verbrennungsmotoren stellen in ihrer Kombination aus Fräs- Drehbearbeitungen die "Königsklasse“ der spanenden Fertigung dar. Die Lösungen, besonders für die Drehkonturen sind im Allgemeinen großserientauglich ausgelegt. Die Konsequenz sind bauteilbezogen ausgelegte Transferstrassen oder Rundtaktmaschinen, eine Kombination dieser Bearbeitungen auf einem flexiblen BAZ waren bislang nicht möglich.

  6. Data-Mining für die Angebotsoptimierung im Handel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcke, Jochen; Griebel, Michael; Thess, Michael

    Der Handel ist weltweit durch gravierenden Wettbewerbsdruck gekennzeichnet. Deutschland gilt im Einzelhandel sogar als der wettbewerbsintensivste Markt der Welt. Um in diesem Wettbewerb zu bestehen, vertrauen die meisten Händler auf extensive Formen ungezielten Massenmarketings. Hierbei werden alle potentielle Kunden mit den gleichen riesigen Katalogen, ungezählten Werbebroschüren, aufdringlichen Lautsprecherdurchsagen und schrillen Bannerwerbungen bearbeitet. Im Ergebnis sind nicht nur die Kunden genervt, sondern auch die Rücklaufraten von Marketingkampagnen seit Jahren fallend. Um dies zu vermeiden, ist eine Individualisierung des Massenmarketings empfehlenswert, in der Kunden auf sie zugeschnittene, individuelle Angebote erhalten. Die Aufgabe besteht darin, dem richtigen Kunden zum richtigen Zeitpunkt zum richtigen Preis das richtige Angebot zu unterbreiten. Dies stellt sich primär als eine mathematische Aufgabenstellung heraus, die die Bereiche Statistik, Optimierung, Analysis und Numerik betrifft. Die hierbei auftretenden Aufgabenstellungen der Regressionsanalyse, des Clusterings und der Optimalen Steuerung sind durch hohe Dimensionen und riesige Datenmengen gekennzeichnet und erfordern neue mathematische Konzepte und Verfahren.

  7. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften> " Jahrgang 1990 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 90 " "Gott hat die Natur einfältig gemacht, sie aber suchen viel Künste"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Horst

    Der Aufsatz demonstriert anhand ausgiebig kommentierter zeitgenössischer Zeugnisse Goethes Reaktion auf die Arbeiten Fraunhofers, insbesondere auf die Entdeckung der dunklen Linien im Sonnenspektrum. Den Fehlurteilen Goethes werden dabei die Urteile zeitgenössischer Physiker wie Chladni und J.F.W. Herschel gegenübergestellt. Bislang noch ungedruckte Dokumente aus dem Weimarer Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv belegen, daß sich Goethe nicht nur literarisch mit Fraunhofer beschäftigte, sondern daß er auch dessen Versuche mit Hilfe des Jenaer Universitätsmechanikers Körner getreulich zu wiederholen suchte.

  8. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  9. Die grünende IT - Wie die Computerindustrie das Energiesparen neu erfand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Greiner, Wilhelm

    Die IT-Branche hat ihr grünes Gewissen entdeckt. In der jetzigen Verbreitung und Intensität ist dieses Phänomen noch recht neu - lange Zeit schien die Informationstechnik in puncto Umweltverträglichkeit und Energieverbrauch eine "weiße Weste" zu haben. Schließlich läuft ein PC mit Strom und nicht mit - sagen wir mal - einem Dieselmotor: Beim Booten eines Computers schießt nicht erst eine dunkelgraue Rauchwolke aus dem Auspuff, die Lärmerzeugung beschränkt sich auf das Surren des Lüfters, zum Tanken fahren muss man mit ihm auch nicht, und die Produktion der Komponenten erfolgt… ja, wo eigentlich? Irgendwo in der "dritten Welt", in Fernost oder in Mexiko. So sind die umweltschädlichen Aspekte der Produktion von Leiterplatten und sonstigen Bauteilen aus den Augen, aus dem Sinn und bestenfalls sporadisch Gegenstand eines kritischen Greenpeace-Berichts1, der im Überangebot der Medienlandschaft untergeht.

  10. Die drool and die drool theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzer, A. M.; Giacomin, A. Jeffrey

    2013-04-01

    When molten plastic is extruded from a die, it sometimes collects on the open face of the die. Known as die drool, this phenomenon costs plastics manufacturers by requiring die cleaning. This has been attributed to many causes, but none of these has led to an equation for the drool rate. In this work we provide an exact analytical solution for the drool rate, and we base this solution on a postulate of a cohesive slip layer near the die walls. We thus attribute die drool to cohesive failure within the fluid at an internal surface where the fluid slips on itself. We adimensionalize the drool rate with the production rate, and call this the build up ratio, BR. We provide an exact analytical solution for BR when the cohesive slip layer either sticks at the wall. We examine the slit geometry corresponding to sheet or film extrusion.

  11. Pathologic Assessment of Rectal Carcinoma after Neoadjuvant Radio(chemo)therapy: Prognostic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hav, Monirath; Libbrecht, Louis; Ferdinande, Liesbeth; Geboes, Karen; Pattyn, Piet; Cuvelier, Claude A.

    2015-01-01

    Neoadjuvant radio(chemo)therapy is increasingly used in rectal cancer and induces a number of morphologic changes that affect prognostication after curative surgery, thereby creating new challenges for surgical pathologists, particularly in evaluating morphologic changes and tumour response to preoperative treatment. Surgical pathologists play an important role in determining the many facets of rectal carcinoma patient care after neoadjuvant treatment. These range from proper handling of macroscopic specimens to accurate microscopic evaluation of pathological features associated with patients' prognosis. This review presents the well-established pathological prognostic indicators and discusses challenging features in order to provide both surgical pathologists and treating physicians with a checklist that is useful in a neoadjuvant setting. PMID:26509160

  12. Ketogenic Diets Enhance Oxidative Stress and Radio-Chemo-Therapy Responses in Lung Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Bryan G.; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Buatti, John M.; Brandt, Kristin E.; Lindholm, Kaleigh E.; Button, Anna M.; Szweda, Luke I.; Smith, Brian J.; Spitz, Douglas R.; Fath, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ketogenic diets (KDs) are high in fat and low in carbohydrates as well as protein which forces cells to rely on lipid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration rather than glycolysis for energy metabolism. Cancer cells (relative to normal cells) are believed to exist in a state of chronic oxidative stress mediated by mitochondrial metabolism. The current study tests the hypothesis that KDs enhance radio-chemo-therapy responses in lung cancer xenografts by enhancing oxidative stress. Experimental Design Mice bearing NCI-H292 and A549 lung cancer xenografts were fed a KD (KetoCal® 4:1 fats: proteins+carbohydrates) and treated with either conventionally fractionated (1.8-2 Gy) or hypofractionated (6 Gy) radiation as well as conventionally fractionated radiation combined with carboplatin. Mice weights and tumor size were monitored. Tumors were assessed for immuno-reactive 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-(4HNE) modified proteins as a marker of oxidative stress as well as PCNA and γH2AX as indices of proliferation and DNA damage, respectively. Results The KD combined with radiation resulted in slower tumor growth in both NCI-H292 and A549 xenografts (p<0.05), relative to radiation alone. The KD also slowed tumor growth when combined with carboplatin and radiation, relative to control. Tumors from animals fed a KD in combination with radiation demonstrated increases in oxidative damage mediated by lipid peroxidation as determined by 4HNE-modified proteins as well as decreased proliferation as assessed by decreased immunoreactive PCNA. Conclusions These results show that a KD enhances radio-chemo-therapy responses in lung cancer xenografts by a mechanism that may involve increased oxidative stress. PMID:23743570

  13. Radio-chemotherapy in anal cancer: Institutional experience at a large radiation oncology center in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Moisés; Ovalle, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Aim In this article the aim is to provide a concise narrative review and inform the institutional experience at a referral center in Chile with the use of radio-chemotherapy in anal cancer. Background Cancer of the anus and anal canal is mainly a loco-regional disease. For years the standard of care has been concomitant radio-chemotherapy, which permits organ preservation and better local control than alternative surgical procedures. Materials and methods A retrospective analysis of 44 patients treated between 2002 and 2010 was performed. Local recurrence, distant recurrence and overall survival were analyzed with the Kaplan–Meier method. Relevant groups where compared with the log-rank test and univariate analysis were done with the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Median follow-up of the cohort was 56 months, with a minimum follow-up of at least 24 months. There was a significant difference between clinical stages in disease free survival (log-rank trend p < 0.001), and a significant difference in overall survival (OS) when comparing clinical stages that were grouped in stage I–IIIa and IIIB (log-rank p = 0.001). On univariate analysis, age older than 60, having received full treatment and dose above 45 Gy were all significantly related to OS (p < 0.05). An overall survival of 45% and disease free survival of 45% at 5 years were found in our series. Conclusions Our findings show that results at the Instituto de Radiomedicina in Chile are comparable to published literature. Dismal results in stage IIIb cases indicate much work remains in therapies to achieve loco-regional control in locally advanced cases. PMID:25061522

  14. Signale ohne Antwort? Die Suche nach außerirdischem Leben.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davoust, E.

    This book is a German translation, by M. Röser, of the English version "The cosmic water hole", published in 1991 (see 53.003.080). The original French edition "Silence au point d'eau" was published in 1988 (see 45.003.059). Contents: I. Leben auf der Erde. 1. Kometen und der Ursprung des Lebens. 2. Die zeitliche Dimension des Lebens. 3. Evolution und Katastrophen. 4. Liegt unsere Zukunft im Weltall? II. Leben im Universum. 5. Die Suche nach Leben in der Sonnenumgebung. 6. Die Suche nach Planetensystemen. III. Intelligentes Leben im Universum. 7. Demographie außerirdischer Zivilisationen. 8. Soziologie außerirdischer Zivilisationen. 9. UFO's und Besuche in der Vergangenheit. 10. Strategien bei der Suche nach außerirdischen Zivilisationen. 11. Die Suche nach künstlichen Signalen. 12. Die Diskussion innerhalb der Gesellschaft. 13. Die Stellung des Menschen im Universum.

  15. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  16. Displaced capillary dies

    DOEpatents

    Kalejs, Juris P.; Chalmers, Bruce; Surek, Thomas

    1982-01-01

    An asymmetrical shaped capillary die made exclusively of graphite is used to grow silicon ribbon which is capable of being made into solar cells that are more efficient than cells produced from ribbon made using a symmetrically shaped die.

  17. Packaged die heater

    SciTech Connect

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  18. Effect of Pretreatment Anemia on Treatment Outcome of Concurrent Radiochemotherapy in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fortin, Andre Wang Changshu; Vigneault, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of anemia on outcome of treatment with radiochemotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: The data of 196 patients with Stage II-IV head-and-neck cancer treated with concomitant cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Anemia was defined according to World Health Organization criteria as hemoglobin <130 g/L in men and <120 g/L in women. Results: Fifty-three patients were classified as anemic, 143 as nonanemic. The 3-year local control rate of anemic and nonanemic patients was 72% and 85%, respectively (p = 0.01). The 3-year overall survival rate of anemic and nonanemic patients was 52% and 77%, respectively (p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, anemia was the most significant predictor of local control (hazard ratio, 0.37, p = 0.009) and survival (hazard ratio, 0.47, p = 0.007). A dose-effect relationship was also found for local control (p = .04) and survival (0.04) when grouping by hemoglobin concentration: <120, 120-140, and >140 g/L. Conclusions: Anemia was strongly associated with local control and survival in this cohort of patients with head-and-neck cancer receiving radiochemotherapy.

  19. HIGH PRESSURE DIES

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, W.B.

    1960-05-31

    A press was invented for subjecting specimens of bismuth, urania, yttria, or thoria to high pressures and temperatures. The press comprises die parts enclosing a space in which is placed an electric heater thermally insulated from the die parts so as not to damage them by heat. The die parts comprise two opposed inner frustoconical parts and an outer part having a double frustoconical recess receiving the inner parts. The die space decreases in size as the inner die parts move toward one another against the outer part and the inner parts, though very hard, do not fracture because of the mode of support provided by the outer part.

  20. Organisation des gesundheitlichen Verbraucherschutzes auf Bundesebene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschiersky-Schöneburg, Helmut; Büttner, Antje

    Zahlreiche Krisen wie Dioxin belastete Futtermittel, die missbräuchliche Verwendung von Antibiotika in der Schweinemast und nicht zuletzt das Auftreten von BSE in Deutschland erschütterten Ende der neunziger Jahre das Vertrauen der Bürger in die Sicherheit der Lebensmittel. Mit dem Weißbuch zur Lebensmittelsicherheit, das im Januar 2000 herausgegeben wurde, hatte die Europäische Kommission ihre Erfahrungen aus dem BSE-Geschehen in ein neues Konzept für den Verbraucherschutz eingearbeitet. Kernstücke des Konzepts sind die ganzheitliche Betrachtung der Lebensmittelsicherheit von der landwirtschaftlichen Erzeugung bis zum Verzehr und der Anspruch nach Transparenz und Unabhängigkeit der Risikobewertung.

  1. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften¬Jahrgang 1990 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 90¬"Gott hat die Natur einfältig gemacht, sie aber suchen viel Künste"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Horst

    Der Aufsatz demonstriert anhand ausgiebig kommentierter zeitgenössischer Zeugnisse Goethes Reaktion auf die Arbeiten Fraunhofers, insbesondere auf die Entdeckung der dunklen Linien im Sonnenspektrum. Den Fehlurteilen Goethes werden dabei die Urteile zeitgenössischer Physiker wie Chladni und J.F.W. Herschel gegenübergestellt. Bislang noch ungedruckte Dokumente aus dem Weimarer Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv belegen, daß sich Goethe nicht nur literarisch mit Fraunhofer beschäftigte, sondern daß er auch dessen Versuche mit Hilfe des Jenaer Universitätsmechanikers Körner getreulich zu wiederholen suchte.

  2. Die singulation method

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Thomas P; Garcia, Ernest J; Francis, Kathryn M

    2014-01-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with a HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  3. Die singulation method

    SciTech Connect

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  4. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-04-26

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of rhombic cell cross-section by extrusion through an extrusion die of triangular cell discharge slot configuration, the die incorporating feedholes at selected slot intersections only, such that slot segments communicating directly with the feedholes discharge web material and slot segments not so connected do not discharge web material, whereby a rhombic cell cross-section in the extruded body is provided.

  5. The Ambiguous Dying Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bern-Klug, Mercedes

    2004-01-01

    More than one-half of the 2.4 million deaths that will occur in the United States in 2004 will be immediately preceded by a time in which the likelihood of dying can best be described as "ambiguous." Many people die without ever being considered "dying" or "at the end of life." These people may miss out on the opportunity to close important…

  6. Sputtered protective coatings for die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Nieh, C.-Y.; Wallace, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Three experimental research designs investigating candidate materials and processes involved in protective die surface coating procedures by sputter deposition, using ion beam technologies, are discussed. Various pre-test results show that none of the coatings remained completely intact for 15,000 test cycles. The longest lifetime was observed for coatings such as tungsten, platinum, and molybdenum which reduced thermal fatigue, but exhibited oxidation and suppressed crack initiation only as long as the coating did not fracture. Final test results confirmed earlier findings and coatings with Pt and W proved to be the candidate materials to be used on a die surface to increase die life. In the W-coated specimens, which remained intact on the surface after thermal fatigue testing, no oxidation was found under the coating, although a few cracks formed on the surface where the coating broke down. Further research is planned.

  7. [Analysis of therapeutic efficacy of combined radio-chemotherapy, pre-radio-therapy in 61 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Saito, Y; Kikuchi, Y; Hayasaka, K; Sugie, H; Ishizawa, M; Amoh, K; Fujita, M; Uekita, Y; Nishino, S

    1989-01-20

    Treatment results were retrospectively analyzed in 61 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (stage I: 21 cases, stage II: 40 cases) that were diagnosed between July, 1977 and Oct., 1987. The actuarial five-year survival rates for stages I and II were 84.4% and 50.7% respectively, whereas those were 47.5% and 75.3% respectively for those treated by radiotherapy (XRT) alone and combined radio-chemotherapy including all cases of stage I and II. Also the results of combined radio-chemotherapy were significantly better than those of XRT alone. Particularly, the pre-radio-chemotherapy group had a 5-year survival rate of 85.7%. In conclusion, the results of combined radio-chemotherapy, particularly pre-radio-chemotherapy, was significant between those of XRT alone. PMID:2738439

  8. Aktivitätsmessung auf nukleinsäuremodifizierten Oberflächen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Peter Michael

    2003-06-01

    Im Bereich der medizinischen Diagnostik spielen DNA-Chips eine immer wichtigere Rolle. Dabei werden Glas- oder Silikon-Oberflächen mit Tausenden von einzelsträngigen DNA-Fragmenten, sog. Sonden, bestückt, die mit den passenden DNA-Fragmenten in der zugefügten Patientenprobe verschmelzen. Die Auswertung solcher Messungen liefert die Diagnose für Krankheiten wie z.B. Krebs, Alzheimer oder für den Nachweis pathogener Erreger. Durch fortschreitende Miniaturisierung dieser Meßsysteme können bis zu 40.000 Genfragmente des Menschen in einer einzigen Messung analysiert werden. Neben den DNA-Fragmenten können Bio-Chips auch für andere biologische Komponenten wie Antikörper und Proteine eingesetzt werden, wobei bei letzteren neben der Bindung auch die Aktivität ein wichtiger Diagnoseparamter ist. Am Fraunhofer-Institut für medizinische Technik und am Lehrstuhl für Analytische Biochemie der Universität Potsdam wurden im Rahmen einer Doktorarbeit Methoden entwickelt, die es ermöglichen auf nukleinsäuremodifizierten Sensoroberflächen die Aktivität von Proteinen zu messen. Es wurden Nukleinsäuren auf Oberflächen optischer Sensoren verankert. Diese fungierten als Rezeptor für die Proteine sowie auch als Substrat für Restriktionsenzyme, die Nukleinsäuren schneiden und Polymerasen, die Nukleinsäuren synthetisieren und verlängern können. Seine Anwendung fand diese Messmethode in der Messung der Aktivität des Proteins Telomerase, das in 90% aller Tumore erhöhte Aktivität gegenüber gesunden Zellen aufweist. Die Vorteile dieses neuen Assays gegenüber älteren Methoden liegt im Verzicht auf radioaktiv-markierten Komponenten und einer deutlich verkürzten Analysezeit. Die Arbeit schliesst mit einem funktionsfähigen Nachweis der Telomeraseaktivität im Zellextrakt von gesunden und kranken Zellen. Der direkte Einfluß von Hemmstoffen auf die Aktivität konnte sichtbar gemacht werden, und steht daher bei der Entwicklung neuer Tumor-Diagnostika und

  9. Aktivitätsmessung auf nukleinsäuremodifizierten Oberflächen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Peter Michael

    2003-06-01

    Im Bereich der medizinischen Diagnostik spielen DNA-Chips eine immer wichtigere Rolle. Dabei werden Glas- oder Silikon-Oberflächen mit Tausenden von einzelsträngigen DNA-Fragmenten, sog. Sonden, bestückt, die mit den passenden DNA-Fragmenten in der zugefügten Patientenprobe verschmelzen. Die Auswertung solcher Messungen liefert die Diagnose für Krankheiten wie z.B. Krebs, Alzheimer oder für den Nachweis pathogener Erreger. Durch fortschreitende Miniaturisierung dieser Meßsysteme können bis zu 40.000 Genfragmente des Menschen in einer einzigen Messung analysiert werden. Neben den DNA-Fragmenten können Bio-Chips auch für andere biologische Komponenten wie Antikörper und Proteine eingesetzt werden, wobei bei letzteren neben der Bindung auch die Aktivität ein wichtiger Diagnoseparamter ist. Am Fraunhofer-Institut für medizinische Technik und am Lehrstuhl für Analytische Biochemie der Universität Potsdam wurden im Rahmen einer Doktorarbeit Methoden entwickelt, die es ermöglichen auf nukleinsäuremodifizierten Sensoroberflächen die Aktivität von Proteinen zu messen. Es wurden Nukleinsäuren auf Oberflächen optischer Sensoren verankert. Diese fungierten als Rezeptor für die Proteine sowie auch als Substrat für Restriktionsenzyme, die Nukleinsäuren schneiden und Polymerasen, die Nukleinsäuren synthetisieren und verlängern können. Seine Anwendung fand diese Messmethode in der Messung der Aktivität des Proteins Telomerase, das in 90% aller Tumore erhöhte Aktivität gegenüber gesunden Zellen aufweist. Die Vorteile dieses neuen Assays gegenüber älteren Methoden liegt im Verzicht auf radioaktiv-markierten Komponenten und einer deutlich verkürzten Analysezeit. Die Arbeit schliesst mit einem funktionsfähigen Nachweis der Telomeraseaktivität im Zellextrakt von gesunden und kranken Zellen. Der direkte Einfluß von Hemmstoffen auf die Aktivität konnte sichtbar gemacht werden, und steht daher bei der Entwicklung neuer Tumor-Diagnostika und

  10. Zum Einfluss der Filtergeschwindigkeit des Grundwassers auf die effektive Wärmeleitfähigkeit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Heiko; Arslan, Ulvi; Sass, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    By means of experimental investigation with a custom-built laboratory test station for measuring thermal conduction and convection, the increase in effective thermal conductivity due to the Darcy velocity in geothermal systems was investigated. The applicability of the database to in-situ geothermal systems was tested via extensive investigation at geothermal field sites. The increase in effective thermal conductivity due to groundwater flow was determined for sands of low, medium and high permeability. As a result of the study, additional recommendations have been developed for the design of groundwater-influenced geothermal systems which can complement the present directive (VDI-4640-1, 2010).

  11. Die Soldering in Aluminium Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Kenik, E.A.; Viswanathan, S.

    2000-03-15

    Two types of tests, dipping tests and dip-coating tests were carried out on small steel cylinders using pure aluminum and 380 alloy to investigate the mechanism of die soldering during aluminum die casting. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and composition of the phases formed during soldering. A soldering mechanism is postulated based on experimental observations. A soldering critical temperature is postulated at which iron begins to react with aluminum to form an aluminum-rich liquid phase and solid intermetallic compounds. When the temperature at the die surface is higher than this critical temperature, the aluminum-rich phase is liquid and joins the die with the casting during the subsequent solidification. The paper discusses the mechanism of soldering for the case of pure aluminum and 380 alloy casting in a steel mold, the factors that promote soldering, and the strength of the bond formed when soldering occurs. conditions, an aluminum-rich soldering layer may also form over the intermetallic layer. Although a significant amount of research has been conducted on the nature of these intermetallics, little is known about the conditions under which soldering occurs.

  12. Is Dying Young Worse than Dying Old?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jecker, Nancy S.; Schneiderman, Lawrence J.

    1994-01-01

    Notes that, in contemporary Western society, people feel death of small child is greater injustice than death of older adult and experience correspondingly greater sorrow, anger, regret, or bitterness when very young person dies. Contrasts these attitudes with those of ancient Greece and shows relevance that different attitudes toward death have…

  13. Extrusion die and method

    DOEpatents

    Lipp, G. Daniel

    1994-05-03

    A method and die apparatus for manufacturing a honeycomb body of triangular cell cross-section and high cell density, the die having a combination of (i) feedholes feeding slot intersections and (ii) feedholes feeding slot segments not supplied from slot intersections, whereby a reduction in feedhole count is achieved while still retaining good extrusion efficiency and extrudate uniformity.

  14. Micromechanical die attachment surcharge

    DOEpatents

    Filter, William F.; Hohimer, John P.

    2002-01-01

    An attachment structure is disclosed for attaching a die to a supporting substrate without the use of adhesives or solder. The attachment structure, which can be formed by micromachining, functions purely mechanically in utilizing a plurality of shaped pillars (e.g. round, square or polygonal and solid, hollow or slotted) that are formed on one of the die or supporting substrate and which can be urged into contact with various types of mating structures including other pillars, a deformable layer or a plurality of receptacles that are formed on the other of the die or supporting substrate, thereby forming a friction bond that holds the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure can further include an alignment structure for precise positioning of the die and supporting substrate to facilitate mounting the die to the supporting substrate. The attachment structure has applications for mounting semiconductor die containing a microelectromechanical (MEM) device, a microsensor or an integrated circuit (IC), and can be used to form a multichip module. The attachment structure is particularly useful for mounting die containing released MEM devices since these devices are fragile and can otherwise be damaged or degraded by adhesive or solder mounting.

  15. Auf der Suche nach extrasolaren Transitplaneten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, René

    2010-06-01

    Planeten um andere Sonnen, die von der Erde aus gesehen einmal während ihres Orbits vor ihrem Zentralstern vorbeiziehen, eröffnen eine bis vor Kurzem ungeahnte Palette an Möglichkeiten zu ihrer Untersuchung. Nur: Wo am Himmel lassen sich diese Kandidaten für Sternbedeckungen eigentlich finden?

  16. Review of Adjuvant Radiochemotherapy for Resected Pancreatic Cancer and Results From Mayo Clinic for the 5th JUCTS Symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Robert C. Iott, Matthew J.; Corsini, Michele M.

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To present an overview of Phase III trials in adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer and review outcomes at the Mayo Clinic after adjuvant radiochemotherapy (RT/CT) for resected pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: A literature review and a retrospective review of 472 patients who underwent an R0 resection for T1-3N0-1M0 invasive carcinoma of the pancreas from 1975 to 2005 at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Patients with metastatic or unresectable disease at the time of surgery, positive surgical margins, or indolent tumors and those treated with intraoperative radiotherapy were excluded from the analysis. Median radiotherapy dose was 50.4Gy in 28 fractions, with 98% of patients receiving concurrent 5-fluorouracil- based chemotherapy. Results: Median follow-up was 2.7 years. Median overall survival (OS) was 1.8 years. Median OS after adjuvant RT/CT was 2.1 vs. 1.6 years for surgery alone (p = 0.001). The 2-y OS was 50% vs. 39%, and 5-y was 28% vs. 17% for patients receiving RT/CT vs. surgery alone. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that adverse prognostic factors were positive lymph nodes (risk ratio [RR] 1.3, p < 0.001) and high histologic grade (RR 1.2, p < 0.001). T3 tumor status was found significant on univariate analysis only (RR 1.1, p = 0.07). Conclusions: Results from recent clinical trials support the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in resected pancreatic cancer. The role of radiochemotherapy in adjuvant treatment of pancreatic cancer remains a topic of debate. Results from the Mayo Clinic suggest improved outcomes after the administration of adjuvant radiochemotherapy after a complete resection of invasive pancreatic malignancies.

  17. Association Between the Cytogenetic Profile of Tumor Cells and Response to Preoperative Radiochemotherapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    González-González, María; Garcia, Jacinto; Alcazar, José A.; Gutiérrez, María L.; Gónzalez, Luis M.; Bengoechea, Oscar; Abad, María M.; Santos-Briz, Angel; Blanco, Oscar; Martín, Manuela; Rodríguez, Ana; Fuentes, Manuel; Muñoz-Bellvis, Luis; Orfao, Alberto; Sayagues, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy to locally advanced rectal carcinoma patients has proven efficient in a high percentage of cases. Despite this, some patients show nonresponse or even disease progression. Recent studies suggest that different genetic alterations may be associated with sensitivity versus resistance of rectal cancer tumor cells to neoadjuvant therapy. We investigated the relationship between intratumoral pathways of clonal evolution as assessed by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (51 different probes) and response to neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy, evaluated by Dworak criteria in 45 rectal cancer tumors before (n = 45) and after (n = 31) treatment. Losses of chromosomes 1p (44%), 8p (53%), 17p (47%), and 18q (38%) and gains of 1q (49%) and 13q (75%) as well as amplification of 8q (38%) and 20q (47%) chromosomal regions were those specific alterations found at higher frequencies. Significant association (P < 0.05) was found between alteration of 1p, 1q, 11p, 12p, and 17p chromosomal regions and degree of response to neoadjuvant therapy. A clear association was observed between cytogenetic profile of the ancestral tumor cell clone and response to radiochemotherapy; cases presenting with del(17p) showed a poor response to neoadjuvant treatment (P = 0.03), whereas presence of del(1p) was more frequently observed in responder patients (P = 0.0002). Moreover, a significantly higher number of copies of chromosomes 8q (P = 0.004), 13q (P = 0.003), and 20q (P = 0.002) were found after therapy versus paired pretreatment rectal cancer samples. Our results point out the existence of an association between tumor cytogenetics and response to neoadjuvant therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer. Further studies in larger series of patients are necessary to confirm our results. PMID:25474426

  18. Association between the cytogenetic profile of tumor cells and response to preoperative radiochemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    González-González, María; Garcia, Jacinto; Alcazar, José A; Gutiérrez, María L; Gónzalez, Luis M; Bengoechea, Oscar; Abad, María M; Santos-Briz, Angel; Blanco, Oscar; Martín, Manuela; Rodríguez, Ana; Fuentes, Manuel; Muñoz-Bellvis, Luis; Orfao, Alberto; Sayagues, Jose M

    2014-11-01

    Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy to locally advanced rectal carcinoma patients has proven efficient in a high percentage of cases. Despite this, some patients show nonresponse or even disease progression. Recent studies suggest that different genetic alterations may be associated with sensitivity versus resistance of rectal cancer tumor cells to neoadjuvant therapy. We investigated the relationship between intratumoral pathways of clonal evolution as assessed by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (51 different probes) and response to neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy, evaluated by Dworak criteria in 45 rectal cancer tumors before (n = 45) and after (n = 31) treatment. Losses of chromosomes 1p (44%), 8p (53%), 17p (47%), and 18q (38%) and gains of 1q (49%) and 13q (75%) as well as amplification of 8q (38%) and 20q (47%) chromosomal regions were those specific alterations found at higher frequencies. Significant association (P < 0.05) was found between alteration of 1p, 1q, 11p, 12p, and 17p chromosomal regions and degree of response to neoadjuvant therapy. A clear association was observed between cytogenetic profile of the ancestral tumor cell clone and response to radiochemotherapy; cases presenting with del(17p) showed a poor response to neoadjuvant treatment (P = 0.03), whereas presence of del(1p) was more frequently observed in responder patients (P = 0.0002). Moreover, a significantly higher number of copies of chromosomes 8q (P = 0.004), 13q (P = 0.003), and 20q (P = 0.002) were found after therapy versus paired pretreatment rectal cancer samples. Our results point out the existence of an association between tumor cytogenetics and response to neoadjuvant therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer. Further studies in larger series of patients are necessary to confirm our results. PMID:25474426

  19. Neck control after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck control outcomes after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of fifty patients with node-positive head and neck cancer who received definitive radiochemotherapy. Twelve patients subsequently underwent neck dissection for suspicious recurrent or persistent disease. A median dose of 70 Gy (range 60-70.6) was delivered to involved nodes. Response evaluation was performed at a median of 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Results Neck failure was observed in 11 patients and the 3-year regional control (RC) rate was 77.1%. Neck dissection was performed in 10 of the 11 patients; seven of these cases were successfully salvaged, and the ultimate rate of neck control was 92%. The remaining two patients who received neck dissection had negative pathologic results. On univariate analysis, initial nodal size > 2 cm, a less-than-complete response at the primary site, post-radiotherapy nodal size > 1.5 cm, and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were associated with RC. On multivariate analysis, less-than-complete primary site response and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were identified as independent prognostic factors for RC. Conclusions The neck failure rate after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection was 22%. Two-thirds of these were successfully salvaged with neck dissection and the ultimate neck control rate was 92%. Our results suggest that planned neck dissection might not be necessary in patients with complete response of primary site, no evidence of residual lesion > 1.5 cm, or no necrotic lymph nodes at the 1-2 months follow-up evaluation after radiotherapy. PMID:22313843

  20. Radiochemotherapy in Patients With Primary Glioblastoma Comparing Two Temozolomide Dose Regimens

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, Stephanie E. Wagner, Johanna; Bischof, Marc; Welzel, Thomas; Edler, Lutz; Rausch, Renate; Wagner, Florian; Zabel-du Bois, Angelika; Debus, Juergen; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate toxicity and outcomes in patients with primary glioblastoma (GB) treated with postoperative radiochemotherapy (RCHT) with temozolomide (TMZ) comparing two dose regimens. Methods and Materials: A total of 160 patients with histologically confirmed GB were treated with postoperative RCHT with TMZ. Of the patients, 66 were female and 94 were male, with a median age of 60 years. After the primary diagnosis, a biopsy had been performed in 42 patients; a subtotal and total resection was conducted in 66 and 52 patients. Postoperative radiotherapy was applied with a median dose of 60 Gy with a median fractionation of 5 x 2Gy/week. Concomitant TMZ was prescribed at 50 mg/m{sup 2} in 123 patients (Group A) and at 75 mg/m{sup 2} in 37 patients (Group B). Patients were followed in 3-months intervals, with a median follow-up of 13 months. Results: Overall survival (OS) rates in Group A vs. Group B were 67% and 79% at 1 year and 43% vs. 49% at 2 years, respectively (p = 0.69). Progression-free survival was 49% vs. 54% at 1 year and 22% vs. 29% at 2 years (p = 0.31). Hematologic toxicity was not statistically significant over the 6-week RCHT period except for a significant decrease in platelets during Week 6 (p = 0.01) in Group B. Conclusions: Overall survival seems to be comparable in both groups, although longer follow-up and a larger group of patients are needed to corroborate these results. Lower dosing of TMZ also is associated with a more beneficial toxicity profile.

  1. Radiochemotherapy With Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Amifostine for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Koukourakis, Michael I.; Karapantzos, Ilias; Daniilidis, Vassilios; Kouskoukis, Constantinos

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) combined with cisplatin or cetuximab is the standard of care for patients with locally advanced head/neck cancer (LA-HNC). The feasibility of radiochemotherapy with cisplatin and cetuximab, supported with amifostine, was herein investigated. Methods and Materials: Forty-three patients with LA-HNC were recruited. Conformal hypofractionated/accelerated RT with amifostine cytoprotection (2.7 Gy/fraction, 21 fractions in 4 weeks) was combined with cisplatin (30 mg/m{sup 2}/week) and cetuximab (standard weekly regimen) therapy. The dose of amifostine was individualized according to tolerance. Results: A high daily amifostine dose (750-1,000 mg) was tolerated by 41.8% of patients, and a standard dose (500 mg) was tolerated by 34.9% of patients. A high amifostine dose was linked to reduced RT delays (p = 0.0003). Grade 3 to 4 (3-4) mucositis occurred in 7/43 (16.2%) patients, and fungal infections occurred in 18/43 (41.8%) patients. Radiation dermatitis was not aggravated. Interruption of cetuximab due to acneiform rash was necessary in 23.3% of patients, while amifostine-related fever and rash were not observed. Severe late radiation sequelae consisted of laryngeal edema (9% laryngeal cases) and cervical strictures (33% of hypopharyngeal cases). Good salivary function was preserved in 6/11 (54.5%) nasopharyngeal cancer patients. The complete response rate was 68.5%, reaching 77.2% in patients with minor radiotherapy delays. The 24-month local control and survival rates were 72.3% and 91%, respectively (median follow-up was 13 months.). Conclusions: In this feasibility study, weekly administration of cisplatin and cetuximab was safely combined with accelerated RT, supported with amifostine, at the cost of a high incidence of acneiform rash but a reduced incidence of amifostine-related fever/rash. A high daily dose of amifostine allows completion of therapy with minor delays.

  2. Radiochemotherapy With Cisplatin and 5-Fluorouracil After Transurethral Surgery in Patients With Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Christian . E-mail: Christian.Weiss@strahlen.med.uni-erlangen.de; Engehausen, Dirk G.; Krause, Frens S.; Papadopoulos, Thomas; Dunst, Juergen; Sauer, Rolf; Roedel, Claus

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To give an update on the long-term outcome of an intensified protocol of combined radiochemotherapy (RCT) with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin after initial transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) with selective organ preservation in bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: One hundred twelve patients with muscle-invading or high-risk T1 (G3, associated Tis, multifocality, diameter >5 cm) bladder cancer were enrolled in a protocol of TURBT followed by concurrent cisplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/day as 30-min infusion) and 5-FU (600 mg/m{sup 2}/day as 120-h continuous infusion), administered on Days 1-5 and 29-33 of radiotherapy. Response to treatment was evaluated by restaging TURBT 4-6 weeks after RCT. In case of invasive residual tumor or recurrence, salvage cystectomy was recommended. Results: Ninety-nine patients (88.4%) had no detectable tumor at restaging TURBT; 71 patients (72%) have been continuously free from local recurrence or distant metastasis. Superficial relapse occurred in 13 patients and muscle-invasive recurrence in 11 patients. Overall and cause-specific survival rates for all patients were 74% and 82% at 5 years, respectively. Of all surviving patients, 82% maintained their own bladder, 79% of whom were delighted or pleased with their urinary condition. Hematologic Grade 3/4 toxicity occurred in 23%/6% and Grade 3 diarrhea in 21% of patients. One patient required salvage cystectomy due to a shrinking bladder. Conclusion: Concurrent RCT with 5-FU/cisplatin has been associated with acceptable acute and long-term toxicity. Overall and cause-specific survival rates are encouraging. More than 80% of patients preserved their well-functioning bladder.

  3. Physikalische Bilder - Besinnung auf eine fachdidaktische Aufgabe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Are

    Physiker arbeiten an Darstellungen der Natur, d.h. sie suchen mit physikalischen Mitteln Bilder zu schaffen, die ihnen Naturzusammenhänge klarer und eindringlicher vor Augen führen. Schulunterricht soll jedem die Möglichkeit eröffnen, Physik in solchem Sinne - wenn auch in bescheidenem Rahmen - selbst zu treiben. Allzuoft bleibt diese Wissenschaft jedoch den Schülern ein kahles Gerüst und führt sie nicht zu inhaltsreichen Bildern. Es wird vorgeschlagen, Schulphysik mehr unter dem Gesichtspunkt einer Kunst zu sehen, die wirklich zu betreiben aber Muße erfordert.Translated AbstractPictures in Physics - Contemplation on a Teaching TaskPhysicists work on representations, i.e. they create mental pictures which help them to see and understand the intricate web of connections in nature. On a humble scale, school education should enable students to practice physics in this same sense. But far too often the results are unsatisfactory. It is suggested that one should try alternative viewpoints: looking at physics as an art and convince students that doing physics requires leisure.

  4. Die Zeitung der Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Christoph; Schaffert, Sebastian

    Schon lange wird spekuliert, wie wir in Zukunft Zeitung lesen werden. Werden wir am Frühstückstisch wie gewohnt in einer Zeitung aus Papier schmökern oder werden wir die Zeitung als biegsame Folie beschrieben mit elektronischer Tinte in Händen halten? Wird die Zeitung mit anderen Medien wie Radio und Fernsehen verschmelzen? Viele Varianten sind denkbar. Heute lässt sich schon ein Trend ablesen: Immer mehr Leser entdecken die Online-Zeitung als Informationsmedium, eine Voraussetzung für die Nutzung neuer Technologien in der Zeitung der Zukunft. In diesem Kapitel stellen wir Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten der Online-Zeitung dar, wie sie im Social Semantic Web möglich werden.

  5. When Somebody Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... alguien muere All living things — including bugs and fish and people — die. It's difficult, even for grownups, ... kind of death for families and friends to deal with because it happens so fast. There is ...

  6. Radio-chemotherapy improves survival in IDH-mutant, 1p/19q non-codeleted secondary high-grade astrocytoma patients.

    PubMed

    Juratli, Tareq A; Lautenschläger, Tim; Geiger, Kathrin D; Pinzer, Thomas; Krause, Mechthild; Schackert, Gabriele; Krex, Dietmar

    2015-09-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations are beginning to drive decisions on therapy for glioma patients. Here we sought to determine the impact of adjuvant treatment in patients with IDH-mutant, 1p/19q non-codeleted secondary high-grade astrocytoma (sHGA) WHO grades III/IV. Clinical data of 109 sHGA patients grades III/IV, in addition to IDH mutation-, 1p/19q-codeletion- and MGMT-promoter methylation status-were retrospectively analyzed. Survival analysis in relation to adjuvant treatment modalities and molecular profiling were performed. Out of 109 patients, 88 patients (80.7 %) harbored IDH mutations, 30 patients had a 1p/19q-codeletion (27.5 %) and 69 patients (63.3 %) exhibited a methylated MGMT-promoter status. At a median follow-up of 9.8 years, 62 patients (57 %) died. The postsurgical treatment included: radio-chemotherapy (RT-CT; 54.5 %), RT alone (19.3 %), and CT alone (22.7 %). The median overall survival (OS) in the entire group was 3.4 years (1.9-6.7 years). Patients who received RT-CT had a significantly longer OS compared with those who underwent RT alone (6.5 vs. 1.2 years, HR 0.35, CI 0.32-0.51, p = 0.011). In the IDH-mutant 1p/19q non-codeleted sHGA subgroup the RT-CT cohort had a significantly longer OS in comparison to the RT cohort (6.4 vs. 1.2 years, HR 2.7, CI 1.1-6.5, p = 0.022). In the stepwise multivariable Cox model for OS of all 88 IDH-mutant sHGA patients, survival was strongly associated with only one factor, namely, adjuvant RT-CT at diagnosis of a sHGA. This retrospective long-term study demonstrates that RT and CT (mostly PCV) significantly improves progression-free and overall survival in IDH-mutant secondary high-grade astrocytoma patients, regardless of 1p/19q-codeletion status. PMID:26033545

  7. Preventive brain radio-chemotherapy alters plasticity associated metabolite profile in the hippocampus but seems to not affect spatial memory in young leukemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Moritz D; Brandt, Kalina; Werner, Annett; Schönfeld, Robby; Loewenbrück, Kai; Donix, Markus; Schaich, Markus; Bornhäuser, Martin; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Leplow, Bernd; Storch, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuronal plasticity leading to evolving reorganization of the neuronal network during entire lifespan plays an important role for brain function especially memory performance. Adult neurogenesis occurring in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus represents the maximal way of network reorganization. Brain radio-chemotherapy strongly inhibits adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice leading to impaired spatial memory. Methods To elucidate the effects of CNS radio-chemotherapy on hippocampal plasticity and function in humans, we performed a longitudinal pilot study using 3T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and virtual water-maze-tests in 10 de-novo patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia undergoing preventive whole brain radio-chemotherapy. Patients were examined before, during and after treatment. Results CNS radio-chemotherapy did neither affect recall performance in probe trails nor flexible (reversal) relearning of a new target position over a time frame of 10 weeks measured by longitudinal virtual water-maze-testing, but provoked hippocampus-specific decrease in choline as a metabolite associated with cellular plasticity in 1H-MRS. Conclusion Albeit this pilot study needs to be followed up to definitely resolve the question about the functional role of adult human neurogenesis, the presented data suggest that 1H-MRS allows the detection of neurogenesis-associated plasticity in the human brain. PMID:26442754

  8. Acute Toxicity of Radiochemotherapy in Rectal Cancer Patients: A Risk Particularly for Carriers of the TGFB1 Pro25 variant

    SciTech Connect

    Schirmer, Markus Anton; Mergler, Caroline Patricia Nadine; Rave-Fraenk, Margret; Herrmann, Markus Karl; Hennies, Steffen; Gaedcke, Jochen; Conradi, Lena-Christin; Jo, Peter; Beissbarth, Tim; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Becker, Heinz; Ghadimi, Michael; Brockmoeller, Juergen; Christiansen, Hans; Wolff, Hendrik Andreas

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Transforming growth factor-beta1 is related to adverse events in radiochemotherapy. We investigated TGFB1 genetic variability in relation to quality of life-impairing acute organ toxicity (QAOT) of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy under clinical trial conditions. Methods and Materials: Two independent patient cohorts (n = 88 and n = 75) diagnosed with International Union Against Cancer stage II/III rectal cancer received neoadjuvant radiation doses of 50.4 Gy combined with 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Toxicity was monitored according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. QAOT was defined as a CTCAE grade {>=}2 for at least one case of enteritis, proctitis, cystitis, or dermatitis. Nine germline polymorphisms covering the common genetic diversity in the TGFB1 gene were genotyped. Results: In both cohorts, all patients carrying the TGFB1 Pro25 variant experienced QAOT (positive predictive value of 100%, adjusted p = 0.0006). In a multivariate logistic regression model, gender, age, body mass index, type of chemotherapy, or disease state had no significant impact on QAOT. Conclusion: The TGFB1 Pro25 variant could be a relevant marker for individual treatment stratification and carriers may benefit from adaptive clinical care or specific radiation techniques.

  9. Targeting DNA Damage Response in the Radio(Chemo)therapy of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling; Zhu, Tao; Gao, Yuan-Feng; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Chen-Jing; Xiao, Ling; Huang, Ma-Sha; Yin, Ji-Ye; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide due to its high incidence and mortality. As the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a terrible threat to human health. Despite improvements in diagnosis and combined treatments including surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the overall survival for NSCLC patients still remains poor. DNA damage is considered to be the primary cause of lung cancer development and is normally recognized and repaired by the intrinsic DNA damage response machinery. The role of DNA repair pathways in radio(chemo)therapy-resistant cancers has become an area of significant interest in the clinical setting. Meanwhile, some studies have proved that genetic and epigenetic factors can alter the DNA damage response and repair, which results in changes of the radiation and chemotherapy curative effect in NSCLC. In this review, we focus on the effect of genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic factors such as miRNA regulation and lncRNA regulation participating in DNA damage repair in response to radio(chemo)therapy in NSCLC. These may provide novel information on the radio(chemo)therapy of NSCLC based on the individual DNA damage response. PMID:27258253

  10. Darwin, Engels und die Rolle der Arbeit in der biologischen und kulturellen Evolution des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichholf, Josef H.

