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1

Bisamide bisthiol compounds useful for making technetium radiodiagnostic renal agents  

DOEpatents

A radiodiagnostic bisamido-bisthio ligand useful for producing Tc-labelled radiodiagnostic renal agents is described. The ligand forms a complex with the radionuclide .sup.99m Tc suitable for administration as a radiopharmaceutical to obtain images of the kidney for diagnosis of kidney disfunction.

Davison, Alan (Needham, MA); Brenner, David (Cambridge, MA); Lister-James, John (Cambridge, MA); Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA)

1987-06-16

2

Fast exposure time decision in multi-exposure HDR imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently available imaging and display system exists the problem of insufficient dynamic range, and the system cannot restore all the information for an high dynamic range (HDR) scene. The number of low dynamic range(LDR) image samples and fastness of exposure time decision impacts the real-time performance of the system dramatically. In order to realize a real-time HDR video acquisition system, this paper proposed a fast and robust method for exposure time selection in under and over exposure area which is based on system response function. The method utilized the monotony of the imaging system. According to this characteristic the exposure time is adjusted to an initial value to make the median value of the image equals to the middle value of the system output range; then adjust the exposure time to make the pixel value on two sides of histogram be the middle value of the system output range. Thus three low dynamic range images are acquired. Experiments show that the proposed method for adjusting the initial exposure time can converge in two iterations which is more fast and stable than average gray control method. As to the exposure time adjusting in under and over exposed area, the proposed method can use the dynamic range of the system more efficiently than fixed exposure time method.

Piao, Yongjie; Jin, Guang

2012-10-01

3

Technetium radiodiagnostic fatty acids derived from bisamide bisthiol ligands  

DOEpatents

A bisamide-bisthiol ligand containing fatty acid substituted thiol useful for producing Tc-labelled radiodiagnostic imaging agents is described. The ligand forms a complex with the radionuclide .sup.99m Tc suitable for administration as a radiopharmaceutical to obtain images of the heart for diagnosis of myocardial disfunction.

Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA); Lister-James, John (Wellesley, MA); Davison, Alan (Needham, MA)

1988-05-24

4

Exposure Influences Expressive Timing Judgments in Music  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening experiment in which listeners with a wide range of…

Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia

2009-01-01

5

Predicting survival time for cold exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The prediction of survival time (ST) for cold exposure is speculative as reliable controlled data of deep hypothermia are unavailable. At best, guidance can be obtained from case histories of accidental exposure. This study describes the development of a mathematical model for the prediction of ST under sedentary conditions in the cold. The model is based on steady-state heat conduction in a single cylinder comprised of a core and two concentric annular shells representing the fat plus skin and the clothing plus still boundary layer, respectively. The ambient condition can be either air or water; the distinction is made by assigning different values of insulation to the still boundary layer. Metabolic heat production ( M) is comprised of resting and shivering components with the latter predicted by temperature signals from the core and skin. Where the cold exposure is too severe for M to balance heat loss, ST is largely determined by the rate of heat loss from the body. Where a balance occurs, ST is governed by the endurance time for shivering. End of survival is marked by the deep core temperature reaching a value of 30° C. The model was calibrated against survival data of cold water (0 to 20° C) immersion and then applied to cold air exposure. A sampling of ST predictions for the nude exposure of an average healthy male in relatively calm air (1 km/h wind speed) are the following: 1.8, 2.5, 4.1, 9.0, and >24 h for -30, -20, -10, 0, and 10° C, respectively. With two layers of loose clothing (average thickness of 1 mm each) in a 5 km/h wind, STs are 4.0, 5.6, 8.6, 15.4, and >24 h for -50, -40, -30, -20, and -10° C. The predicted STs must be weighted against the extrapolative nature of the model. At present, it would be prudent to use the predictions in a relative sense, that is, to compare or rank-order predicted STs for various combinations of ambient conditions and clothing protection.

Tikuisis, Peter

1995-06-01

6

The WFIRST Galaxy Survey Exposure Time Calculator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes the exposure time calculator for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) high-latitude survey. The calculator works in both imaging and spectroscopic modes. In addition to the standard ETC functions (e.g. background and SN determination), the calculator integrates over the galaxy population and forecasts the density and redshift distribution of galaxy shapes usable for weak lensing (in imaging mode) and the detected emission lines (in spectroscopic mode). The source code is made available for public use.

Hirata, Christopher M.; Gehrels, Neil; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kruk, Jeffrey; Rhodes, Jason; Wang, Yun; Zoubian, Julien

2013-01-01

7

Effects of exposure time on the image in atmospheric turbulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image distortions during the propagation of optical beam in the turbulent atmosphere are provoked. Exposure time has effect on the space distribution characteristics of light image in the focal-plane CCD or CMOS sensor. The effect of exposure time on the spot size and shape is analyzed both theoretically and experimentally. The expression of spot size variable with exposure time has

Chong Gao; Jing Ma; Li-Ying Tan

2007-01-01

8

Effects of Graduated Exposure with Feedback of Exposure Times on Snake Phobias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The subject-controlled graduated exposure of a snake with feedback of exposure times resulted in significantly less avoidance behaviors for snake-phobic subjects than for control snake-phobic subjects who did not receive therapy. (Author)

Becker, Horst G.; Costello, C. G.

1975-01-01

9

MEASUREMENT AND DECOMPOSITION OF TOTAL EXPOSURE USING THE TOTAL-ISOLATED-BY-MICROENVIRONMENT-EXPOSURE (TIME) MONITOR  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes a new, highly compact and lightweight monitor that directly measures personal exposure resolved into four microenvironments. he device is the "Total-Isolated-by-Microenvironment-Exposure (TIME)" monitor. he monitor can identify electronically a subject's micr...

10

Real time chemical exposure and risk monitor  

DOEpatents

The apparatus of the present invention is a combination of a breath interface and an external exposure dosimeter interface to a chemical analysis device, all controlled by an electronic processor for quantitatively analyzing chemical analysis data from both the breath interface and the external exposure dosimeter for determining internal tissue dose. The method of the present invention is a combination of steps of measuring an external dose, measuring breath content, then analyzing the external dose and breath content and determining internal tissue dose.

Thrall, Karla D. (3804 Alder Lake Ct., West Richland, WA 99353); Kenny, Donald V. (6947 Sparrow La., Worthington, OH 43235); Endres, George W. R. (2112 Briarwood Ct., Richland, WA 99352); Sisk, Daniel R. (1211 Marshall Ave., Richland, WA 99352)

1997-01-01

11

Time-activity relationships to VOC personal exposure factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social and demographic factors have been found to play a significant role in differences between time-activity patterns of population subgroups. Since time-activity patterns largely influence personal exposure to compounds as individuals move across microenvironments, exposure subgroups within the population may be defined by factors that influence daily activity patterns. Socio-demographic and environmental factors that define time-activity subgroups also define quantifiable differences in VOC personal exposures to different sources and individual compounds in the Expolis study. Significant differences in exposures to traffic-related compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were observed in relation to gender, number of children and living alone. Categorization of exposures further indicated time exposed to traffic at work and time in a car as important determinants. Increased exposures to decane, nonane and undecane were observed for males, housewives and self-employed. Categorization of exposures indicated exposure subgroups related to workshop use and living downtown. Higher exposures to 3-carene and ?-pinene commonly found in household cleaning products and fragrances were associated with more children, while exposures to traffic compounds ethylbenzene, m- and p-xylene and o-xylene were reduced with more children. Considerable unexplained variation remained in categorization of exposures associated with home product use and fragrances, due to individual behavior and product choice. More targeted data collection methods in VOC exposure studies for these sources should be used. Living alone was associated with decreased exposures to 2-methyl-1-propanol and 1-butanol, and traffic-related compounds. Identification of these subgroups may help to reduce the large amount of unexplained variation in VOC exposure studies. Further they may help in assessing impacts of urban planning that result in changes in behavior of individuals, resulting in shifts in the patterns of exposure experienced by the population.

Edwards, Rufus D.; Schweizer, Christian; Llacqua, Vito; Lai, Hak Kan; Jantunen, Matti; Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Künzli, Nino

12

Real time chemical exposure and risk monitor  

DOEpatents

The apparatus of the present invention is a combination of a breath interface and an external exposure dosimeter interface to a chemical analysis device, all controlled by an electronic processor for quantitatively analyzing chemical analysis data from both the breath interface and the external exposure dosimeter for determining internal tissue dose. The method of the present invention is a combination of steps of measuring an external dose, measuring breath content, then analyzing the external dose and breath content and determining internal tissue dose. 7 figs.

Thrall, K.D.; Kenny, D.V.; Endres, G.W.R.; Sisk, D.R.

1997-07-08

13

Sources of time-varying exchange rate exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report evidence of a time-varying link between returns on national stock market indexes and exchange rate returns (exchange\\u000a rate exposure). We use this evidence to analyze the sources of changes over time in exchange rate exposure. Using monthly\\u000a data for 14 industrialized countries for the period 1975–2006, we report evidence of a cointegration relation between exchange\\u000a rate exposure and

Christian Pierdzioch; Renatas Kizys

2010-01-01

14

Exposure Time Optimization for Highly Dynamic Star Trackers  

PubMed Central

Under highly dynamic conditions, the star-spots on the image sensor of a star tracker move across many pixels during the exposure time, which will reduce star detection sensitivity and increase star location errors. However, this kind of effect can be compensated well by setting an appropriate exposure time. This paper focuses on how exposure time affects the star tracker under highly dynamic conditions and how to determine the most appropriate exposure time for this case. Firstly, the effect of exposure time on star detection sensitivity is analyzed by establishing the dynamic star-spot imaging model. Then the star location error is deduced based on the error analysis of the sub-pixel centroiding algorithm. Combining these analyses, the effect of exposure time on attitude accuracy is finally determined. Some simulations are carried out to validate these effects, and the results show that there are different optimal exposure times for different angular velocities of a star tracker with a given configuration. In addition, the results of night sky experiments using a real star tracker agree with the simulation results. The summarized regularities in this paper should prove helpful in the system design and dynamic performance evaluation of the highly dynamic star trackers. PMID:24618776

Wei, Xinguo; Tan, Wei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Guangjun

2014-01-01

15

Calibration Lamp Exposure Time Estimates Date: April 30, 2002  

E-print Network

, COS Instrument Scientist Date Reviewed By: Jon A. Morse 3/13/01 Dr. Jon Morse, COS Project Scientist Astronomy Reviewed: Approved: Calibration Lamp Exposure Time Estimates Size Code Indent No. Document No. Rev

Colorado at Boulder, University of

16

Return-based style analysis with time-varying exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the estimation of mutual fund styles by return-based style analysis. Often the investment style is assumed to be constant through time. Alternatively, time variation is sometimes implicitly accounted for by using rolling regressions when estimating the style exposures. The former assumption is often contradicted empirically, and the latter is inefficient due to its ad hoc chosen

Laurens Swinkels; Pieter J. Van Der Sluis

2006-01-01

17

Ultraviolet-radiation and health: optimal time for sun exposure.  

PubMed

Positive as well as negative health effects of exposure of human skin to UV radiation depend on spectra and fluence rates, both of which being dependent on latitude, time of the day and several other factors. The major positive effects are related to vitamin D photosynthesis and the major negative effect is skin cancer development. The action spectra for these effects are different. This lead us to conclude that for optimal vitamin D synthesis at minimal risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM), the best time for sun exposure is between 10 a.m. and 1 p.m. Thus, the common health recommendation (that sun exposure should be avoided between the hours of 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. and postponed to the afternoon) may be wrong. PMID:25207380

Moan, Johan; Grigalavicius, Mantas; Dahlback, Arne; Baturaite, Zivile; Juzeniene, Asta

2014-01-01

18

Volatile dose and exposure time impact perception in neighboring plants.  

PubMed

Volatiles emitted from stressed plants can induce resistance in healthy neighbors. It remains unknown, however, how plants perceive volatiles and convert them into internal signals. We exposed lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) to different concentrations of either of two volatiles, nonanal and methyl salicylate (MeSA), over 6 or 24 h. Plant resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, was increased significantly after exposure to a headspace with two concentrations of nonanal for 6 h, and the same pattern emerged after an exposure over 24 h. By contrast, exposure to a low concentration of MeSA over 6 h did not significantly reduce bacterial infections, whereas exposure to the same concentration over 24 h significantly enhanced resistance. The dose-response relation that was apparent after 6 h of MeSA exposure disappeared in the 24 h treatment, in which the three tested concentrations caused indistinguishable, high levels of resistance to P. syringae. A low concentration of a potentially resistance-enhancing volatile sufficed to cause resistance to pathogens in the receiver plant only after long exposure time. Plant-plant signaling appears to involve the accumulation of volatiles in the receiver. PMID:22327276

Girón-Calva, P Saraí; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Heil, Martin

2012-02-01

19

Use of time to pregnancy to study environmental exposures  

SciTech Connect

There is need in reproductive epidemiology for sensitive and convenient screening tools that can be used to study environmental and occupational exposures. The measurement of fecundability (the probability of pregnancy in each cycle) by ascertaining how long it takes couples to conceive, may be useful for this purpose. Theoretically, exposures that interfere with any of the biologic processes involved in achieving pregnancy could lower fecundability among exposed men or women. To evaluate problems with collecting data on time to pregnancy, telephone interviews were conducted with nearly 700 pregnant women who reported having planned their pregnancies. Power curves were developed based on the distribution of time to pregnancy in the interviewed population. These curves indicate that relatively small sample sizes are sufficient for investigating an exposure. For example, the authors estimate that to detect a given 50% drop in mean fecundability with 80% power would require data from 55 exposed and 55 unexposed women who are pregnant. Disadvantages of using time to pregnancy as a reproductive endpoint include susceptibility to selection bias and need for data on several potential confounding variables. The next step in evaluating time to pregnancy as a reproductive endpoint is to apply it in studies of environmental or occupational exposures.

Baird, D.D.; Wilcox, A.J.; Weinberg, C.R.

1986-09-01

20

Novel Monitor Paradigm for Real-Time Exposure Assessment  

PubMed Central

A wearable monitor that can reliably, accurately and continuously measure personal exposure levels of various toxicants would not only accelerate the current environmental and occupational health and safety studies, but also enable new studies that are not possible with the current monitoring technology. Developing such a monitor has been a difficult challenge, and requires innovative sensing science and creative engineering. We have developed, built and tested a wearable monitor for real-time detection of toxic hydrocarbons and acids in environment. The monitor is low-cost, accurate, and user-friendly. In addition, it can communicate wirelessly with a cell phone in which the monitoring results can be processed, displayed, stored and transmitted to a designated computer. We have validated the functions and performance of the monitor, and carried out field tests with workers involving waste management, fire overhaul, and floor-cleaning activities, as well as with first- and second-hand smokers. The averaged exposure levels are in agreement with those determined by the standard NIOSH methods. The monitor provides accurate and real-time exposure assessment for the workers involving different activities. The real-time and continuous monitoring capability makes it possible to correlate the exposure levels with different activities and changes in the microenvironments. The monitor provides unprecedented real-time information that will help advance occupational safety and environmental health studies. It may also be used to better protect workers from occupational overexposure to toxic molecules. PMID:20551996

Negi, Indira; Tsow, Francis; Tanwar, Kshitiz; Zhang, Lihua; Iglesias, Rodrigo A.; Chen, Cheng; Rai, Anant; Forzani, Erica S.; Tao, Nongjian (NJ)

2013-01-01

21

Updated Exposure Times for the COS SMS LSSFN2P  

E-print Network

.: Prepared By: Dr. Steven Penton, COS Software Scientist, CU Date Reviewed By: Dr. Steven Osterman, COS Instrument Scientist, CU Date Reviewed By: Dr. James Green, COS Principal Investegator, CU Date Center of the instrument, be adopted. These exposures times are derived and presented in this document. 2. BACKGROUND

Colorado at Boulder, University of

22

Exposure Measurement Error in Time-Series Studies of Air Pollution: Concepts and Consequences  

E-print Network

1 Exposure Measurement Error in Time-Series Studies of Air Pollution: Concepts and Consequences S in time-series studies 1 11/11/99 Keywords: measurement error, air pollution, time series, exposure of air pollution and health. Because measurement error may have substantial implications for interpreting

Dominici, Francesca

23

Assessing the Impact of Exposure Time and Incapacitation on Longitudinal Trajectories of Criminal Offending  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examine the potential effect of accounting for exposure time by examining the arrests of 272 serious offenders who were paroled at age 18 and followed through age 33. The authors describe the overall change in the arrest rate over the 16-year period, with and without adjustments for exposure time. The authors also estimate latent class models that decompose

Alex R. Piquero; Alfred Blumstein; Robert Brame; Rudy Haapanen; Edward P. Mulvey; Daniel S. Nagin

2001-01-01

24

The Timing of Exposure in Clinic-Based Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examines treatment length and timing of exposure from two child anxiety disorders clinics. Data regarding symptoms and treatment characteristics for 28 youth were prospectively obtained through self, parent, and therapist report at each session. Information regarding length of treatment, timing of exposure initiation, and…

Gryczkowski, Michelle R.; Tiede, Michael S.; Dammann, Julie E.; Jacobsen, Amy Brown; Hale, Lisa R.; Whiteside, Stephen P. H.

2013-01-01

25

Population exposure to ultraviolet radiation in Finland 1920-1995: Exposure trends and a time-series analysis of exposure and cutaneous melanoma incidence  

SciTech Connect

Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the principal cause of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). However, the relation between CMM and UVR exposure is not clear. We present the trends of population exposure to UVR and conduct a time-series analysis of the relation between UVR exposure and incidence of CMM. Data on CMM incidence were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Clothing coverage of the body was scored from archival photographs and the proportion of uncovered skin was used as a measure of solar exposure. Information on the number of sunny resort holidays, duration of annual holidays, and sunscreen sales were obtained from various sources. Exposed skin area doubled from 1920 to 1985. The average duration of annual holidays increased 30-fold. The number of sunny resort holidays and the sales of sunscreens increased rapidly from 1980. CMM was most strongly associated with solar exposure of 5-19 years earlier. There is a considerable decrease in clothing coverage during the 20th century. UVR exposure preceding CMM occurrence 4 years or less does not appear relevant, whereas the period 5-19 years prior to CMM occurrence might be the most relevant period. However, findings of ecological studies may not be applicable at the individual level.

Kojo, Katja [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, 00881 Helsinki (Finland) and School of Public Health, University of Tampere, 33014 Tampere (Finland)]. E-mail: katja.kojo@uta.fi; Jansen, Christer T. [Department of Dermatology, University of Turku, 20540 Turku (Finland); Nybom, Pia [University of Art and Design, 00560 Helsinki (Finland); Huurto, Laura [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Laihia, Jarmo [Department of Dermatology, University of Turku, 20540 Turku (Finland); Ilus, Taina [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Auvinen, Anssi [STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, 00881 Helsinki (Finland); School of Public Health, University of Tampere, 33014 Tampere (Finland)

2006-05-15

26

The design of a miniature personal exposure monitor for continuous real-time data acquisition in electromagnetic field exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

The design of a small, light-weight personal exposure monitor suitable for use in EMF exposure assessment studies is nearing completion at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The monitor is designed to be non-obtrusive, battery operated, and able to continuously record extremely low-frequency (ELF) (1Ohz--500hz) magnetic-field data. It also captures high-frequency (500hz--1OMhz) transients that exceed a preset threshold, retaining the largest transients in memory. The monitor can record one or more days of data on a single easily replaceable, credit-card-size memory (PCMCIA). A battery charge will last a minimum of one day. Batteries are rechargeable and easily replaced. A data-compression algorithm is under development that will be tailored to the efficient compression of low-frequency EMF signals and will permit data to be logged for at least one day before swapping memory cards. The memory cards are readable by a base- station computer that can perform analysis of the data. The monitor is designed to accommodate four inputs supporting full-field sensors as well as a proposed ocular exposure measurement system. Our design effort has shown that a practical personal exposure monitor for EMF can be built based on current technology, continuous logging of real-time ELF waveforms is both feasible and practical, and such a device is appropriate for proposed EMF exposure studies.

Hansen, N.H.; Conroy, T.J.; Wilson, B.W.

1994-06-01

27

Sea lice and salmon population dynamics: effects of exposure time for migratory fish  

E-print Network

Sea lice and salmon population dynamics: effects of exposure time for migratory fish Martin Krkosek of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2R3, Canada 3 Salmon Coast Field Station, Simoom Sound, British Columbia V0 by the migration of wild fishes, which determines the period of exposure to parasites. For Pacific salmon

Lewis, Mark

28

EFFECTS OF THE DURATION AND TIMING OF DIETARY METHYL PARATHION EXPOSURE ON BOBWHITE REPRODUCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Two northern bobwhite (colinus virginianus) reproduction tests were conducted concurrently to evaluate how the duration and time of initiation of methyl parathion exposure affeCted dose-response relationships of reproductive parameters. n the long-term exposure test, pairs of adu...

29

Accounting for Unobservable Exposure Time Bias When Using Medicare Prescription Drug Data  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the prevalence and correlates of unobservable medication exposure time, and to recommend approaches for minimizing bias, in studies using Medicare Part D data.. Sample 179,065 Medicare patients hospitalized for an AMI in 2007 or 2008. Methods We compared two methods for creating medication exposure observation periods using acute care discharge vs. post-acute care discharge dates. We examined options for increasing cohort sizes by requiring different thresholds for observable days, or by using as a covariate, in the observation period. We calculated the extent and health status correlates of unobserved Medicare Part D exposure time and examined its association with receipt of beta-blockers. Results 39% of patients had unobservable time during the 30 day exposure assessment period following acute care; they were significantly older, had more comorbidity and longer acute care stays, had worse 1-year survival, and were significantly less likely to be classified as beta-blocker users. Using the alternative exposure assessment window, only 29% of the sample had unobservable time, and differences between groups were less pronounced. Significant gains in sample size can be obtained by restricting or controlling for the number of observable days required in the exposure assessment period. Conclusions Unobservable exposure time is common among Medicare Part D beneficiaries, and they are often in worse health. To retain patients with unobservable exposure time, we recommend stratifying patients on receipt of post-acute facility-based care, calculating and using observable days as a covariate and, when appropriate, using the discharge date from contiguous post-acute facility care for beginning the exposure assessment period. PMID:24834364

Cook, Elizabeth A.; Schneider, Kathleen M; Chrischilles, Elizabeth; Brooks, John M

2013-01-01

30

BME Estimation of Residential Exposure to Ambient PM10 and Ozone at Multiple Time Scales  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term human exposure to ambient pollutants can be an important contributing or etiologic factor of many chronic diseases. Spatiotemporal estimation (mapping) of long-term exposure at residential areas based on field observations recorded in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Air Quality System often suffer from missing data issues due to the scarce monitoring network across space and the inconsistent recording periods at different monitors. Objective We developed and compared two upscaling methods: UM1 (data aggregation followed by exposure estimation) and UM2 (exposure estimation followed by data aggregation) for the long-term PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 10 ?m) and ozone exposure estimations and applied them in multiple time scales to estimate PM and ozone exposures for the residential areas of the Health Effects of Air Pollution on Lupus (HEAPL) study. Method We used Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) analysis for the two upscaling methods. We performed spatiotemporal cross-validations at multiple time scales by UM1 and UM2 to assess the estimation accuracy across space and time. Results Compared with the kriging method, the integration of soft information by the BME method can effectively increase the estimation accuracy for both pollutants. The spatiotemporal distributions of estimation errors from UM1 and UM2 were similar. The cross-validation results indicated that UM2 is generally better than UM1 in exposure estimations at multiple time scales in terms of predictive accuracy and lack of bias. For yearly PM10 estimations, both approaches have comparable performance, but the implementation of UM1 is associated with much lower computation burden. Conclusion BME-based upscaling methods UM1 and UM2 can assimilate core and site-specific knowledge bases of different formats for long-term exposure estimation. This study shows that UM1 can perform reasonably well when the aggregation process does not alter the spatiotemporal structure of the original data set; otherwise, UM2 is preferable. PMID:19440491

Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Christakos, George; Jerrett, Michael

2009-01-01

31

A study of the effect of nonrandom sampling on the estimation of exposure variability using exposure-time series from the OSHA IMIS health inspection database  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of nonrandom sampling over time may have on the estimation of variability, namely the geometric standard deviation, using time series of personal exposure data.

Martinez, L.T.

1997-05-01

32

Research plan for establishing the effects of time varying noise exposures on community annoyance and acceptability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a community noise survey to determine the effects of time varying noise exposures in residential communities is presented. Complex physical and human variables involved in the health and welfare effects of environmental noise and the number-level tradeoffs and time of day penalties are among the factors considered. Emphasis is placed on community reactions where noise exposures are equal in day or evening but differ in the night time, and the effects of ambient noise on more intense aircraft noise exposures. Thirteen different times of day and types of operation situations with exposed populations up to 8-10 miles from the airport are identified. A detailed personal interview questionnaire as well as specific instructions to interviewers are included.

Borsky, P. N.

1980-01-01

33

Long term exposure to respirable volcanic ash on Montserrat: a time series simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequent ash fallout from long-lived eruptions (with active phases greater than 5 years) may lead to local populations experiencing unacceptably high cumulative exposures to respirable particulate matter. Ash from Montserrat has been shown to contain significant levels of cristobalite and other reactive agents that are associated with an increased risk of developing pneumoconiosis (including silicosis) and other long-term health problems. There are a number of difficulties associated with estimating risks in populations due to uncertain and wide ranging individual exposures, change in behaviour with time and the natural variation in individual response. Present estimates of risk in workers and other population groups are simplifications based on a limited number of exposure measurements taken on Montserrat (1996-1999), and exposure-response curves from epidemiological studies of coal workers exposed to siliceous dust. In this paper we present a method for calculating the long-term cumulative exposure to cristobalite from volcanic ash by Monte Carlo simulation. Code has been written to generate synthetic time series for volcanic activity, rainfall, ash deposition and erosion to give daily ash deposit values and cristobalite fraction at a range of locations. The daily mean personal exposure for PM10 and cristobalite is obtained by sampling from a probability distribution, with distribution parameters dependent on occupation, ground deposit depth and daily weather conditions. Output from multiple runs is processed to calculate the exceedance probability for cumulative exposure over a range of occupation types, locations and exposure periods. Results are interpreted in terms of current occupational standards, and epidemiological exposure-response functions for silicosis are applied to quantify the long-term health risk. Assuming continuing volcanic activity, median risk of silicosis (profusion 1/0 or higher) for an average adult after 20 years continuous exposure is estimated to be approximately 0.5% in northern Montserrat to 1.6% in Cork Hill. The occupational group with the highest exposure to ash are gardeners, with a corresponding 2% to 4% risk of silicosis. In situations where opportunities for in-depth exposure studies are limited, computer simulations provide a good indication of risk based on current expert knowledge. By running the code for a range of input scenarios, the cost-benefit of mitigation measures (such as a programme of active ash clearance) can be estimated. Results also may be used to identify situations where full exposure studies or fieldwork would be beneficial.

Hincks, T. K.; Aspinall, W. P.; Baxter, P. J.; Searl, A.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Woo, G.

2006-01-01

34

Time to pregnancy and occupational exposure to pesticides in fruit growers in The Netherlands.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--Although pesticides are regularly used in agriculture, relatively little is known about possible adverse health effects, especially reproductive effects, due to occupational exposure. This explorative study investigates the relation between exposure of the fruit grower to pesticides and fecundability (probability of pregnancy) in a population of fruit growers. METHODS--The analysis is based on self reported data and includes 91 pregnancies during 1978-1990 of 43 couples. Cox' proportional hazards model was used to analyse time to pregnancy after correction for gravidity and consultation with a physician for fertility problems. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS--Application of pesticides solely by the owner was associated with a long time to pregnancy, resulting in a fecundability ratio of 0.46 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.28-0.77). Similarly a low spraying velocity (< or = 1.5 hectares/h) resulted in a fecundability ratio of 0.47 (95% CI 0.29-0.76) and is associated with the use of older spraying techniques and tractors without a cabin. These factors were assumed to cause high exposure, which was confirmed by exposure measurements in the field. The effect of high exposure was mainly apparent if the couple had intended to become pregnant in the period from March-November (fecundability ratio 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.92). This is the period in which pesticides are applied. Out of the spraying season the effect of a high exposure was absent (fecundability ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.33-2.02). In the high exposure group 28% of the pregnancies had been preceded by consulting a physician because of fertility problems, compared with 8% in the low exposure group. These findings indicate that an adverse effect of exposure to pesticides on fecundability is likely. PMID:8000495

de Cock, J; Westveer, K; Heederik, D; te Velde, E; van Kooij, R

1994-01-01

35

Radiofrequency exposure in the French general population: band, time, location and activity variability.  

PubMed

Information on the exposure of individual persons to radiofrequency (RF) fields is scarce, although such data are crucial in order to develop a suitable exposure assessment method, and frame the hypothesis and design of future epidemiological studies. The main goal of this survey is to assess individual RF exposure on a population basis, while clarifying the relative contribution of different sources to the total exposure. A total of 377 randomly selected people were analyzed. Each participant was supplied with a personal exposure meter for 24-hour measurements (weekday), and kept a time-location-activity diary. Electric field strengths were recorded in 12 different RF bands every 13s. Summary statistics were calculated with the robust regression on order statistics method. Most of the time, recorded field strengths were not detectable with the exposure meter. Total field, cordless phones, WiFi-microwave, and FM transmitters stood apart with a proportion above the detection threshold of 46.6%, 17.2%, 14.1%, and 11.0%, respectively. The total field mean value was 0.201V/m, higher in urban areas, during daytime, among adults, and when moving. When focusing on specific channels, the highest mean exposure resulted from FM sources (0.044V/m), followed by WiFi-microwaves (0.038V/m), cordless phones (0.037V/m), and mobile phones (UMTS: 0.036V/m, UMTS: 0.037V/m). Various factors, however, contributed to a high variability in RF exposure assessment. These population-based estimates should therefore be confirmed by further surveys to better characterize the exposure situation in different microenvironments. PMID:19656570

Viel, Jean-François; Cardis, Elisabeth; Moissonnier, Monika; de Seze, René; Hours, Martine

2009-11-01

36

Statistical Properties of Longitudinal Time-Activity Data for Use in Human Exposure Modeling  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding the longitudinal properties of the time spent in different locations and activities is important in characterizing human exposure to pollutants. The results of a four-season longitudinal time-activity diary study in eight working adults are presented, with the goal ...

37

Investigating the American Time Use Survey from an Exposure Modeling Perspective  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes an evaluation of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' American Time Use Survey (ATUS) for potential use in modeling human exposures to environmental pollutants. The ATUS is a large, on-going, cross-sectional survey of where Americans spend time and what activ...

38

Development of the short time exposure (STE) test: An in vitro eye irritation test using SIRC cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using SIRC (rabbit corneal cell line) cells, we developed an alternative eye irritation test: the short time exposure (STE) test. This STE test is a cytotoxicity test using physiological saline or mineral oil as the test solvent. Evaluation exposure time is short (5min), which is similar to actual exposure situations, and uses the cell viability (CV) at a constant concentration

Yutaka Takahashi; Mirei Koike; Hiroshi Honda; Yuichi Ito; Hitoshi Sakaguchi; Hiroyuki Suzuki; Naohiro Nishiyama

2008-01-01

39

Distinct neurobehavioral dysfunction based on the timing of developmental binge-like alcohol exposure.  

PubMed

Gestational exposure to alcohol can result in long-lasting behavioral deficiencies generally described as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD-modeled rodent studies of acute ethanol exposure typically select one developmental window to simulate a specific context equivalent of human embryogenesis, and study consequences of ethanol exposure within that particular developmental epoch. Exposure timing is likely a large determinant in the neurobehavioral consequence of early ethanol exposure, as each brain region is variably susceptible to ethanol cytotoxicity and has unique sensitive periods in their development. We made a parallel comparison of the long-term effects of single-day binge ethanol at either embryonic day 8 (E8) or postnatal day 7 (P7) in male and female mice, and here demonstrate the differential long-term impacts on neuroanatomy, behavior and in vivo electrophysiology of two systems with very different developmental trajectories. The significant long-term differences in odor-evoked activity, local circuit inhibition, and spontaneous coherence between brain regions in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway that were found as a result of developmental ethanol exposure, varied based on insult timing. Long-term effects on cell proliferation and interneuron cell density were also found to vary by insult timing as well as by region. Finally, spatial memory performance and object exploration were affected in P7-exposed mice, but not E8-exposed mice. Our physiology and behavioral results are conceptually coherent with the neuroanatomical data attained from these same mice. Our results recognize both variable and shared effects of ethanol exposure timing on long-term circuit function and their supported behavior. PMID:25241068

Sadrian, B; Lopez-Guzman, M; Wilson, D A; Saito, M

2014-11-01

40

Chronic Ethanol Exposure Produces Time- and Brain Region-Dependent Changes in Gene Coexpression Networks  

PubMed Central

Repeated ethanol exposure and withdrawal in mice increases voluntary drinking and represents an animal model of physical dependence. We examined time- and brain region-dependent changes in gene coexpression networks in amygdala (AMY), nucleus accumbens (NAC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and liver after four weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure in C57BL/6J mice. Microarrays were used to compare gene expression profiles at 0-, 8-, and 120-hours following the last ethanol exposure. Each brain region exhibited a large number of differentially expressed genes (2,000-3,000) at the 0- and 8-hour time points, but fewer changes were detected at the 120-hour time point (400-600). Within each region, there was little gene overlap across time (~20%). All brain regions were significantly enriched with differentially expressed immune-related genes at the 8-hour time point. Weighted gene correlation network analysis identified modules that were highly enriched with differentially expressed genes at the 0- and 8-hour time points with virtually no enrichment at 120 hours. Modules enriched for both ethanol-responsive and cell-specific genes were identified in each brain region. These results indicate that chronic alcohol exposure causes global ‘rewiring‘ of coexpression systems involving glial and immune signaling as well as neuronal genes. PMID:25803291

Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth A.; Becker, Howard C.; Lopez, Marcelo F.; Farris, Sean P.; Tiwari, Gayatri R.; Nunez, Yury O.; Harris, R. Adron; Mayfield, R. Dayne

2015-01-01

41

Effective denitrification at the groundwater surface-water interface: exposure rather than residence time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective processing of material in aquatic systems, e. g. removal of nitrate upon denitrification, requires sufficient reaction time. This statement sounds trivial albeit its implication for biogeochemistry seems to be not fully recognized. The time teff required for effective processing of nitrate is controlled by the underlying biogeochemical rate law. In the simplest case of a 1st order reaction, teff is often calculated as the time when 63% of the initial concentration is consumed setting teff as 1/kreaction. It may, however, be more appropriate to derive teff,90%or teff,99% from the respective rate law. Hence a minimum time t > teff is required that exposes a specific biogeochemical process to conditions favourable for this process, which is anoxia in case of denitrification. This exposure time ?exp is not necessarily identical to the residence time ? of water in the particular system or flow path. Rather, the exposure time can be much shorter and may even fluctuate with time. As a consequence, Damköhler numbers (Da = ?exp/teff) for denitrification < 1 may be the consequence even though the age of water may be comparatively high. We therefore argue that the key for understanding denitrification efficiency at the groundwater surface-water interface (or in groundwater systems in general) is the quantification of the exposure time. This contribution therefore aims i) to estimate exposure times required for effective denitrification based on an analysis of rate constants for denitrification, ii) to relate these time scales to typical residence time distributions found at the groundwater surface-water interface and iii) to discuss implications for denitrification efficiencies. References: Oldham, C; Farrow, DE; Peiffer, S (2013): A generalized Damköhler number for classifying material processing in hydrological systems, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 1133-1148 Frei, S; Knorr, KH; Peiffer, S; Fleckenstein, J (2012): Surface micro-topography causes hot spots of biogeochemical activity in wetland systems - a virtual modeling experiment., Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 117(G00N12), 1 - 18

Peiffer, Stefan; Frei, Sven

2014-05-01

42

Safety of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in pregnancy: Fluoroscopy time and fetal exposure, does it matter?  

PubMed Central

AIM: To estimate the fetal radiation exposure using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD’s) in pregnant patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and assess its relevance. METHODS: Data on thirty-five therapeutic ERCPs conducted in pregnant patients from 2001 to 2009 were retrieved from a prospective database. Techniques to minimize fluoroscopy time were implemented and the fluoroscopy times captured. TLD’s were placed on the mother to estimate the fetal radiation exposure and the results were compared to the maximum allowed dose of radiation to the fetus [0.005 gray (Gy)]. Obstetrics consultations were obtained and the fetus was monitored before and after the ERCP. Fluoroscopy was performed at 75 kVp. ERCP was performed with the patients supine by dedicated biliary endoscopists performing more than 500 cases a year. RESULTS: A total of 35 pregnant patients underwent ERCP and biliary sphincterotomy (14 in first trimester, 11 in second trimester, and 10 in third trimester). Mean maternal age was 25 years (range 16-37 years) and mean gestational age was 18.9 wk (range 4-35 wk). Mean fluoroscopy time was 0.15 min (range 0-1 min). For 23 women, the estimated fetal radiation exposure was almost negligible (< 0.0001 Gy) while for 8 women, it was within the 0.0001-0.0002 Gy range. Three women had an estimated fetal radiation exposure between 0.0002 and 0.0005 Gy and 1 woman had an estimated fetal radiation exposure greater than 0.0005 Gy. Complications included 2 post-sphincterotomy bleeds, 2 post-ERCP pancreatitis, and 1 fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. One patient developed cholecystitis 2 d after ERCP. CONCLUSION: ERCP with modified techniques is safe during pregnancy, and estimating the fetal radiation exposure from the fluoroscopy time or measuring it via TLD’s is unnecessary. PMID:23596536

Smith, Ioana; Gaidhane, Monica; Goode, Allen; Kahaleh, Michel

2013-01-01

43

INFLUENCE OF TIME OF EXPOSURE TO CARBON TETRACHLORIDE ON TOXIC LIVER INJURY  

EPA Science Inventory

The study was conducted to determine whether, and by what mechanisms, time of exposure could influence the ability of a model hepatotoxin, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to cause liver injury. Rats dosed orally with CCl4 during their active/dark cycle were found to be more susceptib...

44

Adaptive Responses to Prochloraz Exposure That Alter Dose-Response and Time-Course Behaviors  

EPA Science Inventory

Dose response and time-course (DRTC) are, along with exposure, the major determinants of health risk. Adaptive changes within exposed organisms in response to environmental stress are common, and alter DRTC behaviors to minimize the effects caused by stressors. In this project, ...

45

Changes of polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in ducks with background exposure level and time.  

PubMed

To reveal what degree bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) depends on exposure time and other factors, we conducted a semi-field experiment for a year (June 2008-June 2009) in a village in an e-waste recycling site in Taizhou, China. Approximately one hundred of juvenile ducks (Anas domestica Linnaeus) were entrusted to a villager. The ducks lived and forged in a PBDE-polluted pond from the late March to the end of November. Fish and mudsnails that were heavily polluted by PBDEs were main food. In cold days (from December to the middle March), the ducks lived in the villager' house, and mainly fed on paddy, which contained lower concentrations of PBDEs than fish and mudsnails. The female ducks were sampled for PBDE analysis every three months. We found that the ?PBDE concentrations in duck liver, muscle, lung and brain fluctuated greatly with the changes of exposure levels that were determined by the environment and diets, but the ?PBDE concentrations in fat tissue increased successively with time. Congener analysis demonstrated that the successive increase in the ?PBDE concentrations with time in fat tissue was due to the successive increase in BDE-209, -183 and -153 concentrations, with large fluctuations of low brominated congeners. The results show that PBDE concentrations in liver, muscle, lung and brain tissues heavily depends on exposure levels rather than exposure time. In fat tissue, by contrast, PBDE concentrations (mainly high brominated congeners) slightly depends on exposure levels but heavily depend on time relative to other tissues, implying that high brominated congeners seem to have longer half-lives than low brominated congeners in fat tissue. PMID:25290171

Liu, Peng-Yan; Chen, Xiao-Ran; Zhao, Ya-Xian; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Qin, Xiao-Fei; Qin, Zhan-Fen

2015-01-01

46

Personal exposure to ultrafine particles: Two-level statistical modeling of background exposure and time-activity patterns during three seasons.  

PubMed

Personal exposure to air pollution is associated with time- and location-specific factors including indoor and outdoor air pollution, meteorology and time activities. Our investigation aims at the description and identification of factors determining personal exposure to particle number concentration (PNC) in everyday situations. Ten volunteers recorded their personal exposure to PNC and kept an activity diary in three different seasons besides stationary measurements of ambient air pollution and meteorology. Background exposure to PNC was modelled using the most predictive variables. In a second step, the effects of the activities were calculated adjusted for the background exposure. The average personal PNC level was highest in winter and was three times higher than the mean stationary PNC level while staying indoors and two times higher while staying outdoors. Personal indoor PNC levels were significantly increased during the use of candles, cooking and the occurrence of smell of food. High stationary outdoor PNC levels and low dew point temperatures were associated with increased personal outdoor PNC levels. Times spent in public transport were associated with lower personal PNC levels than other times spent in transportation. Personal PNC levels in everyday situations exhibited a large variability because of seasonal, microenvironment-specific and activity-specific influences.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.73. PMID:25407347

Deffner, Veronika; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Maier, Verena; Pitz, Mike; Cyrys, Josef; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Gu, Jianwei; Geruschkat, Uta; Peters, Annette

2014-11-19

47

Real-time monitoring of ultrasound imaging of clinical high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, many clinical devices use the change in gray scale seen on a real-time ultrasound image for the assessment of the success of HIFU treatment. It has been shown previously that, for a single HIFU lesion, the presence of gray-scale change was indicative of successful ablation in 100% of cases for 1.6-MHz beams, and in 90% of cases for 0.8-MHz exposures. The absence of gray-scale change was a reliable indicator of lack of ablative damage only for 0.8-MHz exposures (80%) in 80% of exposures using 1.6-MHz beams there was a lesion even in the absence of gray-scale change. This study has been extended to more realistic clinical treatment protocols. The image appearance has been studied for the different volume ablation techniques that are used in the treatment of liver and kidney cancer. The results will be presented.

Ter Haar, Gail; Kennedy, James; Leslie, Tom; Wu, Feng

2005-09-01

48

Time course of bronchial cell inflammation following exposure to diesel particulate matter using a modified EAVES.  

PubMed

Electrostatic deposition of particles onto the surface of well-differentiated airway cells is a rapid and efficient means to screen for toxicity associated with exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate air pollution. This work describes the development and application of an electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system (EAVES) with increased throughput and ease-of-use. The modified EAVES accommodates standard tissue culture plates and uses an alternating electric field to deposit a net neutral charge of aerosol onto air-interface cell cultures. Using this higher-throughput design, we were able to examine the time-course (1, 3, 6, 9, and 24 h post-exposure) of transcript production and cytotoxicity in well-differentiated human bronchial cells exposed to diesel particulate matter at levels of 'real-world' significance. Statistically significant responses were observed at exposure levels (?0.4 ?g/cm(2)) much lower than typically reported in vitro using traditional submerged/resuspended techniques. Levels of HO-1, IL-8, CYP1A1, COX-2, and HSP-70 transcripts increased immediately following diesel particulate exposure and persisted for several hours; cytotoxicity was increased at 24h. The modified EAVES provides a platform for higher throughput, more efficient and representative testing of aerosol toxicity in vitro. PMID:24681185

Hawley, Brie; McKenna, Dave; Marchese, Anthony; Volckens, John

2014-08-01

49

Timing matters: sensitivity of Daphnia magna dormant eggs to fenoxycarb exposure depends on embryonic developmental stage.  

PubMed

Although Daphnia magna is a key species in many lentic freshwater ecosystems and is commonly used as model organism in ecology and ecotoxicology, very little is known about the effects of chemicals on their dormant life stages. Dormant eggs (ephippia) are produced when environmental conditions deteriorate, and Daphnia switch from clonal to sexual reproduction. Ephippia produced over different growing seasons can accumulate in the sediment of ponds and lakes, where they can be exposed to pesticides and other (anthropogenic) stressors. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of pesticide exposure on dormant eggs at different embryonic developmental stages and evaluated the degree of protection against pollution provided by the ephippial case. We therefore conducted a hatching experiment in which decapsulated and encapsulated dormant eggs were exposed to an insect growth regulator (fenoxycarb) at different stages during their development, both before and after activation of the eggs. In addition, we developed an analytical method to measure fenoxycarb concentrations in the dormant eggs. Fenoxycarb negatively affected development and hatching success and changed the timing of hatching in activated and in dormant eggs. Hatching characteristics as well as fenoxycarb concentrations inside the eggs differed significantly between exposure treatments. Final stages of embryonic development were most sensitive to pesticide exposure and had the highest tissue concentrations of fenoxycarb. Tissue concentrations did not differ significantly between decapsulated and encapsulated eggs, suggesting that the ephippial case offers limited or no direct protection against pesticide exposure. With this study we provide new evidence showing that pesticides can bioconcentrate in and affect D. magna dormant eggs. The severity of the effects on developing embryos depends on the timing of pesticide exposure. Our results stress the importance of considering the full life-cycle of model organisms used in ecotoxicological studies, since these are ultimately aimed at assessing risks of chemical exposure on natural aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25546008

Navis, Sabine; Waterkeyn, Aline; Putman, Adinda; De Meester, Luc; Vanermen, Guido; Brendonck, Luc

2015-02-01

50

Phase-shifting human circadian rhythms: influence of sleep timing, social contact and light exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1. Both the timing of behavioural events (activity, sleep and social interactions) and the environmental light-dark cycle have been reported to contribute to entrainment of human circadian rhythms to the 24 h day. Yet, the relative contribution of those putative behavioural synchronizers to that of light exposure remains unclear. 2. To investigate this, we inverted the schedule of rest, sedentary activity and social contact of thirty-two young men either with or without exposure to bright light. 3. On this inverted schedule, the endogenous component of the core temperature rhythm of subjects who were exposed to bright light showed a significant phase shift, demonstrating that they were adapting to the new schedule. In contrast, the core temperature rhythm of subjects who were not exposed to bright light moved on average 0.2 h later per day and after 10 days had not significantly adapted to the new schedule. 4. The direction of phase shift in the groups exposed to bright light was dependent on the time of bright light exposure, while control subjects drifted to a later hour regardless of the timing of their schedule of sleep timing, social contact and meals. 5. These results support the concept that the light-dark cycle is the most important synchronizer of the human circadian system. They suggest that inversion of the sleep-wake, rest-activity and social contact cycles provides relatively minimal drive for resetting the human circadian pacemaker. 6. These data indicate that interventions designed to phase shift human circadian rhythms for adjustment to time zone changes or altered work schedules should focus on properly timed light exposure.

Duffy, J. F.; Kronauer, R. E.; Czeisler, C. A.

1996-01-01

51

Effect modification of the association of cumulative exposure and cancer risk by intensity of exposure and time since exposure cessation: a flexible method applied to cigarette smoking and lung cancer in the SYNERGY Study.  

PubMed

The indiscriminate use of the cumulative exposure metric (the product of intensity and duration of exposure) might bias reported associations between exposure to hazardous agents and cancer risk. To assess the independent effects of duration and intensity of exposure on cancer risk, we explored effect modification of the association of cumulative exposure and cancer risk by intensity of exposure. We applied a flexible excess odds ratio model that is linear in cumulative exposure but potentially nonlinear in intensity of exposure to 15 case-control studies of cigarette smoking and lung cancer (1985-2009). Our model accommodated modification of the excess odds ratio per pack-year of cigarette smoking by time since smoking cessation among former smokers. We observed negative effect modification of the association of pack-years of cigarette smoking and lung cancer by intensity of cigarette smoke for persons who smoked more than 20-30 cigarettes per day. Patterns of effect modification were similar across individual studies and across major lung cancer subtypes. We observed strong negative effect modification by time since smoking cessation. Application of our method in this example of cigarette smoking and lung cancer demonstrated that reducing a complex exposure history to a metric such as cumulative exposure is too restrictive. PMID:24355332

Vlaanderen, Jelle; Portengen, Lützen; Schüz, Joachim; Olsson, Ann; Pesch, Beate; Kendzia, Benjamin; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Consonni, Dario; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Gustavsson, Per; Plato, Nils; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Tardón, Adonina; Zaridze, David; Field, John K; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Stanescu Dumitru, Rodica; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Boffetta, Paolo; Forastiere, Francesco; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Peters, Susan; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans; Straif, Kurt; Vermeulen, Roel

2014-02-01

52

Measurement of fluid properties using rapid-double-exposure and time-average holographic interferometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The holographic recording of the time history of a flow feature in three dimensions is discussed. The use of diffuse illumination holographic interferometry or the three-dimensional visualization of flow features such as shock waves and turbulent eddies is described. The double-exposure and time-average methods are compared using the characteristic function and the results from a flow simulator. A time history requires a large hologram recording rate. Results of holographic cinematography of the shock waves in a flutter cascade are presented as an example. Future directions of this effort, including the availability and development of suitable lasers, are discussed. Previously announced in STAR as N84-21849

Decker, A. J.

1984-01-01

53

Lysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by high-intensity focused ultrasound as a function of exposure time.  

PubMed

Efficient lysis of microalgae for lipid extraction is an important concern when processing biofuels. Historically, ultrasound frequencies in the range of 10-40 kHz have been utilized for this task. However, greater efficiencies might be achievable if higher frequencies could be used. In our study, we evaluated the potential of using 1.1 MHz ultrasound to lyse microalgae for biofuel production while using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism. The ultrasound was generated using a spherically focused transducer with a focal length of 6.34 cm and an active diameter of 6.36 cm driven by 20 cycle sine-wave tone bursts at a pulse repetition frequency of 2 kHz (3.6% duty cycle). The time-average acoustic power output was 26.2 W while the spatial-peak-pulse-average intensity (ISPPA) for each tone burst was 41 kW/cm(2). The peak compressional and rarefactional pressures at the focus were 102 and 17 MPa, respectively. The exposure time was varied for the different cases in the experiments from 5s to 9 min and cell lysis was assessed by quantifying the percentage of protein and chlorophyll release into the supernate as well as the lipid extractability. Free radical generation and lipid oxidation for the different ultrasound exposures were also determined. We found that there was a statistically significant increase in lipid extractability for all of the exposures compared to the control. The longer exposures also completely fragmented the cells releasing almost all of the protein and chlorophyll into the supernate. The cavitation activity did not significantly increase lipid oxidation while there was a minor trend of increased free radical production with increased ultrasound exposure. PMID:24355286

Bigelow, Timothy A; Xu, Jin; Stessman, Dan J; Yao, Linxing; Spalding, Martin H; Wang, Tong

2014-05-01

54

Investigation of palladium alloy properties degradation during long-time tritium exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of life-time properties of Russian industrial Pd-membrane alloy V-1, as a material for a palladium diffuser of the ITER Fuel Clean-Up System, has been continued. The saturation experiment with duration up to 2004 h has been performed. The calculated helium-3 concentration in the samples was 466 appm. Investigation of the samples after exposure showed that mechanical properties were

V. Tebus; L Rivkis; G Arutunova; E Dmitrievsky; V Filin; Y Golikov; V Krivova; V Kapychev

1999-01-01

55

Visualisation of blood and lymphatic vessels with increasing exposure time of the detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the laser speckle contrast method for simultaneous noninvasive imaging of blood and lymphatic vessels of living organisms, based on increasing detector exposure time. In contrast to standard methods of fluorescent angiography, this technique of vascular bed imaging and lymphatic and blood vessel demarcation does not employ toxic fluorescent markers. The method is particularly promising with respect to the physiology of the cardiovascular system under in vivo conditions.

Kalchenko, V. V.; Kuznetsov, Yu L.; Meglinski, I. V.

2013-07-01

56

Visualisation of blood and lymphatic vessels with increasing exposure time of the detector  

SciTech Connect

We describe the laser speckle contrast method for simultaneous noninvasive imaging of blood and lymphatic vessels of living organisms, based on increasing detector exposure time. In contrast to standard methods of fluorescent angiography, this technique of vascular bed imaging and lymphatic and blood vessel demarcation does not employ toxic fluorescent markers. The method is particularly promising with respect to the physiology of the cardiovascular system under in vivo conditions. (laser applications in biology and medicine)

Kalchenko, V V; Kuznetsov, Yu L; Meglinski, I V

2013-07-31

57

Changes in organic matter–mineral interactions for marine sediments with varying oxygen exposure times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Density fractionation, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and amino acid analyses were used to evaluate the physical form of preserved organic carbon (OC) in sediments from transects in the north east Pacific Ocean off the Mexican (Mazatlan) and Washington coasts. Low density (i.e. mineral-free) organic material dominated the OC in sediments with very short oxygen exposure times (OET <1 yr; total

Thorarinn S. Arnarson; Richard G. Keil

2007-01-01

58

Exposure to chemical cocktails before or after conception--- the effect of timing on ovarian development.  

PubMed

Exposure of female fetuses to environmental chemicals (ECs) during pregnancy results in a disturbed ovarian adult phenotype. We investigated the influence of pre- and/or post-conception exposure to low-level mixtures of ECs on the structure and function of the fetal ovine ovary. We examined ovarian morphology, expression of oocyte and granulosa cell-specific genes and proteome. Female fetuses were collected at day 110 of gestation, from dams exposed continuously until, and after mating, by grazing in pastures treated with sewage sludge as a fertiliser (TT) or in control fields treated with inorganic fertiliser (CC). In addition, in a cross-over design, fetal ovaries were collected from dams maintained on sludge pastures up to the time of mating but then transferred to control pastures (TC) and, reciprocally, those transferred from control to treated pastures at mating (CT). On examination, the proportion of type 1a follicles (activating primordial follicles) was significantly lower in animals from the CT groups compared with CC and TT groups (P<0.05). Of the 23 ovarian gene transcripts studied, 14 were altered in the ovaries of exposed fetuses (CT, TC, and TT) relative to controls, with the largest number of changes observed in cross-exposure pattern groups (CT or TC). Continuous EC exposure (TT) produced fewer transcript alterations and only two genes (INHBA and GSN) presented differential profiles between CC and TT. Fetal ovarian proteome analysis (2-DE gels) showed, across all exposure groups, 86 differentially expressed protein spots compared to controls. Animals in the CT group exhibited the highest number (53) while TC and TT presented the same number of affected protein spots (42). Fetal ovarian proteins with altered expression included MVP (major vault protein) and several members of the heat-shock family (HSPA4L, HSP90AA1 and HSF1). The present findings indicate that continuous maternal EC exposure before and during gestation, are less deleterious for fetal ovarian development than a change in maternal EC exposure between pre and post-conception. The pathways by which the ovary responds to this chemical stress were common in TT, CT, TC exposed foetuses. In addition to the period of pregnancy, the pre-conception period appears also as crucial for conditioning long-term effects of EC exposure on ovarian development and primordial follicle reserve and hence future fertility. PMID:23791816

Bellingham, Michelle; Amezaga, Maria R; Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice; Speers, Christopher J B; Kyle, Carol E; Evans, Neil P; Sharpe, Richard M; Cotinot, Corinne; Rhind, Stewart M; Fowler, Paul A

2013-08-25

59

Exposure to chemical cocktails before or after conception – The effect of timing on ovarian development?  

PubMed Central

Exposure of female fetuses to environmental chemicals (ECs) during pregnancy results in a disturbed ovarian adult phenotype. We investigated the influence of pre- and/or post-conception exposure to low-level mixtures of ECs on the structure and function of the fetal ovine ovary. We examined ovarian morphology, expression of oocyte and granulosa cell-specific genes and proteome. Female fetuses were collected at day 110 of gestation, from dams exposed continuously until, and after mating, by grazing in pastures treated with sewage sludge as a fertiliser (TT) or in control fields treated with inorganic fertiliser (CC). In addition, in a cross-over design, fetal ovaries were collected from dams maintained on sludge pastures up to the time of mating but then transferred to control pastures (TC) and, reciprocally, those transferred from control to treated pastures at mating (CT). On examination, the proportion of type 1a follicles (activating primordial follicles) was significantly lower in animals from the CT groups compared with CC and TT groups (P < 0.05). Of the 23 ovarian gene transcripts studied, 14 were altered in the ovaries of exposed fetuses (CT, TC, and TT) relative to controls, with the largest number of changes observed in cross-exposure pattern groups (CT or TC). Continuous EC exposure (TT) produced fewer transcript alterations and only two genes (INHBA and GSN) presented differential profiles between CC and TT. Fetal ovarian proteome analysis (2-DE gels) showed, across all exposure groups, 86 differentially expressed protein spots compared to controls. Animals in the CT group exhibited the highest number (53) while TC and TT presented the same number of affected protein spots (42). Fetal ovarian proteins with altered expression included MVP (major vault protein) and several members of the heat-shock family (HSPA4L, HSP90AA1 and HSF1). The present findings indicate that continuous maternal EC exposure before and during gestation, are less deleterious for fetal ovarian development than a change in maternal EC exposure between pre and post-conception. The pathways by which the ovary responds to this chemical stress were common in TT, CT, TC exposed foetuses. In addition to the period of pregnancy, the pre-conception period appears also as crucial for conditioning long-term effects of EC exposure on ovarian development and primordial follicle reserve and hence future fertility. PMID:23791816

Bellingham, Michelle; Amezaga, Maria R.; Mandon-Pepin, Beatrice; Speers, Christopher J.B.; Kyle, Carol E.; Evans, Neil P.; Sharpe, Richard M.; Cotinot, Corinne; Rhind, Stewart M.; Fowler, Paul A.

2013-01-01

60

Effect of deployment time on endotoxin and allergen exposure assessment using electrostatic dust collectors.  

PubMed

The electrostatic dust collector (EDC) is a passive dust sampling device for exposure assessment of airborne endotoxin and possibly allergens. EDCs consist of a non-conducting plastic folder holding two or four electrostatic cloths of defined area. The sampling time needed to achieve detectable and reproducible loading for bioaerosols has not been systematically evaluated. Thus, in 15 Iowa farm homes EDCs were deployed for 7-, 14-, and 28-day sampling periods to determine if endotoxin and allergens could be quantified and if loading rates were uniform over time, i.e. if loads doubled from 7 to 14 days or 14 to 28 days and quadrupled from 7 to 28 days. Loadings between left and right paired EDC cloths were not significantly different and were highly correlated for endotoxin, total protein, and cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f1), and mouse (Mus m1) allergens (P < 0.001). EDCs performed especially well for endotoxin sampling with close agreement between paired samples (Pearson r = 0.96, P < 0.001). Endotoxin loading of the EDCs doubled from 7- to 14-day deployments as hypothesized although the loading rate decreased from 14 to 28 days of sampling with only a 1.38-fold increase. Allergen exposure assessment using EDCs was overall less satisfactory. Although there was reasonable agreement between paired samples, only exposures to cat, dog, and mouse allergens were reliable and these only at the longer deployment times. PMID:25187036

Kilburg-Basnyat, Brita; Metwali, Nervana; Thorne, Peter S

2015-01-01

61

Microgravity Inhibits Resting T Cell Immunity in an Exposure Time-Dependent Manner  

PubMed Central

Background: Decline immune function is well documented after spaceflights. Microgravity is one of the key factors directly suppressing the function of immune system. Though T cell immune response was inhibited by microgravity, it is not clearly whether activation would be inhibited after a pre-exposure of microgravity on T lymphocytes at the resting state. Methods: We herein investigated the response ability of resting CD4+ and CD8+ T cells experiencing pre-exposure of modeled microgravity (MMg) for 0, 8, 16 and 24 hrs to concanavalin A (ConA) stimulation. The phenotypes and subsets of immune cells were determined by flow cytometry. Results: Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with an MMg pre-exposure exhibited decreased expressions of activation-markers including CD25, CD69 and CD71, inflammatory cytokine secretion and cell proliferation in response to ConA compared with T cells with 1g controls in an MMg exposure time- dependent manner. Moreover, short term MMg treatment caused more severe decreased proliferation in CD4+ T cells than in CD8+ T cells. Conclusions: MMg can directly impact on resting T cell subsets. CD4+ T cells were more sensitive to the microgravity inhibition than CD8+ T cells in respect of cell proliferation. These results offered new insights for the MMg-caused T cell functional defects. PMID:24396290

Luo, Haiying; Wang, Chongzhen; Feng, Meifu; Zhao, Yong

2014-01-01

62

Permethrin exposure from fabric-treated military uniforms under different wear-time scenarios.  

PubMed

The objective of the project was to ascertain whether urinary biomarkers of permethrin exposure are detected after wearing post-tailored, fabric-treated military uniforms under two different wear-time exposure scenarios. Study A occurred over 3.5 days and involved six participants wearing treated uniforms continuously for 30-32?h. Urine collection occurred at scheduled time points before, during, and after wearing the uniform. Study B, conducted over 19 days, included 11 participants wearing treated uniforms for 3 consecutive days, 8?h each day (with urine collection before, during, and after wear). Urinary biomarkers of permethrin (3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3PBA), cis- 2,2-(dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (cDCCA), trans- 2,2-(dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (tDCCA)) were detected during and after wear. Biomarker detection generally occurred over the 10- to 12-h period after putting on the uniform and subsided 24?h following uniform removal (in both Study A and B scenarios). Those wearing permethrin-treated uniforms under the longer wear-time scenario (Study A) excreted significantly higher cumulative mean levels compared with those in Study B (3.29 times higher for 3PBA and 2.23 times higher for the sum of c/tDCCA (P?0.001)). Findings suggest that wearing permethrin-treated clothing does increase absorbed, internal dose levels of permethrin above population levels and is significantly related to wear-time duration. PMID:24104061

Proctor, Susan P; Maule, Alexis L; Heaton, Kristin J; Adam, Gina E

2014-11-01

63

Variation in voxel value distribution and effect of time between exposures in six CBCT units.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to assess the variation in voxel value distribution in volumetric data sets obtained by six cone beam CT (CBCT) units, and the effect of time between exposures. Six CBCT units [Cranex(®) 3D (CRAN; Soredex Oy, Tuusula, Finland), Scanora(®) 3D (SCAN; Soredex Oy), NewTom™ 5G (NEWT; QR Srl, Verona, Italy), Promax(®) Dimax 3 (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland), i-CAT (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA) and 3D Accuitomo FPD80 (Morita, Kyoto, Japan)] were tested. Two volumetric data sets of a dry human skull embedded in acrylic were acquired by each CBCT unit in two sessions on separate days. Each session consisted of 20 exposures: 10 acquired with 30?min between exposures and 10 acquired immediately one after the other. CBCT data were exported as digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) files and converted to text files. The text files were re-organized to contain x-, y- and z-position and grey shade for each voxel. The files were merged to contain 1 record per voxel position, including the voxel values from the 20 exposures in a session. For each voxel, subtractions were performed between Data Set 1 and the remaining 19 data sets (1?-?2, 1?-?3, etc) in a session. Means, medians, ranges and standard deviations for grey shade variation in the subtraction data sets were calculated for each unit and session. For all CBCT units, variation in voxel values was observed throughout the 20 exposures. A "fingerprint" for the grey shade variation was observed for CRAN, SCAN and NEWT. For the other units, the variation was (apparently) randomly distributed. Large discrepancies in voxel value distribution are seen in CBCT images. This variation should be considered in studies that assess minute changes in CBCT images. PMID:24678846

Spin-Neto, R; Gotfredsen, E; Wenzel, A

2014-01-01

64

Neurodevelopmental alcohol exposure elicits long-term changes to gene expression that alter distinct molecular pathways dependent on timing of exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal alcohol consumption is known to adversely affect fetal neurodevelopment. While it is known that alcohol dose and timing play a role in the cognitive and behavioral changes associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, it is unclear what developmental processes are disrupted that may lead to these phenotypes. Methods Mice (n=6 per treatment per developmental time) were exposed to two acute doses of alcohol (5 g/kg) at neurodevelopmental times representing the human first, second, or third trimester equivalent. Mice were reared to adulthood and changes to their adult brain transcriptome were assessed using expression arrays. These were then categorized based on Gene Ontology annotations, canonical pathway associations, and relationships to interacting molecules. Results The results suggest that ethanol disrupts biological processes that are actively occurring at the time of exposure. These include cell proliferation during trimester one, cell migration and differentiation during trimester two, and cellular communication and neurotransmission during trimester three. Further, although ethanol altered a distinct set of genes depending on developmental timing, many of these show interrelatedness and can be associated with one another via ‘hub’ molecules and pathways such as those related to huntingtin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Conclusions These changes to brain gene expression represent a ‘molecular footprint’ of neurodevelopmental alcohol exposure that is long-lasting and correlates with active processes disrupted at the time of exposure. This study provides further support that there is no neurodevelopmental time when alcohol cannot adversely affect the developing brain. PMID:23497526

2013-01-01

65

Critical role of sorafenib exposure over time for its antitumor activity in thyroid cancer.  

PubMed

Sorafenib, a multi-kinase inhibitor that targets the VEGF, PDGF and BRAF pathways, has demonstrated significant clinical activity in metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer. However, all patients eventually experience disease progression with a median progression-free survival close to 10 months. Since sorafenib exposure is known to decrease over time, we hypothesized that dose adjustments aiming to restore adequate exposure could lead to further clinical activity. We report, as a proof of concept on a patient with radio-iodine resistant metastatic thyroid cancer, who experienced disease progression after an initial response to sorafenib (400 mg twice daily). Whereas the thyroglobulin-progression-free survival at standard doses was 6 months, iterative dose optimization led to a prolonged progression-free survival up to 41 months. Sorafenib doses were increased up to 1600 mg bid, in order to maintain clinical activity, and to restore active plasma concentration, since sorafenib exposure had decreased over the time. Toxicity was mild and manageable for more than 2 years. However, the patient eventually experienced grade 3 proteinuria leading to treatment discontinuation. This observation opens up new horizons for daily management of radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer patients progressing under standard doses of sorafenib, and stress the need to monitor its plasma concentration. PMID:24399106

Bellesoeur, Audrey; Carton, Edith; Mir, Olivier; Groussin, Lionel; Blanchet, Benoit; Billemont, Bertrand; Clerc, Jérôme; Goldwasser, François

2014-06-01

66

In Vivo Human Time-Exposure Study of Orally Dosed Commercial Silver Nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Background Human biodistribution, bioprocessing and possible toxicity of nanoscale silver receives increasing health assessment. Methods We prospectively studied commercial 10- and 32-ppm nanoscale silver particle solutions in a single-blind, controlled, cross-over, intent-to-treat, design. Healthy subjects (n=60) underwent metabolic, blood counts, urinalysis, sputum induction, and chest and abdomen magnetic resonance imaging. Silver serum and urine content was determined. Results No clinically important changes in metabolic, hematologic, or urinalysis measures were identified. No morphological changes were detected in the lungs, heart or abdominal organs. No significant changes were noted in pulmonary reactive oxygen species or pro-inflammatory cytokine generation. Conclusion In vivo oral exposure to these commercial nanoscale silver particle solutions does not prompt clinically important changes in human metabolic, hematologic, urine, physical findings or imaging morphology. Further study of increasing time exposure and dosing of silver nanoparticulate silver, and observation of additional organ systems is warranted to assert human toxicity thresholds. PMID:23811290

Munger, Mark A.; Radwanski, Przemyslaw; Hadlock, Greg C.; Stoddard, Greg; Shaaban, Akram; Falconer, Jonathan; Grainger, David W.; Deering-Rice, Cassandra E.

2013-01-01

67

The effect of sequential exposure of color conditions on time and accuracy of graphic symbol location.  

PubMed

An important aspect in AAC concerns the user's ability to locate an aided visual symbol on a communication display in order to facilitate meaningful interaction with partners. Recent studies have suggested that the use of different colored symbols may be influential in the visual search process, and that this, in turn will influence the speed and accuracy of symbol location. This study examined the role of color on rate and accuracy of identifying symbols on an 8-location overlay through the use of 3 color conditions (same, mixed and unique). Sixty typically developing preschool children were exposed to two different sequential exposures (Set 1 and Set 2). Participants searched for a target stimulus (either meaningful symbols or arbitrary forms) in a stimuli array. Findings indicated that the sequential exposures (orderings) impacted both time and accuracy for both types of symbols within specific instances. PMID:20196703

Alant, Erna; Kolatsis, Anna; Lilienfeld, Margi

2010-03-01

68

Increases in Retrospective Accounts of War-Zone Exposure Over Time: The Role of PTSD Symptom Severity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective reports of the frequency of war-zone exposure are commonly used as objective indices in studies investigating the mental health consequences of exposure to such stressors. To explore the temporal stability of these types of reports, we obtained frequency estimates of exposure to war-zone stressors at two time points from 460 U.S. soldiers who had served in the peace-keeping mission

Lizabeth Roeraer; Brett T. Litz; Susan M. Orsillo; Peter J. Ehlich; Matthew J. Friedman

1998-01-01

69

Wearable real-time direct reading naphthalene and VOC personal exposure monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Naphthalene has been identified by the National Research Council as a serious health hazard for personnel working with jet fuels and oil-based sealants containing naphthalene. We are developing a family of miniature, self-contained, direct reading personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to detect, differentiate, quantify, and log naphthalene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breathing zone of the wearer or in the hands of an industrial hygienist with limits of detection in the low parts per billion (ppb) range. The VOC Dosimeter (VOCDos) described here is a PEM that provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose, with alarms addressing long term and immediate exposure limits. We will describe the sensor, which employs optical methods with a unique excitation source and rapidly refreshable vapor concentrator. This paper addresses the rapidly increasing awareness of the health risks of inhaling jet fuel vapors by Department of Defense (DOD) personnel engaged in or around jet fueling operations. Naphthalene is a one to three percent component of the 5 billion gallons of jet fuels used annually by DOD. Naphthalene is also a component of many other petroleum products such as asphalt and other oil-based sealants. The DOD is the single largest user of petroleum fuels in the United States (20% of all petroleum fuel used). The VOCDos wearable sensor provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose. We will describe the sensor, which employs endogenous fluorescence from VOCs accumulated on a unique, rapidly refreshable, patent-pending concentrator, excited by a unique deep ultraviolet excitation source.

Hug, W. F.; Bhartia, R.; Reid, R. D.; Reid, M. R.; Oswal, P.; Lane, A. L.; Sijapati, K.; Sullivan, K.; Hulla, J. E.; Snawder, J.; Proctor, S. P.

2012-06-01

70

Real-Time Aircraft Cosmic Ray Radiation Exposure Predictions from the NAIRAS Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. There is also interest in extending NAIRAS to the LEO environment to address radiation hazard issues for the emerging commercial spaceflight industry. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. Real-time observations are required at a variety of locations within the geospace environment. The NAIRAS model is driven by real-time input data from ground-, atmospheric-, and space-based platforms. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions and observational data gaps were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. The focus of this talk is to present the current capabilities of the NAIRAS model, discuss future developments in aviation radiation modeling and instrumentation, and propose strategies and methodologies of bridging known gaps in current modeling and observational capabilities.

Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W.; Kress, B. T.; Xu, X.

2012-12-01

71

Acute exposure to 2G phase shifts the rat circadian timing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The circadian timing system (CTS) provides internal and external temporal coordination of an animal's physiology and behavior. In mammals, the generation and coordination of these circadian rhythms is controlled by a neural pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), located within the hypothalamus. The pacemaker is synchronized to the 24 hour day by time cures (zeitgebers) such as the light/dark cycle. When an animal is exposed to an environment without time cues, the circadian rhythms maintain internal temporal coordination, but exhibit a 'free-running' condition in which the period length is determined by the internal pacemaker. Maintenance of internal and external temporal coordination are critical for normal physiological and psychological function in human and non-human primates. Exposure to altered gravitational environments has been shown to affect the amplitude, mean, and timing of circadian rhythms in species ranging from unicellular organisms to man. However, it has not been determined whether altered gravitational fields have a direct effect on the neural pacemaker, or affect peripheral parameters. In previous studies, the ability of a stimulus to phase shift circadian rhythms was used to determine whether a stimulus has a direct effect on the neural pacemaker. The present experiment was performed in order to determine whether acute exposure to a hyperdynamic field could phase shift circadian rhythms.

Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Murakami, D. M.; Tandon, T.; Fuller, C. A.

1995-01-01

72

REAL-TIME MODELING AND MEASUREMENT OF MOBILE SOURCE POLLUTANT CONCENTRATIONS FOR ESTIMATING HUMAN EXPOSURES IN COMMUNITIES NEAR ROADWAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) is pursuing a project to improve the methodology for real-time site specific modeling of human exposure to pollutants from motor vehicles. The overall project goal is to deve...

73

Variability in electromagnetic field levels over time, and Monte-Carlo simulation of exposure parameters.  

PubMed

This article analyses the electric field levels around medium-wave transmitters, delimiting the temporal variability of the levels received at a pre-established reception point. One extensively used dosimetric criterion is to consider historical levels of the field recorded over a certain period of time so as to provide an overall perspective of radio-frequency electric field exposure in a particular environment. This aspect is the focus of the present study, in which the measurements will be synthesised in the form of exposure coefficients. Two measurement campaigns were conducted: one short term (10 days) and the other long term (1 y). The short-term data were used to study which probability density functions best approximate the measured levels. The long-term data were used to compute the principal statistics that characterise the field values over a year. The data that form the focus of the study are the peak traces, since these are the most representative from the standpoint of exposure. The deviations found were around 6 % for short periods and 12 % for long periods. The information from the two campaigns was used to develop and implement a computer application based on the Monte Carlo method to simulate values of the field, allowing one to carry out robust statistics. PMID:24594905

Pachón-García, F T; Paniagua-Sánchez, J M; Rufo-Pérez, M; Jiménez-Barco, A

2014-12-01

74

Gender differences in road traffic injury rate using time travelled as a measure of exposure.  

PubMed

There is no consensus on whether the risk of road traffic injury is higher among men or among women. Comparison between studies is difficult mainly due to the different exposure measures used to estimate the risk. The measures of exposure to the risk of road traffic injury should be people's mobility measures, but frequently authors use other measures such population or vehicles mobility. We compare road traffic injury risk in men and women, by age, mode of transport and severity, using the time people spend travelling as the exposure measure, in Catalonia for the period 2004-2008. This is a cross-sectional study including all residents aged over 3 years. The road traffic injury rate was calculated using the number of people injured, from the Register of Accidents and Victims of the National Traffic Authority as numerator, and the person-hours travelled, from the 2006 Daily Mobility Survey carried out by the Catalan regional government, as denominator. Sex and age specific rates by mode of transport and severity were calculated, and Poisson regression models were fitted. Among child pedestrians and young drivers, males present higher risk of slight and severe injury, and in the oldest groups women present higher risk. The death rate is always higher in men. There exists interaction between sex and age in road traffic injury risk. Therefore, injury risk is higher among men in some age groups, and among women in other groups, but these age groups vary depending on mode of transport and severity. PMID:24384384

Santamariña-Rubio, Elena; Pérez, Katherine; Olabarria, Marta; Novoa, Ana M

2014-04-01

75

Self-reported exertion levels on time/activity diaries: application to exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in air pollution analysis have focused on methods for collecting data on contaminant levels in the locations actually frequented by people, especially personal monitoring. While there is still much to understand about human exposures, the next advancements will be in the area of dose assessment. This paper discusses the results of a study designed to provide data for linking exposure to dose. Specifically, we used time/activity diaries to collect information on the exertion levels associated with the reported activities. As part of a community health study, 91 children between the ages of 9 and 11 kept diaries over a two-week summer-time period (July 1989) and during a two-week school-time period (September 1989). The diary was also administered for two days to 42 teenagers between the ages of 15 and 17. This paper describes our concerns about interpreting self-reported exertion levels, particularly with respect to the disparity between participant and researcher perception and coding. We then present the distribution of exertion levels associated with children's activities, highlighting seasonal, day-of-week, and age-group differences.

Schwab, M.; Terblanche, A.P.; Spengler, J.D. (Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, Boston, MA (United States))

1991-07-01

76

Gene Expression-Based Dosimetry by Dose and Time in Mice Following Acute Radiation Exposure  

PubMed Central

Rapid and reliable methods for performing biological dosimetry are of paramount importance in the event of a large-scale nuclear event. Traditional dosimetry approaches lack the requisite rapid assessment capability, ease of use, portability and low cost, which are factors needed for triaging a large number of victims. Here we describe the results of experiments in which mice were acutely exposed to 60Co gamma rays at doses of 0 (control) to 10 Gy. Blood was obtained from irradiated mice 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days after exposure. mRNA expression levels of 106 selected genes were obtained by reverse-transcription real time PCR. Stepwise regression of dose received against individual gene transcript expression levels provided optimal dosimetry at each time point. The results indicate that only 4–7 different gene transcripts are needed to explain ? 0.69 of the variance (R2), and that receiver-operator characteristics, a measure of sensitivity and specificity, of ? 0.93 for these statistical models were achieved at each time point. These models provide an excellent description of the relationship between the actual and predicted doses up to 6 Gy. At doses of 8 and 10 Gy there appears to be saturation of the radiation-response signals with a corresponding diminution of accuracy. These results suggest that similar analyses in humans may be advantageous for use in a field-portable device designed to assess exposures in mass casualty situations. PMID:24358280

Tucker, James D.; Divine, George W.; Grever, William E.; Thomas, Robert A.; Joiner, Michael C.; Smolinski, Joseph M.; Auner, Gregory W.

2013-01-01

77

Gene expression-based dosimetry by dose and time in mice following acute radiation exposure.  

PubMed

Rapid and reliable methods for performing biological dosimetry are of paramount importance in the event of a large-scale nuclear event. Traditional dosimetry approaches lack the requisite rapid assessment capability, ease of use, portability and low cost, which are factors needed for triaging a large number of victims. Here we describe the results of experiments in which mice were acutely exposed to (60)Co gamma rays at doses of 0 (control) to 10 Gy. Blood was obtained from irradiated mice 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days after exposure. mRNA expression levels of 106 selected genes were obtained by reverse-transcription real time PCR. Stepwise regression of dose received against individual gene transcript expression levels provided optimal dosimetry at each time point. The results indicate that only 4-7 different gene transcripts are needed to explain ? 0.69 of the variance (R(2)), and that receiver-operator characteristics, a measure of sensitivity and specificity, of ? 0.93 for these statistical models were achieved at each time point. These models provide an excellent description of the relationship between the actual and predicted doses up to 6 Gy. At doses of 8 and 10 Gy there appears to be saturation of the radiation-response signals with a corresponding diminution of accuracy. These results suggest that similar analyses in humans may be advantageous for use in a field-portable device designed to assess exposures in mass casualty situations. PMID:24358280

Tucker, James D; Divine, George W; Grever, William E; Thomas, Robert A; Joiner, Michael C; Smolinski, Joseph M; Auner, Gregory W

2013-01-01

78

Space Weathering Effects in Lunar Soils: The Roles of Surface Exposure Time and Bulk Chemical Composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space weathering effects on lunar soil grains result from both radiation-damaged and deposited layers on grain surfaces. Typically, solar wind irradiation forms an amorphous layer on regolith silicate grains, and induces the formation of surficial metallic Fe in Fe-bearing minerals [1,2]. Impacts into the lunar regolith generate high temperature melts and vapor. The vapor component is largely deposited on the surfaces of lunar soil grains [3] as is a fraction of the melt [4, this work]. Both the vapor-deposits and the deposited melt typically contain nanophase Fe metal particles (npFe0) as abundant inclusions. The development of these rims and the abundance of the npFe0 in lunar regolith, and thus the optical properties, vary with the soil mineralogy and the length of time the soil grains have been exposed to space weathering effects [5]. In this study, we used the density of solar flare particle tracks in soil grains to estimate exposure times for individual grains and then perform nanometer-scale characterization of the rims using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The work involved study of lunar soil samples with different mineralogy (mare vs. highland) and different exposure times (mature vs. immature).

Zhang, Shouliang; Keller, Lindsay P.

2011-01-01

79

Sociality and Sickness: Have Cytokines Evolved to Serve Social Functions beyond Times of Pathogen Exposure?  

PubMed Central

During pathogen exposure or some forms of stress, proinflammatory processes induce an array of motivated and behavioral adjustments termed “sickness behaviors”. Although withdrawal from social interactions is a commonly observed sickness behavior, the relation between social behavior and sickness is much more complex. Sickness can suppress or stimulate social behavior. Sickness can serve as a social cue. Stressors that are social in nature can induce sickness behaviors, and sickness behavior can be readily suppressed by meaningful social stimuli. The nature, context, and timing of these effects together suggest that cytokine-induced behavior may play a role in mediating social interactions in various non-pathological conditions. PMID:24184399

Hennessy, Michael B.; Deak, Terrence; Schiml, Patricia A.

2013-01-01

80

Non parametric denoising methods based on wavelets: Application to electron microscopy images in low exposure time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 3D reconstruction of the Cryo-Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cryo-TEM) and Energy Filtering TEM images (EFTEM) hampered by the noisy nature of these images, so that their alignment becomes so difficult. This noise refers to the collision between the frozen hydrated biological samples and the electrons beam, where the specimen is exposed to the radiation with a high exposure time. This sensitivity to the electrons beam led specialists to obtain the specimen projection images at very low exposure time, which resulting the emergence of a new problem, an extremely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper investigates the problem of TEM images denoising when they are acquired at very low exposure time. So, our main objective is to enhance the quality of TEM images to improve the alignment process which will in turn improve the three dimensional tomography reconstructions. We have done multiple tests on special TEM images acquired at different exposure time 0.5s, 0.2s, 0.1s and 1s (i.e. with different values of SNR)) and equipped by Golding beads for helping us in the assessment step. We herein, propose a structure to combine multiple noisy copies of the TEM images. The structure is based on four different denoising methods, to combine the multiple noisy TEM images copies. Namely, the four different methods are Soft, the Hard as Wavelet-Thresholding methods, Bilateral Filter as a non-linear technique able to maintain the edges neatly, and the Bayesian approach in the wavelet domain, in which context modeling is used to estimate the parameter for each coefficient. To ensure getting a high signal-to-noise ratio, we have guaranteed that we are using the appropriate wavelet family at the appropriate level. So we have chosen â?IJsym8â?? wavelet at level 3 as the most appropriate parameter. Whereas, for the bilateral filtering many tests are done in order to determine the proper filter parameters represented by the size of the filter, the range parameter and the spatial parameter respectively. The experiments reported in this paper demonstrate the performance of the Bilateral Filtering and the Bayesian approaches in terms of improving the SNRout and the image quality. Taken together, these results suggest that the Bayesian process has a potential to outperform all the used methods, where in the multiple noisy copies structure it gave us the best SNRout without change of the golden beads diameter. The Bayesian approach yielded enhanced average image without needing a huge amount of copies.

Soumia, Sid Ahmed; Messali, Zoubeida; Ouahabi, Abdeldjalil; Trepout, Sylvain; Messaoudi, Cedric; Marco, Sergio

2015-01-01

81

Influence of paternal exposure to oil and oil products on time to pregnancy and spontaneous abortions.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of exposure to oil and oil products among men on the time taken for their wives to conceive and on the incidence of spontaneous abortion among them. A cross-sectional study was performed by posting questionnaires to 1,269 men employed as offshore mechanics, offshore operators, offshore drilling personnel, car mechanics (the 'exposed' occupations) and carpenters ('unexposed'). The married men were asked to give a separate questionnaire to their wives for details about their pregnancies. The time elapsed between the beginning of coitus without contraception and the wife becoming pregnant (time to pregnancy) was analyzed with Cox regression analysis by calculating fecundability ratios for the pregnancies for the men exposed to oil and oil products as compared with the men who were not exposed. Spontaneous abortions were analyzed with logistic regression by calculating odds ratios for the pregnancies in which the men were exposed vs. not exposed. A total of 741 (58%) men returned the questionnaires. A total of 301 pregnancies were analyzed for time taken to conceive and 580 for spontaneous abortion. The results were adjusted for variables that could significantly influence conception time (previous infections of the reproductive system and coffee drinking) or the incidence of spontaneous abortion (mother's age, parity and smoking). The outcomes between the exposed and unexposed pregnancies showed no significant differences. Car mechanics had a lower fecundability ratio before 1992 than after 1992. Paternal exposure to hydrocarbons in the occupations studied did not seem to have had a major influence on time to conception or the incidence of spontaneous abortion among the wives of the men exposed to oil products. PMID:10628044

Bull, N; Riise, T; Moen, B E

1999-08-01

82

ROLE OF TIME AS A FACTOR IN THE TOXICITY OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS IN INTERMITTENT AND CONTINUOUS EXPOSURES. PART I. EFFECTS OF CONTINUOUS EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of fluctuation in levels of industrial air pollution linked to weather and other factors, a joint U.S.-Soviet research team studied differences in the effect of time in exposures of air-breathing animals to controlled varied concentrations of air pollutants. An experiment...

83

ROLE OF TIME AS A FACTOR IN THE TOXICITY OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS IN INTERMITTENT AND CONTINUOUS EXPOSURES. PART II. EFFECTS OF INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Because of fluctuations in levels of industrial air pollution linked to weather and other factors, a joint U.S.-Soviet research team studied differences in the effect of time in exposures of air-breathing animals to controlled varied concentrations of air pollutants. An experimen...

84

Change of Exposure Response over Time and Long-Term Risk of Silicosis among a Cohort of Chinese Pottery Workers  

PubMed Central

An analysis was conducted on a cohort of Chinese pottery workers to estimate the exposure-response relationship between respirable crystalline silica dust exposure and the incidence of radiographically diagnosed silicosis, and to estimate the long-term risk of developing silicosis until the age of 65. The cohort comprised 3,250 employees with a median follow-up duration of around 37 years. Incident cases of silicosis were identified via silicosis registries (Chinese X-ray stage I, similar to International Labor Organisation classification scheme profusion category 1/1). Individual exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust was estimated based on over 100,000 historical dust measurements. The association between dust exposure, incidence and long-time risk of silicosis was quantified by Poisson regression analysis adjusted for age and smoking. The risk of silicosis depended not only on the cumulative respirable crystalline silica dust exposures, but also on the time-dependent respirable crystalline silica dust exposure pattern (long-term average concentration, highest annual concentration ever experienced and time since first exposure). A long-term “excess” risk of silicosis of approximately 1.5/1,000 was estimated among workers with all annual respirable crystalline silica dust concentration estimates less than 0.1 mg/m3, using the German measurement strategy. This study indicates the importance of proper consideration of exposure information in risk quantification in epidemiological studies. PMID:21845166

Sun, Yi; Bochmann, Frank; Morfeld, Peter; Ulm, Kurt; Liu, Yuewei; Wang, Heijiao; Yang, Lei; Chen, Weihong

2011-01-01

85

Critical time delay of the pineal melatonin rhythm in humans due to weak electromagnetic exposure.  

PubMed

Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can increase free radicals, activate the stress response and alter enzyme reactions. Intracellular signalling is mediated by free radicals and enzyme kinetics is affected by radical pair recombination rates. The magnetic field component of an external EMF can delay the "recombination rate" of free radical pairs. Magnetic fields thus increase radical life-times in biological systems. Although measured in nanoseconds, this extra time increases the potential to do more damage. Melatonin regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle or circadian rhythm. The World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed that prolonged alterations in sleep patterns suppress the body's ability to make melatonin. Considerable cancer rates have been attributed to the reduction of melatonin production as a result of jet lag and night shift work. In this study, changes in circadian rhythm and melatonin concentration are observed due to the external perturbation of chemical reaction rates. We further analyze the pineal melatonin rhythm and investigate the critical time delay or maturation time of radical pair recombination rates, exploring the impact of the mRNA degradation rate on the critical time delay. The results show that significant melatonin interruption and changes to the circadian rhythm occur due to the perturbation of chemical reaction rates, as also reported in previous studies. The results also show the influence of the mRNA degradation rate on the circadian rhythm's critical time delay or maturation time. The results support the hypothesis that exposure to weak EMFs via melatonin disruption can adversely affect human health. PMID:24772943

Halgamuge, Malka N

2013-08-01

86

Dose, exposure time, and resolution in Serial X-ray Crystallography  

SciTech Connect

Using detailed simulation and analytical models, the exposure time is estimated for serial crystallography, where hydrated laser-aligned proteins are sprayed across a continuous synchrotron beam. The resolution of X-ray diffraction microscopy is limited by the maximum dose that can be delivered prior to sample damage. In the proposed Serial Crystallography method, the damage problem is addressed by distributing the total dose over many identical hydrated macromolecules running continuously in a single-file train across a continuous X-ray beam, and resolution is then limited only by the available fluxes of molecules and X-rays. Orientation of the diffracting molecules is achieved by laser alignment. We evaluate the incident X-ray fluence (energy/area) required to obtain a given resolution from (1) an analytical model, giving the count rate at the maximum scattering angle for a model protein, (2) explicit simulation of diffraction patterns for a GroEL-GroES protein complex, and (3) the frequency cut off of the transfer function following iterative solution of the phase problem, and reconstruction of a density map in the projection approximation. These calculations include counting shot noise and multiple starts of the phasing algorithm. The results indicate the number of proteins needed within the beam at any instant for a given resolution and X-ray flux. We confirm an inverse fourth power dependence of exposure time on resolution, with important implications for all coherent X-ray imaging. We find that multiple single-file protein beams will be needed for sub-nanometer resolution on current third generation synchrotrons, but not on fourth generation designs, where reconstruction of secondary protein structure at a resolution of 7 {angstrom} should be possible with short (below 100 s) exposures.

Starodub, D; Rez, P; Hembree, G; Howells, M; Shapiro, D; Chapman, H N; Fromme, P; Schmidt, K; Weierstall, U; Doak, R B; Spence, J C

2007-03-22

87

The interactive effects of chytrid fungus, pesticides, and exposure timing on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) larvae.  

PubMed

Aquatic organisms are often exposed to a wide variety of perturbations in nature, including pathogens and chemical contaminants. Despite the co-occurrence of these 2 stressors, few studies have examined the effects of chemical contaminants on host-pathogen dynamics. The authors tested the individual and combined effects on gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles of 2 commonly used pesticides (Roundup® and Sevin®) and the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). A fully factorial design was used, and tadpoles were exposed to Bd, Roundup, or Sevin alone, or a combination of Bd and either pesticide at 3 points during larval development (early, mid, late). It was predicted that pesticides would mediate the effect of Bd on tadpoles and reduce the likelihood of negative consequences of infection and that timing of exposure would influence these effects. Tadpoles exposed to Bd at the mid point experienced higher survival through metamorphosis than those exposed to Bd at the early or late points, while tadpoles exposed to Sevin at the early point experienced reduced survival compared with those exposed to Roundup or no-pesticide control at the same exposure point. Roundup ameliorated the effects of Bd on survival compared with tadpoles exposed to Bd alone, while there was no interactive effect of Sevin on survival. In addition, Sevin reduced mass of new metamorphs compared with Roundup and reduced snout-vent length compared with all other treatments. The present study supports the hypothesis that pesticides can mitigate the effects of Bd on amphibian hosts and that such effects may depend on the timing of exposure. PMID:24259231

Hanlon, Shane M; Parris, Matthew J

2014-01-01

88

Time Averaged Transmitter Power and Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Mobile Phone Base Stations  

PubMed Central

Models for exposure assessment of high frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations need the technical data of the base stations as input. One of these parameters, the Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP), is a time-varying quantity, depending on communication traffic. In order to determine temporal averages of the exposure, corresponding averages of the ERP have to be available. These can be determined as duty factors, the ratios of the time-averaged power to the maximum output power according to the transmitter setting. We determine duty factors for UMTS from the data of 37 base stations in the Swisscom network. The UMTS base stations sample contains sites from different regions of Switzerland and also different site types (rural/suburban/urban/hotspot). Averaged over all regions and site types, a UMTS duty factor F ? 0.32 ± 0.08 for the 24 h-average is obtained, i.e., the average output power corresponds to about a third of the maximum power. We also give duty factors for GSM based on simple approximations and a lower limit for LTE estimated from the base load on the signalling channels. PMID:25105551

Bürgi, Alfred; Scanferla, Damiano; Lehmann, Hugo

2014-01-01

89

Time averaged transmitter power and exposure to electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations.  

PubMed

Models for exposure assessment of high frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations need the technical data of the base stations as input. One of these parameters, the Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP), is a time-varying quantity, depending on communication traffic. In order to determine temporal averages of the exposure, corresponding averages of the ERP have to be available. These can be determined as duty factors, the ratios of the time-averaged power to the maximum output power according to the transmitter setting. We determine duty factors for UMTS from the data of 37 base stations in the Swisscom network. The UMTS base stations sample contains sites from different regions of Switzerland and also different site types (rural/suburban/urban/hotspot). Averaged over all regions and site types, a UMTS duty factor for the 24 h-average is obtained, i.e., the average output power corresponds to about a third of the maximum power. We also give duty factors for GSM based on simple approximations and a lower limit for LTE estimated from the base load on the signalling channels. PMID:25105551

Bürgi, Alfred; Scanferla, Damiano; Lehmann, Hugo

2014-08-01

90

GPS-based Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) Model to Estimate Time-Location of Individuals for Air Pollution Exposure Assessments: Model Evaluation in Central North Carolina  

EPA Science Inventory

A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure...

91

Self-Tuning Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis Based on Multiple Exposure Times with Enhanced Temporal Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis (LASCA) was introduced in 1981. Since then, several enhancements were applied to it. Nowadays, thetechnique can provide relatively high accuracy as well as high temporal and spatial resolution during the examination of ocular or cerebraltissues. However, in the case of skin, the results are highly affected by the intensive scattering on the skin surface, as the scattering onthe non-moving parts of the sample lead to the detrimental decrease of the accuracy. We present a LASCA method based on the use ofmultiple exposure times, combined with the switching-mode control of the light intensity and a special sampling technique to achieve nearto real-time measurement of the skin perfusion. The system based on our method is able to automatically handle the destructive effect ofthe skin surface and re-tune itself according to the changes of the sample, while it provides full-field perfusion maps with high accuracy,without the need of any precalibrations.

Zölei, D.; Smausz, T.; Hopp, B.; Bari, F.

2013-08-01

92

Effects of exposure times on the toxic response of ammonia oxidizing mixed culture (AOMC) to phenol and chlorinated phenols.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of exposure times on the response of ammonia oxidizing mixed culture (AOMC) to phenolic compounds while having the future goal to develop a biosensor using AOMC for toxicity monitoring. AOMC was used instead of purified nitrifying culture because of the ease of culture development. The oxygen utilization rate (OUR) was measured during three exposure periods; 0-15, 25-40 and 50-65 min. It was found that phenolic compounds have a strong inhibitory effect on AOMC. The percentage of OUR reduction increased with higher concentrations and the extended exposure times improved the toxic response of AOMC, especially to the lower concentrations (0.25, 0.50, 1.0 mg/L). Further, AOMC detoxifying mechanisms might result in the reduction of toxic response when the longest exposure time was applied. However, at the higher concentrations (2.5 and 5.0 mg/L), the extended exposure times did not have a critical effect on the response pattern of AOMC, especially for phenol and mono-chlorinated phenols. It was illustrated that AOMC is very sensitive to phenolic compounds and its sensitivity is high enough for the detection of phenolic compounds at the level of effluent standard in Thailand and Japan with a rapid response time of 15 min. To improve the sensitivity of AOMC to low phenolic compound concentrations, an extended exposure time of 25-40 min would be recommended. PMID:17302331

Tantasut, J; Satoh, H; Parkpian, P; Mongkolsuk, S

2006-01-01

93

Controlling silver nanoparticle exposure in algal toxicity testing - A matter of timing.  

PubMed

The aquatic ecotoxicity testing of nanoparticles is complicated by unstable exposure conditions resulting from various transformation processes of nanoparticles in aqueous suspensions. In this study, we investigated the influence of exposure timing on the algal test response to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), by reducing the incubation time and by aging the AgNPs in algal medium prior to testing. The freshwater green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were exposed to AgNO3, NM-300?K (a representative AgNP) and citrate stabilized AgNPs from two different manufacturers (AgNP1 and AgNP2) in a standard algal growth inhibition test (ISO 8692:2004) for 48?h and a short-term (2?h) (14)C-assimilation test. For AgNO3, similar responses were obtained in the two tests, whereas freshly prepared suspensions of citrate stabilized AgNPs were less toxic in the 2-h tests compared to the 48-h tests. The 2-h test was found applicable for dissolved silver, but yielded non-monotonous concentration-response relationships and poor reproducibility for freshly prepared AgNP suspensions. However, when aging AgNPs in algal medium 24?h prior to testing, clear concentration-response patterns emerged and reproducibility increased. Prolonged aging to 48?h increased toxicity in the 2-h tests whereas aging beyond 48?h reduced toxicity. Our results demonstrate that the outcome of algal toxicity testing of AgNPs is highly influenced not only by the test duration, but also by the time passed from the moment AgNPs are added to the test medium. This time-dependency should be considered when nanomaterial dispersion protocols for ecotoxicity testing are developed. PMID:24842597

Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Baun, Anders

2015-03-01

94

Solar Ion Processing of Itokawa Grains: Constraints on Surface Exposure Times  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analytical TEM observations obtained to date reveal that a significant sub-population of grains returned from the surface of asteroid Itokawa have had their outer 30-100 nm processed by space weathering effects. Although the effects include some surface deposition of condensed impact vapor and isolated impact melt splashes, much of the width of the space weathered outer margins or "rims" on grains is derived from solar wind processing of the original host grain. Similar to what has long been reported for some lunar grains, the ion-processed rims on Itokawa grains exhibit varing degrees and depths of penetration of atomic-displacement ion damage, resulting in complete amorphization for some rims (particularly in plagioclase), or formation of highly defective but still crystalline structures in others (particularly in pyroxene and olivine). Possibly different from lunar grains, however, is the presence of isolated internal cavities or voids in Itokawa grain rims, which may be implantation "bubbles" due to accumulating implanted solar wind H and/or He. For a given mineral exposed at a particular set of long term solar wind conditions, the level of ion damage in a given grain rim, the depth of damage penetration represented by the rim width, and the formation or lack of formation of implantation bubbles can all be linked to the time spent by the grain in an uncovered state on the topmost, space-exposed, regolith surface. For the lunar case, we have previously shown that with reasonable assumptions about solar wind characteristics over time, a model can be developed to estimate this exposure time based on the width of amorphous rims on lunar grains. Here we report on an expansion of the model to cover exposure time information contained in the array of solar ion-induced features in Itokawa grains.

Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.

2015-01-01

95

Time to pregnancy and exposure to pesticides in Danish farmers. ASCLEPIOS Study Group  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Circumstantial evidence suggests that organic farmers may have higher sperm count than other men, but comprehensive epidemiological studies of male fecundity among farmers have never been carried out. A substantial increase of sperm count is expected to translate into a shorter time to pregnancy--the number of menstrual cycles or months it takes a couple to get pregnant from discontinuation of birth control. Toxicological effects on spermatogenesis in humans and animals have been described after exposure to several pesticides. The aim of this study was to examine time to pregnancy among farmers who used pesticides (traditional farmers) and farmers who did not (organic farmers). METHODS: A total of 904 (84%) men, selected from the Danish Ministry of Agriculture lists of traditional and organic farmers, participated in telephone interviews. Information was collected on time to pregnancy for the youngest child, exposure to pesticides, and potential confounders. RESULTS: With the discrete analogue of the Cox regression model (including potential confounders: male and female smoking, female age, parity, and contraceptive method), the fecundability ratio between traditional farmers who used pesticides and organic farmers was 1.03 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.75 to 1.40). In the group of farmers who sprayed with pesticides, none of the characteristics related to the use of pesticides could account for the variation in time to pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: No overall effect of pesticides on male fecundability was found in this retrospective study among Danish farmers. Also, we found no evidence of higher male fecundability in organic farmers.   PMID:9624283

Larsen, S. B.; Joffe, M.; Bonde, J. P.

1998-01-01

96

Ultrasonication and the quality of human milk: variation of power and time of exposure.  

PubMed

Donor human milk is pasteurized to prevent the potential risk of the transmission of pathogens to preterm infants. Currently, Holder pasteurization (human milk held at 62·5°C for 30 min) is used in most human milk banks, but has the disadvantage that it results in excessive inactivation of important bioactive components. Power-ultrasound (20-100 kHz) is an emerging technology for the preservation of foods and could be an alternative method for the treatment of human milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different ultrasound settings on the elimination of Escherichia coli and the retention of bile salt stimulated lipase (BSSL) activity. Ultrasonication with a constant power decreased Esch. coli viability exponentially over time until the processing temperature increased to sub-pasteurization level to between 51·4 and 58·5°C, then a log10 1·3 decrease was observed (P<0·05). BSSL activity decreased to 91% until a temperature of 51·4°C and then it decreased to 8% between 51·4 and 64·9°C. Ultrasonication with a constant energy and various power and exposure times showed the highest temperature (53·7°C) when treated with the longest exposure time and lowest ultrasound-power (276 s at 3·62 W) compared with 37·6°C for 39 s at 25·64 W. The findings predict that the viability of Esch. coli could be reduced by log10 5 with a minimal loss of activity of BSSL by applying 13·8 kJ of energy in 12 ml of human milk using high ultrasound power over a short exposure time to ensure that the temperature remains below the critical level for protein denaturation. Alternatively, the use of lower power settings such as the 26 W used in the present studies would require a cooling system to ensure the human milk BSSL was protected against temperature denaturation. PMID:22850583

Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Peter E

2012-08-01

97

Uncertainty and variability in historical time-weighted average exposure data.  

PubMed

Beginning around 1940, private companies began processing of uranium and thorium ore, compounds, and metals for the Manhattan Engineer District and later the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Personnel from the AEC's Health and Safety Laboratory (HASL) visited many of the plants to assess worker exposures to radiation and radioactive materials. They developed a time-and-task approach to estimating "daily weighted average" (DWA) concentrations of airborne uranium, thorium, radon, and radon decay products. While short-term exposures greater than 10(5) dpm m(-3) of uranium and greater than 10(5) pCi L(-1) of radon were observed, DWA concentrations were much lower. The HASL-reported DWA values may be used as inputs for dose reconstruction in support of compensation decisions, but they have no numerical uncertainties associated with them. In this work, Monte Carlo methods are used retrospectively to assess the uncertainty and variability in the DWA values for 63 job titles from five different facilities that processed U, U ore, Th, or 226Ra-222Rn between 1948 and 1955. Most groups of repeated air samples are well described by lognormal distributions. Combining samples associated with different tasks often results in a reduction of the geometric standard deviation (GSD) of the DWA to less than those GSD values typical of individual tasks. Results support the assumption of a GSD value of 5 when information on uncertainty in DWA exposures is unavailable. Blunders involving arithmetic, transposition, and transcription are found in many of the HASL reports. In 5 out of the 63 cases, these mistakes result in overestimates of DWA values by a factor of 2 to 2.5, and in 2 cases DWA values are underestimated by factors of 3 to 10. PMID:18188049

Davis, Adam J; Strom, Daniel J

2008-02-01

98

Color Stability of Enamel following Different Acid Etching and Color Exposure Times  

PubMed Central

Background and aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different etching times on enamel color stability after immediate versus delayed exposure to colored artificial saliva (CAS). Materials and methods. Human first premolars were divided into five groups of twenty. A colorimeter was used according to the CIE system on the mid-buccal and mid-lingual surfaces to evaluate initial tooth color. Samples in group A remained unetched. In groups B to E, buccal and lingual surfaces were initially etched with phosphoric acid for 15 and 60 seconds, respectively. Then, the samples in groups A and C were immersed in colored artificial saliva (cola+saliva). In group B, the teeth were immersed in simple artificial saliva (AS). Samples in groups D and E were immersed in AS for 24 and 72 hours, respectively before being immersed in colored AS. The teeth were immersed for one month in each solution before color measurement. During the test period, the teeth were retrieved from the staining solution and stored in AS for five minutes. This was repeated 60 times. Color changes of buccal and lingual surfaces were calculated. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis (? ?0.05). Results. There were no significant differences between the groups in term of ?E of buccal (P = 0.148) and lingual surfaces (P = 0.73). Conclusion. Extended time of etching did not result in significant enamel color change. Immediate and delayed exposure of etched enamel to staining solutions did not result in clinically detectable tooth color changes. PMID:25093048

Jahanbin, Arezoo; Basafa, Mohammad; Moazzami, Mostafa; Basafa, Behnoush; Eslami, Neda

2014-01-01

99

Color Stability of Enamel following Different Acid Etching and Color Exposure Times.  