    Im Jahre 1876, 5 Jahre nach Erscheinen von Darwins Buch über die Evolution des Menschen und die sexuelle Selektion (Darwin 1871), veröffentlichte Friedrich Engels den berühmt gewordenen Essay "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen“ (Engels 1876). Die Kernfrage darin lautet in Kurzform: Warum hat der Mensch eigentlich ein Bedürfnis nach Arbeit? Engels Antwort wird nachfolgend näher betrachtet und vom gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand aus beurteilt. Wie sich zeigen wird, beantworten seine Überlegungen die Frage nicht wirklich. Sie ist weiterhin offen. Es können lediglich einige zusätzliche Anhaltspunkte zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Angesichts des drängenden Problems millionenfacher Arbeitslosigkeit und der Forderungen nach einem "Grundrecht auf Arbeit“ kommt den Überlegungen zum möglichen Ursprung des Bedürfnisses nach Arbeit mehr als nur akademisches Interesse zu.

  11. Die Bedeutung der Volumen- und Oberflächeneigenschaften von Biomaterialien für die Adsorption von Proteinen und nachfolgende zelluläre Reaktionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groth, Thomas

    2003-04-01

    Es ist schon seit längerer Zeit bekannt, dass nach Kontakt des Biomaterials mit der biologischen Umgebung bei Implantation oder extrakorporaler Wechselwirkung zunächst Proteine aus dem umgebenden Milieu adsorbiert werden, wobei die Oberflächeneigenschaften des Materials die Zusammensetzung der Proteinschicht und die Konformation der darin enthaltenden Proteine determinieren. Die nachfolgende Wechselwirkung von Zellen mit dem Material wird deshalb i.d.R. von der Adsorbatschicht vermittelt. Der Einfluss der Oberflächen auf die Zusammensetzung und Konformation der Proteine und die nachfolgende Wechselwirkung mit Zellen ist von besonderem Interesse, da einerseits eine Aussage über die Anwendbarkeit ermöglicht wird, andererseits Erkenntnisse über diese Zusammenhänge für die Entwicklung neuer Materialien mit verbesserter Biokompatibilität genutzt werden können. In der vorliegenden Habilitationsschrift wurde deshalb der Einfluss der Zusammensetzung von Polymeren bzw. von deren Oberflächeneigenschaften auf die Adsorption von Proteinen, den Aktivitätszustand der plasmatischen Gerinnung und die Adhäsion von Zellen untersucht. Dabei wurden auch Möglichkeiten zur Beeinflussung dieser Vorgänge über eine Veränderung der Volumenzusammensetzung oder durch Oberflächenmodifikationen von Biomaterialien vorgestellt. Erkenntnisse aus diesen Arbeiten konnten für die Entwicklung von Membranen für Biohybrid-Organe genutzt werden. The implantation of biomaterials or the contact of blood with extracorporal devices leads to the rapid adsorption of proteins from the surrounding biological fluids. The surface properties of materials determine the composition of the adsorption layer and the conformation of adsorbed proteins. Hence, the subsequent interaction of cells with biomaterials is dependent on the adsorption layer of proteins. The detailed knowledge on the role of surface properties in protein adsorption and cellular interactions is a useful means to learn about the

  12. AUF1 promotes let-7b loading on Argonaute 2.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Je-Hyun; Jo, Myung Hyun; White, Elizabeth J F; De, Supriyo; Hafner, Markus; Zucconi, Beth E; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Martindale, Jennifer L; Yang, Xiaoling; Wood, William H; Shin, Yu Mi; Song, Ji-Joon; Tuschl, Thomas; Becker, Kevin G; Wilson, Gerald M; Hohng, Sungchul; Gorospe, Myriam

    2015-08-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is tightly regulated post-transcriptionally by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and microRNAs. The RBP AU-rich-binding factor 1 (AUF1) isoform p37 was found to have high affinity for the microRNA let-7b in vitro (Kd = ∼ 6 nM) in cells. Ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation, in vitro association, and single-molecule-binding analyses revealed that AUF1 promoted let-7b loading onto Argonaute 2 (AGO2), the catalytic component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). In turn, AGO2-let-7 triggered target mRNA decay. Our findings uncover a novel mechanism by which AUF1 binding and transfer of microRNA let-7 to AGO2 facilitates let-7-elicited gene silencing. PMID:26253535

  13. Issues with dying patients.

    PubMed

    Valent, P

    1978-04-22

    Doctors have the privilege of looking after patients from the moment of birth to the moment of death. Yet, the holistic approach to patients is interfered with by the doctor's role as a warrior against death, where death's everpresent claim on our lives, and its final victory, are ignored. This paper attempts to explore why doctors are in their current position, the mechanisms for ignoring death which are shared by doctors and patients, the nature of the fear of death, and practical implications for the treatment of dying patients. More and more patients die now in medical settings. It is incumbent on doctors to understand the dying process, if much unnecessary suffering is to be prevented. PMID:661717

  14. Experiences of the dying.

    PubMed

    Schoenbeck, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    It is often a mystery to us how we have come to know and believe in certain things. Beliefs are like guests who come up to a door. They come in only if the host opens it and invites them in. Otherwise they are turned away, unable to enter. LPNs/LVNs are invited to reflect on their experiences and expand their knowledge and beliefs. There is growing recognition that bedside talks of the dying, spirit travel and near-death events are real events for the people who experience them. LPNs/ LVNs are encouraged to expand their knowledge and beliefs about dying. PMID:23252027

  15. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo

    2014-01-01

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate. PMID:26871530

  16. Poetry and the Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates roles poetry can play as people confront the death of loved ones and their own dying. Gives examples of Heinrich Heine transforming his agony into art and, from the poetry of two college students, both in advanced stages of neurological disease, which was read aloud in class, teaching all present something about how to approach their…

  17. Tool & Die Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 23 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of tool and die technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific occupation and…

  18. When a Baby Dies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Martha Jo; And Others

    Written especially for grieving mothers whose babies have died, this booklet offers an overview of stages and experiences through which bereaved parents commonly pass. Specifically, the text is intended to give comfort to bereaved parents, offer insight into the grieving process, and provide thoughts on leave-taking ceremonies. The first section…

  19. Real-time monitoring of tumor response to preoperative radiochemotherapy for rectal carcinoma by nonlinear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lianhuang; Chen, Zhifen; Wang, Xingfu; Jiang, Weizhong; Guan, Guoxian; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-03-01

    The continuing advancement of nonlinear optical imaging techniques has opened many new windows in biological exploration. In this work, the nonlinear optical microscopy, based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), was extended to probe tumor response to preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) for rectal carcinoma. It was found that MPM has the ability of direct visualization of histopathologic changes in rectal carcinoma following preoperative RCT including stromal fibrosis, colloid response and residual tumors. Our results also showed the capability of MPM using the quantitative analyses of images to quantify these changes. This work may provide the groundwork for further exploration into the application of multiphoton-based endoscopy in a clinical setting.

  20. Navigating "Assisted Dying".

    PubMed

    Schipper, Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Carter is a bellwether decision, an adjudication on a narrow point of law whose implications are vast across society, and whose impact may not be realized for years. Coupled with Quebec's Act Respecting End-of-life Care it has sharply changed the legal landscape with respect to actively ending a person's life. "Medically assisted dying" will be permitted under circumstances, and through processes, which have yet to be operationally defined. This decision carries with it moral assumptions, which mean that it will be difficult to reach a unifying consensus. For some, the decision and Act reflect a modern acknowledgement of individual autonomy. For others, allowing such acts is morally unspeakable. Having opened the Pandora's Box, the question becomes one of navigating a tolerable societal path. I believe it is possible to achieve a workable solution based on the core principle that "medically assisted dying" should be a very rarely employed last option, subject to transparent ongoing review, specifically as to why it was deemed necessary. My analysis is based on 1. The societal conditions in which have fostered demand for "assisted dying", 2. Actions in other jurisdictions, 3. Carter and Quebec Bill 52, 4. Political considerations, 5. Current medical practice. Leading to a series of recommendations regarding. 1. Legislation and regulation, 2. The role of professional regulatory agencies, 3. Medical professions education and practice, 4. Public education, 5. Health care delivery and palliative care. Given the burden of public opinion, and the legal steps already taken, a process for assisted-dying is required. However, those legal and regulatory steps should only be considered a necessary and defensive first step in a two stage process. The larger goal, the second step, is to drive the improvement of care, and thus minimize assisted-dying. PMID:27169205

  1. Reduction of radiochemotherapy-induced early oral mucositis by recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (palifermin): Experimental studies in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Doerr, Wolfgang . E-mail: doerr@rcs.urz.tu-dresden.de; Baessler, Stefan; Reichel, Sandra; Spekl, Kathrin

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To study the effect of recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor (rHuKGF or palifermin) on oral mucositis induced by radiochemotherapy in a mouse model. Methods and Materials: Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin) and/or 5-fluorouracil were given before single dose irradiation, combined with palifermin before or after the treatment, or both. Daily fractionated irradiation for 2 weeks was followed by graded test doses. With additional chemotherapy in Week 1, palifermin was given before radiotherapy and at the end of the first week, or additionally at the end of Week 2. Radiochemotherapy in Week 2 was combined with palifermin at the end of Weeks 1 and 2, Weeks 1, 2, and 3, or additionally before radiotherapy. Ulceration of mouse tongue mucosa was analyzed as the endpoint. Results: The dose associated with ulcer induction in 50% of the mice (ED{sub 50}) for single-dose irradiation was 11.5 {+-} 0.7 Gy. Palifermin increased the ED{sub 50} to about 19 Gy in all protocols tested. Similar values were observed when chemotherapy was added before irradiation. With fractionated irradiation, palifermin increased the ED{sub 50} for test irradiation from 5.7 {+-} 1.5 Gy to 12-15 Gy, depending on the administration protocol. With chemotherapy in Week 1, two palifermin injections had no significant effect, but a third injection increased the ED{sub 50} to 13 Gy. With chemotherapy in Week 2, all palifermin protocols resulted in ED{sub 50} values of 13-14 Gy. Conclusion: A marked increase in oral mucosal radiation tolerance by palifermin was found, which was preserved in combinations with chemotherapy using cisplatin and/or 5-fluorouracil.

  2. Indication of pre-surgical radiochemotherapy enhances psychosocial morbidity among patients with resectable locally advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bencova, V; Krajcovicova, I; Svec, J

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cancer experience stress-determined psychosocial comorbidities and behavioural alterations. Patients expectation to be cured by the first line surgery and their emotional status can be negatively influenced by the decision to include neoadjuvant long-course radiotherapy prior to surgical intervention. From the patient's perspective such treatment algorithmindicates incurability of the disease. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent and dynamics of stress and related psychosocial disturbances among patients with resectable rectal cancer to whom the neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy before surgery has been indicated.Three standardised assessment tools evaluating psychosocial morbidity of rectal cancer patients have been implemented: The EORTC QLQ C30-3, the EORTC QLQ CR29 module and the HADS questionnaires previously tested for internal consistency were answered by patients before and after long-course radiotherapy and after surgery and the scores of clinical and psychosocial values were evaluated by means of the EORTC and HADS manuals. The most profound psychosocial distress was experienced by patients after the decision to apply neoadjuvant radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy before surgical intervention. The involvement of pre-surgical radiotherapy into the treatment algorithm increased emotional disturbances (anxiety, feelings of hopelessness) and negatively influenced patient's treatment adherence and positive expectations from the healing process. The negative psychosocial consequences appeared to be more enhanced in female patients. Despite provided information about advances of neoadjuvant radiotherapy onto success of surgical intervention, the emotional and cognitive disorders improved only slightly. The results clearly indicate that addressed communication and targeted psychosocial support has to find place before pre-surgical radiochemotherapy and as a standard part through the trajectory of the entire multimodal rectal cancer

  3. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  4. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft in der Weimarer Republik und während der Nazidiktatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Jürgen

    Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten durch den 1. Weltkrieg erlangte die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) unter dem renommierten Statistiker und Vorsitzenden der DStatG, Friedrich Zahn, durch eine Vielzahl von Aktivitäten hohes Ansehen. Es gab Bestrebungen, Statistiker aus allen Arbeitsfeldern der Statistik in die DStatG zu integrieren, wobei die "Mathematische Statistik" nur zögerlich akzeptiert wurde (Konjunkturforschung, Zeitreihenanalyse). Nach der Machtübernahme 1933 durch Adolf Hitler geriet die DStatG in das Fahrwasser nationalsozialistischer Ideologie und Politik (Führerprinzip, Gleichschaltung des Vereinswesens). Damit war eine personelle Umstrukturierung in der DStatG verbunden. Politisch Missliebige und rassisch Verfolgte mussten die DStatG verlassen (Bernstein, Freudenberg, Gumbel u.a.). Unter den Statistikern gab es alle Abstufungen im Verhalten zum Regime von Ablehnung und zwangsweiser Anpassung über bereitwilliges Mitläufertum bis zu bewusster Täterschaft. Besonders die Bevölkerungsstatistik wurde durch die NS- Rassenpolitik auf lange Sicht diskreditiert. Im Rahmen von Wirtschaftsplanung und Aufrüstung wurden neue zukunftsträchtige statistische Modelle (Grünig, Bramstedt, Leisse) entwickelt.

  5. Heated die facilitates tungsten forming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattin, J. H.; Haystrick, J. E.; Laughlin, J. C.; Leidy, R. A.

    1966-01-01

    Tungsten forming in a press brake employs a bottom die assembly with a heating manifold between two water-cooled die sections. The manifold has hydrogen-oxygen burners spaced along its length for even heat during forming.

  6. Radiochemotherapy combined with regional pelvic hyperthermia induces high response and resectability rates in patients with nonresectable cervical cancer {>=}FIGO IIB 'bulky'

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenivasa, Geetha; Hildebrandt, Bert; Kuemmel, Sherko; Jungnickel, Kirsten; Cho, Chie Hee; Tilly, Wolfgang; Boehmer, Dirk; Budach, Volker; Felix, Roland; Wust, Peter . E-mail: peter.wust@charite.de

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate preoperative radiochemotherapy combined with regional pelvic hyperthermia in patients with nonresectable cervical cancer {>=} International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) IIB 'bulky' in a Phase II study. Methods and Materials: Thirty-two patients with nonresectable FIGO IIB-IVA cervical cancer confined to the pelvis were treated with radiochemotherapy (5 x 1.8 Gy/wk, 45-50.4 Gy; cisplatin, 40 mg/m{sup 2}/wk) and weekly regional pelvic hyperthermia (SIGMA-60 applicator, system BSD-2000; BSD Medical Corp., Salt Lake City, UT). Responders underwent hysterectomy if possible, whereas patients still unresectable received definitive hyperthermic radiochemotherapy. Feasibility, toxicity, as well as response and resectability, local progression free- and overall survival rates, were evaluated. Results: Thirty of 32 patients completed treatment. Grade III/IV toxicities (National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria) were diarrhea (n = 5), weight loss >10 kg (n = 4), and nausea (n = 2). Twenty-four of 32 patients (75%) achieved a partial remission after 45-50 Gy, and 20 patients underwent hysterectomy (18 patients, R0; 8 patients pCR). Three-year overall survival was 60%, with moderate (13%) rates of severe late toxicity. R0-resected patients had a favorable chronic toxicity profile and an excellent prognosis (3-year survival rate: 93%). Response depended on thermal parameters (vaginal reference point), whereas response, R0-resection, and FIGO stage are significant prognostic factors for survival. Conclusion: Preoperative hyperthermic radiochemotherapy (45-50 Gy) induces high response rates and enables curative surgery in a high proportion of patients with nonresectable cervical cancer. Therefore, the use of hyperthermia in conjunction with standard chemo-/radiotherapy {+-} surgery may allow for more effective tumor treatment while decreasing the risk of complications in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer.

  7. Psychotherapy with Older Dying Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Carol J.

    Psychotherapy with older dying patients can lead to problems of countertransference for the clinician. Working with dying patients requires flexibility to adapt basic therapeutics to the institutional setting. Goals of psychotherapy must be reconceptualized for dying clients. The problems of countertransference arise because clinicians themselves…

  8. Co-Expression of Bmi-1 and Podoplanin Predicts Overall Survival in Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Treated With Radio(chemo)therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vormittag, Laurenz; Thurnher, Dietmar; Geleff, Silvana; Pammer, Johannes; Heiduschka, Gregor; Brunner, Markus; Grasl, Matthaeus Ch.; Erovic, Boban M.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to determine the expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin in healthy oral mucosa and in untreated tumor tissues samples of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. All patients were treated by primary radio(chemo)therapy. Methods and Materials: The expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin was immunohistochemically evaluated in 12 normal oral mucosa and 63 tumor specimens and correlated with patients' clinical data. Results: In healthy mucosa expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin was restricted to the basal cell layer. Expression of both proteins was found in 79% and 86% of our tumor samples, respectively. In 17 and 8 samples, Bmi-1 and podoplanin were co-expressed at the invasive border or diffuse in the bulk of the tumor, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the co-expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin correlated to decreased overall survival (p = 0.044). Moreover, multivariate testing identified high expression of podoplanin (p = 0.044), co-expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin (p = 0.007) and lack of response to therapy (p < 0.0001) as predictors of shortened overall survival in patients treated with primary radio(chemo)therapy. Conclusions: Bmi-1 and podoplanin are expressed at the invasive front of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Co-expression of Bmi-1 and podoplanin predicts significantly overall survival of patients treated with primary radio(chemo)therapy.

  9. Comparison of Four Cisplatin-Based Radiochemotherapy Regimens for Nonmetastatic Stage III/IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck;Head-and-neck cancer; Cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy; Toxicity; Treatment outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Kronemann, Stefanie; Meyners, Thekla; Bohlen, Guenther; Tribius, Silke; Kazic, Nadja; Schroeder, Ursula; Hakim, Samer G.; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the outcomes of four cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy regimens in 311 patients with Stage III/IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of three courses of cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1 (Group A, n = 74), two courses of cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 plus 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 (Group B, n = 49), two courses of cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 plus 5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 (Group C, n = 102), or two courses of cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 (Group D, n = 86). The groups were retrospectively compared for toxicity and outcomes, and 11 additional factors were evaluated for outcomes. Results: No significant difference was observed among the groups regarding radiation-related acute oral mucositis and radiation-related late toxicities. Acute Grade 3 skin toxicity was significantly more frequent in Group B than in the patients of the other three groups (p = .013). The chemotherapy-related Grade 3 nausea/vomiting rate was 24% for Group A, 8% for Group B, 9% for Group C, and 6% for Group D (p = .003). The corresponding Grade 3 nephrotoxicity rates were 8%, 1%, 2%, and 1% (p = .019). The corresponding Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity rates were 35%, 41%, 19%, and 21% (p = .027). Chemotherapy could be completed in 50%, 59%, 74%, and 83% of the Group A, B, C, and D patients, respectively (p = .002). Toxicity-related radiotherapy breaks occurred in 39%, 43%, 21%, and 15% of Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively (p = .005). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 67%, 72%, 60%, and 59% for Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively (p = .48). The corresponding 3-year metastasis-free survival rates were 67%, 74%, 63%, and 79% (p = .31), and the corresponding 3-year survival rates were 60%, 63%, 50%, and 71% (p = .056). On multivariate analysis, Karnofsky performance status, histologic grade, T/N category, preradiotherapy hemoglobin level

  10. The Prognostic Value of Irradiated Lung Volumes on the Prediction of Intra-/ Post-Operative Mortality in Patients after Neoadjuvant Radiochemotherapy for Esophageal Cancer. A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed Central

    Kup, Philipp Günther; Nieder, Carsten; Geinitz, Hans; Henkenberens, Christoph; Besserer, Angela; Oechsner, Markus; Schill, Sabine; Mücke, Ralph; Scherer, Vera; Combs, Stephanie E.; Adamietz, Irenäus A.; Fakhrian, Khashayar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the association between dosimetric factors of the lung and incidence of intra- and postoperative mortality among esophageal cancer (EC) patients treated with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (N-RCT) followed by surgery (S). Methods and Materials: Inclusion criteria were: age < 85 years, no distant metastases at the time of diagnosis, no induction chemotherapy, conformal radiotherapy, total dose ≤ 50.4 Gy, and available dose volume histogram (DVH) data. One-hundred thirty-five patients met our inclusion criteria. Median age was 62 years. N-RCT consisted of 36 - 50.4 Gy (median 45 Gy), 1.8 - 2 Gy per fraction. Concomitant chemotherapy consisted of 5-Fluoruracil (5-FU) and cisplatin in 113 patients and cisplatin and taxan-derivates in 15 patients. Seven patients received a single cytotoxic agent. In 130 patients an abdominothoracal and in 5 patients a transhiatal resection was performed. The following dosimetric parameters were generated from the total lung DVH: mean dose, V5, V10, V15, V20, V30, V40, V45 and V50. The primary endpoint was the rate of intra- and postoperative mortality (from the start of N-RCT to 60 days after surgical resection). Results: A total of ten postoperative deaths (7%) were observed: 3 within 30 days (2%) and 7 between 30 and 60 days after surgical intervention (5%); no patient died during the operation. In the univariate analysis, weight loss (≥10% in 6 months prior to diagnosis, risk ratio: 1.60, 95%CI: 0.856-2.992, p=0.043), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-performance status (ECOG 2 vs. 1, risk ratio: 1.931, 95%CI: 0.898-4.150, p=0.018) and postoperative pulmonary plus non-pulmonary complications (risk ratio: 2.533, 95%CI: 0.978-6.563, p=0.004) were significantly associated with postoperative mortality. There was no significant association between postoperative mortality and irradiated lung volumes. Lung V45 was the only variable which was significantly associated with higher incidence of postoperative pulmonary

  11. Nitriding of Aluminum Extrusion Die: Effect of Die Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, S. S.; Arif, A. F. M.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2010-04-01

    Nitriding of complex-shaped extrusion dies may result in non-uniform nitride layers and hence a required hardness may not be achieved in some regions of the bearing area. The present study is carried out to assess the effect of extrusion die profile on the characteristics and growth behavior of nitride layers so that the critical die design feature can be identified to enhance the uniformity of the nitride layer. For this purpose, AISI H13 steel samples have been manufactured with profiles similar to those of hot extrusion dies. The samples were then gas nitrided under controlled nitriding potential. The uniformity and depth of nitride layers have been investigated in terms of compound layer and total nitride case depth for selected die features. The results of this study indicated the need to include the effect of profile on the nitride layer for the optimal die design with improved service life.

  12. High-Grade Acute Organ Toxicity as a Positive Prognostic Factor in Primary Radiochemotherapy for Anal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, Hendrik Andreas; Raus, Ismene; Jung, Klaus; Schueler, Phillip; Herrmann, Markus Karl; Hennies, Steffen; Vorwerk, Hilke; Hille, Andrea; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Christiansen, Hans

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To test for a possible correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity during primary radiochemotherapy and treatment outcome for patients with anal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 2009, 72 patients with anal carcinoma were treated at our department (10 patients had stage I, 28 patients had stage II, 11 patients had stage IIIA, and 13 patients had stage IIIB cancer [Union Internationale Contre le Cancer criteria]). All patients received normofractionated (1.8 Gy/day, five times/week) whole-pelvis irradiation including iliac and inguinal lymph nodes with a cumulative dose of 50.4 Gy. Concomitant chemotherapy regimen consisted of two cycles of 5-fluorouracil (1,000 mg/m{sup 2}total body surface area (TBSA)/day as continuous intravenous infusion on days 1-4 and 29-32) and mitomycin C (10 mg/m{sup 2}/TBSA, intravenously on days 1 and 29). Toxicity during treatment was monitored weekly, and any incidence of Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade of {>=}3 for skin reaction, cystitis, proctitis, or enteritis was assessed as high-grade acute organ toxicity for later analysis. Results: We found significant correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity and overall survival, locoregional control, and stoma-free survival, which was independent in multivariate analysis from other possible prognostic factors: patients with a CTC acute organ toxicity grade of {>=}3 had a 5-year overall survival rate of 97% compared to 30% in patients without (p < 0.01, multivariate analysis; 97% vs. 48%, p = 0.03 for locoregional control, and 95% vs. 59%, p = 0.05 for stoma-free survival). Conclusions: Our data indicate that normal tissue and tumor tissue may behave similarly with respect to treatment response, since high-grade acute organ toxicity during radiochemotherapy showed itself to be an independent prognostic marker in our patient population. This hypothesis should be further analyzed by using biomolecular and clinical levels in future clinical trials.

  13. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  14. Einfluss des Internets auf das Informations-, Einkaufs- und Verkehrsverhalten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter

    Mit Daten aus eigenen Erhebungen können das einkaufsbezogene Informations- und Einkaufsverhalten im Zusammenhang mit den verkehrlichen Aspekten (Distanzen, Verkehrsmittel, Wegekopplungen) dargestellt werden. Die Differenzierung in die drei Produktkategorien des täglichen, mittelfristigen und des langfristigen Bedarfs berücksichtigt in erster Linie die Wertigkeit eines Gutes, die seine Erwerbshäufigkeit unmittelbar bestimmt. Der Einsatz moderner IKT wie das Internet eröffnet dem Endverbraucher neue Möglichkeiten bei Information und Einkauf. Die verkehrliche Relevanz von Online-Shopping wird deutlich, wenn man berücksichtigt, dass im Mittel rund 17% aller Online-Einkäufe, die die Probanden durchgeführt haben, Einkäufe in Ladengeschäften ersetzen. Dies gilt in verstärktem Maße für Online-Informationen: etwa die Hälfte hätte alternativ im stationären Einzelhandel stattgefunden. Da der Erwerb von Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs häufig nahräumlich und in relevantem Anteil nicht-motorisiert erfolgen kann, sind in diesem Segment - im Gegensatz zum mittel- und langfristigen Bedarf - nur geringe Substitutionseffekte zu beobachten.

  15. Graphite/Thermoplastic-Pultrusion Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L.; Frye, Mark W.; Johnson, Gary S.; Stanfield, Clarence E.

    1990-01-01

    Attachment to extruder produces thermoplastic-impregnated graphite tape. Consists of profile die, fiber/resin collimator, and crosshead die body. Die designed to be attached to commercially available extrusion machine capable of extruding high-performance thermoplastics. Simple attachment to commercial extruder enables developers of composites to begin experimenting with large numbers of proprietary resins, fibers, and hybrid composite structures. With device, almost any possible fiber/resin combination fabricated.

  16. Foreigners dying in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Ibrahim; Celbis, Osman; Baydar, Cetin Lutfi; Alkan, Nevzat; Arslan, Murat Nihat

    2009-09-01

    The study included 411 deaths selected from 14,647 medicolegal deaths autopsied in the Morgue Department of Forensic Medicine Institute Directorate, affiliated with the Ministry of Justice, between 1998 and 2002. Data were collected from court documents, coroner's investigation reports, and autopsy reports. The parameters of age, gender, nationality and origin, cause and place of death in foreigners dying in Istanbul were evaluated in the study. Out of 14,647 medicolegal deaths, 3.5% were foreigners from 34 different nationalities. The nationality with the highest rate of foreigner deaths (34%) was Romanian. Out of 411 deaths, 74.3% were male and 25.7% were female. Of all cases, 64.4% were tourists visiting Istanbul and 35.6% had a job in Istanbul. Of 146 foreigners employed in Istanbul, 94.5% did not have a work permit, while only 5.5% had a work permit. PMID:19674242

  17. Brain Stem and Entire Spinal Leptomeningeal Dissemination of Supratentorial Glioblastoma Multiforme in a Patient during Postoperative Radiochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangyi; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shuai; Chen, Keyin; Zhou, Qiangyi; Yan, Chengrui; He, Huayu; Gao, Jun; Guan, Jian; Yang, Yi; Li, Yongning; Xing, Bing; Wang, Renzhi; Ma, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignancy of the central nervous system in adults. Macroscopically evident and symptomatic spinal metastases occur rarely. Autopsy series suggest that approximately 25% of patients with intracranial GBM have evidence of spinal subarachnoid seeding, although the exact incidence is not known as postmortem examination of the spine is not routinely performed.1–3 Herein, we present a rare case of symptomatic brain stem and entire spinal dissemination of GBM in a 36-year-old patient during postoperative adjuvant radiochemotherapy with temozolomide and cisplatin. Visual deterioration, intractable stomachache, and limb paralysis were the main clinical features. The results of cytological and immunohistochemical tests on the cerebrospinal fluid cells were highly suggestive of spinal leptomeningeal dissemination. After 1 month, the patient's overall condition deteriorated and succumbed to his disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of GBM dissemination presenting in this manner. Because GBM extracranial dissemination is rare, we also reviewed pertinent literature regarding this uncommon entity. Although metastases to spinal cord from GBM are uncommon, it is always important to have in mind when patients with a history of GBM present with symptoms that do not correlate with the primary disease pattern.

  18. SEL1L SNP rs12435998, a predictor of glioblastoma survival and response to radio-chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Storaci, Alessandra Maria; Annovazzi, Laura; Cassoni, Paola; Melcarne, Antonio; De Blasio, Pasquale; Schiffer, Davide; Biunno, Ida

    2015-01-01

    The suppressor of Lin-12-like (C. elegans) (SEL1L) is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation pathway, malignant transformation and stem cells. In 412 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain tumors and 39 Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines, we determined the frequency of five SEL1L single nucleotide genetic variants with regulatory and coding functions by a SNaPShot™ assay. We tested their possible association with brain tumor risk, prognosis and therapy. We studied the in vitro cytotoxicity of valproic acid (VPA), temozolomide (TMZ), doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX), alone or in combination, on 11 GBM cell lines, with respect to the SNP rs12435998 genotype. The SNP rs12435998 was prevalent in anaplastic and malignant gliomas, and in meningiomas of all histologic grades, but unrelated to brain tumor risks. In GBM patients, the SNP rs12435998 was associated with prolonged overall survival (OS) and better response to TMZ-based radio-chemotherapy. GBM stem cells with this SNP showed lower levels of SEL1L expression and enhanced sensitivity to VPA. PMID:25948789

  19. Modulation of neoplastic gene regulatory pathways by the RNA-binding factor AUF1

    PubMed Central

    Zucconi, Beth E.; Wilson, Gerald M.

    2013-01-01

    The mRNA-binding protein AUF1 regulates the expression of many key players in cancer including proto-oncogenes, regulators of apoptosis and the cell cycle, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, principally by directing the decay kinetics of their encoded mRNAs. Most studies support an mRNA-destabilizing role for AUF1, although other findings suggest additional functions for this factor. In this review, we explore how changes in AUF1 isoform distribution, subcellular localization, and post-translational protein modifications can influence the metabolism of targeted mRNAs. However, several lines of evidence also support a role for AUF1 in the initiation and/or development of cancer. Many AUF1-targeted transcripts encode products that control pro- and anti-oncogenic processes. Also, overexpression of AUF1 enhances tumorigenesis in murine models, and AUF1 levels are enhanced in some tumors. Finally, signaling cascades that modulate AUF1 function are deregulated in some cancerous tissues. Together, these features suggest that AUF1 may play a prominent role in regulating the expression of many genes that can contribute to tumorigenic phenotypes, and that this post-transcriptional regulatory control point may be subverted by diverse mechanisms in neoplasia. PMID:21622178

  20. Two Piece Compaction Die Design

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Ethan N

    2010-03-01

    Compaction dies used to create europium oxide and tantalum control plates were modeled using ANSYS 11.0. Two-piece designs were considered in order to make the dies easier to assemble than the five-piece dies that were previously used. The two areas of concern were the stresses at the interior corner of the die cavity and the distortion of the cavity wall due to the interference fit between the two pieces and the pressure exerted on the die during the compaction process. A successful die design would have stresses less than the yield stress of the material and a maximum wall distortion on the order of 0.0001 in. Design factors that were investigated include the inner corner radius, the value of the interference fit, the compaction force, the size of the cavity, and the outer radius and geometry of the outer ring. The results show that for the europium oxide die, a 0.01 in. diameter wire can be used to create the cavity, leading to a 0.0055 in. radius corner, if the radial interference fit is 0.003 in. For the tantalum die, the same wire can be used with a radial interference fit of 0.001 in. Also, for the europium oxide die with a 0.003 in. interference fit, it is possible to use a wire with a diameter of 0.006 in. for the wire burning process. Adding a 10% safety factor to the compaction force tends to lead to conservative estimates of the stresses but not for the wall distortion. However, when the 10% safety factor is removed, the wall distortion is not affected enough to discard the design. Finally, regarding the europium oxide die, when the cavity walls are increased by 0.002 in. per side or the outer ring is made to the same geometry as the tantalum die, all the stresses and wall distortions are within the desired range. Thus, the recommendation is to use a 0.006 in. diameter wire and a 0.003 in. interference fit for the europium oxide die and a 0.01 in. diameter wire and a 0.001 in. interference fit for the tantalum die. The dies can also be made to have the

  1. Magnetisches Tracking für die Navigation mit dem da Vinci® Surgical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Felix; Wegner, Ingmar; Kenngott, Hannes; Neuhaus, Jochen; Müller-Stich, Beat P.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Gutt, Carsten N.

    In dieser Studie wurde untersucht ob in einem typischen OP-Aufbau mit dem da Vinci® Telemanipulator elektromagnetisches Tracking für die Realisation eines Navigationssystems eingesetzt werden kann. Hierfür wurde in einem realen OP-Aufbau untersucht, wie stark metallische und ferromagnetisch wirksame Objekte wie Operationstisch und Telemanipulator das elektromagnetische Feld des Trackingsystems beeinflussen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der Telemanipulator nur unwesentlich die Störung des Magnetfeldes durch den OP-Tisch verstärkt. Insbesondere die Bewegung der Instrumente im Trackingvolumen verursachte keine zusätzliche relevante Störung des Magnetfeldes. Bei Begrenzung des Trackingvolumens auf eine Länge von 190 mm, Höhe von 200mm und Breite von 400 mm war der maximale Fehler in diesem Bereich an allen Messpunkten kleiner 10 mm. Der Einsatz von elektromagnetischem Tracking für die Navigation mit dem da Vinci® Surgical System ist somit in einem begrenzten Arbeitsvolumen mit hinreichender Genauigkeit möglich.

  2. Assessment of the Radiation-Equivalent of Chemotherapy Contributions in 1-Phase Radio-chemotherapy Treatment of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Plataniotis, George A.; Dale, Roger G.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To estimate the radiation equivalent of the chemotherapy contribution to observed complete response rates in published results of 1-phase radio-chemotherapy of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: A standard logistic dose–response curve was fitted to data from radiation therapy-alone trials and then used as the platform from which to quantify the chemotherapy contribution in 1-phase radio-chemotherapy trials. Two possible mechanisms of chemotherapy effect were assumed (1) a fixed radiation-independent contribution to local control; or (2) a fixed degree of chemotherapy-induced radiosensitization. A combination of both mechanisms was also considered. Results: The respective best-fit values of the independent chemotherapy-induced complete response (CCR) and radiosensitization (s) coefficients were 0.40 (95% confidence interval −0.07 to 0.87) and 1.30 (95% confidence interval 0.86-1.70). Independent chemotherapy effect was slightly favored by the analysis, and the derived CCR value was consistent with reports of pathologic complete response rates seen in neoadjuvant chemotherapy-alone treatments of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The radiation equivalent of the CCR was 36.3 Gy. Conclusion: Although the data points in the analyzed radio-chemotherapy studies are widely dispersed (largely on account of the diverse range of chemotherapy schedules used), it is nonetheless possible to fit plausible-looking response curves. The methodology used here is based on a standard technique for analyzing dose-response in radiation therapy-alone studies and is capable of application to other mixed-modality treatment combinations involving radiation therapy.

  3. Adapt or die?

    PubMed

    Visser, S S; Nel, A H

    1996-12-01

    The worldwide economic recession and the concomitant limited stock of finances have had an influence on the available money of every household and have also inhibited the improvement of socio-economic conditions and medicine. The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) has the objective of improving the living conditions of the people with regard to housing, education, training and health care. The latter seems to be a major problem which has to be addressed with the emphasis on the preventive and promotional aspects of health care. A comprehensive health care system did not come into being property in the past because of the maldistribution of health care services, personnel and differences in culture and health care beliefs and values. The question that now arises, is how to render a quality health care service within the constraints of inadequate financing and resources. A comprehensive literature study has been done with reference to quality health care and financing followed by a survey of existing health services and finances. Recommendations are made about minimum requirements to be accepted if one were to adapt rather than die in terms of the provision of healthcare: the decentralization and rationalization of the administration of health care, the stress on and realization of effective and efficient primary health care, the acceptance of participative management in health providing organizations, the provision of financial management training for health care managers and the application of management accounting principles for the improvement of the efficiency and effectiveness of management. PMID:9283343

  4. Dying and multiplying life.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, David

    2014-09-01

    It was only after James P. Lovette's death, in 2006, that I discovered that the twenty-four-year-old colleague and friend with whom I had spent so many afternoons debating issues in organ transplantation had been the first successful child heart transplantee in the world and one of the longest-living survivors of a second transplant. During the years we met, he never even hinted at the fact that three different hearts had beaten in his chest. The revelation that his life had been an almost uninterrupted chain of medical challenges suddenly made me appreciate his quirkiness in a whole new light. Organ transplantation crudely exemplifies a traditional moral dilemma between means and ends: in order to save a life, someone else has to die. Bioethicists involved in this field have the role of identifying the ethical issues surrounding organ donation and helping others to argue in an intelligible and convincing way. In my view, bioethicists have the obligation to foster a discussion as open and transparent as possible on these matters. Still, I sometimes fear that I may be helping to cause unnecessary harms to potential recipients who are desperately waiting for a vital organ. Scholars would be chillingly cold if their quest for truth systematically came at the cost of lives lost. Every life can be meaningful and provide meaning to many others. This is true even with organ recipients, who often have short lives full of considerable suffering. PMID:25231665

  5. Genetic variation in DNA-repair pathways and response to radiochemotherapy in esophageal adenocarcinoma: a retrospective cohort study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent data in esophageal cancer suggests the variant allele of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in XRCC1 may be associated with resistance to radiochemotherapy. However, this SNP has not been assessed in a histologically homogeneous clinical trial cohort that has been treated with a uniform approach. In addition, whether germline DNA may serve as a surrogate for tumor genotype at this locus is unknown in this disease. Our objective was to assess this SNP in relation to the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in subjects with esophageal adenocarcinoma who received cisplatin-based preoperative radiochemotherapy in a multicenter clinical trial (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 1201). As a secondary aim, we investigated the rate of allelic imbalance between germline and tumor DNA. Methods Eighty-one eligible treatment-naïve subjects with newly diagnosed resectable esophageal adenocarcinoma received radiotherapy (45 Gy) concurrent with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, with planned subsequent surgical resection. The primary endpoint was pCR, defined as complete absence of tumor in the surgical specimen after radiochemotherapy. Using germline DNA from 60 subjects, we examined the base-excision repair SNP, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, and 4 other SNPs in nucleotide excision (XPD Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn, ERCC1 3' flank) and double-stranded break (XRCC2 5' flank) repair pathways, and correlated genotype with pCR rate. Paired tumor tissue was used to estimate the frequency of allelic imbalance at the XRCC1 SNP. Results The variant allele of the XRCC1 SNP (399Gln) was detected in 52% of subjects. Only 6% of subjects with the variant allele experienced a pCR, compared to 28% of subjects without the variant allele (odds ratio 5.37 for failing to achieve pCR, p = 0.062). Allelic imbalance at this locus was found in only 10% of informative subjects, suggesting that germline genotype may reflect tumor genotype at this locus. No significant association with pCR was noted

  6. Kernschmelze Der nachhaltige Einfluss von Nuklearwaffen auf Politik und Wirtschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Bernd

    "Was sollen wir von einer Kultur halten, der die Ethik stets als wesentliches Element des menschlichen Lebens galt, die aber - außer in fachlicher oder spieltheoretischer Terminologie - nicht in der Lage war, über die Möglichkeit zu sprechen, nahezu alle Menschen zu töten?" Der Fragesteller gehört zu den berühmtesten Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts und zu den nach wie vor Umstrittensten. über ihn wurde in den 1960er Jahren ein international viel beachtetes Theaterstück geschrieben, vor wenigen Jahren gar eine Oper.

  7. Involvement of RNA binding proteins AUF1 in mammary gland differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Kentaro . E-mail: akenaga@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Sakai, Senkiti

    2007-08-01

    The expression of many genes, such as {beta}-casein, c-myc, and cyclin D1, is altered by lactogenic hormone stimulation during mammary epithelial cell differentiation. Here, we demonstrate that post-transcriptional regulation plays an important role to establish gene expression required to initiate milk production as well as transcriptional control. AUF1 protein, a member of the AU-rich element (ARE)-binding protein family, plays a role in ARE-mRNA turnover by regulating mRNA stability and/or translational control. Cytoplasmic localization of AUF1 protein is critically linked to function. We show that as the mammary gland differentiates, AUF1 protein moves from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Moreover, in mammary gland epithelial cells (HC11), stimulation by lactogenic hormone decreased cytoplasmic and increased nuclear AUF1 levels. Direct binding of AUF1 protein was observed on c-myc mRNA, but not {beta}-casein or cyclin D1 mRNA. AUF1 downregulation in HC11 cells increased the expression of {beta}-casein mRNA and decreased the expression of c-myc mRNA by lactogenic hormone. Conversely, overexpression of AUF1 inhibited these effects of lactogenic hormone stimulation in HC11 cells. These results suggest that AUF1 participates in mammary gland differentiation processes under the control of lactogenic hormone signals.

  8. PAR-CLIP analysis uncovers AUF1 impact on target RNA fate and genome integrity

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Je-Hyun; De, Supriyo; Srikantan, Subramanya; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Grammatikakis, Ioannis; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Kyoung Mi; Noh, Ji Heon; White, Elizabeth J.F.; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Yang, Xiaoling; Kang, Min-Ju; Wood, William H.; Hooten, Nicole Noren; Evans, Michele K.; Becker, Kevin G.; Tripathi, Vidisha; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.; Wilson, Gerald M.; Tuschl, Thomas; Ingolia, Nicholas T.; Hafner, Markus; Gorospe, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional gene regulation is robustly regulated by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here we describe the collection of RNAs regulated by AUF1 (AU-binding factor 1), an RBP linked to cancer, inflammation and aging. Photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) analysis reveals that AUF1 primarily recognizes U-/GU-rich sequences in mRNAs and noncoding RNAs and influences target transcript fate in three main directions. First, AUF1 lowers the steady-state levels of numerous target RNAs, including long noncoding RNA NEAT1, in turn affecting the organization of nuclear paraspeckles. Second, AUF1 does not change the abundance of many target RNAs, but ribosome profiling reveals that AUF1 promotes the translation of numerous mRNAs in this group. Third, AUF1 unexpectedly enhances the steady-state levels of several target mRNAs encoding DNA-maintenance proteins. Through its actions on target RNAs, AUF1 preserves genomic integrity, in agreement with the AUF1-elicited prevention of premature cellular senescence. PMID:25366541

  9. Prognostic Value of Early [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyltyrosine Positron Emission Tomography After Radiochemotherapy in Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Piroth, Marc D.; Pinkawa, Michael; Holy, Richard; Klotz, Jens; Nussen, Sandra; Stoffels, Gabriele; Coenen, Heinz H.; Kaiser, Hans J.; Langen, Karl J.; Eble, Michael J.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Early detection of treatment response in glioma patients after radiochemotherapy (RCX) is uncertain because treatment-related contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging can mimic tumor progression. Positron emission tomography (PET) using the amino acid tracer [{sup 18}F]fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) seems to be a promising tool for treatment monitoring. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the prognostic value of early changes of FET uptake after postoperative RCX in glioblastomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with glioblastoma were treated by surgery and subsequent RCX (whole dose 60-72 Gy). The FET-PET studies were performed before RCX, 7-10 days and 6-8 weeks after completion of RCX. Early treatment response in PET was defined as a decrease of the maximal tumor-to-brain ratio (TBR{sub max}) of FET uptake after RCX of more than 10%. The prognostic value of early changes of FET uptake after RCX was evaluated using Kaplan-Maier estimates for median disease-free survival and overall survival. Results: The median overall and disease-free survival of the patients was 14.8 and 7.8 months. There were 16 early responders in FET-PET (72.7%) and 6 nonresponders (27.3%). Early PET responders had a significantly longer median disease-free survival (10.3 vs. 5.8 months; p < 0.01) and overall survival ('not reached' vs. 9.3 months; p < 0.001). No statistically significant differences between the patient subgroups were found concerning the defined prognostic parameters. Conclusions: FET-PET is a sensitive tool to predict treatment response in patients with glioblastomas at an early stage after RCX.