PubMed

Background and aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different etching times on enamel color stability after immediate versus delayed exposure to colored artificial saliva (CAS). Materials and methods. Human first premolars were divided into five groups of twenty. A colorimeter was used according to the CIE system on the mid-buccal and mid-lingual surfaces to evaluate initial tooth color. Samples in group A remained unetched. In groups B to E, buccal and lingual surfaces were initially etched with phosphoric acid for 15 and 60 seconds, respectively. Then, the samples in groups A and C were immersed in colored artificial saliva (cola+saliva). In group B, the teeth were immersed in simple artificial saliva (AS). Samples in groups D and E were immersed in AS for 24 and 72 hours, respectively before being immersed in colored AS. The teeth were immersed for one month in each solution before color measurement. During the test period, the teeth were retrieved from the staining solution and stored in AS for five minutes. This was repeated 60 times. Color changes of buccal and lingual surfaces were calculated. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis (? ?0.05). Results. There were no significant differences between the groups in term of ?E of buccal (P = 0.148) and lingual surfaces (P = 0.73). Conclusion. Extended time of etching did not result in significant enamel color change. Immediate and delayed exposure of etched enamel to staining solutions did not result in clinically detectable tooth color changes. PMID:25093048

Jahanbin, Arezoo; Basafa, Mohammad; Moazzami, Mostafa; Basafa, Behnoush; Eslami, Neda

2014-01-01

100

In-situ hydrogen in metal determination using a minimum neutron source strength and exposure time.  

PubMed

Water is frequently present in the environment and is a source of hydrogen that can interact with many materials. Because of its small atomic size, a hydrogen atom can easily diffuse into a host metal, and though the metal may appear unchanged for a time, the metal will eventually abruptly lose its strength and ductility. Thus, measuring the hydrogen content in metals is important in many fields, such as in the nuclear industry, in automotive and aircraft fabrication, and particularly, in offshore oil and gas fields. It has been demonstrated that the use of nuclear methods to measure the hydrogen content in metals can achieve sensitivity levels on the order of parts per million. However, the use of nuclear methods in the field has not been conducted for two reasons. The first reason is due to exposure limitations. The second reason is due to the hi-tech instruments required for better accuracy. In this work, a new method using a low-strength portable neutron source is explored in conjunction with detectors based on plastic nuclear detection films. The following are the in-situ requirements: simplicity in setup, high reliability, minimal exposure dose, and acceptable accuracy at an acceptable cost. A computer model of the experimental setup is used to reproduce the results of a proof-of-concept experiment and to predict the sensitivity levels under optimised experimental conditions. PMID:23708832

Hatem, M; Agamy, S; Khalil, M Y

2013-08-01

101

Reconciling Scratch Space Consumption, Exposure, and Volatility to Achieve Timely Staging of Job Input Data  

SciTech Connect

Innovative scientific applications and emerging dense data sources are creating a data deluge for high-end computing systems. Processing such large input data typically involves copying (or staging) onto the supercomputer's specialized high-speed storage, scratch space, for sustained high I/O throughput. The current practice of conservatively staging data as early as possible makes the data vulnerable to storage failures, which may entail re-staging and consequently reduced job throughput. To address this, we present a timely staging framework that uses a combination of job startup time predictions, user-specified intermediate nodes, and decentralized data delivery to coincide input data staging with job start-up. By delaying staging to when it is necessary, the exposure to failures and its effects can be reduced. Evaluation using both PlanetLab and simulations based on three years of Jaguar (No. 1 in Top500) job logs show as much as 85.9% reduction in staging times compared to direct transfers, 75.2% reduction in wait time on scratch, and 2.4% reduction in usage/hour.

Monti, Henri [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Butt, Ali R [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL

2010-04-01

102

Estimating the time interval between exposure to the World Trade Center disaster and incident diagnoses of obstructive airway disease.  

PubMed

Respiratory disorders are associated with occupational and environmental exposures. The latency period between exposure and disease onset remains uncertain. The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster presents a unique opportunity to describe the latency period for obstructive airway disease (OAD) diagnoses. This prospective cohort study of New York City firefighters compared the timing and incidence of physician-diagnosed OAD relative to WTC exposure. Exposure was categorized by WTC arrival time as high (on the morning of September 11, 2001), moderate (after noon on September 11, 2001, or on September 12, 2001), or low (during September 13-24, 2001). We modeled relative rates and 95% confidence intervals of OAD incidence by exposure over the first 5 years after September 11, 2001, estimating the times of change in the relative rate with change point models. We observed a change point at 15 months after September 11, 2001. Before 15 months, the relative rate for the high- versus low-exposure group was 3.96 (95% confidence interval: 2.51, 6.26) and thereafter, it was 1.76 (95% confidence interval: 1.26, 2.46). Incident OAD was associated with WTC exposure for at least 5 years after September 11, 2001. There were higher rates of new-onset OAD among the high-exposure group during the first 15 months and, to a lesser extent, throughout follow-up. This difference in relative rate by exposure occurred despite full and free access to health care for all WTC-exposed firefighters, demonstrating the persistence of WTC-associated OAD risk. PMID:24980522

Glaser, Michelle S; Webber, Mayris P; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Weakley, Jessica; Liu, Xiaoxue; Ye, Fen; Cohen, Hillel W; Aldrich, Thomas K; Kelly, Kerry J; Nolan, Anna; Weiden, Michael D; Prezant, David J; Hall, Charles B

2014-08-01

103

Estimating the Time Interval Between Exposure to the World Trade Center Disaster and Incident Diagnoses of Obstructive Airway Disease  

PubMed Central

Respiratory disorders are associated with occupational and environmental exposures. The latency period between exposure and disease onset remains uncertain. The World Trade Center (WTC) disaster presents a unique opportunity to describe the latency period for obstructive airway disease (OAD) diagnoses. This prospective cohort study of New York City firefighters compared the timing and incidence of physician-diagnosed OAD relative to WTC exposure. Exposure was categorized by WTC arrival time as high (on the morning of September 11, 2001), moderate (after noon on September 11, 2001, or on September 12, 2001), or low (during September 13–24, 2001). We modeled relative rates and 95% confidence intervals of OAD incidence by exposure over the first 5 years after September 11, 2001, estimating the times of change in the relative rate with change point models. We observed a change point at 15 months after September 11, 2001. Before 15 months, the relative rate for the high- versus low-exposure group was 3.96 (95% confidence interval: 2.51, 6.26) and thereafter, it was 1.76 (95% confidence interval: 1.26, 2.46). Incident OAD was associated with WTC exposure for at least 5 years after September 11, 2001. There were higher rates of new-onset OAD among the high-exposure group during the first 15 months and, to a lesser extent, throughout follow-up. This difference in relative rate by exposure occurred despite full and free access to health care for all WTC-exposed firefighters, demonstrating the persistence of WTC-associated OAD risk. PMID:24980522

Glaser, Michelle S.; Webber, Mayris P.; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Weakley, Jessica; Liu, Xiaoxue; Ye, Fen; Cohen, Hillel W.; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Kelly, Kerry J.; Nolan, Anna; Weiden, Michael D.; Prezant, David J.; Hall, Charles B.

2014-01-01

104

Ear swelling test by using laser speckle imaging with a long exposure time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser speckle imaging with long exposure time has been applied noninvasively to visualize the immediate reaction of cutaneous vessels in mice in response to a known primary irritant and potential allergen-methyl salicylate. The compound has been used topically on the surface of the pinna and the reaction of the vascular network was examined. We demonstrate that irritant-induced acute vascular reaction can be effectively and accurately detected by laser speckle imaging technique. The current approach holds a great promise for application in routine screening of the cutaneous vascular response induced by contact agents, screenings of mouse ear swelling test, and testing the allergenic potential of new synthetic materials and healthcare pharmaceutical products.

Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Kuznetsov, Yuri; Preise, Dina; Meglinski, Igor; Harmelin, Alon

2014-06-01

105

Ear swelling test by using laser speckle imaging with a long exposure time.  

PubMed

Laser speckle imaging with long exposure time has been applied noninvasively to visualize the immediate reaction of cutaneous vessels in mice in response to a known primary irritant and potential allergen—methyl salicylate. The compound has been used topically on the surface of the pinna and the reaction of the vascular network was examined. We demonstrate that irritant-induced acute vascular reaction can be effectively and accurately detected by laser speckle imaging technique. The current approach holds a great promise for application in routine screening of the cutaneous vascular response induced by contact agents, screenings of mouse ear swelling test, and testing the allergenic potential of new synthetic materials and healthcare pharmaceutical products. PMID:24967913

Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Kuznetsov, Yuri; Preise, Dina; Meglinski, Igor; Harmelin, Alon

2014-06-01

106

Effect of oxidant concentration, exposure time, and seed particles on secondary organic aerosol chemical composition and yield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a systematic intercomparison study of the chemistry and yields of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from OH oxidation of a common set of gas-phase precursors in a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) continuous flow reactor and several environmental chambers. In the flow reactor, SOA precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2.0 × 108 to 2.2 × 1010 molec cm-3 over exposure times of 100 s. In the environmental chambers, precursors were oxidized using OH concentrations ranging from 2 × 106 to 2 × 107 molec cm-3 over exposure times of several hours. The OH concentration in the chamber experiments is close to that found in the atmosphere, but the integrated OH exposure in the flow reactor can simulate atmospheric exposure times of multiple days compared to chamber exposure times of only a day or so. In most cases, for a specific SOA type the most-oxidized chamber SOA and the least-oxidized flow reactor SOA have similar mass spectra, oxygen-to-carbon and hydrogen-to-carbon ratios, and carbon oxidation states at integrated OH exposures between approximately 1 × 1011 and 2 × 1011 molec cm-3 s, or about 1-2 days of equivalent atmospheric oxidation. This observation suggests that in the range of available OH exposure overlap for the flow reactor and chambers, SOA elemental composition as measured by an aerosol mass spectrometer is similar whether the precursor is exposed to low OH concentrations over long exposure times or high OH concentrations over short exposure times. This similarity in turn suggests that both in the flow reactor and in chambers, SOA chemical composition at low OH exposure is governed primarily by gas-phase OH oxidation of the precursors rather than heterogeneous oxidation of the condensed particles. In general, SOA yields measured in the flow reactor are lower than measured in chambers for the range of equivalent OH exposures that can be measured in both the flow reactor and chambers. The influence of sulfate seed particles on isoprene SOA yield measurements was examined in the flow reactor. The studies show that seed particles increase the yield of SOA produced in flow reactors by a factor of 3 to 5 and may also account in part for higher SOA yields obtained in the chambers, where seed particles are routinely used.

Lambe, A. T.; Chhabra, P. S.; Onasch, T. B.; Brune, W. H.; Hunter, J. F.; Kroll, J. H.; Cummings, M. J.; Brogan, J. F.; Parmar, Y.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Davidovits, P.

2015-03-01

107

Gold nanoparticles cellular toxicity and recovery: effect of size, concentration and exposure time.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are used in many applications; however, their interactions with cells and potential health risk(s) are not fully known. In this manuscript, we describe the interactions of AuNPs with human dermal fibroblasts and show that they can penetrate the plasma membrane and accumulate in large vacuoles. We also demonstrate that the uptake of the AuNPs is a function of time, their size and concentration. Specifically, we demonstrate that 45 nm AuNPs penetrate cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while the smaller 13 nm enter mostly via phagocytosis. Furthermore, we provide evidence of cytoskeleton filament disruption as a result of AuNPs exposure and reconstitution during recovery (following AuNP removal), despite no changes in actin or beta-tubulin protein levels. In contrast, the expression of the extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, collagen and fibronectin, was diminished in the cells exposed to AuNPs. We also examined the proliferation rates of cells exposed to AuNPs and show that its diminution is a function of apoptosis and speculate that apoptosis results from the number of vacuoles present in the cells, which is probably the main factor that disrupts the cytoskeleton causing cell area contraction and decreases in motility. Lastly, we also present data that indicates that AuNPs' damage to cells is not permanent and that the cells can completely recover as a function of AuNPs' size, concentration and exposure time. Taken together, our data suggest that AuNPs exert detrimental effects on cell function that could reverse following AuNPs removal. PMID:20795906

Mironava, Tatsiana; Hadjiargyrou, Michael; Simon, Marcia; Jurukovski, Vladimir; Rafailovich, Miriam H

2010-03-01

108

Assessment of Two Portable Real-Time Particle Monitors Used in Nanomaterial Workplace Exposure Evaluations  

PubMed Central

Background Nanoparticle emission assessment technique was developed to semi-quantitatively evaluate nanomaterial exposures and employs a combination of filter based samples and portable real-time particle monitors, including a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an optical particle counter (OPC), to detect nanomaterial releases. This laboratory study evaluated the results from CPC and OPC simultaneously measuring a polydisperse aerosol to assess their variability and accuracy. Methods and Results Two CPCs and two OPCs were used to evaluate a polydisperse sodium chloride aerosol within an enclosed chamber. The measurement results for number concentration versus time were compared between paired particle monitors of the same type, and to results from the Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) which was widely used to measure concentration of size-specific particles. According to analyses by using the Bland-Altman method, the CPCs displayed a constant mean percent difference of ?3.8% (95% agreement limits: ?9.1 to 1.6%; range of 95% agreement limit: 10.7%) with the chamber particle concentration below its dynamic upper limit (100,000 particles per cubic centimeter). The mean percent difference increased from ?3.4% to ?12.0% (range of 95% agreement limits: 7.1%) with increasing particle concentrations that were above the dynamic upper limit. The OPC results showed the percent difference within 15% for measurements in particles with size ranges of 300 to 500 and 500 to 1000 regardless of the particle concentration. Compared with SMPS measurements, the CPC gave a mean percent difference of 22.9% (95% agreement limits: 10.5% to 35.2%); whereas the measurements from OPC were not comparable. Conclusions This study demonstrated that CPC and OPC are useful for measuring nanoparticle exposures but the results from an individual monitor should be interpreted based upon the instrument's technical parameters. Future research should challenge these monitors with particles of different sizes, shapes, or composition, to determine measurement comparability and accuracy across various workplace nanomaterials. PMID:25148239

Liu, Yuewei; Beaucham, Catherine C.; Pearce, Terri A.; Zhuang, Ziqing

2014-01-01

109

Quantification of Acute Vocal Fold Epithelial Surface Damage with Increasing Time and Magnitude Doses of Vibration Exposure  

PubMed Central

Because the vocal folds undergo repeated trauma during continuous cycles of vibration, the epithelium is routinely susceptible to damage during phonation. Excessive and prolonged vibration exposure is considered a significant predisposing factor in the development of vocal fold pathology. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the extent of epithelial surface damage following increased time and magnitude doses of vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit phonation model. Forty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to nine groups and received varying phonation time-doses (30, 60, or 120 minutes) and magnitude-doses (control, modal intensity phonation, or raised intensity phonation) of vibration exposure. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was used to quantify the degree of epithelial surface damage. Results revealed a significant reduction in microprojection density, microprojection height, and depth of the epithelial surface with increasing time and phonation magnitudes doses, signifying increased epithelial surface damage risk with excessive and prolonged vibration exposure. Destruction to the epithelial cell surface may provide significant insight into the disruption of cell function following prolonged vibration exposure. One important goal achieved in the present study was the quantification of epithelial surface damage using objective imaging criteria. These data provide an important foundation for future studies of long-term tissue recovery from excessive and prolonged vibration exposure. PMID:24626217

Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Van Deusen, Mark; Jerome, W. Gray; Garrett, C. Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M. Preeti; Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Rousseau, Bernard

2014-01-01

110

Textural characterization of finished and polished composites over time of intraoral exposure.  

PubMed

This in situ study sought to evaluate the surface roughness evolution of resin composites finished and polished by different methods. A total of 108 rectangular-shaped specimens of a microfilled and a hybrid composite were cured against a Mylar matrix strip and left unpolished or instrumented with diamond burs, Al2O3-coated disks, Al2O3-impregnated UDMA disk, or with diamond burs followed by either one of the disks. After specimens had been profiled for the average surface roughness (Ra, microm), 18 volunteers wore a removable palatal appliance, which accommodated one specimen of each one of the 12 groups investigated. Surface roughness for up to 28 days of intraoral exposure was then measured at 1- or 7-day intervals. A split-plot ANOVA (alpha = 0.05) revealed a significant interaction between group and time. Tukey's test and regression analyses ascertained that initially finishing with burs only provided the roughest surface to both composites. Unpolished surfaces and those specimens polished with Al2O3-coated disks, regardless of previous use of diamond burs, attained smoother surface. The Al2O3-impregnated UDMA disk was capable of smoothening the surface of the hybrid material previously finished with diamond burs. The roughness achieved after finishing and polishing composites may be either smoothened or roughened after intraoral exposure. On the basis of the roughness range, it is advisable to use Al2O3-coated disks, regardless of whether diamond burs were previously used. Al2O3-impregnated UDMA disks (with or without previous application of diamond burs) may be also suitable for instrumenting hybrid restoratives. PMID:16206257

Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Rodrigues, Antonio Luiz; Serra, Mônica Campos

2006-02-01

111

Exposure time independent summary statistics for assessment of drug dependent cell line growth inhibition  

PubMed Central

Background In vitro generated dose-response curves of human cancer cell lines are widely used to develop new therapeutics. The curves are summarised by simplified statistics that ignore the conventionally used dose-response curves’ dependency on drug exposure time and growth kinetics. This may lead to suboptimal exploitation of data and biased conclusions on the potential of the drug in question. Therefore we set out to improve the dose-response assessments by eliminating the impact of time dependency. Results First, a mathematical model for drug induced cell growth inhibition was formulated and used to derive novel dose-response curves and improved summary statistics that are independent of time under the proposed model. Next, a statistical analysis workflow for estimating the improved statistics was suggested consisting of 1) nonlinear regression models for estimation of cell counts and doubling times, 2) isotonic regression for modelling the suggested dose-response curves, and 3) resampling based method for assessing variation of the novel summary statistics. We document that conventionally used summary statistics for dose-response experiments depend on time so that fast growing cell lines compared to slowly growing ones are considered overly sensitive. The adequacy of the mathematical model is tested for doxorubicin and found to fit real data to an acceptable degree. Dose-response data from the NCI60 drug screen were used to illustrate the time dependency and demonstrate an adjustment correcting for it. The applicability of the workflow was illustrated by simulation and application on a doxorubicin growth inhibition screen. The simulations show that under the proposed mathematical model the suggested statistical workflow results in unbiased estimates of the time independent summary statistics. Variance estimates of the novel summary statistics are used to conclude that the doxorubicin screen covers a significant diverse range of responses ensuring it is useful for biological interpretations. Conclusion Time independent summary statistics may aid the understanding of drugs’ action mechanism on tumour cells and potentially renew previous drug sensitivity evaluation studies. PMID:24902483

2014-01-01

112

Near Real-Time Earthquake Exposure and Damage Assessment: An Example from Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confined by infamous strike-slip North Anatolian Fault from the north and by the Hellenic subduction trench from the south Turkey is one of the most seismically active countries in Europe. Due this increased exposure and the fragility of the building stock Turkey is among the top countries exposed to earthquake hazard in terms of mortality and economic losses. In this study we focus recent and ongoing efforts to mitigate the earthquake risk in near real-time. We present actual results of recent earthquakes, such as the M6 event off-shore Antalya which occurred on 28 December 2013. Starting at the moment of detection, we obtain a preliminary ground motion intensity distribution based on epicenter and magnitude. Our real-time application is further enhanced by the integration of the SeisComp3 ground motion parameter estimation tool with the Earthquake Loss Estimation Routine (ELER). SeisComp3 provides the online station parameters which are then automatically incorporated into the ShakeMaps produced by ELER. The resulting ground motion distributions are used together with the building inventory to calculate expected number of buildings in various damage states. All these analysis are conducted in an automated fashion and are communicated within a few minutes of a triggering event. In our efforts to disseminate earthquake information to the general public we make extensive use of social networks such as Tweeter and collaborate with mobile phone operators.

Kamer, Yavor; Çomo?lu, Mustafa; Erdik, Mustafa

2014-05-01

113

Does oxygen exposure time control the extent of organic matter decomposition in peatlands?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent of peat decomposition was investigated in four cores collected along a latitudinal gradient from 56°N to 66°N in the West Siberian Lowland. The acid:aldehyde ratios of lignin phenols were significantly higher in the two northern cores compared with the two southern cores, indicating peats at the northern sites were more highly decomposed. Yields of hydroxyproline, an amino acid found in plant structural glycoproteins, were also significantly higher in northern cores compared with southern cores. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins are not synthesized by microbes and are generally less reactive than bulk plant carbon, so elevated yields indicated that northern cores were more extensively decomposed than the southern cores. The southern cores experienced warmer temperatures, but were less decomposed, indicating that temperature was not the primary control of peat decomposition. The plant community oscillated between Sphagnum and vascular plant dominance in the southern cores, but vegetation type did not appear to affect the extent of decomposition. Oxygen exposure time appeared to be the strongest control of the extent of peat decomposition. The northern cores had lower accumulation rates and drier conditions, so these peats were exposed to oxic conditions for a longer time before burial in the catotelm, where anoxic conditions prevail and rates of decomposition are generally lower by an order of magnitude.

Philben, Michael; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

2014-05-01

114

Improvement of attention span and reaction time with hyperbaric oxygen treatment in patients with toxic injury due to mold exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is, by now, well established that mold toxins (mycotoxins) can cause significant adverse health effects. In this study,\\u000a 15 subjects who developed an attention deficit disorder (ADD) and slowing of reaction time at the time of exposure to mold\\u000a toxins were identified. Deficits in attention span and reaction time were documented not only by taking a careful history,\\u000a but

N. Ezra; K. Dang; G. Heuser

2011-01-01

115

The efficacy of protoporphyrin as a predictive biomarker for lead exposure in canvasback ducks: Effect of sample storage time.  

PubMed

We used 363 blood samples collected from wild canvasback dueks (Aythya valisineria) at Catahoula Lake, Louisiana, U.S.A. to evaluate the effect of sample storage time on the efficacy of erythrocytic protoporphyrin as an indicator of lead exposure. The protoporphyrin concentration of each sample was determined by hematofluorometry within 5 min of blood collection and after refrigeration at 4 °C for 24 and 48 h. All samples were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Based on a blood lead concentration of ?0.2 ppm wet weight as positive evidence for lead exposure, the protoporphyrin technique resulted in overall error rates of 29%, 20%, and 19% and false negative error rates of 47%, 29% and 25% when hematofluorometric determinations were made on blood at 5 min, 24 h, and 48 h, respectively. False positive error rates were less than 10% for all three measurement times. The accuracy of the 24-h erythrocytic protoporphyrin classification of blood samples as positive or negative for lead exposure was significantly greater than the 5-min classification, but no improvement in accuracy was gained when samples were tested at 48 h. The false negative errors were probably due, at least in part, to the lag time between lead exposure and the increase of blood protoporphyrin concentrations. False negatives resulted in an underestimation of the true number of canvasbacks exposed to lead, indicating that hematofluorometry provides a conservative estimate of lead exposure. PMID:24193824

Christian Franson, J; Hohman, W L; Moore, J L; Smith, M R

1996-11-01

116

Performance of a 512 x 512 Gated CMOS Imager with a 250 ps Exposure Time  

SciTech Connect

We describe the performance of a 512x512 gated CMOS read out integrated circuit (ROIC) with a 250 ps exposure time. A low-skew, H-tree trigger distribution system is used to locally generate individual pixel gates in each 8x8 neighborhood of the ROIC. The temporal width of the gate is voltage controlled and user selectable via a precision potentiometer. The gating implementation was first validated in optical tests of a 64x64 pixel prototype ROIC developed as a proof-of-concept during the early phases of the development program. The layout of the H-Tree addresses each quadrant of the ROIC independently and admits operation of the ROIC in two modes. If “common mode” triggering is used, the camera provides a single 512x512 image. If independent triggers are used, the camera can provide up to four 256x256 images with a frame separation set by the trigger intervals. The ROIC design includes small (sub-pixel) optical photodiode structures to allow test and characterization of the ROIC using optical sources prior to bump bonding. Reported test results were obtained using short pulse, second harmonic Ti:Sapphire laser systems operating at ?~ 400 nm at sub-ps pulse widths.

Teruya, A T; Moody, J D; Hsing, W W; Brown, C G; Griffin, M; Mead, A S

2012-10-01

117

Predictive performance of the Short Time Exposure test for identifying eye irritation potential of chemical mixtures.  

PubMed

The Short Time Exposure (STE) test is an in vitro eye irritation test based on the cytotoxicity in SIRC cells (rabbit corneal cell line) following a 5min treatment of chemicals. This study evaluated the predictive performance of the STE test to identify the globally harmonized system (GHS) Not Classified category and other irritant categories (i.e., GHS Category 1 or 2) when used to test 40 chemical mixtures that included irritants. The STE test correctly identified 30 tested mixtures classified as GHS irritant categories and 5 out of 10 tested mixtures classified as GHS Not Classified. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictivity, negative predictivity, and overall accuracy of the STE test were 100% (30/30), 50% (5/10), 86% (25/30), 100% (5/5), and 88% (35/40), respectively. These predictive performances were comparative to or greater than those in other in vitro eye irritation tests that have been accepted as test guideline by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. This suggests that the STE test has sufficient predictivity for identifying the eye irritation potential of chemical mixtures. Since no false negatives in this study were found, this indicates that the STE test is applicable as a part of the bottom-up approach. PMID:25681760

Saito, Kazutoshi; Miyazawa, Masaaki; Nukada, Yuko; Ei, Kyo; Abo, Takayuki; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi

2015-04-01

118

High-time resolution and size-segregated elemental composition in high-intensity pyrotechnic exposures.  

PubMed

Typical of festivals in Eastern Spain, mascletàs are high-intensity pyrotechnic events where thousands of firecrackers are burnt in an intense, rapid episode that generates short-lived heavy aerosol clouds. High temporal resolution and size distribution characterisation of aerosol components were performed to evaluate the effects of the brief (<30 min) and acute exposure on the spectators present. Very high concentrations of firework specific elements, especially in the fine fraction, were reached during mascletàs, with values of about 500 ?g/m(3) for K and 300 ?g/m(3) for Cl. Sr, Al, Mg, Ba, Cu, Co, Zn, and Pb concentration increase factors of more than 100 (1000 for Sr and Ba) were observed in the fine fraction with respect to background levels. Crustal origin elements, like Ca, Fe, Si, Ti, also showed an important concentration rise (~10 times above background levels) but this is due to dust resuspension by pyrotechnic explosions. The crustal components are mainly in the coarse mode (>90% elemental mass), between 2 and 3 ?m. Most firework related metals are concentrated in the submicrometric region (>80%) with a trimodal size distribution. This may be interesting to epidemiologists given the toxic effects that such fine, metal-rich particles can have on human health. PMID:23026448

Crespo, Javier; Yubero, Eduardo; Nicolás, Jose F; Lucarelli, Franco; Nava, Silvia; Chiari, Massimo; Calzolai, Giulia

2012-11-30

119

Application of MOSFET Detectors for Dosimetry in Small Animal Radiography Using Short Exposure Times  

PubMed Central

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) X-ray imaging for small animals can be used for functional phenotyping given its ability to capture rapid physiological changes at high spatial and temporal resolution. The higher temporal and spatial requirements for small-animal imaging drive the need for short, high-flux X-ray pulses. However, high doses of ionizing radiation can affect the physiology. The purpose of this study was to verify and apply metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology to dosimetry for small-animal diagnostic imaging. A tungsten anode X-ray source was used to expose a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom. Dose measurements were made on the phantom surface and interior. The MOSFETs were verified with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the MOSFET results agreed with the TLD results (bias, 0.0625). Using typical small animal DSA scan parameters, the dose ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 cGy. Application of the MOSFETs in the small animal environment provided two main benefits: (1) the availability of results in near real-time instead of the hours needed for TLD processes and (2) the ability to support multiple exposures with different X-ray techniques (various of kVp, mA and ms) using the same MOSFET. This MOSFET technology has proven to be a fast, reliable small animal dosimetry method for DSA imaging and is a good system for dose monitoring for serial and gene expression studies. PMID:18666818

De Lin, Ming; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Kim, Sangroh; Anderson-Evans, Colin; Johnson, G. Allan; Yoshizumi, Terry T.

2008-01-01

120

Application of MOSFET detectors for dosimetry in small animal radiography using short exposure times.  

PubMed

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) X-ray imaging for small animals can be used for functional phenotyping given its ability to capture rapid physiological changes at high spatial and temporal resolution. The higher temporal and spatial requirements for small-animal imaging drive the need for short, high-flux X-ray pulses. However, high doses of ionizing radiation can affect the physiology. The purpose of this study was to verify and apply metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology to dosimetry for small-animal diagnostic imaging. A tungsten anode X-ray source was used to expose a tissue-equivalent mouse phantom. Dose measurements were made on the phantom surface and interior. The MOSFETs were verified with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Bland-Altman analysis showed that the MOSFET results agreed with the TLD results (bias, 0.0625). Using typical small animal DSA scan parameters, the dose ranged from 0.7 to 2.2 cGy. Application of the MOSFETs in the small animal environment provided two main benefits: (1) the availability of results in near real-time instead of the hours needed for TLD processes and (2) the ability to support multiple exposures with different X-ray techniques (various of kVp, mA and ms) using the same MOSFET. This MOSFET technology has proven to be a fast, reliable small animal dosimetry method for DSA imaging and is a good system for dose monitoring for serial and gene expression studies. PMID:18666818

De Lin, Ming; Toncheva, Greta; Nguyen, Giao; Kim, Sangroh; Anderson-Evans, Colin; Johnson, G Allan; Yoshizumi, Terry T

2008-08-01

121

Efficient space-time sampling with pixel-wise coded exposure for high-speed imaging.  

PubMed

Cameras face a fundamental trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution. Digital still cameras can capture images with high spatial resolution, but most high-speed video cameras have relatively low spatial resolution. It is hard to overcome this trade-off without incurring a significant increase in hardware costs. In this paper, we propose techniques for sampling, representing, and reconstructing the space-time volume to overcome this trade-off. Our approach has two important distinctions compared to previous works: 1) We achieve sparse representation of videos by learning an overcomplete dictionary on video patches, and 2) we adhere to practical hardware constraints on sampling schemes imposed by architectures of current image sensors, which means that our sampling function can be implemented on CMOS image sensors with modified control units in the future. We evaluate components of our approach, sampling function and sparse representation, by comparing them to several existing approaches. We also implement a prototype imaging system with pixel-wise coded exposure control using a liquid crystal on silicon device. System characteristics such as field of view and modulation transfer function are evaluated for our imaging system. Both simulations and experiments on a wide range of scenes show that our method can effectively reconstruct a video from a single coded image while maintaining high spatial resolution. PMID:24356347

Liu, Dengyu; Gu, Jinwei; Hitomi, Yasunobu; Gupta, Mohit; Mitsunaga, Tomoo; Nayar, Shree K

2014-02-01

122

Exposure time to hepatitis B virus and associated risk factors among children in Edirne, Turkey.  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in Turkey, but the main routes of transmission were not well established. This study aims to detect the exposure time to HBV and associated risk factors among children. In a sampling group of children aged 0-19 years living in Edirne, antiHBc, antiHBs and HBsAg were screened by the microELISA method. A questionnaire was also completed for each child. In 717 children that were included in the study, the total antiHBc seropositivity was 5.4% and was 1.8, 0.8, 1.7, 6.8, 11.8% in 0-1, 2-5, 6-10, 11-14, 15-19 years age groups respectively. The overall HBsAg seropositivity was 1.7%. The risk of HBV infection increased after the age of 10 years (OR 7.79, 95% CI 3.01-20.16). Collective circumcision was the only independent factor according to regression analysis. Children living in Edirne should be vaccinated against HBV before reaching 11 years of age. PMID:15962558

Otkun, M.; Erdogan, M. S.; Tatman-Otkun, M.; Akata, F.

2005-01-01

123

Exposure to time varying magnetic fields associated with magnetic resonance imaging reduces fentanyl-induced analgesia in mice  

SciTech Connect

The effects of exposure to clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on analgesia induced by the mu opiate agonist, fentanyl, was examined in mice. During the dark period, adult male mice were exposed for 23.2 min to the time-varying (0.6 T/sec) magnetic field (TVMF) component of the MRI procedure. Following this exposure, the analgesic potency of fentanyl citrate (0.1 mg/kg) was determined at 5, 10, 15, and 30 min post-injection, using a thermal test stimulus (hot-plate 50 degrees C). Exposure to the magnetic-field gradients attenuated the fentanyl-induced analgesia in a manner comparable to that previously observed with morphine. These results indicate that the time-varying magnetic fields associated with MRI have significant inhibitory effects on the analgesic effects of specific mu-opiate-directed ligands.

Teskey, G.C.; Prato, F.S.; Ossenkopp, K.P.; Kavaliers, M.

1988-01-01

124

A Cohort study evaluation of maternal PCB exposure related to time to pregnancy in daughters  

PubMed Central

Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remain ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Developmental exposures are suspected to impact reproduction. Analysis of mixtures of PCBs may be problematic as components have a complex correlation structure, and along with limited sample sizes, standard regression strategies are problematic. We compared the results of a novel, empirical method to those based on categorization of PCB compounds by (1) hypothesized biological activity previously proposed and widely applied, and (2) degree of ortho- substitution (mono, di, tri), in a study of the relation of maternal serum PCBs and daughter’s time to pregnancy. Methods We measured PCBs in maternal serum samples collected in the early postpartum in 289 daughters in the Child Health and Development Studies birth cohort. We queried time to pregnancy in these daughters 28–31 years later. We applied a novel weighted quantile sum approach to find the bad-actor compounds in the PCB mixture found in maternal serum. The approach includes empirical estimation of the weights through a bootstrap step which accounts for the variation in the estimated weights. Results Bootstrap analyses indicated the dominant functionality groups associated with longer TTP were the dioxin-like, anti-estrogenic group (average weight, 22%) and PCBs not previously classified by biological activity (54%). In contrast, the unclassified PCBs were not important in the association with shorter TTP, where the anti-estrogenic groups and the PB-inducers group played a more important role (60% and 23%, respectively). The highly chlorinated PCBs (average weight, 89%) were mostly associated with longer TTP; in contrast, the degree of chlorination was less discriminating for shorter TTP. Finally, PCB 56 was associated with the strongest relationship with TTP with a weight of 47%. Conclusions Our empirical approach found some associations previously identified by two classification schemes, but also identified other bad actors. This empirical method can generate hypotheses about mixture effects and mechanisms and overcomes some of the limitations of standard regression techniques. PMID:23962309

2013-01-01

125

Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash  

SciTech Connect

It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-? and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN activation is a relevant source of reactive oxygen species in this model. • These findings may account for previously described cardiopulmonary alterations.

Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

2014-01-15

126

Resilience and recovery: The effect of triclosan exposure timing during development, on the structure and function of river biofilm communities.  

PubMed

Triclosan (TCS) is a ubiquitous antibacterial agent found in soaps, scrubs, and consumer products. There is limited information on hazardous effects of TCS in the environment. Here, rotating annular reactors were used to cultivate river biofilm communities exposed to 1.8?gl(-1) TCS with the timing and duration of exposure and recovery during development varied. Two major treatment regimens were employed: (i) biofilm development for 2, 4 or 6 weeks prior to TCS exposure and (ii) exposure of biofilms to TCS for 2, 4 or 6 weeks followed by recovery. Biofilms not exposed to TCS were used as a reference condition. Communities cultivated without and then exposed to TCS all exhibited reductions in algal biomass and significant (p<0.05) reductions in cyanobacterial biomass. No significant effects were observed on bacterial biomass. CLSM imaging of biofilms at 8 weeks revealed unique endpoints in terms of community architecture. Community composition was altered by any exposure to TCS, as indicated by significant shifts in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprints and exopolymer composition relative to the reference. Bacterial, algal and cyanobacterial components initially exposed to TCS were significantly different from those TCS-free at time zero. Pigment analyses suggested that significant changes in composition of algal and cyanobacterial populations occurred with TCS exposure. Bacterial thymidine incorporation rates were reduced by TCS exposure and carbon utilization spectra shifted in terms substrate metabolism. Direct counts of protozoans indicated that TCS was suppressive, whereas micrometazoan populations were, in some instances, stimulated. These results indicate that even a relatively brief exposure of a river biofilm community to relatively low levels of TCS alters both the trajectory and final community structure. Although some evidence of recovery was observed, removal of TCS did not result in a return to the unexposed reference condition. PMID:25731684

Lawrence, J R; Topp, E; Waiser, M J; Tumber, V; Roy, J; Swerhone, G D W; Leavitt, P; Paule, A; Korber, D R

2015-04-01

127

Changes in Language Usage of Puerto Rican Mothers and Their Children: Do Gender and Timing of Exposure to English Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This longitudinal study investigated changes in reported language usage between Puerto Rican mothers and their preschoolers over a 4-year period. It also examined whether differences in language usage occurred depending on the timing of children's exposure to English and children's gender. Seventy-six mothers reported the languages they and their…

Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Lawrence, Frank; Rodriguez, Barbara; Davison, Megan Dunn; Miccio, Adele W.

2011-01-01

128

The efficacy of protoporphyrin as a predictive biomarker for lead exposure in canvasback ducks: Effect of sample storage time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used 363 blood samples collected from wild canvasback dueks (Aythya valisineria) at Catahoula Lake, Louisiana, U.S.A. to evaluate the effect of sample storage time on the efficacy of erythrocytic protoporphyrin as an indicator of lead exposure. The protoporphyrin concentration of each sample was determined by hematofluorometry within 5 min of blood collection and after refrigeration at 4 °C for

J. Christian Franson; William L. Hohman; Joseph L. Moore; Milton R. Smith

1996-01-01

129

Differential gene expression profiling of mouse skin after sulfur mustard exposure: Extended time response and inhibitor effect  

E-print Network

Differential gene expression profiling of mouse skin after sulfur mustard exposure: Extended time Keywords: Vesicant Sulfur mustard Microarray Alkylating agent Skin MMP inhibitor MMP Matrix metalloproteinase Sulfur mustard (HD, SM), is a chemical warfare agent that within hours causes extensive blistering

Androulakis, Ioannis (Yannis)

130

Early life exposures and the occurrence and timing of heart disease among the older adult Puerto Rican population.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined the effects of early life conditions on the timing of the onset of heart disease. We use the remarkable example of a representative sample of the population of older Puerto Ricans aged 60-74 who lived in the countryside during childhood (n = 1,438) to examine the effects ofseasonal exposures to poor nutrition and infectious diseases during late gestation on the timing of the onset and the probability of ever experiencing adult heart disease. Cox and log logistic hazard models controlling for childhood conditions (self-reported childhood health status and socioeconomic status [SES], rheumatic fever, and knee height) and adult risk factors (adult SES, obesity, smoking, exercise, and self-reported diabetes) showed that the risk of onset of heart disease was 65% higher among those born during high-exposure periods compared with unexposed individuals. However, there were no significant differences in median time of onset for those ever experiencing heart disease. As a comparison, we found that there were no significant seasonality effects for those who lived in urban areas during childhood. We conclude that early exposures in utero have important ramifications for adult heart disease among the older Puerto Rican population. We show, however, that while exposure is associated with the probability of ever experiencing adult heart disease, it is not associated with the timing of onset among those who do experience it. PMID:20355682

McEnry, Mry; Palloni, Alberto

2010-02-01

131

The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

2010-01-01

132

TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT SEMINAL VESICLE DEVELOPMENTALLY ALTERED BY IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO TCDD  

EPA Science Inventory

TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT SEMINAL VESICLE DEVELOPMENTALLY ALTERED BY IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO TCDD. V M Richardson', J T Hamm2, and L S Birnbaum1. 'USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 'Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, ...

133

Time-dependent exposure dose of hydrogen silsesquioxane when used as a negative electron-beam resist  

E-print Network

Time-dependent exposure dose of hydrogen silsesquioxane when used as a negative electron delay in air decreases sensitivity and enhances the contrast of HSQ F. C. M. J. M. van Delft, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2932 2002 . In this work, the authors report that the electron-beam dose required

Krchnavek, Robert R.

134

Mouse pulmonary dose- and time course-responses induced by exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon nanotubes (CNT) come in a variety of types, but one of the most common forms is multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). MWCNT have potential applications in many diverse commercial processes, and thus human exposures are considered to be likely. In order to investigate the pulmonary toxicity of MWCNT, we conducted an in vivo dose-response and time course study of MWCNT

Dale W. Porter; Ann F. Hubbs; Robert R. Mercer; Nianqiang Wu; Michael G. Wolfarth; Krishnan Sriram; Stephen Leonard; Lori Battelli; Diane Schwegler-Berry; Sherry Friend; Michael Andrew; Bean T. Chen; Shuji Tsuruoka; Morinobu Endo; Vincent Castranova

2010-01-01

135

Dependence on sampling rates of Radiello ® diffusion sampler for BTEX measurements with the concentration level and exposure time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiello® diffusive samplers filled with a thermally desorbable adsorbent (graphitised charcoal Carbograph 4) have been tested for the monitoring of BTEX. The sampling rates have been estimated under various controlled atmospheres in order to evaluate the effects of two factors (exposure time, concentration levels and their interaction) on the performances of the Radiello® sampler. Experiments have been carried out under

Anne Pennequin-Cardinal; Hervé Plaisance; Nadine Locoge; Olivier Ramalho; Séverine Kirchner; Jean-Claude Galloo

2005-01-01

136

The Impact of Timing of Exposure to Violence on Violent Behavior in a High Poverty Sample of Inner City African American Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research has linked exposure to violence to violent behavior, but few studies have examined the impact of the timing of exposure to violence on violent behavior among inner city, minority youth. Theoretical insights derived from developmental psychology and psychopathology (DPP) and Agnew’s general strain theory (GST) give contrasting accounts of whether exposure to violence has a

Richard Spano; Craig Rivera; John Bolland

2006-01-01

137

Real-time and double-exposure phase-conjugate interferometries using eosin-doped gelatin film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both real-time and double-exposure phase-conjugate interferometries are demonstrated with an eosin-doped gelatin film. The eosin-doped film can generate phase conjugate waves simultaneously or separately by degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) and holographic processes. The holographic process differs from the DFWM process in the respect that the eosin-doped film can record spatial information on light like a hologram. The DFWM component has a response time in the order of milliseconds, which is by a factor of four faster than that of the holographic component. The difference in their response times in the two processes is important in real-time and double-exposure phase-conjugate interferometries.

Nakagawa, K.; Fujiwara, H.

1989-02-01

138

Development of the town data base: Estimates of exposure rates and times of fallout arrival near the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project, the time of fallout arrival and the H+12 exposure rate were estimated for populated locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah that were affected by fallout from one or more nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of exposure rate were derived from measured values recorded before and after each test by fallout monitors in the field. The estimate for a given location was obtained by retrieving from a data base all measurements made in the vicinity, decay-correcting them to H+12, and calculating an average. Estimates were also derived from maps produced after most events that show isopleths of exposure rate and time of fallout arrival. Both sets of isopleths on these maps were digitized, and kriging was used to interpolate values at the nodes of a 10-km grid covering the pattern. The values at any location within the grid were then estimated from the values at the surrounding grid nodes. Estimates of dispersion (standard deviation) were also calculated. The Town Data Base contains the estimates for all combinations of location and nuclear event for which the estimated mean H+12 exposure rate was greater than three times background. A listing of the data base is included as an appendix. The information was used by other project task groups to estimate the radiation dose that off-site populations and individuals may have received as a result of exposure to fallout from Nevada nuclear tests.

Thompson, C.B.; McArthur, R.D. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hutchinson, S.W. [Mead Johnson Nutritional Group, Evansville, IN (United States)

1994-09-01

139

UIUC Collector Erosion and Optical Lifetime Project Results: Time Dependent Exposures  

E-print Network

lithography (EUVL), will be needed to continue producing smaller and faster chips around the end of the decade, roughening, deposition or implantation of impurities, and layer mixing. The Xtreme Commercial EUV Exposure

Spila, Timothy P.

140

Estrogens in the wrong place at the wrong time: Fetal BPA exposure and mammary cancer.  

PubMed

Iatrogenic gestational exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) induced alterations of the genital tract and predisposed individuals to develop clear cell carcinoma of the vagina as well as breast cancer later in life. Gestational exposure of rodents to a related compound, the xenoestrogen bisphenol-A (BPA) increases the propensity to develop mammary cancer during adulthood, long after cessation of exposure. Exposure to BPA during gestation induces morphological alterations in both the stroma and the epithelium of the fetal mammary gland at 18 days of age. We postulate that the primary target of BPA is the fetal stroma, the only mammary tissue expressing estrogen receptors during fetal life. BPA would then alter the reciprocal stroma-epithelial interactions that mediate mammogenesis. In addition to this direct effect on the mammary gland, BPA is postulated to affect the hypothalamus and thus in turn affect the regulation of mammotropic hormones at puberty and beyond. PMID:25277313

Paulose, Tessie; Speroni, Lucia; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

2014-09-30

141

BLOOD AND BRAIN CONCENTRATIONS OF BIFENTHRIN CORRELATE WITH DECREASED MOTOR ACTIVITY INDEPENDENT OF TIME OF EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides used in a variety of agricultural and household activities. Due to the phase-out of organophosphate pesticides, the use of pyrethroids has increased. The potential for human exposure to pyrethroids has prompted pharmacodynamic and pharmac...

142

Motoneuron axon pathfinding errors in zebrafish: Differential effects related to concentration and timing of nicotine exposure.  

PubMed

Nicotine exposure during embryonic stages of development can affect many neurodevelopmental processes. In the developing zebrafish, exposure to nicotine was reported to cause axonal pathfinding errors in the later born secondary motoneurons (SMNs). These alterations in SMN axon morphology coincided with muscle degeneration at high nicotine concentrations (15-30?M). Previous work showed that the paralytic mutant zebrafish known as sofa potato exhibited nicotine-induced effects onto SMN axons at these high concentrations but in the absence of any muscle deficits, indicating that pathfinding errors could occur independent of muscle effects. In this study, we used varying concentrations of nicotine at different developmental windows of exposure to specifically isolate its effects onto subpopulations of motoneuron axons. We found that nicotine exposure can affect SMN axon morphology in a dose-dependent manner. At low concentrations of nicotine, SMN axons exhibited pathfinding errors, in the absence of any nicotine-induced muscle abnormalities. Moreover, the nicotine exposure paradigms used affected the 3 subpopulations of SMN axons differently, but the dorsal projecting SMN axons were primarily affected. We then identified morphologically distinct pathfinding errors that best described the nicotine-induced effects on dorsal projecting SMN axons. To test whether SMN pathfinding was potentially influenced by alterations in the early born primary motoneuron (PMN), we performed dual labeling studies, where both PMN and SMN axons were simultaneously labeled with antibodies. We show that only a subset of the SMN axon pathfinding errors coincided with abnormal PMN axonal targeting in nicotine-exposed zebrafish. We conclude that nicotine exposure can exert differential effects depending on the levels of nicotine and developmental exposure window. PMID:25668718

Menelaou, Evdokia; Paul, Latoya T; Perera, Surangi N; Svoboda, Kurt R

2015-04-01

143

Prenatal Exposure to Nicotine Impairs Performance of the 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task in Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoking is associated with a wide variety of adverse reproductive outcomes, including increased infant mortality and decreased birth weight. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke, of which nicotine is a major teratogenic component, has also been linked to the acceleration of the risk for different psychiatric disorders, including conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whether this increased risk is influenced by the direct effects of gestational nicotine exposure on the developing fetus remains uncertain. In this study we provide experimental evidence for the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on measures of attention and impulsivity in adult male rats. Offspring of females exposed during pregnancy to 0.06?mg/ml nicotine solution as the only source of water (daily consumption: 69.6±1.4?ml/kg; nicotine blood level: 96.0±31.9?ng/ml) had lower birth weight and delayed sensorimotor development measured by negative geotaxis, righting reflex, and grip strength. In the 5-choice serial reaction time test, adult rats showed increased numbers of anticipatory responses and omissions errors, more variable response times, and lower accuracy with evidence of delayed learning of the task demands when the 1?s stimulus duration was introduced. In contrast, prenatal nicotine exposure had no effect on exploratory locomotion or delay-discounting test. Prenatal nicotine exposure increased expression of the D5 dopamine receptor gene in the striatum, but did not change expression of other dopamine-related genes (DRD4, DAT1, NR4A2, and TH) in either the striatum or the prefrontal cortex. These data suggest a direct effect of prenatal nicotine exposure on important aspects of attention, inhibitory control, or learning later in life. PMID:21289608

Schneider, Tomasz; Ilott, Nicholas; Brolese, Giovana; Bizarro, Lisiane; Asherson, Philip J E; Stolerman, Ian P

2011-01-01

144

The significance of the Druckrey-Küpfmüller equation for risk assessment--the toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides to arthropods is reinforced by exposure time.  

PubMed

The essence of the Druckrey-Küpfmüller equation dtn = constant (where d = daily dose and t = exposure time-to-effect, with n > 1) for chemical carcinogens is that the total dose required to produce the same effect decreases with decreasing exposure levels, even though the exposure times required to produce the same effect increase with decreasing exposure levels. Druckrey and Küpfmüller inferred that if both receptor binding and the effect are irreversible, exposure time would reinforce the effect. The Druckrey-Küpfmüller equation explains why toxicity may occur after prolonged exposure to very low toxicant levels. Recently, similar dose-response characteristics have been established for the toxicity of the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiacloprid to arthropods. This observation is highly relevant for environmental risk assessment. Traditional approaches that consider toxic effects at fixed exposure times are unable to allow extrapolation from measured endpoints to effects that may occur at other times of exposure. Time-to-effect approaches that provide information on the doses and exposure times needed to produce toxic effects on tested organisms are required for prediction of toxic effects for any combination of concentration and time in the environment. PMID:20803795

Tennekes, Henk A

2010-09-30

145

The vitamin D debate: translating controlled experiments into reality for human sun exposure times.  

PubMed

Exposure to sunlight, specifically the ultraviolet radiation, has both positive and negative health effects. Maximizing the benefits (vitamin D synthesis) while minimizing the damage is a multifaceted problem in which many of the elements are poorly quantified. Here we show how rigorously conducted large sample size laboratory studies of the effect of ultraviolet radiation dose on vitamin D status can be applied to real-life situations. This was achieved by modeling the radiation incident on different surfaces for different solar locations, and equating with the controlled exposures in the laboratory studies. Results from both model and experimental data show that relatively short exposures of a modest amount of unprotected skin to summer sunlight in northern climes, on a regular basis during lunchtime hours, increases vitamin D to sufficiency status (?20 ng mL(-1) ) in the white Caucasian population. While both sun exposure conditions and human skin responses are variable in real life, these quantitative findings provide a guide for authorities devising sunlight exposure recommendations. PMID:21517886

Webb, Ann R; Kift, Richard; Berry, Jacqueline L; Rhodes, Lesley E

2011-01-01

146

Community Violence Exposure and Adolescents’ School Engagement and Academic Achievement Over Time  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the relationships between community violence exposure and two related, but meaningfully distinct, academic outcomes: school engagement and academic achievement (GPA). Psychological symptoms were investigated as mediators of these relationships. Method One hundred eighteen youth reported on community violence exposure and school engagement twice during adolescence, and both parents and adolescents reported on psychological symptoms. Cumulative GPA was also acquired from participants. A path model and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to assess these relationships longitudinally. Results Earlier community violence exposure inversely predicted later school engagement, but earlier school engagement did not predict later community violence exposure. School engagement mediated the association between community violence exposure and school GPA. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but not posttraumatic stress symptoms, mediated the association between community violence and school engagement. Conclusions When adolescents are exposed to community violence, they may become vulnerable to a cascade of events including psychological symptoms and decreased connectedness to school, which ultimately can lead to overall poor academic achievement. The more proximal, changeable experiences of school connectedness and psychological symptoms offer targets for interventions offsetting long-term adverse academic consequences in violence-exposed youth. PMID:24163782

Borofsky, Larissa A.; Kellerman, Ilana; Baucom, Brian; Oliver, Pamella H.; Margolin, Gayla

2013-01-01

147

Survival time analysis of least killifish (Heterandria formosa) and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in acute exposures to endosulfan sulfate.  

PubMed

Single-species flow-through toxicity tests were conducted to determine the times-to-death of two indigenous fish to South Florida--least killifish (Heterandria formosa) and mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)--from acute exposure to endosulfan sulfate. Mortalities were recorded within 8-h periods from test initiation to termination at 96 h. The 96-h LC(50)s for least killifish and mosquitofish estimated using the trimmed-Spearman-Karber method were 2.0 and 2.3 microg/l, respectively. An accelerated failure time model was used to estimate times to death at selected concentrations. Data were fit to log-normal, log-logistic, and Weibull distributions. Acute toxicity data fit to the Weibull distribution produced a better relative fit than log-normal or log-logistic distributions for both toxicity tests. The survival-time profiles and associated statistics illustrate the benefit of considering exposure duration as well as concentration when predicting acute risk to species' populations. Both toxicity tests had similar outcomes from exposure to endosulfan sulfate, with least killifish being slightly more likely to die at lower concentrations and shorter time periods than mosquitofish. From the models generated by the toxicity tests, times-to-death for least killifish and mosquitofish were estimated for environmentally relevant concentrations of total endosulfan at a site of concern in South Florida. When the results from the current toxicity tests were compared to environmental concentrations from previous screening-level ecological risk assessments, the durations necessary to potentially kill 10% or more of the populations of the two native south Florida fish species were estimated to be 77 and 96 h for least killifish and mosquitofish, respectively. However, the exposure values included the alpha and beta isomers as well as endosulfan sulfate; therefore, an understanding of their toxicity might be important in understanding the survival dynamics of fish species in endosulfan sulfate-contaminated sites. PMID:19921326

Carriger, John F; Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M

2010-05-01

148

Night-Time Decibel Hell: Mapping Noise Exposure Zones and Individual Annoyance Ratings in an Urban Environment in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Although accumulating evidence over the past thirty years indicates that noise is an environmental stressor in residential settings, much of the data emanated from studies in high-intensity, noise impact zones around airports or major roads. Little is known about religious noise, especially at night, which is increasingly a growing concern for both the general public and policy-makers in sub-Saharan Africa. Using geographical information systems (GIS), this study measured and mapped exposure to religious noise in a rapidly urbanising municipality in Ghana. Quantitative noise risk assessment was used to evaluate the risk of religious noise-induced hearing loss to residents in the exposed neighbourhoods. The results show that all neighbourhoods where churches were situated had at least one location with significant risk of noise-induced hearing loss. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between neighbourhoods where religious noise exposure was the highest and where noise annoyance was the highest. The magnitude of the noise values for night-time exposure is remarkable particularly given that excessive night-time noise exposure has the greatest detrimental effect on public health. There is the need to focus on vulnerable groups, sensitive hours of the night, and possible confounding with air pollution in order to wholly address this potential hazard. PMID:25136476

Zakpala, Rachel N.; Armah, Frederick Ato; Sackey, Brigid M.; Pabi, Opoku

2014-01-01

149

Pubertal timing after neonatal diethylstilbestrol exposure in female rats: neuroendocrine vs peripheral effects and additive role of prenatal food restriction.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) on pubertal timing in female rats. We examined associated neuroendocrine changes and effects of prenatal food restriction. Age at vaginal opening was advanced after exposure to 10 ?g/kg/d of DES and delayed after 1 ?g/kg/d (subcutaneous injections). Using this lower dose, pulsatile GnRH secretion was slower at 25 days of age. Both doses reduced KiSS1 mRNA levels at 15 days of age. Using functional Kisspeptin promoter assay, 1 or 10 ?M DES reduced or increased KISS1 transcription, respectively. Leptin stimulatory effect on GnRH secretion in vitro (15 days of age) was reduced after prenatal food restriction and neonatal DES exposure (higher dose), both effects being cumulative. Thus, alterations in pubertal timing by DES neonatally are not unequivocally toward precocity, the level of exposure being critical. We provide evidence of neuroendocrine disruption and interaction with prenatal food availability. PMID:24316331

Franssen, Delphine; Ioannou, Yiannis S; Alvarez-real, Alexandra; Gerard, Arlette; Mueller, Johanna K; Heger, Sabine; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Parent, Anne-Simone

2014-04-01

150

Night-time decibel hell: mapping noise exposure zones and individual annoyance ratings in an urban environment in ghana.  

PubMed

Although accumulating evidence over the past thirty years indicates that noise is an environmental stressor in residential settings, much of the data emanated from studies in high-intensity, noise impact zones around airports or major roads. Little is known about religious noise, especially at night, which is increasingly a growing concern for both the general public and policy-makers in sub-Saharan Africa. Using geographical information systems (GIS), this study measured and mapped exposure to religious noise in a rapidly urbanising municipality in Ghana. Quantitative noise risk assessment was used to evaluate the risk of religious noise-induced hearing loss to residents in the exposed neighbourhoods. The results show that all neighbourhoods where churches were situated had at least one location with significant risk of noise-induced hearing loss. However, there was no statistically significant relationship between neighbourhoods where religious noise exposure was the highest and where noise annoyance was the highest. The magnitude of the noise values for night-time exposure is remarkable particularly given that excessive night-time noise exposure has the greatest detrimental effect on public health. There is the need to focus on vulnerable groups, sensitive hours of the night, and possible confounding with air pollution in order to wholly address this potential hazard. PMID:25136476

Zakpala, Rachel N; Armah, Frederick Ato; Sackey, Brigid M; Pabi, Opoku

2014-01-01

151

Exposure for hepatic surgery in the obese patient: an innovative adaptation in time of need….  

PubMed

Obesity has become a major public health concern. More and more patients with substantial obesity require surgery including complex hepatobiliary interventions. The morphology of these patients can make surgery difficult, especially in terms of exposure. We report the case of an obese patient who required a left hemihepatectomy for colorectal liver metastasis. It was very difficult to obtain adequate exposure; this problem was solved by transcutaneous introduction of the handle of a broad costal margin retractor. We describe this maneuver, which allowed us to carry out the intervention under excellent conditions. PMID:22704710

Bouras, A F; Boleslawski, E; Hervieux, E; Truant, S; Pruvot, F-R

2012-08-01

152

Stochastic modelling for biodosimetry: Predicting the chromosomal response to radiation at different time points after exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cytogenetic data accumulated from the experiments with peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to densely ionizing radiation clearly demonstrate that for particles with linear energy transfer (LET) >100 keV/ ?m the derived relative biological effectiveness (RBE) will strongly depend on the time point chosen for the analysis. A reasonable prediction of radiation-induced chromosome damage and its distribution among cells can be achieved by exploiting Monte Carlo methodology along with the information about the radius of the penetrating ion-track and the LET of the ion beam. In order to examine the relationship between the track structure and the distribution of aberrations induced in human lymphocytes and to clarify the correlation between delays in the cell cycle progression and the aberration burden visible at the first post-irradiation mitosis, we have analyzed chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes exposed to Fe-ions with LET values of 335 keV/ ?m and formulated a Monte Carlo model which reflects time-delay in mitosis of aberrant cells. Within the model the frequency distributions of aberrations among cells follow the pattern of local energy distribution and are well approximated by a time-dependent compound Poisson statistics. The cell-division cycle of undamaged and aberrant cells and chromosome aberrations are modelled as a renewal process represented by a random sum of (independent and identically distributed) random elements S N = ? N i=0 X i . Here N stands for the number of particle traversals of cell nucleus, each leading to a statistically independent formation of X i aberrations. The parameter N is itself a random variable and reflects the cell cycle delay of heavily damaged cells. The probability distribution of S N follows a general law for which the moment generating function satisfies the relation ? S N = ? N ( ? X i ). Formulation of the Monte Carlo model which allows to predict expected fluxes of aberrant and non-aberrant cells has been based on several input information: (i) experimentally measured mitotic index in the population of irradiated cells; (ii) scored fraction of cells in first cell cycle; (iii) estimated average number of particle traversals per cell nucleus. By reconstructing the local dose distribution in the biological target, the relevant amount of lesions induced by ions is estimated from the biological effect induced by photons at the same dose level. Moreover, the total amount of aberrations induced within the entire population has been determined. For each subgroup of intact (non-hit) and aberrant cells the cell-division cycle has been analyzed reproducing correctly an expected correlation between mitotic delay and the number of aberrations carried by a cell. This observation is of particular importance for the proper estimation of the biological efficiency of ions and for the estimation of health risks associated with radiation exposure.

Deperas-Standylo, Joanna; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa; Ritter, Sylvia

2014-07-01

153

Risk factors for asthma and timing of exposure among first generation Arab immigrants: a pilot effort to elucidate the role of exposure to risk factors over multiple life stages  

EPA Science Inventory

Considerable controversy exists over the role of aero-allergens in asthma etiology. Some studies show increased risk with microbe and allergen exposure, while others show decreased risk. These discrepancies may be explained by timing of exposure. Previous research suggests that e...

154

Do Time in Child Care and Peer Group Exposure Predict Poor Socioemotional Adjustment in Norway?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive exposure to nonparental child care during the first 4.5 years of life has been demonstrated in some American studies to negatively affect children's socioemotional functioning. Data from 935 preschool children who averaged 54.9 (SD = 3.0) months of age, from Trondheim, Norway were used to examine whether such negative effects, would…

Solheim, Elisabet; Wichstrøm, Lars; Belsky, Jay; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

2013-01-01

155

?Estimating Regional Background Air Quality using Space/Time Ordinary Kriging to Support Exposure Studies?  

EPA Science Inventory

Local-scale dispersion models are increasingly being used to perform exposure assessments. These types of models, while able to characterize local-scale air quality at increasing spatial scale, however, lack the ability to include background concentration in their overall estimat...

156

Sensitivity and response time of three common Antarctic marine copepods to metal exposure.  

PubMed

Understanding the sensitivity of Antarctic marine organisms to metals is essential in order to manage environmental contamination risks. To date toxicity studies conducted on Antarctic marine species are limited. This study is the first to examine the acute effects of copper and cadmium on three common coastal Antarctic copepods: the calanoids Paralabidocera antarctica and Stephos longipes, and the cyclopoid Oncaea curvata. These copepods responded slowly to metal exposure (4-7d) emphasising that the exposure period of 48-96 h commonly used in toxicity tests with temperate and tropical species is not appropriate for polar organisms. We found that a longer 7 d exposure period was the minimum duration appropriate for Antarctic copepods. Although sensitivity to metal exposure varied between species, copper was more toxic than cadmium in all three species. P.antarctica was the most sensitive with 7d LC50 values for copper and cadmium of 20 ?g L(-1) and 237 ?g L(-1) respectively. Sensitivities to copper were similar for both O. curvata (LC50=64 ?g L(-1)) and S. longipes (LC50=56 ?g L(-1)), while O. curvata was more sensitive to cadmium (LC50=901 ?g L(-1)) than S. longipes (LC50=1250 ?g L(-1)). In comparison to copepods from lower latitudes, Antarctic copepods were more sensitive to copper and of similar sensitivity or less sensitive to cadmium. This study highlights the need for longer exposure periods in toxicity tests with slow responding Antarctic biota in order to generate relevant sensitivity data for inclusion in site-specific environmental quality guidelines for Antarctica. PMID:25128632

Zamora, Lara Marcus; King, Catherine K; Payne, Sarah J; Virtue, Patti

2015-02-01

157

Rapid characterization of the ultraviolet induced fiber Bragg grating complex coupling coefficient as a function of irradiance and exposure time.  

PubMed

We report the application of optical frequency domain reflectometry and a discrete-layer-peeling inverse scattering algorithm to the spatial characterization of the UV induced complex coupling coefficient during fiber Bragg grating growth. The fiber grating is rapidly characterized using this technique to give irradiance dependent growth as a function of exposure time, thereby providing the complete characterization of the coupling coefficient in the form of a "growth surface," which is related to the fiber's photosensitivity. We compare measurements of fiber Bragg grating growth in SMF-28 when exposed to continuous wave 244 nm irradiation from 0 to 90 W cm(-2) for exposure times up to 3230 s with a selection of other fibers including high germanium concentration fiber and erbium doped fiber. PMID:18059662

Flockhart, Gordon M H; Cranch, Geoffrey A; Kirkendall, Clay K

2007-12-01

158

Early life exposures and the occurrence and timing of heart disease among the older adult Puerto Rican population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined the effects of early life conditions on the timing of the onset of heart disease. We use the remarkable\\u000a example of a representative sample of the population of older Puerto Ricans aged 60– 74 who lived in the countryside during\\u000a childhood (n = 1,438) to examine the effects of seasonal exposures to poor nutrition and infectious

Mary Mceniry; Alberto Palloni

2010-01-01

159

Real-time and double-exposure phase-conjugate interferometries using eosin-doped gelatin film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both real-time and double-exposure phase-conjugate interferometries are demonstrated with an eosin-doped gelatin film. The eosin-doped film can generate phase conjugate waves simultaneously or separately by degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) and holographic processes. The holographic process differs from the DFWM process in the respect that the eosin-doped film can record spatial information on light like a hologram. The DFWM component has

K. Nakagawa; H. Fujiwara

1989-01-01

160

Effects of Exposure Time, Material Type, and Granular Pesticide on Glove Contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical-resistant gloves are recommended for pesticide applicators to reduce their exposure to agricultural chemicals. In\\u000a this research, three chemical-resistant glove materials—nitrile, neoprene, and barrier laminate—were studied in relation to\\u000a contamination with granular terbufos and tefluthrin. Surfaces of specimens backed with alpha cellulose were contaminated with\\u000a 300 mg of either granular terbufos or tefluthrin for 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-, 16-, and

C. Guo; J. Stone; H. M. Stahr; M. Shelley

2001-01-01

161

Risk of Childhood Asthma in Relation to the Timing of Early Child Care Exposures  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether early child care exposure influences the risk of developing asthma. Study design Longitudinal data from 939 children and their families from the National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) were analyzed. Exposure to other children in the primary child care setting as an infant (before 15 months) and as a toddler (16–36 months) were assessed as risk factors for persistent or late-onset asthma by age 15 via logistic regression. Results The number of children in the child-care environment when the child was a toddler was significantly associated with odds of asthma, even after adjusting for respiratory illnesses and other risk factors (p<.05). The fewer the children exposed to as toddlers, the higher the probability of persistent or late-onset asthma by age 15. Conclusions This study supports the theory of a protective effect of exposure to other children at an early age, especially as a toddler, on the risk of asthma. This effect appears to be independent of the number of reported respiratory tract illnesses, suggesting that other protective mechanisms related to the number of children in the child care environment may be involved. PMID:19683726

Gurka, Matthew J.; Blackman, James A.; Heymann, Peter W.

2009-01-01

162

If you could turn back time: understanding transgenerational latent effects of developmental exposure to contaminants.  

PubMed

Latent effects result from embryonic experiences but manifest in later stages of ontogeny. Our objective was to better understand how developmental exposure to contaminants influence life history traits and tolerance to novel stress in the freshwater gastropod, Physa pomilia. Ten egg masses were exposed to each of three initial treatments including control, 2.5 ?g/L cadmium (Cd), and 10 ?g/L Cd; there was no effect of this initial treatment on hatching success. At hatching, snails were transferred to cadmium-free water. Three weeks later, snails were divided among four secondary treatments including control, 50 ?g/L Cd, 150 ?g/L Cd, and 35 °C. Developmental Cd exposure plus secondary temperature stress caused the most adverse effects. Surprisingly, developmental Cd exposure alone was enough to cause significant decreases in reproductive success a generation later. That effects can manifest as transgenerational decrements in reproductive success suggests that latent effects are important and have longer lasting consequences than previously considered. PMID:24121266

Kimberly, David A; Salice, Christopher J

2014-01-01

163

Exposure to air pollution in critical prenatal time windows and IgE levels in newborns.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to analyze the mechanisms by which exposure to ambient air pollutants influences respiratory health may include altered prenatal immune development. To analyze associations between elevated cord serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and maternal air pollution exposure during each month of gestation. Total cord serum IgE was determined by the CAP system and mothers' total IgE levels by nephelometry for 459 births in the Czech Republic from May 1994 to mid-January 1997. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulate matter <2.5 microns in diameter (PM(2.5) ) were measured in ambient air, and arithmetic means were calculated for each gestational month. Log binomial regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for elevated cord serum IgE (?0.9 IU/ml) adjusting for district of residence, year of birth, and in further models, for maternal IgE (a surrogate for atopy) and gestational season. Heterogeneity by maternal atopy status was evaluated for associations of air pollution and of cigarette smoke. In adjusted models, PAH and PM(2.5) exposures in the second month of gestation were each associated with a lower prevalence of elevated cord serum IgE. For an average increase of 100 ng/m(3) of PAHs, the PR was 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 0.95); for 25 ?g/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) , the PR was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.07). Conversely, exposures later in gestation were associated with a higher prevalence of elevated cord IgE: in the fifth month, the PR for PAH exposure was 1.64 (95% CI: 1.29, 2.08), while for PM(2.5) in the sixth month, it was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.13). In analyses stratified by maternal atopy, air pollutants were associated with altered cord serum IgE only among neonates with non-atopic mothers. Similarly, an association of cigarette smoke with elevated cord serum IgE was found only in non-atopic mothers. PAHs and PM(2.5) , constituents of both ambient air pollution and cigarette smoke, appear to influence fetal immune development, particularly among infants whose mothers are not atopic. PMID:20609135

Herr, Caroline E W; Ghosh, Rakesh; Dostal, Miroslav; Skokanova, Venuse; Ashwood, Paul; Lipsett, Michael; Joad, Jesse P; Pinkerton, Kent E; Yap, Poh-Sin; Frost, Joshua D; Sram, Radim; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

2011-02-01

164

Exposure to peer delinquency as a mediator between self-report pubertal timing and delinquency: A longitudinal study of mediation  

PubMed Central

This study examined exposure to peer delinquency as a mediator between pubertal timing and self-reported delinquency longitudinally and whether this mediational model was moderated by either gender or maltreatment experience. Data were obtained from Time 1, 2, and 3 of a longitudinal study of maltreatment and development. At Time 1 the sample comprised 454 children aged 9–13 years. Analyses via structural equation modeling supported full mediation. Gender did not moderate this mediational relationship, but maltreatment experience did. The results show that early maturing males and females are both at risk for being exposed to peers that may draw them into delinquent behavior. Additionally, the mechanism linking early pubertal timing to delinquency differs depending on maltreatment experience. PMID:21262055

Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Trickett, Penelope K.

2013-01-01

165

Time, Dose and Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) Status Dependency of Coding and Noncoding RNA Expression after Ionizing Radiation Exposure.  

PubMed

Studies of gene expression have proved important in defining the molecular mechanisms of radiation action and identifying biomarkers of ionizing radiation exposure and susceptibility. The full transcriptional response to radiation is very complex since it also involves epigenetic mechanisms triggered by radiation exposure such as modifications of expression of noncoding RNA such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that have not been fully characterized. To improve our understanding of the transcriptional response to radiation, we simultaneously monitored the expression of ten protein-coding genes, as well as 19 miRNAs and 3 lncRNAs in a time- and dose-dependent manner in stimulated human T lymphocytes obtained from two healthy donors (C1 and C2) and one patient with ataxia telangiectasia (AT), which is a well characterized radiosensitivity disorder. After 2 Gy X irradiation, expression levels were monitored at time points ranging from 15 min up to 24 h postirradiation. The majority of genes investigated responded rapidly to radiation exposure, with the peak up-regulation (CDKN1A, SESN1, ATF3, MDM2, PUMA and GADD45A) or down-regulation (CCNB1) occurring 2-3 h postirradiation, while DDB2, FDXR and CCNG1 responded with slower kinetics reaching a peak of expression between 5 and 24 h. A significant modification of expression after radiation exposure was observed for miR-34a-5p and miR-182-5p, with an up-regulation occurring at late time points reaching two to threefold at 24 h. Differences between two donors in miR-182-5p response to radiation were detected: for C2, up-regulation reached a plateau-phase around 5 Gy, while for C1, up-regulation was at its maximum around 3 Gy and then decreased at higher doses. Among the three lncRNAs studied, TP53TG1 demonstrated a weak up-regulation, reaching a maximum of 1.5-fold at 24 h after radiation exposure. Conversely, FAS-AS1 was up-regulated up to fivefold by 5 Gy irradiation. Our results indicate that expression of the majority of protein-coding genes allows discrimination of the AT from healthy donors when analyzed at 2 h. However, differences in expression between AT and healthy donors are no longer detectable 24 h postirradiation although, interestingly, linear dose responses for some of the genes studied are obtained at this time point. Furthermore, our study shows that miRNAs miR-34a-5p and miR-182-5p are responsive to radiation exposure in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report that FAS-AS1 lncRNA is up-regulated by radiation exposure in an ATM-dependent fashion in human T lymphocytes. PMID:25738893

Kabacik, S; Manning, G; Raffy, C; Bouffler, S; Badie, C

2015-03-01

166

Differential gene expression profiling of mouse skin after sulfur mustard exposure: Extended time response and inhibitor effect  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur mustard (HD, SM), is a chemical warfare agent that within hours causes extensive blistering at the dermal-epidermal junction of skin. To better understand the progression of SM-induced blistering, gene expression profiling for mouse skin was performed after a single high dose of SM exposure. Punch biopsies of mouse ears were collected at both early and late time periods following SM exposure (previous studies only considered early time periods). The biopsies were examined for pathological disturbances and the samples further assayed for gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix microarray analysis system. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis of the differently expressed genes, performed with ArrayTrack showed clear separation of the various groups. Pathway analysis employing the KEGG library and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) indicated that cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), and hematopoietic cell lineage are common pathways affected at different time points. Gene ontology analysis identified the most significantly altered biological processes as the immune response, inflammatory response, and chemotaxis; these findings are consistent with other reported results for shorter time periods. Selected genes were chosen for RT-PCR verification and showed correlations in the general trends for the microarrays. Interleukin 1 beta was checked for biological analysis to confirm the presence of protein correlated to the corresponding microarray data. The impact of a matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, MMP-2/MMP-9 inhibitor I, against SM exposure was assessed. These results can help in understanding the molecular mechanism of SM-induced blistering, as well as to test the efficacy of different inhibitors.

Gerecke, Donald R. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), a Joint Institute of UMDNJ-RW Johnson Medical School and Rutgers University, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)], E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu; Chen Minjun; Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Gordon, Marion K.; Chang, Y.-C. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Joint Institute of UMDNJ-RW Johnson Medical School and Rutgers University, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Tong Weida [US FDA, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AK (United States); Androulakis, Ioannis P. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Georgopoulos, Panos G. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Joint Institute of UMDNJ-RW Johnson Medical School and Rutgers University, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

2009-01-15

167

Germination Response of MR 219 Rice Variety to Different Exposure Times and Periods of 2450?MHz Microwave Frequency  

PubMed Central

Germination is a key process in plants' phenological cycles. Accelerating this process could lead to improvment of the seedling growth as well as the cultivation efficiency. To achieve this, the effect of microwave frequency on the germination of rice seeds was examined. The physiological feedbacks of the MR 219 rice variety in terms of seed germination rate (GR), germination percentage (GP), and mean germination time (MGT) were analyzed by exposing its seeds to 2450?MHz of microwave frequency for one, four, seven, and ten hours. It was revealed that exposing the seeds to the microwave frequency for 10 hours resulted in the highest GP. This treatment led to 100% of germination after three days with a mean germination time of 2.1 days. Although the other exposure times of microwave frequency caused the moderate effects on germination with a GPa3 ranged from 93% to 98%, they failed to reduce the MGTa3. The results showed that ten-hour exposure times of microwave frequency for six days significantly facilitated and improved the germination indices (primary shoot and root length). Therefore, the technique is expected to benefit the improvement of rice seed germination considering its simplicity and efficacy in increasing the germination percentage and rate as well as the primary shoot and root length without causing any environmental toxicity. PMID:24307869

Valdiani, Alireza; Maziah, Mahmood; Mohsenkhah, Mohammad

2013-01-01

168

The Impact of Timing of Exposure to Violence on Violent Behavior in a High Poverty Sample of Inner City African American Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing body of research has linked exposure to violence to violent behavior, but few studies have examined the impact of the timing of exposure to violence on violent behavior among inner city, minority youth. Theoretical insights derived from developmental psychology and psychopathology (DPP) and Agnew's general strain theory (GST) give…

Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John

2006-01-01

169

Real time outdoor exposure testing of solar cell modules and component materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plastic samples, solar cell modules, and sub-modules were exposed at test sites in Florida, Arizona, Puerto Rico, and Cleveland, Ohio, in order to determine materials suitable for use in solar cell modules with a proposed 20-year lifetime. Various environments were encountered including subtropical, subtropical with a sea air atmosphere, desert, rain forest, normal urban, and urban-polluted. The samples were exposed for periods up to six months. Materials found not suitable were polyurethane, polyester, Kapton, Mylar, and UV-stabilized Lexan. Suitable materials were acrylic, FEP-A, and glass. The results of exposure of polyvinylidene fluoride were dependent on the specific formulation, but several types appear suitable. RTV silicone rubber (clear) appears to pick up and hold dirt both as a free film and as a potting medium for modules. The results indicate that dirt accumulation and cleanability are important factors in the selection of solar cell module covers and encapsulants.

Anagnostou, E.; Forestieri, A. F.

1977-01-01

170

Timing of Fetal Exposure to Stress Hormones: Effects on Newborn Physical and Neuromuscular Maturation  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to determine the specific periods during pregnancy in which human fetal exposure to stress hormones affects newborn physical and neuromuscular maturation. Blood was collected from 158 women at 15, 19, 25, and 31 weeks’ gestation. Levels of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and maternal cortisol were determined from plasma. Newborns were evaluated with the New Ballard Maturation Score. Results indicated that increases in maternal cortisol at 15, 19, and 25 weeks and increases in placental CRH at 31 weeks were significantly associated with decreases in infant maturation among males (even after controlling for length of gestation). Results also suggested that increases in maternal cortisol at 31 weeks were associated with increases in infant maturation among females, although these results were not significant after controlling for length of gestation. Findings suggest that stress hormones have effects on human fetal neurodevelopment that are independent of birth outcome. PMID:18335490

Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Hobel, Calvin J.; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt A.

2010-01-01

171

THE EXPOSURE PARADOX IN PARTICULATE MATTER COMMUNITY TIME-SERIES EPIDEMIOLOGY: CAN AMBIENT CONCENTRATIONS OF PM BE USED AS A SURROGATE FOR PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO PM ?  

EPA Science Inventory

Objective: Explain why epidemiologic studies find a statistically significant relationship between ambient concentrations of PM and health effects even though only a near-zero correlation is found between ambient concentrations of PM and personal exposures to PM. Method: Consider...

172

A Novel Methodology to Evaluate Health Impacts Caused by VOC Exposures Using Real-Time VOC and Holter Monitors  

PubMed Central

While various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to show neurotoxic effects, the detailed mechanisms of the action of VOCs on the autonomic nervous system are not fully understood, partially because objective and quantitative measures to indicate neural abnormalities are still under development. Nevertheless, heart rate variability (HRV) has been recently proposed as an indicative measure of the autonomic effects. In this study, we used HRV as an indicative measure of the autonomic effrects to relate their values to the personal concentrations of VOCs measured by a real-time VOC monitor. The measurements were conducted for 24 hours on seven healthy subjects under usual daily life conditions. The results showed HF powers were significantly decreased for six subjects when the changes of total volatile organic compound (TVOC) concentrations were large, indicating a suppression of parasympathetic nervous activity induced by the exposure to VOCs. The present study indicated these real-time monitoring was useful to characterize the trends of VOC exposures and their effects on autonomic nervous system. PMID:21317998

Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Kumagai, Kazukiyo; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Kumano, Hiroaki; Yanagisawa, Yukio

2010-01-01

173

Response of Vibrio fischeri to repeated exposures over time in an Online Toxicity Monitor  

EPA Science Inventory

Online Toxicity Monitors have been developed to provide continuous, time-relevant information regarding water quality. These systems measure a physiological or behavioral response of a sentinel organism to changes water quality. One such system, the Microlan Toxcontrol, is base...

174

Effects of Exposure to Part-time Faculty on Community College Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past several decades, one of the most significant changes in the delivery of postsecondary education involves the\\u000a dramatic increase in the use of contingent or part-time faculty. Although the increased use of part-time faculty within higher\\u000a education makes sense from an administrative point of view, its use does not come without criticism. With community colleges\\u000a representing a more

M. Kevin Eagan Jr; Audrey J. Jaeger

2009-01-01

175

A simulation study on effects of exposure to a combination of pesticides used in an orchard and tuber crop on the recovery time of a vulnerable aquatic invertebrate.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess whether population effects and recovery times increase when a population of a vulnerable aquatic invertebrate is exposed to concentrations of 1 or multiple pesticides. The 2 sets of pesticide combinations tested are typical for orchard and tuber crops in The Netherlands. Exposure concentrations were predicted using the FOCUS step 3 modeling framework and the Dutch drainage ditch scenario. Recovery times were assessed using the MASTEP population model. We simulated the population dynamics and pesticide effects in a Monte Carlo style by using median effective concentration values drawn from an arthropod species sensitivity distribution. In the tuber scenario, exposure to ?-cyhalothrin resulted in long-term effects, whereas exposure to the co-occurring compound fluazinam hardly resulted in (additional) effects. In the orchard scenario, 3 pesticides resulted in large effects just after exposure, but pulse exposures to these compounds did not coincide. The probabilities of effects for the single compounds added up for the combination; in contrast, the recovery times were not higher for the combination compared to those associated with exposure to the individual compounds. The conclusion from the present study's simulations is that exposure to the evaluated pesticide packages may lead to increased mortality probabilities and effect sizes of the combination, but does not lead to longer recovery times for populations with synchronized reproduction than when exposed to the individual compounds. PMID:24375456

Focks, Andreas; Luttik, Robert; Zorn, Mathilde; Brock, Theo; Roex, Erwin; Van der Linden, Ton; Van den Brink, Paul J

2014-07-01

176

Community variations in population exposure to near-field tsunami hazards as a function of pedestrian travel time to safety  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Efforts to characterize population exposure to near-field tsunami threats typically focus on quantifying the number and type of people in tsunami-hazard zones. To develop and prioritize effective risk-reduction strategies, emergency managers also need information on the potential for successful evacuations and how this evacuation potential varies among communities. To improve efforts to properly characterize and differentiate near-field tsunami threats among multiple communities, we assess community variations in population exposure to tsunamis as a function of pedestrian travel time to safety. We focus our efforts on the multiple coastal communities in Grays Harbor and Pacific Counties (State of Washington, USA), where a substantial resident and visitor population is threatened by near-field tsunamis related to a potential Cascadia subduction zone earthquake. Anisotropic, path-distance modeling is conducted to estimate travel times to safety and results are merged with various population data, including residents, employees, public venues, and dependent-care facilities. Results suggest that there is substantial variability among communities in the number of people that may have insufficient time to evacuate. Successful evacuations may be possible in some communities assuming slow-walking speeds, are plausible in others if travel speeds are increased, and are unlikely in another set of communities given the large distances and short time horizon. Emergency managers can use these results to prioritize the location and determine the most appropriate type of tsunami risk-reduction strategies, such as education and training in areas where evacuations are plausible and vertical-evacuation structures in areas where they are not.

Wood, Nathan J.; Schmidtlein, Mathew C.

2013-01-01

177

Occupational dimethylformamide exposure. 1. Diffusive sampling of dimethylformamide vapor for determination of time-weighted average concentration in air.  

PubMed

A diffusive sampling method with water as absorbent was examined in comparison with 3 conventional methods of diffusive sampling with carbon cloth as absorbent, pumping through National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) charcoal tubes, and pumping through NIOSH silica gel tubes to measure time-weighted average concentration of dimethylformamide (DMF). DMF vapors of constant concentrations at 3-110 ppm were generated by bubbling air at constant velocities through liquid DMF followed by dilution with fresh air. Both types of diffusive samplers could either absorb or adsorb DMF in proportion to time (0.25-8 h) and concentration (3-58 ppm), except that the DMF adsorbed was below the measurable amount when carbon cloth samplers were exposed at 3 ppm for less than 1 h. When both diffusive samplers were loaded with DMF and kept in fresh air, the DMF in water samplers stayed unchanged for at least for 12 h. The DMF in carbon cloth samplers showed a decay with a half-time of 14.3 h. When the carbon cloth was taken out immediately after termination of DMF exposure, wrapped in aluminum foil, and kept refrigerated, however, there was no measurable decrease in DMF for at least 3 weeks. When the air was drawn at 0.2 l/min, a breakthrough of the silica gel tube took place at about 4,000 ppm.min (as the lower 95% confidence limit), whereas charcoal tubes could tolerate even heavier exposures, suggesting that both tubes are fit to measure the 8-h time-weighted average of DMF at 10 ppm. PMID:1577523

Yasugi, T; Kawai, T; Mizunuma, K; Horiguchi, S; Iguchi, H; Ikeda, M

1992-01-01

178

The Time of Prenatal Androgen Exposure Affects Development of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome-Like Phenotype in Adulthood in Female Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive disorders in women. Previous studies have shown that prenatal exposure of female fetuses to androgen can be considered an important factor in the development of PCOS. Objectives: In the present study we aimed to examine the effects of prenatal exposure of female rat fetuses to previously documented doses of testosterone on different embryonic days on the development of PCOS phenotype in adulthood. Materials and Methods: Pregnant rats were divided into four groups, experimental and control groups. Three mg of free testosterone was administered subcutaneously to experimental group 1 on gestational days 16-19, daily and 20 mg on day 20, to experimental group 2, and the controls received solvent at the same times. Female offspring of these mothers aged between 90-100 days were examined for development and function of the reproductive system. Independent-sample student t test was used to compare the results between the experimental groups and controls. Results: Anogenital distance (P < 0.001) and clitoris length were significantly increased in the offspring of both experimental groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 respectively). Nipples were not formed in the offspring of experimental group 1, whereas in experimental group 2 the number of nipples was unchanged. Vaginal length was significantly decreased in the offspring of experimental group 1 (P < 0.001), whereas in experimental group 2, no significant difference was observed. In the offspring of experimental group 1, hormonal profiles did not differ, but in experimental group 2, levels of testosterone (P < 0.05) and LH (P < 0.01) were significantly increased, but estrogen (P < 0.05) and anti-Mullerian hormone levels (P < 0.001) were significantly decreased. A significant increase in the number of preantral and antral follicles was observed in the ovaries of offspring of experimental group 1 (P < 0.05); whereas there was no such a difference in experimental group 2. Conclusions: The time of prenatal exposure to androgens may have a significant role in the development of PCOS. Increased prenatal androgen levels are associated with hormonal changes and morphological disorders of the reproductive system. Therefore, avoiding exposure to androgen excess during critical periods of fetal development may prevent or reduce adulthood PCOS manifestations caused by prenatal excess androgen. PMID:24910644

Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Noroozzadeh, Mahsa; Zahediasl, Saleh; Piryaei, Abbas; Hashemi, Somayeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

2014-01-01

179

Timing of terminal Pleistocene deglaciation at high elevations in southern and central British Columbia constrained by 10Be exposure dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) covered most of British Columbia and southern Yukon Territory at the local Last Glacial Maximum (lLGM) during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 2. However, its subsequent demise is not well understood, particularly at high elevations east of its ocean-terminating margin. We present 10Be exposure ages from two high-elevation sites in southern and central British Columbia that help constrain the time of initial deglaciation at these sites. We sampled granodiorite erratics at elevations of 2126-2230 m a.s.l. in the Marble Range and 1608-1785 m a.s.l. in the Telkwa Range at the western margin of the Interior Plateau. The erratics at both sites are near ice-marginal meltwater channels that delineate the local ice surface slope and thus the configuration of the ice sheet during deglaciation. The locations of the erratics and their relations to meltwater channels ensure that the resulting 10Be ages date CIS deglaciation and not the retreat of local montane glaciers. Our sample sites emerged above the surface of the CIS as its divide migrated westward from the Interior Plateau to the axis of the Coast Mountains. Two of the four samples from the summit area of the Marble Range yielded apparent exposure ages of 14.0 ± 0.7 and 15.2 ± 0.8 ka. These ages are 1.8-3.0 ka younger than the well-established lLGM age of ca 17 ka for the Puget lobe of the CIS in Washington State; they are 1.7 ka younger than the lLGM age for the Puget lobe if a snow-shielding correction to their uncertainty-weighted mean age is applied. The other two samples yielded much older apparent exposure ages (20.6 ± 1.4 and 33.0 ± 1.5 ka), indicating the presence of inherited isotopes. Four samples collected from the summit area of the Telkwa Range in the Hazelton Mountains yielded well clustered apparent exposure ages of 10.1 ± 0.6, 10.2 ± 0.7, 10.4 ± 0.5, and 11.5 ± 1.1 ka. Significant present-day snow cover introduces a large uncertainty in the apparent exposure ages from this site. A snow-shielding correction based on present-day snow cover data increases the uncertainty-weighted mean exposure age of the Telkwa Range erratics to 12.4 ± 0.7 ka, consistent with deglacial 14C ages from areas near sea level to the west. Our exposure ages show a thinning of the southern portion of the CIS shortly after the lLGM and persistence of a remnant mountain ice cap in the central Coast Mountains into the Younger Dryas Chronozone. Our data also show that the summit area of the Marble Range was ice-covered during the lLGM. The presence of an ice body of considerable dimension in north-central British Columbia until, or possibly even after, the Younger Dryas highlights the need for geomorphological and geochronological studies of the ice dispersal centre over the Skeena Mountains in northwest British Columbia and the need for better understanding of the response of the CIS to Lateglacial climate fluctuations.

Margold, Martin; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Clague, John J.; Heyman, Jakob

2014-09-01

180

Time to pregnancy and exposure to pesticides in Danish farmers. ASCLEPIOS Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Circumstantial evidence suggests that organic farmers may have higher sperm count than other men, but comprehensive epidemiological studies of male fecundity among farmers have never been carried out. A substantial increase of sperm count is expected to translate into a shorter time to pregnancy--the number of menstrual cycles or months it takes a couple to get pregnant from discontinuation

S. B. Larsen; M. Joffe; J. P. Bonde

1998-01-01

181

Developmental Timing of Exposure to Elevated Levels of Phenylalanine Is Associated with ADHD Symptom Expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with a focus on how the timing of a known biological insult affects ADHD symptom expression. The sample consists of children exposed to elevated levels of phenylalanine, either postnatally as in Phenylketonuria (PKU; n = 46) or prenatally as in Maternal PKU (MPKU; n = 15). Non-hyperphenylalaninemic siblings of children with PKU

Kevin M. Antshel; Susan E. Waisbren

2003-01-01

182

Mortality patterns in Coptotermes gestroi (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) following horizontal transfer of nonrepellent and repellent insecticides: effects of donor:recipient ratio and exposure time.  

PubMed

The donor: recipient ratio and the time of donor exposure to termiticide required for maximal toxicant transfer among termites are crucial information for the development of termite management plans. Most of the available information on termiticide toxicity came from temperate zonal termite species, whereas little is known about tropical Asian species. In this study, mortality patterns of recipient termites, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) subjected to seven formulated insecticide exposures under different donor exposure times and donor: recipient ratios were examined. For fipronil, lethal transfer was not affected by donor exposure time but was affected by the mixing ratio. The moderate-to-less toxic termiticides (imidacloprid, indoxacarb, bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, and chlorantraniliprole) required long exposure time and a high mixing ratio to ensure maximal uptake by recipient workers compared with fipronil. For chlorantraniliprole and chlorfenapyr, donors must constitute > 30% of the donor-recipient mixture to achieve 100% mortality of the recipient workers. Among the termiticides tested, cyantraniliprole was the most fast-killing insecticide against C. gestroi. The potential of lethal transfer among recipient termites does not necessarily require both high donor exposure time and a high mixing ratio, but the toxicity of a given termiticide against termites must be factored in to achieve colony elimination. PMID:25195449

Neoh, Kok-Boon; Yeoh, Boon-Hoi; Lee, Chow-Yang

2014-08-01

183

Positional error and time-activity patterns in near-highway proximity studies: an exposure misclassification analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The growing interest in research on the health effects of near-highway air pollutants requires an assessment of potential sources of error in exposure assignment techniques that rely on residential proximity to roadways. Methods We compared the amount of positional error in the geocoding process for three different data sources (parcels, TIGER and StreetMap USA) to a “gold standard” residential geocoding process that used ortho-photos, large multi-building parcel layouts or large multi-unit building floor plans. The potential effect of positional error for each geocoding method was assessed as part of a proximity to highway epidemiological study in the Boston area, using all participants with complete address information (N?=?703). Hourly time-activity data for the most recent workday/weekday and non-workday/weekend were collected to examine time spent in five different micro-environments (inside of home, outside of home, school/work, travel on highway, and other). Analysis included examination of whether time-activity patterns were differentially distributed either by proximity to highway or across demographic groups. Results Median positional error was significantly higher in street network geocoding (StreetMap USA?=?23 m; TIGER?=?22 m) than parcel geocoding (8 m). When restricted to multi-building parcels and large multi-unit building parcels, all three geocoding methods had substantial positional error (parcels?=?24 m; StreetMap USA?=?28 m; TIGER?=?37 m). Street network geocoding also differentially introduced greater amounts of positional error in the proximity to highway study in the 0–50 m proximity category. Time spent inside home on workdays/weekdays differed significantly by demographic variables (age, employment status, educational attainment, income and race). Time-activity patterns were also significantly different when stratified by proximity to highway, with those participants residing in the 0–50 m proximity category reporting significantly more time in the school/work micro-environment on workdays/weekdays than all other distance groups. Conclusions These findings indicate the potential for both differential and non-differential exposure misclassification due to geocoding error and time-activity patterns in studies of highway proximity. We also propose a multi-stage manual correction process to minimize positional error. Additional research is needed in other populations and geographic settings. PMID:24010639

2013-01-01

184

Time-location analysis for exposure assessment studies of children using a novel global positioning system instrument.  

PubMed

Global positioning system (GPS) technology is used widely for business and leisure activities and offers promise for human time-location studies to evaluate potential exposure to environmental contaminants. In this article we describe the development of a novel GPS instrument suitable for tracking the movements of young children. Eleven children in the Seattle area (2-8 years old) wore custom-designed data-logging GPS units integrated into clothing. Location data were transferred into geographic information systems software for map overlay, visualization, and tabular analysis. Data were grouped into five location categories (in vehicle, inside house, inside school, inside business, and outside) to determine time spent and percentage reception in each location. Additional experiments focused on spatial resolution, reception efficiency in typical environments, and sources of signal interference. Significant signal interference occurred only inside concrete/steel-frame buildings and inside a power substation. The GPS instruments provided adequate spatial resolution (typically about 2-3 m outdoors and 4-5 m indoors) to locate subjects within distinct microenvironments and distinguish a variety of human activities. Reception experiments showed that location could be tracked outside, proximal to buildings, and inside some buildings. Specific location information could identify movement in a single room inside a home, on a playground, or along a fence line. The instrument, worn in a vest or in bib overalls, was accepted by children and parents. Durability of the wiring was improved early in the study to correct breakage problems. The use of GPS technology offers a new level of accuracy for direct quantification of time-location activity patterns in exposure assessment studies. PMID:12515689

Elgethun, Kai; Fenske, Richard A; Yost, Michael G; Palcisko, Gary J

2003-01-01

185

Toxicogenomic Studies of the Rat Brain at an Early Time Point Following Acute Sarin Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied sarin-induced global gene expression patterns at an early time point (2 h: 0.5×LD50) using Affymetrix Rat Neurobiology U34 chips and male Sprague–Dawley rats. A total of 46 genes showed statistically significant alterations from control levels. Three gene categories contained more of the altered genes than any other groups: ion channel (8 genes) and calcium channel and binding proteins

Tirupapuliyur V. Damodaran; Stephen T. Greenfield; Anand G. Patel; Holly K. Dressman; Siomon K. Lin; Mohamed B. Abou-Donia

2006-01-01

186

Time Profile of Cosmic Radiation Exposure During the EXPOSE-E Mission: The R3DE Instrument  

PubMed Central

Abstract The aim of this paper is to present the time profile of cosmic radiation exposure obtained by the Radiation Risk Radiometer-Dosimeter during the EXPOSE-E mission in the European Technology Exposure Facility on the International Space Station's Columbus module. Another aim is to make the obtained results available to other EXPOSE-E teams for use in their data analysis. Radiation Risk Radiometer-Dosimeter is a low-mass and small-dimension automatic device that measures solar radiation in four channels and cosmic ionizing radiation as well. The main results of the present study include the following: (1) three different radiation sources were detected and quantified—galactic cosmic rays (GCR), energetic protons from the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region of the inner radiation belt, and energetic electrons from the outer radiation belt (ORB); (2) the highest daily averaged absorbed dose rate of 426 ?Gy d?1 came from SAA protons; (3) GCR delivered a much smaller daily absorbed dose rate of 91.1 ?Gy d?1, and the ORB source delivered only 8.6 ?Gy d?1. The analysis of the UV and temperature data is a subject of another article (Schuster et al., 2012). Key Words: Ionizing radiation—R3D—ISS. Astrobiology 12, 403–411. PMID:22680687

Horneck, Gerda; Häder, Donat-Peter; Schuster, Martin; Richter, Peter; Lebert, Michael; Demets, Rene

2012-01-01

187

Ionizing radiation and chemical combat hazards: effects of time of exposure or combined hazards on performance in rats. Interim report, February 1980-August 1983  

SciTech Connect

The effects of combat hazards (radiation, nerve agent) on the performance of a well-learned task were investigated. In three experiments, independent variables included the time of day of exposure, dose, and whether or not exposure was to combine hazards. The ability of highly trained rats to perform a shuttle avoidance task was used as a performance model. In the first experiment, exposure to gamma radiation (1000 rads) occurred at one of six regularly spaced times of day, then, performance was tested for six times a day for two days thereafter. Striking circadian variation was seen in both general activity and shuttle performance. The time at which radiation exposure occurred did not affect average performance. However, different times of exposure were associated with different survival times. In the second experiment, the nerve agent soman (35 or 55 micrograms/kg) was injected at either 0830 or 2030. No effect of time of injection was found for the 35 micrograms/kg dose. The overall effect of soman in those animals able to perform the task was decreased latency to respond to the warning signal, an apparent facilitation of performance. In the third experiment, rats were exposed to both radiation and soman at doses that were behaviorally sign-free in the first two experiments to determine if the two hazards would combine to produce an effect.

Murphy, M.R.; Blick, D.W.; Dayton, T.E.; Goddard, G.A.; Wheeler, T.G.

1986-09-01

188

Developmental Timing and Continuity of Exposure to Interparental Violence and Externalizing Behavior as Prospective Predictors of Dating Violence  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the prospective pathways of children's exposure to interparental violence (EIPV) in early and middle childhood and externalizing behavior in middle childhood and adolescence as developmental predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization at ages 23 and 26 years. Participants (N = 168) were drawn from a longitudinal study of low-income families. Path analyses examined whether timing or continuity of EIPV predicted dating violence and whether timing or continuity of externalizing behavior mediated these pathways. Results indicated that EIPV in early childhood directly predicted perpetration and victimization at age 23. There were significant indirect effects from EIPV to dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23. Independent of EIPV, externalizing behavior in middle childhood also predicted dating violence through externalizing behavior in adolescence and life stress at age 23, but this pathway stemmed from maltreatment. These results highlight that the timing of EIPV and both the timing and continuity of externalizing behavior are critical risks for the intergenerational transmission of dating violence. Findings support a developmental perspective that negative early experiences and children's externalizing behavior are powerful influences for dating violence in early adulthood. PMID:24229543

Narayan, Angela J.; Englund, Michelle M.; Egeland, Byron

2014-01-01

189

SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF METALLIC BRACKETS PHOTO-ACTIVATED WITH LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE (LED) AT DIFFERENT EXPOSURE TIMES  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of orthodontic metallic brackets photo-activated with two different light-curing sources at different exposure times: halogen light (XL 1500, 3M ESPE) and LED light (Ortholux, 3M Unitek). Sixty bovine permanent lower incisors were inserted into PVC tubes containing plaster. The buccal surfaces were cleaned with pumice and water, and then etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel. The XT Primer bonding agent (3M Unitek) was applied to the enamel surfaces and the metallic pre-coated brackets (Transbond APC II system, 3M Unitek) were attached to upper central incisors. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n=15). In Group I (Control), halogen light was used for 40 seconds, while in Groups II, III, and IV were light-cured with LED light unit for 40, 10, and 5 seconds, respectively. The teeth were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. The brackets were submitted to shear bond strength test in universal testing machine (Instron) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute. Shear bond strength means (MPa) were 4.87 for Group I; 5.89 for Group II; 4.83 for Group III, and 4.39 for Group IV. Tukey's test detected no statistically significant differences among the groups regarding the shear bond strength (p>0.05). Neither of the types of light-curing sources or exposure times influenced the shear bond strength of metallic brackets. PMID:19089170

Rêgo, Emanuel Braga; Romano, Fábio Lourenço

2007-01-01

190

Efficacy of solution form of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on removing smear layer of root canal at different exposure time In Vitro.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of solution form of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on removing smear layer of root canals at different exposure time periods and to provide scientific basis for EDTA as a choice of root canal irrigation in clinical practice. Twenty-five single-rooted teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group (group A) was given 2.5% NaOCl, and 4 experimental groups were given 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA, including groups B, C, D and E with exposure time of 1, 3, 5 and 7 min, respectively. After preparation of the root canals, the teeth were split along their longitudinal axis, and the root sections were examined under scanning electron microscope for evaluation of smear layer removal and erosion on the surface of the root canal walls. The specimens in group B showed presence of smear layer on the walls of the root canal with no statistical difference from that in group A (P>0.05). In groups C and D, partial removal of smear layer was obtained, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05), but there was significant difference in removal of smear layer between group C and group B (P<0.05). Root canal walls in group E specimens showed almost complete removal of smear layer, and the removal of smear layer was significantly different from that in group D (P<0.01). There was no significant change in the structure of the surface of root canal for each sample. It was concluded that combined irrigation with 17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCl could remove the smear layer with no significant alteration in dentinal structure when the chelating agent was applied for 7 min. At 3 and 5 min of application, partial removal of smear layer was observed and at 1 min negligible removal of smear layer was achieved. PMID:24939310

Poudyal, Sitashi; Pan, Wei-hong; Zhan, Liu

2014-06-01

191

Time trends in musculoskeletal disorders attributed to work exposures in Ontario using three independent data sources, 2004–2011  

PubMed Central

Objective Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the leading cause of work disability in the developed economies. The objective of this study was to describe trends in the incidence of MSDs attributed to work exposures in Ontario over the period 2004–2011. Methods An observational study of work-related morbidity obtained from three independent sources for a complete population of approximately six million occupationally active adults aged 15–64 in the largest Canadian province. We implemented a conceptually concordant case definition for work-related non-traumatic MSDs in three population-based data sources: emergency department encounter records, lost-time workers’ compensation claims and representative samples of Ontario workers participating in consecutive waves of a national health interview survey. Results Over the 8-year observation period, the annual per cent change (APC) in the incidence of work-related MSDs was ?3.4% (95% CI ?4.9% to ?1.9%) in emergency departments’ administrative records, ?7.2% (?8.5% to ?5.8%) in lost-time workers’ compensation claims and ?5.3% (?7.2% to ?3.5%) among participants in the national health interview survey. Corresponding APC measures for all other work-related conditions were ?5.4% (?6.6% to ?4.2%), ?6.0% (?6.7% to ?5.3%) and ?5.3% (?7.8% to ?2.8%), respectively. Incidence rate declines were substantial in the economic recession following the 2008 global financial crisis. Conclusions The three independent population-based data sources used in this study documented an important reduction in the incidence of work-related morbidity attributed to non-traumatic MSDs. The results of this study are consistent with an interpretation that the burden of non-traumatic MSDs arising from work exposures is declining among working-age adults. PMID:25311003

Mustard, Cameron A; Chambers, Andrea; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Etches, Jacob; Smith, Peter

2015-01-01

192

Development of the short time exposure (STE) test: an in vitro eye irritation test using SIRC cells.  