  10. Micropapillary morphology is an indicator of poor prognosis in patients with urothelial carcinoma treated with transurethral resection and radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bertz, Simone; Wach, S; Taubert, H; Merten, R; Krause, F S; Schick, S; Ott, O J; Weigert, E; Dworak, O; Rödel, C; Fietkau, R; Wullich, B; Keck, B; Hartmann, A

    2016-09-01

    Purpose of this study was to evaluate prognostic impact of rare variants of urothelial bladder cancer (BC) after treatment with combined radiochemotherapy (RCT). To this end tumour tissue of 238 patients with urothelial carcinoma (UC) treated with transurethral resection of the bladder (TUR-B) and RCT with curative intent was collected. Histomorphological analysis included re-evaluation and semi-quantitative assessment of rare UC subtypes. Additionally, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) was performed in tumours with a micropapillary component exceeding 30 %. Long-term follow-up was available for 200 patients (range 3-282 months). Variant UC histology was found in 45 of 238 tumours, most frequently micropapillary UC (N = 17) including cases with a small fraction of tumour with micropapillary morphology. The mere presence of micropapillary morphology did not affect prognosis. In tumours with extensive (≥30 %) micropapillary morphology (N = 8) Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed significantly worse cancer specific survival (CSS) (P = 0.002) compared to conventional UC (mean survival times 97 months and 229 months, respectively). Univariate Cox regression analysis of cases with ≥30 % micropapillary morphology revealed a hazard ratio of 4.726 (95 % CI 1.629-13.714) for CSS (P = 0.004). CISH revealed HER2 gene amplification in 3/10 tumours with ≥30 % micropapillary component. In conclusion, for BC treated with TUR-B and RCT, the presence of micropapillary morphology in more than 30 % of the tumour is an adverse prognostic factor. Further studies are needed to evaluate a potential benefit of different, especially multimodal treatment strategies for micropapillary UC and also other subtypes of UC. Her2 represents a promising therapeutic target in a subset of micropapillary UC. PMID:27392930

  11. Influence of Irradiated Lung Volumes on Perioperative Morbidity and Mortality in Patients After Neoadjuvant Radiochemotherapy for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Daehn, Doreen; Martell, Joachim; Vorwerk, Hilke; Hess, Clemens F.; Becker, Heinz; Jung, Klaus; Hilgers, Reinhard; Wolff, Hendrik Andreas; Hermann, Robert Michael; Christiansen, Hans

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: In some randomized trials, the treatment outcome of locally advanced esophageal cancer has been significantly improved by neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT). However, increased perioperative pulmonary toxicity in terms of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been linked to radiation exposure of the lungs. In our study we evaluated perioperative morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer Stages IIA-IVA treated with curative intent either with surgery alone (S) or with neoadjuvant RCT followed by surgery (RCTS). Patients and Methods: Between 1996 and 2003, 55 patients received S, and 98 received RCTS. In the RCTS group, most patients received two cycles of 5-fluorouracil plus cisplatinum simultaneously with normofractionated radiotherapy (40Gy). Four weeks later they underwent surgery. Endpoints were the incidence of acute lung injury (ALI), ARDS, other postoperative complications, and mortality within 31 days. Results: Between both groups there were no significant differences between the incidence and severity of ALI and ARDS (RCTS: 42.9%, 42.9%; S: 45.5%, 38.2%). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the incidences of pneumonia, pleural effusion, and pneumothorax (RCTS 29.6% vs. S 16.4%, p = 0.07). Perioperative complication rates and mortality did not vary significantly (mortality after RCTS 5.1% vs. S 3.6%). A detailed analysis of 54 RCTS patients according to lung dose-volume histograms did not show any correlation between ARDS and pulmonary exposure. In univariate analysis, only respiratory comorbidity correlated with ARDS. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant cisplatinum and 5-fluorouracil-based RCT apparently has no detrimental impact on the postoperative course.

  12. Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Radiotherapy or Radiochemotherapy: Prognostic Role of TP53 and HPV Status

    SciTech Connect

    Fallai, Carlo; Perrone, Federica; Licitra, Lisa; Pilotti, Silvana; Locati, Laura; Bossi, Paolo; Orlandi, Ester; Palazzi, Mauro; Olmi, Patrizia

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of the TP53 mutation and human papilloma virus (HPV) status in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Methods and materials: The TP53 mutation and HPV status were analyzed in 78 cases of locoregionally advanced OPSCC. The possible correlation of these factors with locoregiownal control, relapse-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival (OS) was also investigated. Results: Of these 78 cases, 22 had disruptive and 22 had non-disruptive (silent) TP53 mutations; the remaining 34 cases had wild-type (WT) TP53. HPV 16 DNA was found in 9 cases (11%), but all HPV-positive (HPV+) cases carried a functional p53 protein, except for 1 case that had a silent mutation. HPV+ patients fared better than HPV-negative (HPV-) patients in terms of all survival parameters, with highly statistically significant differences between the groups. Specifically, no distant metastases were observed in the HPV+ patients, whereas they occurred in 17% of the HPV- patients. However, no difference was observed between the WT TP53 and mutation group, even when this was analyzed in terms of disruptive and non-disruptive mutations. Regardless, treatment with chemotherapy nearly doubled the 5-year OS rates, both in the mutation (42% vs. 22%) and WT (30 vs. 16%) group, but only the mutation group showed improvement in all survival parameters. In addition, the second tumor-free 5-year survival rate was 72% in HPV- cases, but no second tumors were observed in HPV+ and WT p53 cases. Conclusions: Patients with HPV+ OPSCC have an excellent prognosis after radiochemotherapy, but cisplatin-based chemotherapy may not confer a satisfactory outcome, especially in WT cases, thereby justifying the additional or alternative use of taxanes and epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors. Uncommon distant metastases and second tumors in the HPV+ group may be cause for clinicians to review the follow-up policies in these patients.

  13. What Happens When Someone Dies?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and sleepiness Mental confusion Constipation or incontinence Nausea Refusal to eat or drink Each of these symptoms, ... having a "non-hospital DNR" (see Understanding Health Care Decisions ) if the person is dying at home. ...

  14. Auf gute Nachbarschaft!. Verantwortungsübernahme durch Unternehmen für die Stadtteilentwicklung - Haniel und Grillo in Duisburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleine-König, Christiane; Hohn, Uta

    2016-03-01

    Companies' community involvement turns out to be spatially relevant and-in many cases-to be focused on the near surroundings of the place of business. Some companies strategically align their involvement in order to systematically address local challenges. The essay at hand addresses the subject of corporate social responsibility from a local development perspective. Using the example of two family-owned enterprises based in Duisburg, Haniel and Grillo, it illustrates how socially committed companies can get involved with their local community by acting as good neighbours. Furthermore, it argues that socially committed companies can function as producers of space concerning matters of urban and local development. The specific local settings as well as the economic conditions of the local community serve as an explanatory background of the companies' involvement. The cases presented in this paper prove the firms' specific knowledge of local development needs and possibilities. This makes them qualified partners for local government actors and civil society actors. Thus, in the future, it is worth addressing corporate local responsibility from a governance point of view both in theory and in practice.

  15. Die Behandlung des Wilden Westerns auf der Mittelstufe (Treatment of the Wild West in the Intermediate Grades).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omasreiter, Ria

    1979-01-01

    Presents a 2- to 3-hour teaching unit dealing with conflict between Whites and Indians, taking as an example the Black Hawk War. The reports of Chief Black Hawk and of historian Billington (sources for both are given) are taken as a basis for discussion. (IFS/WGA)

  16. REFRACTORY DIE FOR EXTRUDING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-08-11

    A die is presented for the extrusion of metals, said die being formed of a refractory complex oxide having the composition M/sub n/O/sub m/R/sub x/O/sub y/ where M is magnesium, zinc, manganese, or iron, R is aluminum, chromic chromium, ferric iron, or manganic manganese, and m, n, x, and y are whole numbers. Specific examples are spinel, magnesium aluminate, magnetite, magnesioferrite, chromite, and franklinite.

  17. Improving care of dying children.

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, I M

    1995-01-01

    Every year about 5,000 children aged 0 to 14 years need hospice care in the United States. Children seem to know that they are dying, although this is difficult for parents to accept. Clear, empathic understanding is needed. Communication with clarity and understanding is imperative with the changes in goals from cure to palliation to comfort. The ideal place for most dying children is at home, where symptoms can be managed as effectively as in a hospital. PMID:7571589

  18. Use of RSP Tooling to Manufacture Die Casting Dies

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin McHugh

    2004-07-01

    The technology and art used to construct die casting dies has seen many improvements over the years. However, the time lag from when a design is finalized to the time a tool is in production has remained essentially the same. The two main causes for the bottleneck are the need to qualify a part design by making prototypes (usually from an alternative process), and the production tooling lead time after the prototypes are approved. Production tooling costs are high due to the labor and equipment costs associated with transforming a forged block of tool steel into a finished tool. CNC machining, sink EDM, benching, engraving and heat treatment unit operations are typically involved. As a result, there is increasing interest in rapid tooling (RT) technologies that shorten the design-to-part cycle and reduce the cost of dies. There are currently more than 20 RT methods being developed and refined around the world (1). The "rapid" in rapid tooling suggests time compression for tool delivery, but does not address robustness as nearly all RT approaches are intended for low-volume prototype work, primarily for molding plastics. Few options exist for die casting. An RT technology suitable for production-quality tooling in the time it normally takes for prototype tooling is highly desirable. In fact, there would be no need for a distinction between prototype and production tooling. True prototype parts could be made using the same processing conditions and materials intended for production. Qualification of the prototype part would allow the manufacturer to go directly into production with the same tool. A relatively new RT technology, Rapid Solidification Process (RSP) Tooling, is capable of making production-quality tooling in an RT timeframe for die casting applications. RSP Tooling, was developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), and commercialized with the formation of RSP Tooling, LLC (2). This paper describes the process, and

  19. Neuropilin-2 and its ligand VEGF-C predict treatment response after transurethral resection and radiochemotherapy in bladder cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Keck, B; Wach, S; Taubert, H; Zeiler, S; Ott, O J; Kunath, F; Hartmann, A; Bertz, S; Weiss, C; Hönscheid, P; Schellenburg, S; Rödel, C; Baretton, G B; Sauer, R; Fietkau, R; Wullich, B; Krause, F S; Datta, K; Muders, M H

    2015-01-15

    The standard treatment for invasive bladder cancer is radical cystectomy. In selected patients, bladder-sparing therapy can be performed by transurethral resection (TURBT) and radio-chemotherapy (RCT) or radiotherapy (RT). Our published in vitro data suggest that the Neuropilin-2 (NRP2)/VEGF-C axis plays a role in therapy resistance. Therefore, we studied the prognostic impact of NRP2 and VEGF-C in 247 bladder cancer patients (cN0M0) treated with TURBT and RCT (n = 198) or RT (n = 49) and a follow-up time up to 15 years. A tissue microarray was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. NRP2 expression emerged as a prognostic factor in overall survival (OS; HR: 3.42; 95% CI: 1.48 - 7.86; p = 0.004) and was associated with a 3.85-fold increased risk of an early cancer specific death (95% CI: 0.91 - 16.24; p = 0.066) in multivariate analyses. Cancer specific survival (CSS) dropped from 166 months to 85 months when NRP2 was highly expressed (p = 0.037). Patients with high VEGF-C expression have a 2.29-fold increased risk of shorter CSS (95% CI: 1.03-5.35; p = 0.043) in univariate analysis. CSS dropped from 170 months to 88 months in the case of high VEGF-C expression (p = 0.041). Additionally, NRP2 and VEGF-C coexpression is a prognostic marker for OS in multivariate models (HR: 7.54; 95% CI: 1.57-36.23; p = 0.012). Stratification for muscle invasiveness (T1 vs. T2-T4) confirmed the prognostic role of NRP2 and NRP2/VEGF-C co-expression in patients with T2-T4 but also with high risk T1 disease. In conclusion, immunohistochemistry for NRP2 and VEGF-C has been determined to predict therapy outcome in bladder cancer patients prior to TURBT and RCT. PMID:24862180

  20. Prognostic Significance of Human Apurinic/Apyrimidinic Endonuclease (APE/Ref-1) Expression in Rectal Cancer Treated With Preoperative Radiochemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jun-Sang; Kim, Jin-Man; Liang, Zhe Long; Jang, Ji Young; Kim, Sup; Huh, Gil Ja; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Cho, Moon-June

    2012-01-01

    prognostic factor for LARC patients who receive preoperative radiochemotherapy.

  1. Salvage concurrent radio-chemotherapy for post-operative local recurrence of squamous-cell esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the treatment outcome of salvage concurrent radio-chemotherapy for patients with loco-recurrent esophageal cancer after surgery. Methods 50 patients with loco-recurrent squamous-cell cancer after curative esophagectomy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were treated with radiotherapy (median 60 Gy) combined with chemotherapy consisting of either 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus cisplatin (DDP) (R-FP group) or paclitaxel plus DDP (R-TP group). Results The median follow-up period was 16.0 months. The 1-year and 3-year survival rates were 56% and 14%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) time was 9.8 and 13.3 months respectively. There was no statistical significance of the PFS of the two groups. The OS (median 16.3 months) in the R-TP group was superior to that in the R-FP group (median: 9.8 months) (p = 0.012). Among the patients who had received ≥60 Gy irradiation dose, the median PFS (10.6 months) and OS (16.3 months) were significantly superior to the PFS (8.7 months) and OS (11.3 months) among those patients did not (all p < 0.05). Grade 3 treatment-related gastritis were observed in 6 (27.3%) and 7 (25%) patients in the R-FP and R-TP group respectively. By univariate survival analysis, the age (<60 years), TP regimen and higher irradiation dose might improve the OS of such patients in present study. Conclusions For those patients with post-operative loco-recurrent squamous-cell esophageal carcinoma, radiotherapy combined with either FP or TP regimen chemotherapy was an effective salvage treatment. Younger age, treatment with the TP regimen and an irradiation dose ≥60 Gy might improve the patients’ treatment outcome. PMID:22713587

  2. Acting to let someone die.

    PubMed

    McGee, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    This paper examines the recent prominent view in medical ethics that withdrawing life-sustaining treatment (LST) is an act of killing. I trace this view to the rejection of the traditional claim that withdrawing LST is an omission rather than an act. Although that traditional claim is not as problematic as this recent prominent view suggests, my main claim is that even if we accepted that withdrawing LST should be classified as an act rather than as an omission, it could still be classified as letting die rather than killing. Even though omissions are contrasted with acts, letting die need not be, for one can let die by means of acts. The remainder of the paper is devoted to establishing this claim and addresses certain objections to it. PMID:24320715

  3. Clinical management of dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Gavrin, J; Chapman, C R

    1995-01-01

    Dying is universal, and death should be a peaceful time. Myriad comfort measures are available in the last weeks before life ends. Discussions about end-of-life issues often suffer from lack of informed opinion. Palliative care experts have identified specific somatic and psychological sources of distress for dying patients and their loved ones. Pain, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, and fear of abandonment contribute substantially to both physical and psychological discomfort toward the end of life. Simple, effective methods exist for relieving those symptoms. Knowledge about the natural events associated with dying and an informed approach to medical and psychological interventions contribute to systematic and successful comfort care. We describe the origin of physical and psychological distress at the end of life and provide strategies for alleviating many of the discomforts. PMID:7571591

  4. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  5. 'Die Zeit' im Konversationsunterricht ('Die Zeit' in a Conversation Class)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker-Cantarino, Barbel

    1975-01-01

    The German weekly newspaper "Die Zeit" contains a very rich variety of topics and is therefore an inexhaustable source for an exciting conversation class. This article outlines and lists the advantages of a German conversation course organized around this newspaper. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  6. Portable punch and die jig

    DOEpatents

    Lewandowski, Edward F.; Anderson, Petrus A.

    1978-01-01

    A portable punch and die jig includes a U-shaped jig of predetermined width having a slot of predetermined width in the base thereof extending completely across the width of the jig adapted to fit over the walls of rectangular tubes and a punch and die assembly disposed in a hole extending through the base of the jig communicating with the slot in the base of the jig for punching a hole in the walls of the rectangular tubes at precisely determined locations.

  7. Dying radio galaxies in clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgia, M.; Parma, P.; Mack, K.-H.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Fanti, R.; Govoni, F.; Tarchi, A.; Giacintucci, S.; Markevitch, M.

    2011-02-01

    Aims: We present a study of five "dying" nearby (z ≤ 0.2) radio galaxies belonging to both the WENSS minisurvey and the B2 bright catalogs WNB1734+6407, WNB1829+6911, WNB1851+5707, B2 0120+33, and B2 1610+29. Methods: These sources have been selected on the basis of their extremely steep broad-band radio spectra, which strongly indicates that either these objects belong to the rare class of dying radio galaxies or we are observing "fossil" radio plasma remaining from a previous instance of nuclear activity. We derive the relative duration of the dying phase from the fit of a synchrotron radiative model to the radio spectra of the sources. Results: The modeling of the integrated spectra and the deep spectral index images obtained with the VLA confirmed that in these sources the central engine has ceased to be active for a significant fraction of their lifetime, although their extended lobes have not yet completely faded away. We found that WNB1851+5707 is in reality composed of two distinct dying galaxies, which appear blended together as a single source in the WENSS. In the cases of WNB1829+6911 and B2 0120+33, the fossil radio lobes are seen in conjunction with a currently active core. A very faint core is also detected in a MERLIN image of WNB1851+5707a, one of the two dying sources composing WNB1851+5707. We found that all sources in our sample are located (at least in projection) at the center of an X-ray emitting cluster. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the duration of the dying phase for a radio source in a cluster can be significantly higher than that of a radio galaxy in the field, although no firm conclusions can be drawn because of the small number statistics involved. The simplest interpretation of the tendency for dying galaxies to be found in clusters is that the low-frequency radio emission from the fading radio lobes lasts longer if their expansion is somewhat reduced or even stopped. Another possibility is that the occurrence of dying

  8. Die Herz-Lungen-Maschine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krane, Markus; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Lange, Rüdiger

    Das Kapitel der modernen Herzchirurgie mit Einsatz der Herz-Lungen-Maschine am Menschen beginnt am 6. Mai 1953, als J. Gibbon bei einer 18-jährigen Patientin einen angeborenen Defekt in der Vorhofscheidewand verschließt [1]. Mit ersten experimentellen Versuchen zur extrakorporalen Zirkulation begann Gibbon bereits in den 30er Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts. Die Grundlage für die heute gebräuchliche Rollerpumpe schufen Porter und Bradley mit ihrer "rotary pump“, welche sie 1855 zum Patent anmeldeten. Diese Pumpe wurde von DeBakey und Schmidt modifiziert und entspricht im Wesentlichen noch der heute sich im Routinebetrieb befindlichen Rollerpumpe [2].

  9. Robert Merton Dies at 92

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2006-01-01

    This article features Robert Merton, who died recently at age 92. Merton came into this world as a Jewish baby named Meyer Schkolnick. He lived in South Philly where his parents wrenched a living as blue-collar workers. Merton chose an Anglicized name to move into the Yankee dominated America of the 20's and 30's. At Harvard, he studied under…

  10. Attitudes on Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrus, Charles E.

    This paper explored attitudes toward death and dying revealed through interviews with members of the clergy, the medical profession, funeral directors, nursing home residents, and selected others. The sampling was small and results are not intended to be representative of the groups to which these people belong. Rather, the study may be used as a…

  11. Post-transcriptional control of gene expression by AUF1: Mechanisms, physiological targets, and regulation☆

    PubMed Central

    White, Elizabeth J.F.; Brewer, Gary; Wilson, Gerald M.

    2013-01-01

    AUF1 is a family of four proteins generated by alternative pre-mRNA splicing that form high affinity complexes with AU-rich, mRNA-destabilizing sequences located within the 3′ untranslated regions of many labile mRNAs. While AUF1 binding is most frequently associated with accelerated mRNA decay, emerging examples have demonstrated roles as a mRNA stabilizer or even translational regulator for specific transcripts. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of mRNA recognition by AUF1 and the biochemical and functional consequences of these interactions. In addition, unique properties of individual AUF1 isoforms and the roles of these proteins in modulating expression of genes associated with inflammatory, neoplastic, and cardiac diseases are discussed. Finally, we describe mechanisms that regulate AUF1 expression in cells, and current knowledge of regulatory switches that modulate the cellular levels and/or activities of AUF1 isoforms through distinct protein post-translational modifications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: RNA Decay mechanisms. PMID:23246978

  12. Integrated Forming Simulations and Die Structural Analysis for Optimal Die Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitharaju, Venkat; Liu, Malcolm; Dong, Jennifer; Zhang, Jimmy; Wang, Chuan-tao

    2005-08-01

    After gaining a huge success in applying stamping simulations and formability analysis to validate die face developments, GM moves forward to winning total manufacturability in stamping process. Of which, ensuring die structure integrity and minimizing weight is one of the important initiatives. Stamping die design (or solid modeling of stamping dies) was traditionally conducted by following the die design manuals and standards. For any design changes beyond the standards, however, there are no math-based tools available to die designers to verify the outcome of the changes. Die structural analysis (DSA) provides a math-tool to validate the design changes and quantify the safety factors. Several years ago, GM Manufacturing Engineering — Die Center started die structural analysis to meet the increasing demands of customer needs in various areas: (1) to validate design changes; (2) to identify root cause of die breakage during the tryout and stamping operations and propose repair schemes; (3) to optimize the die design for weight reduction; (4) to improve press throughput via optimizing the scrap chute openings, and (5) to provide a math-based tool to validate revisions to the current die design standards. In the integrated forming and die structural analysis, after successful line die surface developments, the forming loads (binder force, pad force, and forming tonnages) are extracted from forming simulations and applied to solid die members for structural analyses of stress, strains, and deflections. In the past few years, Die Center conducted static, dynamic and fatigue analysis for many dies that covers the die design changes requested by die design, die construction and stamping plants. This paper presents some fundamentals and issues of integrated forming and die structural analysis and illustrates the significant impact of die structural analysis on die design, die construction and production stamping.

  13. HSPB1 Gene Polymorphisms Predict Risk of Mortality for US Patients After Radio(chemo)therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Ting; Wei Qingyi; Lopez Guerra, Jose Luis; Gomez, Daniel; O'Reilly, Michael; Lin, Steven Hsesheng; Zhuang Yan; Levy, Lawrence B.; Mohan, Radhe; Zhou Honghao; Liao Zhongxing

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: We investigated potential associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1) gene and overall survival in US patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Using available genomic DNA samples from 224 patients with NSCLC treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy, we genotyped 2 SNPs of HSPB1 (NCBI SNP nos. rs2868370 and rs2868371). We used both Kaplan-Meier cumulative probability and Cox proportional hazards analyses to evaluate the effect of HSPB1 genotypes on survival. Results: Our cohort consisted of 117 men and 107 women, mostly white (79.5%), with a median age of 70 years. The median radiation dose was 66 Gy (range, 63-87.5 Gy), and 183 patients (82%) received concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy. The most common genotype of the rs2868371 SNP was CC (61%). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that this genotype was associated with poorer survival than CG and GG genotypes (univariate hazard ratio [HR] = 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.90; P=.037; multivariate HR = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01-1.92; P=.045). Conclusions: Our results showed that the CC genotype of HSPB1 rs2868371 was associated with poorer overall survival in patients with NSCLC after radio(chemo)therapy, findings that contradict those of a previous study of Chinese patients. Validation of our findings with larger numbers of similar patients is needed, as are mechanical and clinical studies to determine the mechanism underlying these associations.

  14. Exploratory study on H13 steel dies

    SciTech Connect

    Sunwoo, A.J.

    1994-04-01

    Ultrahigh-strength H13 steel is a recommended die material for aluminum die casting; dies made from H13 steel can be safely water- cooled during hot working operations without cracking. However, after time the dies exhibited surface cracking and excessive wear. Erosive wear also occurs owing to high pressure injection of molten Al. An exploratory study was made of the causes for surface cracking of H13 dies. Results suggest that surface cracking is caused by interrelated factors, internal to the die material as well as externally induced conditions.

  15. The thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The effects of welding, five selected surface coatings, and stress relieving on the thermal fatigue resistance of H-13 Die Steel for aluminum die casting dies were studied using eleven thermal fatigue specimens. Stress relieving was conducted after each 5,000 cycle interval at 1050 F for three hours. Four thermal fatigue specimens were welded with H-13 or maraging steel welding rods at ambient and elevated temperatures and subsequently, subjected to different post-weld heat treatments. Crack patterns were examined at 5,000, 10,000, and 15,000 cycles. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. The results indicate that a significant improvement in thermal fatigue resistance over the control was obtained from the stress-relieving treatment. Small improvements were obtained from the H-13 welded specimens and from a salt bath nitrogen and carbon-surface treatment. The other surface treatments and welded specimens either did not affect or had a detrimental influence on the thermal fatigue properties of the H-13 die steel.

  16. Guide for extrusion dies eliminates straightening operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyorgak, C. A.; Hoover, R. J.

    1964-01-01

    To prevent distortion of extruded metal, a guidance assembly is aligned with the die. As the metal emerges from the extrusion dies, it passes directly into the receiver and straightening tube system, and the completed extrusion is withdrawn.

  17. Technische Systeme für den Herzersatz und die Herzunterstützung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöb, Reto; Loree, Howard M.

    Herzkrankheiten verursachen allein in den Vereinigten Staaten jährlich mehr als 700’000 Todesfälle. Ungefähr 3 Millionen Patienten in den U.S.A. leiden gemäss der American Heart Association (AHA) und dem National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) an kongestivem Herzversagen (Congestive Heart Failure, CHF), welches eine chronische, sehr entkräftende und degenerative Krankheit ist: Das Herz ist dabei unfähig, hinreichend Blut zu den Organen des Körpers zu pumpen. Über 400’000 Fälle von CHF werden jedes Jahr diagnostiziert. Ähnliche Zahlen werden für Europa und Japan zusammen geschätzt. Basierend auf Daten vom AHA und NHLBI beträgt die fünfjährige Überlebensrate für CHF-Patienten lediglich etwa 50% [1]. 70’000-120’000 dieser Patienten könnten von einer Herzverpflanzung profitieren. 1999 wurden in den USA aber nur 2185 Herztransplantationen durchgeführt während die Warteliste über 4000 Patienten beträgt [2]. Ein akuter Mangel an Spenderherzen und die enormen Kosten (250’000-400’000 USD pro Patient) sind die begrenzenden Faktoren für Herztransplantationen [3]. Dies bedeutet, dass eine riesige Anzahl von Patienten durch ein zuverlässiges und verschleissfreies, nichtthrombotisches, total implantierbares, künstliches Herz gerettet werden könnten. Bis heute jedoch kein derartiges Implantat kommerziell verfügbar.

  18. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing. PMID:25080714

  19. Killing, letting die and euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Husak, D N

    1979-12-01

    Medical ethicists debate whether or not the moral assessment of cases of euthanasia should depend on whether the patient is 'killed' or 'allowed to die'. The usual presupposition is that a clear distinction between killing and letting die can be drawn so that this substantive question is not begged. I contend that the categorisation of cases of instances of killing rather than as instances of letting die depends in part on a prior moral assessment of the case. Hence is it trivially rather than substantively true that the distinction has moral significance. But even if a morally neutral (ie non-question begging) distinction could be drawn, its application to the euthanasia controversy is problematic. I illustrate the difficulties of employing this distinction to reach moral conclusions by critically discussing Philippa Foot's recent treatment of euthanasia. I conclude that even if an act of euthanasia is an instance of killing, and there exists a prima facie moral duty not to kill, and no more stringent duty overrides this duty, one still cannot determine such an act to be morally impermissible. PMID:541821

  20. Adolescents’ Perceived Risk of Dying

    PubMed Central

    Fischhoff, Baruch; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Parker, Andrew M.; Millstein, Susan G.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Although adolescents’ expectations are accurate or moderately optimistic for many significant life events, they greatly overestimate their chances of dying soon. We examine here whether adolescents’ mortality judgments are correlated with their perceptions of direct threats to their survival. Such sensitivity would indicate the importance of ensuring that adolescents have accurate information about those threats, as well as the psychological support needed to deal with them. Methods Data from two separate studies were used: a national study of 3,436 14–18 year old adolescents and a regional sample of 124 7th graders and 132 9th graders, 12–16 years old. Participants were asked about their chance of dying in the next year and before age 20, and about the extent of various threats to their physical well being. Results Adolescents in both samples greatly overestimated their chance of dying. Those mortality estimates were higher for adolescents who reported direct threats (e.g., an unsafe neighborhood). Thus, adolescents were sensitive to the relative size of threats to their survival, but not to the implications for absolute risk levels. Conclusions Contrary to the folk wisdom that adolescents have a unique sense of invulnerability, those studied here reported an exaggerated sense of mortality, which was highest among those reporting greater threats in their lives. Such fears could affect adolescents’ short-term well being and future planning. PMID:20159504

  1. Contoured Orifice for Silicon-Ribbon Die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackintosh, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    Die configuration encourages purity and stable growth. Contour of die orifice changes near ribbon edges. As result, silicon ribbon has nearly constant width and little carbon contamination. Die part of furnace being developed to produce high-quality, low-cost material for solar cells.

  2. Jewish tradition in death and dying.

    PubMed

    Ross, H M

    1998-10-01

    Death is often a spiritually difficult time for the dying and their families. Judaism approaches dying with some unique views that can differ from other religious traditions. Through an understanding of Jewish tradition, nurses can ease the dying process for Jewish patients and their families. PMID:10036429

  3. Melker Meilensteine auf dem Weg in ein naturwissenschaftliches Zeitalter - Glanzlichter der Ausstellung zum Internationalen Astronomiejahr 2009 in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Paul G.; Zotti, Georg

    2009-06-01

    Das Mittelalter wird weithin als die dunkle Epoche in der Geschichte der Europäischen Wissenschaften betrachtet, und insbesondere das Leben in den Klöstern galt lange Zeit als frei von jeglichem Interesse für Naturwissenschaften abseits der Medizin. Im Mittelalter galt die Astronomie bloß als Mittel zum Zweck, um religiöse und zivile Kalender erstellen zu können. Durch den Bestand der Handschriftenkammer der Melker Stiftsbibliothek eröffnet sich uns eine neue Sichtweise auf das gegen Ende des Mittelalters wachsende Interesse an den Naturwissenschaften. Dies wurde durch die starke Aufwertung der Klosterbibliothek im Rahmen der 'Melker Reform' im 15. Jahrhundert noch weiter verstärkt. Diese Epoche fällt mit der Frühphase der Universität Wien und der 'ersten Wiener Schule der Astronomie' zusammen. Dieser Artikel beleuchtet ausgewählte astronomischen Werke in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek zwischen dem frühen 9 und dem 18. Jahrhundert. Einen Schwerpunkt stellt das Wirken der Wiener Schule der Astronomie dar, wobei wir u.a. die Melker Abschrift von Peuerbachs Gutachten über den Kometen von 1456 sowie die im Stift Melk durchgeführte Beobachtung der Mondfinsternis von 1457 durch Regiomontanus und Peuerbach beleuchten. Dieser Beitrag ist der einführende Übersichtsartikel zum Ausstellungsprojekt in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek im Rahmen des Internationalen Jahres der Astronomie 2009. The medieval period is commonly seen as a dark epoch for science in Europe. Especially monasteries were seen as institutions without interest in natural sciences except for medicine. Astronomy was allegedly only a tool to construct religious and civil calendars. The inventory of the medieval manuscript collection of the library of the Abbey of Melk allows a new view on the growing interest in the exact sciences towards the end of the medieval ages. This interest was intensified through the increased importance of the monastery library due to the monastery reform

  4. Über die Möglichkeit der Zustandsvoraussage chaotischer Systeme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leven, R. W.; Pompe, B.

    Deterministische chaotische Systeme reagieren empfindlich auf Störungen ihrer Bewegung. Kennt man im speziellen den Anfangszustand des Systems nicht exakt, so ist eine Voraussage über das zukünftige Verhalten des Systems nur beschränkt möglich. Die Transformation IT gibt an, wieviel Information man über einen zukünftigen Zustand hat, wenn man den Anfangszustand mit einer bestimmten Genauigkeit kennt.In dieser Arbeit werden weitere mögliche Interpretationen von IT in Hinblick auf die Beschreibung dynamischer Systeme gegeben. Für zwei einfache eindimensionale Abbildungen wird IT in Abhängigkeit von der Zeit der Voraussage (l) bestimmt: Ein System, das durch die BERNOULLI-Abbildung beschrieben wird, vergißt nach der ersten Iteration 1 bis 1,5 bit von seinem Anfangszustand. Vollständiges Vergessen tritt jedoch i. allg. erst für l ein. Bei der Logistik-Abbildung vergißt das System seinen Anfangszustand schneller, wenn der Grad des Chaos (d. h. der LJAPUNOV-Exponent) oder die äußeren Störungen zunehmen.Translated AbstractOn the Possibility of State Prediction of Chaotic SystemsDeterministic chaotic systems show a sensitive response to perturbations of their motion. In particular, if one has not exact knowledge about the initial state of the system, limits are set to the prediction of the system's future behaviour. The transinformation IT is the information obtainable about a future state, if one knows the initial state within a certain precision. In this paper further possible interpretations of IT are given with regard to the description of dynamic systems. IT is determined for different times of prediction (l) in the case of two simple one-dimensional maps: A system described by the BERNOULLI-map forgets after the first iteration 1 to 1.5 bit of its initial state. Nevertheless, in general we have complete loss of memory only for l . In the case of the logistic map the system forgets its initial state faster, if the

  5. Evaluation of permanent die coatings to improve the wear resistance of die casting dies. Final project report, January 1, 1995--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Shivpuri, R.

    1997-09-18

    Die Casting dies are subject to severe service conditions during the die casting operation. While these severe conditions are necessary to achieve high production rates, they cause the dies which are commonly made of H13 die steel, to suffer frequent failures. The major die failure mechanisms are erosion or washout, Heat checking, soldering and corrosion. Due to their geometrical complexity, die casting dies are very expensive (some dies cost over a million dollars), and thus a large number of parts have to be produced by a die, to justify this cost and leverage the advantages of the die casting process (high production rates, low manpower costs). A potential increase in the die service life, thus has a significant impact on the economics of the die; casting operation. There are many ways to extend die life: developing new wear resistant die materials, developing new surface treatments including coatings, improving heat treatment of existing H13 dies, using better lubricants that can protect the die material, or modifying the die geometry and process parameters to reduce the intensity of wear. Of these the use of coatings to improve the wear resistance of the die surface has shown a lot of promise. Consequently, use of coatings in the die casting industry and their wide use to decrease die wear can improve significantly the productivity of shop operations resulting in large savings in material and energy usage.

  6. Qualität auf dem Prüfstand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Michael

    An einem Wochenende im Dezember 2009 beendete der chinesische Eisenbahn-Vizeminister Hu Yadong in Begleitung einer hochrangigen Delegation aus Experten des Department of Safety seines Ministeriums eine mehrtägige Europareise mit einem Besuch in der Konzernzentrale des weltweit führenden Herstellers von Bremssystemen für Schienen- und Nutzfahrzeuge in München. Schon in wenigen Jahren wird China über die weltweit größte Flotte an Hochgeschwindigkeitszügen verfügen und dabei sind Sicherheit und Qualität vorrangige Anforderungen. Knorr-Bremse liefert 100% der Bremsanlagen dieser Züge und hat vor kurzem mit rund 500 Millionen Euro den größten Auftrag in der Firmengeschichte erhalten. Das Unternehmen wird zusammen mit seinen chinesischen Partnern insgesamt 2.720 neue Wagen des chinesischen Hochgeschwindigkeitszuges CRH3 mit Brems- und Türsystemen ausrüsten.

  7. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, Edward H.; Tuckerman, David B.

    1991-01-01

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required.

  8. Die singulation method and package formed thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert C.; Shul, Randy J.; Clews, Peggy J.; Baker, Michael S.; De Boer, Maarten P.

    2012-08-07

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a substrate having a sacrificial layer and one or more device layers, with a retainer being formed in the device layer(s) and anchored to the substrate. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) etching of a trench through the substrate from the bottom side defines a shape for each die. A handle wafer is then attached to the bottom side of the substrate, and the sacrificial layer is etched to singulate the die and to form a frame from the retainer and the substrate. The frame and handle wafer, which retain the singulated die in place, can be attached together with a clamp or a clip and to form a package for the singulated die. One or more stops can be formed from the device layer(s) to limit a sliding motion of the singulated die.

  9. Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

    1991-09-10

    A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

  10. Should assisted dying be legalised?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    When an individual facing intractable pain is given an estimate of a few months to live, does hastening death become a viable and legitimate alternative for willing patients? Has the time come for physicians to do away with the traditional notion of healthcare as maintaining or improving physical and mental health, and instead accept their own limitations by facilitating death when requested? The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge held the 2013 Varsity Medical Debate on the motion “This House Would Legalise Assisted Dying”. This article summarises the key arguments developed over the course of the debate. We will explore how assisted dying can affect both the patient and doctor; the nature of consent and limits of autonomy; the effects on society; the viability of a proposed model; and, perhaps most importantly, the potential need for the practice within our current medico-legal framework. PMID:24423249

  11. Treatment Outcome of Radiotherapy Alone versus Radiochemotherapy in IE/IIE Extranodal Nasal-Type Natural Killer/T Cell Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Tianxia; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Xi; Wu, Sha; Xu, Yaqi; Liu, Shanshan; Chen, Xinghua

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have revealed conflicting findings concerning the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) and radiochemotherapy (RCT) in IE/IIE extranodal nasal-type natural killer/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL). In this study, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to address this issue. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), EmBase, BISOS, Clinical Trials and some Chinese databases for relevant studies, and 2 prospective and 15 retrospective studies involving a total of 1595 patients met our inclusion criteria. Results The meta-analysis showed no significant differences in complete remission (CR) [odds ratio (OR) 0.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42–1.72, p = 0.65], 5-year overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR) 1.11, 95% CI 0.85–1.45, p = 0.43] and 5-year progression free survival (PFS) (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.75–1.53, p = 0.70) in patients who received RT versus RCT. Furthermore, the addition of CT decreased neither systemic failure (SL) (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.47–1.21, p = 0.24) nor locoregional failure (LF) (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.68–2.01, p = 0. 57). Conclusions RCT did not have an obvious advantage over RT for treating IE/IIE ENKTL. PMID:25184382

  12. Das Blüte-Bestäuber-Netz auf Brachflächen : biozönologische Untersuchung zur Bedeutung von Brachen in einer intensiv genutzten Agrarlandschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Robert

    2002-11-01

    In der vorliegenden Dissertation wird die Bedeutung von Brachen für Artenvielfalt und Stabilität von Blüte-Bestäuber-Nahrungsnetzen in agrarisch genutzten Landschaften anhand ausgewählter blütenbesuchender Insektengruppen (Syrphidae, Lepidoptera) untersucht. Die Freilandarbeiten fanden von 1998-2000 im Raum der Feldberger Seenlandschaft, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, statt. Es werden die beiden Hauptnahrungsquellen Nektar und Pollen betrachtet, dabei fanden Untersuchungen zur Intensität der Blüte-Bestäuber-Interaktion auf Stilllegungsflächen, zum flächenbezogenen quantitativen Nektarangebot im Jahresverlauf, zur individuellen Pollennutzung bei Syrphiden und zur Breite und Überlappung der Nahrungsnischen bei den dominanten Arten Episyrphus balteatus, Metasyrphus corollae, Syritta pipiens und Sphaerophoria scripta statt. Im Ergebnis zeigt sich eine hohe Bedeutung der Brachflächen für die Stabilität des Blüte-Bestäuber-Netzes, während die Diversität von anderen, eher landschaftsbezogenen Faktoren abhängig ist. This dissertation examines the importance of fallow land for the diversity and stability of pollination webs in agricultural landscapes as exemplified by selected groups of anthophilous insects (syrphidae and lepidoptera). The field studies were carried out between 1998 and 2000 in the Feldberg lakeland area in the north-east German State of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Observations were made of nectar and pollen as the two main sources of food. Studies were conducted into the intensity of plant-pollinator interaction in set-aside areas, the site-specific quantity of nectar available during the vegetation period and the individual pollen intake of syrphid flies. Different methods were employed to establish the breadth of the trophic niches among the predominant species (Episyrphus balteatus, Metasyrphus corollae, Syritta pipiens and Sphaerophoria scripta) and the extent to which they overlapped. The studies showed that, while fallow land is very

  13. iPTF discovery of a young Type Ia supernova: iPTF16auf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushevska, T.; Ferretti, R.; Fremling, C.; Hangard, L.; Karamehmetoglu, E.; Nyholm, A.; Papadogiannakis, S.; Roy, R.; Taddia, F.; Bar, I.; Horesh, A.; Johansson, J.; Knezevic, S.; Leloudas, G.; Manulis, I.; Nir, G.; Rubin, A.; Soumagnac, M.; Vreeswijk, P.; Yaron, O.; Cao, Y.; Arcavi, I.

    2016-05-01

    We report the detection of a young supernova, designated as iPTF16auf, at RA=14:31:09.26 and Dec=+27:14:09.8 (J2000), in the vicinity of the star forming galaxy MRK 685 at spectroscopic redshift 0.015.

  14. Superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles: one-pot synthesis, biofunctionalization and toxicity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariti, A.; Desai, P.; Maddirala, S. K. Y.; Ercal, N.; Katti, K. V.; Liang, X.; Nath, M.

    2014-09-01

    Superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles have been synthesized using a single step hot-injection precipitation method. The synthesis involved using Fe(CO)5 as iron precursor and HAuCl4 as gold precursor in the presence of oleylamine and oleic acid. Oleylamine helps in reducing Au3+ to Au0 seeds which simultaneously oxidizes Fe(0) to form Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles. Triton® X-100 was employed as a highly viscous solvent to prevent agglomeration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Detailed characterization of these nanoparticles was performed by using x-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, Mössbauer and magnetometry studies. To evaluate these nanoparticles’ applicability in biomedical applications, L-cysteine was attached to the Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles and cytotoxicity of Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles was tested using CHO cells by employing MTS assay. L-cysteine modified Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were qualitatively characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy; and quantitatively using acid ninhydrin assay. Investigations reveal that that this approach yields Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles with an average particle size of 80 nm. Mössbauer studies indicated the presence of Fe in Fe3+ in A and B sites (tetrahedral and octahedral, respectively) and Fe2+ in B sites (octahedral). Magnetic measurements also indicated that these nanoparticles were superparamagnetic in nature due to Fe3O4 region. The saturation magnetization for the bifunctional nanoparticles was observed to be ˜74 emu g-1, which is significantly higher than the previously reported Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Mössbauer studies indicated that there was no significant Fe(0) impurity that could be responsible for the superparamagnetic nature of these nanoparticles. None of the investigations showed any presence of other impurities such as Fe2O3 and FeOOH. These Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional

  15. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  16. Student Nurses' Perception of Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederriter, Joan E.

    2009-01-01

    Student nurses are involved in caring for patients who are actively dying or who have been told they have a terminal illness and are faced with the process of dying. Students encounter these patients in hospitals, nursing homes, at home or in hospice care settings. According to Robinson (2004), "nurses are the healthcare providers that are most…

  17. The Right To Die. Public Talk Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquerella, Lynn

    This program guide on the right to die provides policy issue information where ethical concerns have a prominent place. Three positions about the right to die are presented: (1) mercy killing and assisted suicide should be legally permitted in certain cases; (2) legal status should be given to living wills and other advance directives that would…

  18. Energy Consumption of Die Casting Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Jerald Brevick; clark Mount-Campbell; Carroll Mobley

    2004-03-15

    Molten metal processing is inherently energy intensive and roughly 25% of the cost of die-cast products can be traced to some form of energy consumption [1]. The obvious major energy requirements are for melting and holding molten alloy in preparation for casting. The proper selection and maintenance of melting and holding equipment are clearly important factors in minimizing energy consumption in die-casting operations [2]. In addition to energy consumption, furnace selection also influences metal loss due to oxidation, metal quality, and maintenance requirements. Other important factors influencing energy consumption in a die-casting facility include geographic location, alloy(s) cast, starting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting form of alloy (solid or liquid), overall process flow, casting yield, scrap rate, cycle times, number of shifts per day, days of operation per month, type and size of die-casting machine, related equipment (robots, trim presses), and downstream processing (machining, plating, assembly, etc.). Each of these factors also may influence the casting quality and productivity of a die-casting enterprise. In a die-casting enterprise, decisions regarding these issues are made frequently and are based on a large number of factors. Therefore, it is not surprising that energy consumption can vary significantly from one die-casting enterprise to the next, and within a single enterprise as function of time.

  19. Assisted dying: a review of international legislation.

    PubMed

    Field, Charlotte; Curtice, Martin

    2009-05-01

    The issue of assisted dying in the UK is increasingly receiving media and academic journal attention. Such reporting often cites, but in little depth, existing legislation in other countries. Such international legislation may also shape future UK assisted dying legislation. PMID:19451872

  20. Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies

    DOEpatents

    Allison, James W.; LaBarre, Timothy L.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for restraining and transporting dies in punch press operations is provided. A floatation platen for supporting a die on the platen's upper surface has a plurality of recessed gas exhaust ports on the platen's lower surface. A source of pressurized gas delivers gas to a platen manifold, for delivery to orifices located in the gas exhaust ports. The flow of gas is controlled by a first valve adjacent the gas source and a second valve adjacent the manifold, with the second valve being used to control the gas flow during movement of the die. In this fashion, a die may be moved on a cushion of air from one workstation to a selected second workstation. A moveable hydraulically operated restraining fixture is also provided, for clamping the die in position during the compacting phase, and for releasing the die after completion of the compacting phase by releasing the hydraulic pressure on the restraining fixture. When pressure in the hydraulic cylinders on the restraining fixture is reversed, the restraining fixture will retract so that there is no contact between the die and the restraining fixture, thereby allowing the die to be removed from a first workstation and moved to a second selected workstation.