PubMed

Using SIRC (rabbit corneal cell line) cells, we developed an alternative eye irritation test: the short time exposure (STE) test. This STE test is a cytotoxicity test using physiological saline or mineral oil as the test solvent. Evaluation exposure time is short (5 min), which is similar to actual exposure situations, and uses the cell viability (CV) at a constant concentration as the endpoint for irritation potential. First, in order to confirm the usefulness of this STE test in assessing eye irritation potential of chemicals, 51 raw materials were tested and the correlation between CV in the STE test and the eye irritation score in the Draize test was examined. For the undiluted raw materials tested in the Draize test, the 5% test concentration in the STE test gave irritation classes that correlated well with the irritation classes from the Draize test (accuracy: 89.6%). For those materials tested as a 10% solution in the Draize test, STE irritation classes with 0.05% test concentration corresponded well with the Draize irritation classes (accuracy: 80.0%). Next, using the cell viabilities at these two concentrations, the STE prediction model (PM) was developed. A score of 1 or 2 was given for the results from each tested concentration in the STE test and Draize test. The scores from each test were then summed to yield a 3-level (Rank 1: minimally irritant, Rank 2: moderate irritant, Rank 3: severe irritant) eye irritation potential classification. Rank classification in the STE test showed a good correlation mostly to that in the Draize test (irritation class correspondence rate: 70.2%, but after exclusion of data of alcoholic materials, the rate was 91.7%). In most cytotoxicity test, the cytotoxicity of acids and amines is generally underestimated due the use of medium as the solvent. This is the result of the buffering capacity of the media. On the other hand, the STE test could predict the eye irritation potential by evaluating the chemical with a 5% test concentration. Eleven water insoluble materials such as toluene, octanol, and hexanol could be evaluated by using mineral oil as test solvent in the STE test. The STE test demonstrated itself to be simple, promising, have great potential, be of value, and to be an easily standardized alternative eye irritation test. PMID:18248950

Takahashi, Yutaka; Koike, Mirei; Honda, Hiroshi; Ito, Yuichi; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Naohiro

2008-04-01

193

Adult asthma and traffic exposure at residential address, workplace address, and self-reported daily time outdoor in traffic: A two-stage case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Most epidemiologic studies use traffic at residential address as a surrogate for total traffic exposure when investigating effects of traffic on respiratory health. This study used GIS (Geographical Information Systems) to estimate traffic exposure, not only on residential, but also on workplace address, in addition to survey questions on time spent in traffic during commuting or other daily activities. The aim was to investigate 1) if there is an association between traffic exposure and prevalence of adult asthma and asthma symptoms, and 2) if so, does this association become stronger using more complete traffic exposure information. Methods This study was conducted in two stages: A first cross-sectional survey in Southern Sweden 2004 (n = 24819, 18-80 years, response rate 59%) was followed by a case-control study in 2005 to obtain more detailed exposure and confounder information (n = 2856, asthmatics and controls (1:3), 86% response rate). In the first survey, only residential address was known. In the second survey, questions about workplace addresses and daily time spent in traffic were also included. Residential and workplace addresses were geocoded and linked with GIS to road data and dispersion modelled outdoor concentrations of NOx (annual mean, 250 × 250 m resolution). Results Living within 50 m of a road (measured by GIS) with traffic intensity of >10 cars/minute (compared with no road within this distance) was associated with an increased prevalence of asthma, (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = (1.1-2.8), and with asthma symptoms last 12 months. No statistically significant effects were seen for traffic exposure at workplace address, daily time spent in traffic, or commuting time to work, after adjustment for confounders. A combined total exposure estimate did not give a stronger association with asthma prevalence or asthma symptoms. Conclusions Traffic exposure at close proximity to residential address showed association with asthma prevalence and asthma symptoms last 12 months, among adults in southern Sweden. The associations were not stronger when accounting for total traffic exposure. This could reflect exposure misclassfication at workplace address and for other daily time in traffic, but also that residential address remains the main determinant for traffic exposure among adults. PMID:21092159

2010-01-01

194

Timing of Concussion Diagnosis is Related to Head Impact Exposure Prior to Injury  

PubMed Central

Purpose Concussions are commonly undiagnosed in an athletic environment because the post-injury signs and symptoms may be mild, masked by the subject, or unrecognized. This study compares measures of head impact frequency, location and kinematic response prior to cases of immediate and delayed concussion diagnosis. Methods Football players from eight collegiate and six high school teams wore instrumented helmets during play (n=1,208), of which ninety-five were diagnosed with concussion (105 total cases). Acceleration data recorded by the instrumented helmets was reduced to five kinematic metrics: peak linear and rotational acceleration, GSI, HIC15, and change in head velocity (?v). Additionally, each impact was assigned to one of four general location regions (Front, Back, Side, and Top), and the number of impacts sustained prior to injury was calculated over two time periods (one and seven days). Results All head kinematic measures associated with injury, except peak rotational acceleration (p = 0.284), were significantly higher for cases of immediate diagnosis than delayed diagnosis (p<0.05). Players with delayed diagnosis sustained a significantly higher number of head impacts on the day of injury (32.9 ±24.9; p < 0.001) and within seven days of injury (69.7 ±43.3; p = 0.006) than players with immediate diagnosis (16.5 ±15.1 and 50.2 ±43.6). Impacts associated with concussion occurred most frequently to the Front of the head (46%) followed by the Top (25%), Side (16%), and Back (13%) with the number of impacts by location independent of temporal diagnosis (?2(3) = 4.72; p = 0.19). Conclusions Concussions diagnosed immediately after an impact event are associated with the highest kinematic measures, while those characterized by delayed diagnosis are preceded by a higher number of impacts. PMID:23135364

Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Greenwald, Richard M.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; Crisco, Joseph J.; Rowson, Steven; Duma, Stefan M.; Broglio, Steven P.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Mihalik, Jason P.; Anderson, Scott; Schnebel, Brock; Brolinson, P. Gunnar; Collins, Michael W.

2012-01-01

195

Writing in Kindergarten Classrooms: A Report of an Experimental Study of the Effects of Independent Writing Time and Exposure to a Writing Role Model on Selected Kindergarten Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined whether there were any differences in the concepts about print, writing vocabulary, and prereading performance of selected kindergarten children who were provided with (1) independent writing time and exposure to a writing model in the school environment, (2) independent writing time without the writing role model, and (3) neither…

Holmes, Julia Goolsby

196

Close-range blast exposure is associated with altered functional connectivity in Veterans independent of concussion symptoms at time of exposure.  

PubMed

Although there is emerging data on the effects of blast-related concussion (or mTBI) on cognition, the effects of blast exposure itself on the brain have only recently been explored. Toward this end, we examine functional connectivity to the posterior cingulate cortex, a primary region within the default mode network (DMN), in a cohort of 134 Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans characterized for a range of common military-associated comorbidities. Exposure to a blast at close range (<10 meters) was associated with decreased connectivity of bilateral primary somatosensory and motor cortices, and these changes were not different from those seen in participants with blast-related mTBI. These results remained significant when clinical factors such as sleep quality, chronic pain, or post traumatic stress disorder were included in the statistical model. In contrast, differences in functional connectivity based on concussion history and blast exposures at greater distances were not apparent. Despite the limitations of a study of this nature (e.g., assessments long removed from injury, self-reported blast history), these data demonstrate that blast exposure per se, which is prevalent among those who served in Iraq and Afghanistan, may be an important consideration in Veterans' health. It further offers a clinical guideline for determining which blasts (namely, those within 10 meters) are likely to lead to long-term health concerns and may be more accurate than using concussion symptoms alone. Hum Brain Mapp 36:911-922, 2015. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25366378

Robinson, Meghan E; Lindemer, Emily R; Fonda, Jennifer R; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

2015-03-01

197

Second-phase validation study of short time exposure test for assessment of eye irritation potency of chemicals.  

PubMed

A Short Time Exposure (STE) test is a cytotoxicity test that uses SIRC cells (rabbit corneal cell line) to assess eye irritation potency following a 5-min chemical exposure. This second-phase validation study assessed the predictive capacity of the STE test using 40 coded test substances at three laboratories. A Validation Management Team (VMT) then evaluated the predictivity of the STE test for United Nation (UN) Globally Harmonized System (GHS) categories using 63 test substances including the results of the first-phase validation study. The STE test can assess not only the severe or corrosive ocular irritants (corresponding to the UN GHS Category 1) but also non-irritant (corresponding to UN GHS Non Category) from other toxicity classes, especially for limited types of test substances. The predictivity by STE test, however, was insufficient for identification of UN GHS categories (Category 1, Category 2, or Non Category). These results suggest that the STE test can be recommended as an initial step in a top-down approach to identification of severe irritants and test substances that require classification for eye irritation (UN GHS Category 1) as well as an initial step in a bottom-up approach to identification of test substances that do not require classification for eye irritation (UN GHS Non Category) from other toxicity classes, especially for limited types of test substances. On the other hand, the STE test is not considered adequate for the identification of mild or moderate irritants (i.e., UN GHS Categories 2A and 2B) and severe irritants (UN GHS Category 1). PMID:23747838

Kojima, Hajime; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Omori, Takashi; Otoizumi, Takuya; Sozu, Takashi; Kuwahara, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Takumi; Sakaguchi, Mayumi; Toyoda, Akemi; Goto, Haruka; Watanabe, Shinichi; Ahiko, Kyoko; Nakamura, Tsuneaki; Morimoto, Takashi

2013-09-01

198

A week in the life of full-time office workers: work day and weekend light exposure in summer and winter.  

PubMed

Little is known about the light exposure in full-time office workers, who spend much of their workdays indoors. We examined the 24-h light exposure patterns of 14 full-time office workers during a week in summer, and assessed their dim light melatonin onset (DLMO, a marker of circadian timing) at the end of the working week. Six workers repeated the study in winter. Season had little impact on the workers' schedules, as the timing of sleep, commute, and work did not vary by more than 30 min in the summer and winter. In both seasons, workers received significantly more morning light on workdays than weekends, due to earlier wake times and the morning commute. Evening light in the two hours before bedtime was consistently dim. The timing of the DLMO did not vary between season, and by the end of the working week, the workers slept at a normal circadian phase. PMID:25172304

Crowley, Stephanie J; Molina, Thomas A; Burgess, Helen J

2015-01-01

199

Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part II: Attribution of PM2.5 exposure to emissions species, time, location and sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combustion emissions constitute the largest source of anthropogenic emissions in the US, and lead to the degradation of air quality and human health. In Part I we computed the population fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and number of early deaths caused by emissions from six major sectors: electric power generation, industry, commercial and residential activities, road transportation, marine transportation and rail transportation. In Part II we attribute exposure and early deaths to sectors, emissions species, time of emission, and location of emission. We apply a long-term adjoint sensitivity analysis and calculate the four dimensional sensitivities (time and space) of PM2.5 exposure with respect to each emissions species. Epidemiological evidence is used to relate increased population exposure to premature mortalities. This is the first regional application of the adjoint sensitivity analysis method to characterize long-term air pollution exposure. (A global scale application has been undertaken related to intercontinental pollution.) We find that for the electric power generation sector 75% of the attributable PM2.5 exposure is due to SO2 emissions, and 80% of the annual impacts are attributed to emissions from April to September. In the road transportation sector, 29% of PM2.5 exposure is due to NOx emissions and 33% is from ammonia (NH3), which is a result of emissions after-treatment technologies. We estimate that the benefit of reducing NH3 emissions from road transportation is ?20 times that of NOx per unit mass. 75% of the road transportation ammonia impacts occur during the months October to March. We publicly release the sensitivity matrices computed, noting their potential use as a rapid air quality policy assessment tool.

Dedoussi, Irene C.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

2014-12-01

200

GPS-based microenvironment tracker (MicroTrac) model to estimate time–location of individuals for air pollution exposure assessments: Model evaluation in central North Carolina  

PubMed Central

A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure to do so can add uncertainty and bias to risk estimates. In this study, a classification model, called MicroTrac, was developed to estimate time of day and duration spent in eight ME (indoors and outdoors at home, work, school; inside vehicles; other locations) from global positioning system (GPS) data and geocoded building boundaries. Based on a panel study, MicroTrac estimates were compared with 24-h diary data from nine participants, with corresponding GPS data and building boundaries of home, school, and work. MicroTrac correctly classified the ME for 99.5% of the daily time spent by the participants. The capability of MicroTrac could help to reduce the time–location uncertainty in air pollution exposure models and exposure metrics for individuals in health studies. PMID:24619294

Breen, Michael S.; Long, Thomas C.; Schultz, Bradley D.; Crooks, James; Breen, Miyuki; Langstaff, John E.; Isaacs, Kristin K.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Williams, Ronald W.; Cao, Ye; Geller, Andrew M.; Devlin, Robert B.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Buckley, Timothy J.

2014-01-01

201

GPS-based microenvironment tracker (MicroTrac) model to estimate time-location of individuals for air pollution exposure assessments: model evaluation in central North Carolina.  

PubMed

A critical aspect of air pollution exposure assessment is the estimation of the time spent by individuals in various microenvironments (ME). Accounting for the time spent in different ME with different pollutant concentrations can reduce exposure misclassifications, while failure to do so can add uncertainty and bias to risk estimates. In this study, a classification model, called MicroTrac, was developed to estimate time of day and duration spent in eight ME (indoors and outdoors at home, work, school; inside vehicles; other locations) from global positioning system (GPS) data and geocoded building boundaries. Based on a panel study, MicroTrac estimates were compared with 24-h diary data from nine participants, with corresponding GPS data and building boundaries of home, school, and work. MicroTrac correctly classified the ME for 99.5% of the daily time spent by the participants. The capability of MicroTrac could help to reduce the time-location uncertainty in air pollution exposure models and exposure metrics for individuals in health studies. PMID:24619294

Breen, Michael S; Long, Thomas C; Schultz, Bradley D; Crooks, James; Breen, Miyuki; Langstaff, John E; Isaacs, Kristin K; Tan, Yu-Mei; Williams, Ronald W; Cao, Ye; Geller, Andrew M; Devlin, Robert B; Batterman, Stuart A; Buckley, Timothy J

2014-07-01

202

Definition of the applicability domain of the Short Time Exposure (STE) test for predicting the eye irritation of chemicals.  

PubMed

The Short Time Exposure (STE) test is a simple and easy-to-perform in vitro eye irritation test, that uses the viability of SIRC cells (a rabbit corneal cell line) treated for five minutes as the endpoint. In this study, our goal was to define the applicability domain of the STE test, based on the results obtained with a set of 113 substances. To achieve this goal, chemicals were selected to represent both different chemical classes and different chemical properties, as well as to cover, in a balanced manner, the categories of eye irritation potential according to the Globally Harmonised System (GHS). Accuracy analysis indicated that the rates of false negatives for organic/inorganic salts (75.0%), hydrocarbons (33.3%) and alcohols (23.5%) were high. Many of the false negative results were for solid substances. It is noteworthy that no surfactant resulted in a false negative result in the STE test. Further examination of the physical property data and performance showed a significant improvement in the predictive accuracy, when substances with vapour pressures over 6kPa were excluded from the analyses. Our results indicate that several substances - i.e. certain solids such as salts, alcohols, hydrocarbons, and volatile substances with a vapour pressure over 6kPa - do not fall within the applicability domain of the STE test. Overall, we are encouraged by the performance and improved accuracy of the STE test. PMID:23781933

Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Abo, Takayuki; Nukada, Yuko; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi

2013-05-01

203

Regularly scheduled, day-time, slow-onset 60 Hz electric and magnetic field exposure does not depress serum melatonin concentration in nonhuman primates  

SciTech Connect

Experiments conducted with laboratory rodents indicate that exposure to 60 Hz electric fields or magnetic fields can suppress nocturnal melatonin concentrations in pineal gland and blood. In three experiments employing three field-exposed and three sham-exposed nonhuman primates, each implanted with an indwelling venous cannula to allow repeated blood sampling, the authors studied the effects of either 6 kV/m and 50 {micro}T (0.5 G) or 30 kV/m and 100 {micro}T (1.0 G) on serum melatonin patterns. The fields were ramped on and off slowly, so that no transients occurred. Extensive quality control for the melatonin assay, computerized control and monitoring of field intensities, and consistent exposure protocols were used. No changes in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration resulted from 6 weeks of day-time exposure with slow field onset/offset and a highly regular exposure protocol. These results indicate that, under the conditions tested, day-time exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields in combination does not result in melatonin suppression in primates.

Rogers, W.R.; Smith, H.D.; Orr, J.L. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Reiter, R.J.; Barlow-Walden, L. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

204

Antibacterial activity of oregano oil against antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica on organic leafy greens at varying exposure times and storage temperatures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of oregano oil on four organic leafy greens (iceberg and romaine lettuces and mature and baby spinaches) inoculated with Salmonella Newport as a function of treatment exposure times as well as storage temperatures. Leaf samples were wash...

205

Effects of exposure time on variations in the structure and hydrophobicity of polyvinylidene fluoride membranes prepared via vapor-induced phase separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present investigation revealed how the surface morphology and hydrophobicity of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes, which were prepared via a vapor-induced phase separation (VIPS) method, were affected by the exposure time. The mass variation of the cast film was recorded. Membrane morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal behaviors of membranes were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) was employed to analyze the crystalline structures of the overall membranes and the surface layers. The results showed that different membrane morphologies and hydrophobicities could be obtained by changing the exposure time. A long exposure time facilitated the crystallization process, resulting in the formation of a porous skin and particle morphology, which increased the hydrophobicity of the surface. A short exposure time favored the formation of a digitate macrovoid and dense skin resulting from liquid-liquid phase separation in the immersion process, which reduced surface hydrophobicity. The water permeate flux in vacuum membrane distillation was greatly affected by the membrane porosity and surface hydrophobicity.

Peng, Yuelian; Fan, Hongwei; Dong, Yajun; Song, Yanna; Han, Hua

2012-08-01

206

ADAPTATION OF NATURAL MICROBIAL MMUNITIES TO DEGRADATION OF XENOBIOTIC COMPOUNDS: EFFECTS OF CONCENTRATION, EXPOSURE TIME, INOCULUM, AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Adaptation of microbial populations to degrade xenobiotic compounds faster after exposure to the compound was studied in eco-cores. Radiolabeled test compounds were added to cores that contained natural water and sediment samples. Adaptation was detected by comparing mineralizati...

207

Timing of exposure to a pulp and paper effluent influences the manifestation of reproductive effects in rainbow trout.  

PubMed

Rainbow trout were exposed to a secondary treated, thermomechanical/bleached kraft pulp and paper effluent in 12,000-L, flow-through exposure tanks at an environmental research facility located at a pulp and paper mill in Kawerau, New Zealand. Trout (age, 2+ years) were obtained from a local hatchery and exposed either to upstream river water or a nominal concentration of 12% (v/v) effluent diluted in upstream river water. Three treatment groups were used: Effluent exposure that started approximately three months before gonadal growth (eight-month total exposure), effluent exposure that started approximately halfway through gonadal development (two-month total exposure), and trout exposed to reference water alone for the total duration of the experiment. Trout were sacrificed just before spawning; exposure, growth, and reproductive endpoints were assessed during and at the termination of the experiment. Reduction in growth was observed in both sexes in the eight-month treatment group relative to the river water reference treatment group. No differences were observed in condition factor or liver size in either treatment. Females in the eight-month exposure group also had significantly lower ovary weight. The two-month exposure group showed no differences from the reference group in growth or somatic indices. Estradiol and testosterone were reduced in blood samples taken from the eight-month exposure group by four months into the experiment as compared to the reference treatment. Steroid and vitellogenin levels in individual female trout from this treatment were significantly correlated with gonadosomatic indices (GSI) measured at the termination of the experiment. The GSI was not correlated strongly or consistently with pregnenolone, nor were any treatment-related pregnenolone differences observed, indicating that the steroid hormone reductions likely were not related to cholesterol side-chain cleavage. Male trout showed significant induction of vitellogenin and lower 11-ketotestosterone during the experiment (only the eight-month group was examined), but this did not result in any significant differences in testes development. Thus, this study has shown an impact of pulp mill effluent exposure on the reproductive physiology of female trout that appeared to be hormonally mediated. Furthermore, the effect could only be manifest when the exposure was initiated before the start of gonad development. PMID:12389912

van den Heuvel, Michael R; Ellis, Rosanne J

2002-11-01

208

The protective effect of a 17°C holding time on boar sperm plasma membrane fluidity after exposure to 5°C.  

PubMed

The holding time (HT) is the period during which an ejaculate, either in a raw or diluted state, is held at 17°C before further processing for cold-storage. In boars, the HT positively influences select sperm quality parameters of semen cooled from 15 to 5°C, a range in temperature during which plasma membrane remodeling occurs. Objective insight into the effect of HT on plasma membrane organization remains unknown. Therefore, the present work sought to elucidate if HT contributes to minimizing alterations in boar sperm plasma membrane fluidity at the initial step of the cooling process in a cryopreservation practice (holding at 5°C) and in relation with select sperm quality parameters. Nineteen ejaculates from five boars were collected and processed according to different treatments: T1) Fresh diluted semen, 0h at 17°C; T2) Fresh diluted semen, 24h at 17°C (HT); T3) Sperm from T1 in a lactose-egg yolk (LEY) extender, 3h at 5°C; T4) Sperm from T2 in LEY, 3h at 5°C; T5) Sperm from T1 in LEY, 24h at 5°C; T6) Sperm from T2 in LEY, 24h at 5°C. Sperm motility was assessed using CASA, and sperm plasma membrane integrity and fluidity were evaluated by flow cytometry with dual labeling (M540/YO-PRO®-1). Results demonstrated that the lack of exposure to a HT (T5) results in reduced sample motility compared to those having a HT (T6), with sperm exposed to HT exhibiting less plasma membrane fluidity. Collectively, these results provide empirical evidence that incorporation of a HT in semen processing protects boar sperm against cold injury through maintenance of lipid architecture of the plasma membrane. PMID:23219919

Casas, I; Althouse, G C

2013-02-01

209

Inhibition of Cancer Cell Growth by Exposure to a Specific Time-Varying Electromagnetic Field Involves T-Type Calcium Channels  

PubMed Central

Electromagnetic field (EMF) exposures affect many biological systems. The reproducibility of these effects is related to the intensity, duration, frequency, and pattern of the EMF. We have shown that exposure to a specific time-varying EMF can inhibit the growth of malignant cells. Thomas-EMF is a low-intensity, frequency-modulated (25-6 Hz) EMF pattern. Daily, 1 h, exposures to Thomas-EMF inhibited the growth of malignant cell lines including B16-BL6, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and HeLa cells but did not affect the growth of non-malignant cells. Thomas-EMF also inhibited B16-BL6 cell proliferation in vivo. B16-BL6 cells implanted in syngeneic C57b mice and exposed daily to Thomas-EMF produced smaller tumours than in sham-treated controls. In vitro studies showed that exposure of malignant cells to Thomas-EMF for > 15 min promoted Ca2+ influx which could be blocked by inhibitors of voltage-gated T-type Ca2+ channels. Blocking Ca2+ uptake also blocked Thomas-EMF-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Exposure to Thomas-EMF delayed cell cycle progression and altered cyclin expression consistent with the decrease in cell proliferation. Non-malignant cells did not show any EMF-dependent changes in Ca2+ influx or cell growth. These data confirm that exposure to a specific EMF pattern can affect cellular processes and that exposure to Thomas-EMF may provide a potential anti-cancer therapy. PMID:25875081

Buckner, Carly A.; Buckner, Alison L.; Koren, Stan A.; Persinger, Michael A.; Lafrenie, Robert M.

2015-01-01

210

Hypothetical Exposure Limits for Oil-Based Metalworking Fluids and Cardiovascular Mortality in a Cohort of Autoworkers: Structural Accelerated Failure Time Models in a Public Health Framework  

PubMed Central

Occupational exposure to aerosolized particles of oil-based metalworking fluid was recently linked to deaths from ischemic heart disease. The current recommended exposure limits might be insufficient. Studying cardiovascular mortality is challenging because symptoms can induce sicker workers to reduce their exposure, causing healthy-worker survivor bias. G-estimation of accelerated failure time models reduces this bias and permits comparison of multiple exposure interventions. Michigan autoworkers from the United AutoWorkers–General Motors cohort (n = 38,666) were followed from 1941 through 1994. Separate binary variables indicated whether annual exposure exceeded a series of potential limits. Separate g-estimation analyses for each limit yielded the total number of life-years that could have been saved among persons who died from specific cardiovascular causes by enforcing that exposure limit. Banning oil-based fluids would have saved an estimated 4,003 (95% confidence interval: 2,200, 5,807) life-years among those who died of ischemic heart disease. Estimates for cardiovascular disease overall, acute myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular disease were 3,500 (95% confidence interval: 1,350, 5,651), 2,932 (95% confidence interval: 1,587, 4,277), and 917 (95% confidence interval: ?80, 1,913) life-years, respectively. A limit of 0.01 mg/m3 would have had a similar impact on cerebrovascular disease but one only half as great on ischemic heart disease. Analyses suggest that limiting exposure to metalworking fluids could have saved many life-years lost to cardiovascular diseases in this cohort. PMID:25816818

Picciotto, Sally; Peters, Annette; Eisen, Ellen A.

2015-01-01

211

Hypothetical exposure limits for oil-based metalworking fluids and cardiovascular mortality in a cohort of autoworkers: structural accelerated failure time models in a public health framework.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure to aerosolized particles of oil-based metalworking fluid was recently linked to deaths from ischemic heart disease. The current recommended exposure limits might be insufficient. Studying cardiovascular mortality is challenging because symptoms can induce sicker workers to reduce their exposure, causing healthy-worker survivor bias. G-estimation of accelerated failure time models reduces this bias and permits comparison of multiple exposure interventions. Michigan autoworkers from the United AutoWorkers-General Motors cohort (n = 38,666) were followed from 1941 through 1994. Separate binary variables indicated whether annual exposure exceeded a series of potential limits. Separate g-estimation analyses for each limit yielded the total number of life-years that could have been saved among persons who died from specific cardiovascular causes by enforcing that exposure limit. Banning oil-based fluids would have saved an estimated 4,003 (95% confidence interval: 2,200, 5,807) life-years among those who died of ischemic heart disease. Estimates for cardiovascular disease overall, acute myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular disease were 3,500 (95% confidence interval: 1,350, 5,651), 2,932 (95% confidence interval: 1,587, 4,277), and 917 (95% confidence interval: -80, 1,913) life-years, respectively. A limit of 0.01 mg/m(3) would have had a similar impact on cerebrovascular disease but one only half as great on ischemic heart disease. Analyses suggest that limiting exposure to metalworking fluids could have saved many life-years lost to cardiovascular diseases in this cohort. PMID:25816818

Picciotto, Sally; Peters, Annette; Eisen, Ellen A

2015-04-15

212

Insights of Unconventionally Long Exposure Time in Atomic Layer Deposition Al2O3 to Modify SnO2 Photoanode of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porous SnO2 photoanodes coated by alumina through atomic layer deposition technology are reported. It is found that when the dosing time of precursor is extended over 11 s, the 125% maximum increase of cell efficiency is achieved. It is believed that besides the interfacial charge recombination being efficiently suppressed by this ultra-thin coating, the increased absorption of dyes and elimination of the high density of monoenergetic surface states on SnO2 might play a positive role in improving the cell efficiency. The reason is that a long exposure time of precursor can guarantee the 100% coverage of alumina on porous SnO2, which is further explained by a built three-step model. Then we conclude that for a high cell efficiency in porous photoelectrode a long exposure time is indispensable.

Dong, Wan; Wang, Zheng-Duo; Yang, Li-Zhen; Meng, Tao; Chen, Qiang

2014-09-01

213

A CROSS-PROVINCE ANALYSIS OF URBAN AND RURAL INDOOR PM2.5 EXPOSURE IN CHINA USING TIME USE SURVEY  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In developing countries in Asia and other parts of the world, most energy sources used in the home are solid fuels such as coal and biomass (firewood, crop residue and animal dung). Particulate matter 2.5, consisting of particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 um or less, produced through combustion of these fuels inside the residence for cooking and heating has an adverse impact on people's health. We estimated PM2.5 exposure concentration in indoor microenvironment for each cohort of urban and rural area in ten provinces of China, using statistical data on time use survey and domestic energy consumption. The study found that, in each province, the exposure concentration in rural area was higher than in urban area, unemployed women between the ages of 60 and 64 had the highest estimate for exposure concentration at 3027 ?g/m3. The study also found that the exposure concentration for individual cohorts in each province was greatly affected by people's use of time indoors, fuel consumption such as coal or biomass and floor space.

Shimada, Yoko; Guo, Minna; Kurata, Gakuji; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

214

Naive hypothesis testing for case series analysis with time-varying exposure onset measurement error: inference for infection-cardiovascular risk in patients on dialysis.  

PubMed

The case series method is useful in studying the relationship between time-varying exposures, such as infections, and acute events observed during the observation periods of individuals. It provides estimates of the relative incidences of events in risk periods (e.g., 30-day period after infections) relative to the baseline periods. When the times of exposure onsets are not known precisely, application of the case series model ignoring exposure onset measurement error leads to biased estimates. Bias-correction is necessary in order to understand the true directions and effect sizes associated with exposure risk periods, although uncorrected estimators have smaller variance. Thus, inference via hypothesis testing based on uncorrected test statistics, if valid, is potentially more powerful. Furthermore, the tests can be implemented in standard software and do not require additional auxiliary data. In this work, we examine the validity and power of naive hypothesis testing, based on applying the case series analysis to the imprecise data without correcting for the error. Based on simulation studies and theoretical calculations, we determine the validity and relative power of common hypothesis tests of interest in case series analysis. In particular, we illustrate that the tests for the global null hypothesis, the overall null hypotheses associated with all risk periods or all age effects are valid. However, tests of individual risk period parameters are not generally valid. Practical guidelines are provided and illustrated with data from patients on dialysis. PMID:23731166

Mohammed, Sandra M; Dalrymple, Lorien S; ?entürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V

2013-06-01

215

Nicotine exposure during adolescence leads to short- and long-term changes in spike timing-dependent plasticity in rat prefrontal cortex.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a critical period of brain development during which maturation of areas involved in cognitive functioning, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), is still ongoing. Tobacco smoking during this age can compromise the normal course of prefrontal development and lead to cognitive impairments in later life. Recently, we reported that nicotine exposure during adolescence results in a short-term increase and lasting reduction in synaptic mGluR2 levels in the rat mPFC, causing attention deficits during adulthood. It is unknown how changed synaptic mGluR2 levels after adolescent nicotine exposure affect the ability of mPFC synapses to undergo long-term synaptic plasticity. Here, we addressed this question. To model nicotine exposure, adolescent (P34-P43) or adult (P60-P69) rats were treated with nicotine injections three times per day for 10 d. We found that, both during acute activation of nicotinic receptors in the adolescent mPFC as well as immediately following nicotine treatment during adolescence, long-term plasticity in response to timed presynaptic and postsynaptic activity (tLTP) was strongly reduced. In contrast, in the mPFC of adult rats 5 weeks after they received nicotine treatment during adolescence, but not during adulthood, tLTP was increased. Short- and long-term adaptation of mPFC synaptic plasticity after adolescent nicotine exposure could be explained by changed mGluR2 signaling. Blocking mGluR2s augmented tLTP, whereas activating mGluR2s reduced tLTP. Our findings suggest neuronal mechanisms by which exposure to nicotine during adolescence alters the rules for spike timing-dependent plasticity in prefrontal networks that may explain the observed deficits in cognitive performance in later life. PMID:22855798

Goriounova, Natalia A; Mansvelder, Huibert D

2012-08-01

216

A geospatial time-aware web interface to deliver information about air pollution and exposure in a big city and its surroundings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A GIS-based web-mapping system is presented, aimed at providing specialists, stakeholders and population with a simple, while scientifically rigorous, way to obtain information about people exposure to air pollution in the city of Rome (Italy). It combines a geo-spatial visualization with easy access to time dimension and to quantitative information. The study is part of the EXPAH (Population Exposure to PAHs) LIFE+ EC Project, which goal is to identify and quantify children and elderly people exposure to PM2.5-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of Rome, and to assess the impact on human health. The core of the system is a GIS, which database contains data and results of the project research activity. They include daily indoor and outdoor ground measurements and daily maps from simulation modeling of atmospheric PAHs and PM2.5 concentration for the period June 2011-May 2012, and daily and average exposure maps. Datasets have been published as time-enabled standard OGC Web Map Services (WMS). A set of web mapping applications query the web services to produce a set of interactive and time-aware thematic maps. Finding effective ways to communicate risk for human health, and environmental determinants for it, is a topical and challenging task: the web mapping system presented is a prototype of a possible model to disseminate scientific results on these items, providing a sight into impacts of air pollution on people living and working in a big city, and shipping information about the overall exposure, its spatial pattern and levels at specific locations.

Bogliolo, M. P.; Contino, G.

2014-11-01

217

A thermomechanical framework for reconciling the effects of ultraviolet radiation exposure time and wavelength on connective tissue elasticity.  

PubMed

Augmentation of the mechanical properties of connective tissue using ultraviolet (UV) radiation-by targeting collagen cross-linking in the tissue at predetermined UV exposure time [Formula: see text] and wavelength [Formula: see text]-has been proposed as a therapeutic method for supporting the treatment for structural-related injuries and pathologies. However, the effects of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] on the tissue elasticity, namely elastic modulus [Formula: see text] and modulus of resilience [Formula: see text], are not entirely clear. We present a thermomechanical framework to reconcile the [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text]-related effects on [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. The framework addresses (1) an energy transfer model to describe the dependence of the absorbed UV photon energy, [Formula: see text], per unit mass of the tissue on [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], (2) an intervening thermodynamic shear-related parameter, [Formula: see text], to quantify the extent of UV-induced cross-linking in the tissue, (3) a threshold model for the [Formula: see text] versus [Formula: see text] relationship, characterized by   [Formula: see text]-the critical [Formula: see text] underpinning the association of [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text]-and (4) the role of [Formula: see text] in the tissue elasticity. We hypothesized that [Formula: see text] regulates [Formula: see text] (UV-stiffening hypothesis) and [Formula: see text] (UV-resilience hypothesis). The framework was evaluated with the support from data derived from tensile testing on isolated ligament fascicles, treated with two levels of [Formula: see text] (365 and 254 nm) and three levels of [Formula: see text] (15, 30 and 60 min). Predictions from the energy transfer model corroborated the findings from a two-factor analysis of variance of the effects of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] treatments. Student's t test revealed positive change in [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with increases in [Formula: see text]-the findings lend support to the hypotheses, implicating the implicit dependence of UV-induced cross-links on [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for directing tissue stiffness and resilience. From a practical perspective, the study is a step in the direction to establish a UV irradiation treatment protocol for effective control of exogenous cross-linking in connective tissues. PMID:24419559

Goh, K L; Chen, S Y; Liao, K

2014-10-01

218

Matching methods to create paired survival data based on an exposure occurring over time: a simulation study with application to breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Paired survival data are often used in clinical research to assess the prognostic effect of an exposure. Matching generates correlated censored data expecting that the paired subjects just differ from the exposure. Creating pairs when the exposure is an event occurring over time could be tricky. We applied a commonly used method, Method 1, which creates pairs a posteriori and propose an alternative method, Method 2, which creates pairs in “real-time”. We used two semi-parametric models devoted to correlated censored data to estimate the average effect of the exposure HR¯(t): the Holt and Prentice (HP), and the Lee Wei and Amato (LWA) models. Contrary to the HP, the LWA allowed adjustment for the matching covariates (LWA a ) and for an interaction (LWA i ) between exposure and covariates (assimilated to prognostic profiles). The aim of our study was to compare the performances of each model according to the two matching methods. Methods Extensive simulations were conducted. We simulated cohort data sets on which we applied the two matching methods, the HP and the LWA. We used our conclusions to assess the prognostic effect of subsequent pregnancy after treatment for breast cancer in a female cohort treated and followed up in eight french hospitals. Results In terms of bias and RMSE, Method 2 performed better than Method 1 in designing the pairs, and LWA a was the best model for all the situations except when there was an interaction between exposure and covariates, for which LWA i was more appropriate. On our real data set, we found opposite effects of pregnancy according to the six prognostic profiles, but none were statistically significant. We probably lacked statistical power or reached the limits of our approach. The pairs’ censoring options chosen for combination Method 2 - LWA had to be compared with others. Conclusions Correlated censored data designing by Method 2 seemed to be the most pertinent method to create pairs, when the criterion, which characterized the pair, was an exposure occurring over time. In such a setting, the LWA was the most appropriate model. PMID:24965571

2014-01-01

219

Predicting changes in PM exposure over time at U.S. trucking terminals using structural equation modeling techniques.  

PubMed

This study analyzes the temporal variability of occupational and environmental exposures to fine particulate matter in the U.S. trucking industry and tests the predictive ability of a novel multilayer statistical approach to occupational exposure modeling using structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques. For these purposes, elemental carbon mass in PM<1 microm at six U.S. trucking terminals were measured twice during the same season up to 2 years apart, observing concentrations in the indoor loading dock (median EC: period 1 = 0.65 microg/m(3); period 2 = 0.94 microg/m(3)) and outdoor background location (median EC: period 1 = 0.46 microg/m(3); period 2 = 0.67 microg/m(3)), as well as in the truck cabs of local drivers while on the road (median EC: period 1 = 1.09 microg/m(3); period 2 = 1.07 microg/m(3)). There was a general trend toward higher exposures during the second sampling trips; however, these differences were statistically significant in only a few cases and were largely attributable to changes in weather patterns (wind speed, precipitation, etc.). Once accounting for systematic prediction errors in background concentrations, the SEM approach provided a strong fit for work-related exposures in this occupational setting. PMID:19367483

Davis, Mary E; Laden, Francine; Hart, Jaime E; Garshick, Eric; Blicharz, Andrew; Smith, Thomas J

2009-07-01

220

Identification of fipronil metabolites by time-of-flight mass spectrometry for application in a human exposure study.  

PubMed

Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide commonly used in residential and agricultural applications. To understand more about the potential risks for human exposure associated with fipronil, urine and serum from dosed Long Evans adult rats (5 and 10mg/kg bw) were analyzed to identify metabolites as potential biomarkers for use in human biomonitoring studies. Urine from treated rats was found to contain seven unique metabolites, two of which had not been previously reported-M4 and M7 which were putatively identified as a nitroso compound and an imine, respectively. Fipronil sulfone was confirmed to be the primary metabolite in rat serum. The fipronil metabolites identified in the respective matrices were then evaluated in matched human urine (n=84) and serum (n=96) samples from volunteers with no known pesticide exposures. Although no fipronil or metabolites were detected in human urine, fipronil sulfone was present in the serum of approximately 25% of the individuals at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 4ng/mL. These results indicate that many fipronil metabolites are produced following exposures in rats and that fipronil sulfone is a useful biomarker in human serum. Furthermore, human exposure to fipronil may occur regularly and require more extensive characterization. PMID:25687022

McMahen, Rebecca L; Strynar, Mark J; Dagnino, Sonia; Herr, David W; Moser, Virginia C; Garantziotis, Stavros; Andersen, Erik M; Freeborn, Danielle L; McMillan, Larry; Lindstrom, Andrew B

2015-05-01

221

Prenatal Exposure to Nicotine Impairs Performance of the 5Choice Serial Reaction Time Task in Adult Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cigarette smoking is associated with a wide variety of adverse reproductive outcomes, including increased infant mortality and decreased birth weight. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke, of which nicotine is a major teratogenic component, has also been linked to the acceleration of the risk for different psychiatric disorders, including conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whether this increased risk

Tomasz Schneider; Nicholas Ilott; Giovana Brolese; Lisiane Bizarro; Philip J E Asherson; Ian P Stolerman

2011-01-01

222

Trauma Exposure and Subsequent Offending Among First-Time Juvenile Arrestees: An Exploratory Analysis by Race, Sex, and Hispanic Ethnicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary study of trauma is only a few decades old, and a framework for conceptualization and measurement of trauma in children has developed even more recently. One of the most under-studied populations of children with regard to trauma exposure and trauma-related mental health and behavioral problems is delinquent youth. However, understanding and addressing trauma promises to add significantly to our

Sherry L. Jackson

2010-01-01

223

A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm2, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 ± 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the noise performance in the image regions with highest noise. PMID:23635281

Burion, Steve; Speidel, Michael A.; Funk, Tobias

2013-01-01

224

A real-time regional adaptive exposure method for saving dose-area product in x-ray fluoroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Reduction of radiation dose in x-ray imaging has been recognized as a high priority in the medical community. Here the authors show that a regional adaptive exposure method can reduce dose-area product (DAP) in x-ray fluoroscopy. The authors' method is particularly geared toward providing dose savings for the pediatric population. Methods: The scanning beam digital x-ray system uses a large-area x-ray source with 8000 focal spots in combination with a small photon-counting detector. An imaging frame is obtained by acquiring and reconstructing up to 8000 detector images, each viewing only a small portion of the patient. Regional adaptive exposure was implemented by varying the exposure of the detector images depending on the local opacity of the object. A family of phantoms ranging in size from infant to obese adult was imaged in anteroposterior view with and without adaptive exposure. The DAP delivered to each phantom was measured in each case, and noise performance was compared by generating noise arrays to represent regional noise in the images. These noise arrays were generated by dividing the image into regions of about 6 mm{sup 2}, calculating the relative noise in each region, and placing the relative noise value of each region in a one-dimensional array (noise array) sorted from highest to lowest. Dose-area product savings were calculated as the difference between the ratio of DAP with adaptive exposure to DAP without adaptive exposure. The authors modified this value by a correction factor that matches the noise arrays where relative noise is the highest to report a final dose-area product savings. Results: The average dose-area product saving across the phantom family was (42 {+-} 8)% with the highest dose-area product saving in the child-sized phantom (50%) and the lowest in the phantom mimicking an obese adult (23%). Conclusions: Phantom measurements indicate that a regional adaptive exposure method can produce large DAP savings without compromising the noise performance in the image regions with highest noise.

Burion, Steve; Funk, Tobias [Triple Ring Technologies, Inc., 39655 Eureka Drive, Newark, California 94560 (United States); Speidel, Michael A. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

2013-05-15

225

Time course variations in the mechanisms by which cerebral oxygen delivery is maintained on exposure to hypoxia/altitude.  

PubMed

Normal cerebral function is dependent upon an adequate and continuous supply of oxygen. This study calculated cerebral blood flow based on assessment of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) velocity (MCAVel) and MCA diameter (MCADiam) by trans-cranial Doppler and trans-cranial Duplex in normoxia, during acute exposure to 12% normobaric hypoxia for up to 6 hours, and after 3 days exposure to the equivalent altitude, 4392?m, in nine subjects. Mean (SD) MCAVel increased both after 6 hours hypoxia from 76.8 (11.4) to 97.2 (17.4) cms/sec (p<0.001), and after 3 days at altitude from 68.1 (7.5) [sea level] to 76.2 (10.2) [4392 m] (p=0.015). MCADiam increased from 5.07 (0.6) to 6.1 (0.6) mm (p<0.001) after 6 hours of 12% hypoxia. Calculated mean MCA blood flow increased after 6 hours of 12% hypoxia from 5.0 (0.6) mL/sec to 8.9 (1.2) mL/sec, but there was no difference between sea level and 4392?m. Calculated mean cerebral oxygen delivery increased from 72.4 (14.4) to 107 (20.1) mL/sec (p<0.001) after 6 hours of 12% hypoxia and was maintained unchanged at 4392?m. An increase in MCA caliber, rather than blood velocity, was a major contributor to increased oxygen delivery accompanying within the first few hours of exposure to acute hypoxia. During more long-term exposure, increases in MCA velocity and a rise in hemoglobin appeared to be the more important mechanisms in maintaining cerebral oxygen delivery. The implication of this observed change in MCA diameter questions the widely held assumption that MCA velocity is a surrogate for flow during acute hypoxic exposure. PMID:24559404

Imray, Christopher; Chan, Colin; Stubbings, Alison; Rhodes, Hannah; Patey, Susannah; Wilson, Mark H; Bailey, Damian M; Wright, Alex D

2014-04-01

226

Characterization of viral loads, strain and state of equine herpesvirus-1 using real-time PCR in horses following natural exposure at a racetrack in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine viral loads, strain (neuropathogenic versus non-neuropathogenic) and state (lytic, non-replicating, latent) of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the blood and nasopharyngeal secretions of adult horses following natural exposure. The index case, a 4-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with confirmed EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy, as well as potentially exposed horses, were sampled

Nicola Pusterla; W. David Wilson; Samantha Mapes; Carrie Finno; Diane Isbell; Rick M. Arthur; Gregory L. Ferraro

2009-01-01

227

Health Council of The Netherlands: no need to change from SAR to time-temperature relation in electromagnetic fields exposure limits.  

PubMed

The Health Council of the Netherlands (HCN) and other organisations hold the basic assumption that induced electric current and the generation and absorption of heat in biological material caused by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields are the only causal effects with possible adverse consequences for human health that have been scientifically established to date. Hence, the exposure guidelines for the 10?MHz-10?GHz frequency range are based on avoiding adverse effects of increased temperatures that may occur of the entire human body at a specific absorption rate (SAR) level above 4?W/kg. During the workshop on Thermal Aspects of Radio Frequency Exposure on 11-12 January 2010 in Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, the question was raised whether there would be a practical advantage in shifting from expressing the exposure limits in SAR to expressing them in terms of a maximum allowable temperature increase. This would mean defining adverse time-temperature thresholds. In this paper, the HCN discusses the need for this, considering six points: consistency, applicability, quantification, causality, comprehensibility and acceptability. The HCN concludes that it seems unlikely that a change of dosimetric quantity will help us forward in the discussion on the scientific controversies regarding the existence or non-existence of non-thermal effects in humans following long duration, low intensity exposure to electromagnetic fields. Therefore, the HCN favours maintaining the current approach of basic restrictions and reference levels being expressed as SAR and in V/m or µT, respectively. PMID:21591902

van Rhoon, Gerard C; Aleman, André; Kelfkens, Gert; Kromhout, Hans; Van Leeuwen, Flora E; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wadman, Wytse J; Van De Weerdt, Rik D H J; Zwamborn, A Peter M; Van Rongen, Eric

2011-01-01

228

Intervening Processes Between Youths’ Exposure to Community Violence and Internalizing Symptoms Over Time: The Roles of Social Support and Coping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roles of social support and coping as intervening processes between exposure to community violence and internalizing symptoms\\u000a were examined longitudinally among a community sample of 667 middle school students in the inner city. After controlling for\\u000a potential confounders (e.g., social desirability, victimization and witnessing of family violence, guardian’s psychological\\u000a symptomatology), internalizing symptoms at Year 2 were predicted by hypothesized

Margaret Rosario; Suzanne Salzinger; Richard S. Feldman; Daisy S. Ng-Mak

2008-01-01

229

The influence of incubation time, sample preparation and exposure to oxygen on the quality of the MALDI-TOF MS spectrum of anaerobic bacteria.  

PubMed

With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), bacteria can be identified quickly and reliably. This accounts especially for anaerobic bacteria. Because growth rate and oxygen sensitivity differ among anaerobic bacteria, we aimed to study the influence of incubation time, exposure to oxygen and sample preparation on the quality of the spectrum using the Bruker system. Also, reproducibility and inter-examiner variability were determined. Twenty-six anaerobic species, representing 17 genera, were selected based on gram-stain characteristics, growth rate and colony morphology. Inter-examiner variation showed that experience in the preparation of the targets can be a significant variable. The influence of incubation time was determined between 24 and 96 h of incubation. Reliable species identification was obtained after 48 h of incubation for gram-negative anaerobes and after 72 h for gram-positive anaerobes. Exposure of the cultures to oxygen did not influence the results of the MALDI-TOF MS identifications of all tested gram-positive species. Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella intermedia could not be identified after >24 h and 48 h of exposure to oxygen, respectively. Other tested gram-negative bacteria could be identified after 48 h of exposure to oxygen. Most of the tested species could be identified using the direct spotting method. Bifidobacterium longum and Finegoldia magna needed on-target extraction with 70% formic acid in order to obtain reliable species identification and Peptoniphilus ivorii a full extraction. Spectrum quality was influenced by the amount of bacteria spotted on the target, the homogeneity of the smear and the experience of the examiner. PMID:25039504

Veloo, A C M; Elgersma, P E; Friedrich, A W; Nagy, E; van Winkelhoff, A J

2014-12-01

230

Comparison of physiological changes in carp, Cyprinus carpio, induced by several pollutants at sublethal concentrations. I. The dependency on exposure time  

SciTech Connect

Carp were exposed to 10 different pollutants at sublethal concentrations for 6, 24, or 72 hr. Blood, liver, and white muscle samples were taken after the exposure time together with samples of control handled fish. Serum concentrations of glucose, cortisol protein, and cholesterol were determined. Similarly, the liver and muscle glycogen contents were measured. The effects of the following pollutants were examined: aldrin (100 micrograms/liter), atrazine (100 micrograms/liter), DDT (50 micrograms/liter), dieldrin (20 micrograms/liter), endrin (2 micrograms/liter), hexachlorbenzene (100 micrograms/liter), lindane (100 micrograms/liter), methanol (1 ml/liter), 4-N-phenol (100 micrograms/liter), toluene (100 microliters/liter). The rises in serum glucose and cortisol were the most frequent changes occurring after exposure to the pollutants. A decline in plasma protein and cholesterol content was also often observed. Liver glycogen concentration increased first in most cases and was reduced after longer exposure. Muscle glycogen was affected differently, sometimes reduced by exposure to the pollutants. The experimental design allows for the gradual increase in toxicity of the pollutants used regarding the applied concentrations. Furthermore, the aim of the paper is to evaluate the tests for proof of toxicity of those chemicals. The determination of serum glucose and cortisol levels can be proposed as mostly useful. The clearest changes in all parameters were found after treatment with 100 micrograms/liter atrazine and 50 micrograms/liter DDT. When serum glucose and cortisol concentrations were quickly elevated, signs for exhaustion could be seen after 72 hr of exposure.

Gluth, G.; Hanke, W.

1985-04-01

231

Influence of Zn-contaminated soils in the antioxidative defence system of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays) at different exposure times: potential use as biomarkers.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant responses of wheat and maize growing in Zn-treated soils (200, 450 and 900 mg kg(-1)) at different exposure times (7, 14, 21 and 35 days). The Zn concentration in the plants increased with an increase in the Zn concentration in the soil, thereby causing an increase in the accumulation of Mg and Mn. The emergence of wheat and the growth of maize were inhibited by Zn. The chlorophyll levels increased in wheat, whereas the opposite effect was observed in maize. Regarding enzymatic activities, Zn only provoked pronounced increases in the ascorbate peroxidase activity in maize at the early exposure times and occasionally in the superoxide dismutase (14 days) and catalase (7 and 35 days) activities in wheat. The most notable effect of the exposure of plants to Zn was an inhibition of antioxidative activities after 35 days in both plant species. The reduced glutathione levels increased in wheat and maize after 35 days and the protein levels in wheat after 7 and 35 days. The only significant alteration of lipid peroxidation was a decrease in the malondialdehyde level in wheat after 35 days. Results of this work suggest that Zn may generate oxidative stress by interfering with the plant antioxidant defence system (peroxidases, catalases and superoxide dismutase) responsible for free radical detoxification. The enzymatic activities, particularly ascorbate peroxidase, and the content of reduced glutathione could be considered good biomarkers of serious stress by Zn in soils. PMID:25366467

Alonso-Blázquez, Nieves; García-Gómez, Concepción; Fernández, María Dolores

2015-03-01

232

Exposure levels due to WLAN devices in indoor environments corrected by a time-amplitude factor of distribution of the quasi-stochastic signals.  

PubMed

With the development of radiofrequency technology, radiating quasi-stochastic signals like the wireless local area networks (WLAN), a proper procedure of exposure level assessment is needed. No standardised procedure exists at the moment. While channel power measurement proved to overestimate the field strength, weighting techniques were proposed. The paper compares the exposure levels determined by three different procedures, two of them correcting the field level by weighting. Twenty-three experimental cases of WLAN traffic load are analysed in an indoor environment in controlled conditions. The results show the differences obtained when the duty cycle (DC) method is applied comparatively with the application of weighting based on an amplitude-time correction. Significant exposure level reductions of 52.6-79.2 % from the field determined by frequency domain method and of 36.5-72.8 % from the field determined by the DC weighting method were obtained by time-amplitude method. Specificities of weighting factors probability density functions were investigated and regression analysis was applied for a detailed characterisation of this procedure. PMID:24591729

Miclaus, Simona; Bechet, Paul; Stratakis, Dimitrios

2014-12-01

233

Adverse effects of long-time exposure to formaldehyde vapour on testicular tissue and sperm parameters in rats  

PubMed Central

Formalin is widely used in industry and in medicine (as tissue fixative and disinfectant).It contains reactive molecules which have been known for its cytotoxic effects. To evaluate the effect of formalin exposure on the testicular tissue and sperm parameter from neonatal period through physical and sexual maturity, 28 male Wister rats were assigned into two equal test and control groups. The test group was exposed to 1.5 ppm of the vapor of 10% formaldehyde in a special chamber for 2 hr per day at 20-26 ?C and the air pressure of 760-763 atm. After 55 days, the tubular differentiation (TDI) and repopulation (RI) indexes in testicular tissue, sperm quality parameters, serum total antioxidant capacity and testosterone level were determined. The formaldehyde-exposed animals showed severe seminiferous tubules atrophy, edematous connective tissue, arrested spermatogenesis with negative TDI and RI and vascular thrombosis compared to control group. Histomorphological studies showed a high sperm mortality and abnormality associated with a remarkable decrease in sperm count. Formaldehyde-exposed animals revealed with decreased serum level of testosterone (p < 0.05) and down-regulated antioxidant status versus control group. In conclusion, the current data provide inclusive histological and biochemical information about the chronic exposure to formaldehyde with emphasizing on reproductive disorders including histological adverse effects on the testicular tissue, spermatogenesis, sperm viability, count and the abnormalities which can potentially cause infertility after sexual maturation. PMID:25568674

Razi, Mazdak; Malekinejad, Hassan; Sayrafi, Reza; Hosseinchi, Mohammad Reza; Feyzi, Sajad; Moshtagion, Seyed Mehdi; Janbaz, Hamed

2013-01-01

234

Analysis of real-time variables affecting children's exposure to diesel-related pollutants during school bus commutes in Los Angeles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variables affecting children's exposure during school bus commutes were investigated using real-time measurements of black carbon (BC), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PB-PAH) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) inside 3 conventional diesel school buses, a particle trap-outfitted (TO) diesel school bus and a compressed natural gas (CNG) school bus, while traveling along an urban Los Angeles Unified School District bus route. A video camera was mounted at the front of each bus to record roadway conditions ahead of the bus during each commute. The videotapes from 12 commutes, in conjunction with pollutant concentration time series, were used to determine the influence of variables such as vehicles being followed, bus type and roadway type on pollutant concentrations inside the bus. For all buses tested, the highest concentrations of BC, PB-PAH and NO 2 were observed when following a diesel school bus, especially if that bus was emitting visible exhaust. This result was important because other diesel school buses were responsible for the majority of the diesel vehicle encounters, primarily due to caravanning with each other when leaving a school at the same time. Compared with following a gasoline vehicle or no target, following a smoky diesel school bus yielded BC and PB-PAH concentrations inside the cabin 8 and 11 times higher, respectively, with windows open, and ˜1.8 times higher for both pollutants with windows closed. When other diesel vehicles were not present, pollutant concentrations were highest inside the conventional diesel buses and lowest inside the CNG bus, while the TO diesel bus exhibited intermediate concentrations. Differences in pollutant concentrations between buses were most pronounced with the bus windows closed, and were attributed to a combination of higher concentrations in the exhaust and higher exhaust gas intrusion rates for the conventional diesel buses. Conventional diesel school buses can have a double exposure impact on commuting children: first, exposures to the exhaust from other nearby diesel school buses and, second, exposure to the bus's own exhaust through "self-pollution".

Sabin, Lisa D.; Kozawa, Kathleen; Behrentz, Eduardo; Winer, Arthur M.; Fitz, Dennis R.; Pankratz, David V.; Colome, Steven D.; Fruin, Scott A.

235

Effect of exposure time on the accuracy and reliability of cone beam computed tomography in the assessment of dental implant site dimensions in dry skulls  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the accuracy and reliability of implant site measurements, recorded from low-dose cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Methods CBCT reformatted images of five skulls were obtained using 40, 20 and 7 s exposure protocols. From these protocols, edentulous ridge dimensions were recorded by two observers and compared with measurements recorded directly from the bone. The measurement errors and intra- and inter-examiner reliability were calculated for each exposure protocol and compared with each other. Results The mean absolute errors from the 40, 20 and 7 s protocols were 0.50, 0.46, and 0.51 mm, respectively. The intra-examiner reliability scores were 0.996, 0.995 and 0.998, respectively. The inter-examiner reliability scores were 0.993, 0.998 and 0.994, respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy or reliability between the three protocols. Conclusions In imaging of dry skulls, lowering the CBCT exposure time from 40 s to 20 or 7 s does not affect the reliability or accuracy of implant site measurements. PMID:23960541

Al-Ekrish, Asmáa A.

2012-01-01

236

Effects of long-time elevated temperature exposures on hot-isostatically-pressed power-metallurgy Udimet 700 alloys with reduced cobalt contents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because almost the entire U.S. consumption of cobalt depends on imports, this metal has been designated "strategic'. The role and effectiveness of cobalt is being evaluated in commercial nickel-base superalloys. Udiment 700 type alloys in which the cobalt content was reduced from the normal 17% down to 12.7%, 8.5%, 4.3%, and 0% were prepared by standard powder metallurgy techniques and hot isostatically pressed into billets. Mechanical testing and microstructural investigations were performed. The mechanical properties of alloys with reduced cobalt contents which were heat-treated identically were equal or better than those of the standard alloy, except that creep rates tended to increase as cobalt was reduced. The effects of long time exposures at 760 C on mechanical properties and at 760 C and 845 C on microstructures were determined. Decreased tensile properties and shorter rupture lives with increased creep rates were observed in alloy modifications. The exposures caused gamma prime particle coarsening and formation of sigma phase in the alloys with higher cobalt contents. Exposure at 845 C also reduced the amount of MC carbides.

Hart, F. H.

1984-01-01

237

Comparison of Cell Viability and Embryoid Body Size of Two Embryonic Stem Cell Lines After Different Exposure Times to Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4  

PubMed Central

Background Activation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling pathway in embryonic stem (ES) cells plays an important role in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Adverse effects of BMP4 occur in a time dependent manner; however, little is known about the effect of different time exposure of this growth factor on cell number in culture media. In this study, we investigated the role of two different exposure times to BMP4 in cell viability, embryoid body (EB), size, and cavitation of ES cells. Methods Embryonic stem cells (R1 and B1 lines) were released from the feeder cell layers and were cultured using EBs protocol by using the hanging drop method and monolayer culture system. The cells were cultured for 5 days with 100 ng/mL BMP4 from the beginning (++BMP4) or after 48 h (+BMP4) of culture and their cell number were counted by trypan blue staining. The data were analyzed using non-parametric two-tailed Mann-Whitney test. P<0.05 was considered as significant. Results In EB culture protocol, cell number significantly decreased in +BMP4 culture condition with greater cavity size compared to the ++BMP4 condition at day 5 (P=0.009). In contrast, in monolayer culture system, there was no significant difference in the cell number between all groups (P=0.91). Conclusion The results suggest that short-term exposure of BMP4 is required to promote cavitation in EBs according to lower cell number in +BMP4 condition. Different cell lines showed different behavior in cavitation formation.

Zarei Fard, Nehleh; Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Bahmanpour, Soghra; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

2015-01-01

238

Lethal and teratogenic effects after exposure to X-rays at various times of early murine gestation  

SciTech Connect

Various well-defined stages during completion of the second meiotic division and early organogenesis of mouse embryos were X-irradiated with doses of 1-4 Gy (100-400 rad). The major risk was prenatal mortality with radiation sensitivity changing markedly with dependence on the developmental stage irradiated; in the case of day 1 even within hours. The surviving fetuses did show a significantly enhanced frequency of malformations on day 19 of gestation (mostly gastroschisis and some exencephalies). This was true for all stages between days 1 and 8; only sensitivity again changed considerably. The radiation doses used in this study are markedly higher than doses that can be expected from radiation diagnostics, but exposure is in a range comparable to doses that can occur in radiation therapy (e.g., Morbus Hodgkin).

Mueller, W.U.S.; Streffer, C.

1990-12-01

239

Effects of increased exposure times of simplified etch-and-rinse adhesives on the degradation of resin-dentin bonds and quality of the polymer network.  

PubMed

One of the reasons for resin-dentin degradation is poor polymerization of the adhesive layer. This study evaluated the effect of prolonged polymerization times on the immediate and 6-month resin-dentin bond strengths, silver nitrate uptake, and polymer quality of etch-and-rinse adhesives. Thirty extracted teeth were obtained, and a flat dentin surface was exposed on each tooth. Adhesives (Adper Single Bond 2 and One Step Plus) were applied to the dentin surface of these teeth and light-cured for 10, 20, or 40 s at 600 mW cm(-2) . Bonded sticks (0.6 mm(2) ) were tested in tension (0.5 mm min(-1) ) and analyzed, after immersion in 50% silver nitrate, using scanning electron microscopy. The polymer quality of adhesive films was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis. Statistically higher bond strengths were observed for both adhesives when light-cured for 40 s. Degradation of dentin bonds occurred under all experimental conditions but it was less pronounced for adhesives light-cured for 40 s. Longer exposure times reduced silver nitrate uptake for Adper Single Bond 2. Solvent retention and the amount of residual monomer were statistically lower when both adhesives were light-cured for 40 s. Although longer exposure times than those recommended cannot prevent degradation of the dentin bonds, they can increase bond strength, probably because of the removal of an increased amount of solvent and the presence of a lower amount of residual monomer. PMID:20831585

Reis, Alessandra; Ferreira, Sabrina Q; Costa, Thays R F; Klein-Júnior, Celso A; Meier, Márcia M; Loguercio, Alessandro D

2010-10-01

240

Finite-difference time-domain calculations of SAR in a realistic heterogeneous model of the head for plane-wave exposure from 600 MHz to 3 GHz.  

PubMed

This paper presents finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a fine-scaled, heterogeneous, realistic model of the head for frequencies ranging from 600 MHz to 3 GHz. The phantom has been derived from an atlas of cross-sectional anatomy. The cell size is 3.2 mm which results in a 120,000 cell head model comprising brain, bone/fat, muscle, skin, blood, air and eye humour, lens and sclera. Irradiation from the front and side for plane-wave exposure of an adult and an infant are considered. PMID:1924543

Dimbylow, P J; Gandhi, O P

1991-08-01

241

Experimental study on the survival of the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms--Pontederiaceae) under different oil doses and times of exposure.  

PubMed

In the last decades, petroleum activities have increased in the Brazilian Amazon where there is oil exploration on the Urucu River, a tributary of the Amazon River, about 600 km from the city of Manaus. Particularly, transportation via the Amazon River to reach the oil refinery in Manaus may compromise the integrity of the large floodplains that flank hundreds of kilometers of this major river. In the Amazon floodplains, plant growth and nutrient cycling are related to the flood pulse. When oil spills occur, floating oil on the water surface is dispersed through wind and wave action in the littoral region, thus affecting the vegetation of terrestrial and aquatic environments. If pollutants enter the system, they are absorbed by plants and distributed in the food chain via plant consumption, mortality, and decomposition. The effect of oil on the growth and survival of vegetation in these environments is virtually unknown. The water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] has a pantropical distribution but is native to the Amazon, often growing in high-density populations in the floodplains where it plays an important role as shelter and food source for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The species is well known for its high capacity to absorb and tolerate high levels of heavy metal ions. To study the survival and response of water hyacinth under six different oil doses, ranging from 0 to 150 ml l(-1), and five exposure times (1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days), young individuals distributed in a completely randomized design experiment composed of vessels with a single individual each were followed over a 50-day period (30-day acclimatization, 20 days under oil treatments). Growth parameters, biomass, visual changes in the plants, and pH were recorded at 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 days. Increasing the time of oil exposure caused a decrease in biomass, ratio of live/dead biomass and length of leaves, and an increase in the number of dead leaves. Dose of oil and time of exposure are the most important factors controlling the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on E. crassipes. Although the species is able to survive exposure to a moderate dose of oil, below 75 ml l(-1) for only 5 days, severe alterations in plant growth and high mortality were observed. Therefore, we conclude that Urucu oil heavily affects E. crassipes despite its known resistance to many pollutants. PMID:25017871

Lopes, Aline; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez

2014-12-01

242

Timing and extent of Quaternary glaciations in the Tianger Range, eastern Tian Shan, China, investigated using 10Be surface exposure dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructing glacial chronologies with consistent methods is critical for efforts to examine the timing and pattern of past climate change. Cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating has been widely used to constrain the timing of glacial events on the Tibetan Plateau and in Central Asia. However, few such studies have been conducted in the Chinese Tian Shan and available 10Be ages from this region have only provided evidence for glacial events during the global Last Glacial Maximum (gLGM) and Lateglacial. Here, we present 45 10Be surface exposure ages from glacial landforms in the Ala and Daxi valleys, two formerly glaciated valleys draining the Tianger Range, eastern Tian Shan. Combined with previously published 10Be surface exposure ages from the Daxi Valley in the source area of the Urumqi River, the new ages record five major glacial events during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages (MIS) 6 or older, 4, 3, 2, and 1 (during the Little Ice Age, LIA). Landforms from glacial events since MIS 2 are found on the northern slope of the Tianger Range (Daxi Valley), whereas evidence for the older glacial events is only preserved on its southern slope (Ala Valley). This disparity may be caused by different preservation- and micro-climatic conditions on the northern and southern slopes of this mountain range, due to differences in gradient and aspect. The LIA glacial advances are apparently the only Holocene glacial event recorded in this area. Earlier Holocene glacial events were probably so restricted in extent that they were destroyed by subsequent LIA advances.

Li, Yingkui; Liu, Gengnian; Chen, Yixin; Li, Yanan; Harbor, Jon; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Caffee, Marc; Zhang, Mei; Li, Chuanchuan; Cui, Zhijiu

2014-08-01

243

Tolerance of ARPE 19 cells to organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos is limited to concentration and time of exposure.  

PubMed

Age related macular degeneration is a blinding disease common in elder adults. The prevalence of age related macular degeneration has been found to be 1.8% in the Indian population. Organophosphates are widely used insecticides with well documented neurological effects, and the persistent nature of these compounds in the body results in long term health effects. Farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides in USA had an earlier onset of age related macular degeneration when compared to unexposed controls. A recent study found significant levels of an organophosphate, termed chlorpyrifos, in the blood samples of Indian farmers. Therefore, in understanding the link between age related macular degeneration and chlorpyrifos, the need for investigation is important. Our data show that ARPE-19 (retinal pigment epithelial cells) exhibit a cytoprotective response to chlorpyrifos as measured by viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, superoxide dismutase activity, and increased levels of glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione, after 24?h exposure to chlorpyrifos. However, this cytoprotective response was absent in ARPE-19 cells exposed to the same range of concentrations of chlorpyrifos for 48?h. These results have physiological significance, since HPLC analysis showed that effects of chlorpyrifos were mediated through its entry into ARPE-19 cells. HPLC analysis also showed that chlorpyrifos remained stable, as we recovered up to 80% of the chlorpyrifos added to 6 different ocular tissues. PMID:25619908

Gomathy, Narayanan; Sumantran, Venil N; Shabna, A; Sulochana, K N

2015-01-01

244

Exposure-Based CBT for Older Adults After Fall Injury: Description of a Manualized, Time-Limited Intervention for Anxiety.  

PubMed

Fall accidents among older adults can be devastating events that, in addition to their physical consequences, lead to disabling anxiety warranting the attention of mental health practitioners. This article presents "Back on My Feet," an exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol that is designed for older adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), subthreshold PTSD, or fear of falling resulting from a traumatic fall. The protocol can be integrated into care once patients have been discharged from hospital or rehabilitation settings back to the community. Following a brief description of its development, the article presents a detailed account of the protocol, including patient evaluation and the components of the eight home-based sessions. The protocol addresses core symptoms of avoidance, physiological arousal/anxiety, and maladaptive thought patterns. Because older patients face different coping challenges from younger patients (for whom the majority of evidence-based CBT interventions have been developed), the discussion ends with limitations and special considerations for working with older, injured patients. The article offers a blueprint for mental health practitioners to address the needs of patients who may present with fall-related anxiety in primary care and other medical settings. Readers who wish to develop their expertise further can consult the online appendices, which include a clinician manual and patient workbook, as well as guidance on additional resources. PMID:25364226

Jayasinghe, Nimali; Sparks, Martha A; Kato, Kaori; Wilbur, Kaitlyn; Ganz, Sandy B; Chiaramonte, Gabrielle R; Stevens, Bradford L; Barie, Philip S; Lachs, Mark S; O'Dell, Michael; Evans, Arthur T; Bruce, Martha L; Difede, JoAnn

2014-11-01

245

Time-dependent alterations in growth, photosynthetic pigments and enzymatic defense systems of submerged Ceratophyllum demersum during exposure to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin anatoxin-a.  

PubMed

Recently, aquatic macrophytes have been considered as promising tools for eco-friendly water management with a low running cost. However, only little information is available thus far regarding the metabolic capacity of macrophytes for coping with cyanobacterial toxins (cyanotoxins) in the aquatic environment. Cyanotoxins have become emerging contaminants of great concern due to the high proliferation of cyanobacteria (cyanobacterial bloom) accelerated by eutrophication and climate change. Anatoxin-a, one of the common and major cyanotoxins, is suggested as a high priority water pollutant for regulatory consideration owing to its notoriously rapid mode of action as a neurotoxin. In this study, the time-course metabolic regulation of the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) was investigated during exposure to anatoxin-a at an environmentally relevant concentration (15 ?g/L). Biotransformation and antioxidative systems in C. demersum responded positively to anatoxin-a through the promoted synthesis of most of the involved enzymes within 8h. Maximum enzyme activities were exhibited after 24 or 48 h of exposure to anatoxin-a. However, an apparent decline in enzyme activities was also observed at longer exposure duration (168 and 336 h) in company with high steady-state levels of cell internal H?O?, which showed its highest level after 48 h. Meanwhile, irreversible inhibitory influence on chlorophyll content (vitality) was noticed, whereas the ratio of carotenoids to total chlorophyll was increased with the increase in exposure duration. Consequently, the reduction in growth (biomass) of C. demersum was observed in sub-chronic exposure to anatoxin-a (8 weeks). Overall results clearly indicate, on the one hand, that anatoxin-a causes negative allelopathic effects on the macrophyte by inducing oxidative stress. On the other hand, the macrophyte might have interactions with anatoxin-a, based on the prompt reaction of its enzymatic defense systems to the toxin. The result obtained from the present study could contribute to the improvement of basic knowledge about the ecological impact of anatoxin-a and the environmental fate of the toxin in the aquatic environment. PMID:23685387

Ha, Mi-Hee; Pflugmacher, Stephan

2013-08-15

246

Real-time in situ electron spin resonance measurements on fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum during exposure of oxygen plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the kinetic analysis of free radicals on fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum interacted with atomic oxygen generated plasma electric discharge using real time in situ electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. We have obtained information that the ESR signal from the spores was observed and preliminarily assignable to semiquinone radical with a g-value of around 2.004 and a line width of approximately 5G. The decay of the signal is possibly linked to the inactivation of the fungal spore. The real-time in situ ESR has proven to be a useful method to elucidate plasma-induced surface reactions on biological specimens.

Ishikawa, Kenji; Mizuno, Hiroko; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Tamiya, Kazuhiro; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Ito, Masafumi; Iseki, Sachiko; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

2012-07-01

247

Real-time In Situ Electron Spin Resonance Measurements on Fungal Spores of Penicillium digitatum during Exposure of Oxygen Plasmas  

E-print Network

We report the kinetic analysis of free radicals on fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum interacted with atomic oxygen generated plasma electric discharge using real time in situ electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. We have obtained information that the ESR signal from the spores was observed and preliminarily assignable to semiquinone radical with a g-value of around 2.004 and a line width of approximately 5G. The decay of the signal is possibly linked to the inactivation of the fungal spore. The real-time in situ ESR has proven to be a useful method to elucidate plasma-induced surface reactions on biological specimens.

Ishikawa, Kenji; Tanaka, Hiromasa; Tamiya, Kazuhiro; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Ito, Masafumi; Iseki, Sachiko; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

2012-01-01

248

MODEL DEVELOPMENT - EXPOSURE MODELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans are exposed to mixtures of chemicals from multiple pathways and routes. These exposures may result from a single event or may accumulate over time if multiple exposure events occur. The traditional approach of assessing risk from a single chemical and a single route of e...

249

Sodium pentobarbitone-induced relaxation in the abalone Haliotis iris (Gastropoda): effects of animal size and exposure time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different-sized Haliotis iris (20–160 mm shell length (SL)) were subjected to the anaesthetic sodium pentobarbitone and the time taken for animals to release from aquaria walls and recover from the anaesthetic recorded. In a second experiment, animals remained in the anaesthetic bath for 0, 30 or 60 min after release from aquaria walls and were then allowed to recover. In

Praneeta D Sharma; Hendrik H Nollens; Jonathan A Keogh; P. Keith Probert

2003-01-01

250

Diverging Experiences during Out-of-School Time: The Race Gap in Exposure to After-School Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable interest in identifying ways to close the Black-White achievement gap. This study examines race differences in children's participation in after-school programs, an out-of-school time experience that may influence children's achievement. Using nationally representative data spanning 1995-2005, the authors find that African…

Hynes, Kathryn; Sanders, Felicia

2011-01-01

251

The Long-Term Impact of the MEMA kwa Vijana Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Intervention: Effect of Dose and Time since Intervention Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Despite recent decreases in HIV incidence in many sub-Saharan African countries, there is little evidence that specific behavioural interventions have led to a reduction in HIV among young people. Further and wider-scale decreases in HIV require better understanding of when behaviour change occurs and why. The MEMA kwa Vijana adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention has been implemented in rural Mwanza, Tanzania since 1999. A long-term evaluation in 2007/8 found that the intervention improved knowledge, attitudes to sex and some reported risk behaviours, but not HIV or HSV2 prevalence. The aim of this paper was to assess the differential impact of the intervention according to gender, age, marital status, number of years of exposure and time since last exposure to the intervention. Methods In 2007, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in the 20 trial communities among 13,814 young people (15–30 yrs) who had attended intervention or comparison schools between 1999 and 2002. Outcomes for which the intervention had an impact in 2001 or 2007 were included in this subgroup analysis. Data were analysed using cluster-level methods for stratified cluster-randomised trials, using interaction tests to determine if intervention impact differed by subgroup. Results Taking into account multiplicity of testing, concurrence with a priori hypotheses and consistency within the results no strong effect-modifiers emerged. Impact on pregnancy knowledge and reported attitudes to sex increased with years of exposure to high-quality intervention. Conclusions The desirable long-term impact of the MEMA kwa Vijana intervention did not vary greatly according to the subgroups examined. This suggests that the intervention can have an impact on a broad cross-section of young people in rural Mwanza. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00248469 PMID:21931861

Doyle, Aoife M.; Weiss, Helen A.; Maganja, Kaballa; Kapiga, Saidi; McCormack, Sheena; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Changalucha, John; Hayes, Richard J.; Ross, David A.

2011-01-01

252

Visualisation and identification of peak exposure events in aluminium smelter pot rooms using hydrogen fluoride and aerosol real-time portable spectrometers.  

PubMed

A recently developed novel portable real-time hydrogen fluoride spectrometer was used with an aerosol PM10 spectrometer under a PIMEX telemetric measurement strategy to visualize and identify simultaneous occupational air peak exposure events to hydrogen fluoride and PM10 aerosol sub-fractions in aluminium smelter pot rooms using Søderberg or Prebake anode technologies. The hydrogen fluoride and the aerosol concentration data measured during different work operations are plotted and evaluated applying the synchronised videos and air concentrations measured by the spectrometers. The main point-emission sources of HF and PM10 were identified and assessed. The major finding in the study was that the main source of PM10 and HF was partly open cells in a Søderberg pot room, whereas in a Prebake pot room, the point emissions of the two contaminants were associated with hot bath residues and hot replaced anodes. In order to prevent the simultaneous exposure to HF and PM10 among pot room workers it is important to prevent workers from being close to these point-sources under unfavourable ventilation. Storage of hot residues outside electrolytic cells without any point source ventilation should not occur. PMID:24622938

Skaugset, Nils Petter; Berlinger, Balázs; Radziuk, Bernhard; Tørring, Håvard; Synnes, Ole; Thomassen, Yngvar

2014-05-01

253

Time-course study of different innate immune mediators produced by UV-irradiated skin: comparative effects of short and daily versus a single harmful UV exposure.  

PubMed

The modulatory effects of solar UV radiation on the immune system have been widely studied. As the skin is the main target of UV radiation, our purpose was to compare the impact on skin innate immunity of two contrasting ways to be exposed to sunlight. Hairless mice were UV irradiated with a single high UV dose simulating a harmful exposure, or with repetitive low UV doses simulating short occasional daily exposures. Skin samples were taken at different times after UV irradiation to evaluate skin histology, inflammatory cell recruitment, epidermal T-cell population and the mitochondrial function of epidermal cells. The transcriptional profiles of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and Toll-like receptors were evaluated by RT-PCR and ELISA in tissue homogenates. Finally, a lymphangiography was performed to assess modification in the lymphatic vessel system. A single high UV dose produces a deep inflammatory state characterized by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that, in turn, induces the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages into the irradiated area. On the other hand, repetitive low UV doses drive the skin to a photo-induced alert state in which there is no sign of inflammation, but the epithelium undergoes changes in thickness, the lymphatic circulation increases, and the transcription of antimicrobial peptides is induced. PMID:25438991

Cela, Eliana M; Friedrich, Adrian; Paz, Mariela L; Vanzulli, Silvia I; Leoni, Juliana; González Maglio, Daniel H

2015-05-01

254

Dose- and time-dependent gene expression alterations in prostate and colon cancer cells after in vitro exposure to carbon ion and X-irradiation.  

PubMed

Hadrontherapy is an advanced form of radiotherapy that uses beams of charged particles (such as protons and carbon ions). Compared with conventional radiotherapy, the main advantages of carbon ion therapy are the precise absorbed dose localization, along with an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE). This high ballistic accuracy of particle beams deposits the maximal dose to the tumor, while damage to the surrounding healthy tissue is limited. Currently, hadrontherapy is being used for the treatment of specific types of cancer. Previous in vitro studies have shown that, under certain circumstances, exposure to charged particles may inhibit cell motility and migration. In the present study, we investigated the expression of four motility-related genes in prostate (PC3) and colon (Caco-2) cancer cell lines after exposure to different radiation types. Cells were irradiated with various absorbed doses (0, 0.5 and 2 Gy) of accelerated (13)C-ions at the GANIL facility (Caen, France) or with X-rays. Clonogenic assays were performed to determine the RBE. RT-qPCR analysis showed dose- and time-dependent changes in the expression of CCDC88A, FN1, MYH9 and ROCK1 in both cell lines. However, whereas in PC3 cells the response to carbon ion irradiation was enhanced compared with X-irradiation, the effect was the opposite in Caco-2 cells, indicating cell-type-specific responses to the different radiation types. PMID:25190155

Suetens, Annelies; Moreels, Marjan; Quintens, Roel; Soors, Els; Buset, Jasmine; Chiriotti, Sabina; Tabury, Kevin; Gregoire, Vincent; Baatout, Sarah

2015-01-01

255

The hypoxic ventilatory response and ventilatory long-term facilitation are altered by time of day and repeated daily exposure to intermittent hypoxia  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether time of day and repeated exposure to intermittent hypoxia have an impact on the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) and ventilatory long-term facilitation (vLTF). Thirteen participants with sleep apnea were exposed to twelve 4-min episodes of isocapnic hypoxia followed by a 30-min recovery period each day for 10 days. On days 1 (initial day) and 10 (final day) participants completed the protocol in the evening (PM); on the remaining days the protocol was completed in the morning (AM). The HVR was increased in the morning compared with evening on the initial (AM 0.83 ± 0.08 vs. PM 0.64 ± 0.11 l·min?1·%SaO2?1; P ? 0.01) and final days (AM 1.0 ± 0.08 vs. PM 0.81 ± 0.09 l·min?1·%SaO2?1; P ? 0.01, where %SaO2 refers to percent arterial oxygen saturation). Moreover, the magnitude of the HVR was enhanced following daily exposure to intermittent hypoxia in the morning (initial day 0.83 ± 0.08 vs. final day 1.0 ± 0.08 l·min?1·%SaO2?1; P ? 0.03) and evening (initial day 0.64 ± 0.11 vs. final day 0.81 ± 0.09 l·min?1·%SaO2?1; P ? 0.03). vLTF was reduced in the morning compared with the evening on the initial (AM 19.03 ± 0.35 vs. PM 22.30 ± 0.49 l/min; P ? 0.001) and final (AM 20.54 ± 0.32 vs. PM 23.11 ± 0.54 l/min; P ? 0.01) days. Following daily exposure to intermittent hypoxia, vLTF was enhanced in the morning (initial day 19.03 ± 0.35 vs. final day 20.54 ± 0.32 l/min; P ? 0.01). We conclude that the HVR is increased while vLTF is decreased in the morning compared with the evening in individuals with sleep apnea and that the magnitudes of these phenomena are enhanced following daily exposure to intermittent hypoxia. PMID:20724571

Gerst, David G.; Yokhana, Sanar S.; Carney, Laura M.; Lee, Dorothy S.; Badr, M. Safwan; Qureshi, Tabarak; Anthouard, Magalie N.

2011-01-01

256

Real-time and integrated measurement of potential human exposure to particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aircraft exhaust.  

PubMed Central

We used real-time monitors and low-volume air samplers to measure the potential human exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations during various flight-related and ground-support activities of C-130H aircraft at an Air National Guard base. We used three types of photoelectric aerosol sensors (PASs) to measure real-time concentrations of particle-bound PAHs in a break room, downwind from a C-130H aircraft during a four-engine run-up test, in a maintenance hangar, in a C-130H aircraft cargo bay during cargo-drop training, downwind from aerospace ground equipment (AGE), and in a C-130H aircraft cargo bay during engine running on/off (ERO) loading and backup exercises. Two low-volume air samplers were collocated with the real-time monitors for all monitoring events except those in the break room and during in-flight activities. Total PAH concentrations in the integrated-air samples followed a general trend: downwind from two AGE units > ERO-loading exercise > four-engine run-up test > maintenance hangar during taxi and takeoff > background measurements in maintenance hangar. Each PAH profile was dominated by naphthalene, the alkyl-substituted naphthalenes, and other PAHs expected to be in the vapor phase. We also found particle-bound PAHs, such as fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene in some of the sample extracts. During flight-related exercises, total PAH concentrations in the integrated-air samples were 10-25 times higher than those commonly found in ambient air. Real-time monitor mean responses generally followed the integrated-air sample trends. These monitors provided a semiquantitative temporal profile of ambient PAH concentrations and showed that PAH concentrations can fluctuate rapidly from a baseline level < 20 to > 4,000 ng/m(3) during flight-related activities. Small handheld models of the PAS monitors exhibited potential for assessing incidental personal exposure to particle-bound PAHs in engine exhaust and for serving as a real-time dosimeter to indicate when respiratory protection is advisable. PMID:11017890

Childers, J W; Witherspoon, C L; Smith, L B; Pleil, J D

2000-01-01

257

Effects of progestagen exposure duration on estrus synchronization and conception rates of crossbreed ewes undergoing fixed time artificial insemination  

PubMed Central

Synchronization of estrus and ovulation are of paramount importance in modern livestock improvement programs. These methods are critical for assisted reproduction technologies, including artificial insemination and embryo transfer, that can increase productivity. In the current study, subcutaneous implants containing norgestomet were placed for long (14 days), medium (9 days), and short (5 days) periods of time in 70 crossbred ewes undergoing fixed-time artificial insemination. The resulting effects on estrus synchronization and conception rates were subsequently evaluated. Among the synchronized ewes, 85.7% (60/70) underwent estrus over a period of 72 h after progestagen treatment ceased. The shortest mean interval between withdrawal of the device and onset of estrus (34.2 ± 8.9 h) was observed in the G14 days of P4 group (p < 0.05). The conception rate of the G14 days of P4 group was statistically higher than that of the other groups (83.3% vs. 60.9% vs. 47.8%; p < 0.05). In conclusion, 14 days of norgestomet treatment produced higher conception rates and a greater number of pregnancies at the beginning of the breeding season. PMID:24962414

Blaschi, Wanessa; Lunardelli, Paula A.; Marinho, Luciana S.R.; Max, Marilu C.; Santos, Gustavo M.G.; Silva-Santos, Katia C.; Melo-Sterza, Fabiana A.; Baldassarre, Hernan; Rigo, Thales R.

2014-01-01

258

Time-response relationships for the accumulation of Cu, Ni and Zn by seven-spotted ladybirds (Coccinella septempunctata L.) under conditions of single and combined metal exposure.  

PubMed

Accumulation, and therefore toxicity, of trace metals in invertebrates may be affected by potential interactive effects that can occur amongst different metallic elements. However, there is little data on the nature and effects of such interactions in terrestrial systems. This work reports the interactions among Cu, Ni and Zn during accumulation by the beetle Coccinella septempunctata. Test animals were treated with 500mgkg(-1) of each metal singularly and in combination for 15d. The effects of treatment with a single metal had no effect on the baseline concentrations of the other two. Time-response relationships for Cu and Ni after treatment with one metal were curvilinear, demonstrating that the metals were initially accumulated, but after ?8d regulatory mechanisms became effective. This resulted in decreasing concentrations in test animals despite continued treatment. In contrast, the time-response relationship for Zn was linear. Treatment with metals in combination markedly altered the time-response relationships with all three metals showing a linear trend and the slope of the Zn relationship increasing significantly. After 15d of exposure this had the effect of increasing the metal concentration in animals exposed in combination compared to those exposed singularly by 144% to 38.3mgkg(-1) for Cu, 141% to 27.5mgkg(-1) for Ni and 55% to 311mgkg(-1) for Zn. For all metals, differences amongst treatments were significant, indicating that inter-element interactions can enhance the concentration of trace metals in C. septempunctata. PMID:23810517

Green, I D; Walmsley, K

2013-09-01

259

Acute nose-only exposure of rats to phosgene. Part I: concentration x time dependence of LC50s, nonlethal-threshold concentrations, and analysis of breathing patterns.  

PubMed

Groups of young adult Wistar rats were acutely exposed to phosgene gas using a directed-flow nose-only mode of exposure. The exposure durations used were 10, 30, 60, and 240 min and the corresponding C x t products bracketed a range from 1538 to 2854 mg/m3 x min. The postexposure period was 2 wk. Subgroups of rats were subjected to respiratory function measurements. With few exceptions, mortality occurred within 24 h after exposure. The median lethal concentration (LC50) and the estimated nonlethal threshold concentrations (LC01) for 10, 30, 60, and 240 min were 253.3 (105.3), 54.5 (29.2), 31.3 (21.1), and 8.6 (5.3) mg/m3, respectively. With regard to the fixed outcome Cn x t product, the exponent n was found to be approximately 0.9 for both the LC50 and the LC01. Due to an apparent rodent-specific transient depression in ventilation, results from 10-min exposures were excluded for the calculation of average C x t products. The average LCt50 (and confidence interval 95%) and LCt01 were 1741 (1547-1929) mg/m3 x min and 1075 mg/m3 x min, respectively, with a LCt50/LCt01 ratio of 1.6. Respiratory function measurements revealed an increased apnea time (AT), which is typical for lower respiratory tract irritants. This response was associated with transiently decreased respiratory minute volumes. Borderline, although distinct, changes in AT occurred at 1.2 x 30 mg/m3 x min and above, which did not show evidence of recovery during a 30-min postexposure period at 47.6 x 30 mg/m3 x min and above. In an ancillary study, one group of rats was exposed to 1008 mg/m3 x min (at 4.2 mg/m3 for 240 min; postexposure period 4 wk). Emphasis was on the time course of nonlethal endpoints (bronchoalveolar lavage, BAL) and histopathology of the lungs of rats sacrificed at the end of the 4-wk postexposure period. The climax of BAL protein was on the first postexposure day and exceeded approximately 70 times the control without causing mortality. The changes in BAL protein resolved within 2 wk. Histopathology did not show evidence of lung remodeling or progressive, potentially irreversible changes 4 wk postexposure. In summary, the analysis of the C x t dependent mortality revealed a steep C x t mortality relationship. The C x t product in the range of the nonlethal threshold concentration (1008 mg/m3 x min) caused pulmonary injury as indicated by markedly increased protein in BAL. Changes resolved almost entirely within the 4-wk postexposure period. PMID:16556582

Pauluhn, Jürgen

2006-05-01

260

Time-Course of Changes in Inflammatory Response after Whole-Body Cryotherapy Multi Exposures following Severe Exercise  

PubMed Central

The objectives of the present investigation was to analyze the effect of two different recovery modalities on classical markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and inflammation obtained after a simulated trail running race. Endurance trained males (n?=?11) completed two experimental trials separated by 1 month in a randomized crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS), the other a specific whole body cryotherapy (WBC) for 96 h post-exercise (repeated each day). For each trial, subjects performed a 48 min running treadmill exercise followed by PAS or WBC. The Interleukin (IL) -1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), protein C-reactive (CRP) and white blood cells count were measured at rest, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, 96 h in post-exercise recovery. A significant time effect was observed to characterize an inflammatory state (Pre vs. Post) following the exercise bout in all conditions (p<0.05). Indeed, IL-1? (Post 1 h) and CRP (Post 24 h) levels decreased and IL-1ra (Post 1 h) increased following WBC when compared to PAS. In WBC condition (p<0.05), TNF-?, IL-10 and IL-6 remain unchanged compared to PAS condition. Overall, the results indicated that the WBC was effective in reducing the inflammatory process. These results may be explained by vasoconstriction at muscular level, and both the decrease in cytokines activity pro-inflammatory, and increase in cytokines anti-inflammatory. PMID:21829501

Pournot, Hervé; Bieuzen, François; Louis, Julien; Fillard, Jean-Robert; Barbiche, Etienne; Hausswirth, Christophe

2011-01-01

261

Impairment of Rat Fetal Beta-Cell Development by Maternal Exposure to Dexamethasone during Different Time-Windows  

PubMed Central

Aim Glucocorticoids (GCs) take part in the direct control of cell lineage during the late phase of pancreas development when endocrine and exocrine cell differentiation occurs. However, other tissues such as the vasculature exert a critical role before that phase. This study aims to investigate the consequences of overexposure to exogenous glucocorticoids during different time-windows of gestation for the development of the fetal endocrine pancreas. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats received dexamethasone acetate in their drinking water (1 µg/ml) during the last week or throughout gestation. Fetuses and their pancreases were analyzed at day 15 and 21 of gestation. Morphometrical analysis was performed on pancreatic sections after immunohistochemistry techniques and insulin secretion was evaluated on fetal islets collected in vitro. Results Dexamethasone given the last week or throughout gestation reduced the beta-cell mass in 21-day-old fetuses by respectively 18% or 62%. This was accompanied by a defect in insulin secretion. The alpha-cell mass was reduced similarly. Neither islet vascularization nor beta-cell proliferation was affected when dexamethasone was administered during the last week, which was however the case when given throughout gestation. When given from the beginning of gestation, dexamethasone reduced the number of cells expressing the early marker of endocrine lineage neurogenin-3 when analyzed at 15 days of fetal age. Conclusions GCs reduce the beta- and alpha-cell mass by different mechanisms according to the stage of development during which the treatment was applied. In fetuses exposed to glucocorticoids the last week of gestation only, beta-cell mass is reduced due to impairment of beta-cell commitment, whereas in fetuses exposed throughout gestation, islet vascularization and lower beta-cell proliferation are involved as well, amplifying the reduction of the endocrine mass. PMID:21991320

Dumortier, Olivier; Theys, Nicolas; Ahn, Marie-Thérèse; Remacle, Claude; Reusens, Brigitte

2011-01-01

262

10Be exposure dating of onset and timing of Neoglacial glacier advances in the Ecrins massif, French Alps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpine glaciers are known to be highly sensitive to change in temperature and precipitation on decadal to centennial time scales. For two decades, numerous studies on Holocene climate revealed a period marked by abrupt cold reversals (e.g. 8.2 ka event) with increasing frequency and magnitude after the Holocene Climatic Optimum, during the so-called Neoglacial period (roughly the last 4 ka). State-of-the-art studies indicate that largest alpine glaciers failed to exceed their Little Ice Age (LIA) extent during these LIA Type-Events, unlike certain smaller glaciers. In the French Alps, very few investigations were conducted to date on Holocene glacier variability. Almost all studies focused on the most glacierized area: the Mont Blanc massif, where suitable organic remains to apply radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology are available. Other glacierized massifs are poorly studied, without any Holocene/Neoglacial glacier chronology up to now. Here, we present the results of a study focusing on six glacier forefields distributed in the Ecrins massif. Detailed geomorphological mapping and in-situ produced 10Be dating were carried on multi-crested so-called "LIA composite moraines". The targeted ridges are located in distal position with respect to late LIA drift in order to identify Holocene cold pulses that have led to (or slightly exceeded) LIA-like glacier extent. The 35 10Be ages obtained revealed that the onset of Neoglacial occurred at ~4.2 ka, and that at least two other advances were recorded at ~3.3 ka and ~0.85 ka. One site has yielded a nearly complete Neoglacial record as four discrete events have been dated. These results highlight the potential of lateral moraine ridge stratigraphy which could yield accurate record when sufficiently preserved, but also the different preservation of landforms along the glacier margin which could censor the record.

Le Roy, Melaine; Deline, Philip; Carcaillet, Julien

2013-04-01

263

HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT USING IMMUNOASSAY  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Exposure Research Laboratory-Las Vegas is developing analytical methods for human exposure assessment studies. Critical exposure studies generate a large number of samples which must be analyzed in a reliable, cost-effective and timely manner. TCP (3,5,6-trichlor...

264

Times of impacts that deliver samples of Vesta to Earth derived from ultrasensitive 81Kr-Kr cosmic ray exposure age analysis of Eucrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations and isotopic compositions of krypton have been measured in Eucrite falls using a new resonance ionization mass-spectrometer (RIMSKI). The high sensitivity of the apparatus allowed sample sizes to be reduced to 1-4 mg for 81Kr-Kr cosmic ray exposure age determination. 81Kr CRE ages have been determined for: Bereba, Bouvante, Ibitira, Juvinas, Millbillillie, Padvarninkai, Pasamonte and Stannern with precision comparable to those reported by other groups for analyses of >100 times larger samples. The 81Kr-Kr CRE ages of Lakangaon (25.3 ± 1.1 My) and Bunburra Rockhole (27.6 ± 1.4 My) have been determined for the first time. The 81Kr CRE ages of 16 out of 17 ordinary Eucrite falls can be grouped into clusters at 10.6 ± 0.4 Ma, 14.4 ± 0.6 My, 21.7 ± 0.4 My, 25.4 ± 0.4 My, 37.8 ± 0.6 My using an analysis based on the Akaike information criterion, which is well suited to addressing such issues. This shows that most of the meteorites originate from five collision events over the last ˜50 My, which is hard to reconcile with models requiring multiple fragmentation events between Vesta and Earth.

Strashnov, I.; Bland, P. A.; Spurný, P.; Towner, M. C.; Gilmour, J. D.

2013-04-01

265

Advanced Exposure Metrics For Chemical Risk Analysis: Systems Biology and 'Omic-based Biomarkers for Exposure Reconstruction  

EPA Science Inventory

Direct measurement of human exposure to environmental contaminants in real time (when the exposure is actually occurring) is rare and difficult to obtain. This frustrates both exposure assessments and investigations into the linkage between chemical exposure and human disease. ...

266

Environmental Exposures and Development  

PubMed Central

Structured Abstract Purpose of Review Summarize recent studies exploring the relationship between paternal and maternal environmental exposures to chemicals before, at the time of and after conception to adverse developmental outcomes including; preterm birth, death, structural and functional abnormalities and growth restriction. Recent Findings Recent studies have demonstrated that human pregnancy and development is vulnerable to environmental exposures of the father and mother to chemical, biological and physical agents. Exposures associated with adverse developmental outcomes include; air and water pollution, chemicals in foods, occupational exposures, agricultural chemicals, metals, persistent and volatile organics. Developmental endpoints which are linked with these exposures include; growth restriction, functional abnormalities, structural abnormalities, preterm delivery and death. Despite this general understanding we still have incomplete knowledge concerning most exposures and the biological interactions responsible for impaired development and preterm delivery. Summary While single genes and individual chemical exposures are responsible for some instances of adverse pregnancy outcome or developmental disease, gene-environment interactions are responsible for the majority. These gene-environment interactions may occur in the father, mother, placenta or fetus suggesting that critical attention be given to maternal and paternal exposures and gene expression as they relate to the mode of action of the putative developmental toxicant both prior to and during pregnancy. PMID:20216314

Mattison, Donald R.

2010-01-01

267

Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field measurements in The Netherlands: exposure level and variability for everyday activities, times of day and types of area.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields is necessary for epidemiological studies on possible health effects. The main goal of this study is to determine the exposure level and spatial and temporal variances during 39 everyday activities in 12 frequency bands used in mobile telecommunication and broadcasting. Therefore, 24 h measurements were gathered from 98 volunteers living in or near Amsterdam and Purmerend, The Netherlands. They carried an activity diary to be kept to the minute, a GPS logger sampling at an interval of 1 s, and an EME Spy exposimeter with a detection limit of 0.0066 mW/m(2) sampling at an interval of 10s in 12 frequency bands. The mean exposure over 24 h, excluding own mobile phone use, was 0.180 mW/m(2). During daytime exposure was about the same, but during night it was about half, and in the evening it was about twice as high. The main contribution to environmental exposure (calling by participant not included) is from calling with mobile phones (37.5%), from cordless DECT phones and their docking stations (31.7%), and from the base stations (12.7%). The exposure to mobile phone base stations increases with the percentage of urban ground use, which is an indication for high people density. In agreement, the highest mean exposure relates to the activities with high people density, such as travelling by public transport, visiting social events, pubs or shopping malls. Exposure at home depends mainly on exposure from people calling in the neighbourhood of the participant and thus on the number of persons in a household. In addition just the possession of DECT docking stations leads to exposure as most models transmit continuously in stand-by. Also wireless internet routers continuously transmit in the WiFi band. Though the highest exposure peaks in the WiFi band, up to 0.265 W/m(2), come from stray radiation of microwave ovens. The mean total exposure largely depends on phone calls of a high exposure level and short duration. These calls lead to potentially high contrasts as well in exposure levels between sessions of the same activity as between persons, thus posing a challenge for personal exposure prediction. PMID:22906414

Bolte, John F B; Eikelboom, Tessa

2012-11-01

268

The effects of different intensities, frequencies and exposure times of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7.  

PubMed

Abstract The impact of different types of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7 was investigated. The cultures of bacteria in broth media were exposed to sinusoidal homogenous ELF-EMF with 2 and 4?mT magnetic intensities. Each intensity for each bacteria was combined with three different frequencies (20, 40 and 50?Hz), and four different exposure times (1, 2, 4 and 6?h). A cell suspension of each experiment was diluted for the appropriate range and inoculated to Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA) plates after exposure to ELF-EMF. The number of colony forming units (CFU) of both strains was obtained after incubation at 37?°C for 24?h. Data were statistically evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), statistical significance was described at p?exposure time of ELF-EMFs changed the characteristic responses for both microorganisms. Samples exposed to ELF-EMF showed a statistically significant decrease compared to their controls in colony forming capability, especially at long exposure times. An exposure to 4?mT-20?Hz ELF-EMF of 6?h produced maximum inhibition of CFU compared to their controls for both microorganisms (95.2% for S. aureus and 85% for E. coli). PMID:24279632

Bay?r, Ece; Bilgi, Eyüp; ?endemir-Ürkmez, Aylin; Hame?-Kocaba?, E Esin

2015-03-01

269

The Size and Distribution of Midbrain Dopaminergic Populations are Permanently Altered by Perinatal Glucocorticoid Exposure in a Sex Region and Time-Specific Manner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central dopaminergic (DA) systems appear to be particularly vulnerable to disruption by exposure to stressors in early life, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. As endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) are implicated in other aspects of neurobiological programming, this study aimed to characterize the effects of perinatal GC exposure on the cytoarchitecture of DA populations in the substantia nigra pars compacta

Simon McArthur; Emily McHale; Glenda E Gillies

2007-01-01

270

Design, Characterization, and Optimization of a Broadband Mini Exposure Chamber for Studying Catecholamine Release From Chromaffin Cells Exposed to Microwave Radiation: Finite-Difference Time-Domain Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

A free-space in vitro exposure system for identifying specific microwave (MW) parameters in the frequency range of 1-6 GHz that can induce nonthermal effects on exocytosis, which is the process by which neurotransmitter release occurs, has been designed, constructed, characterized, and optimized. The exposure system is placed within an anechoic chamber and incorporates continuous online monitoring of basal and stimulated

Jihwan Yoon; I. Chatterjee; D. McPherson; G. L. Craviso

2006-01-01

271

A tiered approach combining the short time exposure (STE) test and the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) assay for predicting eye irritation potential of chemicals.  