  1. Genetic variation in radiation and platinum pathways predicts severe acute radiation toxicity in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with cisplatin-based preoperative radiochemotherapy: results from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, P.; Gibson, M. K.; Skaar, T. C.; Philips, S.; Montgomery, E. A.; Hafez, M. J.; Powell, M.; Liu, G.; Forastiere, A. A.; Benson, A. B.; Kleinberg, L. R.; Murphy, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Germline genetic variations may partly explain the clinical observation that normal tissue tolerance to radiochemotherapy varies by individual. Our objective was to evaluate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in radiation/platinum pathways and serious treatment-related toxicity in subjects with esophageal adenocarcinoma who received cisplatin-based preoperative radiochemotherapy. Methods In a multicenter clinical trial (E1201), 81 eligible treatment-naïve subjects with resectable esophageal adenocarcinoma received cisplatin-based chemotherapy concurrent with radiotherapy, with planned subsequent surgical resection. Toxicity endpoints were defined as grade ≥3 radiation-related or myelosuppressive events probably or definitely related to therapy, occurring during or up to 6 weeks following the completion of radiochemotherapy. SNPs were analyzed in 60 subjects in pathways related to nucleotide/base excision- or double stranded break repair, or platinum influx, efflux, or detoxification. Results Grade ≥3 radiation-related toxicity (mostly dysphagia) and myelosuppression occurred in 18 and 33% of subjects, respectively. The variant alleles of the XRCC2 5′ flanking SNP (detected in 28% of subjects) and of GST-Pi Ile-105-Val (detected in 65% of subjects) were each associated with higher odds of serious radiation-related toxicity compared to the major allele homozygote (47% vs. 9%, and 31% vs. 0%, respectively; P = 0.005). No SNP was associated with myelosuppression. Conclusions This novel finding in a well-characterized cohort with robust endpoint data supports further investigation of XRCC2 and GST-Pi as potential predictors of radiation toxicity. PMID:21286719

  2. [Right to die with dignity?].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Alvaro

    2008-06-01

    The right to die with dignity is an ill-defined concept, with multiple, often inappropriate, interpretations. The current proposition is that the physician take full responsibility for protecting the patients rights, for ensuring a rational use of resources and for overseeing the decision-making process such that the information is adequate and the steps proportioned. This responsibility extends not only to the health status of the patient situation, to the patients prognosis, and to his/her expectations and wishes, but also to the benefits foreseen and to the cost-benefit ratio. Emphasis is placed on two aspects of this relationship. First, dignity can be interpreted in many ways and sometimes, in the name of dignity, the patient is exposed (or exposes him/herself) to suffering, pain and complications that can be avoided. Second, when no reasonable probability of survival is present and a better quality of life is impossible, efforts are better redirected to offering a better quality of death. PMID:18719721

  3. Dying to go to school.

    PubMed

    Shearar, A

    1997-01-01

    In southern Sudan, the recent war sparked a mass migration of boys aged 5-18 who traveled through perilous terrain to the borders of Ethiopia in search of promised security and schooling. Thousands of these children died from hardships suffered in the wild, from the inadvertent or deliberate attacks of warriors, from hunger, from thirst, or from disease. Those who endured the hardships and arrived at their destination were shocked to find only military training centers or rudimentary schooling for those who were too weak or too young to be trained for battle. Eventually, the refugees were forced back into Sudan, and today about 20,000 of these unaccompanied children are displaced. Several nongovernmental organizations are running family reunification projects, and follow-up activities carried out among the reunified children reveal that they carry the scars of their trauma. The drawings the children produce as art therapy usually include the image of a young child holding a school book. While these children have a constant struggle with their memories, those who have not returned home or who have lost their families to war or disease are even more forlorn. As food rations have been halved in the refugee camps, many children are pursuing any possible alternative living arrangement. Some attempt to travel to South Africa or Egypt and some join an army in an effort to overcome the desperation of their present situation. PMID:12294200

  4. Assembly of Functional Ribonucleoprotein Complexes by AU-rich Element RNA-binding Protein 1 (AUF1) Requires Base-dependent and -independent RNA Contacts*

    PubMed Central

    Zucconi, Beth E.; Wilson, Gerald M.

    2013-01-01

    AU-rich element RNA-binding protein 1 (AUF1) regulates the stability and/or translational efficiency of diverse mRNA targets, including many encoding products controlling the cell cycle, apoptosis, and inflammation by associating with AU-rich elements residing in their 3′-untranslated regions. Previous biochemical studies showed that optimal AUF1 binding requires 33–34 nucleotides with a strong preference for U-rich RNA despite observations that few AUF1-associated cellular mRNAs contain such extended U-rich domains. Using the smallest AUF1 isoform (p37AUF1) as a model, we employed fluorescence anisotropy-based approaches to define thermodynamic parameters describing AUF1 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex formation across a panel of RNA substrates. These data demonstrated that 15 nucleotides of AU-rich sequence were sufficient to nucleate high affinity p37AUF1 RNP complexes within a larger RNA context. In particular, p37AUF1 binding to short AU-rich RNA targets was significantly stabilized by interactions with a 3′-purine residue and largely base-independent but non-ionic contacts 5′ of the AU-rich site. RNP stabilization by the upstream RNA domain was associated with an enhanced negative change in heat capacity consistent with conformational changes in protein and/or RNA components, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based assays demonstrated that these contacts were required for p37AUF1 to remodel local RNA structure. Finally, reporter mRNAs containing minimal high affinity p37AUF1 target sequences associated with AUF1 and were destabilized in a p37AUF1-dependent manner in cells. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the diverse population of AUF1 target mRNAs but also suggest how AUF1 binding could regulate protein and/or microRNA binding events at adjacent sites. PMID:23940053

  5. Diffusion MR Characteristics Following Concurrent Radiochemotherapy Predicts Progression-Free and Overall Survival in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Warren; Pope, Whitney B.; Harris, Robert J.; Hardy, Anthony J.; Leu, Kevin; Mody, Reema R.; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L.; Lai, Albert; Cloughesy, Timothy F.; Ellingson, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    The standard of care for newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) is surgery, then radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent temozolomide (TMZ), followed by adjuvant TMZ. We hypothesized patients with low diffusivity measured using apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis evaluated after RT+TMZ, prior to adjuvant TMZ, would have a significantly shorter progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). To test this hypothesis we evaluated 120 patients with newly diagnosed GBM receiving RT+TMZ followed by adjuvant TMZ. MRI was performed after completion of RT+TMZ, prior to initiation of adjuvant TMZ. A double Gaussian mixed model was used to describe the ADC histograms within the enhancing tumor, where ADCL and ADCH were defined as the mean ADC value of the lower and higher Gaussian distribution, respectively. An ADCL value of 1.0 um2/ms and ADCH value of 1.6 um2/ms were used to stratify patients into high and low risk categories. Results suggest patients with low ADCL had significantly shorter PFS (Cox Hazard Ratio = 0.12, P = 0.0006). OS was significantly shorter with low ADCL tumors, showing a median OS of 407 vs. 644 days (Cox Hazard Ratio = 0.31, P = 0.047). ADCH was not predictive of PFS or OS when accounting for age and ADCL. In summary, newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients with low ADCL after completion of RT+TMZ are likely to progress and die earlier than patients with higher ADCL. Results suggest ADC histogram analysis may be useful for patient risk stratification following completion of RT+TMZ. PMID:26740971

  6. Potential of Adaptive Radiotherapy to Escalate the Radiation Dose in Combined Radiochemotherapy for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Guckenberger, Matthias; Wilbert, Juergen; Richter, Anne; Baier, Kurt; Flentje, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of adaptive radiotherapy (ART) for advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in terms of lung sparing and dose escalation. Methods and Materials: In 13 patients with locally advanced NSCLC, weekly CT images were acquired during radio- (n = 1) or radiochemotherapy (n = 12) for simulation of ART. Three-dimensional (3D) conformal treatment plans were generated: conventionally fractionated doses of 66 Gy were prescribed to the planning target volume without elective lymph node irradiation (Plan{sub 3}D). Using a surface-based algorithm of deformable image registration, accumulated doses were calculated in the CT images acquired during the treatment course (Plan{sub 4}D). Field sizes were adapted to tumor shrinkage once in week 3 or 5 and twice in weeks 3 and 5. Results: A continuous tumor regression of 1.2% per day resulted in a residual gross tumor volume (GTV) of 49% {+-} 15% after six weeks of treatment. No systematic differences between Plan{sub 3}D and Plan{sub 4}D were observed regarding doses to the GTV, lung, and spinal cord. Plan adaptation to tumor shrinkage resulted in significantly decreased lung doses without compromising GTV coverage: single-plan adaptation in Week 3 or 5 and twice-plan adaptation in Weeks 3 and 5 reduced the mean lung dose by 5.0% {+-} 4.4%, 5.6% {+-} 2.9% and 7.9% {+-} 4.8%, respectively. This lung sparing with twice ART allowed an iso-mean lung dose escalation of the GTV dose from 66.8 Gy {+-} 0.8 Gy to 73.6 Gy {+-} 3.8 Gy. Conclusions: Adaptation of radiotherapy to continuous tumor shrinkage during the treatment course reduced doses to the lung, allowed significant dose escalation and has the potential of increased local control.

  7. Radiochemotherapy-induced changes of tumour vascularity and blood supply estimated by dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and fractal analysis in malignant head and neck tumours

    PubMed Central

    Hietschold, V; Appold, S; von Kummer, R; Abolmaali, N

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate radiochemotherapy (RChT)-induced changes of transfer coefficient (Ktrans) and relative tumour blood volume (rTBV) estimated by dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) and fractal analysis in head and neck tumours (HNTs). Methods: DCE-CT was performed in 15 patients with inoperable HNTs before RChT, and after 2 and 5 weeks. The dynamics of Ktrans and rTBV as well as lacunarity, slope of log(lacunarity) vs log(box size), and fractal dimension were compared with tumour behaviour during RChT and in the 24-month follow-up. Results: In 11 patients, an increase of Ktrans and/or rTBV after 20 Gy followed by a decrease of both parameters after 50 Gy was noted. Except for one local recurrence, no tumour residue was found during the follow-up. In three patients with partial tumour reduction during RChT, a decrease of Ktrans accompanied by an increase in rTBV between 20 and 50 Gy was detected. In one patient with continuous elevation of both parameters, tumour progressed after RChT. Pre-treatment difference in intratumoral heterogeneity with its decline under RChT for the responders vs non-responders was observed. Conclusion: Initial growth of Ktrans and/or rTBV followed by further reduction of both parameters along with the decline of the slope of log(lacunarity) vs log(box size) was associated with positive radiochemotherapeutic response. Increase of Ktrans and/or rTBV under RChT indicated a poor outcome. Advances in knowledge: The modification of Ktrans and rTBV as measured by DCE-CT may be applied for the assessment of tumour sensitivity to chose RChT regimen and, consequently, to reveal clinical impact allowing individualization of RChT strategy in patients with HNT. PMID:25412001

  8. Treatment Outcomes of Locally Advanced Oropharyngeal Cancer: A Comparison Between Combined Modality Radio-Chemotherapy and Two Variants of Single Modality Altered Fractionation Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kader, Hosam A.; Mydin, Aminudin R.; Wilson, Matthew; Alexander, Cheryl; Shahi, Jeevin; Pathak, Irvin; Wu, Jonn S.; Truong, Pauline T.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To compare outcomes in patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer treated with radio-chemotherapy (RT-CT), accelerated fractionation radiotherapy (AccRT), or hypofractionated radiotherapy (HypoRT). Methods and Materials: Subjects were 321 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed oropharyngeal cancer, Stage III or IVA/B, treated between January 2001 and December 2005 at the BC Cancer Agency with RT-CT (n = 157), AccRT (n = 57), or HypoRT (n = 107). Outcomes examined were disease-specific survival (DSS), locoregional control (LRC), overall survival (OS), rate of G-tube use, and rate of hospitalization for acute complications. Results: Median follow-up was 3.4 years. Three-year Kaplan-Meier DSS with RT-CT, AccRT, and HypoRT were 80%, 81%, and 74%, respectively (p = 0.219). Cox regression analysis identified treatment modality as a significant factor affecting DSS (p = 0.038). Compared with RT-CT, the hazard ratio (HR) for DSS was 1.0 with AccRT and 2.0 with HypoRT (p = 0.021). Kaplan-Meier pairwise comparisons found no significant difference in LRC and OS between RT-CT and AccRT. HypoRT was associated with significantly lower LRC (p = 0.005) and OS (p = 0.008) compared with RT-CT. There were significant differences in the rates of G-tube use (p < 0.001) and of hospitalization (p = 0.036) among the three treatment groups, with the most frequent rates observed in the RT-CT group. Conclusions: In patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer, AccRT conferred DSS, LRC, and OS comparable to that of RT-CT. Patients treated with RT-CT experienced higher rates of treatment-related acute toxicities. HypoRT was associated with the least favorable outcomes.

  9. Solvent casting flow from slot die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Semi; Nam, Jaewook

    2015-11-01

    A continuous solvent casting method using a slot die can precisely control the film thickness by adjusting the operating conditions, such as the belt speed and pumping rate, not the liquid property. Therefore, it is a suitable method for high precision continuous film production. In this particular method, the dope, or casting solution, is pumped through the feed slot to form a short curtain between the die and the moving belt. Although this method is widely used in producing films for various applications, it is difficult to find indepth analyses of such flow. In this study, we developed a finite element computational model for the steady-state two-dimensional sovent casting flow from the slot die. The effect of die configurations, rheological properties and operating conditions on the behavior and shape of the gas/liquid interfaces and the location of the dynamic contact line, which is the place where the dope meets the moving belt, were investigated.

  10. Things to Do After Someone Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... are usually hidden by clothing. What about organ donation? At some time before death or right after ... lungs, pancreas, kidneys, cornea, liver, and skin. Organ donation allows healthy organs from someone who dies to ...

  11. Reinforced ceramic dies for superplastic forming operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Daniel G.

    2004-12-01

    Ceramic dies have been developed to meet the need for a dimensionally stable tool, which can withstand the temperatures (425 to 950 °C) and high forming pressures (up to 7 MPa) that are required for superplastic forming (SPF), superplastic forming with diffusion bonding (SPF/DB), and hot sizing of metal parts. With the improvements that have been made to strengthen fused silica based ceramics, the performance of ceramic tools is slowly closing in on meeting the same forming complexity as corrosion-resistant steel (CRES) dies can achieve. Boeing has successfully superplastically formed jet engine wide chord fan blades using ceramic dies, and many production aircraft parts are being built with Boeing’s patented ceramic die technology.

  12. Casting Characteristics of Aluminum Die Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The research program investigates the casting characteristics of selected aluminum die casting alloys. Specifically, the alloys' tendencies towards die soldering and sludge formation, and the alloys' fluidity and machinability are evaluated. It was found that: When the Fe and Mn contents of the alloy are low; caution has to be taken against possible die soldering. When the alloy has a high sludge factor, particularly a high level of Fe, measures must be taken to prevent the formation of large hardspots. For this kind of alloy, the Fe content should be kept at its lowest allowable level and the Mn content should be at its highest possible level. If there are problems in die filling, measures other than changing the alloy chemistry need to be considered first. In terms of alloy chemistry, the elements that form high temperature compounds must be kept at their lowest allowable levels. The alloys should not have machining problems when appropriate machining techniques and machining parameters are used.

  13. Micro-optical coherence tomography tracking of magnetic gene transfection via Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei; Liu, Xinyu; Wei, Chao; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Sim, Stanley Siong Wei; Liu, Linbo; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-10-01

    Heterogeneous Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of Au NPs and Fe3O4 NPs that bring in optical and magnetic properties respectively. This article reports the engineering of Au-Fe3O4 NPs as gene carriers for magnetic gene transfection as well as contrast agents for micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT). As a proof-of-concept, Au-Fe3O4 NPs are used to deliver the green fluorescent protein to HEK 293T cells and their entrance into the cells is monitored through μOCT.Heterogeneous Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of Au NPs and Fe3O4 NPs that bring in optical and magnetic properties respectively. This article reports the engineering of Au-Fe3O4 NPs as gene carriers for magnetic gene transfection as well as contrast agents for micro-optical coherence tomography (μOCT). As a proof-of-concept, Au-Fe3O4 NPs are used to deliver the green fluorescent protein to HEK 293T cells and their entrance into the cells is monitored through μOCT. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05459a

  14. Machining of Silicon-Ribbon-Forming Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menna, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Carbon extension for dies used in forming silicon ribbon crystals machined precisely with help of special tool. Die extension has edges beveled toward narrow flats at top, with slot precisely oriented and centered between flats and bevels. Cutting tool assembled from standard angle cutter and circular saw or saws. Angle cutters cuts bevels while slot saw cuts slot between them. In alternative version, custom-ground edges or additional circular saws also cut flats simultaneously.

  15. Thick film silicon growth techniques. [die materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, H. E.; Mlavsky, A. I.; Jewett, D. N.; White, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    The research which was directed toward finding an improved die material is reported. Wetting experiments were conducted with various materials to determine their compatibility with silicon. Work has also continued toward the development of quartz as a die material as new techniques have provided more optimistic results than observed in the past. As a result of the thermal modification previously described, improvements in growth stability have contributed to an increase in ribbon quality.

  16. Manufacture of die casting dies by hot isostatic pressing. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, S.; Ren, W.; Luk, K.; Brucher, H.G.

    1998-09-01

    The reason for this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Doehler-Jarvis was to investigate the manufacture die-casting dies with internal water-cooling lines by hot-isostatic pressing (HIPing) of H13 tool steel powder. The use of HIPing will allow the near-net-shape manufacture of dies and the strategic placement of water-cooling lines during manufacture. The production of near-net-shape dies by HIPing involves the generation of HIPing diagrams, the design of the can that can be used for HIPing a die with complex details, strategic placement of water-cooling lines in the die, computer modeling to predict movement of the water lines during HIPing, and the development of strategies for placing water lines in the appropriate locations. The results presented include a literature review, particle analysis and characterization of H13 tool steel powder, and modeling of the HIPing process.

  17. A plasma protein corona enhances the biocompatibility of Au@Fe3O4 Janus particles.

    PubMed

    Landgraf, Lisa; Christner, Carolin; Storck, Wiebke; Schick, Isabel; Krumbein, Ines; Dähring, Heidi; Haedicke, Katja; Heinz-Herrmann, Karl; Teichgräber, Ulf; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Tremel, Wolfgang; Tenzer, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    Au@Fe3O4 Janus particles (JPs) are heteroparticles with discrete domains defined by different materials. Their tunable composition and morphology confer multimodal and versatile capabilities for use as contrast agents and drug carriers in future medicine. Au@Fe3O4 JPs have colloidal properties and surface characteristics leading to interactions with proteins in biological fluids. The resulting protein adsorption layer ("protein corona") critically affects their interaction with living matter. Although Au@Fe3O4 JPs displayed good biocompatibility in a standardized in vitro situation, an in-depth characterization of the protein corona is of prime importance to unravel underlying mechanisms affecting their pathophysiology and biodistribution in vitro and in vivo. Here, we comparatively analyzed the human plasma corona of Au-thiol@Fe3O4-SiO2-PEG JPs (NH2-functionalized and non-functionalized) and spherical magnetite (Fe3O4-SiO2-PEG) particles and investigated its effects on colloidal stability, biocompatibility and cellular uptake. Label-free quantitative proteomic analyses revealed that complex coronas including almost 180 different proteins were formed within only one minute. Remarkably, in contrast to spherical magnetite particles with surface NH2 groups, the Janus structure prevented aggregation and the adhesion of opsonins. This resulted in an enhanced biocompatibility of corona sheathed JPs compared to spherical magnetite particles and corona-free JPs. PMID:26276693

  18. An innovative glucose biosensor using antibiofouling Au-F127 nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chong; Wangi, Xiaobo; Zhou, Min; Ni, Yalong; Mao, Chun; Huang, Xiaohua; Shenl, Jian

    2013-05-01

    Quantification of the blood glucose concentration in the whole blood was not easy to achieve because the detection process was affected by many factors, such as glucose metabolism and biofouling. In this paper, we established an amperometric glucose biosensor applied in whole blood directly, which was based on the direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase (GOx) entrapped onto the Au-F127 nanospheres. Here, the Au-F127 nanospheres could provide a blood compatible surface with antifouling property for determination of glucose in whole blood. The cyclic voltammetric results indicated that GOx immobilized on the Au-F127 nanospheres exhibited direct electron transfer reaction, and the cyclic voltammogram (CV) displayed a pair of well-defined and nearly symmetric redox peaks with a formal potential of 93 mV. The biosensor had good electrocatalytic activity toward glucose with a low detection limit 3.15 pM. The glucose biosensor did not respond to ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) at their high concentration encountered in blood. In this method, the biosensor was used for quantification of the concentration of glucose in whole blood samples. The data obtained from the biosensor showed good agreement with those from a biochemical analyzer in hospital. PMID:23802412

  19. Effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on Serratia bacterial growth and production of biosurfactant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Vipulanandan, Cumaraswamy

    2013-10-01

    The overall objective of this study was to compare the effects of Au/Fe and Fe nanoparticles on the growth and performance of Serratia Jl0300. The nanoparticle effect was quantified not only by the bacterial growth on agar plate after 1 hour interaction with the nanoparticles, but also by its production of a biosurfactant from used vegetable oil. The nanoparticles were prepared using the foam method. The concentrations of the nanoparticles used for the bacterial interaction study were varied from 1 mg/L to 1 g/L. The test results showed that the effect of nanoparticles on the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production varied with nanoparticle type, concentrations, and interaction time with the bacteria. Au/Fe nanoparticles didn't show toxicity to Serratia after short time (1 h) exposure, while during 8 days fermentation Au/Fe nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Serratia as well as the biosurfactant production when the concentration of the nanoparticles was higher than 10mg/L. Fe nanoparticles showed inhibition effects to bacterial growth both after short time and long time interaction with Serratia, as well as to biosurfactant production when its concentration was higher than 100 mg/L. Based on the trends observed in this study, analytical models have been developed to predict the bacterial growth and biosurfactant production with varying concentrations of nanoparticles. PMID:23910295

  20. Peptides modeled on the RGG domain of AUF1/hnRNP-D regulate 3′UTR-dependent gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Fellows, Abigail; Deng, Bin; Mierke, Dale; Robey, R. Brooks; Nichols, Ralph C.

    2013-01-01

    Messenger RNA binding proteins control post-transcriptional gene expression of targeted mRNA’s. The RGG (arginine-glycine-glycine) domain of the AUF1/hnRNP-D mRNA binding protein is a regulatory region that is essential for protein function and is the focus of this report. Previously, we have established that AUF1-RGG peptides, modeled on the RGG domain of AUF1, repress expression of the macrophage cytokine, VEGF. This report expands studies on AUF1-RGG peptides and evaluates the role of post-translational modifications of the AUF1 protein. Tandem to the RGG domain in AUF1-RGG peptides are a poly-glutamine motif and a nuclear localization signal (NLS). This report shows that a minimal 31-amino acid AUF1-RGG peptide that lacks the poly-glutamine and NLS motifs retains activity on a VEGF-3′UTR reporter. In addition, studies have shown that arginines in RGG motifs of mRNA binding proteins may be methylated with resulting changes in protein function. To determine if the RGG motif in AUF1 is affected by cell activation, mass spectroscopy analysis was performed on AUF1 expressed in RAW-264.7 cells. In resting cells, arginines in the first and second RGG motifs are monomethylated. When RAW-264.7 cells are activated with lipopolysaccharide, the arginines are dimethylated. To evaluate if the arginine residues are essential for AUF1-RGG activity, the methylatable arginines in the AUF1-3RGG peptide were mutated to lysine or alanine. The R→K and R→A mutants lack activity. These results support the hypothesis that the RGG domain of AUF1 is a regulatory motif. We also demonstrate that PI3K/AKT inhibitors reduce VEGF gene expression. Although immunoscreening of AUF1 suggests that LPS and PI3K inhibitors alter the phosphorylation status of AUF1-p37, mass spectroscopy results show that the p37 AUF1 isoform is not phosphorylated with or without lipopolysaccharide stimulation. In summary, arginines in the RGG domain of AUF1 are methylated, and AUF1-RGG peptides modeled on the

  1. Celestial Fireworks from Dying Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-04-01

    This image of the nebula NGC 3582, which was captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, shows giant loops of gas bearing a striking resemblance to solar prominences. These loops are thought to have been ejected by dying stars, but new stars are also being born within this stellar nursery. These energetic youngsters emit intense ultraviolet radiation that makes the gas in the nebula glow, producing the fiery display shown here. NGC 3582 is part of a large star-forming region in the Milky Way, called RCW 57. It lies close to the central plane of the Milky Way in the southern constellation of Carina (The Keel of Jason's ship, the Argo). John Herschel first saw this complex region of glowing gas and dark dust clouds in 1834, during his stay in South Africa. Some of the stars forming in regions like NGC 3582 are much heavier than the Sun. These monster stars emit energy at prodigious rates and have very short lives that end in explosions as supernovae. The material ejected from these dramatic events creates bubbles in the surrounding gas and dust. This is the probable cause of the loops visible in this picture. This image was taken through multiple filters. From the Wide Field Imager, data taken through a red filter are shown in green and red, and data taken through a filter that isolates the red glow characteristic of hydrogen are also shown in red. Additional infrared data from the Digitized Sky Survey are shown in blue. The image was processed by ESO using the observational data identified by Joe DePasquale, from the United States [1], who participated in ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition [2]. The competition was organised by ESO in October-November 2010, for everyone who enjoys making beautiful images of the night sky using astronomical data obtained using professional telescopes. Notes [1] Joe searched through ESO's archive and identified datasets that he used to compose his

  2. Exploring the case for assisted dying in the UK.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Carol

    This article discusses the concepts of euthanasia, assisted suicide and physician-assisted suicide, under the umbrella term of assisted dying, from a pro-assisted dying perspective. It outlines the key principles underpinning the debate around assisted dying and refutes the main arguments put forward by those opposing legalisation of assisted dying in the UK. PMID:22272538

  3. Rapid prototyping of extrusion dies using layer-based techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Misiolek, W.Z.; Winther, K.T.; Prats, A.E.; Rock, S.J.

    1999-02-01

    Extrusion die design and development often requires significant craftsman skill and iterative improvement to arrive at a production-ready die geometry. Constructing the dies used during this iterative process from layers, rather than from one solid block of material, offers unique opportunities to improve die development efficiency when coupled with concepts drawn from the rapid prototyping field. This article presents a proof-of-concept illustrating the potential utility of layer-based extrusion dies for the die design and fabrication process. The major benefits include greater flexibility in the design process, a more efficient, automated fabrication technique, and a means for performing localized die modifications and repairs.

  4. Feasibility of an Adaptive Strategy in Preoperative Radiochemotherapy for Rectal Cancer With Image-Guided Tomotherapy: Boosting the Dose to the Shrinking Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Passoni, Paolo; Fiorino, Claudio; Slim, Najla; Ronzoni, Monica; Ricci, Vincenzo; Di Palo, Saverio; De Nardi, Paola; Orsenigo, Elena; Tamburini, Andrea; De Cobelli, Francesco; Losio, Claudio; Iacovelli, Nicola A.; Broggi, Sara; Staudacher, Carlo; Calandrino, Riccardo; Di Muzio, Nadia

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of preoperative adaptive radiochemotherapy by delivering a concomitant boost to the residual tumor during the last 6 fractions of treatment. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five patients with T3/T4N0 or N+ rectal cancer were enrolled. Concomitant chemotherapy consisted of oxaliplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} on days −14, 0, and +14, and 5-fluorouracil 200 mg/m{sup 2}/d from day −14 to the end of radiation therapy (day 0 is the start of radiation therapy). Radiation therapy consisted of 41.4 Gy in 18 fractions (2.3 Gy per fraction) with Tomotherapy to the tumor and regional lymph nodes (planning target volume, PTV) defined on simulation CT and MRI. After 9 fractions simulation CT and MRI were repeated for the planning of the adaptive phase: PTV{sub adapt} was generated by adding a 5-mm margin to the residual tumor. In the last 6 fractions a boost of 3.0 Gy per fraction (in total 45.6 Gy in 18 fractions) was delivered to PTV{sub adapt} while concomitantly delivering 2.3 Gy per fraction to PTV outside PTV{sub adapt}. Results: Three patients experienced grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity; 2 of 3 showed toxicity before the adaptive phase. Full dose of radiation therapy, oxaliplatin, and 5-fluorouracil was delivered in 96%, 96%, and 88% of patients, respectively. Two patients with clinical complete response (cCR) refused surgery and were still cCR at 17 and 29 months. For the remaining 23 resected patients, 15 of 23 (65%) showed tumor regression grade 3 response, and 7 of 23 (30%) had pathologic complete response; 8 (35%) and 12 (52%) tumor regression grade 3 patients had ≤5% and 10% residual viable cells, respectively. Conclusions: An adaptive boost strategy is feasible, with an acceptable grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity rate and a very encouraging tumor response rate. The results suggest that there should still be room for further dose escalation of the residual tumor with the aim of increasing pathologic complete response and/or c

  5. Value of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Prediction and Early Assessment of Response to Neoadjuvant Radiochemotherapy in Rectal Cancer: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrecht, Maarten; Vandecaveye, Vincent; De Keyzer, Frederik; Roels, Sarah; Penninckx, Freddy; Van Cutsem, Eric; Filip, Claus; Haustermans, Karin

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) for response prediction before and response assessment during and early after preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients receiving RCT for LARC underwent MRI including DWI before RCT, after 10-15 fractions and 1 to 2 weeks before surgery. Tumor volume and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC; b-values: 0-1000 s/mm{sup 2}) were determined at all time points. Pretreatment tumor ADC and volume, tumor ADC change ( Increment ADC), and volume change ( Increment V) between pretreatment and follow-up examinations were compared with histopathologic findings after total mesorectal excision (pathologic complete response [pCR] vs. no pCR, ypT0-2 vs. ypT3-4, T-downstaging or not). The discriminatory capability of pretreatment tumor ADC and volume, Increment ADC, and Increment V for the detection of pCR was compared with receiver operating characteristics analysis. Results: Pretreatment ADC was significantly lower in patients with pCR compared with patients without (in mm{sup 2}/s: 0.94 {+-} 0.12 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} vs. 1.19 {+-} 0.22 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}, p = 0.003), yielding a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 86% for detection of pCR. The volume reduction during and after RCT was significantly higher in patients with pCR compared with patients without (in %: {Delta}V{sub during}: -62 {+-} 16 vs. -33 {+-} 16, respectively, p = 0.015; and {Delta}V{sub post}: -86 {+-} 12 vs. -60 {+-} 21, p = 0.012), yielding a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 71% for the {Delta}V{sub during} and, respectively, 83% and 86% for the {Delta}V{sub post}. The Increment ADC during ({Delta}ADC{sub during}) and after RCT ({Delta}ADC{sub post}) showed a significantly higher value in patients with pCR compared with patients without (in %: {Delta}ADC{sub during}: 72 {+-} 14 vs. 16 {+-} 12, p = 0.0006; and {Delta}ADC{sub post}: 88

  6. Why do patients with lupus nephritis die?

    PubMed Central

    Correia, P; Cameron, J S; Lian, J D; Hicks, J; Ogg, C S; Williams, D G; Chantler, C; Haycock, D G

    1985-01-01

    Over 20 years 42 of 138 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus "died"--that is, suffered actual death or went into terminal renal failure, or both; data from 41 were available for analysis. In most patients the causes of death were multiple. Twenty seven patients went into terminal renal failure, of whom 25 were offered dialysis treatment. Three regained renal function later, 12 survived on dialysis or with functioning kidney allografts--almost all with inactive lupus--but 13 died after starting dialysis, most within a few weeks or months. The principal causes were active lupus or infection. In those patients with renal failure after rapid deterioration in renal function (n = 14) there were nine deaths, while of 10 patients with a slow evolution into renal failure, only four died. Four patients with impaired and 10 with normal renal function died, again most often from complications of lupus or from infection. Vascular disease was a major cause of death in seven patients, all but two of whom were young; of 15 postmortem examinations, eight showed severe coronary artery atheroma, and three surviving patients required coronary bypass operations. Analysis of the timing of death or entry into renal failure showed that in 12 out of 13 patients who died within two years of onset the lupus was judged to be active, while this was true in only eight out of 19 patients who died later. Six of the seven vascular deaths occurred later than two years from onset, while only nine of 26 renal "deaths" occurred before two years; deaths from infections (n = 13) were distributed equally. Despite this and aggressive treatment of active disease, the principal cause of actual death was uncontrolled lupus. PMID:3917713

  7. Die Europäische Union, die Europäische Gemeinschaft und ihre Rechtsordnung, die Europäische Lebensmittelkontrolle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallhoff, Gudrun; Rimkus, Gerhard G.

    Die Europäische Union (EU) ist ein Zusammenschluss von siebenundzwanzig unabhängigen Staaten, um deren wirtschaftliche, politische und soziale Zusammenarbeit zu verstärken. Seit 1. Mai 2007 hat sie die folgenden Mitglieder: Österreich, Belgien, Bulgarien, Dänemark, Finnland, Frankreich, Deutschland, Griechenland, Irland, Italien, Luxemburg, die Niederlande, Portugal, Spanien, Schweden, das Vereinigte Königreich von Großbritannien und Nordirland, Zypern, die Tschechische Republik, Estland, Ungarn, Lettland, Litauen, Malta, Polen, Rumänien, die Slowakei und Slowenien [1]. (Hinweis: Die Republik Zypern hat juristisch Souveränität über die ganze Insel, da die Türkische Republik Nordzypern international nicht anerkannt wird.)

  8. Die kreiselnde Büroklammer: Spielwiese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucke, Christian; Schlichting, Hans-Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Mit Büroklammern lassen sich einfach und schnell physikalische Experimente realisieren. Vorgestellt werden zwei ungewöhnliche Kreisel (darunter ein Stehaufkreisel), die sich in wenigen Minuten biegen lassen. Weiterhin lässt sich mit Büroklammern die schon von Leibniz abgeleitete Kettenlinie simulieren. Mit etwas Mehraufwand lässt sich eine Hängebrücke bauen, bei der sich für das Tragkabel eine Parabel als Kurvenform ergibt. Im Internet sind Programme verfügbar, mit denen sich Kettenlinie und Hängeparabel simulieren lassen.

  9. Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal RNA Recognition Motif of mRNA Decay Regulator AUF1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Jun; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Chang, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    AU-rich element binding/degradation factor 1 (AUF1) plays a role in destabilizing mRNAs by forming complexes with AU-rich elements (ARE) in the 3'-untranslated regions. Multiple AUF1-ARE complexes regulate the translation of encoded products related to the cell cycle, apoptosis, and inflammation. AUF1 contains two tandem RNA recognition motifs (RRM) and a Gln- (Q-) rich domain in their C-terminal region. To observe how the two RRMs are involved in recognizing ARE, we obtained the AUF1-p37 protein covering the two RRMs. However, only N-terminal RRM (RRM1) was crystallized and its structure was determined at 1.7 Å resolution. It appears that the RRM1 and RRM2 separated before crystallization. To demonstrate which factors affect the separate RRM1-2, we performed limited proteolysis using trypsin. The results indicated that the intact proteins were cleaved by unknown proteases that were associated with them prior to crystallization. In comparison with each of the monomers, the conformations of the β2-β3 loops were highly variable. Furthermore, a comparison with the RRM1-2 structures of HuR and hnRNP A1 revealed that a dimer of RRM1 could be one of the possible conformations of RRM1-2. Our data may provide a guidance for further structural investigations of AUF1 tandem RRM repeat and its mode of ARE binding. PMID:27437398

  10. Crystal Structure of the N-Terminal RNA Recognition Motif of mRNA Decay Regulator AUF1

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Jun

    2016-01-01

    AU-rich element binding/degradation factor 1 (AUF1) plays a role in destabilizing mRNAs by forming complexes with AU-rich elements (ARE) in the 3′-untranslated regions. Multiple AUF1-ARE complexes regulate the translation of encoded products related to the cell cycle, apoptosis, and inflammation. AUF1 contains two tandem RNA recognition motifs (RRM) and a Gln- (Q-) rich domain in their C-terminal region. To observe how the two RRMs are involved in recognizing ARE, we obtained the AUF1-p37 protein covering the two RRMs. However, only N-terminal RRM (RRM1) was crystallized and its structure was determined at 1.7 Å resolution. It appears that the RRM1 and RRM2 separated before crystallization. To demonstrate which factors affect the separate RRM1-2, we performed limited proteolysis using trypsin. The results indicated that the intact proteins were cleaved by unknown proteases that were associated with them prior to crystallization. In comparison with each of the monomers, the conformations of the β2-β3 loops were highly variable. Furthermore, a comparison with the RRM1-2 structures of HuR and hnRNP A1 revealed that a dimer of RRM1 could be one of the possible conformations of RRM1-2. Our data may provide a guidance for further structural investigations of AUF1 tandem RRM repeat and its mode of ARE binding. PMID:27437398

  11. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Ahuett-Garza, H.; Choudhury, A.K.; Dedhia, S.

    1998-05-01

    This report summarizes two years of research intended to develop methods to model and predict the deflection patterns in die casting dies. No comprehensive analysis of this type had previously been completed. The die casting process is complex and involves numerous mechanical and thermal phenomena that effect the mechanical behavior of the die. A critical activity in this work was sorting out and evaluating the relative contributions of the various mechanisms to die deflections. This evaluation was accomplished through a series of simple engineering analyses based primarily on the order of magnitude of the influence of each load considered on die deflections. A modeling approach incorporating commercially available finite element analysis software was developed and tested. The model evolved by testing simple models against more comprehensive models and against the limited experimental data that is available. The development of the modeling approach lead to consideration of the die casting machine in more detail than was originally anticipated. The machine is critical and cannot be ignored. A simplified model described as a spring/platen model was developed to account for the machine platens, tie bars, and toggles. The characteristics of this model are described and predictions based on this model are compared against full machine models and measured deflections of machine platens. Details of the modeling approach and the various case studies are provided in the report and in several publications that have resulted from the work.

  12. Wissenschaft, die unsere Kultur verändert. Tiefenschichten des Streits um die Evolutionstheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzelt, Werner J.

    Die Evolutionstheorie ist eine der erfolgreichsten wissenschaftlichen Theorien. Sie erlaubt es, unsere Herkunft zu verstehen und riskante Merkmale gerade der menschlichen Spezies zu begreifen. Zugleich ist die Evolutionstheorie eine der umstrittensten Theorien. Das liegt nicht an ihrer empirischen Tragfähigkeit, sondern an ihrem Gegenstand. Sie handelt nämlich nicht nur - wie Hunderte andere wissenschaftliche Theorien - von der "Welt da draußen“, sondern vor allem auch von uns selbst und von unserem Platz in dieser Welt. Den einen gilt sie obendrein als Überwinderin religiösen Aberglaubens, den anderen als neuer Zugang zu Gott und seinem Wirken in der Welt. Ferner sehen die einen in der Evolution eine unbezweifelbare Tatsache gleich der Schwerkraft oder dem Holocaust, die anderen aber eine - noch oder dauerhaft - unbewiesene Hypothese oder gar eine falsche Schöpfungslehre. Und während die meisten Streitfragen solcher Art nach wechselseitig akzeptierten Regeln ‚normaler Wissenschaft‘ geklärt werden, wird bei der Frage nach dem Woher unserer Spezies und Kultur die intellektuelle Zuständigkeit von Wissenschaft mitunter überhaupt bezweifelt. Anscheinend geht es schon um recht tiefe Schichten unserer Kultur und nicht nur der wissenschaftlichen, wenn - wie seit 150 Jahren - um die Evolutionstheorie gestritten wird. Wie sehen diese Schichten aus?

  13. Effect of Die Strength and Work Piece Strength on the Wear of Hot Forging Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, B. S.; Van Tyne, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the strength ratio extracted from an Archard model for wear is used to describe the wear rates expected in hot forging dies. In the current study, the strength ratio is the strength of the hot forging die to the strength of the work piece. Three hot forging die steels are evaluated. The three die steels are FX, 2714, and WF. To determine the strength of the forging die, a continuous function has been developed that describes the yield strength of three die steels for temperatures from 600 to 700 °C and for times up to 20 h (i.e., tempering times of up to 20 h). The work piece material is assumed to be AISI 1045. Based on the analysis, the wear resistance of WF should be superior and FX should be slightly better than 2714. Decreasing the forging temperature increases the strength ratio, because the strength of the die surface increases faster than the flow strength of AISI 1045. The increase in the strength ratio indicates a decrease in the expected wear rate.

  14. Investigation of Die Stress Profiles during Powder Compaction using Instrumented Die

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sung-tae; Hovanski, Yuri; Lavender, Curt A.; Weil, K. Scott

    2008-06-01

    The radial stress profile in a cylindrical die during compaction of titanium (Ti) powder was investigated by experiments. The concept of an instrumented die was extended to design an enhanced instrumented die. Custom-made strain gage pins were used to measure the radial stress during powder compaction. The test fixture was designed to simulate double-action pressing. The measured die stress profile for Ti powder was compared with that for a commercially available iron (Fe) powder. The stress history shows that an appreciable residual stress remains in the die in the radial direction after the axial compaction stress is removed from the powder. Furthermore, the radial stress profile in the die, while under maximum axial compaction stress, is more uniform across the height of the Fe compact than that of the Ti compact. In addition, the residual stress profile in the die in the radial direction reduces symmetrically in both directions beyond the height of the compact for both powders. Finally, the Ti powder shows a significantly higher frictional coefficient at the maximum axial compaction stress, and consequently a higher maximum axial ejection stress than the Fe powder.

  15. Identification of a novel AU-rich-element-binding protein which is related to AUF1.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Jonathan L E; Sully, Gareth; Wait, Robin; Rawlinson, Lesley; Clark, Andrew R; Saklatvala, Jeremy

    2002-01-01

    The AU-rich element (ARE) is an important instability determinant for a large number of early-response-gene mRNAs. AREs also mediate the stabilization of certain pro-inflammatory mRNAs, such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), in response to inflammatory stimuli. To understand how AREs control mRNA stability, it is necessary to identify trans-acting factors. We have purified a new ARE-binding protein and identified it as CArG box-binding factor-A (CBF-A). The amino acid sequence of CBF-A is highly similar to that of the ARE-binding protein AUF1. Recombinant CBF-A bound the COX-2 and TNF-alpha AREs, but not a non-specific control RNA. In contrast, in an electrophoretic-mobility-shift assay (EMSA) of crude RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cell extracts, an antiserum that recognizes both AUF1 and CBF-A failed to supershift complexes formed on the TNF-alpha ARE, but did supershift a complex specific for the COX-2 ARE. CBF-A exists as two isoforms, p37 and p42, that differ by a 47-amino-acid insertion close to the C-terminus. By expressing epitope-tagged isoforms of CBF-A it was shown that the p42 isoform binds the COX-2 ARE in EMSA of crude cell extracts. In a HeLa-cell tetracycline-regulated reporter system, overexpression of the p42 CBF-A isoform resulted in stabilization of a COX-2 ARE reporter mRNA. Epitope-tagged p42 CBF-A expressed in HeLa cells co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous COX-2 mRNA, but not glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA, as shown by reverse-transcription PCR. The similarity between CBF-A and AUF1 suggests that CBF-A could be re-named AUF2. PMID:12086581

  16. Dying other, dying self: creating culture and meaning in palliative healthcare.

    PubMed

    McCann, Christopher J; Adames, Hector Y

    2013-08-01

    Dying is an act of creativity, and we each die as cultural beings. Culture helps us create the meaning death requests of us. However, the dominant culture of the healthcare system views death as a failure of modern medicine, an event of unspeakable terror and taboo. Palliative clinicians must honor each dying person's cultural identity (as well as the person's family), not subject it to the dominant discourse of Western medicine. This article offers practical guidelines for palliative clinicians to do so, as well as a case vignette. PMID:22854052

  17. Continuing Education on Dying and Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodil, Judith J.; Dulaney, Peggy E.

    1984-01-01

    "Dying and Death in Critical Care Practice" was a one-day continuing education offering designed for registered nurses who practiced in settings such as emergency rooms, intensive care units, coronary care units, and operating rooms. The workshop was part of a continuing education curriculum in critical care nursing. (SSH)

  18. Physiknobelei Kann man die Lichtausbreitung sehen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, H.-Joachim

    2003-07-01

    Des Menschen Sinne sind trügerisch. Das wussten schon die Philosophen der Antike, denen physikalische Zusammenhänge noch fremd waren. Doch auch in der heutigen aufgeklärten Zeit ereignen sich noch Dinge, bei denen man seinen Augen nicht traut.

  19. Dying in the age of choice.

    PubMed

    Black, Kathy; Csikai, Ellen L

    2015-01-01

    Due to the unprecedented increase in the United States aging demographics, many more people are living longer and reaching older ages than ever before. However, a longer life is not necessarily a better life, as the vast majority will face a period of prolonged deteriorating health prior to death. Although notable efforts have been underway that are designed to improve the end-of-life experience, increasing numbers of individuals express a desire and/or act upon an intent to end their lives precipitously. Though still limited, the options to actively participate in their own deaths are growing. Requests for a hastened death can occur among people of all ages and includes those with advanced illness as well as others wanting to die due to unbearable suffering. This article provides an overview of the ongoing discourse about the experience of dying faced by many older adults, including aspects frequently associated with "a good death." The limitations of established practices which seek to provide a "better" dying experience are identified followed by discussion of the growing availability of alternative options. Reflective considerations are presented to guide practice vis-à-vis the changing landscape surrounding options in dying. PMID:25869146

  20. Care of the Dying: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenberg, Loma; Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    This article illustrates various aspects of terminal care, and shows that rules and norms for such care do not exist today. The authors advocate the formulation of an aim for humane treatment of dying patients, and its application in a manner appropriate to Swedish medical concepts and Swedish conditions. (Author)

  1. Flexible, Ultra-Thin, Embedded Die Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, Ryan J.

    As thin, flexible electronics solutions become more robust, their integration into everyday life becomes more likely. With possible applications in wearable electronics, biomedical sensors, or 'peel and stick' sensors, the reliability of these ultra-thin packages becomes paramount. Likewise, the density achievable with stacked packages benefits greatly from thinner die stacks. To this end, techniques previously developed have demonstrated packages with die thinned to approximately 20mum. Covered in this work are methods for thinning and packaging silicon die, as well as information on common materials used in these processes. The author's contribution is a fabrication process for embedding ultra-thin (approximately 10mum) silicon die in polyimide substrates. This method is fully illustrated in Chapter 3 and enumerated in the Appendix as a quick reference. Additionally, thermal cycle testing of passive daisy chain assemblies has shown promising reliability data. Packages were mounted in three alignments: flat, concave, and convex, and placed into thermal shock testing. Finally, the author discusses possible applications for this fabrication process, including the fabrication of multi-chip-modules.

  2. Asymmetric Die Grows Purer Silicon Ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalejs, J. P.; Chalmers, B.; Surek, T.

    1983-01-01

    Concentration of carbide impurities in silicon ribbon is reduced by growing crystalline ribbon with die one wall higher than other. Height difference controls shape of meniscus at liquid/crystal interface and concentrates silicon carbide impurity near one of broad faces. Opposite face is left with above-average purity. Significantly improves efficiency of solar cells made from ribbon.

  3. Ceramic for Silicon-Shaping Dies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekercioglu, I.; Wills, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Silicon beryllium oxynitride (SiBON) is a promising candidate material for manufacture of shaping dies used in fabricating ribbons or sheets of silicon. It is extremely stable, resists thermal shock, and has excellent resistance to molten silicon. SiBON is a solid solution of beryllium silicate in beta-silicon nitride.

  4. The Hospice: Advocate for the Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anspaugh, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The hospice philosophy seeks to meet the needs of dying patients and their families. These needs include: effective control of pain; to be loved and to alleviate loneliness; to retain dignity and maintain control of as many aspects of life as possible; and to help the family be supportive and adapt to their inevitable loss. (JMF)

  5. A profile of silicosis cases who died.

    PubMed

    Phoon, W H

    1982-01-01

    Silicosis cases which had been notified by doctors and confirmed after investigations were followed up by the Industrial Health Division. Up to August 1981, a total of 313 persons were confirmed as having the disease. Of these, 59 had died. The majority of these 59 persons had had their silica exposure in the granite quarries. 13 had been exposed to "rubber powder" which contained a high percentage of free silica. 52 of those who died were male, and their average age at death was 60.87 years. This did not appear to be significantly shorter than their life expectancy of 65.1 years. But the average age of death for the 7 women was 58.86 years, which was much shorter than their life expectancy of 70 years. Many of the men died from causes unrelated to silicosis. But 6 of the 7 women had progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) and they apparently died of the disease or complications arising from it. PMID:7073220

  6. [Training for working with the dying].

    PubMed

    Delisle, I

    1990-04-01

    A doctoral thesis, recently defended at the University of Caen in France, is discussed here. This descriptive study looks at the question of training individuals to accompany the dying patient, and the abilities, qualifications and skills that are required. PMID:2331671

  7. Stamping Die Making. 439-318/320.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on stamping die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 29 units in this guide, dealing with the following topics: EZ-MILL programming; EZ-MILL BATT; print of punch and EZ-MILL part programming; download to Computer Numerical…

  8. Mold Die Making. 439-322/324.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunke, P.; And Others

    Each unit in this curriculum guide on mold die making contains an introduction, objectives, materials required, lessons, space for notes, figures, and diagrams. There are 10 units in this guide: (1) introduction to Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM); (2) EDM principles; (3) the single pulse; (4) EDM safety; (5) electrode material; (6) electrode…

  9. The Onion and "When Legends Die."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loren C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the eight layers in Thomas Black Bull's ("When the Legends Die") journey to spiritual rebirth and stresses that students can easily identify these layers and can thereby achieve a clearer understanding of the relationship between structure and meaning in fiction. (CRH)

  10. Expectation and Variation with a Virtual Die

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane; English, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    By the time students reach the middle years they have experienced many chance activities based on dice. Common among these are rolling one die to explore the relationship of frequency and theoretical probability, and rolling two dice and summing the outcomes to consider their probabilities. Although dice may be considered overused by some, the…

  11. Farewells by the Dying: A Sociological Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellehear, Allan; Lewin, Terry

    1989-01-01

    Interviewed 100 terminally ill cancer patients to examine farewells made before the interview and those desired and planned but not yet completed. Most patients (81 percent) desired to farewell; most wanted farewell to occur late in course of their dying. Prominent in preferred styles of farewells were the gift, conversation, and letter.…

  12. The Academic Study of Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amend, Edward W.

    The current study of death and dying is an example of constant change and development in academic disciplines. While the discussion of death in time of crisis is hard, if not impossible, youthful undergraduates find this topic to be of considerable interest. For them, a course can be organized effectively as a small and intimate seminar, which…

  13. Colorimetric aptasensing of ochratoxin A using Au@Fe3O4 nanoparticles as signal indicator and magnetic separator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengquan; Qian, Jing; Wang, Kun; Yang, Xingwang; Liu, Qian; Hao, Nan; Wang, Chengke; Dong, Xiaoya; Huang, Xingyi

    2016-03-15

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) doped Fe3O4 (Au@Fe3O4) NPs have been synthesized by a facile one-step solvothermal method. The peroxidase-like activity of Au@Fe3O4 NPs was effectively enhanced due to the synergistic effect between the Fe3O4 NPs and Au NPs. On this basis, an efficient colorimetric aptasensor has been developed using the intrinsic dual functionality of the Au@Fe3O4 NPs as signal indicator and magnetic separator. Initially, the amino-modified aptamer specific for a typical mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA), was surface confined on the amino-terminated glass beads surafce using glutaraldehyde as a linker. Subsequently, the amino-modified capture DNA (cDNA) was labeled with the amino-functionalized Au@Fe3O4 NPs and the aptasensor was thus fabricated through the hybridization reaction between cDNA and the aptamers. While upon OTA addition, aptamers preferred to form the OTA-aptamer complex and the Au@Fe3O4 NPs linked on the cDNA were released into the bulk solution. Through a simple magnetic separation, the collected Au@Fe3O4 NPs can produce a blue colored solution in the presence of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and H2O2. When the reaction was terminated by addition of H(+) ions, the blue product could be changed into a yellow one with higher absorption intensity. This colorimetric aptasensor can detect as low as 30 pgmL(-1) OTA with high specificity. To the best of our knowledge, the present colorimetric aptasensor is the first attempt to use the peroxidase-like activity of nanomaterial for OTA detection, which may provide an acttractive path toward routine quality control of food safety. PMID:26583358

  14. mRNA decay factor AUF1 maintains normal aging, telomere maintenance and suppression of senescence by activation of telomerase transcription

    PubMed Central

    Pont, Adam R.; Sadri, Navid; Hsiao, Susan J.; Smith, Susan; Schneider, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Inflammation is associated with DNA damage, cellular senescence and aging. Cessation of the inflammatory cytokine response is mediated in part through cytokine mRNA degradation facilitated by RNA binding proteins, including AUF1. We report a major unrecognized function of AUF1 – it activates telomerase expression, suppresses cellular senescence and maintains normal aging. AUF1 deficient mice undergo striking telomere erosion, markedly increased DNA damage responses at telomere ends, pronounced cellular senescence and rapid premature aging that increases with successive generations, which can be rescued in AUF1 knockout mice and their cultured cells by resupplying AUF1 expression. AUF1 binds and strongly activates the transcription promoter for telomerase catalytic subunit Tert. In addition to directing inflammatory cytokine mRNA decay, AUF1 destabilizes cell cycle checkpoint mRNAs, preventing cellular senescence. Thus, a single gene, AUF1, links maintenance of telomere length and normal aging to attenuation of inflammatory cytokine expression and inhibition of cellular senescence. PMID:22633954

  15. Die-Attached Versus Die-Detached Resin Injection Chamber for Pultrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palikhel, D. R.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2013-02-01

    Resin injection pultrusion is an efficient and highly automated continuous process for high-quality, low-cost, high-volume manufacturing of composites. The main objective of this study is to explore the "attached-die configuration" and "detached-die configuration" for improving the resin injection pultrusion process. In this work the impact of pull speed on complete wet out of the reinforced fiber is investigated for attached-die and detached-die resin injection pultrusion with various chamber length considerations. A 3-D finite volume technique was applied to simulate the liquid resin flow through the fiber reinforcement in the injection pultrusion process. This work explores the resin injection pressure needed to achieve complete wet out and the corresponding maximum pressure inside the resin injection chamber so as to improve injection chamber design to keep the pressure within the injection chamber within reasonable constraints for different pull speeds.

  16. Phase decomposition of AuFe alloy nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix under swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannu, Compesh; Bala, Manju; Singh, U. B.; Srivastava, S. K.; Kabiraj, D.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2016-07-01

    AuFe alloy nanoparticles embedded in silica matrix are synthesized using atom beam sputtering technique and subsequently irradiated with 100 MeV Au ions at various fluences ranging from 1 × 1013 to 6 × 1013 ions/cm2. The X-ray diffraction, absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy results show that swift heavy ion irradiation leads to decomposition of AuFe alloy nanoparticles from surface region and subsequent reprecipitation of Au and Fe nanoparticles occur. The process of phase decomposition and reprecipitation of individual element nanoparticles is explained on the basis of inelastic thermal spike model.

  17. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  18. Effekt einer ad libitum verzehrten fettreduzierten Kost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten auf den Blutdruck bei Borderline-Hypertonikern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möseneder, Jutta M.

    2002-01-01

    In der randomisierten, multizentrischen DASH-Studie (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hy-pertension), die unter kontrollierten Bedingungen stattfand, führte eine fettreduzierte Mischkost, reich an Obst, Gemüse und Milchprodukten, bei Borderline-Hypertonikern zu einer signifikanten Blutdrucksenkung. Während der Studienphase wurden Körpermasse, Natrium-Aufnahme sowie Alkoholzufuhr aufgrund der bekannten Einflussnahme auf den Blutdruck konstant gehalten. In der eigenen Pilot-Studie sollte untersucht werden, ob das Ergebnis der DASH-Studie (i) mit deutschen Hypertonikern und (ii) unter habituellen Ernährungs- und Lebensbedingungen mit regelmäßig durchgeführter Ernährungsberatung und ad libitum Verzehr anstelle des streng kontrollierten Studienansatzes bestätigt werden kann. Eine Konstanz der Körpermasse, der Natrium-Urinausscheidung (unter diesem Studienansatz valider als die Aufnahme) und des Alkoholkonsums wurde vorausgesetzt. Die Studienpopulation setzte sich aus 53 übergewichtigen Probanden mit einer nicht medikamentös therapierten Borderline-Hypertonie und ohne Stoffwechselerkrankungen zusammen. Die Studienteilnehmer wurden randomisiert entweder der Idealgruppe mit einer fettarmen Kost reich an Milchprodukten, Obst und Gemüse (ähnlich der DASH-Idealgruppe) oder der Kontrollgruppe mit habitueller Ernährungsweise zugeteilt. Über einen Zeitraum von fünf Wochen wurde den Probanden etwa 50% ihres täglichen Lebensmittelbedarfes entsprechend ihrer Gruppenzugehörigkeit kostenfrei zur Verfügung gestellt. Gelegenheitsblutdruckmessungen und 24h-Blutdruckmessungen, Ernährungs- und Aktivitätsprotokolle, Blut- und Urinproben sowie anthropometrische Messungen wurden vor, während und fünf Wochen nach der Interventionsphase durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass in der Idealgruppe keine signifikante Blutdrucksenkung beobachtet werden konnte. Dies lässt sich durch die Tatsache erklären, dass die Lebens-mittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme der deutschen

  19. Die neogene Hebungsgeschichte der Patagonischen Anden im Kontext der Subduktion eines aktiven Spreizungszentrums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warkus, Frank

    2002-05-01

    detritische Apatite mit Hilfe der thermochronologischen Spaltspurmethode untersucht. Die thermisch nicht rückgesetzten, detritischen Apatite spiegeln das Auftreten unterschiedlicher Altersdomänen im Liefergebiet der Sedimente wider. In der Kombination mit den geochemischen Gesamtgesteinsuntersuchungen der Sedimente und den petrographischen Untersuchungen der Sandsteine, die ein überwiegend andesitisch-vulkanisch geprägtes Liefergebiet widerspiegeln, kann nachgewiesen werden, dass die Erosion im Liefergebiet um 16.5 Ma in tiefere, deformierte Krustensegmente einschneidet. Dies bedeutet, dass aufgrund der Denudation im andinen Orogen erste Sockelgesteinseinheiten in den Bereich der Abtragung gelangen und dass dieser Eintrag um 12 bis 10 Ma ein Volumen einnimmt, das zu signifikanten Änderungen der Gesamtgesteinsgeochemie der Vorlandsedimente führt. Die thermochronologische Untersuchung von Apatiten aus rezenten topographischen Höhenprofilen aus der Kernzone der patagonischen Anden im Bereich von 47°30′S zeigen den Beginn einer beschleunigten Heraushebung des Orogens um 7.5 Ma. Aus diesen Untersuchungen kann eine Denudationsrate im Zeitraum der letzen 7 bis 8 Ma von 600 bis 650 m/Ma abgeschätzt werden. Die Modellierung der Apatit-Spaltspurergebnisse zeigt eine signifikante Temperaturerhöhung im Zeitraum zwischen 12 und 8 Ma um 20 bis 30°C für diesen Krustenbereich, die mit der Subduktion des aktiven Chile-Rückens in diesem Bereich der Anden in Verbindung gebracht wird. Aus den gewonnen Daten kann ein Modell für die Entwicklung der patagonischen Anden seit dem frühen Miozän abgeleitet werden. In diesem Modell wird die orogene Entwicklung in den patagonischen Anden auf eine erhöhte Konvergenzrate zwischen der Nazca Platte und der Südamerikanischen Platte zurückgeführt, die für die Heraushebung und Denudation der Anden sowie für die damit verbundene Entwicklung im Vorlandbereich verantwortlich ist. Diese orogene Entwicklung wird in einer späten Phase

  20. Cancer Patients Who Choose to Die At Home Live Longer

    MedlinePlus

    ... suggest that doctors shouldn't hesitate to allow dying cancer patients to receive palliative care at home, ... people would like to be at home when dying, but there have been concerns about whether the ...

  1. Women Twice as Likely to Die from Severe Heart Attack

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158172.html Women Twice as Likely to Die From Severe Heart Attack, Study ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women are up to twice as likely as men to die from the most ...

  2. Fatigue of die cast zinc alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schrems, K.K.; Dogan, O.N.; Goodwin, F.E.

    2006-04-01

    The rotating bending fatigue limit of die cast zinc alloy 2, alloy 3, alloy 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined as a part of an on-going program by ILZRO into the mechanical properties of die cast zinc. The stress-life (S-N) curves of alloys 3, 5, AcuZinc 5, and ZA-8 were determined previously. This presentation reports the results of the S-N curve for Alloy 2 and the calculated fatigue limits for all five alloys. During the previous stress-life testing, the samples were stopped at 10 million cycles and the fatigue limit for alloy 3, alloy 5, and AcuZinc 5 appeared to be higher and the fatigue limit for ZA-8 appeared to be lower than the values reported in the literature. This was further investigated in alloy 5 and ZA-8 by testing continuous cast bulk alloy 5 and ZA-8.

  3. Architecture for on-die interconnect

    DOEpatents

    Khare, Surhud; More, Ankit; Somasekhar, Dinesh; Dunning, David S.

    2016-03-15

    In an embodiment, an apparatus includes: a plurality of islands configured on a semiconductor die, each of the plurality of islands having a plurality of cores; and a plurality of network switches configured on the semiconductor die and each associated with one of the plurality of islands, where each network switch includes a plurality of output ports, a first set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switch of an island via a point-to-point interconnect and a second set of the output ports are each to couple to the associated network switches of a plurality of islands via a point-to-multipoint interconnect. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  4. Spiritual aspects of death and dying.

    PubMed Central

    Mermann, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dying is an event beyond our comprehension, an experience that can only be imagined. Patients with cancer have a gift denied many others: some time to prepare for the approaching end of life. This time can be used to bring old conflicts to a close, to say goodbye and seek forgiveness from others, to express love and gratitude for the gifts of a life. Physicians can help patients by being aware of the spiritual dimensions to life that many patients have. In major religious traditions, death is accepted as the natural end of the gift of life and as a point of transition to another, yet unknown, existence. For many patients, it is not death that is feared, but abandonment. The physician's awareness of the spiritual needs of patients can make care of the dying more rewarding and fulfilling for all concerned. PMID:1519377

  5. Dying in hospital: the residents' viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Ahmedzai, S

    1982-01-01

    A survey of residents' (junior house officers') experiences and attitudes to the terminal care part of their work in four Glasgow teaching hospitals showed that even a month after starting work one-fifth of the respondents had not actively managed a dying patient. Sixty-four per cent thought that they had received inadequate teaching in terminal care. Depression and anxiety had been the most difficult symptoms encountered. The residents thought that the ward nursing staff contributed much more than their senior medical colleagues to both the medical and psychological aspects of terminal care. The results indicate a need for more undergraduate education in the most relevant areas, such as coping with the psychological problems of dying patients and their relatives. Newly qualified residents require more support from senior medical staff in looking after the terminally ill. PMID:6809204

  6. Impact of Temperature on Cooling Structural Variation of Forging Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piesova, Marianna; Czan, Andrej

    2014-12-01

    The article is focused on the issue of die forging in the automotive industry. The cooling effect of temperature on the structure of forged die are under review. In the article, there is elaborated the analysis of theoretical knowledge in the field, focusing on die forging and experimentally proven effect of the cooling rate on the final structure of forged dies made of hypoeutectic carbon steel C56E2.

  7. Assisted dying - should the UK change its stance?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Daniel; Raphael, Claire E; Vassiliou, Vassilios

    2015-04-01

    Along with an increasing interest in assisted dying by many European and North American countries, some of which have already modified their existing laws to accommodate this, the interest in assisted dying in the UK has increased once again following Lord Falconer's Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill. Drawing on examples from countries where similar assisted dying laws are already in place, this article analyses and contextualises the proposed bill and discusses its potential pitfalls and benefits for the UK. PMID:25628340

  8. Medical futility and care of dying patients.

    PubMed Central

    Jecker, N S

    1995-01-01

    In this article, I address ethical concerns related to forgoing futile medical treatment in terminally ill and dying patients. Any discussion of medical futility should emphasize that health professionals and health care institutions have ethical responsibilities regarding medical futility. Among the topics I address are communicating with patients and families, resolving possible conflicts, and developing professional standards. Finally, I explore why acknowledging the futility of life-prolonging medical interventions can be so difficult for patients, families, and health professionals. PMID:7571593

  9. Japanese particle-physics leader dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2008-08-01

    Yoji Totsuka, former director general of the KEK particle-physics lab in Japan, died on 10 July at the age of 66. Totsuka, whose research interests were in the field of neutrino physics, served as KEK boss for three years from April 2003. After retiring in 2006, Totsuka became a professor emeritus at KEK and the University of Tokyo. His funeral on 12 July was attended by more than 500 people.

  10. Public attitudes toward the right to die.

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, S J; Genuis, S K; Chang, W C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine public attitudes toward the right to die, euthanasia and related end-of-life decisions. DESIGN: Mail survey based on telephone numbers randomly selected by computer. SETTING: Edmonton. PARTICIPANTS: Of 1347 computer-generated, randomly selected telephone numbers called between February and June 1992, 902 individuals were reached, and 500 eligible contacts (55%) agreed to fill out the mailed questionnaire based on 12 vignettes involving end-of-life decisions. A total of 356 usable questionnaires (71%) were subsequently returned. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Attitudes toward end-of-life decisions including withdrawal of life support, euthanasia, chronic suffering and the right to die, living wills and family involvement in decision making for incompetent individuals. Comments and demographic data were also solicited. RESULTS: Of the respondents 84% supported a family's right to withdraw life support from a patient in a persistent coma, and 90% supported a mentally competent patient's right to request that life support be withdrawn. Active euthanasia was supported by 65% for only patients experiencing severe pain and terminal illness. There was marked opposition to euthanasia for patients in other circumstances, such as an elderly disabled person who feels he or she is a burden on relatives (opposed by 65%), a patient with chronic depression resistant to treatment (by 75%) or an elderly person no longer satisfied with life and who has various minor physical ailments (by 83%). In all, 63% of the respondents felt that legalization of euthanasia for terminal illnesses would lead to euthanasia for many other, unsupported reasons, and 34% supported legislation to prohibit euthanasia in all situations. CONCLUSIONS: Public support for the right to die varies depending on the circumstances of the patient. The single most significant factor determining attitudes was the level of religious activity. The family's wishes were an important factor in end

  11. A Contingency Framework for Listening to the Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vora, Erika; Vora, Ariana

    2008-01-01

    Listening to the dying poses special challenges. This paper proposes a contingency framework for describing and assessing various circumstances when listening to the dying. It identifies current approaches to listening, applies the contingency framework toward effectively listening to the dying, and proposes a new type of listening called…

  12. Die and telescoping punch form convolutions in thin diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Die and punch set forms convolutions in thin dished metal diaphragm without stretching the metal too thin at sharp curvatures. The die corresponds to the metal shape to be formed, and the punch consists of elements that progressively slide against one another under the restraint of a compressed-air cushion to mate with the die.

  13. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid of nothing except hand...

  14. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid of nothing except hand...

  15. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid of nothing except hand...

  16. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid of nothing except hand...

  17. 25 CFR 301.4 - Application of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of dies. 301.4 Section 301.4 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.4 Application of dies. Dies are to be applied to the object with the aid of nothing except hand...

  18. Darwin als Sehhilfe für die Psychologie - Evolutionspsychologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Frank

    Im Folgenden geht es um Einäugige, stereoskopisches Sehen, weite und enge Horizonte, Monokel und Sonnenbrillen. Der Beitrag versucht die Metapher des Sehens und der Sehhilfen anzuwenden, um so zu verdeutlichen, welchen Gewinn die herkömmliche Psychologie durch die Verwendung einer Darwin'schen Brille erlangen kann.

  19. A Contextualist Thanatology: A Pragmatic Approach to Death and Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Andrew J.

    1977-01-01

    Denying the value of death but accepting its reality, the author points to dying, not death, as the problematic phenomenon with which a pragmatist thanatology must deal. It is suggested that dying contains opportunities for growth--for the dying as well as for their surviving friends and relatives. (Author)

  20. Phase Transformations in Au-Fe Particles and Thin Films: Size Effects at the Micro- and Nano-scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amram, Dor; Rabkin, Eugen

    2016-05-01

    Thin Au-Fe bilayers (3-30 nm in total thickness) were deposited on sapphire substrates. Annealing in a temperature range of 600-1100°C resulted in solid-state dewetting and the subsequent formation of micro- and nano-particles. Electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and in situ x-ray diffraction were employed to systematically study two phase transformations in the Au-Fe system: (1) precipitation of α-Fe from supersaturated Au-Fe solid-solution particles; and (2) α↔ γ transformation in Fe and Au-Fe thin films and particles. In both cases, the transformations proceeded differently than in the bulk already for sub-micron (100 nm to 1 μm) particles. These results were explained by the low defect concentration in the particles, nucleation difficulties, slow diffusivity on facets, and Au segregation. A "reverse size effect" was observed in thin Fe films, and discussed in terms of nucleation model taking into account the small size of the parent phase. The main conclusion is that phase transformations in the particles and in the bulk proceed differently, not only for nano-sized particles as was customarily believed but also for particles of sub-micrometer size. We suggest that this size effect is governed by two different length scales: the inter-defect spacing (upper limit) and the bulk critical nucleus size (lower limit).

  1. A study of erosion in die casting dies by a multiple pin accelerated erosion test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivpuri, R.; Yu, M.; Venkatesan, K.; Chu, Y.-L.

    1995-04-01

    An accelerated erosion test was developed to evaluate the erosion resistance of die materials and coatings for die casting application. An acceleration in wear was achieved by selecting pyramid-shaped core pins, hypereutectic aluminum silicon casting alloy, high melt temperatures and high gate velocities. Multiple pin design was selected to enable multiple test sites for comparative evaluation. Apilot run was conducted on a 300 ton commercial die casting machine at various sites (pins) to verify the thermal and flow similarities. Subsequently, campaigns were run on two different 300 ton commercial die casting machines to evaluate H13 die material and different coatings for erosive resistance. Coatings and surface treatments evaluated included surface micropeening, titanium nitride, boron carbide, vanadium carbide, and metallic coatings—tungsten, molybdenum, and platinum. Recent campaigns with different melt temperatures have indicated a possible link between soldering phenomena and erosive wear. This paper presents the details of the test set up and the results of the pilot and evaluation tests.

  2. Accurate Die Design for Automotive Panel Stamping Considering the Compensation Related with Die Deflection and Blank Thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xu, Dongkai; Xia, Guodong; Li, Xifeng; Chen, Jieshi; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Wei; Li, Yue

    2011-08-01

    In order to improve assembly accuracy, automotive body panels have to be fabricated with higher dimensional and surface quality requirements, therefore the die faces should be designed more accurately to consider more relevant factors. In the presented study, we proposed algorithms to realize the following functions: through forming process simulation, the thinning distribution on the deformed blank was extracted as first kind of compensation; through die structural CAE analysis which automatically mapped the boundary contact forces onto the die surfaces from process simulation results, the die deflection was calculated as second kind of compensation. These two quantitative contributions were added together to compensate the die face. The proposed methodologies were programmed and integrated with LS-Dyna and HyperWorks, and also integrated with Autoform and CATIA linear CAE functionalities separately. In addition, a software toolkit to calculate the contacting ratio was also developed to evaluate the effectiveness of die face compensation. The second toolkit developed was verified by an automotive structural part forming die design, through die compensation and geometric optimization, the predicted contact ratio between the die face and formed blank was improved a lot, and the first toolkit was testified by a fender drawing die design. It shows that the die face compensation can be realized and integrated seamlessly between CAD model, process simulation model and die structural CAE model with the help of data I/O tools developed by the authors.

  3. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Development of Surface Engineered Coating Systems for Aluminum Pressure Die Casting Dies: Towards a 'Smart' Die Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John J. Moore; Dr. Jianliang Lin,

    2012-07-31

    The main objective of this research program was to design and develop an optimal coating system that extends die life by minimizing premature die failure. In high-pressure aluminum die-casting, the die, core pins and inserts must withstand severe processing conditions. Many of the dies and tools in the industry are being coated to improve wear-resistance and decrease down-time for maintenance. However, thermal fatigue in metal itself can still be a major problem, especially since it often leads to catastrophic failure (i.e. die breakage) as opposed to a wear-based failure (parts begin to go out of tolerance). Tooling costs remain the largest portion of production costs for many of these parts, so the ability prevent catastrophic failures would be transformative for the manufacturing industry.The technology offers energy savings through reduced energy use in the die casting process from several factors, including increased life of the tools and dies, reuse of the dies and die components, reduction/elimination of lubricants, and reduced machine down time, and reduction of Al solder sticking on the die. The use of the optimized die coating system will also reduce environmental wastes and scrap parts. Current (2012) annual energy saving estimates, based on initial dissemination to the casting industry in 2010 and market penetration of 80% by 2020, is 3.1 trillion BTU's/year. The average annual estimate of CO2 reduction per year through 2020 is 0.63 Million Metric Tons of Carbon Equivalent (MM TCE).

  4. Sheet metal stamping die design for warm forming

    DOEpatents

    Ghosh, Amit K.

    2003-04-22

    In metal stamping dies, by taking advantage of improved material flow by selectively warming the die, flat sections of the die can contribute to the flow of material throughout the workpiece. Local surface heating can be accomplished by placing a heating block in the die. Distribution of heating at the flat lower train central regions outside of the bend region allows a softer flow at a lower stress to enable material flow into the thinner, higher strain areas at the bend/s. The heating block is inserted into the die and is powered by a power supply.

  5. Neue biosensorische Prinzipien für die Hämoglobin-A1c Bestimmung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöllner, Daniela

    2002-06-01

    Fructosyl-Valin-Histidin-Leucin-Threonin-Prolin (glkPP) als Kompetitor und Affinitätsligand immobilisiert und so eine regenerierfähige Oberfläche geschaffen. Beim Sandwich-Immunoassay wurde im ersten Schritt Gesamt-Hämoglobin an die mit Haptoglobin (Hp) modifizierte Festphase angereichert und im zweiten Schritt der gebundene HbA1c-Anteil nachgewiesen. Für die Konstruktion des HbA1c-Immunosensors wurden Affinitätsmatrizen durch Modifizierung von Cellulose-Dialysemembranen mit glkPP bzw. Hp hergestellt. Grundlegend studiert wurde die Aktivierung der Cellulose-Membranen mit 1,1'-Carbonyldiimidazol (CDI) und 1-Cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridintetrafluoroborat (CDAP) als Aktivierungsagenzien. Eine gerichtete Immobilisierung der Liganden wurde realisiert, indem glkPP über dessen C-Terminus (einzige Carboxylatgruppe) und Hp über dessen periodat-oxidiertem Kohlenhydratrest an die amino- oder hydrazidfunktionalisierte Membranen kovalent gekoppelt wurden. Mit dem Einsatz der glkPP- und Hp-modifizierten Membranen in der elektrochemischen Messzelle war erstmalig der biosensorische Nachweis von HbA1c möglich. Als Transduktor diente eine Pt-Elektrode, an der das von der GOD generierte H2O2 umgesetzt und ein mit der HbA1c-Konzentration korrelierendes Stromsignal erzeugt wurde. Die Immunosensoren zeigten Ansprechzeiten von 3 s. Mit dem Immunosensor auf Basis des indirekt-kompetitiven Testprinzips wurde eine Kalibrationskurve für HbA1c im Bereich von 0,25-30 µg/ml (3,9-465 nM, CV 3-9 %) mit Assayzeiten von 60 min und mit dem Immunosensor im Sandwich-Format eine Kalibrationskurve im Bereich von 0,5-5 µg/ml (7,8-78 nM; 5-50 % HbA1c vom Gesamt-Hb, CV 6-10 %, 3 h) aufgenommen. Hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) is a hemoglobin subtype formed by non-enzymatic reaction of glucose with the N-terminus of the beta-polypeptide chains. As it reflects the glycemic status of diabetics over the preceding 8-12 weeks, the determination of HbA1c has become an established procedure in the management of diabetes

  6. ["Good dying"--definition and current state of research].

    PubMed

    Hutter, Nico; Stößel, Ulrich; Meffert, Cornelia; Körner, Mirjam; Bozzaro, Claudia; Becker, Gerhild; Baumeister, Harald

    2015-08-01

    The advances of modern medicine did not only result in prolongation of life expectancy, but also led to a shift from dying at home to dying in public institutions. In western countries most people die at advanced age in medical facilities. Hence, the question regarding the conditions, which should be provided by society and especially medicine, to allow terminally ill people to experience "good dying" is substantial. For this purpose, an examination of patients', family members' and health care providers' understanding of the term " good dying" is required. The present paper aims at shedding light on the term "good dying" and to summarize the current state of research. Therefore, the attributes of "good dying" will be described from the perspectives of patients, family members and health care providers, which are discussed and examined in current medical-sociological research. These attributes can be illustrated on three dimensions: Quality of life at the end of life (e. g. pain relief, mental well-being), quality of dying (e. g. avoiding prolonged dying, autonomy, presence of relatives) and quality of health care at the end of life (e. g. patient-oriented health care, positive communication between health care providers and patients, availability of guidelines). Although the attributes of "good dying" are described in detail in the existing literature, further studies have to clarify the relevance and impact of these attributes as predictors of "good dying". PMID:26306020

  7. DIE Deflection Modeling: Empirical Validation and Tech Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    R. Allen Miller

    2003-05-28

    This report summarizes computer modeling work that was designed to help understand how the die casting die and machine contribute to parting plane separation during operation. Techniques developed in earlier research (8) were applied to complete a large computational experiment that systematically explored the relationship between the stiffness of the machine platens and key dimensional and structural variables (platen area covered, die thickness, platen thickness, thickness of insert and the location of the die with respect to the platen) describing the die/machine system. The results consistently show that there are many significant interactions among the variables and it is the interactions, more than the individual variables themselves, which determine the performance of the machine/die system. That said, the results consistently show that it is the stiffness of the machine platens that has the largest single impact on die separation.

  8. Simulation of Stamping Process of Automotive Panel Considering Die Deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Keum, Y.T.; Ahn, I.H.; Lee, I.K.; Song, M.H.; Kwon, S.O.; Park, J.S.

    2005-08-05

    In order to see the effect of die deformation on the forming of sheet metals, the draw-ins, strains, and spring-backs of an automotive fender panels are numerically simulated considering the die deformation, which is found by the simultaneous structural analysis of press and dies. By coupling the forming analysis and the structural analysis, the die deformation is simultaneously taken into account in the forming process. Furthermore, for the consideration of load difference transferred among the upper die, punch, and blank holder due to the changes in sheet thickness, the gap elements are employed instead of the blank sheet in the structural analysis. The numerical simulation results of an automotive fender draw panel are compared with the measurements. The comparison of the forming and spring-back analysis results between the rigid die and the deformed die shows that the deformed tool provides more accurate forming and spring-back prediction.

  9. Euthanasia, assisted dying and the right to die in Ghana: a socio-legal analysis.

    PubMed

    Owusu-Dapaa, Ernest

    2013-12-01

    There is unanimity among states to protect the continuation of life of the individual as a safeguard against their collective extinction. The right to life is accordingly guaranteed but its antithesis, the right to die is the subject of an unending debate. The controversy over the right to die is deepened by rapid advances in medicine, creating the capability for prolongation of life beyond the span which one's natural strength can endure. Ghana's supreme law explicitly guarantees the right to life but remains ambiguous on right to die, particularly euthanasia and assisted dying. Thus, some of the other rights, such as the right to dignity and not to be tortured, can creatively be exploited to justify some instances of euthanasia. Ghana's criminal code largely proscribes euthanasia. Notwithstanding, proscription of euthanasia and assisted dying by the law, in Ghana's empirical work undertaken in some of the communities in Ghana, suggests that euthanasia is quietly practisedin health facilities and private homes, especially in the rural areas. Contrary to the popular reasons assigned in the literature of the Western world, with respect to the practice or quest for legalization of euthanasia as being a necessity for providing relief from pain or hopeless quality of life, empirical data from social and anthropological studies conducted in Ghana reveal that poverty is the motivation for informal euthanasia practice in Ghana rather than genuine desire on part of patients to die or their relatives to see to their accelerated death. Apart from poverty, traditional cultural values of African societies consider non-natural death as a taboo and ignominy to the victim and his family. Thus, any move by the government to legalize euthanasia will need to be informed by widely held consultations and a possible referendum; otherwise the law may be just a mere transplant of Western models of legislation on euthanasia without reflecting the ethos of the African people. PMID:24552118

  10. When a partner dies: lesbian widows.

    PubMed

    Bent, Katherine N; Magilvy, J Kathy

    2006-06-01

    Death of a life partner and the subsequent bereavement are profound experiences for an individual. By far, the majority of bereavement research reported is focused on heterosexual couples, primarily married and often in the later years of life. The purpose of this study was to describe the bereavement experiences of lesbians whose life partners have died. The study used a descriptive, qualitative design informed by feminist scholarship and phenomenology to access the depth of personal experiences, as well as internally interpreted meanings of those experiences, among lesbian widows. PMID:16613798

  11. Models of physician-assisted dying.

    PubMed

    Girsh, F

    1996-12-01

    Repeated surveys have shown that more than 70% of Americans support physician aid in dying for terminally ill mentally competent adults. Recent polls of physicians in Oregon and Michigan demonstrate majority support of those doctors for such a law while 25% of physicians surveyed in Washington admitted to already providing help. Models of how that would work have been spelled out in proposed legislation in the United States since 1988, other models come from the Northern Territory in Australia, from Holland, and from Jack Kevorkian's writing and actions as well as from other writers such as Dr Timothy Quill. PMID:9009461

  12. [From absolute necessity of dying to preventive planning of dying? The change of social and medicine debates on dying in the 1980s].

    PubMed

    Jordan, I

    2010-04-01

    International euthanasia debates focussing on "autonomous dying" in the 1980s corresponded with a general change in the health-care system: availability of new technical means with an analogous medical-ethic understanding of human suffering and dying. This change is part of a general development from "passive health consumption" to "active prevention" in our society. PMID:20229456

  13. National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 2, Die casting research

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, D.

    1994-06-01

    Four subprojects were completed: development and evaluation of die coatings, accelerated die life characterization of die materials, evaluation of fluid flow and solidification modeling programs, selection and characterization of Al-based die casting alloys, and influence of die materials and coatings on die casting quality.

  14. Care of the dying adolescent: special considerations.

    PubMed

    Freyer, David R

    2004-02-01

    More than 3000 adolescents in the United States die annually from the effects of chronic illness. Providing appropriate end-of-life care for these patients is particularly challenging because of several developmental, ethical, and legal considerations relevant to this age group. Developmental issues relate to the ways in which life-threatening illness alters the normal physical and psychological changes associated with adolescence, including attainment of independence, social skills, peer acceptance, and a healthy self-image. Ethical and legal issues arise from the fact that many terminally ill adolescents <18 years of age lack ordinary legal authority to make binding medical decisions (including discontinuation of their treatment), yet they meet functional criteria for having the competence to do so. In such situations, a broad medical, ethical, and legal consensus supports giving decisional authority to the minor patient. Even when full decisional authority is not appropriate, strong moral arguments exist for taking serious account of the young adolescent's treatment preferences. In supporting the dying adolescent, an atmosphere promoting excellent communication and sound decision-making should be fostered as early as possible during preterminal care and maintained thereafter. Once palliative-care strategies become the clinical focus, psychosocial support sensitive to the adolescent's developmental stage must be provided. Using these principles, clinicians can play a crucial role in helping the adolescent, in the face of death, to experience richness of life and the dignity of self-determination. PMID:14754953

  15. [The debate about the right to die].

    PubMed

    Beca, Juan Pablo; Ortiz, Armando; Solar, Sebastián

    2005-05-01

    The Right to Die is a debatable issue and some basic notions need to be clarified to discuss it. Death needs to be recognized as part of human life. The goal of medicine is to avoid pain and alleviate suffering, to prevent premature death and when this is not possible, to let it occur peacefully. The concept of euthanasia is unclear, which increases the confusion on end-of-life topics. The term euthanasia should be used only when referring to medical acts performed to produce the patient's death, with the intention of terminating his/her suffering. It is what is usually called "active" euthanasia, which can be voluntary or involuntary. It is essential to understand the difference between producing and allowing death. This will permit timely decisions about limiting or withdrawing treatments, that can be disproportionate or that are only prolonging suffering. Limiting treatments does not mean to abandon the patient but rather to redefine his needs, such as pain treatment, prevention of complications, and relief of suffering. The ethic rationale for these decisions is the respect to the dignity of human life, and the estimation of proportionality or futility of each treatment. The physician's duty with the patient at the end of his life is to assist him in dying according to his values and to minimize his distress. PMID:15970987

  16. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, J.E.; Korth, G.E.

    1985-06-27

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block. 4 figs.

  17. Die-target for dynamic powder consolidation

    DOEpatents

    Flinn, John E.; Korth, Gary E.

    1986-01-01

    A die/target is disclosed for consolidation of a powder, especially an atomized rapidly solidified metal powder, to produce monoliths by the dynamic action of a shock wave, especially a shock wave produced by the detonation of an explosive charge. The die/target comprises a rectangular metal block having a square primary surface with four rectangular mold cavities formed therein to receive the powder. The cavities are located away from the geometrical center of the primary surface and are distributed around such center while also being located away from the geometrical diagonals of the primary surface to reduce the action of reflected waves so as to avoid tensile cracking of the monoliths. The primary surface is covered by a powder retention plate which is engaged by a flyer plate to transmit the shock wave to the primary surface and the powder. Spawl plates are adhesively mounted on other surfaces of the block to act as momentum traps so as to reduce reflected waves in the block.

  18. Dying, mourning, and spirituality: a psychological perspective.

    PubMed

    Marrone, R

    1999-09-01

    Based in an unfortunate tradition that stretches back in time to Watson's behaviorism and Freud's psychoanalysis, psychology has tended to reject and to pathologize matters of the spirit. In the past 30 years, however, with the advent of what has been termed the cognitive revolution, psychology has greatly expanded the scope of its subject matter. Psychologists and thanatologists have begun to unravel the cognitive underpinnings of our assumptive world and the transformation of those underpinnings in times of crisis and stress. This article examines the cognitive basis of the spiritual experience and the use of cognitive assimilation, accommodation strategies during the process of mourning the death of a loved one, as well as during the process of living our own dying. Of special importance to mental health professionals and clergy, new research on dying, mourning, and spirituality suggests that the specific ways in which people rediscover meaning--such as belief in traditional religious doctrine, the afterlife, reincarnation, philanthropy, or a spiritual order to the universe--may be less important than the process itself. In other words, in the midst of dealing with profound loss in our lives, the ability to reascribe meaning to a changed world through spiritual transformation, religious conversion, or existential change may be more significant than the specific content by which that need is filled. PMID:10558611

  19. Die casting die deflections: Prediction and attenuation. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.Allen; Ahuett-Garza, Horacio; Choudhury, Aswin K.; Dedhia, Sanjay

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects or problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information from the voxel model for display to the user.

  20. Synthesis of Au-Fe3O4 heterostructured nanoparticles for in vivo computed tomography and magnetic resonance dual model imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Lu, Yinjie; Li, Yonggang; Jiang, Jiang; Cheng, Liang; Liu, Zhuang; Guo, Liang; Pan, Yue; Gu, Hongwei

    2013-12-01

    Water-soluble Au-Fe3O4 heterostructured nanoparticles with high biocompatibility were synthesized and applied as a dual modality contrast agent. These nanoparticles present strong CT/MRI contrast enhancement in a rabbit model. Low concentrations of Au-Fe3O4 were found to obtain a similar effect to high concentrations of a commercial iodine agent in the CT image.Water-soluble Au-Fe3O4 heterostructured nanoparticles with high biocompatibility were synthesized and applied as a dual modality contrast agent. These nanoparticles present strong CT/MRI contrast enhancement in a rabbit model. Low concentrations of Au-Fe3O4 were found to obtain a similar effect to high concentrations of a commercial iodine agent in the CT image. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of general experimental procedures, XRD patterns, UV-vis absorption spectra, phase contrast imaging, and CT imaging. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04730j

  1. AUF1 p45 Promotes West Nile Virus Replication by an RNA Chaperone Activity That Supports Cyclization of the Viral Genome

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Susann; Schmidt, Tobias; Geissler, René; Lilie, Hauke; Chabierski, Stefan; Ulbert, Sebastian; Liebert, Uwe G.; Golbik, Ralph P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A central aspect of current virology is to define the function of cellular proteins (host factors) that support the viral multiplication process. This study aimed at characterizing cellular proteins that assist the RNA replication process of the prevalent human pathogen West Nile virus (WNV). Using in vitro and cell-based approaches, we defined the p45 isoform of AU-rich element RNA-binding protein 1 (AUF1) as a host factor that enables efficient WNV replication. It was demonstrated that AUF1 p45 has an RNA chaperone activity, which aids the structural rearrangement and cyclization of the WNV RNA that is required by the viral replicase to initiate RNA replication. The obtained data suggest the RNA chaperone activity of AUF1 p45 is an important determinant of the WNV life cycle. IMPORTANCE In this study, we identified a cellular protein, AUF1 (also known as heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein D [hnRNPD]), acting as a helper (host factor) of the multiplication process of the important human pathogen West Nile virus. Several different variants of AUF1 exist in the cell, and one variant, AUF1 p45, was shown to support viral replication most significantly. Interestingly, we obtained a set of experimental data indicating that a main function of AUF1 p45 is to modify and thus prepare the West Nile virus genome in such a way that the viral enzyme that generates progeny genomes is empowered to do this considerably more efficiently than in the absence of the host factor. The capability of AUF1 p45 to rearrange the West Nile virus genome was thus identified to be an important aspect of a West Nile virus infection. PMID:25078689

  2. Treatment-resistant major depressive disorder and assisted dying.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2015-08-01

    Competent patients suffering from treatment-resistant depressive disorder should be treated no different in the context of assisted dying to other patients suffering from chronic conditions that render their lives permanently not worth living to them. Jurisdictions that are considering, or that have, decriminalised assisted dying are discriminating unfairly against patients suffering from treatment-resistant depression if they exclude such patients from the class of citizens entitled to receive assistance in dying. PMID:25935906

  3. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no tools more mechanical than hand tools and vise....

  4. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by and owned by the Indian Arts and Crafts...

  5. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no tools more mechanical than hand tools and vise....

  6. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will be used where the marker is a Navajo Indian;...

  7. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will be used where the marker is a Navajo Indian;...

  8. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will be used where the marker is a Navajo Indian;...

  9. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no tools more mechanical than hand tools and vise....

  10. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by and owned by the Indian Arts and Crafts...

  11. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no tools more mechanical than hand tools and vise....

  12. 25 CFR 301.3 - Specifications of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Specifications of dies. 301.3 Section 301.3 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER AND TURQUOISE PRODUCTS; STANDARDS § 301.3 Specifications of dies. Dies used are to be entirely hand-made, with no tools more mechanical than hand tools and vise....

  13. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by and owned by the Indian Arts and Crafts...

  14. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by and owned by the Indian Arts and Crafts...

  15. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will be used where the marker is a Navajo Indian;...

  16. 25 CFR 304.5 - Dies to identify tribe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dies to identify tribe. 304.5 Section 304.5 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.5 Dies to identify tribe. Dies are marked with name of tribe. A Navajo stamp will be used where the marker is a Navajo Indian;...

  17. 25 CFR 304.2 - Marking and ownership of dies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marking and ownership of dies. 304.2 Section 304.2 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NAVAJO, PUEBLO, AND HOPI SILVER, USE OF GOVERNMENT MARK § 304.2 Marking and ownership of dies. All dies used to mark silver will be provided by and owned by the Indian Arts and Crafts...

  18. MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), DETAIL SHOWING INSCRIPTION ON FRONT ELEVATION. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  19. The duty to die and the burdensomeness of living.

    PubMed

    Cholbi, Michael

    2010-10-01

    This article addresses the question of whether the arguments for a duty to die given by John Hardwig, the most prominent philosophical advocate of such a duty, are sound. Hardwig believes that the duty to die is relatively widespread among those with burdensome illnesses, dependencies, or medical conditions. I argue that although there are rare circumstances in which individuals have a duty to die, the situations Hardwig describes are not among these. After reconstructing Hardwig's argument for such a duty, highlighting his central premise that ill, dependent, or aged individuals can impose unfair burdens upon others by continuing to live, I clarify precisely what Hardwig intends by his thesis that many of us have a duty to die. I then show that an important disanalogy exists between an uncontroversial example in which an individual has a duty to die and the situations in which Hardwig proposes individuals have a duty to die. More specifically, in situations where a duty to die exists, an individual's having a duty to die logically implies that those she burdens have a right to kill that individual in self-defense. I then suggest that the burdens that ill, dependent, or aged individuals impose on their families, loved ones, or caregivers do not constitute the kind of threat that warrants the latter killing the former in self-defense. Hence, the duty to die is much rarer than Hardwig supposes. PMID:19222438

  20. Development of intelligent CAD/CAM systems for progressive dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyin; Xiao, Xia; Li, Jianjun

    1995-08-01

    This paper focuses on the fundamental issues related to the development of intelligent CAD/CAM systems for progressive dies which are used for manufacturing sheet metal parts in mass production. The CAD/CAM functions for sheet metal product design and those for design and manufacture of progressive dies are defined by studying the sheet-metal-product life cycle. The procedures of industrial design and manufacture of progressive dies are reviewed, and the need for intelligent CAD/CAM systems identified. The platforms, environment, and key technologies for the systems design and implementation are discussed. Finally, a prototype CAD/CAM system for progressive dies is introduced.

  1. AUF1/hnRNP D is a novel protein partner of the EBER1 noncoding RNA of Epstein-Barr virus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nara; Pimienta, Genaro; Steitz, Joan A.

    2012-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–infected cells express two noncoding RNAs called EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) 1 and EBER2. Despite their high abundance in the nucleus (about 106 copies), the molecular function of these noncoding RNAs has remained elusive. Here, we report that the insertion into EBER1 of an RNA aptamer that binds the bacteriophage MS2 coat protein allows the isolation of EBER1 and associated protein partners. By combining MS2-mediated selection with stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and analysis by mass spectrometry, we identified AUF1 (AU-rich element binding factor 1)/hnRNP D (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D) as an interacting protein of EBER1. AUF1 exists as four isoforms generated by alternative splicing and is best known for its role in destabilizing mRNAs upon binding to AU-rich elements (AREs) in their 3′ untranslated region (UTR). Using UV crosslinking, we demonstrate that predominantly the p40 isoform of AUF1 interacts with EBER1 in vivo. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that EBER1 can compete for the binding of the AUF1 p40 isoform to ARE-containing RNA. Given the high abundance of EBER1 in EBV-positive cells, EBER1 may disturb the normal homeostasis between AUF1 and ARE-containing mRNAs or compete with other AUF1-interacting targets in cells latently infected by EBV. PMID:23012480

  2. HIV transcription is induced in dying cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei; Schreck, S. |; Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R.

    1996-02-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires functional p53, which is not present in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Doses which caused over 99% cell killing induced HIV-LTR transcription maximally, demonstrating that cells that will go on to die by 14 days are the cells expressing HIV-LTR-CAT.

  3. Linc-RoR promotes c-Myc expression through hnRNP I and AUF1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianguo; Zhang, Ali; Ho, Tsui-Ting; Zhang, Ziqiang; Zhou, Nanjiang; Ding, Xianfeng; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Min; Mo, Yin-Yuan

    2016-04-20

    Linc-RoR was originally identified to be a regulator for induced pluripotent stem cells in humans and it has also been implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanism of Linc-RoR-mediated gene expression in cancer is poorly understood. The present study demonstrates that Linc-RoR plays an oncogenic role in part through regulation of c-Myc expression. Linc-RoR knockout (KO) suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth. In particular, Linc-RoR KO causes a significant decrease in c-Myc whereas re-expression of Linc-RoR in the KO cells restores the level of c-Myc. Mechanistically, Linc-RoR interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) I and AU-rich element RNA-binding protein 1 (AUF1), respectively, with an opposite consequence to their interaction with c-Myc mRNA. While Linc-RoR is required for hnRNP I to bind to c-Myc mRNA, interaction of Linc-RoR with AUF1 inhibits AUF1 to bind to c-Myc mRNA. As a result, Linc-RoR may contribute to the increased stability of c-Myc mRNA. Although hnRNP I and AUF1 can interact with many RNA species and regulate their functions, with involvement of Linc-RoR they would be able to selectively regulate mRNA stability of specific genes such as c-Myc. Together, these results support a role for Linc-RoR in c-Myc expression in part by specifically enhancing its mRNA stability, leading to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. PMID:26656491

  4. Linc-RoR promotes c-Myc expression through hnRNP I and AUF1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jianguo; Zhang, Ali; Ho, Tsui-Ting; Zhang, Ziqiang; Zhou, Nanjiang; Ding, Xianfeng; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Min; Mo, Yin-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Linc-RoR was originally identified to be a regulator for induced pluripotent stem cells in humans and it has also been implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the underlying mechanism of Linc-RoR-mediated gene expression in cancer is poorly understood. The present study demonstrates that Linc-RoR plays an oncogenic role in part through regulation of c-Myc expression. Linc-RoR knockout (KO) suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth. In particular, Linc-RoR KO causes a significant decrease in c-Myc whereas re-expression of Linc-RoR in the KO cells restores the level of c-Myc. Mechanistically, Linc-RoR interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) I and AU-rich element RNA-binding protein 1 (AUF1), respectively, with an opposite consequence to their interaction with c-Myc mRNA. While Linc-RoR is required for hnRNP I to bind to c-Myc mRNA, interaction of Linc-RoR with AUF1 inhibits AUF1 to bind to c-Myc mRNA. As a result, Linc-RoR may contribute to the increased stability of c-Myc mRNA. Although hnRNP I and AUF1 can interact with many RNA species and regulate their functions, with involvement of Linc-RoR they would be able to selectively regulate mRNA stability of specific genes such as c-Myc. Together, these results support a role for Linc-RoR in c-Myc expression in part by specifically enhancing its mRNA stability, leading to cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. PMID:26656491

  5. Hubble's View of a Dying Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A recent image of a dying star containing strange, complex structures may help explain the death throes of stars and defy our current understanding of physics. The image of protoplanetary nebula IRAS22036+5306 (in the Infrared Astronomical Satellite Point Source Catalog) was taken on Dec. 15, 2001, by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, onboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. It is one of the best images yet to capture a fleeting period at the end of a Sun-like star's life, called the protoplanetary nebula phase.

    This phase, which looks like a beautiful cloud of glowing gas lit up by ultraviolet light from the star's core, results when a star evolves into a bloated red giant and sheds its outer layers. 'Protoplanetary nebulas are rare objects with short lifetimes,' said JPL astrophysicist Dr. Raghvendra Sahai. 'It has generally been very difficult to obtain images of such objects in which their structure can be resolved in detail.'

    This image is particularly important because it contains a series of what Sahai and his colleagues call 'knotty jets,' blob-like objects emerging along roughly straight lines from the center of the cigar-shaped, bipolar nebula (See insets). There are various theories about what may produce such jets, though it is hard to prove their existence due to their short-lived, episodic nature. Detailed multi-wavelength studies of these nebulas with NASA's Great Observatories are being carried out to understand the nature and origin of these enigmatic jets, and how they may be sculpting shrouds of dying stars into exotic shapes. The Hubble Space Telescope is one of NASA's Great Observatories.

  6. Death and dying: what the patient wants.

    PubMed

    Balducci, L

    2012-04-01

    A good death and a death with dignity may be achieved when death is congruent with the personal values of the patient. It behooves the practitioner to recognize these values and to cater to them. This paper describes effective communication with the dying person, and the partnership of treatment team, patient and family in face of the patient death. To identify and define the patient wishes it is necessary to learn how to interpret the patient's non verbal as often patients are unable to formulate the questions they wish to ask concerning their passing. These difficulties stem from several cultural factors including concern about disturbing the practitioner. It is the treatment team's responsibility to facilitate this discussion. A good death is achieved when symptoms are controlled and when patients and family recognize death as a unique living experience to be treasured as any other living experience. A death with dignity brings healing, that is always possible even when cure is out of reach. Patient's and practitioner's values may be at odd in face of controversial issues including euthanasia, assisted suicide and terminal sedation. Though he/she should not be compelled to execute these requests, the practitioner should be able to entertain an open discussion with the patient concerning these issues. Open communication and reflective listening even in presence of disagreements are the venue of healing. The study of death and dying requires novel approaches including personal narrative and qualitative research to complement traditional research instrument, such as questionnaire that cannot embrace the whole human dimension. PMID:22628417

  7. Clinical Criteria for Physician Aid in Dying.

    PubMed

    Orentlicher, David; Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Rich, Ben A

    2016-03-01

    More than 20 years ago, even before voters in Oregon had enacted the first aid in dying (AID) statute in the United States, Timothy Quill and colleagues proposed clinical criteria AID. Their proposal was carefully considered and temperate, but there were little data on the practice of AID at the time. (With AID, a physician writes a prescription for life-ending medication for a terminally ill, mentally capacitated adult.) With the passage of time, a substantial body of data on AID has developed from the states of Oregon and Washington. For more than 17 years, physicians in Oregon have been authorized to provide a prescription for AID. Accordingly, we have updated the clinical criteria of Quill, et al., based on the many years of experience with AID. With more jurisdictions authorizing AID, it is critical that physicians can turn to reliable clinical criteria. As with any medical practice, AID must be provided in a safe and effective manner. Physicians need to know (1) how to respond to a patient's inquiry about AID, (2) how to assess patient decision making capacity, and (3) how to address a range of other issues that may arise. To ensure that physicians have the guidance they need, Compassion & Choices convened the Physician Aid-in-Dying Clinical Criteria Committee, in July 2012, to create clinical criteria for physicians who are willing to provide AID to patients who request it. The committee includes experts in medicine, law, bioethics, hospice, nursing, social work, and pharmacy. Using an iterative consensus process, the Committee drafted the criteria over a one-year period. PMID:26539979

  8. Clinical Criteria for Physician Aid in Dying

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason; Rich, Ben A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract More than 20 years ago, even before voters in Oregon had enacted the first aid in dying (AID) statute in the United States, Timothy Quill and colleagues proposed clinical criteria AID. Their proposal was carefully considered and temperate, but there were little data on the practice of AID at the time. (With AID, a physician writes a prescription for life-ending medication for a terminally ill, mentally capacitated adult.) With the passage of time, a substantial body of data on AID has developed from the states of Oregon and Washington. For more than 17 years, physicians in Oregon have been authorized to provide a prescription for AID. Accordingly, we have updated the clinical criteria of Quill, et al., based on the many years of experience with AID. With more jurisdictions authorizing AID, it is critical that physicians can turn to reliable clinical criteria. As with any medical practice, AID must be provided in a safe and effective manner. Physicians need to know (1) how to respond to a patient's inquiry about AID, (2) how to assess patient decision making capacity, and (3) how to address a range of other issues that may arise. To ensure that physicians have the guidance they need, Compassion & Choices convened the Physician Aid-in-Dying Clinical Criteria Committee, in July 2012, to create clinical criteria for physicians who are willing to provide AID to patients who request it. The committee includes experts in medicine, law, bioethics, hospice, nursing, social work, and pharmacy. Using an iterative consensus process, the Committee drafted the criteria over a one-year period. PMID:26539979

  9. L-connect routing of die surface pads to the die edge for stacking in a 3D array

    DOEpatents

    Petersen, Robert W.

    2000-01-01

    Integrated circuit chips and method of routing the interface pads from the face of the chip or die to one or more sidewall surfaces of the die. The interconnection is routed from the face of the die to one or more edges of the die, then routed over the edge of the die and onto the side surface. A new pad is then formed on the sidewall surface, which allows multiple die or chips to be stacked in a three-dimensional array, while enabling follow-on signal routing from the sidewall pads. The routing of the interconnects and formation of the sidewall pads can be carried out in an L-connect or L-shaped routing configuration, using a metalization process such as laser pantography.

  10. HUBBLE SURVEYS DYING STARS IN NEARBY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    From ground-based telescopes, the glowing gaseous debris surrounding dying, sun-like stars in a nearby galaxy, called the Large Magellanic Cloud, appear as small, shapeless dots of light. But through the 'eyes' of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, these bright dots take on a variety of shapes, from round- to pinwheel-shaped clouds of gas. Using Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, scientists probed the glowing gas surrounding 27 dying stars, called planetary nebulae, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations represent the most detailed study of planetary nebulae outside the Milky Way. The six objects in the picture illustrate the assortment of planetary nebulae identified in the galaxy. SMP 16, 30, and 93 are examples of a bipolar nebula, twin lobes of gas projecting away from a dying star. SMP 10 has a pinwheel shape and is known as a 'point-symmetric' nebula. SMP 4 has an elliptical appearance, and SMP 27, consisting of four lobes of gas, is called a 'quadrupolar' nebula. The lines point to the objects' locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud. A ground-based observatory snapped the picture of this galaxy. In the pictures of the planetary nebulae, color corresponds to temperature. Blue represents hotter regions of the nebulae and red, cooler. Scientists are probing these illuminated stellar relics in our neighboring galaxy because they are at relatively the same distance - about 168,000 light-years -- from Earth. Knowing the distance to these objects allows scientists to compare their shapes and sizes, and precisely determine the brightness of their central stars. For this reason, even though these glowing remains of dying stars are about 50 times farther away than the stunning planetary nebulae photographed in the Milky Way, they are of invaluable importance. By sampling this population, scientists noticed that the bipolar nebulae are richer in some heavier elements, such as neon, than those with a more spherical shape. At the dawn of the universe

  11. HUBBLE SURVEYS DYING STARS IN NEARBY GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    From ground-based telescopes, the glowing gaseous debris surrounding dying, sun-like stars in a nearby galaxy, called the Large Magellanic Cloud, appear as small, shapeless dots of light. But through the 'eyes' of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, these bright dots take on a variety of shapes, from round- to pinwheel-shaped clouds of gas. Using Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, scientists probed the glowing gas surrounding 27 dying stars, called planetary nebulae, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations represent the most detailed study of planetary nebulae outside the Milky Way. The six objects in the picture illustrate the assortment of planetary nebulae identified in the galaxy. SMP 16, 30, and 93 are examples of a bipolar nebula, twin lobes of gas projecting away from a dying star. SMP 10 has a pinwheel shape and is known as a 'point-symmetric' nebula. SMP 4 has an elliptical appearance, and SMP 27, consisting of four lobes of gas, is called a 'quadrupolar' nebula. The lines point to the objects' locations in the Large Magellanic Cloud. A ground-based observatory snapped the picture of this galaxy. In the pictures of the planetary nebulae, color corresponds to temperature. Blue represents hotter regions of the nebulae and red, cooler. Scientists are probing these illuminated stellar relics in our neighboring galaxy because they are at relatively the same distance - about 168,000 light-years -- from Earth. Knowing the distance to these objects allows scientists to compare their shapes and sizes, and precisely determine the brightness of their central stars. For this reason, even though these glowing remains of dying stars are about 50 times farther away than the stunning planetary nebulae photographed in the Milky Way, they are of invaluable importance. By sampling this population, scientists noticed that the bipolar nebulae are richer in some heavier elements, such as neon, than those with a more spherical shape. At the dawn of the universe

  12. Multifunctional Au-Fe3O4@MOF core-shell nanocomposite catalysts with controllable reactivity and magnetic recyclability.

    PubMed

    Ke, Fei; Wang, Luhuan; Zhu, Junfa

    2015-01-21

    The recovery and reuse of expensive catalysts are important in both heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysis due to economic and environmental reasons. This work reports a novel multifunctional magnetic core-shell gold catalyst which can be easily prepared and shows remarkable catalytic properties in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The novel Au-Fe3O4@metal-organic framework (MOF) catalyst consists of a superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 core and a porous MOF shell with controllable thickness. Small Au nanoparticles (NPs) of 3-5 nm are mainly sandwiched between the Fe3O4 core and the porous MOF shell. Catalytic studies show that the core-shell structured Au-Fe3O4@MOF catalyst has a much higher catalytic activity than other reported Au-based catalysts toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Moreover, this catalyst can be easily recycled due to the presence of the superparamagnetic core. Therefore, compared to conventional catalysts used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, this porous MOF-based magnetic catalyst is green, cheap and promising for industrial applications. PMID:25486865

  13. Strong dependence of surface plasmon resonance and surface enhanced Raman scattering on the composition of Au-Fe nanoalloys.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Vincenzo; Scaramuzza, Stefano; Agnoli, Stefano; Polizzi, Stefano; Meneghetti, Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Nanoalloys of noble metals with transition metals are crucial components for the integration of plasmonics with magnetic and catalytic properties, as well as for the production of low-cost photonic devices. However, due to synthetic challenges in the realization of nanoscale solid solutions of noble metals and transition metals, very little is known about the composition dependence of plasmonic response in nanoalloys. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the elemental composition of Au-Fe nanoalloys obtained by laser ablation in liquid solution can be tuned by varying the liquid environment. Due to surface passivation and reaction with thiolated ligands, the nanoalloys obtained by our synthetic protocol are structurally and colloidally stable. Hence, we studied the dependence of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the iron fraction and, for the first time, we observed surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in Au-Fe nanoalloys. SPR and SERS performances are strongly affected by the iron content and are investigated using analytical and numerical models. By demonstrating the strong modification of plasmonic properties on the composition, our results provide important insights into the exploitation of Au-Fe nanoalloys in photonics, nanomedicine, magneto-plasmonic and plasmon-enhanced catalysis. Moreover, our findings show that several other plasmonic materials exist beyond gold and silver nanostructures. PMID:24309909

  14. Bottom-up substitution assembly of AuF4-n0,-+nPO3 (n = 1-4): a theoretical study of novel oxyfluoride hyperhalogen molecules and anions AuF4-n(PO3)n0,-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi-fan; Cui, Zhong-hua; Ding, Yi-hong

    2014-06-01

    Compounds with high electron affinity, i.e. superhalogens, have continued to attract chemists' attention, due to their potential importance in fundamental chemistry and materials science. It has now proven very effective to build up novel superhalogens with multi-positively charged centres, which are usually called 'hyperhalogens'. Herein, using AuF4- and PO3 as the model building blocks, we made the first attempt to design the Au,P-based hyperhalogen anions AuF4-n(PO3)n- (n = 1-4) at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d)&SDD and CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d)&SDD (single-point) levels (6-311+G(d) for O, F, P and SDD for Au). Notably, for all the considered Au,P systems, the ground state bears a dioxo-bonded structure with n ≤ 3, which is significantly more stable than the usually presumed mono-oxo-bonded one. Moreover, the clustering of the -PO3 moieties becomes energetically favoured for n ≥ 3. The ground states of AuP4O120,- are the first reported cage-like oxide hyperhalogens. Thus, the -PO3 moiety cannot be retained during the 'bottom-up' assembly. The vertical detachment energy (VDE) value of the most stable AuF4-n(PO3)n- (n = 1-4) ranges from 7.16 to 8.20 eV, higher than the VDE values of the corresponding building blocks AuF4- (7.08 eV) and PO3- (4.69 eV). The adiabatic detachment energy values of these four hyperhalogens exceed 6.00 eV. Possible generation routes for AuF4-n(PO3)n- (n = 1-4) were discussed. The presently designed oxyfluorides not only enriches the family of hyperhalogens, but also demonstrates the great importance of considering the structural transformation during the superhalogen → hyperhalogen design such as for the present Au-P based systems.

  15. Verknüpfung von DQ-Indikatoren mit KPIs und Auswirkungen auf das Return on Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Frank

    Häufig ist nicht klar, welche Beziehungen zwischen Datenqualitätsindikatoren (DQI, Definition folgt weiter unten) und Key Performance Indicators (KPI, s. Abschnitt 1.3 für weitere Details) eines Unternehmens oder einer Organisation bestehen. Dies ist insbesondere deshalb von Bedeutung, da die Kenntnis dieser Beziehungen maßgeblich die Ausprägung eines Datenqualitätsprojekts beeinflusst.

  16. "Dying is dying, that's all": Structural violence and cultural projects in Malawian AIDS proverbs.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Nicole C

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines three Malawian proverbs about AIDS: "AIDS came for people", "Dying is dying, that's all" and "It's in the flour". Proverbs permit Malawians to discuss the otherwise taboo topic of AIDS because they offer a special register and perform a footing shift, a rhetorical manoeuvre that allows the speaker to attribute problematic speech to someone else. The proverbs under consideration convey a sense of powerless in the face of the AIDS epidemic, which is an indicator of the effects of structural violence on the everyday lives of most Malawians. Despite the aura of timeless tradition generally conveyed by proverbs, the author argues that individual Malawians are actually using AIDS proverbs to align themselves with the pursuit of gendered cultural projects, such as multiple concurrent partner sex and transactional sex, which are not traditional at all. PMID:26305155

  17. Regional ontogeny of New England salt marsh die-off.

    PubMed

    Coverdale, Tyler C; Bertness, Mark D; Altieri, Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    Coastal areas are among the world's most productive and highly affected ecosystems. Centuries of human activity on coastlines have led to overexploitation of marine predators, which in turn has led to cascading ecosystem-level effects. Human effects and approaches to mediating them, however, differ regionally due to gradients in biotic and abiotic factors. Salt marsh die-off on Cape Cod, Massachusetts (U.S.A.), triggered by a recreational-fishing-induced trophic cascade that has released herbivorous crabs from predator control, has been ongoing since 1976. Similar salt marsh die-offs have been reported in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay (U.S.A.), but the driving mechanism of these die-offs has not been examined. We used field experiments to assess trophic interactions and historical reconstructions of 24 New England marshes to test the hypotheses that recreational fishing and predator depletion are a regional trigger of salt marsh die-off in New England and that die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are more recent than those on Cape Cod. Predator depletion was the general trigger of marsh die-off and explained differences in herbivorous crab abundance and the severity of die-off across regions. Die-offs in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay are following a trajectory similar to die-off on Cape Cod, but are approximately 20 years behind those on Cape Cod. As a result, die-off currently affects 31.2% (SE 2.2) of low-marsh areas in Long Island Sound and Narragansett Bay, less than half the severity of die-off on Cape Cod. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that recreational fishing is an increasing threat to coastal ecosystems and that studying the effects of human activity at regional scales can provide insight into local effects and aid in early detection and potential remediation. PMID:23566036

  18. Electronic structure and vibrational entropies of fcc Au-Fe alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, Jorge A.; Lucas, Matthew; Mauger, L; Halevy, I; Horwath, J; Semiatin, S L; Xiao, Yuming; Stone, Matthew B; Abernathy, Douglas L; Fultz, B.

    2013-01-01

    Phonon density of states (DOS) curves were measured on alloys of face-centered-cubic (fcc) Au-Fe using nuclear resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NRIXS) and inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The NRIXS and INS results were combined to obtain the total phonon DOS and the partial phonon DOS curves of Au and Fe atoms. The 57Fe partial phonon DOS of the dilute alloy Au0.97 57Fe0.03 shows a localized mode centered 4.3% above the cutoff energy of the phonons in pure Au. The Mannheim model for impurity modes accurately reproduced this partial phonon DOS using the fcc Au phonon DOS with a ratio of host-host to impurity-host force constants of 1.55. First-principles calculations validated the assumption of first-nearest-neighbor forces in the Mannheim model and gave a similar ratio of force constants. The high energy local mode broadens with increasing Fe composition, but this has a small effect on the composition dependence of the vibrational entropy. The main effect on the vibrational entropy of alloying comes from a stiffening of the Au partial phonon DOS with Fe concentration. This stiffening is attributed to two main effects: 1) an increase in electron density in the free-electron-like states, and 2) stronger sd-hybridization. These two effects are comparable in magnitude.

  19. Can We Humanize Dying in the General Hospital?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Stephen

    This paper reviews the literature on the behavior and attitudes of medical-nursing personnel toward the dying person and illustrates the frequent conflict between hospital staff and the needs of dying. Inner perturbation stemming from feelings of vicarious suffering, vicarious disintegration, or personal anxiety about death, education deficiencies…

  20. The Myriad Strategies for Seeking Control in the Dying Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroepfer, Tracy A.; Noh, Hyunjin; Kavanaugh, Melinda

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the role control plays in the dying process of terminally ill elders by investigating the aspects of the dying process over which they seek to exercise control, the strategies they use, and whether they desire to exercise more control. Design and Methods: In-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with 84…

  1. Potato Early Dying: Molecular Perspectives on Pathogenicity and Host Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato early dying has not received the reputation of being a particularly devastating disease of potato. However, the interaction between the vascular fungus Verticillium dahliae and the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans to form the early dying complex makes studying this disease very in...

  2. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  3. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  4. 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies KidsHealth > For Teens > 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies Print A A A Text Size en ... presence of other people who knew your loved one can be comforting. Let your emotions be expressed ...

  5. Thoughts about Death and Dying in an African Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijana, E. W. M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined attitudes toward death and dying among 163 Xhosa-speaking children and adults in South Africa. Found age, gender, belief in life after death, educational level, and exposure to death and dying were critical factors in formation of attitudes. Findings were similar to those from previous studies in African and western societies. (Author/NB)

  6. Living and Dying: A Window on (Christian) Children's Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champagne, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    Faith and beliefs about living and dying are fundamental constituents of spiritual development. However, children are seldom asked to talk about their experiences of life and death. This article has a twofold purpose. It first describes children's expressions on living and dying, as heard during a newly developed programme which encourages…

  7. Die Materials for Critical Applications and Increased Production Rates

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John Wallace; Sebastian Birceanu

    2002-11-30

    Die materials for aluminum die-casting need to be resistant to heat checking, and have good resistance to washout and to soldering in a fast flow of molten aluminum. To resist heat checking, die materials should have a low coefficient of thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity, high hot yield strength, good temper softening resistance, high creep strength, and adequate ductility. To resist the washout and soldering, die materials should have high hot hardness, good temper resistance, low solubility in molten aluminum and good oxidation resistance. It is difficult for one material to satisfy with all above requirements. In practice, H13 steel is the most popular material for aluminum die casting dies. While it is not an ideal choice, it is substantially less expensive to use than alternative materials. However, in very demanding applications, it is sometimes necessary to use alternative materials to ensure a reasonable die life. Copper-base, nickel-base alloys and superalloys, titanium-,molybdenum-, tungsten-base alloys, and to some extent yttrium and niobium alloys, have all been considered as potential materials for demanding die casting applications. Most of these alloys exhibit superior thermal fatigue resistance, but suffer from other shortcomings.

  8. The design of a die with a vacuum thermal insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baginski, A. G.; Utyev, O. M.; Kondratyeva, Y. M.

    2016-04-01

    A new design of a die for the polymer underwater granulation plants has been developed. It differs from similar plants in the design of heat-insulating elements. Vacuum hollows are used as a heat insulator. A vacuumization process does not require a separate operation, and it is conducted simultaneously with connection of all the elements of the die by a brazing method.

  9. Strong dependence of surface plasmon resonance and surface enhanced Raman scattering on the composition of Au-Fe nanoalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendola, Vincenzo; Scaramuzza, Stefano; Agnoli, Stefano; Polizzi, Stefano; Meneghetti, Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Nanoalloys of noble metals with transition metals are crucial components for the integration of plasmonics with magnetic and catalytic properties, as well as for the production of low-cost photonic devices. However, due to synthetic challenges in the realization of nanoscale solid solutions of noble metals and transition metals, very little is known about the composition dependence of plasmonic response in nanoalloys. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the elemental composition of Au-Fe nanoalloys obtained by laser ablation in liquid solution can be tuned by varying the liquid environment. Due to surface passivation and reaction with thiolated ligands, the nanoalloys obtained by our synthetic protocol are structurally and colloidally stable. Hence, we studied the dependence of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on the iron fraction and, for the first time, we observed surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in Au-Fe nanoalloys. SPR and SERS performances are strongly affected by the iron content and are investigated using analytical and numerical models. By demonstrating the strong modification of plasmonic properties on the composition, our results provide important insights into the exploitation of Au-Fe nanoalloys in photonics, nanomedicine, magneto-plasmonic and plasmon-enhanced catalysis. Moreover, our findings show that several other plasmonic materials exist beyond gold and silver nanostructures.Nanoalloys of noble metals with transition metals are crucial components for the integration of plasmonics with magnetic and catalytic properties, as well as for the production of low-cost photonic devices. However, due to synthetic challenges in the realization of nanoscale solid solutions of noble metals and transition metals, very little is known about the composition dependence of plasmonic response in nanoalloys. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the elemental composition of Au-Fe nanoalloys obtained by laser ablation in liquid solution can

  10. Die Casting Part Distortion: Prediction and Attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Dr, R. Allen Miller

    2002-02-12

    The goal of this research was to predict the part deformation and residual stresses after ejection from the die and cooling to room temperature. A finite element model was built to achieve this goal and several modeling techniques were investigated throughout this research. Die-casting is a very complex process and the researchers are faced with a large number of hard to solve physical problems when modeling the process. Several assumptions are made in our simulation model. The first significant assumption is the instantaneous cavity filling. This means that the cavity filling stage is not considered in our model. Considering the cavity filling stage increases the modeling complexity as a result of different flow patterns. expected in the shot sleeve, gate, runner and different cavity features. The flow of gas from the cavity through the vents is another problem that is ignored in our model as a result of this assumption. Our second assumption is that the cast metal has uniform temperature distribution inside the cavity, at the starting point of simulation. This temperature is assumed to be over liquidus limit, i.e. the solid fraction is 0.0% of the cast metal. The third assumption is due to ABAQUS (commercial software used in this research) limitations. ABAQUS cannot deal with multi-phase models; therefore we use solid elements to define the casting instead of multi-phase (liquid/solid) elements. Liquid elements can carry the hydrostatic pressure from the shot sleeve and apply it on the cavity surfaces, while the solid elements do not have this capability. To compensate for this assumption we add the cavity pressure as a boundary condition and apply it on the cavity surface separately from the part. Another issue with this assumption is that, liquid casting can follow the cavity shape when it distorts. With the use of solid elements to represent the casting during its liquid state, it loses this capability to follow the cavity. Several techniques were tested to

  11. Optimization of Composition and Heat Treating of Die Steels for Extended Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Quanyou Zhou

    2002-01-30

    An ''average'' die casting die costs fifty thousand dollars. A die used in making die cast aluminum engine blocks can cost well over one million dollars. These costs provide a strong incentive for extension of die life. While vacuum quenched Premium Grade H13 dies have become the most widely used in the United States, tool makers and die casters are constantly searching for new steels and heat treating procedures to extend die life. This project was undertaken to investigate the effects of composition and heat treating on die life and optimize these parameters.

  12. Compassion in Dying v. State of Washington.

    PubMed

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, sitting en banc, affirmed a district court judgment that ruled unconstitutional a Washington statute banning assisted suicide, as applied to competent, terminally ill adults who wish to obtain prescription medication to hasten their deaths. The statute, which was challenged by a group of patients, physicians, and the nonprofit organization Compassion in Dying, was held to be unconstitutional because it violated the due process clause of the U.S. Constitution. The court took into consideration the interests of the state in protecting life, preventing suicides, preventing undue, arbitrary, or unfair influences on an individual's decision to end his life, and ensuring the integrity of the medical profession. These interests were balanced against an individual's strong liberty interest in determining how and when one's life should end. The court recognized this interest after assessing the growing public support for assisted suicide, changes in the causes of death and medical advances, and Supreme Court cases addressing due process liberty interests. The court then determined that the state's interest, which could be protected by adopting sufficient safeguards, did not outweigh the severe burden placed on the terminally ill, and thus the statute as applied was unconstitutional. PMID:11648417

  13. NICMOS PEERS INTO HEART OF DYING STAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Egg Nebula, also known as CRL 2688, is shown on the left as it appears in visible light with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and on the right as it appears in infrared light with Hubble's Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Since infrared light is invisible to humans, the NICMOS image has been assigned colors to distinguish different wavelengths: blue corresponds to starlight reflected by dust particles, and red corresponds to heat radiation emitted by hot molecular hydrogen. Objects like the Egg Nebula are helping astronomers understand how stars like our Sun expel carbon and nitrogen -- elements crucial for life -- into space. Studies on the Egg Nebula show that these dying stars eject matter at high speeds along a preferred axis and may even have multiple jet-like outflows. The signature of the collision between this fast-moving material and the slower outflowing shells is the glow of hydrogen molecules captured in the NICMOS image. The distance between the tip of each jet is approximately 200 times the diameter of our solar system (out to Pluto's orbit). Credits: Rodger Thompson, Marcia Rieke, Glenn Schneider, Dean Hines (University of Arizona); Raghvendra Sahai (Jet Propulsion Laboratory); NICMOS Instrument Definition Team; and NASA Image files in GIF and JPEG format and captions may be accessed on the Internet via anonymous ftp from ftp.stsci.edu in /pubinfo.

  14. Compaction die for forming a solid annulus on a right circular cylinder. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Harlow, J.L.

    1981-09-14

    A compacting die is disclosed wherein the improvement comprises providing a screen in the die cavity, the screen being positioned parallel to the side walls of said die and dividing the die cavity into center and annular compartments. In addition, the use of this die in a method for producing an annular clad ceramic fuel material is disclosed.

  15. Determination of the metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient of high pressure die cast B390 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yongyou; Guo, Zhipeng; Xiong, Shoumei

    2012-07-01

    High-pressure die cast B390 alloy was prepared on a 350 ton cold chamber die casting machine. The metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient of the alloy was investigated. Considering the filling process, a "finger"-shaped casting was designed for the experiments. This casting consisted of five plates with different thicknesses (0.05 inch or 1.27 mm to 0.25 inch or 6.35 mm) as well as individual ingates and overflows. Experiments under various operation conditions were conducted, and temperatures were measured at various specific locations inside the die. Based on the results, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient and heat flux were determined by solving the inverse heat transfer problem. The influence of the mold-filling sequence, sensor locations, as well as processing parameters including the casting pressure, die temperature, and fast/slow shot speeds on the heat transfer coefficient were discussed.

  16. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  17. 41 CFR 303-70.3 - Must we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Must we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a nonworkday while on TDY or... we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a...

  18. 41 CFR 303-70.3 - Must we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Must we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a nonworkday while on TDY or stationed... we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a...

  19. 41 CFR 303-70.3 - Must we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a non-workday, while on temporary... MEMBERS General Policies § 303-70.3 Must we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a non-workday, while on temporary duty (TDY) or stationed OCONUS? Yes,...

  20. 41 CFR 303-70.3 - Must we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a nonworkday while on TDY or... we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a...

  1. 41 CFR 303-70.3 - Must we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Must we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a nonworkday while on TDY or... we pay death-related expenses for an employee who dies while on leave, or who dies on a...

  2. Simulating the deformation of dies in the foundry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabod, A.; Longa, Y.; Dracon, J. M.; Chailler, K.; Hairy, P.; Da Silva, A.

    2012-07-01

    Digital simulation (QuikCAST, ProCAST) is already used extensively when designing metallic dies for founding, in particular to design filling and gating systems. Simulation of the steady-state temperature cycles of dies has also been mastered. With large castings, the temperature gradient induced between the moulding surface and the rear surfaces of the die leads to deformations that may be large enough to measure, and incompatible with the required dimensional accuracy. The temperature gradient also creates thermal fatigue stresses that cause crazing of the die surface. In the study conducted by CTIF, aimed at measuring tooling deformations, various ways of measuring displacements at high temperatures (with and without contact) were investigated in order to evaluate their capabilities and limitations. An experimental device was designed - a test bench combining a metallic die having a simple geometry, in which an aluminium part could be cast, and instrumentation (temperature and displacement sensors). The deformations of the die were measured during first cycles of temperature homogenization. Concurrently, thermomechanical calculations were carried out on the same geometry using PROCAST. The calculation results are well correlated with the experimental measurements and validate the tools and the calculation methods. This thermomechanical approach makes it possible to optimize die design in the foundry and to predict high-temperature deformations as early as the design stage. Knowledge of these deformations makes it possible in turn to anticipate the geometrical and dimensional variations undergone by the castings themselves and so to improve their accuracy. The designer can act on the temperature of the die or the design of the casting, or create a die in which the expected thermal deformation is reversed so as to produce a casting having the correct dimensions. In short, thermomechanical simulation can be applied to this problem to achieve a better understanding

  3. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander

    2000-06-30

    % in AM50 to over 9% in AZ91, more of the intermetallic Mg17Al12 is formed in the microstructure. For instance, for 15 increase in the aluminum content from AM50 to AM60, the volume fraction of eutectic present in the microstructure increases by 35%! Eventually, the brittle Mg17Al12 compound forms an interconnected network that reduces ductility and impact resistance. The lower aluminum in AM50 and AM60 are therefore a desirable feature in applications that call for higher impact resistance. Further improvement in impact resistance depends on the processing condition of the casting. Sound castings without porosity and impurities will have better mechanical properties. Since magnesium oxidizes readily, good melting and metal transfer practices are essential. The liquid metal has to be protected from oxidation at all times and entrainment of oxide films in the casting needs to be prevented. In this regard, there is evidence that us of vacuum to evacuate air from the die casting cavity can improve the quality of the castings. Fast cooling rates, leading to smaller grain size are beneficial and promote superior mechanical properties. Micro-segregation and banding are two additional defect types often encountered in magnesium alloys, in particular in AZ91D. While difficult to eliminate, segregation can be minimized by careful thermal management of the dies and the shot sleeve. A major source of segregation is the premature solidification in the shot sleeve. The primary solid dendrites are carried into the casting and form a heterogeneous structure. Furthermore, during the shot, segregation banding can occur. The remedies for this kind of defects include a hotter shot sleeve, use of insulating coatings on the shot sleeve and a short lag time between pouring into the shot sleeve and the shot.

  4. Targeted mRNA Decay by RNA Binding Protein AUF1 Regulates Adult Muscle Stem Cell Fate, Promoting Skeletal Muscle Integrity.

    PubMed

    Chenette, Devon M; Cadwallader, Adam B; Antwine, Tiffany L; Larkin, Lauren C; Wang, Jinhua; Olwin, Bradley B; Schneider, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Following skeletal muscle injury, muscle stem cells (satellite cells) are activated, proliferate, and differentiate to form myofibers. We show that mRNA-decay protein AUF1 regulates satellite cell function through targeted degradation of specific mRNAs containing 3' AU-rich elements (AREs). auf1(-/-) mice undergo accelerated skeletal muscle wasting with age and impaired skeletal muscle repair following injury. Satellite cell mRNA analysis and regeneration studies demonstrate that auf1(-/-) satellite cell self-renewal is impaired due to increased stability and overexpression of ARE-mRNAs, including cell-autonomous overexpression of matrix metalloprotease MMP9. Secreted MMP9 degrades the skeletal muscle matrix, preventing satellite-cell-mediated regeneration and return to quiescence. Blocking MMP9 activity in auf1(-/-) mice restores skeletal muscle repair and maintenance of the satellite cell population. Control of ARE-mRNA decay by AUF1 represents a mechanism for adult stem cell regulation and is implicated in human skeletal muscle wasting diseases. PMID:27452471

  5. Cometary Knots Around A Dying Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These gigantic, tadpole-shaped objects are probably the result of a dying star's last gasps. Dubbed 'cometary knots' because their glowing heads and gossamer tails resemble comets, the gaseous objects probably were formed during a star's final stages of life. Hubble astronomer C. Robert O'Dell and graduate student Kerry P. Handron of Rice University in Houston, Texas discovered thousands of these knots with the Hubble Space Telescope while exploring the Helix nebula, the closest planetary nebula to Earth at 450 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius. Although ground-based telescopes have revealed such objects, astronomers have never seen so many of them. The most visible knots all lie along the inner edge of the doomed star's ring, trillions of miles away from the star's nucleus. Although these gaseous knots appear small, they're actually huge. Each gaseous head is at least twice the size of our solar system; each tail stretches for 100 billion miles, about 1,000 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun. Astronomers theorize that the doomed star spews hot, lower-density gas from its surface, which collides with cooler, higher-density gas that had been ejected 10,000 years before. The crash fragments the smooth cloud surrounding the star into smaller, denser finger-like droplets, like dripping paint. This image was taken in August, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The red light depicts nitrogen emission ([NII] 6584A); green, hydrogen (H-alpha, 6563A); and blue, oxygen (5007A).

  6. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  7. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  8. Understandings of death and dying for people of Chinese origin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chiung-yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-02-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period, Chinese people have integrated these philosophies and religions to form the basis of their culture and traditions. Although they agree that death is a natural part of the life span, a unique belief about death and dying has emerged among the Chinese from this integration. From this, the people find a significant definition of death and dying. PMID:19143109

  9. Erythrocyte nuclei resemble dying neurons in embryonic dorsal root ganglia.

    PubMed

    Coggeshall, R E; Pover, C M; Kwiat, G C; Fitzgerald, M

    1993-07-01

    Cell death or apoptosis is regarded as an important feature of mammalian neural development, but the evidence for this generalization depends on the assumption that cell death can be clearly recognized. The usual profile of a dying neuron is a deeply stained pyknotic homogeneous sphere. In this paper we present evidence that such profiles in embryonic rat T6 and L4 dorsal root ganglia are not dying neurons but rather nuclei of immature red blood cells. This observation, combined with recent work showing that the methods previously used for counting normal or dying neurons are biased, indicates that the classic work establishing the importance of apoptosis needs to be repeated. PMID:8233029

  10. Die Amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren nach § 64 LFGB, § 35 Vorläufiges Tabakgesetz und § 28b Gentechnikgesetz - ein Instrument der amtlichen Lebensmittelüberwachung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renger, Silke; Stachel, Carolin

    Immer wieder werden Skandale in Zusammenhang mit Lebensmitteln bekannt. Schlagworte wie BSE, Gammelfleisch, Acrylamid, Cumarin oder auch Melamin, Dioxin sind den Verbrauchern geläufig und erschüttern das Vertrauen in ein gesundes und ernährungsphysiologisch wertvolles Lebensmittel. Das Bewusstsein des Verbrauchers hinsichtlich der Ernährung und der Auswahl beim Kauf der Lebensmittel hat sich in den vergangenen Jahren deutlich verändert. Bei der Auswahl seiner Lebensmittel liegt sein Augenmerk verstärkt auf gesunden, qualitativ hochwertigen und vor allem sicheren Lebensmitteln. Dies wurde insbesondere bei dem verhaltenen Kauf von Fleisch und Fleischerzeugnissen während der BSE-Krise oder auch dem kürzlich aufgetretenen Gammelfleischskandal deutlich.

  11. 8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR BEADED WALL BOARDING SHOWING TRIAL MARKS FROM DIES MADE IN CARPENTER'S SHOP Ph: Jack E, Boucher - March 1961 - Joseph Carpenter Silversmith Shop, 71 East Town Street, Norwichtown, New London County, CT

  12. Chemical strategies for die/wafer submicron alignment and bonding.

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, James Ellis; Baca, Alicia I.; Chu, Dahwey; Rohwer, Lauren Elizabeth Shea

    2010-09-01

    This late-start LDRD explores chemical strategies that will enable sub-micron alignment accuracy of dies and wafers by exploiting the interfacial energies of chemical ligands. We have micropatterned commensurate features, such as 2-d arrays of micron-sized gold lines on the die to be bonded. Each gold line is functionalized with alkanethiol ligands before the die are brought into contact. The ligand interfacial energy is minimized when the lines on the die are brought into registration, due to favorable interactions between the complementary ligand tails. After registration is achieved, standard bonding techniques are used to create precision permanent bonds. We have computed the alignment forces and torque between two surfaces patterned with arrays of lines or square pads to illustrate how best to maximize the tendency to align. We also discuss complex, aperiodic patterns such as rectilinear pad assemblies, concentric circles, and spirals that point the way towards extremely precise alignment.

  13. FRONT ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, WITH HEADSTONES IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  14. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in ...

  15. REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG EAST OBELISK ROAD. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  16. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  17. Characterization of Spray Lubricants for the Die Casting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sabau, Adrian S

    2008-01-01

    During the die casting process, lubricants are sprayed in order to cool the dies and facilitate the ejection of the casting. The cooling effects of the die lubricant were investigated using Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), heat flux sensors (HFS), and infrared imaging. The evolution of the heat flux and pictures taken using a high speed infrared camera revealed that lubricant application was a transient process. The short time response of the HFS allows the monitoring and data acquisition of the surface temperature and heat flux without additional data processing. A similar set of experiments was performed with deionized water in order to assess the lubricant effect. The high heat flux obtained at 300 C was attributed to the wetting and absorbant properties of the lubricant. Pictures of the spray cone and lubricant flow on the die were also used to explain the heat flux evolution.

  18. Child Dies in Hot Car Almost Once a Week

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160479.html Child Dies in Hot Car Almost Once a Week Safe Kids Worldwide ... being left in a car that got too hot, according to Safe Kids Worldwide. Sometimes parents forget ...

  19. Einführung in die Renaturierungsökologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbe, Stefan; Wiegleb, Gerhard; Rosenthal, Gert

    Durch die übernutzung der Naturressourcen sind heute weltweit viele natürliche wie auch durch Kultur entstandene ökosysteme und Landschaften in ihren Funktionen und Leistungen stark beeinträchtigt oder sogar völlig zerstört. Bereits vor mehr als einem Jahrzehnt konstatierte (1995), dass ca. 45 % der terrestrischen Landoberfläche nur eine reduzierte Kapazität für die zukünftige Landnutzung haben. Als Grund hob er eine in der Vergangenheit nicht nachhaltige Landbewirtschaftung hervor. Mit einer gezielten Renaturierung der betroffenen ökosysteme soll dieser Trend umgekehrt werden (Harris und van Diggelen 2006). Vor diesem Hintergrund ist die ökosystemrenaturierung (ecological restoration) wichtiger Bestandteil der Planungs- und Naturschutzpraxis in Mitteleuropa und die Renaturierungsökologie (restoration ecology) zu einer eigenen wissenschaftlichen Arbeitsrichtung geworden.

  20. Coping with Grief: When a Loved One Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... remarkably well after their loved one died. “Their level of depression, which was very high during the caregiving phase before the death, returned to almost normal levels within 6 months after the death,” Schulz says. ...

  1. MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in...

  2. Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD

    PubMed Central

    Giacomini, M; DeJean, D; Simeonov, D; Smith, A

    2012-01-01

    Executive Summary In July 2010, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) evidentiary framework, an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding treatment strategies for patients with COPD. This project emerged from a request by the Health System Strategy Division of the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care that MAS provide them with an evidentiary platform on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of COPD interventions. After an initial review of health technology assessments and systematic reviews of COPD literature, and consultation with experts, MAS identified the following topics for analysis: vaccinations (influenza and pneumococcal), smoking cessation, multidisciplinary care, pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, noninvasive positive pressure ventilation for acute and chronic respiratory failure, hospital-at-home for acute exacerbations of COPD, and telehealth (including telemonitoring and telephone support). Evidence-based analyses were prepared for each of these topics. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed where appropriate. In addition, a review of the qualitative literature on patient, caregiver, and provider perspectives on living and dying with COPD was conducted, as were reviews of the qualitative literature on each of the technologies included in these analyses. The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mega-Analysis series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: http://www.hqontario.ca/en/mas/mas_ohtas_mn.html. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Evidentiary Framework Influenza and Pneumococcal Vaccinations for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Smoking Cessation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Community-Based Multidisciplinary Care for Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive

  3. Split Course Hyperfractionated Accelerated Radio-Chemotherapy (SCHARC) for patients with advanced head and neck cancer: Influence of protocol deviations and hemoglobin on overall survival, a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, Peter; Putnik, Kurt; Kreimeyer, Thore; Sprague, Lisa D; Koelbl, Oliver; Schäfer, Christof

    2006-01-01

    Background The advantage of hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy for advanced head and neck cancer has been reported. Furthermore, randomized trials and meta-analyses have confirmed the survival benefit of additional chemotherapy to radiotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the efficiency and toxicity of the Regensburg standard therapy protocol "SCHARC" and the overall survival of our patients. Methods From 1997 to 2004, 64 patients suffering from advanced head and neck cancer (88 % stage IV, 12 % stage III) were assigned to receive the SCHARC protocol. Around half of the patients were diagnosed with oro-hypopharynx carcinoma (52 %), one third with tongue and floor of mouth tumors (29 %) and one fifth (19 %) suffered from H & N cancer at other sites. The schedule consisted of one therapy block with 30 Gy in 20 fractions over a two week period with concomitant chemotherapy (d 1–5: 20 mg/m2/d DDP + 750–1000 mg/m2/d 5FU (cont. infusion). This therapy block was repeated after a fortnight break up to a cumulative dose of 60 Gy and followed by a boost up to 70 Gy (69–70.5 Gy). All patients assigned to this scheme were included in the survival evaluation. Results Forty patients (63 %) received both radiation and chemotherapy according to the protocol. The mean follow up was 2.3 years (829 d) and the median follow up was 1.9 years (678 d), respectively. The analysis of survival revealed an estimated 3 year overall survival rate of 57 %. No patient died of complications, 52 patients (80 %) had acute grade 2–3 mucositis, and 33 patients (58 %) suffered from acute grade 3 skin toxicity. Leucopenia was no major problem (mean nadir 3.4 g/nl, no patient < 1.0 g/nl) and the mean hemoglobin value decreased from 13.2 to 10.5 g/dl. Univariate analysis of survival showed a better outcome for patients with a hemoglobin nadir >10.5 g/dl and for patients who completed the protocol. Conclusion The SCHARC protocol was effective in patients diagnosed with advanced head

  4. Microstructures and properties of aluminum die casting alloys

    SciTech Connect

    M. M. Makhlouf; D. Apelian; L. Wang

    1998-10-01

    This document provides descriptions of the microstructure of different aluminum die casting alloys and to relate the various microstructures to the alloy chemistry. It relates the microstructures of the alloys to their main engineering properties such as ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, fatigue life, impact resistance, wear resistance, hardness, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Finally, it serves as a reference source for aluminum die casting alloys.

  5. Aid-in-dying: issues and implications for nursing.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R A; Weiler, K

    1990-01-01

    A debate format describes questions arising from the Model Aid-in-Dying Act, drafted at the University of Iowa's College of Law, and the implications for nurses. The Act allows patients or their named surrogates to demand or request active aid-in-dying. The Act requires nurses and other health care providers to comply with the qualified patient's demand unless the health care provider is a registered conscientious objector. PMID:2229721

  6. Mechanism of regulation of bcl-2 mRNA by nucleolin and A+U-rich element-binding factor 1 (AUF1).

    PubMed

    Ishimaru, Daniella; Zuraw, Lisa; Ramalingam, Sivakumar; Sengupta, Tapas K; Bandyopadhyay, Sumita; Reuben, Adrian; Fernandes, Daniel J; Spicer, Eleanor K

    2010-08-27

    The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein is overexpressed in a variety of cancers, particularly leukemias. In some cell types this is the result of enhanced stability of bcl-2 mRNA, which is controlled by elements in its 3'-untranslated region. Nucleolin is one of the proteins that binds to bcl-2 mRNA, thereby increasing its half-life. Here, we examined the site on the bcl-2 3'-untranslated region that is bound by nucleolin as well as the protein binding domains important for bcl-2 mRNA recognition. RNase footprinting and RNA fragment binding assays demonstrated that nucleolin binds to a 40-nucleotide region at the 5' end of the 136-nucleotide bcl-2 AU-rich element (ARE(bcl-2)). The first two RNA binding domains of nucleolin were sufficient for high affinity binding to ARE(bcl-2). In RNA decay assays, ARE(bcl-2) transcripts were protected from exosomal decay by the addition of nucleolin. AUF1 has been shown to recruit the exosome to mRNAs. When MV-4-11 cell extracts were immunodepleted of AUF1, the rate of decay of ARE(bcl-2) transcripts was reduced, indicating that nucleolin and AUF1 have opposing roles in bcl-2 mRNA turnover. When the function of nucleolin in MV-4-11 cells was impaired by treatment with the nucleolin-targeting aptamer AS1411, association of AUF1 with bcl-2 mRNA was increased. This suggests that the degradation of bcl-2 mRNA induced by AS1411 results from both interference with nucleolin protection of bcl-2 mRNA and recruitment of the exosome by AUF1. Based on our findings, we propose a model that illustrates the opposing roles of nucleolin and AUF1 in regulating bcl-2 mRNA stability. PMID:20571027

  7. Oxidative degradation of industrial wastewater using spray deposited TiO2/Au:Fe2O3 bilayered thin films.

    PubMed

    Mahadik, M A; Shinde, S S; Pathan, H M; Rajpure, K Y; Bhosale, C H

    2014-12-01

    The Fe2O3, Au:Fe2O3, TiO2/Fe2O3 and TiO2/Au:Fe2O3 thin films are successfully prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique at an optimised substrate temperature of 400 °C and 470 °C, respectively onto amorphous and F:SnO2 coated glass substrates. The effect of TiO2 layer onto photoelectrochemical (PEC), structural, optical and morphological properties of Fe2O3, Au:Fe2O3, TiO2/Fe2O3 and TiO2/Au:Fe2O3 thin films is studied. The PEC characterization shows that, maximum values of short circuit current (Isc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) are (Isc = 185 μA and Voc = 450 mV) are at 38 nm thickness of TiO2. Deposited films are polycrystalline with a rhombohedral and anatase crystal structure having (104) preferred orientation. SEM and AFM images show deposited thin films are compact and uniform with seed like grains. The photocatalytic activities of the large surface area (64 cm(2)) TiO2/Au:Fe2O3 thin film photocatalysts were evaluated by photoelectrocatalytic degradation of industrial wastewater under sunlight light irradiation. The results show that the TiO2/Au:Fe2O3 thin film photocatalyst exhibited about 87% and 94% degradation of pollutant in sugarcane and textile industrial wastewater, respectively. The significant reduction in COD and BOD values from 95 mg/L to 13 mg/L and 75 mg/L to 11 mg/L, respectively was also observed. PMID:25463684

  8. SiC Die Attach for High-Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevin-Bazin, A.; Lacroix, F.; Barbot, J.-F.

    2013-11-01

    Eutectic solders AuIn19 and AuGe12 and nanosilver paste were investigated for SiC die attach in high-temperature (300°C) applications. The soldering or sintering conditions were optimized through die shear tests performed at room temperature. In particular, application of static pressure (3.5 MPa) during sintering resulted in greatly improved mechanical behavior of the nanosilver-based joint. Microstructural study of the eutectic solders showed formation of Au-rich grains in AuGe die attach and significant diffusion of Au and In through the Ni layer in AuIn19 die attach, which could lead to formation of intermetallic compounds. Die shear tests versus temperature showed that the behaviors of the studied die attaches are different; nevertheless they present suitable shear strengths required for high-temperature applications. The mechanical behavior of joints under various levels of thermal and mechanical stress was also studied. Creep experiments were carried out on the eutectic solders to describe the thermomechanical behavior of the complete module; only one creep mechanism was observed in the working range.

  9. Optimum pinch grips in the handling of dies.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, C; Freivalds, A

    2000-08-01

    Handling roller-press dies has caused numerous work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the leather industry. The dies are quite large (0.61 x 0.30 m), heavy (3.5 kg) and are difficult to handle because of the large pinch span requirements (up to 16 cm). The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum pinch span and optimum crossbar angulation to minimize die handling forces. Five-finger pulp-pinch forces were measured on five males and five females with a force-sensitive-resistor instrumented glove while handling a simulated adjustable die. Maximum pinch forces occurred at pinch spans between 1.27 and 3.81 cm, with average female strengths being 57% of average male pinch strengths. Minimum pinch forces to hold the die occurred at a 45 degrees angulation and increased linearly as the angle approached 90 degrees or the normal vertical orientation. The simplest solution to redesigning the dies is to: (1) decrease the distance between the braces to less than 4 cm and (2) slant the braces at 45 degrees. PMID:10975667

  10. Die Face Engineering based Springback Compensation Strategy and Implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Arthur; Lee Wing; He, Jeanne; Xu Jinbo; Liu Kesu; Chen Chinchun

    2005-08-05

    Springback or shape change has been one of the major challenges in sheet metal fabrication, particularly with increase application of high strength steel (HSS) and aluminum alloys in automotive stamping. Springback, an elastic material recovery after the unloading of stamping tools, causes variations and inconsistencies of final part dimensions. Minor or mild springback usually can be corrected in the re-strike process. Excessive springback must be corrected so the part will be produced within the given design tolerance and dimension. The commonly used Spring Forward approaches and shape compensations such as over-crown and over-bending are proven effective to alleviate excessive springback. To enhance these approaches, a new strategy of Die Face Engineering (DFE) based processing is proposed to quickly and easily to achieve the maximum allowable compensation using the under cut (or die lock) as the primary criteria. The implementation of the die face compensation through iterative FEA calculation, automatic surface mapping, projection and manual morphing are crucial to meet production environment requirements in terms of generating NC quality CAD surfaces of the compensated or morphed die face. In this paper, the strategy of the die face compensation with the consideration of the under cut criteria is presented. The implementation of various processes to enable user to perform the die face compensation task in a production environment is also discussed. Finally, two examples are shown to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed springback compensation scheme based on the combined CAE/CAD methodology.

  11. Implementation of reflected light die-to-die inspection and ReviewSmart to improve 65nm DRAM mask fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Young; Cho, Won Il; Park, Jin Hyung; Chung, Dong Hoon; Cha, Byung Chul; Choi, Seong Woon; Han, Woo Sung; Park, Ki Hun; Kim, Nam Wook; Hess, Carl; Ma, Weimin; Kim, David

    2005-11-01

    As the design rule continues to shrink towards 65nm size and beyond the defect criteria are becoming ever more challenging. Pattern fidelity and reticle defects that were once considered as insignificant or nuisance are now becoming significant yield impacting defects. The intent of this study is to utilize the new generation DUV system to compare Die-to-Die Reflected Light inspection and Die-to-Die Transmitted Light Inspection to increase defect detection for optimization of the 65nm node process. In addition, the ReviewSmart will be implemented to help categorically identify systematic tool and process variations and thus allowing user to expedite the learning process to develop a production worthy 65nm node mask process. The learning will be applied to Samsung's pattern inspection strategy, complementing Transmitted Light Inspection, on critical layers of 65 nm node to gain ability to find defects that adversely affect process window.

  12. The long noncoding RNA ASNR regulates degradation of Bcl-2 mRNA through its interaction with AUF1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiahui; Liu, Lihui; Wei, Guifeng; Wu, Wei; Luo, Huaxia; Yuan, Jiao; Luo, Jianjun; Chen, Runsheng

    2016-01-01

    The identification and characterization of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in diverse biological processes has recently developed rapidly. The large amounts of non-coding RNAs scale consistent with developmental complexity in eukaryotes, indicating that most of these transcripts may have functions in the regulation of biological processes and disorder in the organisms. In particular, Understanding of the overall biological significance of lncRNAs in cancers still remains limited. Here, we found a nuclear-retained lncRNA, termed Lnc_ASNR (apoptosis suppressing-noncoding RNA), which serves as a repressor of apoptosis. Lnc_ASNR was discovered in a set of microarray data derived from four kinds of tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples, and displayed significant up-regulation in the tumor tissues. Using an RNA-pull down assay, we found that Lnc_ASNR interacted with the protein ARE/poly (U)-binding/degradation factor 1(AUF1), which is reported to promote rapid degradation of the Bcl-2 mRNA, an inhibitor of apoptosis. Lnc_ASNR binds to AUFI in nucleus, decreasing the cytoplasmic proportion of AUF1 which targets the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) mRNA. Taken together, the overall effect of Lnc_ASNR expression is thus a decrease in cell apoptosis indicating that Lnc_ASNR may play a vital role in tumorigenesis and carcinogenesis. PMID:27578251

  13. The long noncoding RNA ASNR regulates degradation of Bcl-2 mRNA through its interaction with AUF1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiahui; Liu, Lihui; Wei, Guifeng; Wu, Wei; Luo, Huaxia; Yuan, Jiao; Luo, Jianjun; Chen, Runsheng

    2016-01-01

    The identification and characterization of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in diverse biological processes has recently developed rapidly. The large amounts of non-coding RNAs scale consistent with developmental complexity in eukaryotes, indicating that most of these transcripts may have functions in the regulation of biological processes and disorder in the organisms. In particular, Understanding of the overall biological significance of lncRNAs in cancers still remains limited. Here, we found a nuclear-retained lncRNA, termed Lnc_ASNR (apoptosis suppressing-noncoding RNA), which serves as a repressor of apoptosis. Lnc_ASNR was discovered in a set of microarray data derived from four kinds of tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples, and displayed significant up-regulation in the tumor tissues. Using an RNA-pull down assay, we found that Lnc_ASNR interacted with the protein ARE/poly (U)-binding/degradation factor 1(AUF1), which is reported to promote rapid degradation of the Bcl-2 mRNA, an inhibitor of apoptosis. Lnc_ASNR binds to AUFI in nucleus, decreasing the cytoplasmic proportion of AUF1 which targets the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) mRNA. Taken together, the overall effect of Lnc_ASNR expression is thus a decrease in cell apoptosis indicating that Lnc_ASNR may play a vital role in tumorigenesis and carcinogenesis. PMID:27578251

  14. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  15. Exciting Message from a Dying Monster Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-03-01

    this is radiation from a SiO maser in the atmosphere of the star. If it would not have been a maser, it would have been far too weak to have been detected. Although we know several hundred masers of this type in the Milky Way, this is the first discovery of a SiO maser in another galaxy than our own . Since then, the observations have been continued in collaboration with Australian astronomers, using radio telescopes at Parkes and Mopra on that continent. A most unusual star When Swedish astronomer Bengt Westerlund and his colleagues first observed this LMC maser star in 1981 with optical telescopes, they thought that it was a rather normal, cool and not particularly bright star. However, a few years later, the Dutch-British-USA InfraRed Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) revealed its true nature. The IRAS measurements showed that the star radiates most of its light in the form of infrared radiation [4], making it one of the most powerful stars in the LMC; in fact, it emits about half a million times more energy than the Sun. On this occasion, it was given the designation IRAS 04553-6825 , the number indicating its position in the sky. IRAS 04553-6825 is unusual in other ways. It is some fifty times as heavy as our Sun, and it is the biggest known star in the LMC: if it were to take the place of our Sun, it would fill the solar system out to the planet Neptune, thirty times the distance from the Earth to the Sun. It is rather cool when compared to other stars - although it still has a temperature of about 2,000 C - and it therefore has a very red colour [5]. This Press Release is accompanied by ESO Press Photo 15/96 which demonstrates that while the star is hardly visible in blue light, it shines brightly in red and infrared light. Stars like IRAS 04553-6825 are known as red supergiants. It has been unofficially dubbed `The Monster', and having reached the end of a short and hectic life, it is now dying. The nuclear reactions deep inside are undergoing important changes at

  16. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the...

  17. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the...

  18. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of... transporting in commerce, or importing any dead, dying, disabled or diseased animals or parts of the...

  19. Moribund ants leave their nests to die in social isolation.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Jürgen; Walter, Bartosz

    2010-02-01

    Animal societies provide perfect conditions for the spread of infections and are therefore expected to employ mechanisms that reduce the probability of transmitting pathogens to group members [1-4]. Death in nature rarely results from old age but commonly results from diseases. Leaving one's group to die in seclusion might be an efficient way of minimizing the risk of infecting kin. Anecdotal observations of moribund individuals deserting from their groups exist for several species, including humans (e.g., [5]), but have rarely been substantiated by quantitative analysis. Furthermore, to confirm that dying in solitude has evolved because of its altruistic benefits requires refuting the alternative explanation of pathogen manipulation of host behavior. Here we show that workers of the ant Temnothorax unifasciatus dying from fungal infection, uninfected workers whose life expectancy was reduced by exposure to 95% CO(2)[6, 7], and workers dying spontaneously in observation colonies exhibited the same suite of behavior of isolating themselves from their nestmates days or hours before death. Actively leaving the nest and breaking off all social interactions thus occurred regardless of whether individuals were infected or not. Social withdrawal might be a commonly overlooked altruistic trait serving the inclusive fitness interests of dying individuals in social animals. PMID:20116243

  20. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die. PMID:22513246

  1. Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70) Peptide Activated Natural Killer (NK) Cells for the Treatment of Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) after Radiochemotherapy (RCTx) – From Preclinical Studies to a Clinical Phase II Trial

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Hanno M.; Ahrens, Norbert; Blankenstein, Christiane; Duell, Thomas; Fietkau, Rainer; Gaipl, Udo S.; Günther, Christine; Gunther, Sophie; Habl, Gregor; Hautmann, Hubert; Hautmann, Matthias; Huber, Rudolf Maria; Molls, Michael; Offner, Robert; Rödel, Claus; Rödel, Franz; Schütz, Martin; Combs, Stephanie E.; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is frequently overexpressed in tumor cells. An unusual cell surface localization could be demonstrated on a large variety of solid tumors including lung, colorectal, breast, squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, prostate and pancreatic carcinomas, glioblastomas, sarcomas and hematological malignancies, but not on corresponding normal tissues. A membrane (m)Hsp70-positive phenotype can be determined either directly on single cell suspensions of tumor biopsies by flow cytometry using cmHsp70.1 monoclonal antibody or indirectly in the serum of patients using a novel lipHsp70 ELISA. A mHsp70-positive tumor phenotype has been associated with highly aggressive tumors, causing invasion and metastases and resistance to cell death. However, natural killer (NK), but not T cells were found to kill mHsp70-positive tumor cells after activation with a naturally occurring Hsp70 peptide (TKD) plus low dose IL-2 (TKD/IL-2). Safety and tolerability of ex vivo TKD/IL-2 stimulated, autologous NK cells has been demonstrated in patients with metastasized colorectal and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a phase I clinical trial. Based on promising clinical results of the previous study, a phase II randomized clinical study was initiated in 2014. The primary objective of this multicenter proof-of-concept trial is to examine whether an adjuvant treatment of NSCLC patients after platinum-based radiochemotherapy (RCTx) with TKD/IL-2 activated, autologous NK cells is clinically effective. As a mHsp70-positive tumor phenotype is associated with poor clinical outcome only mHsp70-positive tumor patients will be recruited into the trial. The primary endpoint of this study will be the comparison of the progression-free survival of patients treated with ex vivo activated NK cells compared to patients who were treated with RCTx alone. As secondary endpoints overall survival, toxicity, quality-of-life, and biological responses will be determined in both

  2. A multicentric randomized controlled trial on the impact of lengthening the interval between neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and surgery on complete pathological response in rectal cancer (GRECCAR-6 trial): rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT) is now part of the armamentarium of cancer of the lower and middle rectum. It is recommended in current clinical practice prior to surgical excision if the lesion is classified T3/T4 or N+. Histological complete response, defined by the absence of persistent tumor cell invasion and lymph node (ypT0N0) after pathological examination of surgical specimen has been shown to be an independent prognostic factor of overall survival and disease-free survival. Surgical excision is usually performed between 6 and 8 weeks after completion of CRT and pathological complete response rate ranges around 12%. In retrospective studies, a lengthening of the interval after RCT beyond 10 weeks was found as an independent factor increasing the rate of pathological complete response (between 26% and 31%), with a longer disease-free survival and without increasing the operative morbidity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate in 264 patients the rate of pathological complete response rate of rectal cancer after RCT by lengthening the time between RCT and surgery. Methods/design The current study is a multicenter randomized trial in two parallel groups comparing 7 and 11 weeks of delay between the end of RCT and cancer surgery of rectal tumors. At the end of the RCT, surgery is planified and randomization is performed after patient’s written consent for participation. The histological complete response (ypT0N0) will be determined with analysis of the complete residual tumor and double reading by two pathologists blinded of the group of inclusion. Patients will be followed in clinics for 5 years after surgery. Participation in this trial does not change patient’s management in terms of treatment, investigations or visits. Secondary endpoints will include overall and disease free survival, rate of sphincter conservation and quality of mesorectal excision. The number of patients needed is 264. Trial registration Clinical

  3. Au-F127 strawberry-like nanospheres as an electrochemical interface for sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen in real sample.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Xie, Hangqing; Liu, Yuhong; Ren, Hang; Zhao, Wenbo; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-11-01

    Nanomaterial-based signal-amplification strategies hold a great promise in realizing sensitive biological detection. A simple label-free electrochemical immunosensor for sensitive detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was developed by immobilizing anti-CEA antibodies onto the Au-F127 strawberry-like nanospheres modified glassy carbon electrode (Au-F127/GCE). The Au-F127 strawberry-like nanospheres offered a large surface and multifunctional substrate for the effective immobilization of anti-CEA and the existence of Au could accelerate electron transfer and make the electrochemical signal amplified. The Au-F127 nanocomposites and anti-CEA were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), polycrystalline electron diffraction ring pattern, ultra-violet visible (UV-vis) spectra and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) were employed to verify the stepwise assembly of the immunosensor and evaluated the analytical performance of the fabricated immunosensor, respectively. The immunosensor showed a wide liner response range between 0.01 and 80 ng mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 0.24 pg mL(-1) at a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3. Additionally, the proposed method was successfully applied to determine CEA in human serum samples with satisfactory results. PMID:26452840

  4. Bifunctional combined Au-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles for induction of cancer cell-specific apoptosis and real-time imaging.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wen; Ji, Lifei; Li, Lu; Cui, Guanwei; Xu, Kehua; Li, Ping; Tang, Bo

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrate bifunctional combined Au-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles (NPs) for selectively induction of apoptosis in cancer cells and real-time imaging. The as-prepared Au-Fe(2)O(3) NPs combine the merits of both Au and γ-Fe(2)O(3) NPs, maintaining excellent fluorescence quenching property and catalytic activity. Conjugated with α(Ⅴ)β(3) integrin-targeting peptide (RGD) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled capsase-3 recognition sequence (DEVD) on the Au surface, the resulting RGD/FITC-DEVD-Au-Fe(2)O(3) NPs bind preferentially to integrin α(Ⅴ)β(3)-rich human liver cancer cells (HepG2), sequentially initiate catalytic formation of hydroxyl radicals (·OH) and enable the real-time monitoring of·OH-induced caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in these cancer cells. Furthermore, the catalytic activity of RGD/FITC-DEVD-Au-Fe(2)O(3) NPs is much higher than that of individual γ-Fe(2)O(3) NPs due to the polarization effect at the Au-Fe(2)O(3) interface. Such bifunctional Au-Fe(2)O(3) NPs exhibit simultaneous targeting, therapeutic and imaging functions and are therefore promising for future therapeutic applications in cancer. PMID:22342711

  5. Innovative Die Material and Lubrication Strategies for Clean and Energy Conserving Forging Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Rajiv Shivpuri; Sailesh Babu; Lin Yang; Yijun Zhu

    2007-01-08

    The objective of this project was to develop and implement innovative die material and surface coating strategies such as composite dies and lubricated coatings to increase die lives and to reduce environmental pollution. In this project approaches and software were developed for die life optimization and optimal design of lubrication systems for hot forging. In addition, LENS applied nickel-aluminide coatings were developed and validated in the industrial environment for significant improvements in die life.

  6. Hospice nurses' emotional challenges in their encounters with the dying.

    PubMed

    Ingebretsen, Lina Paola; Sagbakken, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' emotional challenges when caring for the dying in hospices. The study has a qualitative design, and knowledge was developed through a dialectical exchange between theory and data. Ten individual in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses recruited from two hospices in Denmark. Although all of the nurses said that they experienced emotional challenges or felt emotionally touched during their work, the study found a variety of opinions related to the extent to which their emotional reactions should be revealed in their role as a hospice professional. The participants described their emotional challenges as being simultaneously draining and enriching experiences leading to personal and professional growth and development. The study may contribute to increased awareness of emotional challenges for hospice nurses, which involve continuous reflection and balancing between meeting the dying as a human being and meeting the dying as a hospice professional. PMID:27258584

  7. Hospice nurses’ emotional challenges in their encounters with the dying

    PubMed Central

    Ingebretsen, Lina Paola; Sagbakken, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore nurses’ emotional challenges when caring for the dying in hospices. The study has a qualitative design, and knowledge was developed through a dialectical exchange between theory and data. Ten individual in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses recruited from two hospices in Denmark. Although all of the nurses said that they experienced emotional challenges or felt emotionally touched during their work, the study found a variety of opinions related to the extent to which their emotional reactions should be revealed in their role as a hospice professional. The participants described their emotional challenges as being simultaneously draining and enriching experiences leading to personal and professional growth and development. The study may contribute to increased awareness of emotional challenges for hospice nurses, which involve continuous reflection and balancing between meeting the dying as a human being and meeting the dying as a hospice professional. PMID:27258584

  8. Optimization of an Extrusion Die for Polymer Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridene, Y. Chahbani; Graebling, D.; Boujelbene, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we used the CFD software PolyFlow to optimize the extrusion process of polystyrene flow. In this process, the flow of the molten polymer through the die can be viewed as a critical step for the material in terms of shear rate, self heating by viscous dissipation and temperature reached. The simulation is focused on the flow and heat transfer in the die to obtain a uniform velocity profile and a uniform temperature profile. The rheological behavior of polymer melt was described by the nonlinear Giesekus model. The dependence of the viscosity has also to be taken into account for a correct description of the flow. The design of the die has been validated by our numerical simulation.

  9. A study of the dying process in elderly hospitalized males.

    PubMed

    Mogielnicki, R P; Nelson, W A; Dulac, J

    1990-01-01

    The dying process was studied by questioning nurses and next of kin of 40 consecutive patients who died in an acute care Veterans Hospital. Information regarding problems commonly thought important in the dying process was elicited and attempts were made to relate this information to global assessments of quality of life during the preterminal week and quality of the moments surrounding death. Despite long-standing awareness of many of these problems, important pain, respiratory difficulty, mood problems, blunted alertness, stooling problems, urination problems, and oral intake problems each was present in at least 50% of patients. Multivariate analysis did not define a convincing relationship between these problems and global assessments of quality. Responses of nurses and next of kin were similar most of the time, but nurses systematically rated pain as less severe than next of kin and next of kin systematically demonstrated less awareness of urinary and stooling problems than nurses. PMID:2206934

  10. [Recommendations for the palliative care of dying neonates].

    PubMed

    Cignacco, E; Stoffel, L; Raio, L; Schneider, H; Nelle, M

    2004-08-01

    Neonates and infants have the highest mortality rate in the pediatric patient population, but there is a paucity of data about their palliative care. Most neonate deaths occur during the first week of life so it is mostly the staff of NICUS's and obstetrical wards who are confronted with the palliative care of dying neonates. Clinical experience shows that many aspects of care in palliative situations are not well known to the health care providers. This is especially true for pain assessment and pain treatment during the dying process. A search of the literature on this subject resulted in only a few publications; hence, this article basically describes clinical experience in the palliative care of neonates. In this article some recommendations for decision-making and standardization of palliative care for dying neonates are presented. PMID:15326558

  11. Is "healthy dying" a paradox? revisiting an early Kastenbaum challenge.

    PubMed

    Kellehear, Allan

    This article is a review of Robert Kastenbaum's 1979 essay entitled "Healthy dying: A paradoxical quest continues." It begins with a summary of the arguments and challenges in the original essay. This is followed by an evaluation of his original claims in the light of contemporary insights in modern public health history and empirical studies of near-death experiences and death bed visions. The recent development of health promotion in palliative care is described in relation to these developments and Kastenbaum's early question about the paradoxical quest for health while dying is again posed against this background. Given our modern understanding of "health" in current global health policy and debates, it is argued that "healthy dying" is no paradox. Instead, the pursuit of health at the end of life represents a realistic modern desire to compress morbidity, minimize unnecessary suffering, and enhance quality of life at this time. PMID:25351589

  12. Einsteins Traum. Expeditionen an die Grenzen der Raumzeit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    This book is a German translation, by H. Kober, of the English original "Black holes and baby universes and other essays" published in 1993. It is a collection of articles written by the author between 1976 and 1992. Contents: 1. Kindheit. 2. Oxford und Cambridge. 3. Meine Erfahrung mit ALS. 4. Öffentliche Einstellungen zur Wissenschaft. 5. Eine kurze Geschichte der Kurzen Geschichte. 6. Mein Standpunkt. 7. Einsteins Traum. 8. Der Ursprung des Universums. 9. Die Quantenmechanik Schwarzer Löcher. 10. Schwarze Löcher und Baby-Universen. 11. Ist alles vorherbestimmt? 12. Die Zukunft des Universums. 13. Desert Island Discs, ein Interview.

  13. Einblicke in die Dynamik von Quantensystemen: Elektrostatische Speicherringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, Carsten P.

    2005-03-01

    Elektrostatische Speicherringe kombinieren die Vorteile elektrostatischer Fallen und klassischer magnetischer Speicherringe. Kompaktheit, gute Zugänglichkeit sämtlicher Elemente, hohe Flexibilität in der Wahl möglicher Experimente und die Eigenschaft, alle Teilchen unabhängig von ihrer Masse über einen weiten Geschwindigkeitsbereich zu speichern, bieten Zugang zu einem weiten experimentellen Spektrum. Insbesondere das Potenzial, das in neuartigen, energievariablen Maschinen in Kombination mit Elektronenkühlung, internen Targets und hochauflösenden Reaktionsmikroskopen steckt, verspricht hochinteressante Ergebnisse mit den unterschiedlichsten Teilchen - von exotischen Antiprotonen oder schweren radioaktiven Ionen bis hin zu einfachen und komplexen Molekülen oder Biosystemen.

  14. Reducing the Surface Degradation of Aluminum Extrusion Dies During Preheating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratton, Paul

    2010-07-01

    Aluminum extrusion dies are usually made from H13 steel that is ferritically nitrocarburized to minimize wear and pick-up. Before being placed in the extrusion press, the dies are preheated to minimize thermal shock at the start of the extrusion cycle. During the preheating time, the nitrocarburized layer oxidizes. Some of this layer can break away during extrusion leaving marks on the product. Although inerting the preheat furnaces with nitrogen has been found to reduce the oxidation, it does not solve the problem completely. Experiments have shown that a small addition of ammonia to the preheating protective atmosphere could eliminate oxidation and prevent nitrogen loss from the surface nitride layer.

  15. Futile care: confronting the high costs of dying.

    PubMed

    Coppa, S

    1996-12-01

    The costs of futile care for the dying are great. Futility can present challenges because of the monetary costs of such care, its negative effects on staff members, and the burden it creates in allocating limited resources. Administrators can work to recognize and form a better understanding of futility and thus develop strategies for decreasing non-beneficial care. The author discusses issues surrounding futile care and offers suggestions for administrators to decrease spending related to the administration of futile care for the dying. PMID:8968320

  16. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies on agglomeration phenomena of ultrathin Au/Fe bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiko, Masao; Koo, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jae-Min; Ha, Jae-Geun

    2012-05-15

    The agglomeration phenomena of a few nanometer thick Au/Fe bilayers, grown on an MgO(100) substrate, were studied by using atomic force microscopy and x ray diffraction (XRD). The authors found that the insertion of an Fe ultrathin layer between an MgO(100) substrate and a 4 nm thick Au layer promotes the agglomeration process of the Au layer, in which the bilayer structure changes into large Fe/Au islands of {approx}200 nm in diameter. In addition, XRD results revealed that the Au in the agglomerated islands has only a (111)-crystallographic orientation, presumably caused by reducing the large surface energy of Au on the MgO(001) substrate. These findings are quite different from cases in which structural stabilization is achieved by inserting an Fe seeding layer of a few nanometers on an MgO(001) substrate.

  17. Neue biosensorische Prinzipien für die Hämoglobin-A1c Bestimmung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöllner, Daniela

    2002-06-01

    Fructosyl-Valin-Histidin-Leucin-Threonin-Prolin (glkPP) als Kompetitor und Affinitätsligand immobilisiert und so eine regenerierfähige Oberfläche geschaffen. Beim Sandwich-Immunoassay wurde im ersten Schritt Gesamt-Hämoglobin an die mit Haptoglobin (Hp) modifizierte Festphase angereichert und im zweiten Schritt der gebundene HbA1c-Anteil nachgewiesen. Für die Konstruktion des HbA1c-Immunosensors wurden Affinitätsmatrizen durch Modifizierung von Cellulose-Dialysemembranen mit glkPP bzw. Hp hergestellt. Grundlegend studiert wurde die Aktivierung der Cellulose-Membranen mit 1,1'-Carbonyldiimidazol (CDI) und 1-Cyano-4-dimethylaminopyridintetrafluoroborat (CDAP) als Aktivierungsagenzien. Eine gerichtete Immobilisierung der Liganden wurde realisiert, indem glkPP über dessen C-Terminus (einzige Carboxylatgruppe) und Hp über dessen periodat-oxidiertem Kohlenhydratrest an die amino- oder hydrazidfunktionalisierte Membranen kovalent gekoppelt wurden. Mit dem Einsatz der glkPP- und Hp-modifizierten Membranen in der elektrochemischen Messzelle war erstmalig der biosensorische Nachweis von HbA1c möglich. Als Transduktor diente eine Pt-Elektrode, an der das von der GOD generierte H2O2 umgesetzt und ein mit der HbA1c-Konzentration korrelierendes Stromsignal erzeugt wurde. Die Immunosensoren zeigten Ansprechzeiten von 3 s. Mit dem Immunosensor auf Basis des indirekt-kompetitiven Testprinzips wurde eine Kalibrationskurve für HbA1c im Bereich von 0,25-30 µg/ml (3,9-465 nM, CV 3-9 %) mit Assayzeiten von 60 min und mit dem Immunosensor im Sandwich-Format eine Kalibrationskurve im Bereich von 0,5-5 µg/ml (7,8-78 nM; 5-50 % HbA1c vom Gesamt-Hb, CV 6-10 %, 3 h) aufgenommen. Hemoglobin-A1c (HbA1c) is a hemoglobin subtype formed by non-enzymatic reaction of glucose with the N-terminus of the beta-polypeptide chains. As it reflects the glycemic status of diabetics over the preceding 8-12 weeks, the determination of HbA1c has become an established procedure in the management of diabetes

  18. Barriers to Quality Care for Dying Patients in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Vorst, Rebecca F.; Crane, Lori A.; Barton, Phoebe Lindsey; Kutner, Jean S.; Kallail, K. James; Westfall, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Barriers to providing optimal palliative care in rural communities are not well understood. Purpose: To identify health care personnel's perceptions of the care provided to dying patients in rural Kansas and Colorado and to identify barriers to providing optimal care. Methods: An anonymous self-administered survey was sent to health care…

  19. A Framework for Ethical Decision-Making with Dying Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafer, Barbara H.; Lee, Sandra S.

    The field of death and dying has become an important area for the development of both research and clinical technique. Psychologists in increasing numbers work in hospital and hospice settings, and therapists treat terminally ill patients and/or their families. Greater attention is being paid to the needs and rights of these patients and families,…

  20. Caregivers' insights on the dying trajectory in hematology oncology.

    PubMed

    McGrath, P

    2001-10-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged in the research literature that palliative care is not offered to patients with a hematologic malignancy. The evidence indicates that patients are not dying at home or in the comfort of the hospice setting but are more likely to end up in the high-tech care of an intensive care unit. The holistic, compassionate care of the hospice/palliative care philosophy is not routinely made available to either these patients or the families who care for them. However, little is known about what the end-of-life experience is for such patients and their families and how they are managing to negotiate their dying experience in a system that is designed to cure not to palliate. In particular, there is a dearth of information on what happens to the caregivers during what is characteristically a prolonged and difficult period of sustained caring within the high-tech system. This discussion presents findings from recent research that is beginning to document the experience of the dying trajectory for patients from these diagnostic groups and their families. The hope and expectation from such research is that the information will make a contribution to building multidisciplinary plans of care for hematologic malignancies during the dying trajectory, to ensure that patients and their families are appropriately referred to the palliative system or, at least, are given sensitive palliative care within the curative system. PMID:11605712

  1. Preventive Therapy with Siblings of a Dying Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Daniel

    A case study of psychiatric intervention for two sisters whose brother is dying of leukemia is presented. The therapeutic technique attempted to deal with the threatened loss by a forthright approach to the reality situation, encouraging "immunizing" discussions, allowance for catharsis without severe regression, emphasis on reality orientation,…

  2. Attitudes of Dental and Medical Students toward Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundin, Robert H.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Explores attitudes of dental and medical students toward death and dying. Attitudes toward death influencing choice between dental school and medical school are latent. Attitudes of dental and medical students toward death may be differentially affected by their professional experiences. (Author/BEF)

  3. Spare Dying Patients Electric Shocks from Heart Device, Docs Say

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157958.html Spare Dying Patients Electric Shocks From Heart Device, Docs Say Many unaware ...

  4. View west of small tooling and forging dies in Blacksmith ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View west of small tooling and forging dies in Blacksmith Shop, Boilermakers Department, east side of building 57; during World War II approximately forty women were employed as blacksmith's forging a variety of small tools; these may be the tools they used. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. A Simulation Based on Goldratt's Matchstick/Die Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Clarence H.

    2007-01-01

    This teaching brief presents a Microsoft® Excel simulation designed to complement and expand upon the well-known matchstick/die game introduced by Goldratt in "The Goal." This simulation performs 100 replications of a 40-period processing run for low, medium, and high levels of process variation and displays the comparative results…

  6. Die Gasultrazentrifuge als mediale Projektion des Kalten Krieges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbold, Bernd

    Studien der letzten Dekaden nach der Wiedervereinigung von BRD und DDR erweitern die Perspektive der Wissenschaftsgeschichte vom Fokus des Big Science und der technisch-militärisch-industriellen Auseinandersetzung zwischen den zwei Blöcken zu einer globalen Transformation im Konflikt der Supermächte geprägt durch lokale und auch interne Ausformungen.

  7. Do People Whose Names Begin with "D" Really Die Young?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that professional baseball players whose first names begin with the letter "D" tend to die relatively young (E. L. Abel & M. L. Kruger, 2010). However, the statistical evidence for this claim is based on selective data and a statistical test that ignores important confounding influences. A valid test applied to more…

  8. Accompaniment needs of nursing students related to the dying patient.

    PubMed

    Van Rooyen, D; Laing, R; Kotzé, W J

    2005-11-01

    Nurse educators are responsible for accompanying students towards becoming capable, competent professional nurses who are a credit to themselves, their patients, colleagues and profession. Student nurses need, therefore, to be taught to render comprehensive nursing care to patients in all stages of their lives, including when they are dying. Being confronted with human suffering and death is challenging and traumatic. Those exposed to such events on a daily basis need to have a solid foundation of self preservation to see past the pain of suffering and to bring light and hope to those in need. A young student nurse will only experience positive growth and development in these circumstances if she is also cared for and guided with understanding. The researcher utilized a qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design based on the phenomenological approach to enquiry. The following question was asked at the beginning of each unstructured phenomenological interview: "How was if for you to care for a dying or deceased patient?" The central theme identified that student nurses experience turmoil in their different relationships in their accompaniment of the dying patient. Guidelines based on the central theme and sub-themes that emerged from raw data, as well as literature, are offered as strategies to promote/enhance optimal accompaniment of student nurses caring for the dying patient. PMID:16450557

  9. Learning from Clients: Counseling the Frail and Dying Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, James T.

    1984-01-01

    Contends that experience with a frail or dying client is a learning opportunity for the counselor. Presents several examples illustrating the reactions of the elderly to approaching death and suggests that successful counselors accept their own mortality and acknowledge the decision of the failing elderly that death is near. (JAC)

  10. Understandings of Death and Dying for People of Chinese Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chiung-Yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period,…

  11. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Eric S. Peterson; Jessica Trudeau; Bill Cleary; Michael Hackett; William A. Greene

    2003-04-01

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20–25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  12. A Membrane Process for Recycling Die Lube from Wastewater Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, E. S.; Trudeau, J.; Cleary, B.; Hackett, M.; Greene, W. A.

    2003-04-30

    An active-surface membrane technology was used to separate a die lube manufacturing wastewater stream consisting of various oils, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and silicones. The ultrafiltration membranes reduced organics from initial oil and grease contents by 20-25X, carbon oxygen demand (COD) by 1.5 to 2X, and total organic carbon (TOC) by 0.6, while the biological oxygen demand (BOD) remained constant. The active-surface membranes were not fouled as badly as non-active-surface systems and the active-surface membrane flux levels were consistently higher and more stable than those of the non-active-surface membranes tested. Field testing demonstrated that the rotary microfilter can concentrate the die lube, i.e. remove the glycerin component, and produce a die lube suitable for recycling. The recycling system operated for six weeks with only seven cleaning cycles and no mechanical or electrical failures. Test data and quality records indicate that the die casting scrap was reduced from 8.4 to 7.8%. There is no doubt that this test yielded tremendous results. This separation process presents significant opportunities that can be evaluated further.

  13. Dreams of the Dying Patient: An Exploration of Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Pamela N.; Hoffmann, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Examined 25 dream reports of individuals in Palliative Care Unit. Content analysis of dream reports supports hypothesis that continuity exists between dreaming and waking experience. Results did not indicate that themes of death and aggression, negative emotion, or infant and child characters were more prevalent among the dying. (Author/NB)

  14. An indicator for fitting castings to a die.

    PubMed

    Troendle, G R; Troendle, K B

    1992-10-01

    This article describes a procedure for making an indicator to be used in fitting a casting to a die. It also describes how to use the indicator in the laboratory. The materials for making the indicator are inexpensive, present no health hazard, and are readily available at any arts and crafts store. PMID:1403953

  15. Learning To Say Goodbye: Dealing with Death and Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Rosalie; Stefanics, Charlotte

    This book is intended to help the counselor learn to work with terminal patients. The first part presents historical and cultural attitudes toward death and dying. Fear of death, the role of religion, and common myths about terminal cancer patients are discussed. The second part deals with care and treatment of terminal patients. The significance…

  16. Consumer Aspects of Death and Dying. The Forgotten Dimension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddy, James M.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The consumer aspects of death and dying are discussed as part of a comprehensive death education program. Suggested areas to be covered include traditional funeral procedures and costs; alternatives including cremation, body donation, and funeral and memorial societies; and drawing up a will. Some suggested teaching strategies are outlined. (JMF)

  17. Where a Cancer Patient Dies: The Effect of Rural Residency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burge, Frederick I.; Lawson, Beverley; Johnston, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Context: Surveys indicate 50% to 80% of cancer patients would choose to die at home if possible, although far fewer actually do. In Nova Scotia (NS), cancer deaths occurring out-of-hospital increased from 19.8% in 1992 to 30.2% in 1997. The impact of rural residency on this trend has not been studied. Purpose: To determine the association between…

  18. Technological Change in Michigan's Tool and Die Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald N.

    This study was conducted to answer four questions about the tool and die industry in Michigan. These were: (1) What are the current production techniques? (2) To what extent are these industrialists aware of new technologies? (3) What technical and economic factors affect technological change? and (4) To what extent will new technologies replace…

  19. Exploring the Counselor's Role in "Right to Die" Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrugia, David

    1993-01-01

    Explores issues related to "right to die." Makes case for counselors to assist clients and families with concerns related to refusal or withdrawal of medical treatment in cases of terminal illness or in cases where quality of life is severely impaired such as permanent comatose state. Presents historical, ethical, and legal perspectives. Discusses…

  20. Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons who die in long-term care. Design and Methods: We conducted after-death interviews with staff who had cared for 422 decedents with dementia and 159 who were cognitively intact and received terminal care in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) or residential care-assisted living…

  1. Simple visualization techniques for die casting part and die design. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Lu, S.C.; Rebello, A.B.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects of problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information from the voxel model for display to the user.

  2. Simple visualization techniques for die casting part and die design. Final report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.A.; Lu, S.C.; Rebello, A.B.

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop and test die casting design evaluation techniques based on the visualization of geometric data that is related to potential defects of problems. Specifically, thickness information is used to provide insight into potential thermal problems in the part and die. Distance from the gate and a special type of animation of the fill pattern is used to provide an assessment of gate, vent and overflow locations. Techniques have been developed to convert part design information in the form of STL files to a volume-based representation called a voxel model. The use of STL files makes the process CAD system independent. Once in voxel form, methods that were developed in this work are used to identify thick regions in the part, thin regions in the part and/or die, distance from user specified entry locations (gates), and the qualitative depiction of the fill pattern. The methods were tested with a prototype implementation on the UNIX platform. The results of comparisons with numerical simulation and field reported defects were surprisingly good. The fill-related methods were also compared against short-shots and a water analog study using high speed video. The report contains the results of the testing plus detailed background material on the construction of voxel models, the methods used for displaying results, and the computational geometric reasoning methods used to create die casting-related information form the voxel model for display to the user.

  3. To Die, To Sleep: A Contrastive Study of Metaphors for Death and Dying in English and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marin-Arrese, Juana I.

    1996-01-01

    Contrasts the use of metaphors for death and dying in English and Spanish and makes some observations concerning universal and culture-specific conceptualizations. The article points out that the human capacity to conceptualize and reason derives from experience (perceptions, cultural practices, motor activity) and imagination (metaphor, metonymy,…

  4. Research on the Effects of the Movable Die and its Counter Force on Sheet Hydroforming

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Li X.; Zhang, Shi H.; Wang, Ben X.

    2007-05-17

    An improved Sheet Hydro-forming process was proposed, which was investigated in Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences. ASAME system and FEM are used to analyze the forming process to explain some results that were found in the experiment. In the simulation, the effect of the movable die on the maximum principal stress is investigated in detail by using the FEM code LS-DYNA. For this case, the movable die changes the distribution of the maximum principal stress. For the sheet hydroforming without the movable die, the principal stress near the shoulder of the movable die arrives to the maximum value when t=0.0033s suddenly. But for the sheet hydroforming with the movable die, the maximum principal stress still lies in the die radius. The principal stress near the shoulder of the movable die is smaller. At the last stage contacting with the die, for the case without the movable die, the maximum principal stress near the shoulder of movable die is larger than that of the sheet hydroforming with the movable die. Moreover, the stress distribution near the shoulder of movable die for the case without the movable die is complicated. It is instable and very easy to occur wrinkling. The movable die delays the maximum thickness strain to the contacting die stage. So the formability of sheet metal can be remarkably improved by adopting the movable die. On a certain extent, the uniform distribution of thickness can be realized by increasing the counterforce of movable die. The minimum thickness reduction moves outside which is very helpful for the uniform thickness distribution. In this paper, two kinds of materials, soft steel and stainless steel, were investigated.

  5. Bereits nach Ablauf der Halbwertszeit droht der vollständige Zerfall Die britische Atomic Scientists’ Association, die Ideologie der „objektiven” Wissenschaft und die H-Bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laucht, Christoph

    Präsident Harry Trumans Verlautbarung vom 31.1.1950, seine Regierung wolle die Entwicklung der Wasserstoffbombe vorantreiben, fand große Beachtung in den britischen Medien. Die illustrierte Zeitschrift Picture Post widmete der HBombe einen Artikel, der unter anderem kurze Stellungnahmen der britischen Atomwissenschaftler Eric Burhop, Kathleen Lonsdale, Harrie Massey, Rudolf Peierls und Maurice Pryce enthielt, die alle Mitglieder der Atomic Scientists' Association (ASA) waren.

  6. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  7. MicroRNA-141 and MicroRNA-146b-5p Inhibit the Prometastatic Mesenchymal Characteristics through the RNA-binding Protein AUF1 Targeting the Transcription Factor ZEB1 and the Protein Kinase AKT*

    PubMed Central

    Al-Khalaf, Huda H.; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2014-01-01

    miR-141 and miR-146b-5p are two important tumor suppressor microRNAs, which control several cancer-related genes and processes. In the present report, we have shown that these microRNAs bind specific sites at the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA-binding protein AUF1, leading to its down-regulation. This inverse correlation between the levels of these microRNAs and AUF1 has been identified in various osteosarcoma cell lines. Additionally, we present clear evidence that AUF1 promotes mesenchymal features in osteosarcoma cells and that miR-141 and miR-146b-5p suppress this prometastatic process through AUF1 repression. Indeed, both microRNAs suppressed the invasion/migration and proliferation abilities of osteosarcoma cells through inhibiting the AKT protein kinase in an AUF1-dependent manner. We have also shown that AUF1 binds to and stabilizes the mRNA of the AKT activator phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). Furthermore, miR-141 and miR-146b-5p positively regulate the epithelial markers (E-cadherin and Epcam) and repress the mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, Vimentin, Twist2, and ZEB1). These effects were mediated via the repression of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal inducer ZEB1 through targeting AUF1, which binds the 3′-UTR of the ZEB1 mRNA and reduces its turnover. These results indicate that at least some tumor suppressor functions of miR-141 and miR-146b-5p are mediated through the repression of the oncogenic potentials of AUF1. Therefore, these 3′-UTR-directed post-transcriptional gene expression regulators constitute promising new targets for diagnostic and/or therapeutic interventions. PMID:25261470

  8. Der Physik-Nobelpreis vor 100 Jahren Die Entdeckung des trägen Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2004-11-01

    Im Jahr 1904 erhielt der britische Physiker Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt, 1842 bis 1919) den Nobelpreis für seine Untersuchungen über die Dichte von Gasen und die Entdeckung des Edelgases Argon.

  9. Die Rolle dialogtypischer Wortverbindungen und Wendungen bei der Vervollkommnung sprachlichen Koennens auf dem Gebiet des dialogischen Sprechens (The Role of Dialogue-Typical Word Combinations and Idioms in Perfecting Speaking Ability in the Area of Dialogue)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzschler, Hermann; Zoch, Irene

    1974-01-01

    Describes exercises using typical expressions used in conversation, including idioms, partial or complete clauses, syntactic structures, etc. Refers to Herder Institute's (1971) five steps in language learning, of which Step Five includes 4000 lexical units to be mastered for active use, plus 3000 for passive recognition. Gives examples and…

  10. Auf dem Weg zu einem neuen Weltcurriculum? Zum Grundbildungskonzept von PISA und der Aufgabenzuweisung an die Schule (Towards a World Curriculum? -- The Concept of Basic Education (Literacy) underlying PISA and the tasks allocated to Schooling).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Hans-Werner

    2003-01-01

    Recognizes that the debate on the Program for International Student Assessment 2000 (PISA) has been dominated by comparisons of the ranks achieved and by the question of the consequences to be drawn from the results. Discusses the educational concept forming the basis for the investigation and aims of PISA. (CAJ)

  11. Auswirkungen von okonomischem Druck auf die psychosoziale Befindlichkeit von Jugendlichen: Zur Bedeutung von Familienbeziehungen und Schulniveau (The Effect of Economic Pressure on the Psycho-Social Well-Being of Adolescents: The Importance of Family Relations and School Track).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butz, Petra; Boehnke, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings on the impact of economic pressure on the well-being of adolescents in Berlin. Shows that relative losses in purchasing power are related to decreased self-esteem in problematic family climates; school level, place of residence, and relative gain in purchasing power played a greater role in xenophobia and aggressive helplessness.…

  12. Modeling of Closed-Die Forging for Estimating Forging Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Debashish; Das, Santanu; Chatterjee, Avik; Bhattacharya, Anirban

    2016-05-01

    Closed die forging is one common metal forming process used for making a range of products. Enough load is to exert on the billet for deforming the material. This forging load is dependent on work material property and frictional characteristics of the work material with the punch and die. Several researchers worked on estimation of forging load for specific products under different process variables. Experimental data on deformation resistance and friction were used to calculate the load. In this work, theoretical estimation of forging load is made to compare this value with that obtained through LS-DYNA model facilitating the finite element analysis. Theoretical work uses slab method to assess forging load for an axi-symmetric upsetting job made of lead. Theoretical forging load estimate shows slightly higher value than the experimental one; however, simulation shows quite close matching with experimental forging load, indicating possibility of wide use of this simulation software.

  13. The Assisted Dying Bill and the role of the physician.

    PubMed

    Mullock, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    This article explores the role of the physician in the Assisted Dying Bill, which is currently progressing through the House of Lords. The Supreme Court decision in Nicklinson and Others has alerted Parliament to the possibility that the current prohibition against assisted suicide may breach Article 8 of the European Convention in relation to the right to choose how to end one's life. In this article, the role of healthcare professionals in the proposed legalisation of physician-assisted suicide is examined, together with consideration of key ethical concerns over who might be permitted to access assisted dying. Whether the proposed law presents an ethically sound alternative to the current prohibition against assisting in suicide is not clear, but Parliament must now respond in order to address human rights issues and the call to legalise medically assisted suicide. PMID:25575506

  14. [Needs of caregivers and needs of the dying regarding food].

    PubMed

    Buser, C S

    1993-09-21

    The need for food in dying patients varies from one individual to the next. This requires the nursing staff to establish a precise history of the eating and drinking habits of these patients and their families. The necessary care is based on this history, on the professional knowledge of the nursing personnel, and on the ethical guidelines of the Swiss Association of Nursing Personnel, published in 1990. Care and nutrition programs must be reevaluated daily and adapted to the changing situation of the patient. The paper presents six major strategies drawn up by Brown and Chekryn in 1987 in order to assist nursing staff in coping with dehydration problems. Five (non-representative) interviews with experienced nurses throw light on the importance of giving special consideration to the nutritional needs of dying patients. PMID:8210865

  15. Development and evaluation of die and container materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wills, R. R.; Niesz, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    X = 0.75 Beta prime Sialon (a silicon aluminum oxynitride) and Sibeon (silicon beryllium oxynitride) are promising die materials. In sessile drop tests in contact with molten silicon, beryllium contamination was less than ppm and aluminum contamination 50 ppm. A shaping die of the Sialon material was successfully fabricated. Dry milling studies for the preparation of Si3N4-Al2O3-ALN mixtures were performed with butanol, acetic anhydride, oleic acid, and triethanolamine milling aids. Optimum mixing was achieved with 0.15 percent triethanolamine using a milling time of 8 hours. Preliminary evaluation of Sibeon materials indicates that they are more resistent to molten silicon attack than Sialon. Silicon contamination from the beryllium was less than aluminum contamination even though the aluminum impurity level in the Sibeon was only 450 to 1300 ppm. Work designed to produce an aluminum-free Sibeon is described.

  16. Relative Lifetime Prediction for CPV Die-Attach Layers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, T. J.; Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-03-01

    In concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) cell assemblies, a large-area die-attach layer is subjected to thermal cycles, leading to thermomechanical fatigue. This causes cracking and the eventual failure of the CPV cell by thermal runaway. We define a damage metric representing lumped progress toward failure and present a numerical model for computing the accumulation of damage for arbitrary transient temperature conditions. The model is applied to a particular design with a solder die-attach layer. We show that accelerated-test thermal cycles with higher ramp rates cause more damage, both per cycle and per unit time. Outdoor exposure to one entire year in two geographic locations is also simulated, revealing that a year of exposure in Golden, Colorado is equivalent to 1.4 years of exposure in Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  17. Experimental predator removal causes rapid salt marsh die-off

    PubMed Central

    Bertness, Mark D; Brisson, Caitlin P; Coverdale, Tyler C; Bevil, Matt C; Crotty, Sinead M; Suglia, Elena R

    2014-01-01

    Salt marsh habitat loss to vegetation die-offs has accelerated throughout the western Atlantic in the last four decades. Recent studies have suggested that eutrophication, pollution and/or disease may contribute to the loss of marsh habitat. In light of recent evidence that predators are important determinants of marsh health in New England, we performed a total predator exclusion experiment. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence that predator depletion can cause salt marsh die-off by releasing the herbivorous crab Sesarma reticulatum from predator control. Excluding predators from a marsh ecosystem for a single growing season resulted in a >100% increase in herbivory and a >150% increase in unvegetated bare space compared to plots with predators. Our results confirm that marshes in this region face multiple, potentially synergistic threats. PMID:24766277

  18. Milling strategies evaluation when simulating the forming dies' functional surfaces production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ižol, Peter; Tomáš, Miroslav; Beňo, Jozef

    2016-05-01

    The paper deals with selection and evaluation of milling strategies, available in CAM systems and applicable when complicated shape parts are produced, such as forming dies. A method to obtain samples is proposed and this stems from real forming die surface machined by proper strategies. The strategy applicability for the whole part - forming die - is reviewed by the particular specimen evaluation. The presented methodology has been verified by machining model die and comparing it to the production procedure proposed in other CAM systems.

  19. AUF-1 and YB-1 independently regulate β-globin mRNA in developing erythroid cells through interactions with poly(A)-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    van Zalen, Sebastiaan; Lombardi, Alyssa A.; Jeschke, Grace R.; Hexner, Elizabeth O.; Russell, J. Eric

    2015-01-01

    The normal expression of β-globin protein in mature erythrocytes is critically dependent on post-transcriptional events in erythroid progenitors that ensure the high stability of β-globin mRNA. Previous work has revealed that these regulatory processes require AUF-1 and YB-1, two RNA-binding proteins that assemble an mRNP β-complex on the β-globin 3′UTR. Here, we demonstrate that the β-complex organizes during the erythropoietic interval when both β-globin mRNA and protein accumulate rapidly, implicating the importance of this regulatory mRNP to normal erythroid differentiation. Subsequent functional analyses link β-complex assembly to the half-life of β-globin mRNA in vivo, providing a mechanistic basis for this regulatory activity. AUF-1 and YB-1 appear to serve a redundant post-transcriptional function, as both β-complex assembly and β-globin mRNA levels are reduced by coordinate depletion of the two factors, and can be restored by independent rescue with either factor alone. Additional studies demonstrate that the β-complex assembles more efficiently on polyadenylated transcripts, implicating a model in which the β-complex enhances the binding of PABPC1 to the poly(A) tail, inhibiting mRNA deadenylation and consequently effecting the high half-life of β-globin transcripts in erythroid progenitors. These data specify a post-transcriptional mechanism through which AUF1 and YB1 contribute to the normal development of erythropoietic cells, as well as to non-hematopoietic tissues in which AUF1-and YB1-based regulatory mRNPs have been observed to assemble on heterologous mRNAs. PMID:25720531

  20. Spray forming process for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Key, James F.

    1998-01-01

    A method for spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as whiskers or fibers.

  1. Years after Inventors Die, Royalties Are Pennies from Heaven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    Sarah L. Kieweg had her own nice surprise when the University of Central Florida contacted her. She understood quite a bit about her father's pioneering work on artificial intelligence in the 1990s. Still, in 2006, eight years after he died of a heart attack, at age 50, the call from the university came out of the blue: some of James R. Driscoll's…

  2. Deburring die-castings by wet vibratory plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeschbart, H. M.

    1980-02-01

    A wet vibratory procedure for the removal of burrs from die castings is described. In this process synthetic abrasive chips and detergent solutions are agitated with the work in such a way as to produce a spiral circulatory movement. Details of various forms of vibrator basin and shapes of abrasive are illustrated. The automation of deburring is illustrated through the application of vibrators of spiral design in combination with transport and drying devices.

  3. Deburring die-castings by wet vibratory plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeschbart, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A wet vibratory procedure for the removal of burrs from die castings is described. In this process synthetic abrasive chips and detergent solutions are agitated with the work in such a way as to produce a spiral circulatory movement. Details of various forms of vibrator basin and shapes of abrasive are illustrated. The automation of deburring is illustrated through the application of vibrators of spiral design in combination with transport and drying devices.

  4. Vom Urknall zum Zerfall. Die Welt zwischen Anfang und Ende.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsch, H.

    Contents: Der Tanz mit dem Ozean. Galaktische Landkarte. Das Maß der Dinge. Der würfelnde Gott der Quantenphysik. Geheimnisvolle Felder. Materie und Antimaterie. Quarks - Urstoff unserer Welt. Zerfallende Protonen und die Einheit der Physik. Der Zauberofen. Das überschaubare Universum. Das explodierende Universum. Nachhall der Schöpfung. Der achtfache Weg der kosmischen Entwicklung. Das Ende der Welt. Einheit in der Vielfalt. Das geistige Universum. Gott und das absurde Universum.

  5. Should the patient be allowed to die? 1

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Richard

    1975-01-01

    In considering the patient's right to a certain quality of dying, this essay outlines how the legal and ethical justifications for passive euthanasia depend on the doctrine of acts and omissions. It is suggested that this doctrine is untenable and that alternative justifications are needed. The development of the modern mechanistic approach to death is traced, showing that a possible basis for an humane way of death lies in a reacceptance of a metaphysical concept of life. PMID:1100831

  6. HVM die yield improvement as a function of DRSEM ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwary, Sonu; Haas, Terry; McGarvey, Steve

    2010-03-01

    Given the current manufacturing technology roadmap and the competitiveness of the global semiconductor manufacturing environment in conjunction with the semiconductor manufacturing market dynamics, the market place continues to demand a reduced die manufacturing cost. This continuous pressure on lowering die cost in turn drives an aggressive yield learning curve, a key component of which is defect reduction of manufacturing induced anomalies. In order to meet and even exceed line and die yield targets there is a need to revamp defect classification strategies and place a greater emphasize on increasing the accuracy and purity of the Defect Review Scanning Electron Microscope (DRSEM) Automated Defect Classification (ADC) results while placing less emphasis on the ADC results of patterned/un-patterned wafer inspection systems. The increased emphasis on DRSEM ADC results allows for a high degree of automation and consistency in the classification data and eliminates variance induced by the manufacturing staff. This paper examines the use of SEM based Auto Defect Classification in a high volume manufacturing environment as a key driver in the reduction of defect limited yields.

  7. Results from prototype die-to-database reticle inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Bo; Dayal, Aditya; Broadbent, Bill; Lim, Phillip; Goonesekera, Arosha; Chen, Chunlin; Yeung, Kevin; Pinto, Becky

    2009-03-01

    A prototype die-to-database high-resolution reticle defect inspection system has been developed for 32nm and below logic reticles, and 4X Half Pitch (HP) production and 3X HP development memory reticles. These nodes will use predominantly 193nm immersion lithography (with some layers double patterned), although EUV may also be used. Many different reticle types may be used for these generations including: binary (COG, EAPSM), simple tritone, complex tritone, high transmission, dark field alternating (APSM), mask enhancer, CPL, and EUV. Finally, aggressive model based OPC is typically used, which includes many small structures such as jogs, serifs, and SRAF (sub-resolution assist features), accompanied by very small gaps between adjacent structures. The architecture and performance of the prototype inspection system is described. This system is designed to inspect the aforementioned reticle types in die-todatabase mode. Die-to-database inspection results are shown on standard programmed defect test reticles, as well as advanced 32nm logic, and 4X HP and 3X HP memory reticles from industry sources. Direct comparisons with currentgeneration inspection systems show measurable sensitivity improvement and a reduction in false detections.

  8. Chaperone Hsp27, a Novel Subunit of AUF1 Protein Complexes, Functions in AU-Rich Element-Mediated mRNA Decay▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Sinsimer, Kristina S.; Gratacós, Frances M.; Knapinska, Anna M.; Lu, Jiebo; Krause, Christopher D.; Wierzbowski, Alexandria V.; Maher, Lauren R.; Scrudato, Shannon; Rivera, Yonaira M.; Gupta, Swati; Turrin, Danielle K.; De La Cruz, Mary Pauline; Pestka, Sidney; Brewer, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Controlled, transient cytokine production by monocytes depends heavily upon rapid mRNA degradation, conferred by 3′ untranslated region-localized AU-rich elements (AREs) that associate with RNA-binding proteins. The ARE-binding protein AUF1 forms a complex with cap-dependent translation initiation factors and heat shock proteins to attract the mRNA degradation machinery. We refer to this protein assembly as the AUF1- and signal transduction-regulated complex, ASTRC. Rapid degradation of ARE-bearing mRNAs (ARE-mRNAs) requires ubiquitination of AUF1 and its destruction by proteasomes. Activation of monocytes by adhesion to capillary endothelium at sites of tissue damage and subsequent proinflammatory cytokine induction are prominent features of inflammation, and ARE-mRNA stabilization plays a critical role in the induction process. Here, we demonstrate activation-induced subunit rearrangements within ASTRC and identify chaperone Hsp27 as a novel subunit that is itself an ARE-binding protein essential for rapid ARE-mRNA degradation. As Hsp27 has well-characterized roles in protein ubiquitination as well as in adhesion-induced cytoskeletal remodeling and cell motility, its association with ASTRC may provide a sensing mechanism to couple proinflammatory cytokine induction with monocyte adhesion and motility. PMID:18573886

  9. Estimating the spatial distribution of acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) and associated risk factors using emergency call data in India. A symptom-based approach for public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kauhl, Boris; Pilot, Eva; Rao, Ramana; Gruebner, Oliver; Schweikart, Jürgen; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The System for Early-warning based on Emergency Data (SEED) is a pilot project to evaluate the use of emergency call data with the main complaint acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) for syndromic surveillance in India. While spatio-temporal methods provide signals to detect potential disease outbreaks, additional information about socio-ecological exposure factors and the main population at risk is necessary for evidence-based public health interventions and future preparedness strategies. The goal of this study is to investigate whether a spatial epidemiological analysis at the ecological level provides information on urban-rural inequalities, socio-ecological exposure factors and the main population at risk for AUF. Our results displayed higher risks in rural areas with strong local variation. Household industries and proximity to forests were the main socio-ecological exposure factors and scheduled tribes were the main population at risk for AUF. These results provide additional information for syndromic surveillance and could be used for evidence-based public health interventions and future preparedness strategies. PMID:25463924

  10. 43 CFR 2803.12 - What happens to my application or grant if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens to my application or grant if I die? 2803.12 Section 2803.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... What happens to my application or grant if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant holder dies,...

  11. 43 CFR 2803.12 - What happens to my application or grant if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens to my application or grant if I die? 2803.12 Section 2803.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... What happens to my application or grant if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant holder dies,...

  12. 19 CFR 148.54 - Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad... § 148.54 Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad. (a) Exemption. Articles claimed to be personal... United States who died abroad may be allowed entry free of duty and tax under subheading 9804.00.85,...

  13. 19 CFR 148.54 - Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad... § 148.54 Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad. (a) Exemption. Articles claimed to be personal... United States who died abroad may be allowed entry free of duty and tax under subheading 9804.00.85,...

  14. 43 CFR 2883.14 - What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? 2883.14 Section 2883.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant or TUP holder dies,...

  15. Strippable grid facilitates removal of grid-surfaced conical workpiece from die

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruppe, E. P.

    1966-01-01

    Female die facilitates the removal of a sheet metal structure from a die used for explosive forming of the metal. The female die consists of a smooth conical frustum made of fiber glass with a cured epoxy-resin surface on which a molded grid pattern made of a polyurethane resin is overlaid.

  16. Method of making cascaded die mountings with springs-loaded contact-bond options

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2007-06-19

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  17. 43 CFR 2883.14 - What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? 2883.14 Section 2883.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant or TUP holder dies,...

  18. 43 CFR 2803.12 - What happens to my application or grant if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens to my application or grant if I die? 2803.12 Section 2803.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... What happens to my application or grant if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant holder dies,...

  19. 19 CFR 148.54 - Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad... § 148.54 Exemption for effects of citizens dying abroad. (a) Exemption. Articles claimed to be personal... United States who died abroad may be allowed entry free of duty and tax under subheading 9804.00.85,...

  20. 43 CFR 2883.14 - What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? 2883.14 Section 2883.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant or TUP holder dies,...

  1. 26 CFR 20.2201-1 - Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Members of the Armed Forces dying during an... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES ESTATE TAX; ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING AFTER AUGUST 16, 1954 Miscellaneous § 20.2201-1 Members of the Armed Forces dying during an induction period. (a) The...

  2. 43 CFR 2883.14 - What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? 2883.14 Section 2883.14 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... happens to my application, grant, or TUP if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant or TUP holder dies,...

  3. 43 CFR 2803.12 - What happens to my application or grant if I die?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens to my application or grant if I die? 2803.12 Section 2803.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands... What happens to my application or grant if I die? (a) If an applicant or grant holder dies,...

  4. Palliative and Curative Care Nurses' Attitudes Toward Dying and Death in the Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    Examined sociodemographic background, nursing unit, amount of experience caring for dying patients, death anxiety, and attitudes toward working with dying patients among 56 nurses in palliative, surgical, and pediatric services. Work setting was found to be a more significant force in shaping attitudes toward caring for the dying than was…

  5. Cascaded die mountings with spring-loaded contact-bond options

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.; Su, Gui-Jia; Marlino, Laura D.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester

    2005-08-16

    A cascaded die mounting device and method using spring contacts for die attachment, with or without metallic bonds between the contacts and the dies, is disclosed. One embodiment is for the direct refrigerant cooling of an inverter/converter carrying higher power levels than most of the low power circuits previously taught, and does not require using a heat sink.

  6. 38 CFR 11.128 - Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Veteran dies without... Amended (pub. L. 120, 68th Cong.) § 11.128 Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement. If the veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement under the...

  7. 38 CFR 11.128 - Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Veteran dies without... Amended (pub. L. 120, 68th Cong.) § 11.128 Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement. If the veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement under the...

  8. 20 CFR 416.1266 - Individual under special resource provision dies after December 1973.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dies after December 1973. 416.1266 Section 416.1266 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... under special resource provision dies after December 1973. Where only one person, either the eligible individual or the eligible spouse, meets the conditions specified in § 416.1260 and that person dies...

  9. 43 CFR 3202.13 - What happens if the applicant dies before the lease is issued?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens if the applicant dies before...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lessee Qualifications § 3202.13 What happens if the applicant dies before the lease is issued? If the applicant dies before the lease is issued, BLM will issue the lease to...

  10. 20 CFR 416.1266 - Individual under special resource provision dies after December 1973.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dies after December 1973. 416.1266 Section 416.1266 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... under special resource provision dies after December 1973. Where only one person, either the eligible individual or the eligible spouse, meets the conditions specified in § 416.1260 and that person dies...

  11. 20 CFR 416.1266 - Individual under special resource provision dies after December 1973.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dies after December 1973. 416.1266 Section 416.1266 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... under special resource provision dies after December 1973. Where only one person, either the eligible individual or the eligible spouse, meets the conditions specified in § 416.1260 and that person dies...

  12. 43 CFR 3202.13 - What happens if the applicant dies before the lease is issued?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens if the applicant dies before...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lessee Qualifications § 3202.13 What happens if the applicant dies before the lease is issued? If the applicant dies before the lease is issued, BLM will issue the lease to...

  13. 38 CFR 11.128 - Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Veteran dies without... Amended (pub. L. 120, 68th Cong.) § 11.128 Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement. If the veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement under the...

  14. 38 CFR 11.128 - Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Veteran dies without... Amended (pub. L. 120, 68th Cong.) § 11.128 Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement. If the veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement under the...

  15. 43 CFR 3202.13 - What happens if the applicant dies before the lease is issued?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if the applicant dies before...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lessee Qualifications § 3202.13 What happens if the applicant dies before the lease is issued? If the applicant dies before the lease is issued, BLM will issue the lease to...

  16. 20 CFR 416.1266 - Individual under special resource provision dies after December 1973.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dies after December 1973. 416.1266 Section 416.1266 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... under special resource provision dies after December 1973. Where only one person, either the eligible individual or the eligible spouse, meets the conditions specified in § 416.1260 and that person dies...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1266 - Individual under special resource provision dies after December 1973.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dies after December 1973. 416.1266 Section 416.1266 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... under special resource provision dies after December 1973. Where only one person, either the eligible individual or the eligible spouse, meets the conditions specified in § 416.1260 and that person dies...

  18. 38 CFR 11.128 - Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Veteran dies without... Amended (pub. L. 120, 68th Cong.) § 11.128 Veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement. If the veteran dies without having filed application for final settlement under the...

  19. 43 CFR 3202.13 - What happens if the applicant dies before the lease is issued?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if the applicant dies before...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Lessee Qualifications § 3202.13 What happens if the applicant dies before the lease is issued? If the applicant dies before the lease is issued, BLM will issue the lease to...

  20. Impact of Injection Slot Width and Final Composite Thickness for Attached-Die and Detached-Die Tapered Resin Injection Pultrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjit, S.; Roux, J. A.; Jeswani, A. L.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of two geometric design parameters (injection slot width and final composite thickness) on achieving complete wetout of the fiber reinforcement as well as the corresponding maximum chamber wall resin pressure inside a resin injection chamber for both the attached-die and detached-die configurations for various injection chamber lengths and compression ratios. This work compares the performances of the detached-die with the attached-die resin injection chamber configurations and determines the feasible manufacturing solutions.

  1. Chandra Observations of Dying Radio Sources in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims. We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods. We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results. The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions. We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  2. Impact of Simulation Technology on Die and Stamping Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Mark W.

    2005-08-01

    Over the last ten years, we have seen an explosion in the use of simulation-based techniques to improve the engineering, construction, and operation of GM production tools. The impact has been as profound as the overall switch to CAD/CAM from the old manual design and construction methods. The changeover to N/C machining from duplicating milling machines brought advances in accuracy and speed to our construction activity. It also brought significant reductions in fitting sculptured surfaces. Changing over to CAD design brought similar advances in accuracy, and today's use of solid modeling has enhanced that accuracy gain while finally leading to the reduction in lead time and cost through the development of parametric techniques. Elimination of paper drawings for die design, along with the process of blueprinting and distribution, provided the savings required to install high capacity computer servers, high-speed data transmission lines and integrated networks. These historic changes in the application of CAE technology in manufacturing engineering paved the way for the implementation of simulation to all aspects of our business. The benefits are being realized now, and the future holds even greater promise as the simulation techniques mature and expand. Every new line of dies is verified prior to casting for interference free operation. Sheet metal forming simulation validates the material flow, eliminating the high costs of physical experimentation dependent on trial and error methods of the past. Integrated forming simulation and die structural analysis and optimization has led to a reduction in die size and weight on the order of 30% or more. The latest techniques in factory simulation enable analysis of automated press lines, including all stamping operations with corresponding automation. This leads to manufacturing lines capable of running at higher levels of throughput, with actual results providing the capability of two or more additional strokes per

  3. Chandra observations of dying radio sources in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgia, M.; Markevitch, M.; Govoni, F.; Parma, P.; Fanti, R.; de Ruiter, H. R.; Mack, K.-H.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The dying radio sources represent a very interesting and largely unexplored stage of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) evolution. They are considered to be very rare, and almost all of the few known ones were found in galaxy clusters. However, considering the small number detected so far, it has not been possible to draw any firm conclusions about their X-ray environment. Aims: We present X-ray observations performed with the Chandra satellite of the three galaxy clusters Abell 2276, ZwCl 1829.3+6912, and RX J1852.1+5711, which harbor at their center a dying radio source with an ultra-steep spectrum that we recently discovered. Methods: We analyzed the physical properties of the X-ray emitting gas surrounding these elusive radio sources. We determined the global X-ray properties of the clusters, derived the azimuthally averaged profiles of metal abundance, gas temperature, density, and pressure. Furthermore, we estimated the total mass profiles. Results: The large-scale X-ray emission is regular and spherical, suggesting a relaxed state for these systems. Indeed, we found that the three clusters are also characterized by significant enhancements in the metal abundance and declining temperature profiles toward the central region. For all these reasons, we classified RX J1852.1+5711, Abell 2276, and ZwCl 1829.3+6912 as cool-core galaxy clusters. Conclusions: We calculated the non-thermal pressure of the radio lobes assuming that the radio sources are in the minimum energy condition. For all dying sources we found that this is on average about one to two orders of magnitude lower than that of the external gas, as found for many other radio sources at the center of galaxy groups and clusters. We found marginal evidence for the presence of X-ray surface brightness depressions coincident with the fossil radio lobes of the dying sources in A2276 and ZwCl 1829.3+691. We estimated the outburst age and energy output for these two dying sources. The energy power from

  4. Exchange bias effect in Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles induced by the charge transfer from gold

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Bauer, John C; Gai, Zheng; Marques, Carlos; Aronson, Meigan C.; Teng, Xiaowei; Su, Dong; Stanic, Vesna; Urban, Volker S; Kevin, Beyer; et al

    2015-08-10

    We have studied the origin of the exchange bias effect in the Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles in two samples with different sizes of the Au seed nanoparticles (4.1 and 2.7 nm) and same size of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (9.8 nm). The magnetization, small-angle neutron scattering, synchrotron x-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscope measurements determined the antiferromagnetic FeO wüstite phase within Fe3O4 nanoparticles, originating at the interface with the Au nanoparticles. The interface between antiferromagnetic FeO and ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 is giving rise to the exchange bias effect. The strength of the exchange bias fields depends on the interfacial area and lattice mismatchmore » between both phases. We propose that the charge transfer from the Au nanoparticles is responsible for a partial reduction of the Fe3O4 into FeO phase at the interface with Au nanoparticles. The Au-O bonds are formed across the interface to accommodate an excess of oxygen released during the reduction of magnetite.« less

  5. Exchange bias effect in Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles induced by the charge transfer from gold

    SciTech Connect

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Bauer, John C.; Gai, Zheng; Marques, Carlos; Aronson, Meigan C.; Teng, Xiaowei; Su, Dong; Stanic, Vesna; Urban, Volker S.; Beyer, Kevin A.; Dai, Sheng

    2015-08-10

    We have studied the origin of the exchange bias effect in the Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles in two samples with different sizes of the Au seed nanoparticles (4.1 and 2.7 nm) and same size of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (9.8 nm). The magnetization, small-angle neutron-scattering, synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and scanning transmission electron microscope measurements determined the antiferromagnetic FeO wustite phase within Fe3O4 nanoparticles, originating at the interface with the Au nanoparticles. The interface between antiferromagnetic FeO and ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 is giving rise to the exchange bias effect. The strength of the exchange bias fields depends on the interfacial area and lattice mismatch between both phases. We propose that the charge transfer from the Au nanoparticles is responsible for a partial reduction of the Fe3O4 into the FeO phase at the interface with Au nanoparticles. The Au-O bonds are formed, presumably across the interface to accommodate an excess of oxygen released during the reduction of magnetite

  6. A Huaier polysaccharide reduced metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells via modulating AUF-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Honghai; Yang, Gengxia; Hao, Meijun; Sheng, Shoupeng; Sun, Yu; Long, Jiang; Hu, Caixia; Sun, Xicai; Li, Li; Zheng, Jiasheng

    2015-08-01

    TP-1 is a polysaccharide from one famous fungus Huaier. Treatment with TP-1 significantly inhibited the cell growth, adhesion, migration, and motility of SMMC-7721 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR revealed a dose-dependent decrease in RNA-binding factor 1 (AUF-1) and astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in TP-1-treated SMMC-7721 cells, which is consistent with their protein expression detected by Western blotting. On the contrary, microRNA-122 (miR-122) expression increased in SMMC-7721 cells following TP-1 treatment. Moreover, TP-1 treatment at three doses apparently increased epithelial marker E-cadherin protein expression but decreased the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin protein level. In addition, the hematoxylin-eosin (H & E) staining showed that the TP-1 significantly inhibited the lung metastasis of liver cancer in mice orthotopic implanted with SMMC-7721 tumor tissue. Taken together, these findings proved the inhibitory effect of TP-1 on the growth and metastasis of SMMC-7721 cells, and TP-1 might be offered for future application as a powerful chemopreventive agent against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis. PMID:25787750

  7. Organisationsübergreifendes Management von Föderations-Sicherheitsmetadaten auf Basis einer Service-Bus-Architektur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Stephan; Hommel, Wolfgang

    In service-orientierten Architekturen wird die herkömmliche web-service-basierte Punkt-zu-Punkt-Kommunikation zunehmend durch den Einsatz eines Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) abgelöst, der den sicheren und zuverlässigen Nachrichtentransport realisiert. Der Einsatzbereich eines ESB endet jedoch an den Grenzen der ihn einsetzenden Institution. In diesem Artikel analysieren wir aktuelle Herausforderungen bei der organisationsübergreifenden Verwaltung von Sicherheitsmetadaten, zu denen insbesondere Serverzertifikate und Privacy Policies gehören. Als konkretes Szenario wird dabei das Federated Identity Management im Rahmen der deutschen Hochschulföderation DFN-AAI aufgegriffen. Als standardbasierte, einheitliche Lösung, die proprietäre sowie metadatentyp-spezifische Ansätze integriert und den damit verbundenen Administrationsaufwand reduziert, schlagen wir einen organisationsübergreifenden ESB vor, den wir als Federation Service Bus (FedSB) bezeichnen. Wir diskutieren seine technischen Eigenschaften, das zugrunde liegende Kommunikationsmodell und die organisatorischen Schritte zur Einführung.

  8. Das Neutron, der Kosmos und die Kräfte: Neutronen in der Teilchenphysik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldner, Torsten

    2003-05-01

    Das Neutron besitzt eine einzigartige Kombination von Eigenschaften. Sie ermöglicht die Untersuchung aller vier elementaren Kräfte. Dabei wurden beeindruckende Resultate erzielt, wie die Präzisionsmessungen der elektrischen Ladung des Neutrons oder der Feinstrukturkonstante zeigen. Die genaue Bestimmung der schwachen Wechselwirkungsstärke der Nukleonen liefert der Astrophysik wichtige Daten. Die Messung eines von Null verschiedenen elektrischen Dipolmoments des Neutrons könnte einen entscheidenden Hinweis über die Physik jenseits des Standardmodells der Teilchenphysik geben. Doch auch zur Aufklärung von Unsicherheiten innerhalb des Standardmodells selbst tragen Neutronen bei.

  9. Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography as a Method for Finding Die Attach Voids in Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brahm, E. N.; Rolin, T. D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA analyzes electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts used in space vehicles to understand failure modes of these components. The diode is an EEE part critical to NASA missions that can fail due to excessive voiding in the die attach. Metallography, one established method for studying the die attach, is a time-intensive, destructive, and equivocal process whereby mechanical grinding of the diodes is performed to reveal voiding in the die attach. Problems such as die attach pull-out tend to complicate results and can lead to erroneous conclusions. The objective of this study is to determine if three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT), a nondestructive technique, is a viable alternative to metallography for detecting die attach voiding. The die attach voiding in two- dimensional planes created from 3DCT scans was compared to several physical cross sections of the same diode to determine if the 3DCT scan accurately recreates die attach volumetric variability

  10. Development of processing diagrams for polymeric die attach adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, Jen-Chou

    With a processing diagram, one can reduce the effort required to customize curing process conditions for polymeric die attach adhesives. Polymeric die attach adhesives are often cured per the manufacturer's recommendations during initial screening evaluations. In most cases, the recommended cure schedules have to be modified so as to fit differences in process equipment. Unfortunately, the modified cure schedule is usually determined by a trial-and-error method. An aim of our experiments is to understand the curing process of a wide range of polymeric die attach adhesives (conventional, fast, and snap cure adhesives) and to construct a processing diagram, i.e., "Bondability Diagram", so as to define the processing window. Such diagrams should be helpful in determining both the time and cure temperature required to produce high quality bonds. The bondability diagram can be constructed based on fundamental understandings of the phenomena involved in the curing process using a wide variety of tools. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is utilized to study the cure kinetics and the extent of reaction. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) is used to determine gelation times and melt viscosity under a shear mode. A modified Rheovibron is employed to perform cure characterizations under a tensile mode so that cure stresses could be determined. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) is used to evaluate the outgassing phenomena. Optical Microscopy (OM) is used to detect voids. Results indicate that the cure behaviors of conventional, fast, and snap cure adhesives are different in several respects. The combination of DSC, DMA, TGA, OM, and lap shear test leads to a frame work of developing the bondability diagram concept. The bondability diagram concept provides a foundation for an understanding of the recommended cure schedule and allows one to design their own cure schedule.

  11. Sex Change Towards Female in Dying Acer rufinerve Trees

    PubMed Central

    NANAMI, SATOSHI; KAWAGUCHI, HIDEYUKI; YAMAKURA, TAKUO

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Sex changes within the genus Acer (Aceraceae) may occur because of associations of sex expression and plant health. In this study, a natural population of Acer rufinerve was monitored to clarify the sex change patterns, the relationship between sex expression and plant health, and the causal environmental conditions that precede sex changes. • Methods Sex expression, growth rate and mortality of A. rufinerve trees in a natural population were monitored from 1992 to 1997. • Key Results Three types of sex expression were observed among A. rufinerve: male, female and bisexual. Among the three types of sex expression, sex changes occurred in all directions. In the growing season of 1994, precipitation was reduced. Stem growth rate decreased and mortality was high in 1994. In the spring of 1995, a drastic sex change from male to female or to bisexual occurred. As a result, the sex ratio became female‐biased in 1995, although it had been male‐biased from 1992 to 1994. In 1996 and 1997, the proportion of males in the population increased, partly as a result of female mortality and partly as a result of female‐to‐male sex changes. Sex expression of A. rufinerve was associated with their growth rate and mortality. The growth rate decreased for trees whose sex changed from male to female or to bisexual, and increased for trees whose sex changed from female to male or to bisexual. Dead trees reproduced as females before they died, except for those that died as males in 1994. • Conclusions One explanation for the sex change towards increasing femaleness for this A. rufinerve population in 1995 was the deterioration of plant health in the previous growing season, because of reduced precipitation. Sex changes of unhealthy and dying A. rufinerve towards femaleness may facilitate re‐occupancy by offspring in gaps created by the death of A. rufinerve trees. PMID:15102611

  12. Canada on course to introduce permissive assisted dying regime.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo

    2016-08-01

    Canada's Supreme Court decided in February 2015 that the criminalisation of assisted dying in the country violates the country's citizens and residents constitutional rights. This paper reviews policy recommendations produced by a special expert advisory panel appointed by Canada's provinces and territories, where the responsibility for the provision of health care lies. It also reviews a similar document produced by a special federal parliamentary committee. Based on the review of these two milestone documents it is argued that a Canadian consensus seems to emerge that foreshadows a permissive regulatory regime in that country. PMID:27009981

  13. Dying well? A colloquy on euthanasia and assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    Crigger, Bette-Jane

    1992-01-01

    With this special issue the Report once again joins the debate on what patients, physicians, and society can -- and cannot -- live with at the end of life. The articles gathered here address in various ways, from various perspectives, the questions that inform the debate on euthanasia and assisted suicide. Do the canons of self-determination and respect for persons compel us to honor the choices of those who request active assistance in dying? Can we coherently argue that physicians' professional obligations to alleviate suffering extend so far as to taking life on request? To what extent ought our policy decisions rest on consideration of possible consequences? PMID:11642997

  14. A merganser die-off associated with larval eustrongylides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; DeWitt, J.B.; Menzie, C.M.; Kerwin, J.A.

    1964-01-01

    A die-off of red-breasted mergansers on Lake Holly, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was found to be due to a larval Eustrongylides. Massive tissue destruction and hemorrhage was produced by the migration of the larval Eustrongylides. Earlier stages of the same Eustrongylides were found in eastern mosquitofish and silversides upon which the mergansers had been feeding. In addition, residues of DDT were found in mosquitofish, gizzard shad, and five mergansers collected from Lake Holly, and in the tissues of two mergansers from Back Bay, Virginia. However, the information available was insufficient to establish the significance of these residue levels.

  15. Spray forming system for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, Kevin M.

    2000-01-01

    A system for the spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as powders, whiskers or fibers.

  16. Spray forming process for producing molds, dies and related tooling

    DOEpatents

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1998-02-17

    A method is disclosed for spray forming manufacturing of near-net-shape molds, dies and related toolings, wherein liquid material such as molten metal, metallic alloys, or polymers are atomized into fine droplets by a high temperature, high velocity gas and deposited onto a pattern. Quenching of the atomized droplets provides a heat sink, thereby allowing undercooled and partially solidified droplets to be formed in-flight. Composites can be formed by combining the atomized droplets with solid particles such as whiskers or fibers. 17 figs.

  17. Social work with dying and bereaved clients: helping the workers.

    PubMed

    Davidson, K W; Foster, Z

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers the stresses and satisfactions experienced by health care social workers as they help clients with grief and loss at a time of great fiscal restraint. Their clients face life-threatening illnesses such as AIDS and many forms of cancer. There are untimely losses in families and communities whose resources are dwindling. As social workers confront struggles with death and bereavement, they may receive limited support to deal with these stresses in their work. The authors suggest administrative strategies both to help workers reduce stress and increase satisfactions and to demonstrate the value of social work services to dying and bereaved clients along a continuum of health care. PMID:8560366

  18. Reliability Testing the Die-Attach of CPV Cell Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.; Sweet, C.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01

    Results and progress are reported for a course of work to establish an efficient reliability test for the die-attach of CPV cell assemblies. Test vehicle design consists of a ~1 cm2 multijunction cell attached to a substrate via several processes. A thermal cycling sequence is developed in a test-to-failure protocol. Methods of detecting a failed or failing joint are prerequisite for this work; therefore both in-situ and non-destructive methods, including infrared imaging techniques, are being explored as a method to quickly detect non-ideal or failing bonds.

  19. Methodological issues associated with studying an illegal act: assisted dying.

    PubMed

    Volker, Deborah L

    2004-01-01

    The experience of receiving patient requests for assistance in prematurely ending life can represent both an ethical and legal dilemma for nurses in the United States. Similarly, the study of nurses' involvement with such a sensitive topic also poses risks to the study participants, the researcher, and the nursing profession's covenant with society. The purpose of this article is to explore methodological issues and approaches associated with studying an ethically and legally sensitive issue, and to describe application of these approaches to a study of oncology nurses' experiences with receiving requests for assisted dying from terminally ill patients with cancer. PMID:15206683

  20. [What can psychiatrists do for patients who want to die?].

    PubMed

    Okajima, Yoshiro

    2005-01-01

    The desire to commit suicide frequently arises in mentally ill patients, but how to present a persuasive argument to dissuade these patients from committing suicide remains a difficult challenge. This issue is considered below, while referring to the highly publicized Chabot case, in which a psychiatrist assisted in the suicide of a patient who was depressed by the loss of two sons under unfortunate circumstances. Euthanasia, or assisted suicide, has generally been criticized for the following reasons: 1) It is impossible to ascertain whether the free will of the patient, considered to be the fundamental basis for self-determination, was intact at the time of performing the procedure. 2) If the practice becomes widespread, then there exists the potential for vulnerable patients to receive perfunctory medical care; 3) Frequently, the desire to die is transient and ambivalent; 4) The ramifications associated with death extend beyond the individual and may be particularly acute with the family. Each of these arguments can be used as a logical counterargument to suicide, and, to the extent that they are based on the fact that death is irreversible, they are effective. However, although we are generally opposed to euthanasia and assisted suicide, we believe that these arguments are ill-suited for convincing individual patients not to commit suicide. An overview of discussions of the Chabot case is considered useful for reflecting on ways to prevent suicide, including psychotherapeutic relationships. The issue of how to respond to patients at a high risk of suicide in Japan is also considered based on these discussions. Lacking sufficient criteria for determining the competence of a patient who wants to die, the position that medical treatment can be provided simultaneously while assessing the competence of the patient is considered meaningless. In addition, there is a danger that strongly promoting the treatment of depression in patients at high risk for suicide denies