PubMed

For the evaluation of eye irritation, one in vitro alternative test may not completely replace the Draize test. Therefore, a tiered approach combining several in vitro assays, including cytotoxicity assays, is proposed in order to estimate the eye irritation potential of a wide range of chemical classes. The Short Time Exposure (STE) test, a relatively newer alternative eye irritation test, involves exposing Statens seruminstitut rabbit cornea (SIRC) cells for 5 min to two concentrations (5% and 0.05%) of test material. In the present study, we examined the predictive capacity of a tiered approach analyzing the results from the STE test and then the results of the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) assay for assessing globally harmonized system (GHS) eye irritation rankings of various chemicals. The accuracy of predicting the GHS rankings was slightly improved when the tiered approach combination of STE test and BCOP assay was used compared to when the STE test irritation rank classification was used alone. Moreover, the under prediction rate was substantially improved when this tiered approach was used. From these results, the tiered approach of combining the data analysis of the STE test and BCOP assay might be a promising alternative eye irritation test strategy. PMID:22467017

Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Mori, Taeko; Abo, Takayuki; Koike, Mirei; Takahashi, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Nishiyama, Naohiro

2012-01-01

272

Occupational exposure in MRI  

PubMed Central

This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s?1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

Mcrobbie, D W

2012-01-01

273

Military Exposures  

MedlinePLUS

... Wars & Operations Exposure Categories A-Z Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects ... Veterans Health Initiative Veterans Health Initiative Home Agent Orange Gulf War Infectious Diseases of Southwest Asia War ...

274

Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a teacher gives their time to a student, it is more significant to that student than anything else one could do for him or her. Music teachers deal with time all the time. Someone once said that "time is like money: we never have enough." This may seem true; however, time is not like money. One can make more money, but one cannot "make time."…

Circle, David

2005-01-01

275

Retention and Concept Identification as Functions of Concept Complexity, Method of Presentation, Stimulus Exposure Time, and Conditions of Recall. Report from the Project on Situational Variables and Efficiency of Concept Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments investigated concept identification and recall of information as a function of four selected variables: concept complexity, method of instance presentation, stimulus exposure time, and conditions of recall. In all three experiments, retention was measured by the recall of instance values and the recall of instance categories. The…

Miller, Gerald W.; Davis, J. Kent

276

DEVELOPMENT OF REAL-TIME SITE-SPECIFIC MICROSCALE EMISSION FACTOR MODEL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO MOTOR VEHICLE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Expsoure Research Laboratory (NERL) has initiated a project to improve the methodology for modeling urban-scale human exposure to mobile source emissions. The modeling project has started by considering the nee...

277

Effects of Prenatal Exposure to a Low Dose Atrazine Metabolite Mixture on pubertal timing and prostrate Development of Male Long Evans Rats.  

EPA Science Inventory

The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and d...

278

Time Course of Inhibition of Cholinesterase and Aliesterase Activities, and Nonprotein Sulfhydryl Levels Following Exposure to Organophosphorus Insecticides in Mosquitofish ( Gambusia affinis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholinesterase (ChE) in brain and muscle was quickly inhibited during a 48-hrin vivoexposure to chlorpyrifos (0.1 ppm), parathion (0.15 ppm), and methyl parathion (8 ppm) in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). ChE remained inhibited during a 96-hr nonexposure period. Brain ChE reached peak inhibition by 12 hr after exposure to parathion and chlorpyrifos and by 4 hr after exposure to methyl parathion.

J. Scott Boone; Janice E. Chambers

1996-01-01

279

Gut-Homing Conventional Plasmablasts and CD27? Plasmablasts Elicited after a Short Time of Exposure to an Oral Live-Attenuated Shigella Vaccine Candidate in Humans  

PubMed Central

Currently, there is no licensed Shigella vaccine; however, various promising live-attenuated vaccine candidates have emerged, including CVD1208S (?guaBA, ?set, ?sen S. flexneri 2a), which was shown to be safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 clinical trials. Here, we report the immune responses elicited in an outpatient Phase 2 clinical trial in which subjects were vaccinated with CVD 1208S. Oral immunization with CVD 1208S elicited high anti-S. flexneri 2a LPS and IpaB antibody responses as well as an acute plasmablast (PB) infiltration in peripheral blood 7?days after immunization. PB sorted based on their expression of homing molecules confirmed that cells expressing integrin ?4?7 alone or in combination with CD62L were responsible for antibody production (as measured by ELISpot). Furthermore, using high-color flow-cytometry, on day 7 after immunization, we observed the appearance of conventional PB (CPB, CD19dim CD20? CD27+high CD38+high CD3?), as well as a PB population that did not express CD27 (CD27? PB; pre-plasmablasts). The pattern of individual or simultaneous expression of homing markers (integrin ?4?7, CD62L, CXCR3, and CXCR4) suggested that CPB cells homed preferentially to the inflamed gut mucosa. In contrast, ~50% CD27? PB cells appear to home to yet to be identified peripheral lymphoid organs or were in a transition state preceding integrin ?4?7 upregulation. In sum, these observations demonstrate that strong immune responses, including distinct PB subsets with the potential to home to the gut and other secondary lymphoid organs, can be elicited after a short time of exposure to a shigella oral vaccine. PMID:25191323

Toapanta, Franklin R.; Simon, Jakub K.; Barry, Eileen M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

2014-01-01

280

Source identification of ambient PM 2.5 for inhalation exposure studies in Steubenville, Ohio using highly time-resolved measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent epidemiological and toxicological studies have suggested that short-term elevations of ambient fine particle mass concentrations (aerodynamic diameter <2.5 ?m, PM 2.5) can increase cardiac and pulmonary health risks. Thus, examining temporal variations of chemical changes in ambient PM 2.5 that could pose the greatest health risks and identifying its sources is critical so that the most toxic categories can be controlled. In this study we collected detailed air quality data in Steubenville, Ohio in August 2006 with the ultimate goal to evaluate associations between cardiovascular (CV) parameters measured in exposed laboratory animals and the chemical and elemental composition of PM 2.5. Current approaches using radiotelemetry to measure CV parameters in conscious laboratory animals are capable of collecting continuous recordings. To provide a robust and analogous dataset that can be better matched with CV responses, we have incorporated a highly time-resolved sampling method to characterize trace elements and thereby obtain more robust input data to determine potential emission sources. We applied positive matrix factorization (PMF) to trace element concentrations from 30-minute ambient PM 2.5 samples in Steubenville, Ohio, an area designated as a non-attainment area for the PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards by the Environmental Protection Agency. The average ambient PM 2.5 filter-based mass concentration during the 8-hour summer exposure study period was 26 ± 11 ?g m -3. Results from PMF indicated that six major factors contributed to the ambient PM 2.5 mass during this time: coal combustion/secondary (39 ± 46%), mobile sources (12 ± 14%), metal coating/processing (10 ± 11%), iron and steel manufacturing (5 ± 5%), Pb factor (5 ± 8%), and incineration/smelting (1 ± 3%). The objectives of this paper are (1) to present chemical composition of ambient PM 2.5 and its potential emission sources in Steubenville; and (2) to evaluate the PMF modeling results using observed meteorological data. These semi-continuous sampling approaches to determine potential emission sources have significant advantages over similar analyses using samples averaged over 8-24 h, and are being utilized by our group to determine associations of PM with acute CV responses from animal inhalation toxicology field studies.

Morishita, Masako; Keeler, Gerald J.; Kamal, Ali S.; Wagner, James G.; Harkema, Jack R.; Rohr, Annette C.

2011-12-01

281

EXPOSURE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This proceedings chapter will discuss the state-of-the-science regarding the evaluation of exposure as it relates to water quality criteria (WQC), sediment quality guidelines (SQG), and wildlife criteria (WC). Throughout this discussion, attempts are made to identify the methods ...

282

HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELING: CONCEPTS, METHODS, AND TOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Understanding human exposure is critical when estimating the occurrence of deleterious effects that could follow contact with environmental contaminants. For many pollutants, the intensity, duration, frequency, route, and timing of exposure is highly variable, particularly whe...

283

ASSESSING ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS AND THE POTENTIAL INHALED DOSES USING TIME ACTIVITY INFORMATION AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurately quantifying human exposures and the potential doses of various populations to environmental pollutants is critical for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to assess and manage human health risks. The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research stu...

284

Altered gene expression by low-dose arsenic exposure in humans and cultured cardiomyocytes: Assessment by real-time PCR array  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenic contamination in drinking water has become a great public health concern worldwide. Chronic arsenic exposure results in higher risk of skin, lung and bladder cancer, as well as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects o...

285

ATTENUATION OF STATISTICAL RELATIONSHIPS FROM PM COMMUNITY TIME-SERIES EPIDEMIOLOGY DUE TO USE OF COMBINED, RATHER THAN SEPARATE, INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE AND MORTALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Attenuation of the statistical relationships between PM and health outcomes may arise from 1) combining exposure indicators, e.g., PM10 instead of PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 or 2) from combining different types of mortality. The Phoenix, AZ data base on air quality offers an opportunity...

286

Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture onpubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats  

EPA Science Inventory

Atrazine (ATR) is a chlorotriazine herbicide extensively used in the US and other countries. Studies examining the effects of adult or developmental ATR exposure on the mammary gland (MG) have used either the Sprague Dawley (SD) or Long-Evans (LE) rat, but no strain comparisons h...

287

Effects of short time-course exposure to antiandrogen flutamide on steroidogenesis and gene expression in ovary of female fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)  

EPA Science Inventory

Because the mechanisms through which antiandrogens disrupt reproduction in fish are not well-characterized, this work sought to identify genes and pathways affected by antiandrogen exposure, and to compare differentially expressed genes in the fathead minnow to those previously r...

288

Social Competence in Children at Risk Due to Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: Continuity over Time and Associations with Cognitive and Language Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The continuity of social competence between 36 months and first grade was examined in a sample of children at risk due to prenatal exposure to cocaine (N = 92). Parent report data on social competence were collected at 36 months of age and both parent and teacher report data were collected when children were in first grade. Regression analyses…

Acra, C. Francoise; Bono, Katherine E.; Mundy, Peter C.; Scott, Keith G.

2009-01-01

289

Radiation Risk from Chronic Low Dose-Rate Radiation Exposures: The Role of Life-Time Animal Studies - Workshop October 2005  

SciTech Connect

As a part of Radiation research conference, a workshop was held on life-long exposure studies conducted in the course of irradiation experiements done at Argonne National Laboratory between 1952-1992. A recent review article documents many of the issues discussed at that workshop.

Gayle Woloschak

2009-12-16

290

BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO SPE EXPOSURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been recognized that a single solar particle event (SPE) can produce, over a short period of time, exposures on the order of LD50 for humans under normal physiological conditions. It is further recognized that recovery from injury over the period of exposure would greatly increase the chances of survival (dose rate effects) although such effects were left

J. W. Wilson; F. A. Cucinotta; M. Kim; J. L. Shinn; T. D. Jones; C. K. Chang

1998-01-01

291

Exposure control for HDR video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes an algorithm for determining the exposure times for High Dynamic Range (HDR) video by adapting them to the current lighting. Due to the limited capability of the sensor used, only two exposures per frame can be taken. For each image, the histogram for the exposure time of the other image is estimated. When this histogram is subtracted from the original, the result can be used to adjust the exposure time to the current lighting situation by standard exposure control algorithms. The subtraction removes the dynamic range already covered by the other image, thus the exposure time can be optimized for the residual dynamic range. The algorithm has been compared with state-of-the-art algorithms for HDR imaging. It is proven to have comparable results in mean squared error to a ground truth gained from real-world data. Furthermore this algorithm is capable of running during the capturing process of a video, since it doesn't require additional exposures than those already taken.

Bürker, M.; Rößing, C.; Lensch, H. P. A.

2014-05-01

292

SOURCES AND PATHWAYS OF LEAD EXPOSURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure is defined here as the amount of a substance that comes into contact with an absorbing surface during a specified period of time. The normal units of exposure are expressed as micrograms per day. The two components of exposure are the concentration of the substance in ...

293

Assessment of Physical Education Time and After-School Outdoor Time in Elementary and Middle School Students in South Mexico City: The Dilemma between Physical Fitness and the Adverse Health Effects of Outdoor Pollutant Exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategies to promote lifelong physical activity among children are needed to stem the adverse health consequences of inactivity. However, the health effects in growing children of long-term exposure to a polluted atmosphere are of deep concern. The atmosphere of south Mexico City (SMC) is characterized by a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Radiological evidence

Anna Villarreal-Calderón; Hilda Acuña; Jessica Villarreal-Calderón; MÓnica Garduño; Carlos F. Henríquez-Roldán; Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas; Gildardo Valencia-Salazar

2002-01-01

294

For partner services, do we need "face-time," or FaceTime?: Trends in relative proportion of in-person notifications and HIV testing after introduction of a telephone option for HIV exposure notification by public health.  

PubMed

Public health usually notifies partners of STD exposure in-person despite availability of other options. We examined trends in in-person versus telephone notification for HIV 3 years after the introduction of a telephone option. Most notifications were made by telephone. Partners notified doubled; however, the proportion HIV testing declined slightly. PMID:25299414

Udeagu, Chi-Chi N; Bocour, Angelica; Shepard, Colin W

2014-11-01

295

Personal carbon monoxide exposure in Helsinki, Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Personal exposure concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) were measured for the adult urban population of Helsinki, Finland, as part of the multi-centre European EXPOLIS study. The arithmetic mean of the 48 h average personal CO exposure concentration was 1.3 mg m -3 for participants not exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and 1.6 mg m -3 for those exposed to ETS at any time and in any microenvironment. The maximum 8 and 1 h exposure values were 2.0 and 2.6 mg m -3, and 4.3 and 5.7 mg m -3, respectively. As tobacco smoke is one of the major sources of CO, therefore the personal mean exposures of ETS participants were higher than the non-ETS participants for all averaging times. The long- and short-term personal exposures were higher in winter than in summer for all participants. In order to analyse in more detail the correlation between the time-activity patterns and exposure levels, cluster analysis was performed using 24 h personal exposure profiles of 1 h moving averages. The results showed clearly that the major source of CO for non-ETS exposed participants are traffic emissions. The majority of the diurnal exposure profiles showed two notable exposure peaks corresponding to the morning and evening traffic rush hours. The time spent in street traffic was the most relevant factor for describing the short-term personal exposures. The more time was spent commuting by car the higher were the exposures. The long-term exposure levels were linked both to the time spent commuting and home location. People living in low-traffic suburban areas and working in downtown spent more time commuting and ended up experiencing similar long-term exposure levels than people who lived in heavy-traffic downtown areas, but spent little time commuting. For ETS exposed participants the personal exposure profiles were dominated by both tobacco smoke and traffic emissions.

Scotto di Marco, Greta; Kephalopoulos, Stylianos; Ruuskanen, Juhani; Jantunen, Matti

296

Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields  

SciTech Connect

The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

Miller, G.

1987-12-01

297

Dynamic effects of free chlorine concentration, organic load, and exposure time on the inactivation of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the dynamic effects of free-chlorine (FC) concentration, contact time, and organic load on the inactivation of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in suspension. Bacterial cells from four strains each of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC were inoculated separately or as a multistrain cocktail into solutions with varying FC concentrations. Lettuce or tomato extract was used to simulate the organic matter present during commercial fresh and fresh-cut produce wash operations. After exposure to FC for various lengths of time, the bacterial survival and water-quality changes were determined. In the absence of organic matter in a wash solution, pathogen inactivation is primarily a function of initial FC concentration (P < 0.0001), exposure time (P < 0.0001), and pathogen strains (P < 0.0001). In general, an over 4.5-log CFU/ml pathogen reduction was found after exposure to >0.5 mg/liter FC for over 30 s, or to >1.0 mg/liter FC for over 5 s. When the combination of FC concentration and contact time were less than or equal to the above conditions, survival of pathogens was strain dependant and ranked as: Salmonella > E. coli O157:H7 > non-O157 STEC. When organic matter was present in the wash solution, pathogen inactivation efficacy was specifically dependent on the residual FC concentration, which directly relates to both the initial FC concentration and the organic load. Prevention of pathogen survival in chlorinated produce wash solutions can be achieved by maintaining sufficient FC concentration and reducing the accumulation of organic matter. PMID:23462074

Shen, Cangliang; Luo, Yaguang; Nou, Xiangwu; Wang, Qin; Millner, Patricia

2013-03-01

298

Effects of prenatal exposure to a low dose atrazine metabolite mixture on pubertal timing and prostate development of male Long-Evans rats  

SciTech Connect

The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were treated by gavage with 0.09, 0.87, or 8.73 mg AMM/kg body weight (BW), vehicle, or 100 mg ATR/kg BW positive control, on gestation days 15 19. Preputial separation was significantly delayed in 0.87 mg and 8.73 mg AMM-exposed males. AMM-exposed males demonstrated a significant treatment-related increase in incidence and severity of inflammation in the prostate on postnatal day (PND) 120. A dose-dependent increase in epididymal fat masses and prostate foci were grossly visible in AMM-exposed offspring. These results indicate that a short, late prenatal exposure to mixture of chlorotriazine metabolites can cause chronic prostatitis in male LE rats. The mode of action for these effects is presently unclear.

Stanko, Jason [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Enoch, Rolondo [North Carolina Central University, Durham; Rayner, Jennifer L [ORNL; Davis, Christine [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Wolf, Douglas [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Malarkey, David [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Fenton, Suzanne [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS)

2010-12-01

299

A Systems Biology Approach Reveals the Dose- and Time-Dependent Effect of Primary Human Airway Epithelium Tissue Culture After Exposure to Cigarette Smoke In Vitro  

PubMed Central

To establish a relevant in vitro model for systems toxicology-based mechanistic assessment of environmental stressors such as cigarette smoke (CS), we exposed human organotypic bronchial epithelial tissue cultures at the air liquid interface (ALI) to various CS doses. Previously, we compared in vitro gene expression changes with published human airway epithelia in vivo data to assess their similarities. Here, we present a follow-up evaluation of these in vitro transcriptomics data, using complementary computational approaches and an integrated mRNA–microRNA (miRNA) analysis. The main cellular pathways perturbed by CS exposure were related to stress responses (oxidative stress and xenobiotic metabolism), inflammation (inhibition of nuclear factor-?B and the interferon gamma-dependent pathway), and proliferation/differentiation. Within post-exposure periods up to 48 hours, a transient kinetic response was observed at lower CS doses, whereas higher doses resulted in more sustained responses. In conclusion, this systems toxicology approach has potential for product testing according to “21st Century Toxicology”. PMID:25788831

Mathis, Carole; Gebel, Stephan; Poussin, Carine; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Sewer, Alain; Weisensee, Dirk; Hengstermann, Arnd; Ansari, Sam; Wagner, Sandra; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

2015-01-01

300

Contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in breast milk in Korea: time-course variation, influencing factors, and exposure assessment.  

PubMed

Breast milk is a noninvasive specimen to assess maternal and infant exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). In this study, 206 breast milk samples were collected from 87 participants during lactation, at <7, 15, 30, or 90 days postpartum in four cities in Korea. The total concentrations of PCBs (?PCB) and OCPs (?OCP) ranged from exposure of Korean infants to chlordanes via breast milk had a potential health risk which deserves further investigation. PMID:24112654

Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, In-Seok; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

2013-11-01

301

Effects of Prenatal Exposure to a Low Dose Atrazine Metabolite Mixture on Pubertal Timing and Prostate Development of Male Long Evans Rats  

PubMed Central

The present study examines the postnatal reproductive development of male rats following prenatal exposure to an atrazine metabolite mixture (AMM) consisting of the herbicide atrazine and its environmental metabolites diaminochlorotriazine, hydroxyatrazine, deethylatrazine, and deisopropylatrazine. Pregnant Long Evans rats were treated by gavage with 0.09, 0.87, or 8.73 mg AMM/kg body weight (BW), vehicle, or 100 mg ATR/kg BW positive control, on gestation days 15-19. Preputial separation was significantly delayed in 0.87 mg and 8.73 mg AMM-exposed males. AMM-exposed males demonstrated a significant treatment-related increase in incidence and severity of inflammation in the prostate on postnatal day (PND) 120. A dose-dependent increase in epididymal fat masses and prostate foci were grossly visible in AMM-exposed offspring. These results indicate that a short, late prenatal exposure to mixture of chlorotriazine metabolites can cause chronic prostatitis in male LE rats. The mode of action for these effects is presently unclear. PMID:20727709

Stanko, Jason P.; Enoch, Rolondo R.; Rayner, Jennifer L.; Davis, Christine C.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Malarkey, David E.; Fenton, Suzanne E.

2010-01-01

302

A systems biology approach reveals the dose- and time-dependent effect of primary human airway epithelium tissue culture after exposure to cigarette smoke in vitro.  

PubMed

To establish a relevant in vitro model for systems toxicology-based mechanistic assessment of environmental stressors such as cigarette smoke (CS), we exposed human organotypic bronchial epithelial tissue cultures at the air liquid interface (ALI) to various CS doses. Previously, we compared in vitro gene expression changes with published human airway epithelia in vivo data to assess their similarities. Here, we present a follow-up evaluation of these in vitro transcriptomics data, using complementary computational approaches and an integrated mRNA-microRNA (miRNA) analysis. The main cellular pathways perturbed by CS exposure were related to stress responses (oxidative stress and xenobiotic metabolism), inflammation (inhibition of nuclear factor-?B and the interferon gamma-dependent pathway), and proliferation/differentiation. Within post-exposure periods up to 48 hours, a transient kinetic response was observed at lower CS doses, whereas higher doses resulted in more sustained responses. In conclusion, this systems toxicology approach has potential for product testing according to "21st Century Toxicology". PMID:25788831

Mathis, Carole; Gebel, Stephan; Poussin, Carine; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Sewer, Alain; Weisensee, Dirk; Hengstermann, Arnd; Ansari, Sam; Wagner, Sandra; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

2015-01-01

303

Exposure matrix development for the Libby cohort.  

PubMed

The Libby, MT, cohort includes current and former residents with potential historical exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite. This cohort includes individuals with a broad range of exposure experiences and work histories. While both occupational and nonoccupational exposure pathways were found to be relevant in recent investigations of health effects among this cohort, there has not been a comprehensive approach to characterizing these varied exposure pathways. Any approach toward assessing historical exposures among this population must account for three general categories: (1) occupational exposures, (2) residential exposures, and (3) exposures related to a variety of nonoccupational activities thought to be associated with vermiculite/asbestos exposure in this community. First, a job exposure matrix is commonly used in occupational epidemiology to assess historical worker exposures, allowing for the incorporation of numerous occupational categories and weighting factors applied to specific jobs for different time periods. Second, residential exposures can best be quantified by integrating individuals' residential histories with data on environmental asbestos contamination in the community. Previous soil or sediment sampling as well as air modeling could inform estimates of time- and spatial-dependent exposure concentrations for a residential exposure matrix. Finally, exposure opportunities due to nonoccupational activities could be weighted by factors such as time, geography, environmental sampling, and an assessment of the relative importance for each pathway. These three matrices for occupational, residential, and activity exposure pathways could be combined or used separately to provide a more comprehensive and quantitative, or semiquantitative, assessment of individual exposure in future epidemiological studies of this cohort. PMID:16920669

Noonan, C W

2006-11-01

304

Concentration- and time-dependent genomic changes in the mouse urinary bladder following exposure to arsenate in drinking water for up to 12 weeks.  

PubMed

Inorganic arsenic (As(i)) is a known human bladder carcinogen. The objective of this study was to examine the concentration dependence of the genomic response to As(i) in the urinary bladders of mice. C57BL/6J mice were exposed for 1 or 12 weeks to arsenate in drinking water at concentrations of 0.5, 2, 10, and 50 mg As/l. Urinary bladders were analyzed using gene expression microarrays. A consistent reversal was observed in the direction of gene expression change: from predominantly decreased expression at 1 week to predominantly increased expression at 12 weeks. These results are consistent with evidence from in vitro studies of an acute adaptive response that is suppressed on longer exposure due to downregulation of Fos. Pathways with the highest enrichment in gene expression changes were associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, inflammation, and proliferation. Benchmark dose (BMD) analysis determined that the lowest median BMD values for pathways were above 5 mg As/l, despite the fact that pathway enrichment was observed at the 0.5 mg As/l exposure concentration. This disparity may result from the nonmonotonic nature of the concentration-responses for the expression changes of a number of genes, as evidenced by the much fewer gene expression changes at 2 mg As/l compared with lower or higher concentrations. Pathway categories with concentration-related gene expression changes included cellular morphogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis/survival, cell cycle control, and DNA damage response. The results of this study provide evidence of a concentration-dependent transition in the mode of action for the subchronic effects of As(i) in mouse bladder cells in the vicinity of 2 mg As(i)/l. PMID:21795629

Clewell, H J; Thomas, R S; Kenyon, E M; Hughes, M F; Adair, B M; Gentry, P R; Yager, J W

2011-10-01

305

Exposure chamber  

DOEpatents

A chamber for exposing animals, plants, or materials to air containing gases or aerosols is so constructed that catch pans for animal excrement, for example, serve to aid the uniform distribution of air throughout the chamber instead of constituting obstacles as has been the case in prior animal exposure chambers. The chamber comprises the usual imperforate top, bottom and side walls. Within the chamber, cages and their associated pans are arranged in two columns. The pans are spaced horizontally from the walls of the chamber in all directions. Corresponding pans of the two columns are also spaced horizontally from each other. Preferably the pans of one column are also spaced vertically from corresponding pans of the other column. Air is introduced into the top of the chamber and withdrawn from the bottom. The general flow of air is therefore vertical. The effect of the horizontal pans is based on the fact that a gas flowing past the edge of a flat plate that is perpendicular to the flow forms a wave on the upstream side of the plate. Air flows downwardly between the chamber walls and the outer edges of the pan. It also flows downwardly between the inner edges of the pans of the two columns. It has been found that when the air carries aerosol particles, these particles are substantially uniformly distributed throughout the chamber.

Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA)

1980-01-01

306

Solar UVA exposures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposures to UVA radiation (320 - 400 nm) have been linked to increasing the risk of skin cancer, premature skin photoageing and skin wrinkling. The relative proportion of the UVA irradiances in the solar spectrum changes with time of day and season. Material such as window glass found in offices, homes and motor vehicles acts as a barrier to the shorter solar UVB wavelengths (280 - 320 nm) and transmits some of the longer UVA wavelengths (dependent on the type of glass). As a result, the spectrum of the filtered UV transmitted through the material may be substantially different from that of the unfiltered solar UV spectrum. This results in a change in the relative ratio of UVA to UVB irradiances and a consequent change in the biologically damaging UV exposures. For these environments where the UVB wavelengths have been removed and the UVA wavelengths are still present, it is necessary to consider the erythemal irradiances due to these UVA wavelengths only. This paper investigates the times taken for an exposure of 1 SED (standard erythemal dose) due to the UVA wavelengths.

Parisi, Alfio V.; Kimlin, Michael G.

2005-08-01

307

Assessing workplace chemical exposures: the role of exposure monitoring.  

PubMed

Occupational exposure is the condition of being subjected through employment to a chemical, physical, or biological agent, or to a specific process, practice, behavior, or organization of work. Exposure to a chemical agent is typically the contact of that agent with the outer boundary of a subject, such as the respiratory system, skin, or digestive system. In occupational hygiene we are most concerned with exposure through the respiratory system, although, increasingly we are concerned with the results of dermal exposures, including those exposures to the skin that can be transferred to the mouth and digestive system. This presentation will detail methods available for assessing personal exposures to chemicals through monitoring. The results from monitoring can then be compared to established guidelines and regulations, although this is not the only rationale for making measurements. These monitoring methods are currently used around the world to establish the benchmark hazard from which risk to the worker can be predicted. The presentation will describe the general techniques for assessing exposures to the respiratory system from chemical gases and vapors, chemical dusts, and exposures to the skin from bulk chemicals or chemical contamination of surfaces. For respiratory exposures, direct-reading instruments are available for spot measurements, and for monitoring short-term fluctuations in concentration. However, most standards and regulations are based on time-integrated (time-weighted average) exposures, requiring longer-term integrative methods. Therefore, the specific focus of this review will be the methods available for full work-shift sampling. For gases and vapors this will include taking whole-air samples in canisters or polymer bags, or concentration of chemicals by absorption in liquids or adsorption on solid sorbents, with subsequent chemical analysis. Chemical concentration can take place by pumping air through the sorbing media, or by allowing molecules to diffuse to the sorbent surface. Transfer of the collected chemicals to the analytical instrumentation can be accomplished using solvent displacement and injection, or through the application of heat to bring the collected molecules back into the vapor phase. For particles, the particle size is important as this determines the site of deposition in the lungs, and so time-integrated sampling on filters using various types of size-selective samplers is preferred. Finally, some techniques that have been used to assess the potential for chemical contamination of the skin are presented. Biomonitoring is another tool that can be used to assess exposure, and the results are more relevant to dosimetric considerations than exposure. Biomonitoring is a complex subject worthy of a separate review, and will be considered only briefly here. PMID:15152307

Harper, Martin

2004-05-01

308

A NEW METHOD OF LONGITUDINAL DIARY ASSEMBLY FOR EXPOSURE MODELING  

EPA Science Inventory

Many stochastic human exposure models require the construction of longitudinal time-activity diaries to evaluate the time sequence of concentrations encountered, and hence, the pollutant exposure for the simulated individuals. However, most of the available data on human activiti...

309

Time exposure studies on stress corrosion cracking of aluminum 2014-T6, aluminum 7075-T651, and titanium 6Al-4V  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of a constant applied stress in crack initiation of aluminum 2014-T6, 7075-T651 and titanium 6A1-4V has been investigated. Aluminum c-ring specimens (1-inch diameter) and u-band titanium samples were exposed continuously to a 3.5% NaCl solution (pH 6) and organic fluids of ethyl, methyl, and iso-propyl alcohol (reagent purity). Corrosive action was observed to begin during the first and second day of constant exposure as evidenced by accumulation of hydrogen bubbles on the surface of stressed aluminum samples. However, a similar observation was not noted for titanium stressed specimens. Results of this investigation seems to suggest that aluminum 2014-T6, aluminum 7075-T651 are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in chloride solution (NaCl); while they (both alloys) seem to resist stress corrosion cracking in methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, iso-propyl alcohol, and demineralized distilled water. Titanium 6A1-4V showed some evidence of susceptibility to SCC in methanol, while no such susceptibility was exhibited in ethanol, iso-propyl alcohol and demineralized distilled water.

Terrell, J.

1972-01-01

310

Time exposure studies on stress corrosion cracking of aluminum 2014-T6, 2219-T87, 2014-T651, 7075-T651, and titanium 6Al-4V  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of a constant applied stress in crack initiation of aluminum 2014-T6, 2219-T87, 2014-T651, 7075-T651 and titanium 6Al-4V has been investigated. Aluminum c-ring specimens (1-inch diameter) and u-band titanium samples were exposed continuously to a 3.5% NaCl solution (pH 7) and organic fluids of ethyl, methyl, and iso-propyl alcohol (reagent purity), and demineralized distilled water. Corrosive action was observed to begin during the first and second day of constant exposure as evidenced by accumulation of hydrogen bubbles on the surface of stressed aluminum samples. However, titanium stressed specimens showed no reactions to its environment. Results of this investigation seems to suggest that aluminum 2014-T6, aluminum 7075-T651 and aluminum 2014-T651 are susceptible to stress corrosion cracking in chloride solution (NaCl), while aluminum 2219-T87 seem to resist stress corrosion cracking in sodium chloride at three levels of stress (25%, 50%, and 75% Y.S.). In organic fluids of methyl, ethyl, and iso-propyl alcohol, 2014-T6 and 7075-T651 did not fail by SCC; but 2014-T651 was susceptible to SCC in methly alcohol, but resistant in ethyl alcohol, iso-propyl alcohol and demineralized distilled water.

Terrell, J.

1973-01-01

311

Exposure assessment of laboratory students.  

PubMed

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has two kinds of laboratories, teaching for undergraduate students and research laboratories for graduate students and research staff. The objective of this study is to determine chemical exposures during teaching and research activities. There are three hypotheses in this study: (1) Exposures in academic laboratories are well below health standards; (2) Students in undergraduate teaching laboratories have less chemical exposure compared to students in graduate research laboratories; and (3) Students in different disciplines are expected to have different exposures. From September 1996 to December 1996, 132 air samples were collected from both teaching and research laboratories in the departments of Material Sciences and Engineering, Chemical Engineering, and Biology. The most frequently sampled chemicals in these three departments were cobalt, styrene, and formaldehyde, respectively. A total of 23 different agents were measured. In this study, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV)-short-term exposure limit (STEL) is used as the health-effect standard for exposure time less than four hours. The ACGIH TLV-TWA (time-weighted average) is used as the standard for exposure times equal to or greater than four hours. The ratio of measured concentrations to the appropriate ACGIH standard was then calculated. The geometric mean of the ratio for the total samples was 0.34 percent of the standards. There were 70 samples from teaching laboratories (geometric mean = 0.38% of the standards), and 62 samples from research laboratories (geometric mean = 0.08% of the standards). The chemical exposures relative to the standards in teaching laboratories were statistically higher than in research laboratories (p-value < 0.001). Information about personal protective equipment and the use of laboratory chemical hoods was also collected. The differences in use of personal protective equipment (PPE) among these departments was not statistically significant. From the air sampling results, we concluded that (1) Chemical exposures in the academic laboratories in this study were all well below the health standards; (2) Undergraduate students in teaching laboratories had higher chemical exposures than graduate students in research laboratories; (3) Chemical exposures among departments were not significantly different; and (4) Hazard communication, safety training, and laboratory rules enforcement are important for protection and may be the reason that the results from this study indicate that chemical exposures in this academic institution are well below the health standards under normal operations. PMID:10462848

Tan, Y M; DiBerardinis, L; Smith, T

1999-08-01

312

Radiation Exposure  

MedlinePLUS

... particles. It occurs naturally in sunlight. Man-made radiation is used in X-rays, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and cancer treatment. If you are exposed to small amounts of radiation over a long time, it raises your risk ...

313

Radiation Contamination Versus Exposure  

MedlinePLUS

RADIATION CONTAMINATION VERSUS EXPOSURE EXTERNAL CONTAMINATION External contamination occurs when radioactive material comes into contact with a ... radioactive materials can accumulate in different body organs. RADIATION EXPOSURE Another word for radiation exposure is irradiation. ...

314

How confident are internal medicine residents in rheumatology versus other common internal medicine clinical skills: an issue of training time or exposure?  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine self-confidence of internal medicine (IM) residents regarding rheumatology clinical skills and factors that may affect their confidence. Permission was sought to e-mail a web-based survey to IM residents at all 13 English language Canadian internal medicine programs. Residents were asked to rank self-confidence in rheumatology, cardiology, respirology, and gastroenterology skills. Further questions included site and year of training, career interests, rheumatology experiences, learning opportunities, and assessment frequency. These factors were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Two hundred sixteen residents (21.8%) from all 13 sites responded to the survey. Resident self-confidence in rheumatology diagnoses was 5.24/10, lower than all three comparator subspecialties. Increasing teaching exposure had a more significant impact on confidence in rheumatology than on comparator subspecialties. Increasing year of training had no association with higher self-confidence for rheumatology, in contrast to the increase in confidence seen with increased year of training for each comparator subspecialty. Further analysis demonstrated that the completion of a rheumatology rotation, increasing learning opportunities, annual assessment, and career interest were associated with greater resident self-confidence. Resident self-confidence for rheumatology skills is cautious at best and is lower than other common subspecialties. Self confidence improves with targeted rheumatology clinical experience and teaching, but does not improve solely with higher year of IM training. Furthermore, the impact of rheumatology teaching is greater than that of other common IM subspecialties. This information is critical to the planning and implementation of effective rheumatology curricula within internal medicine residency programs. PMID:21360102

Katz, Steven J; Oswald, Anna E

2011-08-01

315

The effects of free chlorine concentration, organic load, and exposure time on the inactivation of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated the effects of free chlorine (FC) concentration, contact time, and organic load on the inactivation of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and non-O157 STEC in suspension. Four strains each of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, or non-O157 STEC cells were inoculated separately or as a multi-...

316

Climatic and topographic controls on the style and timing of Late Quaternary glaciation throughout Tibet and the Himalaya defined by 10Be cosmogenic radionuclide surface exposure dating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal and spatial changes in glacier cover throughout the Late Quaternary in Tibet and the bordering mountains are poorly defined because of the inaccessibility and vastness of the region, and the lack of numerical dating. To help reconstruct the timing and extent of glaciation throughout Tibet and the bordering mountains, we use geomorphic mapping and 10Be cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) surface

Lewis A. Owen; Robert C. Finkel; Patrick L. Barnard; Ma Haizhou; Katsuhiko Asahi; Marc W. Caffee; Edward Derbyshire

2005-01-01

317

Lung-Retained Dose Following Occupational Exposure to Silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-two men with cancer at varying sites were rated prospectively from interviews for lifetime exposures to crystalline free silica. Information was obtained on concentration, frequency, and reliability of exposure information, as well as smoking, duration of exposure, and clearance time. Fifteen men had silica exposure; all were smokers. Other subjects served as smoking (N = 16) and nonsmoking (N =

Bruce W. Case; André Dufresne; Lesley Richardson; Jack Siemiatycki; Ken Takahashi

1995-01-01

318

Exposure of the general population to gasoline.  

PubMed Central

This paper summarizes the currently available information on gasoline exposure to the general population. In general, the largest contribution to the time weighted exposures results from exposures while indoors, which are influenced by the outside air, indoor sources, and attached garages. Personal activities, including refueling and commuting, contribute significantly higher exposures but last for only a small portion of the 24-hr time weighted average. The highest exposed group includes those individuals living near large service stations and those with contaminated water supplies. PMID:8020446

Akland, G G

1993-01-01

319

[Health risk railroad noise - prognosis of potential health risks subsequent to night-time exposure to railroad noise in the German part of the Transversal Rotterdam Genova].  

PubMed

Based on risk coefficients for cardiovascular and psychiatric disease derived from a case-control study in the vicinity of a major German airport, statistics on persons exposed to night-time railroad noise in the vicinity of the Rotterdam-Genova Transversal, and on health expenditure calculations by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany a prognosis on effects of railroad noise was performed. It resulted for 1 10-year period in nearly 75?000 excess cases of diseases, nearly 30?000 excess deaths and health expenditures of 3.8 billion euros. PMID:25525678

Greiser, E

2014-12-01

320

Time-resolved imaging of processes associated with exit-surface damage growth in fused silica following exposure to nanosecond laser pulses.  

PubMed

We study the dynamics of energy deposition and subsequent material response associated with exit surface damage growth in fused silica using a time resolved microscope system. This system enables acquisition of two transient images per damage event with temporal resolution of 180 ps and spatial resolution on the order of 1 µm. The experimental results address important issues in laser damage growth that include: a) the specific structural features within a damage site where plasma formation initiates; b) the subsequent growth of the plasma regions; c) the formation and expansion of radial and circumferential cracks; d) the kinetics and duration of material ejection; e) the characteristics of the generated shockwave. PMID:23482021

Demos, Stavros G; Raman, Rajesh N; Negres, Raluca A

2013-02-25

321

Time interval from cigarette smoke exposure to blood donation and markers of inflammation: should a smoking cut-off be designated?  

PubMed

Allogeneic blood transfusion leads to the infusion into the recipient of large amounts of antigens that may create conditions which are related to immune system modulation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of smoking habit on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in the plasma of blood donors. Blood samples from 170 consecutive blood donors was collected and analyzed for serum markers, while questionnaire data was collected. Serum cotinine levels were calculated for non-smokers, while serum cytokine IL-6 and VEGF concentrations were also calculated among 88 randomly selected subjects. Controlling for the donors age and gender, a strong tendency was found for smoking within 24 h of the blood donation to be associated with a higher VEGF concentration of the donated blood (ß = 141.13, p = 0.06), while the donor age was independently related to VEGF levels (p = 0.001). Additionally the IL-6 levels in the transfused blood were independently associated with the donors age (p = 0.001) and gender (p = 0.002) but not with their smoking status. Further research is needed so as to assess the need of updating blood donation guide lines to regulate the time intervals between the time from the last cigarette and blood donation. PMID:20602565

Symvoulakis, Emmanouil K; Vardavas, Constantine I; Fountouli, Popi; Stavroulaki, Aimilia; Antoniou, Katerina M; Duijker, George; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Sfiridaki, Katerina; Bolonaki, Eirini; Alegakis, Thanasis; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

2010-09-01

322

Time-dependent changes in antioxidative enzyme expression and photosynthetic activity of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells under acute exposure to cadmium and anthracene.  

PubMed

Heavy metals (HM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in the freshwater environment at concentrations that can be hazardous to the biota. Among HMs and PAHs, cadmium (Cd) and anthracene (ANT) are the most prevalent and toxic ones. The response of Chlamydomonas cells to Cd and ANT at concentrations that markedly reduced the growth of algal population was investigated in this study. At such concentrations, both cadmium and anthracene were recognized as oxidative stress inducers, since high concentration of H2O2 in treated cultures was observed. Therefore, as a part of the "molecular phase" of the cell response to this stress, we examined the time-dependent expression of genes encoding the main antioxidative enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), as well as the activity of these enzymes in cells, with special attention paid to chloroplastic and mitochondrial isoforms of SOD. To characterize the cell response at the "physiological level", we examined the photosynthetic activity of stressed cells via analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence in vivo. In contrast to standard ecotoxicity studies in which the growth end-points are usually determined, herein we present time-dependent changes in algal cell response to Cd- and ANT-induced stress. The most significant effect(s) of the toxicants on photosynthetic activity was observed in the 6th hour, when strong depression of PI parameter value, an over 50 percent reduction of the active reaction center fraction (RC0) and a 3-fold increase in non-photochemical energy dissipation (DI0/RC) were noted. At the same time, the increase (up to 2.5-fold) in mRNA transcript of SOD and CAT genes, followed by the enhancement in the enzyme activity was observed. The high expression of the Msd 3 gene in treated Chlamydomonas cells probably complements the partial loss of chloroplast Fe-SOD and APX activity, while catalase and Mn-SOD 5 seem to be the major enzymes responsible for mitochondrion protection. The progressive increase in SOD and CAT activities seems to be involved in the recovery of photosynthesis within 12-24h after the application of the toxicants. PMID:25193882

Aksmann, Anna; Pokora, Wojciech; Ba?cik-Remisiewicz, Agnieszka; Dettlaff-Pokora, Agnieszka; Wielgomas, Bartosz; Dziadziuszko, Ma?gorzata; Tukaj, Zbigniew

2014-12-01

323

Repeated exposure of male mice to low doses of lipopolysaccharide: Dose and time dependent development of behavioral sensitization and tolerance in an automated light-dark anxiety test.  

PubMed

Although lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is widely used to examine immune behavior relationships there has been little consideration of the effects of low doses and the roles of sensitization and, or tolerance. Here low doses of LPS (1.0, 5.0 and 25.0?g/kg) were peripherally administered to male mice on Days 1, 4, 28 and 32 after a baseline recording of anxiety-like behaviors in an automated light-dark apparatus (total time in the light chamber, number of light-dark transitions, nose pokes into the light chamber). LPS at 1.0?g/kg, while having no significant effects on anxiety-like behaviors in the light-dark test on Days 1 and 4, displayed sensitization with the mice exhibiting significantly enhanced anxiety-like responses on Days 28 and 32. LPS at 5.0?g/kg had no consistent significant effects on anxiety-like behavior on Days 1 and 4, with sensitization and enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on Day 28 followed by tolerance on Day 32. LPS at 25?g/kg significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors on Day 1, followed by tolerance on Day 4, which was not evident by Day 28 and re-emerged on Day 32. There was a similar overall pattern of sensitization and tolerance for LPS-induced decreases in locomotor activity in the safe dark chamber, without, however, any significant effects on activity in the riskier light chamber. This shows that low doses of LPS induce anxiety-like behavior and these effects are subject to sensitization and tolerance in a dose, context, and time related manner. PMID:25746457

Banasikowski, Tomek J; Cloutier, Caylen J; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Kavaliers, Martin

2015-06-01

324

Analysis of a new fluoroquinolone derivative (Q-35) in human scalp hair as an index of drug exposure and as a time marker in hair.  

PubMed

Scalp hair samples were obtained every month for three months after administration from healthy male volunteers who participated in the phase I study of a new antimicrobial fluoroquinolone derivative (Q-35). Hairs were cut into 1 cm long pieces successively from the scalp end. Corresponding pieces of 5 hair strands were dissolved in 1 M NaOH and assessed for Q-35 by HPLC. The drug was detectable in the hairs of all subjects taking either a single (400 mg, n = 6) or repeated oral doses of Q-35 (400 mg/day for 6.5 days, total 2600 mg, n = 6). The hair portions containing the drug were shown in most subjects to move outwards along the hair shafts month by month in proportion to the hair growth rate of about 1 cm/month. Q-35 (600 mg/day) was also given to 6 healthy male volunteers for 6.5 days (total 3900 mg) and hair samples were obtained 1 and 3 months after administration. When Q-35 was analyzed along a single hair shaft, the drug was detectable only in 1-2 consecutive 1 cm long pieces, which were also shown to move outwards along the hair shaft with time. A detailed analysis revealed that the drug was contained only in 2-4 consecutive 2.5 mm long pieces of a single hair collected after 3 months, showing that there was no significant axial diffusion of the drug along the hair shaft with time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8068569

Uematsu, T; Ohsawa, Y; Mizuno, A; Nakashima, M

1994-01-01

325

SILICA EXPOSURE IN HAND GRINDING STEEL CASTINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to silica dust was studied in the grinding of castings in a steel foundry that used conventional personal sampling methods and new real-time sampling techniques developed for the identification of high-exposure tasks and tools. Approximately one-third of the personal samples exceeded the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health recommended exposure limit for crystalline silica, a fraction similar to

Dennis OBrien; Phillip A. Froehlich; Michael G. Gressel; Ronald M. Hall; Nancy J. Clark; Patrick Bost; Thomas Fischbach

1992-01-01

326

Personal exposure to ultrafine particles.  

PubMed

Personal exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) can occur while people are cooking, driving, smoking, operating small appliances such as hair dryers, or eating out in restaurants. These exposures can often be higher than outdoor concentrations. For 3 years, portable monitors were employed in homes, cars, and restaurants. More than 300 measurement periods in several homes were documented, along with 25?h of driving two cars, and 22 visits to restaurants. Cooking on gas or electric stoves and electric toaster ovens was a major source of UFP, with peak personal exposures often exceeding 100,000 particles/cm³ and estimated emission rates in the neighborhood of 10¹² particles/min. Other common sources of high UFP exposures were cigarettes, a vented gas clothes dryer, an air popcorn popper, candles, an electric mixer, a toaster, a hair dryer, a curling iron, and a steam iron. Relatively low indoor UFP emissions were noted for a fireplace, several space heaters, and a laser printer. Driving resulted in moderate exposures averaging about 30,000 particles/cm³ in each of two cars driven on 17 trips on major highways on the East and West Coasts. Most of the restaurants visited maintained consistently high levels of 50,000-200,000 particles/cm³ for the entire length of the meal. The indoor/outdoor ratios of size-resolved UFP were much lower than for PM?.? or PM??, suggesting that outdoor UFP have difficulty in penetrating a home. This in turn implies that outdoor concentrations of UFP have only a moderate effect on personal exposures if indoor sources are present. A time-weighted scenario suggests that for typical suburban nonsmoker lifestyles, indoor sources provide about 47% and outdoor sources about 36% of total daily UFP exposure and in-vehicle exposures add the remainder (17%). However, the effect of one smoker in the home results in an overwhelming increase in the importance of indoor sources (77% of the total). PMID:20087407

Wallace, Lance; Ott, Wayne

2011-01-01

327

AGE-ASSOCIATED ALTERATIONS IN THE TIME-DEPENDENT PROFILE OF PRO- AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROTEINS WITHIN THE HIPPOCAMPUS IN RESPONSE TO ACUTE EXPOSURE TO INTERLEUKIN-1?  

PubMed Central

The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1? is known to play a role in several models of aging, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we document a detailed time- and age-dependent pattern of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers following bilateral intrahippocampal injection of interleukin-1?. During the first 12 hours several pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines increased in the aged (24 mo old) rats, some of which returned to baseline levels by 24 hours post-injection while others remained elevated for 72 hours post-injection. In contrast, no such increases were observed in the young (3 mo old) rats. Interestingly, young rats up-regulated mRNA of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?, but did not translate these transcripts into functional proteins, which may be related to expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling type-2. These results contribute to our understanding of how neuroinflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative disorders due to an age-related bias toward a hyper-reactive immune response that is not selective for a pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotype following an inflammatory stimulus. PMID:24393520

Hopp, Sarah C; Royer, Sarah; Brothers, Holly M.; Kaercher, Roxanne M.; D’Angelo, Heather; Bardou, Isabelle; Wenk, Gary L.

2014-01-01

328

DEMONSTRATION OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TOOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) conducts research on exposure measurements, human activity patterns, exposure and dose models, and cumulative exposures critical for the Agency to make scientificall...

329

The influence of time of maternal exposure to 2,4,5,2 prime ,4 prime ,5 prime -hexachlorobiphenyl on its accumulation in their nursing offspring  

SciTech Connect

2,4,5,2',4',5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (6-CB) is mobilized from rodent tissues during the lipid depletion associated with food restriction or lactation, the latter condition resulting in the substantial elimination of the maternal body burden of the chemical to nursing offspring. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the rate and/or magnitude of accumulation of 6-CB in nursing offspring differed with time following PCB administration to the maternal animal. Female ICR mice were administered two doses of 6-CB. Group I animals received (14C)-6-CB as weanlings (15-20 g) followed by unlabeled 6-CB 5 weeks later, after mating, on Day 1 of gestation. Group II received unlabeled 6-CB as weanlings and (14C)-6-CB on Day 1 of gestation. Thus, 14C identified the mobilization and elimination of either the first or the second dose of 6-CB in the treatment groups (I = (14C)-6-CB, 6-CB; II = 6-CB, (14C)-6-CB). Both groups of animals retained approximately 80% of the administered radiolabeled dose. The tissue distribution of (14C)-6-CB in group II as a percentage of the body burden was not different from that in group I as determined from maternal tissue concentrations on Day 14 of gestation. The percentage of the maternal body burden of (14C)-6-CB accumulated in suckling offspring of group II mothers was significantly greater than that in group I offspring on Day 1 (I, 2.2 +/- 0.5%; II, 3.5 +/- 0.4%), Day 3 (I, 14.8 +/- 1.9%; II, 24.6 +/- 2.7%), Day 5 (I, 16.8 +/- 1.4%; II, 24.8 +/- 0.8%), and Day 12 (I, 32.3 +/- 0.5%; II, 45.5 +/- 1.7%) postpartum. This differential elimination was reflected in the t1/2 of elimination of the radiolabeled dose from parametrial fat during lactation, which was significantly longer in group I (14 days) than group II maternal animals (9 days).

Gallenberg, L.A.; Ring, B.J.; Vodicnik, M.J. (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

1990-06-01

330

CHARACTERIZATION OF RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS AND DIAZINON  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposures to chlorpyrifos and diazinon in residential microenvironment in AZ were estimated using the indirect method of exposure calculation by combining measured concentrations in multiple media with time subjects spent indoors, dietary and non-dietary items they consumed, an...

331

IDENTIFYING CRITICAL WINDOWS OF EXPOSURE FOR CHILDREN'S HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

Several authors have considered the importance of exposure timing and how this affects the outcomes observed, but no one has systematically compiled preconceptional, prentatal, and postnatal developmental exposures and subsequent outcomes. Efforts were undertaken to examine the ...

332

Understanding Greek Primary School Children's Comprehension of Sun Exposure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses Greek primary school children's understanding of sun exposure during summer vacation. Results indicate that children know the damaging effects of long time exposure and the precautions that should be taken during summer bathing. (Author/SOE)

Piperakis, Stylianos M.; Papadimitriou, Vasiliki; Piperakis, Michael M.; Zisis, Panagiotis

2003-01-01

333

Lead exposure in a firing range.  

PubMed Central

We report lead exposure in four employees of a privately owned shooting range, one of whom had neurological toxicity due to lead. Increasing time worked at the range was associated with elevation of blood lead. This incident emphasizes the risk of airborne lead exposure to employees of firing ranges. PMID:3618861

Novotny, T; Cook, M; Hughes, J; Lee, S A

1987-01-01

334

Personal exposure of children to air pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades,

M. R. Ashmore; C. Dimitroulopoulou

2009-01-01

335

Adolescent Exposure to Food Advertising on Television  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: The results showed that among total nonprogram content time, food-related products accounted for roughly one fifth of advertising exposure. Excluding TV promotions and public service announcements, as a proportion of all product advertising, total food-related advertising made up 26% of advertised products viewed by adolescents. By race, the proportion of advertising exposure to food products was 14% greater for

Lisa M. Powell; Glen Szczypka; Frank J. Chaloupka

2007-01-01

336

Preschool Teachers' Exposure to Classroom Noise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research examined exposure to classroom noise of 25 full-time teaching staff in 14 preschool settings located across Western Sydney. The results indicated that one teacher exceeded the maximum permissible level of daily noise exposure for employees under the health and safety legislation. Three staff approached this level and 92% of teachers…

Grebennikov, Leonid

2006-01-01

337

IMPACT OF EMISSION REDUCTIONS ON EXPOSURES AND EXPOSURE DISTRIBUTIONS: APPLICATION OF A GEOGRAPHIC EXPOSURE MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

Anticipated results include the following. (1) We will estimate intake fraction (i.e., the fraction of emissions that are inhaled) for major source categories, over time, and by spatial location. Higher intake fraction indicates a greater exposure reduction per emission reduct...

338

Neonatal ethanol exposure results in dose-dependent impairments in the acquisition and timing of the conditioned eyeblink response and altered cerebellar interpositus nucleus and hippocampal CA1 unit activity in adult rats  

PubMed Central

Exposure to ethanol in neonatal rats results in reduced neuronal numbers in the cerebellar cortex and deep nuclei of juvenile and adult animals. This reduction in cell numbers is correlated with impaired delay eyeblink conditioning (EBC), a simple motor learning task in which a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS; tone) is repeatedly paired with a co-terminating unconditioned stimulus (US; periorbital shock). Across training, cell populations in the interpositus (IP) nucleus model the temporal form of the eyeblink conditioned response (CR). The hippocampus, though not required for delay EBC, also shows learning-dependent increases in CA1 and CA3 unit activity. In the present study, rat pups were exposed to 0, 3, 4, or 5 mg/kg/day of ethanol during postnatal days (PD) 4–9. As adults, CR acquisition and timing were assessed during 6 training sessions of delay EBC with a short (280 msec) interstimulus interval (ISI; time from CS onset to US onset) followed by another 6 sessions with a long (880 msec) ISI. Neuronal activity was recorded in the IP and area CA1 during all 12 sessions. The high-dose rats learned the most slowly and, with the moderate-dose rats, produced the longest CR peak latencies over training to the short ISI. The low dose of alcohol impaired CR performance to the long ISI only. The 3E (3 mg/kg/day of ethanol) and 5E (5 mg/kg/day of ethanol) rats also showed slower-than-normal increases in learning-dependent excitatory unit activity in the IP and CA1. The 4E (4 mg/kg/day of ethanol) rats showed a higher rate of CR production to the long ISI and enhanced IP and CA1 activation when compared to the 3E and 5E rats. The results indicate that binge-like ethanol exposure in neonatal rats induces long-lasting, dose-dependent deficits in CR acquisition and timing and diminishes conditioning-related neuronal excitation in both the cerebellum and hippocampus. PMID:23871534

Lindquist, Derick H.; Sokoloff, Greta; Milner, Eric; Steinmetz, Joseph E.

2013-01-01

339

Exposure Analysis Modeling System  

EPA Science Inventory

The Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS) is an interactive software application for formulating aquatic ecosystem models and evaluating the fate, transport, and exposure concentrations of synthetic organic chemicals including pesticides, industrial materials, and leachates f...

340

EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

341

Particle exposures and infections  

EPA Science Inventory

Particle exposures increase the risk for human infections. Particles can deposit in the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and distal lung and, accordingly, the respiratory tract is the system most frequently infected after such exposure; however, meningitis also occurs. Ci...

342

Occupational Noise Exposure  

MedlinePLUS

... reduce worker exposure to noise in a workplace. Engineering controls that reduce sound exposure levels are available and technologically feasible for most noise sources. Engineering controls involve modifying or replacing equipment, or making ...

343

CHAPTER ONE: EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Determining human exposure to suspended particualte concentrations requires measurements that quantify different particle properties in microenvironments where people live, work, and play. Particle mass, size, and chemical composition are important exposure variables, and these ...

344

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde in dialysis units  

SciTech Connect

A company in Illinois that operates three dialysis centers became concerned about the occupational exposure of its employees to formaldehyde. The company requested an investigation by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to determine the extent of employee exposure to formaldehyde. Investigators from NIOSH conducted an initial environmental survey of the facilities in April 1982 and a follow-up environmental survey in June 1982. In the areas used to reprocess dialyzers, they collected air samples to analyze for formaldehyde in the personal breathing zones of workers. The results showed that workers at two of the three facilities involved were exposed to formaldehyde concentrations of 0.50 and 0.57 parts per million (ppm), respectively, as a time-weighted average (TWA). The current Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard establishes a permissible exposure of 3 ppm, 8-hour TWA; NIOSH recommends minimizing workplace exposure levels and limiting exposure levels and limiting exposure to the lowest feasible level.

Not Available

1986-08-08

345

An integrated job exposure matrix for electrical exposures of utility workers.  

PubMed

Electric utility workers may be exposed to any combination of magnetic fields, electric fields, nuisance shocks (from spark discharges and continuous currents), imperceptible contact currents, and electrical injuries. Collectively these exposures are referred to as EMF Factors. Previous occupational exposure assessments have mainly characterized the magnetic field, with less attention to the electric field. Nuisance shocks and electrical injuries, though palpable, have received little to no attention. This article presents a prototype job exposure matrix that addresses exposure to all EMF Factors taking into account job category, work environment, and occupied environment. Exposures for all factors were classified into three ordinal levels for 22 job categories. Electric and magnetic field exposures were classified by the geometric mean of daily average of personal exposure measurements. Although relatively sparse, survey data on nuisance shocks were adequate for exposure assignment by job category and indicate that the frequency of these exposures has diminished over time. The least information was available for imperceptible contact currents that are associated with electric field exposures and small contact voltages. Data for electrical injuries by job category were derived from the Electric Power Research Institute Occupational Health Surveillance Database, with exposure assignments based on combined injury rates for flash burn and electric shock/electrocution. The highest exposures for all EMF Factors are essentially limited to four job categories that work on or close to electrical equipment: (1) cable splicers, (2) electricians, (3) line workers, and (4) substation operators. PMID:19452311

Bracken, T Dan; Kavet, Robert; Patterson, Robert M; Fordyce, Tiffani A

2009-08-01

346

Dangers of Radiation Exposure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the first part of the lesson, students calculate their yearly exposure rate to harmful high-energy radiation and cumulative effects over time. They then use the information to evaluate the various sources of radiation that are of greatest concern for them. In the second part of the lesson, students learn that spacecraft and other objects in space must be concerned with the same kinds of radiation to which humans are exposed. The MESSENGER spacecraft will orbit Mercury and be subjected to much more intense solar radiation than it would near Earth. Students discuss the notion that even though some of the radiation is needed to study the properties of the planet, too much of it can be quite damaging.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

2005-03-15

347

HUMAN EXPOSURE ACTIVITY PATTERNS  

EPA Science Inventory

Human activity/uptake rate data are necessary to estimate potential human exposure and intake dose to environmental pollutants and to refine human exposure models. Personal exposure monitoring studies have demonstrated the critical role that activities play in explaining and pre...

348

GUIDELINES FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Guidelines for Exposure Assessment describe the general concepts of exposure assessment including definitions and associated units, and by providing guidance on the planning and conducting of an exposure assessment. Guidance is also provided on presenting the results of the e...

349

DIETARY EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This research constitutes the MCEARD base dietary exposure research program and is conducted to complement the NERL total human exposure program. The research builds on previous work to reduce the level of uncertainty in exposure assessment by improving NERL's ability to evaluat...

350

Opioid Antagonist Impedes Exposure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty spider-phobic adults underwent exposure to 17 phobic-related, graded performance tests. Fifteen subjects were assigned to naltrexone, an opioid antagonist, and 15 were assigned to placebo. Naltrexone had a significant effect on exposure, with naltrexone subjects taking significantly longer to complete first 10 steps of exposure and with…

Merluzzi, Thomas V.; And Others

1991-01-01

351

Biological Response to SPE Exposures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has long been recognized that a single solar particle event (SPE) can produce, over a short period of time, exposures on the order of LD50 for humans under normal physiological conditions. It is further recognized that recovery from injury over the period of exposure would greatly increase the chances of survival (dose rate effects) although such effects were left unquantified. In the present report we use the bioresponse model derived from a broad range of animal and human exposure data for evaluation of troop readiness in tactical nuclear warfare to evaluate the biological risk posed by the solar event of 4 August 1972. The astronaut blood forming organ (BFO) exposure in deep space would have been 2.2 Sv (1.6 Gy) in a space suit, 1.8 Sv (1.3 Gy) in an aluminum pressure vessel, and 0.7 Sv (0.5 Gy) in an equipment room compared to an X-ray mortality threshold of 1.5 Gy (assuming high dose rate). We find BFO dose rate effectiveness factors for this SPE on the order of 3 to 4, greatly reducing the mortality risks for this event. There is an approximate 3 percent chance that an even larger event may occur for which exposures could be 2-4 times higher. Assured survival of the astronaut requires added shelter shielding and a warning system for this event. The required mass of the shelter shield can be greatly reduced by using hydrogenous materials such as polymers, water, food, and other biological materials in its construction. Limitations of the current bioresponse model arise from the exposures taking place in the microgravity environment wherein the immune system is already challenged and the effective mortality threshold may be reduced by a factor of two. Such microgravity effects could greatly affect astronaut risks.

Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Kim, M.; Shinn, J. L.; Jones, T. D.; Chang, C. K.

2004-01-01

352

75 FR 4402 - Notice of National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership Council...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership Council Conference Call Time and Date...Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership Council. The National Conversation...from harmful chemical exposures. The Leadership Council provides overall guidance...

2010-01-27

353

The Short Time Exposure (STE) test for predicting eye irritation potential: intra-laboratory reproducibility and correspondence to globally harmonized system (GHS) and EU eye irritation classification for 109 chemicals.  

PubMed

Short Time Exposure (STE) test is an easy in vitro eye irritation test that assesses cytotoxicity in SIRC cells (rabbit corneal cell line) following a 5 min dose treatment. To assess intra-laboratory reproducibility, medium control, three vehicles (saline, saline containing 5% (w/w) dimethyl sulfoxide, and mineral oil) and three standard chemicals (sodium lauryl sulfate, calcium thioglycolate, and Tween 80) were evaluated. Assessments were repeated 30 times for vehicles and 18 times for standard chemicals; resulting in almost the same cell viability and a low coefficient of variation value. In addition, the STE eye irritation rankings of three standard chemicals, as calculated on the cell viabilities in 5% and 0.05% solutions were in agreement in all tests. Based on these results, high intra-laboratory reproducibility was confirmed. In addition, the irritation category (irritant and non-irritant) was evaluated for 109 chemicals with STE test, globally harmonized system (GHS) classification, and European Union (EU) classification. The results of the evaluation found the STE classification to have an accuracy with GHS classification of 87% and with EU classification of 83%, which confirmed the excellent correspondence. The correspondence of STE rankings (1, 2, and 3) based on the prediction model by STE test with the eye irritation rankings by GHS (non-irritant, categories 2 and 1) and EU (non-irritant, R36, and R41) was 76% and 71%, respectively. Based on the above results, STE test was considered to be a promising alternative method for assessing eye irritation that has high intra-laboratory reproducibility as well as an excellent predictability of eye irritation. PMID:21513790

Takahashi, Yutaka; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Abo, Takayuki; Koike, Mirei; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Nishiyama, Naohiro

2011-10-01

354

Bacterial patterning controlled by light exposure.  

PubMed

Patterning of multiple bacterial strains in one system is achieved by employing a single photo-activated antibiotic. Varying the light-exposure time results in zones with mixed and single populations. PMID:25530471

Velema, Willem A; van der Berg, Jan Pieter; Szymanski, Wiktor; Driessen, Arnold J M; Feringa, Ben L

2015-01-27

355

Short-term Variation in Occupational Exposure to Air Contaminants.  

PubMed

Many industrial workers are exposed to air contaminants. A significant proportion of this exposure is found to occur as short peaks, a fact that has received limited attention in the literature. The present study focuses on short-term variation in air contaminant exposure measured at the level of seconds, linking exposure peaks to typical work situations in selected Swedish industries. The video exposure monitoring method was used to characterize this variation. Ten different videos were analyzed, from recordings varying in length between 15 and 34 minutes. Cumulative exposure for sampling intervals ranked from high to low, relative to the total exposure was calculated as a function of time. Measures of exposure variation included geometric standard deviation and maximum exposure divided by arithmetic mean. The results show that the characteristics of the variation differ between industrial situations. Samples from the stone, wood, and pharmaceutical industries generated the highest variation, implying that exposure peaks of short duration explain a large proportion of the total exposure. It can be concluded that video monitoring of exposure, combined with calculation of exposure variation as percentage of time accounting for given percentages of exposure, can help to reduce exposure to air contaminants in industrial situations by introducing more targeted control measures. PMID:25830662

Gummesson, Karl; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosén, Gunnar

2015-05-01

356

EXAMPLE EXPOSURE SCENARIOS ASSESSMENT TOOL  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure scenarios are a tool to help the assessor develop estimates of exposure, dose, and risk. An exposure scenario generally includes facts, data, assumptions, inferences, and sometimes professional judgment about how the exposure takes place. The human physiological and beh...

357

Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Normalization in the Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) at Different Developmental Stages, in Various Tissue Types and on Exposure to Chemicals  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real time RT-PCR has been described as the most sensitive method for the detection of low abundance mRNA. To date, no reference genes have been screened in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). The aim of this study was to select the most stable genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Eight housekeeping genes (18S, TUBA, B2M, ACTB, EF1A, GAPDH, RPL17 and UBCE) were tested at different developmental stages, in different tissues, and following exposure to the drug SB-431542. Using geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder software, GAPDH/B2M, GAPDH/18S and UBCE/GAPDH were identified as the most suitable genes from samples taken of different developmental stages while 18S/RPL17 were consistently ranked as the best reference genes for different tissue types. Furthermore, TUBA/B2M, TUBA/UBCE and B2M/TUBA were found to be the most suitable genes in samples treated with the drug, SB-431542 by geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder respectively. Across both different developmental stages and tissue types, the combination of 18S and GAPDH was the most stable reference gene analyzed by Ref-Finder. To test and verify the screened reference genes, the expression profiles of LEFTY-normalized to the combination of GAPDH/18S and ACTB were presented. These results will be useful for future gene-expression studies in the half-smooth tongue sole. PMID:24667563

Liu, Conghui; Xin, Nian; Zhai, Yi; Jiang, Liming; Zhai, Jieming; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie

2014-01-01

358

Integrating exposure therapy and analytic therapy in trauma treatment.  

PubMed

Analytic therapy and Exposure Therapy come out of contending and, at times, contentious traditions in psychotherapy. They can, however, work together to better trauma treatment. Exposure Therapy is enhanced by close attention to individual psychodynamics. Analytic therapy can draw upon the rich narratives of Exposure work to deepen analytic inquiry. PMID:17209716

Stultz, Jill

2006-10-01

359

Occupational Exposure to Metalworking Fluid Mist and Sump Fluid Contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the engineering industry. The aim of the survey was to link MWF mist exposure measurements with particular engineering processes and controls, and utilize the data obtained to develop exposure standards. At the same time the opportunity was taken to

A. T. SIMPSON; M. STEAR; J. A. GROVES; M. PINEY; S. D. BRADLEY; S. STAGG; B. CROOK

2003-01-01

360

Health effects of gasoline exposure. I. Exposure assessment for U.S. distribution workers.  

PubMed Central

Personal exposures were estimated for a large cohort of workers in the U.S. domestic system for distributing gasoline by trucks and marine vessels. This assessment included development of a rationale and methodology for extrapolating vapor exposures prior to the availability of measurement data, analysis of existing measurement data to estimate task and job exposures during 1975-1985, and extrapolation of truck and marine job exposures before 1975. A worker's vapor exposure was extrapolated from three sets of factors: the tasks in his or her job associated with vapor sources, the characteristics of vapor sources (equipment and other facilities) at the work site, and the composition of petroleum products producing vapors. Historical data were collected on the tasks in job definitions, on work-site facilities, and on product composition. These data were used in a model to estimate the overall time-weighted-average vapor exposure for jobs based on estimates of task exposures and their duration. Task exposures were highest during tank filling in trucks and marine vessels. Measured average annual, full-shift exposures during 1975-1985 ranged from 9 to 14 ppm of total hydrocarbon vapor for truck drivers and 2 to 35 ppm for marine workers on inland waterways. Extrapolated past average exposures in truck operations were highest for truck drivers before 1965 (range 140-220 ppm). Other jobs in truck operations resulted in much lower exposures. Because there were few changes in marine operations before 1979, exposures were assumed to be the same as those measured during 1975-1985. Well-defined exposure gradients were found across jobs within time periods, which were suitable for epidemiologic analyses. PMID:8020436

Smith, T J; Hammond, S K; Wong, O

1993-01-01

361

Skin Exposure and Asthma  

PubMed Central

Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors. PMID:20427586

Redlich, Carrie A.

2010-01-01

362

Criminal responsibility and solvent exposure.  

PubMed

This case report contains the history of a man's exposure to benzene, trichloroethylene, and toluene. J suffered acutely from classic symptoms of toxic exposure to these compounds, such as fatigue, clumsiness, staggering, and hematopoietic depression. During his medical hospitalization, he was exposed to further organic insults, such as being treated with medications like Cytoxan and medications to treat an abscess in his right parietal lobe. After the acute exposure and after the abscess had resolved, his functioning on neuropsychological testing was still depressed, as he had a Full Scale IQ of 105, whereas at the time of the forensic evaluation he had a Full Scale IQ of 114. It would therefore appear that he did have some mild deficits when originally discharged from the hospital. While he reported having continual mental status changes at the time of the offense and even at the time of the forensic evaluation, it was not felt that these played a significant role in the commission of the offense. Comprehensive forensic evaluation suggested that psychological reactions to his illness and an underlying personality disorder were more direct contributors to the criminal acts. J was therefore recommended and ultimately found to be responsible for his behavior, according to the law. PMID:8935824

Lemmen, C A; Holden, C E; Benedek, E P

1996-01-01

363

Application of statistical modeling to occupational exposure assessment  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation applies statistical modeling to two problems: (1) describing a single worker's exposure distribution and estimating its associated arithemetic mean; and (2) describing the distribution of inhalation exposure levels among a population of respirator wearers while accounting for variability in ambient exposure and respirator penetration values within and between wearers. A task-based statistical construct for a single worker's exposure levels for a single agent is developed; the model accounts for variability in short-term time weighted average (TWA) exposure values within a task, and for variability in arithmetic mean exposure levels between tasks. Five sample survey designs for estimating a worker's arithmetic mean exposure level are examined. Stratified random sampling designs, in which short-term TWAs are measured for time periods selected on a task basis, can provide a more precise estimate of the arithmetic mean exposure level than the traditional survey design for the same fixed cost. For describing inhalation exposure levels (C{sub i}) among a population of air-purifying respirator wearers, a synthesis of lognormal one-way analysis of variance models for ambient exposure levels (C.) and respirator penetration (P) values provides the most tractable construct. The model is applied to assessing the risk of toxicant overexposure for a respirator wearer population. Overexposure to a chronic toxicant is equated with an arithmetic mean exposure level above the permissible exposure limit (PEL) value, while overexposure to an acute toxicant is equated with a 95th percentile exposure level above the PEL value.

Nicas, M.

1991-01-01

364

Exposure assessment in auto collision repair shops.  

PubMed

Workers in auto collision shops are exposed to a variety of chemical and physical hazards. Previous studies have focused on measuring levels of isocyanates, but little is known about exposures to dust, noise, and solvents. In preparation for an intervention effectiveness study in small collision repair businesses, sampling was conducted on 3 consecutive days in four representative businesses with three to seven employees. Full-shift and task-specific exposures were measured for dust and solvents (for operations other than painting and spray gun cleaning). Full-shift personal exposures and tool-specific noise levels were also evaluated. Samples of banded earplugs were distributed to employees and feedback was collected after 1 week of wear time. Dust and solvent exposures did not exceed the OSHA PELs. Noise exposure doses were below the OSHA PEL; however, 4 of the 18 measurements were in excess of the ACGIH® threshold limit value. The majority of tools generated noise levels above 85 dBA. Air guns, wrenches, cutoff wheels, and air drills generated noise levels with the 5th percentile above 90 dBA. Mean noise levels generated by hammers, grinders, and ratchets were also above 95 dBA. Three pairs of banded earplugs had the best reviews in terms of comfort of use. This study was conducted during a time when all shops reported relatively low production levels. Noise exposure results suggest that it is likely that technicians' 8-hr time-weighted average exposures may be in excess of 85 dBA during periods of higher production, but exposures to dust and solvents are unlikely to approach OSHA exposure limits. These pilot test results will be useful when developing recommendations and technical assistance materials for health and safety interventions in auto collision repair businesses. PMID:21660833

Bejan, Anca; Brosseau, Lisa M; Parker, David L

2011-07-01

365

Respiratory exposures associated with silicon carbide production: estimation of cumulative exposures for an epidemiological study.  

PubMed Central

Silicon carbide is produced by heating a mixture of petroleum coke and silica sand to approximately 2000 degrees C in an electric furnace for 36 hours. During heating, large amounts of carbon monoxide are released, sulphur dioxide is produced from residual sulphur in the coke, and hydrocarbon fume is produced by pyrolysis of the coke. Loading and unloading furnaces causes exposures to respirable dust containing crystalline silica, silicon carbide, and hydrocarbons. In the autumn of 1980 extensive measurements were made of personal exposures to air contaminants. Eight hour time weighted exposures to sulphur dioxide ranged from less than 0.1 ppm to 1.5 ppm and respirable participate exposures ranged from 0.01 mg/m3 to 9.0 mg/m3. Geometric mean particulate exposures for jobs ranged from 0.1 mg/m3 to 1.46 mg/m3. The particulate contained varying amounts of alpha-quartz, ranging from less than 1% to 17%, and most quartz exposures were substantially below the threshold limit value of 100 micrograms/m3. Only traces of cristobalite (less than 1%) were found in the particulate. Median exposures to air contaminants in each job were estimated. Since the operations at the plant had been stable over the past 30 years, it was possible to estimate long term exposures of workers to sulphur dioxide, respirable particulate, quartz, total inorganic material, and extractable organic material. Cumulative exposure (average concentration times exposure duration) for each of the air contaminants was estimated for each worker using his job history. There was sufficient independent variability in the sulphur dioxide and respirable particulate cumulative exposures to make an assessment of their independent effects feasible. The theoretical basis for using the cumulative exposure index and its shortcomings for epidemiological applications were presented. PMID:6691927

Smith, T J; Hammond, S K; Laidlaw, F; Fine, S

1984-01-01

366

Respiratory exposures associated with silicon carbide production: estimation of cumulative exposures for an epidemiological study.  

PubMed

Silicon carbide is produced by heating a mixture of petroleum coke and silica sand to approximately 2000 degrees C in an electric furnace for 36 hours. During heating, large amounts of carbon monoxide are released, sulphur dioxide is produced from residual sulphur in the coke, and hydrocarbon fume is produced by pyrolysis of the coke. Loading and unloading furnaces causes exposures to respirable dust containing crystalline silica, silicon carbide, and hydrocarbons. In the autumn of 1980 extensive measurements were made of personal exposures to air contaminants. Eight hour time weighted exposures to sulphur dioxide ranged from less than 0.1 ppm to 1.5 ppm and respirable participate exposures ranged from 0.01 mg/m3 to 9.0 mg/m3. Geometric mean particulate exposures for jobs ranged from 0.1 mg/m3 to 1.46 mg/m3. The particulate contained varying amounts of alpha-quartz, ranging from less than 1% to 17%, and most quartz exposures were substantially below the threshold limit value of 100 micrograms/m3. Only traces of cristobalite (less than 1%) were found in the particulate. Median exposures to air contaminants in each job were estimated. Since the operations at the plant had been stable over the past 30 years, it was possible to estimate long term exposures of workers to sulphur dioxide, respirable particulate, quartz, total inorganic material, and extractable organic material. Cumulative exposure (average concentration times exposure duration) for each of the air contaminants was estimated for each worker using his job history. There was sufficient independent variability in the sulphur dioxide and respirable particulate cumulative exposures to make an assessment of their independent effects feasible. The theoretical basis for using the cumulative exposure index and its shortcomings for epidemiological applications were presented. PMID:6691927

Smith, T J; Hammond, S K; Laidlaw, F; Fine, S

1984-02-01

367

EXPOSURES TO ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The planned interagency National Children's Study (NCS) will be studying a number of exposure issues in the context of health and well-being of infants and young children from pre-conception to age 21. Some of the important environmental exposure questions for NCS, include: how c...

368

Avian inhalation exposure chamber  

DOEpatents

An exposure system for delivering gaseous material ranging in particle size from 0.4 micrometers to 20.0 micrometers uniformly to the heads of experimental animals, primarily birds. The system includes a vertical outer cylinder and a central chimney with animal holding bottles connected to exposure ports on the vertical outer cylinder.

Briant, James K. (P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352); Driver, Crystal J. (P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352)

1992-01-01

369

Avian inhalation exposure chamber  

DOEpatents

An exposure system is designed for delivering gaseous material ranging in particle size from 0.4 micrometers to 20.0 micrometers uniformly to the heads of experimental animals, primarily birds. The system includes a vertical outer cylinder and a central chimney with animal holding bottles connected to exposure ports on the vertical outer cylinder. 2 figs.

Briant, J.K.; Driver, C.J.

1992-05-05

370

Radiation Exposure Compensation Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Justice Department's Radiation Exposure Compensation Program homepage. This site features information about the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, including claimant categories, claim forms, and the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act. This site also provides a table illustrating a summary of all claims received and compensation paid to date.

U.S. Department of Justice Radiation Exposure Compensation Program

371

Exposure Factors Program  

EPA Science Inventory

The development of the latest version of the Exposure Factors Handbook (EFH): 2011 Edition (EPA/600/R-09/052F) has maintained the need for a more comprehensive program that addresses issues related to exposure factors. Since the first version of the EFH was r...

372

Experimental human exposure to carbon monoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthy, male, inactive volunteers were exposed to CO concentrations ranging from 1 to 1,000 ppM. Eight-hr exposure to 100 ppM produced 11 to 13% COHb but no impairment of performance tests, including vision, reaction time, and dexterity. Above 15 to 20% COHb, mild to severe frontal headache was a problem and continued after CO exposure (delayed phenomenon) - a good

R. D. Stewart; J. E. Peterson; B. D. Baretta; R. T. Bachand; M. J. Hosko; A. A. Herrmann

1970-01-01

373

High Exposure Facility Technical Description  

SciTech Connect

The High Exposure Facility is a collimated high-level gamma irradiator that is located in the basement of the 318 building. It was custom developed by PNNL back in 1982 to meet the needs for high range radiological instrument calibrations and dosimeter irradiations. At the time no commercially available product existed that could create exposure rates up to 20,000 R/h. This document is intended to pass on the design criteria that was employed to create this unique facility, while maintaining compliance with ANSI N543-1974, "General Safety Standard for Installations Using Non-Medical X-Ray and Sealed Gamma-Ray Sources, Energies up to 10 MeV."

Carter, Gregory L.; Stithem, Arthur R.; Murphy, Mark K.; Smith, Alex K.

2008-02-12

374

Biomonitoring - An Exposure Science Tool for Exposure and Risk Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

Biomonitoring studies of environmental stressors are useful for confirming exposures, estimating dose levels, and evaluating human health risks. However, the complexities of exposure-biomarker and biomarker-response relationships have limited the use of biomarkers in exposure sc...

375

Estimating Exposure of Terrestrial Wildlife to Contaminants  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a general model for exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants (Sect. 2), methods for estimating parameters of the model (Sect. 3), species specific parameters for endpoint species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Sect. 4), and a sample application (Sect. 5). Exposure can be defined as the coincidence in both space and time of a receptor and a stressor, such that the receptor and stressor come into contact and interact (Risk Assessment Forum 1992). In the context of ecological risk assessment, receptors include all endpoint species or communities identified for a site [see Suter (1989) and Suter et al. (1994) for discussions of ecological endpoints for waste sites]. In the context of waste site assessments, stressors are chemical contaminations, and the contact and interaction are uptake of the contaminant by the receptor. Without sufficient exposure of the receptor to the contaminants, there is no ecological risk. Unlike some other endpoint assemblages, terrestrial wildlife are significantly exposed to contaminants in multiple media. They may drink or swim in contaminated water, ingest contaminated food and soil, and breath contaminated air. In addition, because most wildlife are mobile, moving among and within habitats, exposure is not restricted to a single location. They may integrate contamination from several spatially discrete sources. Therefore, exposure models for terrestrial wildlife must include multiple media. This document provides models and parameters for estimating exposure of birds and mammals. Reptiles and amphibians are not considered because few data exist with which to assess exposure to these organisms. In addition, because toxicological data are scarce for both classes, evaluation of the significance of exposure estimates is problematic. However, the general exposure estimation procedure developed herein for birds and mammals is applicable to reptiles and amphibians. Exposure models must be appropriate to the assessment endpoints. The models presented herein are models of the exposure of individual organisms, but except for threatened and endangered species, all the wildlife endpoints for the ORR are for populations (Suter et al. 1994). The use of organism exposures is appropriate because of the need to integrate exposure estimates with exposure-response information which is expressed as organism-level responses. The conversion of individual exposure to population effects occurs in the risk characterization. Conceptually, the conversion of organism-level exposures to the population level can be made in two ways. First, it may be assumed that there is a distinct population on the site so that the exposure of the population is the exposure of all the individuals. This assumption is appropriate for small organisms on large sites, particularly if the site constitutes a distinct habitat that is surrounded by inappropriate habitat. For example, a grassy site surrounded by forest or industrial development might support a distinct population of voles. The risks to that population can be estimated directly from the exposures of the individual organisms. Second, it may be assumed that a certain number of individuals are exposed to contaminants out of a larger population. For example, a certain proportion of a deer herd may forage on a site or a pair of hawks may hunt on a site. The estimated exposure of these individuals will result in estimation of certain effects on those individuals, and the resulting population risks will need to be characterized. In either case, the organism level exposure models are appropriate.

Sample, B.E.

1994-01-01

376

Personal exposure of children to air pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes over recent decades in outdoor concentrations of air pollutants are well documented. However, the impacts of air pollution on an individual's health actually relate not to these outdoor concentrations but to their personal exposure in the different locations in which they spend time. Assessing how personal exposures differ from outdoor concentrations, and how they have changed over recent decades, is challenging. This review focuses on the exposure of children, since they are a particularly sensitive group. Much of children's time is spent indoors, and childhood exposure is closely related to concentrations in the home, at school, and in transport. For this reason, children's personal exposures to air pollutants differ significantly from both those of adults and from outdoor concentrations. They depend on a range of factors, including urbanisation, energy use, building design, travel patterns, and activity profiles; analysis of these factors can identify a wider range of policy measures to reduce children's exposure than direct emission control. There is a very large variation in personal exposure between individual children, caused by differences in building design, indoor and outdoor sources, and activity patterns. Identifying groups of children with high personal exposure, and their underlying causes, is particularly important in regions of the world where emissions are increasing, but there are limited resources for environmental and health protection. Although the science of personal exposure assessment, with the associated measurement and modelling techniques, has developed to maturity in North America and western Europe over the last 50 years, there is an urgent need to apply this science in other parts of the world where the effects of air pollution are now much more serious.

Ashmore, M. R.; Dimitroulopoulou, C.

377

Estimating historic exposures at the European Gaseous Diffusion plants.  

PubMed

This paper describes the methods and results of an occupational exposure assessment covering 30 years of operation of the EURODIF establishment (1978-2008). The exposure assessment includes radiological, physical and chemical hazards, and takes into account of organizational changes at the establishment. Furthermore, it includes efforts to better quantify the levels of exposures using available industrial hygiene and health physics data. In total, 227 workers participated in the assessment of 26 different occupational exposures in 102 general workstations through 1978-2008. Only 7% of exposure levels were rectified by experts for internal consistency reasons. Noise, heat, trichloroethylene and soluble uranium compounds were the most prevalent exposures at the plant although their levels tended to decrease across time. Assessments of occupational exposure to noise based on JEM exposure levels were fairly well correlated with noise measurement data (Spearman's correlation coefficient, ?=0.43) while JEM-based assessments of uranium exposure were not well correlated with uranium atmospheric measurements. This study demonstrates the importance of non-radiological exposure in the nuclear fuel industry and highlights the difficulties in managing the risks arising from these exposures. Occupational exposures remain difficult to quantify due to the scarcity of reliable monitoring data and the absence of binding occupational exposure limits for some of considered hazards. PMID:22939882

Guseva Canu, Irina; Faust, Ségolène; Knieczak, Eric; Carles, Michel; Samson, Eric; Laurier, Dominique

2013-07-01

378

Neurotoxicity from prenatal and postnatal exposure to methylmercury.  

PubMed

The extent to which postnatal methylmercury exposure contributes to neurobehavioral delays is uncertain. Confounding may occur because the child's dietary exposure likely correlates with the mother's. This conundrum was examined in the Faroese birth cohort 1 born in 1986-1987. Exposure parameters included mercury concentrations in maternal hair at parturition, cord blood, and child blood and hair at the age-7 clinical examination (N=923). In regression analyses, the child's current blood-mercury at age 7 (N=694) showed only weak associations with the neuropsychological test variables, but visuospatial memory revealed a significant negative association. Mutual adjustment caused decreases of the apparent effect of the prenatal exposure. However, such adjustment may lead to underestimations due to the presence of correlated, error-prone exposure variables. In structural equation models, all methylmercury exposure parameters were instead entered into a latent exposure variable that reflected the total methylmercury load. This latent exposure showed significant associations with neurodevelopmental deficits, with prenatal exposure providing the main information. However, postnatal methylmercury exposure appeared to contribute to neurotoxic effects, in particular in regard to visuospatial processing and memory. Thus, addition in the regression analysis of exposure information obtained at a different point in time was not informative and should be avoided. Further studies with better information on exposure profiles are needed to characterize the effects of postnatal methylmercury exposure. PMID:24681285

Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Debes, Frodi; Choi, Anna L; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

2014-01-01

379

Historical Estimation of Exposure to 1,3Butadiene, Styrene, and Dimethyldithiocarbamate Among Synthetic Rubber Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative estimates of exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD), styrene (STY), and dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) were developed for a follow-up study of workers at six North American synthetic rubber plants. Procedures entailed identifying tasks and jobs involving exposure, identifying factors influencing historical changes in exposure potential, and using mathematical models to calculate job- and time-period-specific exposures. Exposure metrics included 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA)

Maurizio Macaluso; Rodney Larson; Jeremiah Lynch; Sydney Lipton; Elizabeth Delzell

2004-01-01

380

Nuclear Energy: Radiation Exposure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an overview of the sources and potential effects of radiation exposure. Topics include the history of the United States' domestic nuclear power program, the concept of ionizing radiation, and how radiation dosage is measured. There is also discussion of what constitutes a lethal dose of radiation and potential sources of exposure. The lesson includes an activity in which students measure their individual yearly exposures to radiation by making an inventory of lifestyle factors that affect their potential dosage and using an online calculator to sum up the contributions from the various sources.

John Pratte

381

Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke: Factors Affecting Exposure and Remediation  

PubMed Central

Thirdhand smoke (THS) refers to components of secondhand smoke that stick to indoor surfaces and persist in the environment. Little is known about exposure levels and possible remediation measures to reduce potential exposure in contaminated areas. This study deals with the effect of aging on THS components and evaluates possible exposure levels and remediation measures. We investigated the concentration of nicotine, five nicotine related alkaloids, and three tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in smoke exposed fabrics. Two different extraction methods were used. Cotton terry cloth and polyester fleece were exposed to smoke in controlled laboratory conditions and aged before extraction. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for chemical analysis. Fabrics aged for 19 months after smoke exposure retained significant amounts of THS chemicals. During aqueous extraction, cotton cloth released about 41 times as much nicotine and about 78 times the amount of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) as polyester after one hour of aqueous extraction. Concentrations of nicotine and TSNAs in extracts of terry cloth exposed to smoke were used to estimate infant/toddler oral exposure and adult dermal exposure to THS. Nicotine exposure from THS residue can be 6.8 times higher in toddlers and 24 times higher in adults and TSNA exposure can be 16 times higher in toddlers and 56 times higher in adults than what would be inhaled by a passive smoker. In addition to providing exposure estimates, our data could be useful in developing remediation strategies and in framing public health policies for indoor environments with THS. PMID:25286392

Bahl, Vasundhra; Jacob, Peyton; Havel, Christopher; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Talbot, Prue

2014-01-01

382

Pesticide-Exposure Matrix  

Cancer.gov

The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

383

Infants and Peanut Exposure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... right-hand corner of the player. Infants and Peanut Exposure HealthDay February 24, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages ... Food Allergy Transcript Does delaying the introduction of peanuts to children's diets help prevent peanut allergy later ...

384

[Dermal exposure and absorption].  

PubMed

Dermal exposure assessment explores the dynamic interaction between environmental contaminants and the skin. The measure of skin exposure can be made using direct methods (interception techniques, removal techniques from skin, in situ detection) or indirect methods (biological monitoring, removal techniques from surfaces). The selection of the appropriate sampling method will depend on a range of factors (the sampling objectives, the compartment or transport process of interest, the nature of the agent and the analytical methods to be used) and should be part of a coherent and documented sampling strategy. In this work we describe the processes leading to exposure, in relation to the presence of clothing or protective garments, discuss on factors that influence skin penetration (both the physiologic characteristics of the skin and the physico-chemical nature of the compound that comes into contact with the skin) with the purpose to assess and manage the risk of skin exposure. PMID:21438233

Aprea, M C

2010-01-01

385

Exposure factors handbook  

SciTech Connect

The document provides a summary of the available data on various factors used in assessing human exposure including drinking-water consumption, consumption rates of broad classes of food including fruits, vegetables, beef, dairy products, and fish; soil ingestion; inhalation rate; skin area; lifetime; activity patterns; and body weight. Additionally, a number of specific exposure scenarios are identified with recommendations for default values to use when site-specific data are not available. The basic equations using these parameters to calculate exposure levels are also presented for each scenario. Default values are presented as ranges from typical to reasonable worst case and as frequency distributions where appropriate data were available. Finally, procedures for assessing the uncertainties in exposure assessments are also presented with illustrative examples. These procedures include qualitative and quantitative methods such as Monte Carlo and sensitivity analysis.

Konz, J.J.; Lisi, K.; Friebele, E.; Dixon, D.A.

1989-07-01

386

Post-Exposure Prophylaxis  

MedlinePLUS

... exposure. It is not a substitute for other proven HIV prevention methods, such as correct and consistent ... â?? HIV in Healthcare Settings CDC â?? Proven HIV Prevention Methods Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) ...

387

Radiation exposure and pregnancy.  

PubMed

Radiological exposure from nuclear power reactor accidents, transportation of nuclear waste accidents, industrial accidents, or terrorist activity may be a remote possibility, but it could happen. Nurses must be prepared to evaluate and treat pregnant women and infants who have been exposed to radiation, and to have an understanding of the health consequences of a nuclear or radiological incident. Pregnant women and infants are a special group of patients who need consideration when exposed to radiation. Initial care requires thorough assessment and decisions regarding immediate care needs. Ongoing care is based on type and extent of radiation exposure. With accurate, comprehensive information and education, nurses will be better prepared to help mitigate the effects of radiation exposure to pregnant women and infants following a radiological incident. Information about radiation, health effects of prenatal radiation exposure, assessment, patient care, and treatment of pregnant women and infants are presented. PMID:25333800

Labant, Amy; Silva, Christina

2014-01-01

388

NATIONAL EXPOSURE REGISTRY (NER)  

EPA Science Inventory

This system is a listing of persons (general population) with documented exposure to select hazardous substances (superfund related). All adverse health outcomes are monitored prospectively. Retrospective identification of adverse health outcomes (usually verified by medical reco...

389

Contamination vs. Exposure  

MedlinePLUS

... Medical Countermeasures Public Health Planning for Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism Radiation Basics Made ... exposure could occur if radioactive materials are released into the environment as the result of an accident, an event in nature, or an act of ...

390

Does Exposure Imitate Art?  

EPA Science Inventory

A presentation on the transformation in exposure science, similar to the transformation from realism to impressionism, which is required to realize the potential of NRC's vision for toxicity testing....

391

Cancer and developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors.  

PubMed Central

Developing organisms have increased susceptibility to cancer if they are exposed to environmental toxicants during rapid growth and differentiation. Human studies have demonstrated clear increases in cancer after prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation, and there is suggestive evidence that brain tumors and leukemia are associated with parental exposures to chemicals. Animal experiments have demonstrated increased tumor formation induced by prenatal or neonatal exposure to a variety of chemicals, including direct-acting carcinogens and drugs. Recently, natural estrogens have been classified as known human carcinogens. Prenatal exposure to natural and synthetic estrogens is associated with increases in breast and vaginal tumors in humans as well as uterine tumors in animals. Synthetic halogenated chemicals increase liver tumors after early life-stage exposure. Recently, a prototypical endocrine-disrupting compound, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, has been shown to be a developmental toxicant of the mammary gland in rodents. Dioxin alters multiple endocrine systems, and its effects on the developing breast involve delayed proliferation and differentiation of the mammary gland, as well as an elongation of the window of sensitivity to potential carcinogens. Implications of these new findings suggest that causes of endocrine-related cancers or susceptibility to cancer may be a result of developmental exposures rather than exposures existing at or near the time of tumor detection. PMID:12676588

Birnbaum, Linda S; Fenton, Suzanne E

2003-01-01

392

Exposure assessment: Integrating GIS and modeling  

SciTech Connect

The role of exposure assessment in investigating and understanding environmental health issues is to provide the linkage between information about and analyses of environmental contamination (by single- and multiple-media routes of exposure) and the potential for increased health risk or other consequences of exposure to toxic substances in humans. Therefore, exposure assessment of populations encompasses multidisciplinary scientific fields ranging from environmental contaminant source identification to epidemiologic investigations. When conducting exposure assessments, it is necessary to integrate geochemical and environmental databases consisting of spatial and temporal distributions of hydrogeologic data and chemical concentrations with demographic databases to determine the potentially exposed populations. This process is rather difficult and time consuming. Geographic information systems (GIS), however, provide a platform in which layered, spatially distributed databases can be manipulated with ease, thereby simplifying significantly the database management, visualization, and spatial analysis activities required to accomplish exposure assessment tasks. In this presentation, the authors describe procedures that combine environmental transport analyses (data distribution and simulation models) with demographic databases under a GIS platform to automate exposure assessment activities. The procedures significantly simplify the pre- and post-processing data management phase of the analysis and render the overall task more user friendly. A site-specific application is included as a demonstration of the proposed process.

Maslia, M.L. [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-12-31

393

Acute behavioral effects of styrene exposure: a further analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were carried out on two groups to styrene-based resin. Early morning urinary mandelic acid concentrations after two days without exposure correlated with reaction time measured on arrival at work. Men were found to differ considerably in their rate of clearance of mandelic acid-those with slow reaction times. After some months at reduced exposure, a small group of men with

N Cherry; B Rodgers; H Venables; H A Waldron; G G Wells

1981-01-01

394

Autoimmunity and asbestos exposure.  

PubMed

Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a) a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b) exposure misclassification, (c) latency of clinical disease, (d) mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e) effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease. PMID:24876951

Pfau, Jean C; Serve, Kinta M; Noonan, Curtis W

2014-01-01

395

Solar exposure of LDEF experiment trays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to solar radiation is one of the primary causes of degradation of materials on spacecraft. Accurate knowledge of solar exposure is needed to evaluate the performance of materials carried on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) during its nearly 6 year orbital flight. Presented here are tables and figures of calculated solar exposure for the experiment rows, longerons, and end bays of the spacecraft as functions of time in orbit. The data covers both direct solar and earth reflected radiation. Results are expressed in cumulative equivalent sun hours (CESH) or the hours of direct, zero incidence solar radiation that would cause the same irradiance of a surface. Space end bays received the most solar radiation, 14,000 CESH; earth end bays received the least, 4,500 CESH. Row locations received between 6,400 CESH and 11,200 CESH with rows facing either eastward or westward receiving the most radiation and rows facing northward or southward receiving the least.

Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.

1992-01-01

396

Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes. especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands, and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

Wilson, John W.; Mertens, Christopher J.; Goldhagen, Paul; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

2005-01-01

397

Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation and Human Exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric ionizing radiation is of interest, apart from its main concern of aircraft exposures, because it is a principal source of human exposure to radiations with high linear energy transfer (LET). The ionizing radiations of the lower atmosphere near the Earth s surface tend to be dominated by the terrestrial radioisotopes especially along the coastal plain and interior low lands and have only minor contributions from neutrons (11 percent). The world average is substantially larger but the high altitude cities especially have substantial contributions from neutrons (25 to 45 percent). Understanding the world distribution of neutron exposures requires an improved understanding of the latitudinal, longitudinal, altitude and spectral distribution that depends on local terrain and time. These issues are being investigated in a combined experimental and theoretical program. This paper will give an overview of human exposures and describe the development of improved environmental models.

Wilson, J. W.; Goldhagen, P.; Friedberg, W.; DeAngelis, G.; Clem, J. M.; Copeland, K.; Bidasaria, H. B.

2004-01-01

398

The Transient Dermal Exposure II: Post-Exposure Absorption and Evaporation of Volatile Compounds.  

PubMed

The transient dermal exposure is one where the skin is exposed to chemical for a finite duration, after which the chemical is removed and no residue remains on the skin's surface. Chemical within the skin at the end of the exposure period can still enter the systemic circulation. If it has some volatility, a portion of it will evaporate from the surface before it has a chance to be absorbed by the body. The fate of this post-exposure "skin depot" is the focus of this theoretical study. Laplace domain solutions for concentration distribution, flux, and cumulative mass absorption and evaporation are presented, and time domain results are obtained through numerical inversion. The Final Value Theorem is applied to obtain the analytical solutions for the total fractional absorption by the body and evaporation from skin at infinite time following a transient exposure. The solutions depend on two dimensionless variables: ?, the ratio of evaporation rate to steady-state dermal permeation rate; and the ratio of exposure time to membrane lag time. Simple closed form algebraic equations are presented that closely approximate the complete analytical solutions. Applications of the theory to the dermal risk assessment of pharmaceutical, occupational, and environmental exposures are presented for four example chemicals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:1499-1507, 2015. PMID:25611182

Frasch, H Frederick; Bunge, Annette L

2015-04-01

399

Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

Arcot, Divya K.

2010-01-01

400

Magnetic field exposure among utility workers.  

PubMed

The Electric and Magnetic Field Measurement Project for Utilities--the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Electric and Magnetic Field Digital Exposure (EMDEX) Project (the EPRI EMDEX Project)--was a multifaceted project that entailed technology transfer, measurement protocol design, data management, and exposure assessment analyses. This paper addresses one specific objective of the project: the collection, analysis, and documentation of power-frequency magnetic field exposures for a diverse population of utility workers. Field exposure data measured by an EMDEX system were collected by volunteer utility employees at 59 sites in four countries between September, 1988, and September, 1989. Specially designed sampling procedures and data collection protocols were used to ensure uniform implementation across sites. Volunteers within 13 job classifications recorded which of eight work or three nonwork environments they occupied while wearing an EMDEX meter. Approximately 50,000 hours of magnetic field exposure records taken at 10 s intervals were obtained, about 70% of which were from work environments. Exposures and time spent in environments were analyzed by primary work environment, by occupied environment, and by job classification. Generally, for utility-specific job classifications related to the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity, the field and exposure measurements in terms of workday mean field were higher than in more general occupations. The job classifications with the highest (median workday mean) exposure were substation operators (0.7 microT) and electricians (0.5 microT). Total variance also tended to be largest for utility-specific job classifications. For these workers, the contributions of between-worker and within-worker variances to total variance were about the same. Measurements in utility-specific environments were higher than in more general environments. Estimates of time-integrated exposure indicated that utility-specific job classifications received about one-half or more of their total exposure on the job. The nonwork field and exposure distributions for workers in all job categories were comparable with median nonworkday means of about 0.09 microT. PMID:7488254

Bracken, T D; Rankin, R F; Senior, R S; Alldredge, J R; Sussman, S S

1995-01-01

401

Inhalation exposure methodology.  

PubMed Central

Modern man is being confronted with an ever-increasing inventory of potentially toxic airborne substances. Exposures to these atmospheric contaminants occur in residential and commercial settings, as well as in the workplace. In order to study the toxicity of such materials, a special technology relating to inhalation exposure systems has evolved. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the techniques which are used in exposing laboratory subjects to airborne particles and gases. The various modes of inhalation exposure (whole body, head only, nose or mouth only, etc.) are described at length, including the advantages and disadvantages inherent to each mode. Numerous literature citations are included for further reading. Among the topics briefly discussed are the selection of appropriate animal species for toxicological testing, and the types of inhalation studies performed (acute, chronic, etc.). PMID:6383799

Phalen, R F; Mannix, R C; Drew, R T

1984-01-01

402

Toxic inhalational exposures.  

PubMed

Respirable toxicants are a spectrum of irritant and nonirritant gases, vapors, fumes, and airborne particles that can be entrained into the body through the respiratory tract, resulting in exposures that cause pulmonary injury and/or systemic disease. Sources of respirable toxicants include structural fires, industrial accidents, domestic mishaps, and intentional releases of injurious agents on the battleground (warfare) or in civilian settings (acts of terrorism). Acute toxic inhalational exposures may result in respiratory failure, multisystem organ dysfunction, and death. Management of victims includes assessment and protection of the airway, monitoring and treatment of systemic toxicity, and delivery of exposure-specific and nonspecific therapies that improve outcomes. Treatments may include antidotes, hyperbaric oxygen, and other nonspecific life-supporting interventions. PMID:22232204

Chen, Tze-Ming Benson; Malli, Harjoth; Maslove, David M; Wang, Helena; Kuschner, Ware G

2013-01-01

403

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodie