Science.gov

Sample records for radiodiagnostic level caracteristicas

  1. Bisamide bisthiol compounds useful for making technetium radiodiagnostic renal agents

    DOEpatents

    Davison, Alan; Brenner, David; Lister-James, John; Jones, Alun G.

    1987-06-16

    A radiodiagnostic bisamido-bisthio ligand useful for producing Tc-labelled radiodiagnostic renal agents is described. The ligand forms a complex with the radionuclide .sup.99m Tc suitable for administration as a radiopharmaceutical to obtain images of the kidney for diagnosis of kidney disfunction.

  2. Technetium radiodiagnostic fatty acids derived from bisamide bisthiol ligands

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Alun G.; Lister-James, John; Davison, Alan

    1988-05-24

    A bisamide-bisthiol ligand containing fatty acid substituted thiol useful for producing Tc-labelled radiodiagnostic imaging agents is described. The ligand forms a complex with the radionuclide .sup.99m Tc suitable for administration as a radiopharmaceutical to obtain images of the heart for diagnosis of myocardial disfunction.

  3. Influence of the exposure time in the area monitors at radiodiagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyton, F.; Ferreira, M. J.; Macedo, E. M.; Navarro, V. C. C.; Garcia, I. F. M.; Pereira, L. L. S.; Navarro, M. V. T.

    2016-07-01

    Area monitoring ensures radiation exposure at an acceptable level, which must be lower than the legal limit. Experimental measurements were taken in an ionizing radiation calibration laboratory. The specified reference radiation to radiation protection N80 was used. Five area monitors were used. The ranges of dose rate inaccuracy measured in rate mode for times ≤ 2 and ≥ 3s were from 10 to 48% and from 1 to 15%, respectively. The inaccuracy ranges measured in integrated mode for times ≤ 2 and ≥ 3s were from 4 to 8% and from 0 to 22%, respectively.

  4. [The foreign experience with the application of the modern radiodiagnostic methods for the estimation of prescription of death coming and time of infliction of injury].

    PubMed

    Fetisov, V A; Kuprina, T A; Sinitsyn, V E; Dubrova, S E; Filimonov, B A

    2016-01-01

    We undertook the analysis of the foreign publications concerning the application of the modern radiodiagnostic methods (including MSCT- and MRI-visualization) with reference to the solution of the traditional problems facing forensic medical expertise, such as the estimation of prescription of death coming and time of infliction of injury in the dead bodies. Both advantages and disadvantages of postmortem visualization of the corpses of adult subjects are discussed taking into consideration the period of time that elapsed between the death and the onset of the study as well as the character of the injuries. It was shown that the examination of the corpses using the up-to-date methods of radiodiagnostics prior to autopsy makes it possible for morphologists, jointly with radiologists, to identify, to see in the new light, and to evaluate the number of charges in the dead body, such as the alteration of the blood cell sedimentation rate, the formation of postmortem hypostases in the internal organs, the hardening of the walls of aorta and major blood vessels, right heart dilatation, gradual smoothing of the borderline between grey and white matter of the brain. Virtual autopsy can be useful , even for the study of such long-term processes in the corpses as putrefaction, saponification, mummification, and peat tanning. Moreover, this technique may be instrumental in the elucidation of the specific features of topographic-anatomical relationships between individual 'tissues and organs, detection of the concealed lesions, and a variety of pathological changes. Postmortem visualization allows for the quantitative evaluation of the severity of these transformations and the preliminary estimation of prescription of death coming. Also, radiodiagnostic methods can be employed to reliably visualize and measure various hemorrhagic events (from the density of such ones as liquid and clotted blood) in the tissues surrounding the fractures, in body cavities, and internal organs as

  5. EXPOSURE OF THE SWISS POPULATION BY RADIODIAGNOSTICS: 2013 REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Le Coultre, Régis; Bize, Julie; Champendal, Mélanie; Wittwer, David; Ryckx, Nick; Aroua, Abbas; Trueb, Philipp; Verdun, Francis R.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a nationwide investigation was conducted in Switzerland to establish the population's exposure from medical X rays. A hybrid approach was used combining the Raddose database accessible on-line by the participating practices and the Swiss medical tariffication system for hospitals. This study revealed that the average annual number of examinations is 1.2 per inhabitant, and the associated annual effective dose is 1.4 mSv. It also showed that computed tomography is the most irradiating modality and that it delivers 70 % of the total dose. The annual effective dose per inhabitant registered a 17 % increase in 5 y and is comparable with what was recently reported in neighbouring countries. PMID:26541187

  6. Determinacion de Caracteristicas Opticas del Telescopio OAN150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    En el Observatorio de Calar Alto, en Almería, España, está ubicado un telescopio de 15O-cms de diámetro -construído por REOSC- perteneciente al Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, con sede en Madrid, España. La infraestructura técnica del OAN ha sido tradicionalmente débil y actualmente se está haciendo un esfuerzo por fortalecerla. Existe una información muy limitada del telescopio en general; de su óptica en particular se conocían los valores de los parámetros principales pero sin saber si éstos corresponden a valores teóricos ó de construcción. Por ello se consideró necesario iniciar una investigación para conocer en detalle los valores reales de las componentes ópticas del telescopio, obteniéndose algunos resultados de interés. El primario del telescopio OANl5O es aproximadamente F/3 y el siste ma en su conjunto es F/8.2, con su sistema corrector de campo. En términos generales, la imagen es satisfactoria en todo el campo y, sin sistema corrector, la imagen axial también es buena. En un futuro muy cercano se piensa diseñar instrumentación adicional para este telescopio. Conocer con mayor precisión sus características puede ser de gran utilidad para tal fin, pues se efectúan los cálculos considerando conjuntamente al telescopio y al instrumento.

  7. Triglyceride level

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also cause swelling of your pancreas (called pancreatitis). The triglyceride level is usually included in a ... lower triglyceride levels may be used to prevent pancreatitis for levels above 500 mg/dL Low triglyceride ...

  8. Cortisol level

    MedlinePlus

    ... enable JavaScript. The cortisol blood test measures the level of cortisol in the blood. Cortisol is a ... in the morning. This is important, because cortisol level varies throughout the day. You may be asked ...

  9. Triglyceride level

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003493.htm Triglyceride level To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The triglyceride level is a blood test to measure the amount ...

  10. Let's Start Leveling about Leveling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasswell, Kath; Ford, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose a revised way of thinking about reading levels, one that promotes a wider and more flexible view of teacher decision making about the use of leveled texts in classrooms. They share five key principles to consider when looking at the use of instruction that involves matching leveled materials with readers.…

  11. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  12. Leveling Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Nazan

    2014-01-01

    A national survey reports that 42% of mainstream teachers have English language learners (ELLs) in their classrooms, but only 12.5% say they have been prepared to work with them (National Center for Education Statistics 2002). This article supplies a framework to address the cognitive demands of ELLs with varying proficiency levels, guided by the…

  13. Idaho Marketing Education Core Curriculum. Career Sustaining Level, Specialist Level, Supervisory Level, Entrepreneurial Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allbright, Bruce; Holup, John

    This guide lists the competencies expected to be developed in four levels of the marketing education curriculum in Idaho: the career sustaining level, the specialist level, the supervisory level, and the entrepreneurial level. For the career sustaining and specialist levels, 15 competencies are listed: define and apply the role of marketing in the…

  14. Making a Laser Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Harry

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how to construct a laser level. This laser level can be made using a typical 4' (or shorter) bubble level and a small laser point. The laser unit is detachable, so the bubble level can also be used in the conventional way. However, the laser level works better than a simple bubble level. Making this inexpensive device is an…

  15. Phosphinic acid functionalized polyazacycloalkane chelators for radiodiagnostics and radiotherapeutics: unique characteristics and applications.

    PubMed

    Notni, Johannes; Šimeček, Jakub; Wester, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    Given the wide application of positron emission tomography (PET), positron-emitting metal radionuclides have received much attention recently. Of these, gallium-68 has become particularly popular, as it is the only PET nuclide commercially available from radionuclide generators, therefore allowing local production of PET radiotracers independent of an on-site cyclotron. Hence, interest in optimized bifunctional chelators for the elaboration of (68) Ga-labeled bioconjugates has been rekindled as well, resulting in the development of improved triazacyclononane-triphosphinate (TRAP) ligand structures. The most remarkable features of these ligands are unparalleled selectivity for Ga(III) , rapid Ga(III) complexation kinetics, extraordinarily high thermodynamic stability, and kinetic inertness of the respective Ga(III) chelates. As a result, TRAP chelators exhibit very favorable (68) Ga-labeling properties. Based on the scaffolds NOPO (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-bis[methylene(hydroxymethyl)phosphinic acid]-7-[methylene(2-carboxyethyl)phosphinic acid]) and TRAP-Pr, tailored for convenient preparation of (68) Ga-labeled monomeric and multimeric bioconjugates, a variety of novel (68) Ga radiopharmaceuticals have been synthesized. These include bisphosphonates, somatostatin receptor ligands, prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting peptides, and cyclic RGD pentapeptides, for in vivo PET imaging of bone, neuroendocrine tumors, prostate cancer, and integrin expression, respectively. Furthermore, TRAP-based (68) Ga-labeled gadolinium(III) complexes have been proposed as bimodal probes for PET/MRI, and a cyclen-based analogue of TRAP-Pr has been suggested for the elaboration of targeted radiotherapeutics comprising radiolanthanide ions. Thus, polyazacycloalkane-based polyphosphinic acid chelators are a powerful toolbox for pharmaceutical research, particularly for the development of (68) Ga radiopharmaceuticals. PMID:24700633

  16. The Traits of Effective Spanish Writing = Las caracteristicas de la buena escritura en espanol. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Will A.; Arrasmith, Dean G.

    This English-Spanish language report includes the rationale for creating an assessment model for Spanish writing, offering an overview of the components of high quality assessment for any subject area, particularly Spanish writing. It presents the characteristics of effective Spanish writing, rubrics for scoring student performance based on the…

  17. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  18. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features on this page, ... called "bad" cholesterol For many people, abnormal cholesterol levels are partly due to an unhealthy lifestyle. This ...

  19. Therapeutic drug levels

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003430.htm Therapeutic drug levels To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Therapeutic drug levels are lab tests to look for the presence ...

  20. High potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    High potassium level is a problem in which the amount of potassium in the blood is higher than normal. The medical ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may ...

  1. Low magnesium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low magnesium level is a condition in which the amount of magnesium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical ... that convert or use energy ( metabolism ). When the level of magnesium in the body drops below normal, ...

  2. Low potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low potassium level is a condition in which the amount of potassium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical ... in the body. Common causes of low potassium level include: Antibiotics Diarrhea or vomiting Using too much ...

  3. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower ... and this causes many of the symptoms of low sodium. With low sodium level (hyponatremia), the imbalance of ...

  4. Video-Level Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Ray W.

    1993-01-01

    Video-level monitor developed to provide full-scene monitoring of video and indicates level of brightest portion. Circuit designed nonspecific and can be inserted in any closed-circuit camera system utilizing RS170 or RS330 synchronization and standard CCTV video levels. System made of readily available, off-the-shelf components. Several units are in service.

  5. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  6. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Grasso, Albert P.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  7. Levels in Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korthagen, Fred; Lagerwerf, Bram

    In 1957, Van Hiele published his study on levels in learning mathematics. In this article we present an elaboration of the theory on levels in learning and an illustration of this theory based on empirical results. We distinguish between three levels: The first is the formation of an image out of a range of familiar examples or experiences. Second, on the basis of the image a schema can be built, which includes all kinds of interrelated details. Third, a theory can be developed with basic assumptions, definitions, and logical inferences. Before entering the next level, the learner should be sufficiently experienced on the actual level. It is shown that the theory on levels in learning can be integrated with other learning principles, such as notions from constructivism.Received: 18 October 1994; Revised: 24 March 1995;

  8. Liquid level sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid level sensing device comprising a load cell supporting a column or stack of segments freely resting on one another. The density of each element is substantially identical to that of the surrounding liquid. The elements are freely guided within a surrounding tube. As each element is exposed above the liquid level, its weight will be impressed through the column to the load cell, thereby providing a signal at the load cell directly proportional to the liquid level elevation.

  9. Nuclear Level Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, S.M.

    2005-05-24

    Recent research in the area of nuclear level densities is reviewed. The current interest in nuclear astrophysics and in structure of nuclei off of the line of stability has led to the development of radioactive beam facilities with larger machines currently being planned. Nuclear level densities for the systems used to produce the radioactive beams influence substantially the production rates of these beams. The modification of level-density parameters near the drip lines would also affect nucleosynthesis rates and abundances.

  10. PEP liquid level system

    SciTech Connect

    Lauritzen, T.; Sah, R.C.

    1981-03-01

    A liquid level system has been installed in the accelerator housing of the PEP storage ring. This instrument spans the entire 2.2 km circumference of the PEP project, and over one hundred readouts provide reference elevations which are used for the accurate alignment of accelerator components. The liquid level has proven to be extremely precise (+-0.10 mm) and quick to use, and it has contributed to the accurate alignment of PEP before beam turn-on. Since the liquid level readouts are rigidly attached to the accelerator housing, the liquid level has been a convenient means to monitor the settling of the accelerator housing.

  11. Tiltmeter leveling mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.; Boro, Carl O.; Farris, Alvis

    2002-01-01

    A tiltmeter device having a pair of orthogonally disposed tilt sensors that are levelable within an inner housing containing the sensors. An outer housing can be rotated to level at least one of the sensor pair while the inner housing can be rotated to level the other sensor of the pair. The sensors are typically rotated up to about plus or minus 100 degrees. The device is effective for measuring tilts in a wide range of angles of inclination of wells and can be employed to level a platform containing a third sensor.

  12. Learning across Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    The theme of this year's Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) 2013 conference--"To see the world 'and' a grain of sand: Learning across levels of space, time and scale"--targets a provocative challenge for CSCL, namely that the interactions of collaborative learning be understood, supported and analysed at multiple levels. As the…

  13. Skimming & Scanning. Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward B.

    Part of a series intended to develop essential specialized reading skills, this text/workbook is designed to provide instruction and practice in skimming and scanning for students reading at the seventh through tenth grade reading levels, considered the advanced level. Part 1 of the book deals with skimming. A lesson defines skimming (the rapid…

  14. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  15. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Field, Michael E.; Sullivan, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  16. MISR Level 3 Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-06-04

    ... MISR Level 3 Imagery:   Overview  | Products |  View Data  |  Download Data There are currently five types of Level 3 ... MIL3MRD, MIL3QRD, MIL3YRD Parameter Definition Sample Radiance Radiance data for 4 bands and 9 view ...

  17. Definition of Virtual Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Bruce W.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an examination of graphical displays of solutions to time-dependent Schrodinger equation modeling a laser-excited three-level atom. It suggests that an energy level may be regarded as virtual when it is detuned from resonance by more than two Rabi frequencies. (Author/HM)

  18. Construal level and procrastination.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Sean M; Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov; Sherman, Steven J

    2008-12-01

    According to construal-level theory, events that are distant in time tend to be represented more abstractly than are events that are close in time. This mental association between level of abstractness and temporal distance is proposed to be a bidirectional relationship, such that level of representation of an event should also have effects on the time when the activity is performed. In the present studies, participants were asked to respond to a questionnaire via e-mail within 3 weeks. The questionnaire was designed to induce either an abstract or a concrete construal. Using a variety of manipulations of construal level, the studies supported the predictions of construal-level theory. Individuals were less likely to procrastinate performing the task when the questionnaire induced a more concrete construal. Furthermore, this effect did not depend on the attractiveness, importance, or perceived difficulty of the task. PMID:19121142

  19. Global sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, B.C. )

    1991-04-15

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise appear to be in large part due to authors' using data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries, where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to postglacial rebound (PGR) from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling PGR by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1991) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. The value for mean sea level rise obtained from a global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 is 1.8 mm/yr {plus minus} 0.1. This result provides confidence that carefully selected long tide gauge records measure the same underlying trend of sea level and that many old tide gauge records are of very high quality.

  20. Sea level variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Bruce C.

    1992-01-01

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records range from about one to three mm per year. The scatter of the estimates appears to arise largely from the use of data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends, and the effects of large interdecadal and longer sea level variations on short (less than 50+ years) or sappy records. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to isostatic rebound from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling rebound by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1990) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. A global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 yields the global sea level rise value 1.8 mm/year +/- 0.1. Greenhouse warming scenarios commonly forecast an additional acceleration of global sea level in the next 5 or 6+ decades in the range 0.1-0.2 mm/yr2. Because of the large power at low frequencies in the sea level spectrum, very long tide gauge records (75 years minimum) have been examined for past apparent sea level acceleration. For the 80-year period 1905-1985, 23 essentially complete tide gauge records in 10 geographic groups are available for analysis. These yielded the apparent global acceleration -0.011 (+/- 0.012) mm/yr2. A larger, less uniform set of 37 records in the same 10 groups with 92 years average length covering the 141 years from 1850-1991 gave 0.001 (+/- 0.008) mm/yr2. Thus there is no evidence for an apparent acceleration in the past 100+ years that is significant either statistically, or in comparison to values associated with global warming. Unfortunately, the large interdecadal fluctuations of sea level severely affect

  1. Immunoglobulin levels in Iraq.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Agidi, S K; Papiha, S S; Roberts, D F

    1977-01-01

    In a study of immunoglobulin levels in 192 apparently healthy individuals in Iraq, regional differences occur in IgE and IgG. The main levels of IgG, IgM and IgA tend to be low, and of IgE clearly elevated. It is suggested that this pattern may be explained by the presence of intestinal parasites which stimulate IgE production. The genetic differences that exist between the regional populations, and the occurrence of associations of immunoglobulin level with several polymorphic systems, suggests the possibility of a genetic element in the regional immunoglobulin differences. PMID:908174

  2. Predicting Aircraft Noise Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Computer program developed for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. Noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust jet flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine and airframe. Program written in FORTRAN IV.

  3. Sea level change

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1995 Scientific Assessment, Chapter 7. Sea Level Change, presents a modest revision of the similar chapter in the 1990 Assessment. Principal conclusions on observed sea-level change and the principal terms in the sea-level equation (ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice sheets, and land hydrology), including our knowledge of the present-day (defined as the 20th Century) components of sea-level rise, and projections of these for the future, are presented here. Some of the interesting glaciological problems which are involved in these studies are discussed in more detail. The emphasis here is on trends over decades to a century, not on shorter variations nor on those of the geologic past. Unfortunately, some of the IPCC projections had not been agreed at the time of writing of this paper, and these projections will not be given here. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Vitamin B12 level

    MedlinePlus

    The vitamin B12 level is a blood test that measures how much vitamin B12 is in your blood. ... a form of megaloblastic anemia caused by poor vitamin B12 absorption. This can occur when the stomach ...

  5. Liquid level controller

    DOEpatents

    Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

    1975-07-15

    A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

  6. Lead levels - blood

    MedlinePlus

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  7. Low potassium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... or vomiting Using too much laxative, which can cause diarrhea Chronic kidney disease Diuretic medicines (water pills), used to treat heart failure and high blood pressure Eating disorders (such as bulimia ) Low magnesium level Sweating

  8. Projecting future sea level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  9. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  10. Low magnesium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the body that convert or use energy ( metabolism ). When the level of magnesium in the body ... Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  11. Changing Sea Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, David

    2004-04-01

    Flooding of coastal communities is one of the major causes of environmental disasters world-wide. This textbook explains how sea levels are affected by astronomical tides, weather effects, ocean circulation and climate trends. Based on courses taught by the author in the U.K. and the U.S., it is aimed at undergraduate students at all levels, with non-basic mathematics being confined to Appendices and a website http://publishing.cambridge.org/resources/0521532183/.

  12. Contemporary sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion. PMID:21141661

  13. High level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, J L

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Division of Waste Products through a lead office at Savannah River is developing a program to immobilize all US high-level nuclear waste for terminal disposal. DOE high-level wastes include those at the Hanford Plant, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Savannah River Plant. Commercial high-level wastes, for which DOE is also developing immobilization technology, include those at the Nuclear Fuel Services Plant and any future commercial fuels reprocessing plants. The first immobilization plant is to be the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River, scheduled for 1983 project submission to Congress and 1989 operation. Waste forms are still being selected for this plant. Borosilicate glass is currently the reference form, but alternate candidates include concretes, calcines, other glasses, ceramics, and matrix forms.

  14. Liquid level detection

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, C.D.; Stie, K.E.; Wedel, M.W.; Stamper, K.R.

    1992-03-10

    This patent describes an apparatus for detecting the presence of a liquid level at a first point along the depth of a borehole, wherein the first point is selected for monitoring as a safe level for underground water in the borehole. It comprises a measuring tube having a length for extending from a reference surface to a second point, wherein the second point is predetermined distance below the first point in the borehole, means for installing the measuring tube in the borehole, wherein the lower end of the measuring tube is positionable in the borehole at the second point; and means for establishing a visual signal responsive to the liquid level in the borehole, wherein the visual signal is significantly elevated above the earth's surface.

  15. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  16. Liquid level sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Atul; Karekar, R.N.; Aiyer, R.C.

    2005-10-15

    The article reports an idea of using a simple, cantilever-type load cell with a rod as a level sensor for continuous liquid level measurements. The sensor is based on the principle of the Archimedes buoyancy principle. The density and geometry of the rod govern the choice of the load cell. The length of the rod is governed by the height of the tank. A series of cyclic tests have demonstrated a highly repeatable response of the sensor. The accuracy of this low-cost sensor is field tested and found to be {+-}0.5% of the full range, for a 10 m level of water in a tank, and is working reliably for the period of 18 months. The sensor range can be easily extended to lower and higher tank heights. The sensor is crowned by its easy installation and calibration.

  17. Nuclear Level Densities

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, S. M.; Voinov, A.

    2009-01-28

    A summary of some recent level density research is presented. Although the subject is an old one, it is argued that a number of unanswered questions remain. These include uncertainties in related quantities such as the parity ratio and the spin cutoff parameter, which are needed to deduce level density parameters from resonance counting for low energy neutrons. Additional points of interest are the extent to which the low energy region shows constant temperature rather than Fermi gas energy dependence, whether the region below the neutron binding energy shows significant structure and whether the level density for fixed A shows a drop for neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei compared to nuclei on the valley of stability.

  18. Uncertainty of decibel levels.

    PubMed

    Taraldsen, Gunnar; Berge, Truls; Haukland, Frode; Lindqvist, Bo Henry; Jonasson, Hans

    2015-09-01

    The mean sound exposure level from a source is routinely estimated by the mean of the observed sound exposures from repeated measurements. A formula for the standard uncertainty based on the Guide to the expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is derived. An alternative formula is derived for the case where the GUM method fails. The formulas are applied on several examples, and compared with a Monte Carlo calculation of the standard uncertainty. The recommended formula can be seen simply as a convenient translation of the uncertainty on an energy scale into the decibel level scale, but with a theoretical foundation. PMID:26428824

  19. Liquid-level detector

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

  20. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid level sensor having a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

  1. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kotz, Dennis M.; Hinz, William R.

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  2. Gulf Arabic: Intermediate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qafisheh, Hamdi A.

    This Gulf Arabic text is designed for those who want to acquire a conversational tool beyond the basic level; it is also of interest to Arabists, anthropologists, and Arabic dialectologists. The language in this text is used in informal situations by the indigenous populations of the southern coast of the Persian Gulf. The text contains 21 lessons…

  3. Sound level measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-07-01

    This report describes procedures for measuring the sound levels of developmental and production materiel as a means of evaluating personnel safety, recognition and community annoyance (by a drive-by test). It covers tests for steady-state noise from military vehicles and general equipment, and impulse noise from weapon systems and explosive ordnance material.

  4. Current level detector

    DOEpatents

    Kerns, Cordon R.

    1977-01-01

    A device is provided for detecting the current level of a DC signal. It includes an even harmonic modulator to which a reference AC signal is applied. The unknown DC signal acts on the reference AC signal so that the output of the modulator includes an even harmonic whose amplitude is proportional to the unknown DC current.

  5. Middle Level Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyman, Richard M., Jr.; Young, Katherine A.; Sliger, Bruce; Kafi, Patricia; Singer, Alan; Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1998-01-01

    Presents five brief articles related to middle-level learning. The articles are, "Using Children's Diaries to Teach the Oregon Trail"; "Living the Geography of Joseph and Temperance Brown"; "The ABCs of Small Grant Acquisition for Social Studies"; "Isomo Loruko: The Yoruba Naming Ceremony"; and "Child Laborers in Children's Literature." (MJP)

  6. Levels of Valence

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Vera; Sander, David; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2013-01-01

    The distinction between the positive and the negative is fundamental in our emotional life. In appraisal theories, in particular in the component process model of emotion (Scherer, 1984, 2010), qualitatively different types of valence are proposed based on appraisals of (un)pleasantness, goal obstructiveness/conduciveness, low or high power, self-(in)congruence, and moral badness/goodness. This multifaceted conceptualization of valence is highly compatible with the frequent observation of mixed feelings in real life. However, it seems to contradict the one-dimensional conceptualization of valence often encountered in psychological theories, and the notion of valence as a common currency used to explain choice behavior. Here, we propose a framework to integrate the seemingly disparate conceptualizations of multifaceted valence and one-dimensional valence by suggesting that valence should be conceived at different levels, micro and macro. Micro-valences correspond to qualitatively different types of evaluations, potentially resulting in mixed feelings, whereas one-dimensional macro-valence corresponds to an integrative “common currency” to compare alternatives for choices. We propose that conceptualizing levels of valence may focus research attention on the mechanisms that relate valence at one level (micro) to valence at another level (macro), leading to new hypotheses, and addressing various concerns that have been raised about the valence concept, such as the valence-emotion relation. PMID:23717292

  7. Levels of Conceptual Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the Piagetian stages of cognitive development and their significance to the science curriculum. Refers to research that indicates that a number of concepts incorporated into the Nuffield O-level physics and chemistry curricula come too early in the courses, before many students have developed sufficiently to deal with them. (JR)

  8. Blood Cotinine Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the presence of cotinine in the blood of the U.S. population from 1999 to 2008. Blood cotinine levels from this period are also compared to those measured during earlier surveys (1988 to 1991). Blood cotinine is a chemical that forms inside the body af...

  9. High blood cholesterol levels

    MedlinePlus

    Steps you can take to improve their cholesterol levels, and help prevent heart disease and a heart attack include: Quit smoking. This is the single biggest change you can make to reduce your risk of heart attack and stroke. Eat foods ...

  10. SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…

  11. Lassoing Levels of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniz, Eva Vera

    In early stages of writing, the writing process encourages "writing the way we talk," but in the end students are expected to write as academicians: a student must control his/her written level of language. For English speaking students, needing to belong to ingroups, and the casual attitude of American society both contribute to students'…

  12. IMPORT "CLEARANCE" LEVEL METHODOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    All materials contain some levels of radioactivity, both natural and man-made. As detection devices installed at borders and ports become more sensitive, materials, which might otherwise be considered "clean", could therefore become suspect. The purpose of this activity is to p...

  13. School Sound Level Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    California has conducted on-site sound surveys of 36 different schools to determine the degree of noise, and thus disturbance, within the learning environment. This report provides the methodology and results of the survey, including descriptive charts and graphs illustrating typical desirable and undesirable sound levels. Results are presented…

  14. Predicted airframe noise levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raney, J. P.

    1980-09-01

    Calculated values of airframe noise levels corresponding to FAA noise certification conditions for six aircraft are presented. The aircraft are: DC-9-30; Boeing 727-200; A300-B2 Airbus; Lockheed L-1011; DC-10-10; and Boeing 747-200B. The prediction methodology employed is described and discussed.

  15. Levels of Geometric Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegg, John; Davey, Geoff

    1991-01-01

    Three activities are presented to assess the level of students' geometric understanding according to van Hiele learning model. The activities--Descriptions, Minimum Properties, and Class Inclusion--are applied to the example of classifying quadrilaterals as squares, rectangles, rhombi, or parallelograms. Implications of this assessment are…

  16. Levelling Australian Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyke, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    Traces the development of Australia's binary system of higher education, in which universities granted degrees and colleges of advanced education (CAE's) and teachers colleges issued diplomas and certificates, through the rapid growth of the past 20 years as Commonwealth funding has raised the level of teachers colleges and of CAE's, which now…

  17. Assessment without Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Sarah; Davies, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Assessment is primarily a matter of judgement rather than measurement, yet for too long the nation has been pretending that pupils' attainment and measurement can be measured in increasingly fine detail (one APS "point" being one sixth of an original National Curriculum level). The lack of validity and reliability of this approach…

  18. Urinary Pesticide Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the presence of pesticide metabolite levels in urine in the U.S. population from 1999 to 2004. This indicator reports the results of human biomonitoring for three classes of non-persistent insecticides (carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids)...

  19. Assessment after Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Geraint; Burnham, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago, two heads of department in contrasting schools presented a powerfully-argued case for resisting the use of level descriptions within their assessment regimes. Influenced both by research into the nature of children's historical thinking and by principles of assessment "for" learning, Sally Burnham and Geraint Brown…

  20. Developing Higher Level Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbach, Barbara; Waugh, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies an interdisciplinary, five-step process, built upon existing theory and best practices in cognitive development, effective learning environments, and outcomes-based assessment. The "Process for the Development of Higher Level Thinking Skills" provides teachers with an easy to implement method of moving toward a more…

  1. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  2. ENRAF gauge reference level calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This document describes the method for calculating reference levels for Enraf Series 854 Level Detectors as installed in the tank farms. The reference level calculation for each installed level gauge is contained herein.

  3. Understanding Sea Level Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean sea level; any short-term or long-term sea level change relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such changes in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global sea-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of sea water) following global climate; (2) mass-budget changes due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of sea surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding sea level changes "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of climate change and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.

  4. Level up Book Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGarde, Jennifer; Winner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Like all great ideas, Level Up Book Club grew out of a genuine need, the spontaneous firing of a few brain sparks, and the kind of luck that comes from being "in the right place at the right time." By mid-June 2011 the authors were already "bona fide" wonder twins--two educators who, although they'd never met, had stumbled upon each other through…

  5. Liquid Level Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korman, Valentin (Inventor); Wiley, John T. (Inventor); Duffell, Amanda G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A liquid level sensing system includes waveguides disposed in a liquid and distributed along a path with a gap between adjacent waveguides. A source introduces electromagnetic energy into the waveguides at a first end of the path. A portion of the electromagnetic energy exits the waveguides at a second end of the path. A detector measures the portion of the electromagnetic energy exiting the second end of the path.

  6. System level electrochemical principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional electrochemical storage concepts are difficult to translate into high power, high voltage multikilowatt storage systems. The increased use of electronics, and the use of electrochemical couples that minimize the difficulties associated with the corrective measures to reduce the cell to cell capacity dispersion were adopted by battery technology. Actively cooled bipolar concepts are described which represent some attractive alternative system concepts. They are projected to have higher energy densities lower volumes than current concepts. They should be easier to scale from one capacity to another and have a closer cell to cell capacity balance. These newer storage system concepts are easier to manage since they are designed to be a fully integrated battery. These ideas are referred to as system level electrochemistry. The hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cells (RFC) is probably the best example of the integrated use of these principles.

  7. Liquid level detector

    DOEpatents

    Tshishiku, Eugene M.

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  8. Mediterranean sea level variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigo, I.; Sánchez Reales, J. M.; García, D.; Chao, B. F.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we report an updated study of the sea level variations for the Mediterranean sea for the period from October 1992 to January 2008. The study addresses two mayor issues: (i)The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of sea surface height (SSH) from radar altimetry measurements (from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) + Jason-1, etc.). We use EOF analysis to explain most of its interannual variation, and how the different basins interact. (ii) The analysis of dynamics and balance of water mass transport for the whole period. We estimate the steric SSH by combining the steric SSH estimated from temperature and salt profiles simulated by the ECCO model with time-variable gravity (TVG) data (from GRACE) for the Mediterranean Sea. The estimated steric SSH together with the SSH obtained from altimetry allow for a more realistic estimation of the water mass variations in the Mediterranean for the whole period.

  9. Switch wear leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  10. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  11. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la seccion de entrada mediante un mayor o menor aporte de corriente al puente. Como consecuencia, la seccion de entrada del paralelo, ya de por si mas voluminosa que lao del serie por el uso de grandes componentes magneticos (bobinas de filtro o de "alisamiento"), result a tambien mas complicada y costosa debido a la necesidad de ser implementada mediante rectificador controlado. Ademas, la regulacion que ofrece el rectificador es pobre, dada su baja frecuencia de conmutacion. En cambio, el circuito serie puede funcionar por encima de la resonancia manteniendo una secuencia de conmutacion sin riesgos de recuperacion inversa y con una corriente de salida practicamente sinusoidal, lo que permite un control de la potencia por variacion de frecuencia. Puesto que la tarea de regulacion se realiza desde el puente inversor, la regulacion resulta mucho mas eficaz y la seccion de entrada se puede implementar mediante un simple rectificador no controlado y un condensador de filtro. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  12. Caracteristicas de la Instruccion Programada como Tecnica de Ensenanza (Characteristics of Programed Instruction as a Teaching Technique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorrego, Maria Elena

    This discussion of programed instruction begins with the fundamental psychological aspects and learning theories behind this teaching method. Negative and positive reinforcement, conditioning, and their relationship to programed instruction are considered. Different types of programs, both linear and branching, are discussed; criticism of the…

  13. Science Curriculum Guide, Level 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newark School District, DE.

    The fourth of four levels in a K-12 science curriculum is outlined. In Level 4 (grades 9-12), science areas include earth science, biology, chemistry, and physics. Six major themes provide the basis for study in all levels (K-12). These are: Change, Continuity, Diversity, Interaction, Limitation, and Organization. In Level 4, all six themes are…

  14. The CDF LEVEL3 trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, T.; Joshi, U.; Auchincloss, P.

    1989-04-01

    CDF is currently taking data at a luminosity of 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using a four level event filtering scheme. The fourth level, LEVEL3, uses ACP (Fermilab`s Advanced Computer Program) designed 32 bit VME based parallel processors (1) capable of executing algorithms written in FORTRAN. LEVEL3 currently rejects about 50% of the events.

  15. OVERALL VIEW OF BASEMENT LEVEL LOOKING SOUTHEAST ( SAME LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERALL VIEW OF BASEMENT LEVEL LOOKING SOUTHEAST ( SAME LEVEL AS CYLINDER HEADS IN PREVIOUS VIEWS). - Colt Fire Arms Company, East Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  16. Bit-level systolic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    De Groot, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this dissertation the author considered the design of bit - level systolic arrays where the basic computational unit consists of a simple one - bit logic unit, so that the systolic process is carried out at the level of individual bits. In order to pursue the foregoing research, several areas have been studied. First, the concept of systolic processing has been investigated. Several important algorithms were investigated and put into systolic form using graph-theoretic methods. The bit-level, word-level and block-level systolic arrays which have been designed for these algorithms exhibit linear speedup with respect to the number of processors and exhibit efficiency close to 100%, even with low interprocessor communication bandwidth. Block-level systolic arrays deal with blocks of data with block-level operations and communications. Block-level systolic arrays improve cell efficiency and are more efficient than their word-level counterparts. A comparison of bit-level, word-level and block-level systolic arrays was performed. In order to verify the foregoing theory and analysis a systolic processor called the SPRINT was developed to provide and environment where bit-level, word-level and block-level systolic algorithms could be confirmed by direct implementation rather than by computer simulation. The SPRINT is a supercomputer class, 64-element multiprocessor with a reconfigurable interconnection network. The theory has been confirmed by the execution on the SPRINT of the bit-level, word-level, and block-level systolic algorithms presented in the dissertation.

  17. MOPITT V7 Level 1 & Level 2 Release Announcement

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-02

    MOPITT V7 Level 1 & Level 2 Release Announcement Wednesday, August 10, 2016 ... Infrared Radiances) •   MOP01    - MOPITT Level 1 Radiances   Several significant retrieval algorithm and product ... Featured improvements in the V7 retrieval products include (1) the representation of changing atmospheric concentrations of N2O, (2) ...

  18. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  19. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Aug 17,2016 How’s your cholesterol? Time to get it checked! Keeping your cholesterol levels healthy is a great way to keep your ...

  20. MISR Level 1A Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... MISR Level 1A Products Level 1A Engineering Data File Type 1 and Level 1A Navigation Data Processing ... Product Specification Rev K  (PDF). Transparent software rebuild with Irix 6.5.2 OS. F01_0007 (FM_ENG), ...

  1. The levels of analysis revisited.

    PubMed

    MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2011-07-27

    The term levels of analysis has been used in several ways: to distinguish between ultimate and proximate levels, to categorize different kinds of research questions and to differentiate levels of reductionism. Because questions regarding ultimate function and proximate mechanisms are logically distinct, I suggest that distinguishing between these two levels is the best use of the term. Integrating across levels in research has potential risks, but many benefits. Consideration at one level can help generate novel hypotheses at the other, define categories of behaviour and set criteria that must be addressed. Taking an adaptationist stance thus strengthens research on proximate mechanisms. Similarly, it is critical for researchers studying adaptation and function to have detailed knowledge of proximate mechanisms that may constrain or modulate evolutionary processes. Despite the benefits of integrating across ultimate and proximate levels, failure to clearly identify levels of analysis, and whether or not hypotheses are exclusive alternatives, can create false debates. Such non-alternative hypotheses may occur between or within levels, and are not limited to integrative approaches. In this review, I survey different uses of the term levels of analysis and the benefits of integration, and highlight examples of false debate within and between levels. The best integrative biology reciprocally uses ultimate and proximate hypotheses to generate a more complete understanding of behaviour. PMID:21690126

  2. Interior view of level 2 and level 3 below, note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of level 2 and level 3 below, note cages, steel ceiling, and floor support, view facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Dry Dock No. 1, Pumpwell, By-Pass Valve & Saltwater Pumphouse, North end of Fifth Street, between Dry Dock No. 1 & Facility GD2 , Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. OVERVIEW OF FOURTH LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB (ROOFTOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF FOURTH LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB (ROOFTOP LEVEL OF BUILDING) SHOWING TOP OF MISSILE TUBE. VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. 47. MAIN WAREHOUSE SECOND LEVEL ADDITION Second level was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. MAIN WAREHOUSE - SECOND LEVEL ADDITION Second level was added in 1941. Note the variety of building materials used in the wall: cement, bricks and finally cement blocks, with wood topping the entire wall. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  5. 2. TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL INTERIOR, SHOWING MEZZANINE LEVEL CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL INTERIOR, SHOWING MEZZANINE LEVEL CABLE RACK AT UPPER RIGHT. Looking north. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. 17. Interior of upper level (Turf Club level) of south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior of upper level (Turf Club level) of south and west additions to the Clubhouse. Camera pointed W. Stairs in foreground lead to the 'Gallery' room. Stairs in background lead to the 'Callahan' room. 'Broderick' room (not shown) is entered from south side of 'Gallery' room. (July 1993) - Longacres, Clubhouse & Additions, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  7. TV Video-Level Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kravitz, M.; Freedman, L. A.; Fredd, E. H.; Denef, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    Constant output maintained, though luminance varies by 5 million to 1. Three means of normalizing video output utilized in video-level controller: iris adjustment, tube voltage adjustment, and automatic gain control. With aid of automatic light control and gain control, television camera accommodates maximum light level 5 million times greater than lowest light level, while outputting constant 3-V peak signal to processing circuitry.

  8. Developing new levels of edit

    SciTech Connect

    Prono, J.K.

    1997-06-01

    Since 1985, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) staff have had four levels of edit to choose from for technical reports. When a CQI survey showed that both authors and editors felt the levels were not meeting author needs, LANL set about revising them. The goals were to simplify the editing process, focus editing on improving technical clarity, and ensure value added in editing. This paper describes the revision process and product--three author-based levels of edit.

  9. Developing new levels of edit

    SciTech Connect

    Prono, J.; DeLanoy, M.; Deupree, R.; Skiby, J.; Thompson, B.

    1998-07-01

    In 1985, the writing and editing group at Los Alamos National Laboratory established four levels of edit for technical reports. When a survey in 1994 showed that both authors and editors felt the levels were not meeting author needs, the authors set about revising them. Their goals were to simplify the editing process, focus editing on improving technical clarity, and ensure that value was added in editing. This paper describes the revision process and product -- three author-based levels of edit.

  10. Level densities of heaviest nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezbakh, A. N.; Shneidman, T. M.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2014-06-01

    The intrinsic level densities of superheavy nuclei in the α-decay chains of 296,298,300120 are calculated using the single-particle spectra obtained with the modified two-center shell model. The role of the shell and pairing effects on the level density as well as their quenching with excitation energy are studied. The extracted level density parameter is expressed as a function of mass number, ground-state shell correction, and excitation energy. The results are compared with the phenomenological values of level density parameters used to calculate the survival of excited heavy nuclei.

  11. Two Sea-Level Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, C.

    2008-12-01

    "No place on the sandy ocean shores of the world has been shown to be eroding because of sea level rise." This statement appeared nearly 19 years ago in bold print at the top of the page in a brief article published in Shore and Beach (Galvin,1990). The term "sea level rise" was defined in 1990 as follows: "In this statement, "sea level rise" has the meaning that the average person on the street usually attaches to that term. That is, sea level is rising; not, as in some places like the Mississippi River delta, land level is sinking." While still a subject of controversy, it is now (2008) increasingly plausible (Tornqvist et al,2008) that damage from Hurricane Katrina was significantly worse on the Mississippi River delta because floodwaters exploited wetlands and levees whose elevations had been lowered by decades of compaction in the underlying soil. (1) "Sea level" commonly appears in the literature as "relative sea level rise", occurring that way in 711 publications between 1980 and 2009 (GeoRef database on 8 Sep 08). "Relative sea level rise" does not appear in the 2005 AGI Glossary. The nearest Glossary term is "relative change in sea level", but that term occurs in only 12 publications between 1980 and 2009. The Glossary defines this term in a sequence stratigraphy sense, which infers that "relative sea level rise" is the sum of bottom subsidence and eustatic sea level rise. In plain English, "relative sea level rise" means "water depth increase". For present day coastal environments, "relative sea level rise" is commonly used where eustatic sea level rise is less than subsidence, that is, where the magnitude of actual sea level rise is smaller than the magnitude of subsidence. In that situation, "relative sea level rise" misleads both the average person and the scientist who is not a coastal geologist. Thus, the first challenge is to abandon "relative sea level rise" in favor of "water depth increase", in order that the words accurately descibe what happens

  12. Balancing regional sea level budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuliette, E. W.; Miller, L.; Tamisiea, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Balancing the sea-level budget is critical to understanding recent and future climate change as well as balancing Earth's energy budget and water budget. During the last decade, advancements in the ocean observing system — satellite altimeters, hydrographic profiling floats, and space-based gravity missions — have allowed the global mean sea level budget to?be assessed with unprecedented accuracy from direct, rather than inferred, estimates. In particular, several recent studies have used the sea-level budget to bound the rate of deep ocean warming [e.g. Llovel et al. 2014]. On a monthly basis, the sum of the steric component estimated from Argo and the ocean mass (barostatic) component from GRACE agree total sea level from Jason within the estimated uncertainties with the residual difference having an r.m.s. of less than 2 mm [Leuliette 2014]. Direct measurements of ocean warming above 2000 m depth during January 2005 and July 2015 explain about one-third of the observed annual rate of global mean sea-level rise. Extending the understanding of the sea-level budget from global mean sea level to regional patterns of sea level change is crucial for identifying regional differences in recent sea level change. The local sea-level budget can be used to identify any systematic errors in the global ocean observing system. Using the residuals from closing the sea level budget, we demonstrate that systematic regional errors remain, in part due to Argo sampling. We also show the effect of applying revised geocentric pole-tide corrections for GRACE [Wahr et al. 2015] and altimetry [Desai et al., 2015].

  13. The Many Levels of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banchi, Heather; Bell, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Elementary teachers often struggle with how to design and implement inquiry instruction with their students. For many, just understanding what inquiry is can be difficult--let alone designing activities that support high levels of inquiry. In this article, the authors present a continuum by which to evaluate an activity's level of inquiry. Then,…

  14. Tethered float liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Daily, III, William Dean

    2016-09-06

    An apparatus for sensing the level of a liquid includes a float, a tether attached to the float, a pulley attached to the tether, a rotation sensor connected to the pulley that senses vertical movement of said float and senses the level of the liquid.

  15. Probability of sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, J.G.; Narayanan, V.K.

    1995-10-01

    The report develops probability-based projections that can be added to local tide-gage trends to estimate future sea level at particular locations. It uses the same models employed by previous assessments of sea level rise. The key coefficients in those models are based on subjective probability distributions supplied by a cross-section of climatologists, oceanographers, and glaciologists.

  16. Levels of Evaluation: Beyond Kirkpatrick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger; Keller, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Expands Kirkpatrick's four-level evaluation model (reaction, learning, behavior, results) to five levels: enabling/reaction, acquisition, application, organizational outputs, and societal outcomes. The expanded model enables consideration of the value and worth of training resources as well as the broader social consequences. (SK)

  17. Fast response cryogen level sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, J. B.; Maier, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    Liquid level in cryogenic tank or pipe, or amount of gas trapped in pipeline flow, is monitored electronically by cylindrical capacitive sensor. Changes in liquid level between concentric tubes of capacitor change its impedance, varying current in drive circuit. Since it is oriented parallel to direction of liquid flow, sensor presents little resistance to moving fluid.

  18. Teaching the Low Level Achiever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for teachers of the English language arts, the articles in this issue offer suggestions and techniques for teaching the low level achiever. Titles and authors of the articles are as follows: (1) "A Point to Ponder" (Rachel Martin); (2) "Tracking: A Self-Fulfilling Prophecy of Failure for the Low Level Achiever" (James Christopher Davis);…

  19. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Farm Management and Leadership. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in farm management and leadership: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with farm management. SMAT materials can…

  1. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  2. Farmers as Employers. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication and numeracy skills…

  3. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  4. Agricultural Production. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in agricultural production: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed to deal with…

  5. Farm Management and Leadership. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in farm management and leadership: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner with the reading, writing, and spoken communication skills needed to deal with…

  6. Paired-Associate Learning at Three Imagery Levels in Level I and Level II Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prawat, Richard S.

    Two views of paired-associate learning were examined by assessing the paired-associate learning efficiency of eighth grade samples identified by digit span and IQ test performance as Jensen-type Level I and Level II learners. Eighty eighth grade students ranging in age from 13 years 3 months to 14 years 10 months were selected as subjects. Three…

  7. Farmers as Employers. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of farmers as employers: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with employment of agriculture…

  8. Are There Levels of Consciousness?

    PubMed

    Bayne, Tim; Hohwy, Jakob; Owen, Adrian M

    2016-06-01

    The notion of a level of consciousness is a key construct in the science of consciousness. Not only is the term employed to describe the global states of consciousness that are associated with post-comatose disorders, epileptic absence seizures, anaesthesia, and sleep, it plays an increasingly influential role in theoretical and methodological contexts. However, it is far from clear what precisely a level of consciousness is supposed to be. This paper argues that the levels-based framework for conceptualizing global states of consciousness is untenable and develops in its place a multidimensional account of global states. PMID:27101880

  9. Making A Precisely Level Floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.; Walker, William H.; Cather, Jim; Burch, John B.; Clark, Keith M.; Johnston, Dwight; Henderson, David E.

    1989-01-01

    Floor-pouring procedure yields large surface level, smooth, and hard. Floor made of self-leveling, slow-curing epoxy with added black pigment. Epoxy poured to thickness no greater than 0.33 in. (0.84 cm) on concrete base. Base floor seasoned, reasonably smooth and level, and at least 4 in. (10cm) thick. Base rests on thermal barrier of gravel or cinders and contains no steel plates, dividers, or bridges to minimize thermal distortion. Metal retaining wall surrounds base.

  10. Optical Cryogenic Tank Level Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffell, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Cryogenic fluids play an important role in space transportation. Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are vital fuel components for liquid rocket engines. It is also difficult to accurately measure the liquid level in the cryogenic tanks containing the liquids. The current methods use thermocouple rakes, floats, or sonic meters to measure tank level. Thermocouples have problems examining the boundary between the boiling liquid and the gas inside the tanks. They are also slow to respond to temperature changes. Sonic meters need to be mounted inside the tank, but still above the liquid level. This causes problems for full tanks, or tanks that are being rotated to lie on their side.

  11. Conservation Level and Category Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, C. Rayfield; Kulhavy, Raymond W.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that category recall is related to the quantity conservation of mass, weight, and volume. The predicted association between conservation level and category recall was observed. (JMB)

  12. The CMS high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  13. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  14. Processing TES Level-2 Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poosti, Sassaneh; Akopyan, Sirvard; Sakurai, Regina; Yun, Hyejung; Saha, Pranjit; Strickland, Irina; Croft, Kevin; Smith, Weldon; Hoffman, Rodney; Koffend, John; Benenyan, Gerard; Nair, Hari; Sarkissian, Edwin; McDuffie, James; Monarrez, Ruth; Ho,David; Chan, Benny; Lampel, Michael

    2006-01-01

    TES Level 2 Subsystem is a set of computer programs that performs functions complementary to those of the program summarized in the immediately preceding article. TES Level-2 data pertain to retrieved species (or temperature) profiles, and errors thereof. Geolocation, quality, and other data (e.g., surface characteristics for nadir observations) are also included. The subsystem processes gridded meteorological information and extracts parameters that can be interpolated to the appropriate latitude, longitude, and pressure level based on the date and time. Radiances are simulated using the aforementioned meteorological information for initial guesses, and spectroscopic-parameter tables are generated. At each step of the retrieval, a nonlinear-least-squares- solving routine is run over multiple iterations, retrieving a subset of atmospheric constituents, and error analysis is performed. Scientific TES Level-2 data products are written in a format known as Hierarchical Data Format Earth Observing System 5 (HDF-EOS 5) for public distribution.

  15. MISR Level 1A Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... Data Product Specification Rev D  (PDF). HDF file access efficiency updates. F01_0003 02/16/2001 ... Initial baseline for all Level 1 products available for public release. Baseline Software:  N/A ...

  16. High-level-waste immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, J L

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form.

  17. Lactate levels with glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Arunpreet Singh; Alexander, Mariam; Kahlon, Arundeep; Wright, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    A 37-year-old woman with known glioblastoma multiforme was admitted for treatment of new deep vein thrombosis. Anion gap and plasma lactate levels were found to be elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a stable, advanced glioblastoma multiforme. All causes of lactic acidosis, including infections and medications, were ruled out. Aggressive tumors have been shown to produce lactate levels in minute quantities in their microenvironment, which helps them metastasize and evade immune response and even radiation. PMID:27365883

  18. Sea Level Rise in Tuvalu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. C.; Ho, C. R.; Cheng, Y. H.

    2012-04-01

    Most people, especially for Pacific Islanders, are aware of the sea level change which may caused by many factors, but no of them has deeper sensation of flooding than Tuvaluan. Tuvalu, a coral country, consists of nine low-lying islands in the central Pacific between the latitudes of 5 and 10 degrees south, has the average elevation of 2 meters (South Pacific Sea Level and Climate Monitoring Project, SPSLCMP report, 2006) up to sea level. Meanwhile, the maximum sea level recorded was 3.44m on February 28th 2006 that damaged Tuvaluan's property badly. Local people called the flooding water oozes up out of the ground "King Tide", that happened almost once or twice a year, which destroyed the plant, polluted their fresh water, and forced them to colonize to some other countries. The predictable but uncontrollable king tide had been observed for a long time by SPSLCMP, but some of the uncertainties which intensify the sea level rise need to be analyzed furthermore. In this study, a span of 18 years of tide gauge data accessed from Sea Level Fine Resolution Acoustic Measuring Equipment (SEAFRAME) are compared with the satellite altimeter data accessed from Archiving Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Data in Oceanography (AVISO). All above are processed under the limitation of same time and spatial range. The outcome revealed a 9.26cm difference between both. After the tide gauge data shifted to the same base as altimeter data, the results showed the unknown residuals are always positive under the circumstances of the sea level rise above 3.2m. Apart from uncertainties in observing, the residual reflected unknown contributions. Among the total case number of sea level rise above 3.2m is 23 times, 22 of which were recorded with oceanic warm eddy happened simultaneously. The unknown residual seems precisely matched with oceanic warm eddies and illustrates a clear future approach for Tuvaluan to care for.

  19. Lactate levels with glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Kahlon, Arunpreet Singh; Alexander, Mariam; Kahlon, Arundeep

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman with known glioblastoma multiforme was admitted for treatment of new deep vein thrombosis. Anion gap and plasma lactate levels were found to be elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a stable, advanced glioblastoma multiforme. All causes of lactic acidosis, including infections and medications, were ruled out. Aggressive tumors have been shown to produce lactate levels in minute quantities in their microenvironment, which helps them metastasize and evade immune response and even radiation. PMID:27365883

  20. Levels of radioactivity in Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Thani, A.A.; Abdul-Majid, S.; Mohammed, K.

    1995-12-31

    The levels of natural and man-made radioactivity in soil and seabed were measured in Qatar to assess radiation exposure levels and to evaluate any radioactive contamination that may have reached the country from fallout or due to the Chernobyl accident radioactivity release. Qatar peninsula is located on the Arabian Gulf, 4500 km from Chernobyl, and has an area of {approximately}11,600 km{sup 2} and a population of {approximately}600,000.

  1. Rapid sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Thomas M.

    2012-11-01

    Several global and regional factors contribute to observed sea-level change along any particular coast. Global processes include changes in ocean mass (glacio-eustasy from ice melt), ocean volume (steric effects), viscoelastic land movements (glacioisostatic adjustment GIA), and changes in terrestrial water storage. Regional processes, often connected to steric and glacial changes, include changes in ocean circulation (Meridional Overturning Circulation [MOC]), glacial melting, local GIA, regional subsidence and others. Paleoclimate, instrumental and modeling studies show that combinations of these factors can cause relatively rapid rates of sea-level rise exceeding 3 mm yr-1 over various timescales along particular coasts. This paper discusses patterns and causes of sea-level rise with emphasis on paleoclimatological records. It then addresses the hypothesis of late Holocene (pre-20th century) sea-level stability in light of paleoclimatic evidence, notably from reconstructions of sea-surface temperature and glacial activity, for significant climate and sea-level variability during this time. The practical difficulties of assessing regional sea-level (SL) patterns at submillennial timescales will be discussed using an example from the eastern United States.

  2. Intermittent sea-level acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivieri, M.; Spada, G.

    2013-10-01

    Using instrumental observations from the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), we provide a new assessment of the global sea-level acceleration for the last ~ 2 centuries (1820-2010). Our results, obtained by a stack of tide gauge time series, confirm the existence of a global sea-level acceleration (GSLA) and, coherently with independent assessments so far, they point to a value close to 0.01 mm/yr2. However, differently from previous studies, we discuss how change points or abrupt inflections in individual sea-level time series have contributed to the GSLA. Our analysis, based on methods borrowed from econometrics, suggests the existence of two distinct driving mechanisms for the GSLA, both involving a minority of tide gauges globally. The first effectively implies a gradual increase in the rate of sea-level rise at individual tide gauges, while the second is manifest through a sequence of catastrophic variations of the sea-level trend. These occurred intermittently since the end of the 19th century and became more frequent during the last four decades.

  3. Procalcitonin levels in salmonella infection

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vikas; Sorabjee, Jehangir

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Procalcitonin (PCT) as a diagnostic marker for bacteremia and sepsis has been extensively studied. We aimed to study PCT levels in Salmonella infections whether they would serve as marker for early diagnosis in endemic areas to start empiric treatment while awaiting blood culture report. Materials and Methods: BACTEC blood culture was used to isolate Salmonella in suspected enteric fever patients. Serum PCT levels were estimated before starting treatment. Results: In 60 proven enteric fever patients, median value of serum PCT levels was 0.22 ng/ml, values ranging between 0.05 and 4 ng/ml. 95% of patients had near normal or mild increase (<0.5 ng/ml), only 5% of patients showed elevated levels. Notably, high PCT levels were found only in severe sepsis. Conclusion: PCT levels in Salmonella infections are near normal or minimally increased which differentiates it from other systemic Gram-negative infections. PCT cannot be used as a specific diagnostic marker of typhoid. PMID:26321807

  4. PREDICTION OF AIRCRAFT NOISE LEVELS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources have been incorporated into a computer program for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground test. The noise sources accounted for include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available in the program for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. The capacity to solve the geometrical relationships between an aircraft in flight and an observer on the ground has been included in the program to make it useful in evaluating noise estimates and footprints for various proposed engine installations. The program contains two main routines for employing the noise prediction routines. The first main routine consists of a procedure to calculate at various observer stations the time history of the noise from an aircraft flying at a specified set of speeds, orientations, and space coordinates. The various components of the noise are computed by the program. For each individual source, the noise levels are free field with no corrections for propagation losses other than spherical divergence. The total spectra may then be corrected for the usual effects of atmospheric attenuation, extra ground attenuation, ground reflection, and aircraft shielding. Next, the corresponding values of overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, and tone-weighted perceived noise level are calculated. From the time history at each point, true effective perceived noise levels are calculated. Thus, values of effective perceived noise levels, maximum perceived noise levels, and tone-weighted perceived noise levels are found for a grid of specified points on the ground. The second main routine is designed to give the usual format of one-third octave sound pressure level values at a fixed radius for a number of user

  5. Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, Amos A. de; Runhaar, Hens A.C.; Runhaar, Piety R.; Kolhoff, Arend J.; Driessen, Peter P.J.

    2012-02-15

    A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This 'indirect' learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, 'indirect' learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, 'indirect' learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better information dissemination.

  6. Space elevator systems level analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Laubscher, B. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  7. Level structures in Np240

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, P. C.; Gowrishankar, R.; Dora, Ashish Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Whereas the 7.2 min Np240, first identified over 60 years ago, has been assigned conflicting configuration by various investigators, the 62 min Np240 is assigned a "probable" configuration, deduced in each case by primarily focusing on just a single β-connected pair of levels in either Np240 (β-) 240Pu or 240U (β-) Np240 decay. We evaluate the level energies of physically admissible 2qp configurations in 93240Np147 employing a three-step procedure, with experimental inputs at each step, and using a well tested two-particle rotor model with inclusion of residual n-p interaction and other contributions. This exercise clearly establishes that the 62 min Np240 and the 7.2 min Np240 isomers constitute a Gallagher-Moszkowski (GM) doublet corresponding to the two-quasiparticle (2qp) configuration 5+{p5/2+[642]±n5/2+[622]}0+ with JπK=1+0 for the higher-lying 7.2 min isomer. This assignment is conclusively confirmed in a level-by-level analysis of data on 23 β transitions in these decays. Structures of a few other Np240 levels populated in 240U β decay are also discussed.

  8. Differences between mean tide level and mean sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, P. L.

    2016-07-01

    This paper discusses the differences between mean tide level (MTL) and mean sea level (MSL) as demonstrated using information from a global tide gauge data set. The roles of the two main contributors to differences between MTL and MSL (the M4 harmonic of the M2 semidiurnal tide, and the combination of the diurnal tides K1 and O1) are described, with a particular focus on the spatial scales of variation in MTL-MSL due to each contributor. Findings from the tide gauge data set are contrasted with those from a state-of-the-art global tide model. The study is of interest within tidal science, but also has practical importance regarding the type of mean level used to define land survey datums. In addition, an appreciation of MTL-MSL difference is important in the use of the historical sea level data used in climate change research, with implications for some of the data stored in international databanks. Particular studies are made of how MTL and MSL might differ through the year, and if MTL is measured in daylight hours only, as has been the practice of some national geodetic agencies on occasions in the past.

  9. Two Level Parallel Grammatical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ošmera, Pavel

    This paper describes a Two Level Parallel Grammatical Evolution (TLPGE) that can evolve complete programs using a variable length linear genome to govern the mapping of a Backus Naur Form grammar definition. To increase the efficiency of Grammatical Evolution (GE) the influence of backward processing was tested and a second level with differential evolution was added. The significance of backward coding (BC) and the comparison with standard coding of GEs is presented. The new method is based on parallel grammatical evolution (PGE) with a backward processing algorithm, which is further extended with a differential evolution algorithm. Thus a two-level optimization method was formed in attempt to take advantage of the benefits of both original methods and avoid their difficulties. Both methods used are discussed and the architecture of their combination is described. Also application is discussed and results on a real-word application are described.

  10. Subsea well template levelling system

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, M.; Matsuda, E.S.

    1987-06-23

    A template levelling system is described for levelling a template on piles implanted in the floor of a body of water. The template has receptacles, comprising in combination: a pile receptacle carried in each template receptacle on a gimbal, the pile receptacle having a lower flange extending outwardly from and below the template receptacle; slip means located within each of the pile receptacles for gripping one of the piles to prevent downward movement of the template with respect to the piles; and hydraulic jack means for gripping the pile receptacle and pulling it and the slip means upwardly, causing the flange to contact the lower side of the template receptacle to lift the template to a level position.

  11. Cut performance levels and testing.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Bill; Moreland, Jeff

    2011-11-01

    While the ISEA performance levels and general recommendations detailed above can help tp provide guidance when selecting hand protection products, the responsibility for testing products for specific end-user applications still rests with the end user. We can indicate, for example, that a medium-weight, uncoated Kevlar glove will typically have an ISEA cut rating of 3, but we cannot say the glove will provide the level of protection needed for the range of jobs on an automobile assembly line. Another Level 3 glove might be better suited to an application the require the worker to have an oil grip. As glove manufacturers, we know gloves. We do not know the details about every workplace. We therefore, must look to our customers to provide us the properties they need for hand protection products that will sufficiently protect their workers on the job. PMID:22135955

  12. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bean, Vern E.; Long, Frederick G.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  13. Level indicator for pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1982-04-28

    A liquid-level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic-field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal-processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  14. Homocysteine levels in acromegaly patients.

    PubMed

    Hekimsoy, Zeliha; Ozmen, Bilgin; Ulusoy, Sadik

    2005-12-01

    Acromegaly is associated with a two to three-fold increase in mortality related predominantly to cardiovascular disease. The excess mortality is associated most closely with higher levels of growth hormone (GH). Survival in acromegaly may be normalized to a control age-matched rate by controlling GH levels; in particular, GH levels less than 2.5 ng/mL are associated with survival rates equal to those of the general population. Hyperhomocysteinemia has also been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet there are limited data on the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with acromegaly. Eighteen acromegaly patients (7 male, 11 female, mean age 42.8 +/- 11.0 years) in our endocrine clinic consented to having the following tests performed: complete blood count (CBC), thyroid hormones, folic acid, vitamin B12, plasma homocysteine levels, uric acid, fibrinogen, CRP, fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, total serum cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and GH levels after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). By history, fourteen had macroadenomas and four had microadenomas; eight had hypertension; two had glucose intolerance, and four had diabetes. Fifteen had had transsphenoidal or transfrontal surgery: two had been cured, but 13 others were taking long-acting octreotide. Five patients had undergone radiotherapy and the acromegaly in two was treated primarily with long-acting octreotide. CBC, thyroid hormone, folic acid, and vit B12 levels were normal in all patients. We divided the patients into two groups according to mean GH levels after an OGTT: Group 1 (GH<2.5 ng/mL, n=10), and Group 2 (GH<2.5 ng/mL, n=8). Comparison of the two groups using Mann-Whitney U testing revealed statistically significant lower levels in Group 1 of the following parameters: GH (1.91 +/- 0.90 vs. 8.58 +/- 5.55 ng/mL, p=0.002), IGF-1 (338.30 +/- 217.90 vs. 509.60 +/- 293.58 ng/dL, p=0.06), GH after

  15. Trainer Talk: Levels of Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engin, Marion

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to present examples of trainer talk that scaffold trainee teachers' understanding of teaching in a post-observation feedback session. Previous research into scaffolding in a teacher training context describes scaffolding at a technique or strategy level, without describing how, in linguistic terms, the trainer can support and…

  16. Multi-Level Document Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruecker, Stan; Homich, Eric; Sinclair, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype system that allows readers to view an electronic text in multiple simultaneous views, providing insight at several different levels of granularity, including a reading view. This prospect display is combined with a number of tools for manipulating the text, for example by highlighting sections of interest for a…

  17. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  18. Cultural Understanding: Spanish Level 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Reid

    The teacher's attention is focused on selected elements of Spanish culture which may be taught integrally with instructional materials found in the first-year Spanish texts "Entender y Hablar", "La Familia Fernandez", and "A-LM Spanish, Level One". Items are cross-referenced for 42 cultural concepts ranging from nicknames to streets, roads, and…

  19. MISR Level 3 File Format

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-01-08

    ... library), you will need to know little more than the HDF-EOS grid and HDF-EOS field names. Note that the MISR Level 3 data are map projected as described on the  Overview  page. View Brief MISR ...

  20. Culture Curriculum: French, Level II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Ruth Wellman

    This teacher's guide to cultural instruction at level 2 integrates materials derived from several sources. The guide is based on: (1) suggestions from "French for Secondary Schools," New York State Education Department; (2) general information concerning the geography, products, industries, regions, cities of France, the French Union, and the city…

  1. Arsenic levels in Oregon waters.

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, J C; Whanger, P D; Weswig, P H

    1977-01-01

    The arsenic content of well water in certain areas of Oregon can range up to 30 to 40 times the U.S.P.H.S. Drinking Water Standard of 1962, where concentrations in excess of 50 ppb are grounds for rejection. The elevated arsenic levels in water are postulated to be due to volcanic deposits. Wells in central Lane County, Oregon, that are known to contain arsenic rich water are in an area underlain by a particular group of sedimentary and volcanic rocks, which geologists have named the Fischer formation. The arsenic levels in water from wells ranged from no detectable amounts to 2,000 ppb. In general the deeper wells contained higher arsenic water. The high arsenic waters are characterized by the small amounts of calcium and magnesium in relation to that of sodium, a high content of boron, and a high pH. Water from some hot springs in other areas of Oregon was found to range as high as 900 ppb arsenic. Arsenic blood levels ranged from 32 ppb for people living in areas where water is low in arsenic to 250 ppb for those living in areas where water is known to contain high levels of arsenic. Some health problems associated with consumption of arsenic-rich water are discussed. PMID:908291

  2. Medical Assisting. Secondary Level Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Occupational and Career Education.

    This curriculum guide is intended to prepare students for entry-level employment in the health care industry. The two-year program, designed to be used in high schools in New York City, will prepare students to assist in various health career settings such as doctors' offices, hospital clinics, and group practice facilities. The curriculum guide,…

  3. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  4. Increasing FCC regenerator catalyst level

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.F. )

    1993-11-01

    A Peruvian FCC unit's operations were improved by increasing the regenerator's catalyst level. This increase resulted in lower stack losses, an improved temperature profile, increased catalyst activity and a lower catalyst consumption rate. A more stable operation saved this Peruvian refiner over $131,000 per year in catalyst alone. These concepts and data may be suitable for your FCC unit as well.

  5. Radon levels can be predicted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainger, Lisa A.

    Scientists doing a yearlong study of radon levels in houses have identified several major factors that affect concentrations and have developed a method for predicting indoor radon levels before a house is built. Douglas Mose and George Mushrush (George Mason University, Fairfax, Va.) studied 1500 homes in northern Virginia and central Maryland near Washington, D.C.Radon is a radioactive decay product of uranium that occurs in many rock types. The gas can accumulate in buildings and pose a serious health hazard. Results from the Washington-area study show that ˜35% of the houses had average yearly radon concentrations above 4 pico-Curies per liter (pCi/L), the level at which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests that a homeowner should take steps to reduce radon concentrations. At a level of 4-10 pCi/L an estimated 13-120 lung cancer deaths would be expected for every 1000 people exposed. Such a risk is comparable to having 200 chest X rays per year, according to EPA statistics.

  6. FIM Levels as Ordinal Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linacre, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses levels of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) as ordinal categories. Presents guidelines developed through the Rasch model that prompt an analyst to investigate whether rating categories produce observations on which meaningful measurement and inference about patient status can be based. (SLD)

  7. MISR Level 1A Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... Data Product Specification Rev D  (PDF). HDF file access efficiency updates. F01_03, F01_0003 ... Initial baseline for all Level 1 products available for public release. Baseline Software:  N/A     ...

  8. MISR Level 1A Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... Data Product Specification Rev D  (PDF). HDF file access efficiency updates. F01_0004 02/16/2001 ... Initial baseline for all Level 1 products available for public release. Baseline Software:  N/A     ...

  9. Middle Level Learning Number 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapham, Steven S.; Hanes, Peter; Turner, Thomas N.; Clabough, Jeremiah C.; Cole, William

    2013-01-01

    This issue's "Middle Level Learning" section presents two articles. The first is "Harriet Tubman: Emancipate Yourself!" (by Steven S. Lapham and Peter Hanes). "Argo," which won the 2012 Oscar for best picture, was about a daring escape of six U.S. diplomats from Iran during the 1979 hostage crisis. Now imagine…

  10. Level Sensor for Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, N. E.; Schroff, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Hot wire sensor combined with voltage-comparator circuit monitors liquid level in cryogenic-fluid storage tanks. Sensor circuit adaptable to different liquids and sensors. Constant-current source drives current through sensing probe and fixed resistor. Voltage comparator circuits interpret voltage drops to tell whether probe is immersed in liquid and is current in probe.

  11. Sentence-Level Rewriting Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Fan; Litman, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Writers usually need iterations of revisions and edits during their writings. To better understand the process of rewriting, we need to know what has changed be-tween the revisions. Prior work mainly focuses on detecting corrections within sentences, which is at the level of words or phrases. This paper proposes to detect revision changes at the…

  12. Engineering at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Can engineering technology be taught at the elementary level? Designing and building trebuchets, catapults, solar cars, and mousetrap vehicles in a west central Florida elementary class was considered very unusual in recent years. After a review of current research on failing schools and poor curriculum, the author wondered what her school could…

  13. College Level Aviation Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Betty J.

    This document describes a college-level curriculum for airplane pilots that is expected to be available at Muskegon (Michigan) College of Business and Technology in fall 1990. The curriculum offers associate or bachelor degree, college credit for earned flight ratings, private license, transfer credit for other aviation college programs, the…

  14. Role Clarity and Organizational Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Barry Z.; Butterfield, D. Anthony

    1978-01-01

    Role clarity was examined in terms of its relationship with personal outcomes and organizational effectiveness. Organizational level as moderator of such relationship was also investigated. Hypotheses based on prior research were confirmed. Role clarity was positively related to perceptions of job satisfaction, personal influence, organizational…

  15. Efficient bit-level, word-level, and block-level systolic arrays for matrix-matrix multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    De Groot, A.J.; Parker, S.R.; Johansson, E.M.

    1988-02-01

    This paper investigates the mapping of matrix-matrix multiplication onto bit level, word level and block level systolic arrays. Highly efficient and regular bit level, word level and block level systolic arrays are described. Efficiencies of many block level and word level systolic arrays reported in this paper approach 100/percent/, three times the efficiencies of systolic arrays reported previously. Bit level systolic arrays reported in this paper require less computation time than do bit level systolic arrays reported previously and, for special matrices, require less cells. Execution times of block level systolic algorithms on sixty-four-element multiprocessor agree with theory.

  16. Developing first-level leaders.

    PubMed

    Priestland, Andreas; Hanig, Robert

    2005-06-01

    Oil and energy corporation BP was well aware of the importance of its work group managers on the front lines. Their decisions, in aggregate, make an enormous difference in BP's turnover, costs, quality control, safety, innovation, and environmental performance. There were about 10,000 such supervisors, working in every part of the company-from solar plants in Spain, to drilling platforms in the North Sea, to marketing teams in Chicago. Some 70% to 80% of BP employees reported directly to these lower-level managers. Yet, until recently, the corporation didn't have a comprehensive training program--let alone an official name--for them. For their part, the frontline managers felt disconnected; it was often hard for them to understand how their individual decisions contributed to the growth and reputation of BP as a whole. In this article, BP executive Andreas Priestland and Dialogos VP Robert Hanig describe how BP in the past five years has learned to connect with this population of managers. After one and a half years of design and development, there is now a companywide name--"first-level leaders"--and a comprehensive training program for this cohort. The authors describe the collaborative effort they led to create the program's four components: Supervisory Essentials, Context and Connections, the Leadership Event, and Peer Partnerships. The design team surveyed those it had deemed first-level leaders and others throughout BP; extensively benchmarked other companies' training efforts for lower-level managers; and conducted a series of pilot programs that involved dozens of advisers. The training sessions were first offered early in 2002, and since then, more than 8000 of BP's first-level leaders have attended. The managers who've been through training are consistently ranked higher in performance than those who haven't, both by their bosses and by the employees who report to them, the authors say. PMID:15938442

  17. Multiple Level Crowding: Crowding at the Object Parts Level and at the Object Configural level.

    PubMed

    Kimchi, Ruth; Pirkner, Yossef

    2015-01-01

    In crowding, identification of a peripheral target in the presence of nearby flankers is worse than when the target appears alone. Prevailing theories hold that crowding occurs because of integration or "pooling" of low-level features at a single, relatively early stage of visual processing. Recent studies suggest that crowding can occur also between high-level object representations. The most relevant findings come from studies with faces and may be specific to faces. We examined whether crowding can occur at the object configural level in addition to part-level crowding, using nonface objects. Target (a disconnected square or diamond made of four elements) identification was measured at varying eccentricities. The flankers were similar either to the target parts or to the target configuration. The results showed crowding in both cases: Flankers interfered with target identification such that identification accuracy decreased with an increase in eccentricity, and no interference was observed at the fovea. Crowding by object parts, however, was weaker and had smaller spatial extent than crowding by object configurations; we related this finding to the relationship between crowding and perceptual organization. These results provide strong evidence that crowding occurs not only between object parts but also between configural representations of objects. PMID:26562896

  18. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  19. System-Level Radiation Hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Although system-level radiation hardening can enable the use of high-performance components and enhance the capabilities of a spacecraft, hardening techniques can be costly and can compromise the very performance designers sought from the high-performance components. Moreover, such techniques often result in a complicated design, especially if several complex commercial microcircuits are used, each posing its own hardening challenges. The latter risk is particularly acute for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf components since high-performance parts (e.g. double-data-rate synchronous dynamic random access memories - DDR SDRAMs) may require other high-performance commercial parts (e.g. processors) to support their operation. For these reasons, it is essential that system-level radiation hardening be a coordinated effort, from setting requirements through testing up to and including validation.

  20. Levelized Power Generation Cost Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-04-30

    LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generationmore » cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor.« less

  1. Leveling circuits and crustal movements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, S. C.; Reilinger, R. E.; Brown, L. D.; Oliver, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of further possible vertical crustal movements in the Western United States made with circuit microclosure analysis is presented. The San Andreas fault in Cal., the Nevada seismic zone in Nev., and the Sierra Nevada in Calif. were studied based on supposition that in areas undergoing crustal movement the misclosure for a particular circuit should have the smallest value when the circuit is formed from the most temporarily homogeneous survey data; it should have larger, predictable values when the circuit is closed with surveys conducted at other times. Leveling surveys along the San Andreas fault and the Nevada seismic zone are discussed, noting the possibility of regional tilting in the Great Basin between 1934 and 1955, and of elevation changes in the Northern Nevada Range using results of leveling surveys between Roseville, Cal. and Reno, Nev.

  2. Lead Levels in Utah Eagles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michelle

    2006-10-01

    Lead is a health hazard to most animals, causing adverse effects to the nervous and reproductive systems if in sufficient quantity. Found in most fishing jigs and sinkers, as well as some ammunition used in hunting, this metal can poison wildlife such as eagles. Eagles are raptors, or predatory birds, and their lead exposure would most likely comes from their food -- a fish which has swallowed a sinker or lead shot in carrion (dead animal matter). As part of an ongoing project to investigate the environment lead levels in Utah, the bone lead levels in the wing bones of eagles have been measured for eagle carcasses found throughout Utah. The noninvasive technique of x-ray fluorescence was used, consisting of a Cd-109 radioactive source to activate lead atoms and a HPGe detector with digital electronics to collect the gamma spectra. Preliminary results for the eagles measured to date will be presented.

  3. Instruction-level parallel processing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J A; Rau, R

    1991-09-13

    The performance of microprocessors has increased steadily over the past 20 years at a rate of about 50% per year. This is the cumulative result of architectural improvements as well as increases in circuit speed. Moreover, this improvement has been obtained in a transparent fashion, that is, without requiring programmers to rethink their algorithms and programs, thereby enabling the tremendous proliferation of computers that we see today. To continue this performance growth, microprocessor designers have incorporated instruction-level parallelism (ILP) into new designs. ILP utilizes the parallel execution ofthe lowest level computer operations-adds, multiplies, loads, and so on-to increase performance transparently. The use of ILP promises to make possible, within the next few years, microprocessors whose performance is many times that of a CRAY-IS. This article provides an overview of ILP, with an emphasis on ILP architectures-superscalar, VLIW, and dataflow processors-and the compiler techniques necessary to make ILP work well. PMID:17831442

  4. Wireless Fluid Level Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A level-sensing probe positioned in a tank is divided into sections with each section including (i) a fluid-level capacitive sensor disposed along the length thereof, (ii) an inductor electrically coupled to the capacitive sensor, (iii) a sensor antenna positioned for inductive coupling to the inductor, and (iv) an electrical conductor coupled to the sensor antenna. An electrically non-conductive housing accessible from a position outside of the tank houses antennas arrayed in a pattern. Each antenna is electrically coupled to the electrical conductor from a corresponding one of the sections. A magnetic field response recorder has a measurement head with transceiving antennas arrayed therein to correspond to the pattern of the housing's antennas. When a measurement is to be taken, the measurement head is mechanically coupled to the housing so that each housing antenna is substantially aligned with a specific one of the transceiving antennas.

  5. Immunoglobulin levels in infantile pneumocystosis

    PubMed Central

    Kohout, Elfriede; Post, Cornelius; Azadeh, Bahram; Dutz, Werner; Bandarizadeh, Bashi; Kadivar, Darius

    1972-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve determinations of IgA, IgG, and IgM were performed in 50 infants during an epidemic of interstitial plasma cell pneumonia. Criteria for diagnosis are discussed. The immunoglobulin levels in pneumocystic, non-pneumocystic, and normal American infants are compared. An analysis of the findings in individual cases reveals a time-related immunoglobulin response, which helps to elucidate the pathogenicity of the disease. PMID:4536973

  6. Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is a well-recognized cause of impaired cognition due to hypercalcemia. However, recent studies have suggested that perhaps parathyroid hormone itself plays a role in cognition, especially executive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of parathyroid hormone levels in a study cohort of elders with impaied cognition. Methods: Sixty community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 controls matched (on age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the Mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS) , the Wolf-Klein clock test and a comprehensive nutritional panel, which included parathyroid hormone and ionized calcium. Students t tests and linear regression analyses were performed to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Self-neglecters (M = 73.73, sd=48.4) had significantly higher PTH levels compared to controls (M =47.59, sd=28.7; t=3.59, df=98.94, p<.01). There was no significant group difference in ionized calcium levels. Overall, PTH was correlated with the MMSE (r=-.323, p=.001). Individual regression analyses revealed a statistically significant correlation between PTH and MMSE in the self-neglect group (r=-.298, p=.024) and this remained significant after controlling for ionized calcium levels in the regression. No significant associations were revealed in the control group or among any of the other cognitive measures. Conclusion: Parathyroid hormone may be associated with cognitive performance.

  7. TDR liquid level detection program

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, G.; Toole, B.

    1996-07-01

    A data acquisition system for monitoring the SRS reactor Supplemental Safety System (SSS) during chargeback testing has been installed. The system is based on liquid level detection by means of time domain reflectometry. Software developed for the system allows data to be collected from a digitizing oscilloscope by an IBM AT computer, displayed and stored as needed by the user. The software is menu- driven to facilitate user interaction.

  8. Community-Level Physiological Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Kela P.; Legge, Raymond L.

    Community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) is a technique which offers an easily applied protocol yielding information regarding mixed microbial community function and functional adaptations over space and time. Different communities can be compared and classified based on sole carbon source utilization patterns (CSUPs) gathered using BIOLOG™ microplates. One of the most challenging aspects associated with the CLPP method is in the data analysis. This chapter describes the relatively simple CLPP laboratory protocol and provides a detailed description of different data analysis techniques.

  9. An adaptive level set method

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    This thesis describes a new method for the numerical solution of partial differential equations of the parabolic type on an adaptively refined mesh in two or more spatial dimensions. The method is motivated and developed in the context of the level set formulation for the curvature dependent propagation of surfaces in three dimensions. In that setting, it realizes the multiple advantages of decreased computational effort, localized accuracy enhancement, and compatibility with problems containing a range of length scales.

  10. System-level musings about system-level science (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.

    2009-12-01

    In teleology, a system has a purpose. In physics, a system has a tendency. For example, a mechanical system has a tendency to lower its potential energy. A thermodynamic system has a tendency to increase its entropy. Therefore, if geospace is seen as a system, what is its tendency? Surprisingly or not, there is no simple answer to this question. Or, to flip the statement, the answer is complex, or complexity. We can understand generally why complexity arises, as the geospace boundary is open to influences from the solar wind and Earth’s atmosphere and components of the system couple to each other in a myriad of ways to make the systemic behavior highly nonlinear. But this still begs the question: What is the system-level approach to geospace science? A reductionist view might assert that as our understanding of a component or subsystem progresses to a certain point, we can couple some together to understand the system on a higher level. However, in practice, a subsystem can almost never been observed in isolation with others. Even if such is possible, there is no guarantee that the subsystem behavior will not change when coupled to others. Hence, there is no guarantee that a subsystem, such as the ring current, has an innate and intrinsic behavior like a hydrogen atom. An absolutist conclusion from this logic can be sobering, as one would have to trace a flash of aurora to the nucleosynthesis in the solar core. The practical answer, however, is more promising; it is a mix of the common sense we call reductionism and awareness that, especially when strongly coupled, subsystems can experience behavioral changes, breakdowns, and catastrophes. If the stock answer to the systemic tendency of geospace is complexity, the objective of the system-level approach to geospace science is to define, measure, and understand this complexity. I will use the example of magnetotail dynamics to illuminate some key points in this talk.

  11. Higher level twisted Zhu algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Ekeren, Jethro van

    2011-05-15

    The study of twisted representations of graded vertex algebras is important for understanding orbifold models in conformal field theory. In this paper, we consider the general setup of a vertex algebra V, graded by {Gamma}/Z for some subgroup {Gamma} of R containing Z, and with a Hamiltonian operator H having real (but not necessarily integer) eigenvalues. We construct the directed system of twisted level p Zhu algebras Zhu{sub p,{Gamma}}(V), and we prove the following theorems: For each p, there is a bijection between the irreducible Zhu{sub p,{Gamma}}(V)-modules and the irreducible {Gamma}-twisted positive energy V-modules, and V is ({Gamma}, H)-rational if and only if all its Zhu algebras Zhu{sub p,{Gamma}}(V) are finite dimensional and semisimple. The main novelty is the removal of the assumption of integer eigenvalues for H. We provide an explicit description of the level p Zhu algebras of a universal enveloping vertex algebra, in particular of the Virasoro vertex algebra Vir{sup c} and the universal affine Kac-Moody vertex algebra V{sup k}(g) at non-critical level. We also compute the inverse limits of these directed systems of algebras.

  12. System level modeling and component level control of fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xingjian

    This dissertation investigates the fuel cell systems and the related technologies in three aspects: (1) system-level dynamic modeling of both PEM fuel cell (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); (2) condition monitoring scheme development of PEM fuel cell system using model-based statistical method; and (3) strategy and algorithm development of precision control with potential application in energy systems. The dissertation first presents a system level dynamic modeling strategy for PEM fuel cells. It is well known that water plays a critical role in PEM fuel cell operations. It makes the membrane function appropriately and improves the durability. The low temperature operating conditions, however, impose modeling difficulties in characterizing the liquid-vapor two phase change phenomenon, which becomes even more complex under dynamic operating conditions. This dissertation proposes an innovative method to characterize this phenomenon, and builds a comprehensive model for PEM fuel cell at the system level. The model features the complete characterization of multi-physics dynamic coupling effects with the inclusion of dynamic phase change. The model is validated using Ballard stack experimental result from open literature. The system behavior and the internal coupling effects are also investigated using this model under various operating conditions. Anode-supported tubular SOFC is also investigated in the dissertation. While the Nernst potential plays a central role in characterizing the electrochemical performance, the traditional Nernst equation may lead to incorrect analysis results under dynamic operating conditions due to the current reverse flow phenomenon. This dissertation presents a systematic study in this regard to incorporate a modified Nernst potential expression and the heat/mass transfer into the analysis. The model is used to investigate the limitations and optimal results of various operating conditions; it can also be utilized to perform the

  13. 22 CFR 120.38 - Maintenance levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 120.38 Maintenance levels. (a) Organizational-level maintenance (or basic-level maintenance) is the first level of maintenance that can be performed “on-equipment” (directly on the defense article or... defense article. (b) Intermediate-level maintenance is second-level maintenance performed...

  14. Job level risk assessment using task level ACGIH hand activity level TLV scores: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drinkaus, Phillip; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Donald S; Mann, Clay; Bernard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Existing upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder analytical tools are primarily intended for single or mono-task jobs. However, many jobs contain more than 1 task and some include job rotation. This case/control study investigates methods of modifying an existing tool, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Hand Activity Level (HAL) Threshold Limit Value (TLV), to assess the upper extremity risk of multi-task jobs. Various methods of combining the task differences and ratios into a job level assessment were explored. Two methods returned significant odds ratios, (p < .05) of 18.0 (95% CI 1.8-172) and 12.0 (95% CI 1.2-120). These results indicate that a modified ACGIH HAL TLV may provide insight into the work-related risk of multi-task jobs. Further research is needed to optimize this process. PMID:16219155

  15. Load Leveling Battery System Costs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-10-12

    SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer's monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer's peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer's side of themore » meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer's load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.« less

  16. NASA Technology Readiness Level Definitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will cover the basic Technology Readiness Level (TRL) definitions used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and their specific wording. We will discuss how they are used in the NASA Project Life Cycle and their effectiveness in practice. We'll also discuss the recent efforts by the International Standards Organization (ISO) to develop a broadly acceptable set of TRL definitions for the international space community and some of the issues brought to light. This information will provide input for further discussion of the use of the TRL scale in manufacturing.

  17. Single Quantum Level Electron Turnstile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zanten, D. M. T.; Basko, D. M.; Khaymovich, I. M.; Pekola, J. P.; Courtois, H.; Winkelmann, C. B.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the realization of a single-electron source, where current is transported through a single-level quantum dot (Q ) tunnel coupled to two superconducting leads (S ). When driven with an ac gate voltage, the experiment demonstrates electron turnstile operation. Compared to the more conventional superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor turnstile, our superconductor-quantum-dot-superconductor device presents a number of novel properties, including higher immunity to the unavoidable presence of nonequilibrium quasiparticles in superconducting leads. Moreover, we demonstrate its ability to deliver electrons with a very narrow energy distribution.

  18. Service Level Agreements in BREIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koller, Bastian; Frutos, Henar Munoz; Laria, Giuseppe

    With electronic business (eBusiness) becoming ubiquitous, the traditional ways of doing commerce need to be changed or completely replaced to support the end users effectively in performing their business. This includes especially the representation of business relationships with an electronic format to allow for automated processing of the respective parts of e.g. contractual obligations. One prominent representation tool are Service Level Agreements. Conceptually established as paper representation to describe parts of contracts of telecom operators, SLAs have become a research topic in the ICT domain now since several years.

  19. Single Quantum Level Electron Turnstile.

    PubMed

    van Zanten, D M T; Basko, D M; Khaymovich, I M; Pekola, J P; Courtois, H; Winkelmann, C B

    2016-04-22

    We report on the realization of a single-electron source, where current is transported through a single-level quantum dot (Q) tunnel coupled to two superconducting leads (S). When driven with an ac gate voltage, the experiment demonstrates electron turnstile operation. Compared to the more conventional superconductor-normal-metal-superconductor turnstile, our superconductor-quantum-dot-superconductor device presents a number of novel properties, including higher immunity to the unavoidable presence of nonequilibrium quasiparticles in superconducting leads. Moreover, we demonstrate its ability to deliver electrons with a very narrow energy distribution. PMID:27152817

  20. Excursion detection using leveling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, MinGyu; Ju, Jaewuk; Habets, Boris; Erley, Georg; Bellmann, Enrico; Kim, Seop

    2016-03-01

    Wafer leveling data are usually used inside the exposure tool for ensuring good focus, then discarded. This paper describes the implementation of a monitoring and analysis solution to download these data automatically, together with the correction profiles applied by the scanner. The resulting height maps and focus residuals form the basis for monitoring metrics tailored to catching tool and process drifts and excursions in a high-volume manufacturing (HVM) environment. In this paper, we present four six cases to highlight the potential of the method: wafer edge monitoring, chuck drift monitoring, correlations between focus residuals and overlay errors, and pre-process monitoring by chuck fingerprint removal.

  1. System-level flight test

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwall, J.; Dyson, F.; Eardley, D.; Happer, W.; LeLevier, R.; Nierenberg, W.; Press, W.; Ruderman, M.; Sullivan, J.; York, H.

    1999-11-23

    System-level flight tests are an important part of the overall effort by the United States to maintain confidence in the reliability, safety, and performance of its nuclear deterrent forces. This study of activities by the Department of Energy in support of operational tests by the Department of Defense was originally suggested by Dr. Rick Wayne, Director, National Security Programs, Sandia National Laboratory/Livermore, and undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs Division. It follows two 1997 studies by JASON that focused on the Department of Energy's Enhanced Surveillance Program for the physics package — i.e. the nuclear warhead.

  2. Radon levels in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, M.K.: Nicholls, G.P. ); Ranney, C.; Machever, R. )

    1988-01-01

    The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection began to assess the potential for a natural indoor radon problem in the state following the discovery in December 1984 of high radon levels in homes in northeastern Pennsylvania. A geologic feature commonly known as the Reading Prong underlying the affected homes was identified by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources as the source of elevated indoor radon levels. The Reading Prong, which contains bands of rock bodies associated with high uranium concentrations runs in a northeasterly direction out of Pennsylvania through northern New Jersey and into New York. A review of available geologic and aeroradiometric data conducted by the New Jersey Geological Survey demonstrated that New Jersey had significant potential for a radon problem and it was likely that the problem would not be confined to the Reading Prong region, but would include areas to the north and south as well. To determine the magnitude and extent of the indoor radon problem, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection commissioned a statewide radon study. A major component of this study and the primary subject of this paper is a survey of approximately 6,000 dwellings. Objectives of the survey are outlined and the results are presented.

  3. Photonic Landau levels on cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We present the first experimental realization of a bulk magnetic field for optical photons. By using a non-planar ring resonator, we induce an image rotation on each round trip through the resonator. This results in a Coriolis/Lorentz force and a centrifugal anticonfining force, the latter of which is cancelled by mirror curvature. Using a digital micromirror device to control both amplitude and phase, we inject arbitrary optical modes into our resonator. Spatial- and energy- resolved spectroscopy tracks photonic eigenstates as residual trapping is reduced, and we observe photonic Landau levels as the eigenstates become degenerate. We show that there is a conical geometry of the resulting manifold for photon dynamics and present a measurement of the local density of states that is consistent with Landau levels on a cone. While our work already demonstrates an integer quantum Hall material composed of photons, we have ensured compatibility with strong photon-photon interactions, which will allow quantum optical studies of entanglement and correlation in manybody systems including fractional quantum Hall fluids.

  4. CDF level 2 trigger upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Anikeev, K.; Bogdan, M.; DeMaat, R.; Fedorko, W.; Frisch, H.; Hahn, K.; Hakala, M.; Keener, P.; Kim, Y.; Kroll, J.; Kwang, S.; Lewis, J.; Lin, C.; Liu, T.; Marjamaa, F.; Mansikkala, T.; Neu, C.; Pitkanen, S.; Reisert, B.; Rusu, V.; Sanders, H.; /Fermilab /Chicago U. /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the new CDF Level 2 Trigger, which was commissioned during Spring 2005. The upgrade was necessitated by several factors that included increased bandwidth requirements, in view of the growing instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron, and the need for a more robust system, since the older system was reaching the limits of maintainability. The challenges in designing the new system were interfacing with many different upstream detector subsystems, processing larger volumes of data at higher speed, and minimizing the impact on running the CDF experiment during the system commissioning phase. To meet these challenges, the new system was designed around a general purpose motherboard, the PULSAR, which is instrumented with powerful FPGAs and modern SRAMs, and which uses mezzanine cards to interface with upstream detector components and an industry standard data link (S-LINK) within the system.

  5. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  6. Liquid-level sensing device

    DOEpatents

    Goldfuss, G.T.

    1975-09-16

    This invention relates to a device for sensing the level of a liquid while preventing the deposition and accumulation of materials on the exterior surfaces thereof. Two dissimilar metal wires are enclosed within an electrical insulating material, the wires being joined together at one end to form a thermocouple junction outside the insulating material. Heating means is disposed within the electrical insulating material and maintains the device at a temperature substantially greater than that of the environment surrounding the device, the heating means being electrically insulated from the two dissimilar thermocouple wires. In addition, a metal sheath surrounds and contacts both the electrical insulating material and the thermocouple junction. Electrical connections are provided for connecting the heating means with a power source and for connecting the thermocouple wires with a device for sensing the electrical potential across the thermocouple junction. (auth)

  7. Fluorescent optical liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2001-01-01

    A liquid level sensor comprising a transparent waveguide containing fluorescent material that is excited by light of a first wavelength and emits at a second, longer wavelength. The upper end of the waveguide is connected to a light source at the first wavelength through a beveled portion of the waveguide such that the input light is totally internally reflected within the waveguide above an air/liquid interface in a tank but is transmitted into the liquid below this interface. Light is emitted from the fluorescent material only in those portions of the waveguide that are above the air/liquid interface, to be collected at the upper end of the waveguide by a detector that is sensitive only to the second wavelength. As the interface moves down in the tank, the signal strength from the detector will increase.

  8. IAC level "O" program development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The current status of the IAC development activity is summarized. The listed prototype software and documentation was delivered, and details were planned for development of the level 1 operational system. The planned end product IAC is required to support LSST design analysis and performance evaluation, with emphasis on the coupling of required technical disciplines. The long term IAC effectively provides two distinct features: a specific set of analysis modules (thermal, structural, controls, antenna radiation performance and instrument optical performance) that will function together with the IAC supporting software in an integrated and user friendly manner; and a general framework whereby new analysis modules can readily be incorporated into IAC or be allowed to communicate with it.

  9. Principles for system level electrochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1986-01-01

    The higher power and higher voltage levels anticipated for future space missions have required a careful review of the techniques currently in use to preclude battery problems that are related to the dispersion characteristics of the individual cells. Not only are the out-of-balance problems accentuated in these larger systems, but the thermal management considerations also require a greater degree of accurate design. Newer concepts which employ active cooling techniques are being developed which permit higher rates of discharge and tighter packing densities for the electrochemical components. This paper will put forward six semi-independent principles relating to battery systems. These principles will progressively address cell, battery and finally system related aspects of large electrochemical storage systems.

  10. Nuclear power: levels of safety.

    PubMed

    Lidsky, L M

    1988-02-01

    The rise and fall of the nuclear power industry in the United States is a well-documented story with enough socio-technological conflict to fill dozens of scholarly, and not so scholarly, books. Whatever the reasons for the situation we are now in, and no matter how we apportion the blame, the ultimate choice of whether to use nuclear power in this country is made by the utilities and by the public. Their choices are, finally, based on some form of risk-benefit analysis. Such analysis is done in well-documented and apparently logical form by the utilities and in a rather more inchoate but not necessarily less accurate form by the public. Nuclear power has failed in the United States because both the real and perceived risks outweigh the potential benefits. The national decision not to rely upon nuclear power in its present form is not an irrational one. A wide ranging public balancing of risk and benefit requires a classification of risk which is clear and believable for the public to be able to assess the risks associated with given technological structures. The qualitative four-level safety ladder provides such a framework. Nuclear reactors have been designed which fit clearly and demonstrably into each of the possible qualitative safety levels. Surprisingly, it appears that safer may also mean cheaper. The intellectual and technical prerequisites are in hand for an important national decision. Deployment of a qualitatively different second generation of nuclear reactors can have important benefits for the United States. Surprisingly, it may well be the "nuclear establishment" itself, with enormous investments of money and pride in the existing nuclear systems, that rejects second generation reactors. It may be that we will not have a second generation of reactors until the first generation of nuclear engineers and nuclear power advocates has retired. PMID:3340728

  11. Jupiter's Multi-level Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Clouds and hazes at various altitudes within the dynamic Jovian atmosphere are revealed by multi-color imaging taken by the Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) onboard the Galileo spacecraft. These images were taken during the second orbit (G2) on September 5, 1996 from an early-morning vantage point 2.1 million kilometers (1.3 million miles) above Jupiter. They show the planet's appearance as viewed at various near-infrared wavelengths, with distinct differences due primarily to variations in the altitudes and opacities of the cloud systems. The top left and right images, taken at 1.61 microns and 2.73 microns respectively, show relatively clear views of the deep atmosphere, with clouds down to a level about three times the atmospheric pressure at the Earth's surface.

    By contrast, the middle image in top row, taken at 2.17 microns, shows only the highest altitude clouds and hazes. This wavelength is severely affected by the absorption of light by hydrogen gas, the main constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere. Therefore, only the Great Red Spot, the highest equatorial clouds, a small feature at mid-northern latitudes, and thin, high photochemical polar hazes can be seen. In the lower left image, at 3.01 microns, deeper clouds can be seen dimly against gaseous ammonia and methane absorption. In the lower middle image, at 4.99 microns, the light observed is the planet's own indigenous heat from the deep, warm atmosphere.

    The false color image (lower right) succinctly shows various cloud and haze levels seen in the Jovian atmosphere. This image indicates the temperature and altitude at which the light being observed is produced. Thermally-rich red areas denote high temperatures from photons in the deep atmosphere leaking through minimal cloud cover; green denotes cool temperatures of the tropospheric clouds; blue denotes cold of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The polar regions appear purplish, because small-particle hazes allow leakage and

  12. Chip level simulation of fault tolerant computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Chip level modeling techniques, functional fault simulation, simulation software development, a more efficient, high level version of GSP, and a parallel architecture for functional simulation are discussed.

  13. Average County-Level IQ Predicts County-Level Disadvantage and Several County-Level Mortality Risk Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, J. C.; Beaver, Kevin M.; Boutwell, Brian B.

    2013-01-01

    Research utilizing individual-level data has reported a link between intelligence (IQ) scores and health problems, including early mortality risk. A growing body of evidence has found similar associations at higher levels of aggregation such as the state- and national-level. At the same time, individual-level research has suggested the…

  14. High level white noise generator

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  15. Insecticide resistance and dominance levels.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, D; Genissel, A; Raymond, M

    2000-12-01

    Dominance has been assessed in different ways in insecticide resistance studies, based on three phenotypic traits: the insecticide concentration required to give a particular mortality (DLC), mortality at a particular insecticide dose (DML), and fitness in treated areas (DWT). We propose a general formula for estimating dominance on a scale of 0 to 1 (0 = complete recessivity and 1 = complete dominance). DLC, DML, and DWT are not directly related and their values depend on genetic background and environmental conditions. We also show that pest management strategies can have the consequence to increase DWT via the selection of dominance modifiers. Studies on resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins provide the ultimate example of the complexity of the definition of the concept of dominance. Almost all studies have focused on calculation of DLC, which provides little information about the efficiency of pest management programs. For instance, one assumption of the high dose/refuge strategy is that Bacillus thuringiensis resistance must be effectively recessive (i.e., DML must be close to zero). However, DWT, rather than DML, is relevant to the resistance management strategy. Therefore, we strongly suggest that the time has come to focus on fitness dominance levels in the presence and absence of insecticide. PMID:11142285

  16. Unseen GLEs (Ground Level Events)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Eric R.; Boezio, M.; Bravar, Ulisse; Bruno, A.; de Nolfo, Georgia; Martucci, M.; Merge, M.; Mocchiutti, E.; Munini, R.; Ricci, M.; Ryan, James Michael; Stochaj, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Over the last seventy years, solar energetic particle (SEP) ground level events (GLEs) have been observed by ground-based neutron monitors and muon telescopes at a rate of slightly more than one per year. Ground-based detectors only measure secondary particles, and matching their observations with SEP in-situ measurements from spacecraft has been difficult. Now, the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) instrument provides in-situ measurements that also include composition and pitch-angle distribution and bridge the energy between long-term SEP monitors in space (e.g. ACE and GOES) and the ground-based observations. The PAMELA data show that there are a few SEP events (e.g. 23 Jan 2012) where PAMELA sees high-energy (> 1 GeV) particles, yet these are not registered as GLEs. We will present evidence that the anisotropic distribution of these SEPs may miss the global network of neutron monitors.

  17. High-Level Data Races

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artho, Cyrille; Havelund, Klaus; Biere, Armin; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Data races are a common problem in concurrent and multi-threaded programming. They are hard to detect without proper tool support. Despite the successful application of these tools, experience shows that the notion of data race is not powerful enough to capture certain types of inconsistencies occurring in practice. In this paper we investigate data races on a higher abstraction layer. This enables us to detect inconsistent uses of shared variables, even if no classical race condition occurs. For example, a data structure representing a coordinate pair may have to be treated atomically. By lifting the meaning of a data race to a higher level, such problems can now be covered. The paper defines the concepts view and view consistency to give a notation for this novel kind of property. It describes what kinds of errors can be detected with this new definition, and where its limitations are. It also gives a formal guideline for using data structures in a multi-threading environment.

  18. Synthetic Landau levels for photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock–Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen–Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons.

  19. CFO compensation reaches record levels.

    PubMed

    2001-06-01

    HFMA's 2001 CFO compensation survey finds that CFOs of hospitals and health systems are receiving higher compensation today than ever before. The current average compensation of $127,00--15.5 percent higher than was reported in a similar survey conducted in 1999--is the highest ever recorded by HFMA. Moreover, comparison of the 2001 findings with results of previous surveys shows that the earnings gains for CFOs over the past two years are stronger than they have been at many times in recent history. Factors that were found to influence CFO compensation in 2001 are location, years of service, number of employees reporting to the CFO, supervisory responsibility at the system versus hospital level, experience, and gender. Significant findings of the survey were that the average earnings of CFOs in urban areas are nearly twice those of CFOs in rural areas and that the average difference between earnings of male and female CFOs narrowed from $45,100 in 1999 to $36,800 in 2001. PMID:11407122

  20. Airborne chemistry single cell level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Staffan; Viberg, Peter; Spegel, Peter; Santesson, Sabina; Cedergren, Eila; Degerman, Eva; Johansson, Tomas; Nilsson, Johan

    2002-11-01

    A miniaturized analysis system for the studying of living cells and biochemical reactions in microdrops was developed. Cell studies were performed using single adipocytes in 250-nL drops. Continuous flow-through droplet dispensers, developed in-house, were used for additions to the levitated droplet. Addition of b-adrenergic agonists stimulates the lipolysis in the adipocytes, leading to free fatty acid release and a consequent pH decrease of the surrounding buffer, a change that can be easily followed using a pH-dependent fluorophore continuously monitored by fluorescence imaging detection. An analytical method using capillary electrophoresis and nanospray mass spectrometry for measurement of the cAMP level in activated single adipocytes are now being developed for future use in combination with the levitation technique. The levitation approach was also employed for the screening of nucleation conditions for macromolecules. Here, the acoustic levitator offers a simplified way to determine the main features of the phase diagram (i.e., precipitation diagram). Using the droplet dispensers, different types and amounts of precipitation agents are injected into the levitated drop, allowing a systematic search for nucleation conditions that is not possible using standard crystallization methods. Once the precipitation diagram has been obtained, optimization using standard methods is employed to grow the crystals.

  1. Synthetic Landau levels for photons.

    PubMed

    Schine, Nathan; Ryou, Albert; Gromov, Andrey; Sommer, Ariel; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-06-30

    Synthetic photonic materials are an emerging platform for exploring the interface between microscopic quantum dynamics and macroscopic material properties. Photons experiencing a Lorentz force develop handedness, providing opportunities to study quantum Hall physics and topological quantum science. Here we present an experimental realization of a magnetic field for continuum photons. We trap optical photons in a multimode ring resonator to make a two-dimensional gas of massive bosons, and then employ a non-planar geometry to induce an image rotation on each round-trip. This results in photonic Coriolis/Lorentz and centrifugal forces and so realizes the Fock–Darwin Hamiltonian for photons in a magnetic field and harmonic trap. Using spatial- and energy-resolved spectroscopy, we track the resulting photonic eigenstates as radial trapping is reduced, finally observing a photonic Landau level at degeneracy. To circumvent the challenge of trap instability at the centrifugal limit, we constrain the photons to move on a cone. Spectroscopic probes demonstrate flat space (zero curvature) away from the cone tip. At the cone tip, we observe that spatial curvature increases the local density of states, and we measure fractional state number excess consistent with the Wen–Zee theory, providing an experimental test of this theory of electrons in both a magnetic field and curved space. This work opens the door to exploration of the interplay of geometry and topology, and in conjunction with Rydberg electromagnetically induced transparency, enables studies of photonic fractional quantum Hall fluids and direct detection of anyons. PMID:27281214

  2. Feature-level sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peli, Tamar; Young, Mon; Knox, Robert; Ellis, Kenneth K.; Bennett, Frederick

    1999-03-01

    This paper describes two practical fusion techniques for automatic target cueing that combine features derived from each sensor data ta the object-level. In the hybrid fusion method each of the input sensor data is prescreened before the fusion stage. The cued fusion method assumes that one of the sensors is designated as a primary sensor, and thus ATC is only applied to its input data. If one of the sensors exhibits a higher Pd and/or a lower false alarm rate, it can be selected as the primary sensor. However, if the ground coverage can be segmented to regions in which one of the sensors is known to exhibit better performance, then the cued fusion can be applied locally/adaptively by switching the choice of a primary sensor. Otherwise, the cued fusion is applied both ways and the outputs of each cued mode are combined. Both fusion approaches use a back-end discrimination stage that is applied to a combined feature vector to reduce false alarms. The two fusion processes were applied to spectral and radar sensor data nd were shown to provide substantial false alarm reduction. The approaches are easily extendable to more than two sensors.

  3. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  4. Multi-level block permutation

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Anderson M.; Webster, Matthew A.; Vidaurre, Diego; Nichols, Thomas E.; Smith, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Under weak and reasonable assumptions, mainly that data are exchangeable under the null hypothesis, permutation tests can provide exact control of false positives and allow the use of various non-standard statistics. There are, however, various common examples in which global exchangeability can be violated, including paired tests, tests that involve repeated measurements, tests in which subjects are relatives (members of pedigrees) — any dataset with known dependence among observations. In these cases, some permutations, if performed, would create data that would not possess the original dependence structure, and thus, should not be used to construct the reference (null) distribution. To allow permutation inference in such cases, we test the null hypothesis using only a subset of all otherwise possible permutations, i.e., using only the rearrangements of the data that respect exchangeability, thus retaining the original joint distribution unaltered. In a previous study, we defined exchangeability for blocks of data, as opposed to each datum individually, then allowing permutations to happen within block, or the blocks as a whole to be permuted. Here we extend that notion to allow blocks to be nested, in a hierarchical, multi-level definition. We do not explicitly model the degree of dependence between observations, only the lack of independence; the dependence is implicitly accounted for by the hierarchy and by the permutation scheme. The strategy is compatible with heteroscedasticity and variance groups, and can be used with permutations, sign flippings, or both combined. We evaluate the method for various dependence structures, apply it to real data from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) as an example application, show that false positives can be avoided in such cases, and provide a software implementation of the proposed approach. PMID:26074200

  5. 42 CFR 124.503 - Compliance level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance level. 124.503 Section 124.503 Public... Unable To Pay § 124.503 Compliance level. (a) Annual compliance level. Subject to the provisions of this... persons unable to pay if it provides for the fiscal year uncompensated services at a level not less...

  6. Leveling Sweet Lake Geopressured Well Site

    SciTech Connect

    1984-07-01

    First Order leveling surveys to be conducted as part of an environmental monitoring program for geopressured test well. Conduct first order leveling to determine the elevation of the previously installed and leveled bench marks in the area of the Sweetlake geothermal well. All leveling surveys to conform to NGS standards and specifications.

  7. Assigning Level in Data-Mining Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Paul; Chilton, Ian J.; Fincham, Daron A.; Burns, Alan T.; Whitehead, Michael P.

    2007-01-01

    There is currently much interest in ascribing outcomes to Masters (M) level programmes. It is particularly difficult to define M level outcomes in bioinformatics for students on non-specialist programmes. An approach is described that attempts to discriminate undergraduate from M level in a data-mining exercise. Differentiation of level is based…

  8. Introductory Psychology Textbooks: Assessing Levels of Difficulty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Richard A.

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to facilitate the text selection process for introductory psychology teachers by enabling them to match the level of the text with their students' ability level. Examines 37 introductory psychology textbooks published from 1995-1997 to determine text levels (high, middle, or lower level). Discusses the findings in detail. (CMK)

  9. 33 CFR 101.200 - MARSEC Levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false MARSEC Levels. 101.200 Section 101.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL Maritime Security (MARSEC) Levels § 101.200 MARSEC Levels. (a) MARSEC Levels advise the maritime community and the...

  10. 33 CFR 101.200 - MARSEC Levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false MARSEC Levels. 101.200 Section 101.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: GENERAL Maritime Security (MARSEC) Levels § 101.200 MARSEC Levels. (a) MARSEC Levels advise the maritime community and the...

  11. 42 CFR 124.503 - Compliance level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... which the facility did not meet its annual compliance level due to either financial inability (as... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compliance level. 124.503 Section 124.503 Public... Unable To Pay § 124.503 Compliance level. (a) Annual compliance level. Subject to the provisions of...

  12. Level 1 Therapeutic Model site.

    PubMed

    Hall, Philip S; DeJong, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    This site is an intertribal residential grant school annually enrolling over 250 students in grades 1-8 from tribes located in three states on the Northern Great Plains. From its inception in 1890, the boarding school's mission has been to provide services for young children in need of a safe and supportive living and learning environment. For over a decade, this site has used strategies centered on respecting children, structuring students' time, and providing the therapeutic benefits of a well-maintained campus. This site also has a long history of believing in each child's inherent value and potential. When Therapeutic Residential Model funding commenced at the midpoint of the 2002-2003 school year, L1 focused these new resources on strengthening and refining its program. The number of personnel positions increased from 98 to 135, with new positions principally going to dormitory staff and four Masters-level counselor positions. This increase in staff allowed L1 to proactively address the children's developmental needs. The site also adopted and implemented the Applied Humanism caregiving model. In accordance with Applied Humanism, an interview was utilized that allowed the site to identify and hire applicants possessing the attitudes and skills necessary to be good caregivers, existing staff were trained so that they understood the kind of caregiving that would be expected of them, supervision procedures and practices were implemented that supported and encouraged good caregivers and provided time-limited assistance to those who were not, and relevant agency policies and procedures were revised as needed to align with the Applied Humanism philosophy. In addition, the Morningside program was brought in to systematically address the students' academic lags in reading. The results of implementing the Therapeutic Residential Model were a reduction in behavioral incidents, a decrease in the amount of money spent on external mental health services, an increase in the

  13. Ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sheila M.; Fisher, Mary; Young, Joy E.; Lutz, W.

    1970-01-01

    The ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva from 40 patients receiving a dose of 250 mg., 26 patients receiving a dose of 500 mg., and 11 patients receiving a dose of 1 g. were estimated. The ampicillin was given orally four times daily. The 1-2 hour and 2-3 hour sputum levels were similar in individual patients. There was no difference in the range or mean sputum or saliva levels between specimens from patients receiving 250 mg. and 500 mg., but the levels were significantly higher after the 1 g. dose. The mean serum level showed a small increase after 500 mg. ampicillin as compared with the 250 mg. dose and a big increase after the 1 g. dose: only the latter difference was significant. The sputum levels were approximately 30 to 40 times lower than the corresponding serum levels. There was considerable scatter in the sputum level for any level of ampicillin in the serum: in only two of the 1-2 hour sputum specimens was there no detectable ampicillin. There was no correlation between the sputum levels and either the body weight or the dose in milligrams per kilogram. There was no evidence that corticosteroids or diuretics affected the sputum level. It was not possible to demonstrate any relationship between the purulence of the sputum and the level of ampicillin after doses of 250 mg. or 500 mg., but higher levels were found in the more purulent specimens after 1 g. doses. PMID:4318047

  14. As Fitness Levels Rise, Diabetes Risk Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158889.html As Fitness Levels Rise, Diabetes Risk Drops But change requires dedication ... TUESDAY, May 17, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A higher level of heart-lung fitness may reduce your risk ...

  15. Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Information Center Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? Print-friendly Version (PDF, 6.1 MB) Spanish ... Syndrome? My Family Plan To Lower Blood Cholesterol Levels My Heart Health Card Play It Smart, Take ...

  16. What Do My Cholesterol Levels Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More What Do My Cholesterol Levels Mean? Updated:Mar 22,2016 High cholesterol can ... a fasting “lipoprotein profile” to measure your cholesterol levels. It assesses several types of fat in the ...

  17. MISR Level 1 Near Real Time Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-15

    Level 1 Near Real Time The MISR Near Real Time Level 1 data products consist of radiance measurements organized in 10-50 minute ... (off-nadir) cameras. The remaining channels are sampled at 1.1 km. ...

  18. [Erythropoietin levels in human tear fluid].

    PubMed

    Zakharov, Iu M; Rykun, V S; Bagautdinov, D E; Romanenko, E A

    2010-11-01

    Erythropoietin level was evaluated in blood plasma and tear fluid of humans with normal functions of eye and normal blood characteristics. We examined 21 patients. Principle ability of erythropoietin level detection in patient's tear fluid ascertained. PMID:21427970

  19. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    SciTech Connect

    Tuite, K.; Winberg, M.R.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy through the National Low-Level Waste Management Program and WMG Inc. have entered into a joint development effort to design, build, and demonstrate the Packaged Low-Level Waste Verification System. Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste disposal site operators have no method to independently verify the radionuclide content of packaged low-level waste that arrives at disposal sites for disposition. At this time, the disposal site relies on the low-level waste generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to ensure that low-level waste received meets the site`s waste acceptance criteria. The subject invention provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of low-level waste shipping records to ensure that the site`s waste acceptance criteria are being met. The objective of the prototype system is to demonstrate a mobile system capable of independently verifying the content of packaged low-level waste.

  20. 14 CFR 91.861 - Base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base level. 91.861 Section 91.861... level. (a) U.S. Operators. The base level of a U.S. operator is equal to the number of owned or leased... to paragraphs (a) (1) and (2). (1) The base level of a U.S. operator shall be increased by a...

  1. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, W.C.; Freudenthal, Pamela B.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 260 observation wells in Wyoming to record changes in ground-water storage. The areas of water-level observation are mostly where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. This report contains maps showing location of observation wells and water-level changes from 1975 to 1976. Well history, highest and lowest water levels , and hydrographs for most wells also are included. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Level Indicator On A Tubular Inside Micrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1995-01-01

    Leveling helps to ensure accurate measurements. Attachment helpful because in some situations that involve measurement of large, tight-tolerance inside dimensions, inside micrometers not held level between contact point give inaccurate readings. User adjusts position and orientation of micrometer and verifies level by observing bubble in level indicator. Upon feeling correct drag between micrometer tips and workpiece, user confident that tool used correctly and accurate measurement obtained.

  3. Indoor radon levels in Cumberland County, PA

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.L.; Nason, R.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements were made of radon levels in 165 randomly selected homes in Cumberland County, PA during Winter 1984-1985. The average and mean levels were found to be 9.1 +/- 0.7 pCi/L and 6.3 +/- 0.5 pCi/L, respectively, many times normally encountered levels. Average and mean radon levels are reported vs. various house characteristics. 4 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  4. Levels of Processing in Mild Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.; And Others

    This study examined the effects of the second level (intermediate acoustical processing of rhyming words) and the third level (deep-semantic processing of words in sentences) of the "levels of processing" framework on memory performance of four types of intermediate-grade students (52 "normal" students, 50 students with learning disabilities, 25…

  5. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competitive level. 351.403 Section 351.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive levels consisting of all positions in...

  6. Non-contact optical Liquid Level Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiseleva, L. L.; Tevelev, L. V.; Shaimukhametov, R. R.

    2016-06-01

    Information about characteristics of the optical liquid level sensor are present. Sensors are used to control of the light level limit fluid - water, kerosene, alcohol, solutions, etc. Intrinsically safe, reliable and easy to use. The operating principle of the level sensor is an optoelectronic infrared device.

  7. 14 CFR 91.861 - Base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Base level. 91.861 Section 91.861... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.861 Base level. (a) U.S. Operators. The base level of a U.S. operator is equal to the number of owned or...

  8. Maternal Anxiety and Lead Levels in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaiklin, Harris; Mosher, Barbara

    There is a relationship between maternal anxiety and lead levels in children. Data were collected from the mothers of 15 children with "normal" lead levels and 15 children with elevated blood levels. Anxiety was measured by the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. All families lived in areas with poor housing. Treatment of lead poisoning tends to focus…

  9. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6... Original Classification § 2400.6 Classification levels. (a) National security information (hereinafter “classified information”) shall be classified at one of the following three levels: (1) “Top Secret” shall...

  10. 30 CFR 62.120 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action level. 62.120 Section 62.120 Mineral... OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.120 Action level. If during any work shift a miner's noise exposure equals or exceeds the action level the mine operator must enroll the miner in a hearing conservation program...

  11. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2...

  12. 10 CFR 1045.17 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 1045.17 Section 1045.17 Energy... Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Information § 1045.17 Classification levels. (a) Restricted Data. The Director of Classification shall assign one of the following classification levels to...

  13. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive level. 351.403 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive levels consisting of all positions in a competitive area which are in the same grade (or...

  14. 45 CFR 400.60 - Payment levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment levels. 400.60 Section 400.60 Public... Assistance § 400.60 Payment levels. (a) Under the public/private RCA program, States and the local... the State's TANF payment for the same sized family unit. In States that have TANF payment levels...

  15. 14 CFR 29.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leveling marks. 29.871 Section 29.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 29.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  16. 14 CFR 29.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leveling marks. 29.871 Section 29.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 29.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  17. 14 CFR 29.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leveling marks. 29.871 Section 29.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 29.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  18. 14 CFR 27.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leveling marks. 27.871 Section 27.871... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 27.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  19. 14 CFR 27.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leveling marks. 27.871 Section 27.871... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 27.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  20. 14 CFR 29.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leveling marks. 29.871 Section 29.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 29.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  1. 14 CFR 27.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leveling marks. 27.871 Section 27.871... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 27.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  2. 14 CFR 29.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leveling marks. 29.871 Section 29.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 29.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  3. 14 CFR 27.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leveling marks. 27.871 Section 27.871... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 27.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  4. 14 CFR 27.871 - Leveling marks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leveling marks. 27.871 Section 27.871... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 27.871 Leveling marks. There must be reference marks for leveling the rotorcraft on the ground....

  5. Blood Glucose Levels and Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Weyand, David

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between varying blood glucose levels and problem behavior during daily scheduled activities was examined. The effects that varying blood glucose levels had on problem behavior during daily scheduled activities were examined. Prior research has shown that differing blood glucose levels can affect behavior and mood. Results of this…

  6. 14 CFR 25.871 - Leveling means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leveling means. 25.871 Section 25.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 25.871 Leveling means. There must be means for determining when the airplane is in a level position on the ground....

  7. 14 CFR 23.871 - Leveling means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leveling means. 23.871 Section 23.871 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... § 23.871 Leveling means. There must be means for determining when the airplane is in a level...

  8. 14 CFR 25.871 - Leveling means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leveling means. 25.871 Section 25.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 25.871 Leveling means. There must be means for determining when the airplane is in a level position on the ground....

  9. 14 CFR 25.871 - Leveling means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leveling means. 25.871 Section 25.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 25.871 Leveling means. There must be means for determining when the airplane is in a level position on the ground....

  10. 14 CFR 25.871 - Leveling means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leveling means. 25.871 Section 25.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 25.871 Leveling means. There must be means for determining when the airplane is in a level position on the ground....

  11. 14 CFR 25.871 - Leveling means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leveling means. 25.871 Section 25.871... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Miscellaneous § 25.871 Leveling means. There must be means for determining when the airplane is in a level position on the ground....

  12. 14 CFR 23.871 - Leveling means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leveling means. 23.871 Section 23.871 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... § 23.871 Leveling means. There must be means for determining when the airplane is in a level...

  13. 14 CFR 23.871 - Leveling means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leveling means. 23.871 Section 23.871 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... § 23.871 Leveling means. There must be means for determining when the airplane is in a level...

  14. 14 CFR 23.871 - Leveling means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leveling means. 23.871 Section 23.871 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... § 23.871 Leveling means. There must be means for determining when the airplane is in a level...

  15. 14 CFR 23.871 - Leveling means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leveling means. 23.871 Section 23.871 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... § 23.871 Leveling means. There must be means for determining when the airplane is in a level...

  16. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level... monitoring. (b) If an airborne concentration of beryllium is at or above the action level, the...

  17. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level... monitoring. (b) If an airborne concentration of beryllium is at or above the action level, the...

  18. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level... monitoring. (b) If an airborne concentration of beryllium is at or above the action level, the...

  19. Van Hiele Levels of Geometric Thought Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teppo, Anne

    1991-01-01

    Compared are the van Hiele levels of geometric thinking and the geometry curriculum recommended by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. Activities which illustrate the various levels are provided by grade level with procedures. (CW)

  20. Diabetes: Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Web version Diabetes | Monitoring Your Blood Sugar Level What tests can I use to check my blood sugar level? There are 2 blood tests that can help ... the past 2-3 months. Testing your A1C level every 3 months is the best way for ...

  1. CALIOP V4 Level 1 Product Release

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-11-13

    CALIOP V4 Level 1 Product Release Thursday, November 13, 2014 ...   This updated version of the CALIOP Level 1 data product substantially improves both the 532nm and 1064nm calibration ...   The version 3.x (3.01, 3.02 and 3.30) CALIOP Level 1 data product will continue to be generated and made publically available, ...

  2. Science Curriculum Guide, Levels 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newark School District, DE.

    The first two of four levels in a K-12 science curriculum are outlined. In Level 1 (grades K-2) and Level 2 (grades 3-5), science areas include the study of living things, matter and energy, and solar system and universe. Conveniently listed are page locations for educational and instructional objectives, cross-referenced to science area and coded…

  3. MISR Level 3 Cloud Motion Vector

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-10

    MISR Level 3 Cloud Motion Vector Level 3 Wednesday, November 7, 2012 ... A new version, F02_0002, of the MISR L3 CMV (Cloud Motion Vector) data product is now available. This new release provides finer ... coverage. These enhancements are the result of reorganizing motion vector information present in the recent Level 2 Cloud product as ...

  4. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  5. Mining level of control in medical organizations.

    PubMed

    Çalimli, Olgu; Türkeli, Serkan; Eken, Emir Gökberk; Gönen, Halil Emre

    2014-01-01

    In literature of strategic management, there are three layers of control defined in organizational structures. These layers are strategic, tactical and operational, in which resides senior, medium level and low level managers respectively. In strategic level, institutional strategies are determined according to senior managers' perceived state of organization. In tactical level, this strategy is processed into methods and activities of a business management plan. Operational level embodies actions and functions to sustain specified business management plan. An acknowledged lead organization in Turkish medical area is examined using case study and data mining method in the scope of this paper. The level of decisions regarded in managerial purposes evaluated through chosen organization's business intelligence event logs report. Hence specification of management level importance of medical organizations is made. Case study, data mining and descriptive statistical method of taken case's reports present that positions of "Chief Executive Officer", "Outpatient Center Manager", "General Manager", monitored and analyzed functions of operational level management more frequently than strategic and tactical level. Absence of strategic management decision level research in medical area distinguishes this paper and consequently substantiates its significant contribution. PMID:25160200

  6. Visual high-level regions respond to high-level stimulus content in the absence of low-level confounds.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Andreas; Bartels, Andreas

    2016-05-15

    High-level regions of the ventral stream exhibit strong category selectivity to stimuli such as faces, houses, or objects. However, recent studies suggest that at least part of this selectivity stems from low-level differences inherent to images of the different categories. For example, visual outdoor and indoor scenes as well as houses differ in spatial frequency, rectilinearity and obliqueness when compared to face or object images. Correspondingly, scene responsive para-hippocampal place area (PPA) showed strong preference to low-level properties of visual scenes also in the absence of high-level scene content. This raises the question whether all high-level responses in PPA, the fusiform face area (FFA), or the object-responsive lateral occipital compex (LOC) may actually be explained by systematic differences in low-level features. In the present study we contrasted two classes of simple stimuli consisting of ten rectangles each. While both were matched in visual low-level features only one class of rectangle arrangements gave rise to a percept compatible with a high-level 3D layout such as a scene or an object. We found that areas PPA, transverse occipital sulcus (TOS, also referred to as occipital place area, OPA), as well as FFA and LOC showed robust responses to the visual scene class compared to the low-level matched control. Our results suggest that visual category responsive regions are not purely driven by low-level visual features but also by the high-level perceptual stimulus interpretation. PMID:26975552

  7. Lightning testing at the subsystem level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luteran, Frank

    1991-01-01

    Testing at the subsystem or black box level for lightning hardness is required if system hardness is to be assured at the system level. The often applied philosophy of lighting testing only at the system level leads to extensive end of the line design changes which result in excessive costs and time delays. In order to perform testing at the subsystem level two important factors must be defined to make the testing simulation meaningful. The first factor is the definition of the test stimulus appropriate to the subsystem level. Application of system level stimulations to the subsystem level usually leads to significant overdesign of the subsystem which is not necessary and may impair normal subsystem performance. The second factor is the availability of test equipment needed to provide the subsystem level lightning stimulation. Equipment for testing at this level should be portable or at least movable to enable efficient testing in a design laboratory environment. Large fixed test installations for system level tests are not readily available for use by the design engineers at the subsystem level and usually require special operating skills. The two factors, stimulation level and test equipment availability, must be evaluated together in order to produce a practical, workable test standard. The neglect or subordination of either factor will guarantee failure in generating the standard. It is not unusual to hear that test standards or specifications are waived because a specified stimulation level cannot be accomplished by in-house or independent test facilities. Determination of subsystem lightning simulation level requires a knowledge and evaluation of field coupling modes, peak and median levels of voltages and currents, bandwidths, and repetition rates. Practical limitations on test systems may require tradeoffs in lightning stimulation parameters in order to build practical test equipment. Peak power levels that can be generated at specified bandwidths with

  8. Lead in soil: Recommended maximum permissible levels

    SciTech Connect

    Madhavan, S.; Rosenman, K.D.; Shehata, T.

    1989-06-01

    Lead in soil has been recognized as a public health problem, particularly among children. In recent years, attention has been directed to cumulative adverse effects of lead at low levels of intake. Lead-contaminated soil and dust have been identified as important contributors to blood lead levels. Based on available data on blood lead and lead in soil, an approach has been developed to suggest a permissible level of lead in soil, below which there will be reasonable certainty that adverse health effects will not occur. An acceptable level of 600 ppm of lead in soil suggested as a ''safe'' level would contribute no more than 5 micrograms/dl to total blood lead of children under 12 years of age. Maximum permissible levels of lead in soil have been recommended based on the dose-response relationship of lead in soil and blood lead in children.

  9. Noise levels in PICU: an evaluative study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Timmons, Stephen

    2005-12-01

    High levels of noise in the hospital environment can have an impact on patients and staff increasing both recovery time and stress respectively. When our seven-bedded paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is full, noise levels seem to increase significantly. This study measured noise levels at various times and places within a PICU using Tenma sound level meter which simulates the subjective response of a human ear. Noise levels were often excessive, exceeding international guidelines. Staff conversation was responsible for most of the noise produced; medical equipment, patient interventions, telephones, doorbell and the air shoot system were also responsible for causing high levels of noise. More can be done to reduce noise and its effects on patients and staff. PMID:16372705

  10. Cryogenic Liquid Level Sensor Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Allen R., Jr. (Inventor); Richards, W. Lance (Inventor); Piazza, Anthony (Inventor); Man, Hon Chan (Inventor); Bakalyar, John A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention proposed herein is a system and method for measuring the liquid level in a container that employs an optic fiber sensor which is heated using a simple power source and a wire and making an anemometry measurement. The heater wire is cycled between two levels of heat and the liquid level is obtained by measuring the heat transfer characteristics of the surrounding environment.

  11. Provocation Lumbar Diskography at Previously Fused Levels

    PubMed Central

    Dulai, H.S.; Bartynski, W.S.; Rothfus, W.S.; Gerszten, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recurrent or persistent low back pain (LBP) after lumbar fusion can be related to many factors. We reviewed the provocation lumbar diskogram (PLD) features and redo-fusion outcome in our patients evaluated for recurrent/persistent LBP after technically successful fusion. LD was performed in 27 patients with recurrent/persistent LBP after prior successful lumbar surgical fusion (31 fused levels: single-level fusion-23; two-level fusion-4). PLD response and imaging characteristics at fused and non-fused levels were assessed including: intra-diskal lidocaine response, diskogram-image/post-diskogram CT appearance, presence/absence of diskographic contrast leakage, and evidence of fusion integrity or hardware failure. Outcomes in patients having redo-fusion were assessed. Concordant pain was encountered at 15 out of 23 (65%) single-level fusions, non-concordant pain in one fusion with non-painful response in seven. Adjacent-level concordant pain was identified in seven out of 23 (30%) patients (three of 15 with painful fused levels; four of seven with non-painful fusions). In two-level fusions, concordant pain was encountered at one fused level in each patient. In painful fused levels, leaking and contained disks were encountered with partial or complete pain elimination after intra-diskal lidocaine injection. In anterior fusions, space or contrast surrounding the cage was noted at five of 11 levels. Pseudoarthrosis was noted only with trans-sacral screw fusions. Redo-fusion in 13 patients resulted in significant improvement in nine and moderate improvement in one. Patients with recurrent/persistent LBP after technically successful fusion may have a diskogenic pain source at the surgically fused or adjacent level confirmed by lidocaine-assisted PLD. PMID:20977869

  12. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2 µg/m3, calculated as an 8-hour TWA exposure,...

  13. Niche conservatism above the species level

    PubMed Central

    Hadly, Elizabeth A.; Spaeth, Paula A.; Li, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Traits that enable species to persist in ecological environments are often maintained over time, a phenomenon known as niche conservatism. Here we argue that ecological niches function at levels above species, notably at the level of genus for mammals, and that niche conservatism is also evident above the species level. Using the proxy of geographic range size, we explore changes in the realized niche of North American mammalian genera and families across the major climatic transition represented by the last glacial–interglacial transition. We calculate the mean and variance of range size for extant mammalian genera and families, rank them by range size, and estimate the change in range size and rank during the late Pleistocene and late Holocene. We demonstrate that range size at the genus and family levels was surprisingly constant over this period despite range shifts and extinctions of species within the clades. We suggest that underlying controls on niche conservatism may be different at these higher taxonomic levels than at the species level. Niche conservatism at higher levels seems primarily controlled by intrinsic life history traits, whereas niche conservatism at the species level may reflect underlying environmental controls. These results highlight the critical importance of conserving the biodiversity of mammals at the genus level and of maintaining an adequate species pool within genera. PMID:19897730

  14. Low-level waste program technical strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Bledsoe, K.W.

    1994-10-01

    The Low-Level Waste Technical Strategy document describes the mechanisms which the Low-Level Waste Program Office plans to implement to achieve its mission. The mission is to manage the receipt, immobilization, packaging, storage/disposal and RCRA closure (of the site) of the low-level Hanford waste (pretreated tank wastes) in an environmentally sound, safe and cost-effective manner. The primary objective of the TWRS Low-level waste Program office is to vitrify the LLW fraction of the tank waste and dispose of it onsite.

  15. Figure skater level moderates balance training.

    PubMed

    Saunders, N W; Hanson, N J; Koutakis, P; Chaudhari, A M; Devor, S T

    2013-04-01

    It was suggested that baseline levels of postural control in figure skaters might influence the effectiveness of neuromuscular training. The aims of the present study were to investigate the baseline association of skater skill level with standard center of pressure metrics and time to stabilization, and to determine if skill level influenced the effectiveness of a 6-week neuromuscular training program. There was no main effect of skill level for any baseline center of pressure metric for either test. There was no main effect of skill level on the percent change in any metric for the single leg stance following training. However, skill level did influence landing test outcome measures. The difference in percent change of root mean squared was evident for the mediolateral (low: 24.5±16.50% vs. high: 2.42±14.99%) and anterior-posterior (low: 6.66±9.21% vs. high: - 4.03±5.91%) axes. Percent change in anterior-posterior time to stabilization also differed by skill level (low: - 0.73%±4.74 vs. high: - 5.61%±2.76). Note that this study was underpowered with 26 subjects and 14 subjects contributing to baseline and post-training assessments, respectively. Though no baseline differences in postural control were observed, compared with low skill levels, high skill levels benefitted more from training. PMID:23184479

  16. Ground-water levels in Wyoming, 1976

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, W.C.; Freudenthal, Pamela B.

    1977-01-01

    Ground-water levels are measured periodically in a network of about 280 observation wells in Wyoming to record changes in ground-water storage. The areas of water-level observation are mostly where ground water is used in large quantities for irrigation or municipal purposes. This report contains maps showing location of observation wells and water-level changes from 1976 to 1977. Well history, highest and lowest water levels , and hydrographs for most wells also are included. The program of groundwater observation is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer and the city of Cheyenne. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. An encapsulated fiber optic fuel level sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, D.; Sai Shankar, M.; Saidi Reddy, P.; Sai Prasad, R. L. N.; Kamineni, K. S.; Kishore, P.

    2011-05-01

    An encapsulated fiber optic sensor head for the detection of level of fuel in a tank is presented. The design is based on a concentric cam used along with a float and extrinsic intensity modulation of light. The sensor has been tested for its performance to measure a fuel level range of 35cm and a sensitivity of 0.2316 volts/cm was observed during rise in fuel level. The sensitivity and range of level sensing can be varied by varying the length of the connecting rod.

  18. Sonmicat: Sea Level Observation System of Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Termens, A.; Ruiz, A.; Gonzalez Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    SONMICAT is the integrated sea level observation system of Catalonia. SONMICAT aims at providing high-quality continous measurements of sea- and land levels at the Catalan coast from tide gauges (relative sea levels) and from modern geodetic techniques (vertical land motion and absolute sea levels) for studies on long-term sea level trends, but also the calibration of satellite altimeters, for instance. This synergy is indeed the only way to get a clear and unambigous picture of what is actually going on at the coast of Catalonia. SONMICAT aims to be: - an integrated sea level monitoring system (different types of data, sources, time and space scales), - a sea level information system handling the data measured by different observation networks, - a local/regional component of international sea level observing systems (GLOSS, ESEAS, etc.), and - a local/regional interface for related European and Global projects and databases (PSML, TIGA, etc.) There is a gap of sea level data (GLOSS, PSML, TIGA) in the coast of Catalonia, although several groups and institutions have started to do some work. SONMICAT will fill it. Up to now, the system has started at l'Estartit and Barcelona harbours. A description of the actual SONMICAT infraestructure and campaigns - especially at Barcelona harbour - are presented. In June 2014, an airborne LiDAR campaign has been carrying on in Barcelona following two ICESat tracks. First results of the airborne survey will also be presented.

  19. Heat-pipe sensor for remote leveling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    System gives level readings in inaccessible areas. Level sensor is equipped with three thermocouples used to measure temperature differences that arise when pipe is tilted. When platform on which pipe is resting is level, three thermocouple recordings are identical. When readings are unequal, platform is leveled by remote control. System can replace expensive optical equipment and can function in cold, vacuum, and hot humid environments that produce nonlinear expansion and contraction in conventional equipment. Other advantages include low cost, no moving parts, and operation in toxic environments.

  20. 24 CFR 990.175 - Utilities expense level: Computation of the current consumption level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: Computation of the current consumption level. 990.175 Section 990.175 Housing and Urban Development... Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.175 Utilities expense level: Computation of the current consumption level. The current consumption level shall be the actual amount of each utility consumed during the...

  1. 24 CFR 990.175 - Utilities expense level: Computation of the current consumption level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: Computation of the current consumption level. 990.175 Section 990.175 Housing and Urban Development... Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.175 Utilities expense level: Computation of the current consumption level. The current consumption level shall be the actual amount of each utility consumed during the...

  2. 24 CFR 990.175 - Utilities expense level: Computation of the current consumption level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: Computation of the current consumption level. 990.175 Section 990.175 Housing and Urban Development... Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.175 Utilities expense level: Computation of the current consumption level. The current consumption level shall be the actual amount of each utility consumed during the...

  3. 24 CFR 990.180 - Utilities expense level: Computation of the rolling base consumption level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: Computation of the rolling base consumption level. 990.180 Section 990.180 Housing and Urban Development... Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.180 Utilities expense level: Computation of the rolling base consumption level. (a) General. (1) The rolling base consumption level (RBCL) shall be equal to the average...

  4. 24 CFR 990.180 - Utilities expense level: Computation of the rolling base consumption level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: Computation of the rolling base consumption level. 990.180 Section 990.180 Housing and Urban Development... Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.180 Utilities expense level: Computation of the rolling base consumption level. (a) General. (1) The rolling base consumption level (RBCL) shall be equal to the average...

  5. Analysis of Cyberbullying Sensitivity Levels of High School Students and Their Perceived Social Support Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the cyberbullying sensitivity levels of high school students and their perceived social supports levels, and analyze the variables that predict cyberbullying sensitivity. In addition, whether cyberbullying sensitivity levels and social support levels differed according to gender was also…

  6. 15 CFR 4a.3 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification levels. 4a.3 Section 4a.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 4a.3 Classification levels. Information may be classified as national security...

  7. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive... document the employee's actual duties and responsibilities. (3) Sex may not be the basis for a competitive level determination, except for a position OPM designates that certification of eligibles by sex...

  8. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive... document the employee's actual duties and responsibilities. (3) Sex may not be the basis for a competitive level determination, except for a position OPM designates that certification of eligibles by sex...

  9. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive... document the employee's actual duties and responsibilities. (3) Sex may not be the basis for a competitive level determination, except for a position OPM designates that certification of eligibles by sex...

  10. IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEE, JOHN M.; AND OTHERS

    TO HELP DISADVANTAGED INMATES WITH LOW READING LEVELS AND THOSE CONSIDERED FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE, THE DRAPER CORRECTIONAL CENTER IN ALABAMA EXPERIMENTED WITH VARIOUS READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS. MOST SUCCESSFUL WAS THE READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM USING THE PERCEPTOSCOPE. ALL APPLICANTS WHO SCORED BELOW THE SEVENTH GRADE READING LEVEL IN THE…

  11. Noninvasive Fluid Level Sensor for Organometallic Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, W.

    1986-01-01

    Two ultrasonic methods available for measuring level of organometallic liquid in stainless-steel (or other homogeneous solid) container. Methods require no disassembly or weighing of container. Commercially available ultrasonic flaw detectors, some of which have digital readouts and computer interfaces, used in techniques. Both methods used in crystal growth to determine level of liquids contained in sealed, opaque containers.

  12. Developmental Levels of Economically Disadvantaged College Freshmen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Stephen L.

    The personal developmental levels of students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds were studied; and the hypothesis that students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds would be less mature than other students in the developmental levels of autonomy, purpose, and interpersonal relationships was assessed. The effects of participation in…

  13. Development of Beginning Handwriting Instruction: Level One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supple, Ginny; And Others

    The 1971-1972 developmental tryout of level one of the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) Composition Skills Program is described in this report, and results obtained in a wide range of school locations are detailed. Level one is designed to promote beginning manuscript printing skills and is normally administered in kindergarten. A variety of…

  14. Teaching Badminton Based on Student Skill Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianyu; Moffit, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Badminton has been identified as a lifelong activity. It is an inexpensive sport and everyone--children, seniors, and individuals with disabilities--can reach a level of enjoyment in the game after mastering basic skills and tactics. In teaching badminton, teachers need to understand how students develop game play ability from a low level to an…

  15. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  16. Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granger, Stephanie; Oliphant, Robert; Manning, Evan

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infra-Red Sounder (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, known as product generation executives (PGEs). The AIRS SPS PGEs are used for processing measurements received from the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft. Early stages of the AIRS SPS development were described in a prior NASA Tech Briefs article: Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data (NPO-35243), Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 39. In summary: Starting from Level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the AIRS SPS PGEs and the data products they produce are identified by alphanumeric labels (1A, 1B, 2, and 3) representing successive stages or levels of processing. The previous NASA Tech Briefs article described processing through Level 2, the output of which comprises geo-located atmospheric data products such as temperature and humidity profiles among others. The AIRS Level 3 PGE samples selected information from the Level 2 standard products to produce a single global gridded product. One Level 3 product is generated for each day s collection of Level 2 data. In addition, daily Level 3 products are aggregated into two multiday products: an eight-day (half the orbital repeat cycle) product and monthly (calendar month) product.

  17. Investigating First Year Education Students' Stress Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen; Midford, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the stress levels of first-year education students who undertake teaching practicum and theory units during their first year of teacher education program. First, 139 first-year and 143 other years' education students completed the PSS-10 scale, which measures perceived level of stress. Then, 147 first-year education…

  18. Teachers' Self-Assessed Level of Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan

    2013-01-01

    We asked high school physics teachers to assess their level of preparation across a number of domains. Almost all (98%) reported feeling adequately or well prepared in terms of their basic physics knowledge. The chart presents teachers' responses to their self-assessed level of preparation in six different areas. Almost all feel at least…

  19. [Observation of autoionization levels in uranium I].

    PubMed

    Jin, C; Wang, X

    1999-02-01

    A number of Rydberg and autoionization levels of U I have been studied using three-step resonant ionization methods with three pulsed tunable dye lasers. Energy levels of uranium atom have been measured, which were located in the 49898-50880 cm(-1) energy interval. PMID:15818900

  20. SPEECH LEVELS IN VARIOUS NOISE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to determine average speech levels used by people when conversing in different levels of background noise. The non-laboratory environments where speech was recorded were: high school classrooms, homes, hospitals, department stores, trains and commercial...

  1. Structural Biology for A-Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the structure and function of proteins is an important area in biochemistry. Pupils studying A-level Biology are introduced to the four levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary) and how these can be used to describe the progressive folding of a chain of amino acid residues to a final,…

  2. 17 CFR 15.03 - Reporting levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting levels. 15.03 Section 15.03 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION REPORTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS § 15.03 Reporting levels. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section: Broad-based...

  3. Engagement in Pleasant Activities and Depression Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    1975-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a low rate of engagement in pleasant activities to be a concomitant of depression. The crucial question addressed by the Hammen and Glass study (1975) is whether an increase in pleasant-activity level will produce a decrease in depression level. (Editor)

  4. Birth Order and Activity Level in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Warren O.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied 7,018 children between birth and 7 years and 81 children of 5-8 years to test the hypothesis that birth order is negatively related to motor activity level. Activity level declined linearly across birth position, so that early-borns were rated as more active than later-borns. (RJC)

  5. Women's Skills Linked to Estrogen Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, R.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes the result of research which considers the effect of women's hormone level on specific skills. Reports that low estrogen levels allow women to excel at spatial skills, but perform poorly at complex motor tasks and speech articulation. Discusses some implications and further research ideas. (YP)

  6. Communication: Beyond the Basics: Other Communication Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, J. E.; Gratz, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    In addition to the basic communication skills of reading, writing, listening, and speaking, the authors suggest five other levels of communication to help teachers expand students' horizons: kinetic and symbolic; mental; extraterrestrial, biological, and technological; imagery; and perceptual. Each level is briefly discussed. (MF)

  7. Levels of Analysis in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tight, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the levels of analysis adopted in higher education research, using a database of 567 articles published in 15 leading higher education journals internationally during 2010. Level of analysis is a relatively overlooked issue in this field of research, when compared with methodology, theory and/or topic--to which it is, of…

  8. 15 CFR 4a.3 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification levels. 4a.3 Section 4a.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION, DECLASSIFICATION... E.O. 12958. The levels established by E.O. 12958 (Top Secret, Secret, and Confidential) are the...

  9. Ciencia: Nivel A (Science: Level A).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level science course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. The five units cover the basic concepts of the weather, colors, animals, plants, and the five senses. Each unit includes vocabulary,…

  10. Reasoning about Magnetism at the Microscopic Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Cheng, Yufang; Hung, Shuo-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience of teaching physics in middle and senior secondary school, we have found that students have difficulty in reasoning at the microscopic level. Their reasoning is limited to the observational level so they have problems in developing scientific models of magnetism. Here, we suggest several practical activities and the use of…

  11. Nebraska Schools 83-84 Immunization Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska State Dept. of Health, Lincoln.

    The data contained in this report represents all of the 297,696 students, K-12, in the state of Nebraska. High levels of immunity are documented among children grades K-6. Some immunization levels of children grades 7-12 are yet below the 95 percent established as a minimum for the prevention of vaccine preventable diseases. Specifically, there…

  12. Developing Professional-Level Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaver, Betty Lou, Ed.; Shekhtman, Boris, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines approaches to teaching near-native ability in foreign languages. The 13 papers focus on the following: (1) "Principles and Practices in Teaching Superior-Level Language Skills: Not Just More of the Same" (Betty Lou Leaver and Boris Shekhtman); (2) "Toward Academic Level Foreign Language Abilities: Reconsidering…

  13. Educational Justice, Epistemic Justice, and Leveling Down

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Harry Brighouse and Adam Swift argue that education is a positional good; this, they hold, implies that there is a qualified case for leveling down educational provision. In this essay, Ben Kotzee discusses Brighouse and Swift's argument for leveling down. He holds that the argument fails in its own terms and that, in presenting the problem…

  14. Determining Students' Conceptual Understanding Level of Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saricayir, Hakan; Ay, Selahattin; Comek, Arif; Cansiz, Gokhan; Uce, Musa

    2016-01-01

    Science students find heat, temperature, enthalpy and energy in chemical reactions to be some of the most difficult subjects. It is crucial to define their conceptual understanding level in these subjects so that educators can build upon this knowledge and introduce new thermodynamics concepts. This paper reports conceptual understanding levels of…

  15. Grantsmanship: Federal Context from State Level Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Bonny

    The purpose of this study was to examine awareness on the part of educational administrators at both state agency and institutional levels as to the importance of following the trends and priorities in legislation and in fund dispersals at both federal and state levels. The study also attempted to provide some limited assistance in approaching an…

  16. 33 CFR 159.83 - Level indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Level indicator. 159.83 Section 159.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.83 Level indicator. Each sewage retention device must have a means...

  17. 33 CFR 159.83 - Level indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Level indicator. 159.83 Section 159.83 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.83 Level indicator. Each sewage retention device must have a means...

  18. 45 CFR 400.60 - Payment levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment levels. 400.60 Section 400.60 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.60 Payment levels. (a) Under...

  19. Foundation-Level Dyslexia: Assessment and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Henryka M.; Seymour, Philip H. K.

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of foundation processes was administered to 51 Scottish children with reading difficulties and to 56 reading-level-matched controls. Results suggested the foundation is in place by the reading age of 7 years and that foundation-level dyslexia is identifiable in children with reading difficulty whose reading ages fall below this…

  20. Gauge Impact with 5 Levels of Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective professional learning evaluation requires consideration of five critical stages or levels of information. These five levels, which are presented in this article, represent an adaptation of an evaluation model developed by Kirkpatrick (1959, 1998) for judging the value of supervisory training programs in business and industry.…

  1. The Social Validity of Level Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; Johanson, George A.; Kalis, Donna

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 44 students (grades 4-10) with behavior disorders, 14 special educators, and 15 teacher assistants evaluated the social validity of level systems (behavioral management interventions applied to shape students' social, emotional, and academic behaviors to pre-established levels). While students were the most negative group, they…

  2. Teachers' Mental Health and Teaching Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Rios-Seidel, Carmen; Sevilla-Dedieu, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify the occupational risk factors of both psychiatric disorders and psychological distress for public school teachers in France depending on their teaching level. A survey was carried out on teachers aged 20-60 (N=3586). Some teaching levels, depending on the teacher's gender,…

  3. Occupational noise exposure and hearing levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ambasankaran, M.; Brahmachari, D.; Chadda, V.K.; Phadnis, M.G.; Raju, A.; Ramamurthy, A.; Shah, V.R.

    1981-07-01

    A study was made at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center to measure the hearing levels of persons working in a noise environment. Two different workplaces, central air-conditioning plant and glass blowing shops, where a number of persons were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dB(A) were chosen. The occupational exposure to noise was determined using a sound level meter, an octave band filter and a personal noise dose meter. The hearing levels of persons exposed to these high levels of noise and a control group not exposed to occupational noise were measured by means of a pure-tone audiometer in a specially-built booth. These persons, aged between 20 to 60 years, were divided into four age groups for the study. The low ambient noise levels in the booth were measured using correlation technique since such low signals cannot be detected by an ordinary sound level meter. The audiometric findings and the results of the noise level survey are discussed in this paper.

  4. Matematicas: Nivel E (Mathematics: Level E).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level E manual is designed for grade 4 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  5. Matematicas: Nivel A (Mathematics: Level A).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duron, Dolores; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level A manual is designed for kindergarten and grade 1 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual objectives, vocabulary, and structures are included. Activities are designed to teach either…

  6. Matematicas: Nivel F (Mathematics: Level F).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duron, Dolores, Ed.; And Others

    A teacher's manual was developed for an elementary level mathematics course in Spanish as part of an immersion program for English speaking children. The Level F manual is designed for grade 5 pupils. Teaching procedures, conceptual and language objectives, vocabulary, structures, and learning activities are included. Activities are designed to…

  7. Two-level total lumbar disc replacement

    PubMed Central

    Bakaloudis, Georgios; Lolli, Francesco; Vommaro, Francesco; Parisini, Patrizio

    2009-01-01

    Total lumbar disc replacement (TDR) has been widely used as a treatment option for 2-level symptomatic degenerative disc disease. However, recent studies have presented conflicting results and some authors concluded that outcome deteriorated when disc replacement was performed bisegmentally, with an increase of complications for bisegmental replacements in comparison with monosegmental disc arthroplasty. The goal of the present retrospective study is to investigate results in a group of patients who have received bisegmental TDR with SB Charitè III artificial disc for degenerative disc disease with a minimum follow-up of 3 years, and to compare the results of 2-level disc replacement versus 1-level patients treated with the same prosthesis. A total of 32 patients had at least 3-years follow-up and were reviewed. The average age of the patients was 38.5 years. There were 11 males and 21 females. About 16 patients received 2-level TDR (SB Charitè III) and 16 received 1-level TDR (SB Charitè III). Both radiographic and functional outcome analysis, including patient’s satisfaction, was performed. There were no signs of degenerative changes of the adjacent segments in any case of the 2- or 1-level TDR. There was no statistically significant difference between 2- and 1-level TDR both at 12 months and at 3-years follow-up on functional outcome scores. There was a statistically insignificant difference concerning the patients satisfaction between 1- and 2-level surgeries at the last follow-up (P = 0.46). In the 2-level TDR patients, there were 5 minor complications (31.25%), whereas major complications occurred in 4 more patients (25%) and required a new surgery in 2 cases (12.5%). In the 1-level cases there were 2 minor complications (12.5%) and 2 major complications (12.5%) and a new revision surgery was required in 1 patient (6.25%). In conclusion, the use of 2-level disc replacement at last follow-up presented a higher incidence of complications than in cases

  8. Spiking models for level-invariant encoding.

    PubMed

    Brette, Romain

    2011-01-01

    Levels of ecological sounds vary over several orders of magnitude, but the firing rate and membrane potential of a neuron are much more limited in range. In binaural neurons of the barn owl, tuning to interaural delays is independent of level differences. Yet a monaural neuron with a fixed threshold should fire earlier in response to louder sounds, which would disrupt the tuning of these neurons. How could spike timing be independent of input level? Here I derive theoretical conditions for a spiking model to be insensitive to input level. The key property is a dynamic change in spike threshold. I then show how level invariance can be physiologically implemented, with specific ionic channel properties. It appears that these ingredients are indeed present in monaural neurons of the sound localization pathway of birds and mammals. PMID:22291634

  9. Computer program to predict aircraft noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources were programmed to predict aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. The noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. Outputs can include spectra, overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, tone-weighted perceived noise level, and effective perceived noise level at locations specified by the user. Footprint contour coordinates and approximate footprint areas can also be calculated. Inputs and outputs can be in either System International or U.S. customary units. The subroutines for each noise source and propagation correction are described. A complete listing is given.

  10. Endotoxin levels in sera of elderly individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Goto, T; Edén, S; Nordenstam, G; Sundh, V; Svanborg-Edén, C; Mattsby-Baltzer, I

    1994-01-01

    The endotoxin levels in serum of 377 72-year-old individuals were quantitated. The study population was a representative sample of this age group and was participating in a general study of health and disease among the elderly in Göteborg, Sweden. The endotoxin levels in serum were quantified by the chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay and were correlated with the health status and laboratory findings for each individual. The mean endotoxin levels (+/- 1 standard deviation) in men and women, when excluding four outliers, were 6.6 +/- 3.8 and 6.9 +/- 3.8 pg/ml, respectively. All included, 21.5% of individuals had endotoxin levels equal to or above the sensitivity limit of 10 pg/ml. Strong positive correlations were found between endotoxin levels and plasma triglycerides (P > 0.995) and between endotoxin levels and serum protein (P > 0.9875). The endotoxin activity also correlated with mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (P < 0.005, negative correlation), body mass index (P > 0.9875), and decreased appetite (P > 0.9875). A high alcohol consumption was associated with increased endotoxin levels (P = 0.995). There are no previous studies which examine endotoxin levels in serum samples from individuals representative of the population. This study showed that elderly individuals had the same mean level of endotoxin as has been found in other age groups. The increased endotoxin levels seen in heavy drinkers may be explained by a decreased ability of the liver to remove endotoxin. The correlations found between endotoxin and triglycerides, protein, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, decreased appetite, and body mass index are discussed. PMID:8556521

  11. Common Era Sea-Level Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, B.; Kemp, A.; Kopp, R. E., III

    2014-12-01

    The Atlantic coast of North America provides a sedimentary record of Common Era sea levels with the resolution to identify the mechanisms that cause spatial variability in sea-level rise. This coast has a small tidal range, improving the precision of sea-level reconstructions. Coastal subsidence (from glacial isostatic adjustment, GIA) creates accommodation space that is filled by salt-marsh peat and preserves accurate and precise sea-level indicators and abundant material for radiocarbon dating. In addition, the western North Atlantic Ocean is sensitive to spatial variability in sea-level change, because of static equilibrium effects from melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, ocean circulation and wind-driven variability in the Gulf Stream and GIA induced land-level change from ongoing collapse of Laurentide forbuldge. We reveal three distinct patters in sea-level during the Common Era along the North American Atlantic coast, likely linked to wind-driven changes in the Gulf Stream: (1) Florida, sea level is essentially flat, with the record dominated by long-term geological processes; (2) North Carolina, sea level falls to a minimum near the beginning of the second millennium, climbing to an early Little Ice Age maximum in the fifteenth century, and then declining through most of the nineteenth century; and (3) New Jersey, a sea-level maximum around 900 CE, a sea-level minimum around 1500 CE, and a long-term sea-level rise through the second half of the second millennium. We combine the salt-marsh data from North American Atlantic coast with tide-gauge records and lower resolution proxies from the northern and southern hemispheres. We apply a noisy-input Gaussian process spatio-temporal modeling framework, which identifies a long-term falling global mean sea-level (GMSL), interrupted in the middle of the 19th century by an acceleration yielding a 20th century rate of rise extremely likely (probability P = 0:95) faster than any previous century in the Common Era.

  12. Sea level change: a philosophical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinfelder, R.; Seyfried, H.

    1993-07-01

    The present Cenozoic era is an ‘icehouse’ episode characterized by a low sea level. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, the human race has been emitting greenhouse gases, increasing the global atmospheric temperature, and causing a rise in sea level. If emissions continue to increase at the present rate, average global temperatures may rise by 1.5°C by the year 2050, accompanied by a rise of about 30 cm in sea level. However, the prediction of future climatic conditions and sea level is hampered by the difficulty in modelling the interactions between the lithosphere, kryosphere, biosphere and atmosphere; in addition, the buffering capacity of our planet is still poorly understood. As scientists cannot offer unambiguous answers to simple questions, sorcerer's apprentices fill in the gaps, presenting plans to save planet without inconveniencing us. The geological record can help us to learn about the regulation mechanisms of our planet, many of which are connected with or expressed as sea level changes. Global changes in sea level are either tectono-eustatic or glacioeustatic. Plate tectonic processes strongly control sea levels and climate in the long term. There is a strong feed-back mechanism between sea level and climate; both can influence and determine each other. Although high sea levels are a powerful climatic buffer, falling sea levels accelerate climatic accentuation, the growth of the polar ice caps and will hence amplify the drop in sea level. Important sources of fossil greenhouse gases are botanic CO2 production, CO2 released by volcanic activity, and water vapour. The latter is particularly important when the surface area of the sea increases during a rise in sea level (‘maritime greenhouse effect’). A ‘volcanogenic greenhouse effect’ (release of volcanogenic CO2) is possibly not equally important, as intense volcanic activity may take place both during icehouse episodes as well as during greenhouse episodes. The hydrosphere

  13. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  14. Mammographic breast density and serum phytoestrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Sarah J; Sprague, Brian L; Aiello Bowles, Erin J; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn; Hampton, John M; Burnside, Elizabeth S; Sisney, Gale A; Buist, Diana S M; Trentham-Dietz, Amy

    2012-08-01

    Some forms of estrogen are associated with breast cancer risk as well as with mammographic density (MD), a strong marker of breast cancer risk. Whether phytoestrogen intake affects breast density, however, remains unclear. We evaluated the association between serum levels of phytoestrogens and MD in postmenopausal women. We enrolled 269 women, ages 55-70 yr, who received a screening mammogram and had no history of postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects completed a survey on diet and factors related to MD and provided a blood sample for analysis of 3 phytoestrogens: genistein, daidzein, and coumestrol. We examined whether mean percent MD was related to serum level of phytoestrogens, adjusting for age and body mass index. Genistein and daidzein levels correlated with self-reported soy consumption. Mean percent MD did not differ across women with different phytoestrogen levels. For example, women with nondetectable genistein levels had mean density of 11.0% [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 9.9-12.4], compared to 10.5% (95% CI = 8.0-13.7) and 11.2% (95% CI = 8.7-14.6) for < and ≥ median detectable levels, respectively. In a population with relatively low soy intake, serum phytoestrogens were not associated with mammographic density. Additional studies are needed to determine effects of higher levels, particularly given patterns of increasing phytoestrogen intake. PMID:22860715

  15. Extracellular guanosine regulates extracellular adenosine levels

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Dongmei; Jackson, Travis C.; Verrier, Jonathan D.; Gillespie, Delbert G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that extracellular guanosine regulates extracellular adenosine levels. Rat preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells were incubated with adenosine, guanosine, or both. Guanosine (30 μmol/l) per se had little effect on extracellular adenosine levels. Extracellular adenosine levels 1 h after addition of adenosine (3 μmol/l) were 0.125 ± 0.020 μmol/l, indicating rapid disposition of extracellular adenosine. Extracellular adenosine levels 1 h after addition of adenosine (3 μmol/l) plus guanosine (30 μmol/l) were 1.173 ± 0.061 μmol/l, indicating slow disposition of extracellular adenosine. Cell injury increased extracellular levels of endogenous adenosine and guanosine, and the effects of cell injury on endogenous extracellular adenosine were modulated by altering the levels of endogenous extracellular guanosine with exogenous purine nucleoside phosphorylase (converts guanosine to guanine) or 8-aminoguanosine (inhibits purine nucleoside phosphorylase). Extracellular guanosine also slowed the disposition of extracellular adenosine in rat preglomerular vascular endothelial cells, mesangial cells, cardiac fibroblasts, and kidney epithelial cells and in human aortic and coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells and coronary artery endothelial cells. The effects of guanosine on adenosine levels were not mimicked or attenuated by 5-iodotubericidin (adenosine kinase inhibitor), erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine (adenosine deaminase inhibitor), 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide (guanine deaminase inhibitor), aristeromycin (S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitor), low sodium (inhibits concentrative nucleoside transporters), S-(4-nitrobenzyl)−6-thioinosine [inhibits equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) type 1], zidovudine (inhibits ENT type 2), or acadesine (known modulator of adenosine levels). Guanosine also increases extracellular inosine, uridine, thymidine, and cytidine, yet decreases

  16. Levels of histone acetylation in thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Puppin, Cinzia; Passon, Nadia; Lavarone, Elisa; Di Loreto, Carla; Frasca, Francesco; Vella, Veronica; Vigneri, Riccardo; Damante, Giuseppe

    2011-08-12

    Histone acetylation is a major mechanism to regulate gene transcription. This post-translational modification is modified in cancer cells. In various tumor types the levels of acetylation at several histone residues are associated to clinical aggressiveness. By using immunohistochemistry we show that acetylated levels of lysines at positions 9-14 of H3 histone (H3K9-K14ac) are significantly higher in follicular adenomas (FA), papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and undifferentiated carcinomas (UC) than in normal tissues (NT). Similar data have been obtained when acetylated levels of lysine 18 of H3 histone (H3K18ac) were evaluated. In this case, however, no difference was observed between NT and UC. When acetylated levels of lysine 12 of H4 histone (H4K12ac) were evaluated, only FA showed significantly higher levels in comparison with NT. These data indicate that modification histone acetylation is an early event along thyroid tumor progression and that H3K18 acetylation is switched off in the transition between differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumors. By using rat thyroid cell lines that are stably transfected with doxycyclin-inducible oncogenes, we show that the oncoproteins RET-PTC, RAS and BRAF increase levels of H3K9-K14ac and H3K18ac. In the non-tumorigenic rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5, TSH increases levels of H3K18ac. However, this hormone decreases levels of H3K9-K14ac and H4K12ac. In conclusion, our data indicate that neoplastic transformation and hormonal stimulation can modify levels of histone acetylation in thyroid cells. PMID:21763277

  17. Using pulse oximetry to assess oxygen levels.

    PubMed

    Olive, Sandra

    Abstract Olive S (2016) Using pulse oximetry to assess oxygen levels. Detecting low oxygen levels in patients is important but not always easy; central cyanosis--when a patient's lips, tongue and mucus membranes acquire a blue tinge--can be missed, even by skilled observers, until significant hypoxaemia is present. Pulse oximetry can be undertaken to measure a patient's oxygen levels and help identify earlier when action must be taken. This article outlines the procedure and its limitations, as well as the circumstances in which it should be used. PMID:27295798

  18. Models, controls, and levels of semiotic autonomy

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, C.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper the authors consider forms of autonomy, forms of semiotic systems, and any necessary relations among them. Levels of autonomy are identified as levels of system identity, from adiabatic closure to disintegration. Forms of autonomy or closure in systems are also recognized, including physical, dynamical, functional, and semiotic. Models and controls are canonical linear and circular (closed) semiotic relations respectively. They conclude that only at higher levels of autonomy do semiotic properties become necessary. In particular, all control systems display at least a minimal degree of semiotic autonomy; and all systems with sufficiently interesting functional autonomy are semiotically related to their environments.

  19. Low level vapor verification of monomethyl hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Narinder

    1990-01-01

    The vapor scrubbing system and the coulometric test procedure for the low level vapor verification of monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) are evaluated. Experimental data on precision, efficiency of the scrubbing liquid, instrument response, detection and reliable quantitation limits, stability of the vapor scrubbed solution, and interference were obtained to assess the applicability of the method for the low ppb level detection of the analyte vapor in air. The results indicated that the analyte vapor scrubbing system and the coulometric test procedure can be utilized for the quantitative detection of low ppb level vapor of MMH in air.

  20. Neutrino Masses Beyond the Tree Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristizabal Sierra, D.

    2012-07-01

    Models for Majorana neutrino masses can be classified according to the level in perturbation theory at which the effective dimension five operator LLHH is realized. The possibilities range from the tree-level up to the three-loop level realizations. We discuss some general aspects of this approach and speculate about a model independent classification of the possible cases. Among all the realizations, those in which the effective operator is induced by radiative corrections open the possibility for lepton number violation near—or at—the electroweak scale. We discuss some phenomenological aspects of two generic realizations: the Babu-Zee model and supersymmetric models with bilinear R-parity violation.

  1. Serum neopterin levels in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, E; Rodríguez-Moreno, F; Martínez-Riera, A; Milena-Abril, A; González-García, C

    1993-09-01

    Serum neopterin levels have been determined by RIA in 105 patients affected by chronic alcoholic liver disease, 68 of them cirrhotics, and in 12 controls. Serum Neopterin was significantly higher in patients than in controls, correlated with Pughs' score and Child's classification, and also with serum laminin and type III collagen N-terminal propeptide, and with histomorphometrically determined liver fibrosis. Serum neopterin levels were higher in patients who died than in survivors, serum neopterin levels over 19.15 nmol/l being associated with higher mortality rates. PMID:8261879

  2. Selenium levels in breads from Sakarya, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gülfen, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an important trace element for human and animal health. It accumulates in wheat and corn, which is consumed mostly as bread. The Turkish population consumes mainly white wheat, whole wheat (brown bread) and corn breads. In this study, samples of these breads were collected from six different bakeries in the city of Sakarya, and their selenium levels were determined by ICP-OES after a chemical digestion. It was found that average selenium levels in white wheat, whole wheat and corn breads were 1149, 1204 and 2023 µg/kg, respectively. The results are compared with daily recommended intake and upper tolerable levels for selenium. PMID:24779690

  3. Concepts of Physics at Secondary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, A. H.; Mughol, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Secondary and college level students were queried as to which fundamental physics concepts were the most difficult to understand. Concepts reported as most difficult included: difference between mass and weight, magnification, indirection, the idea of fields, and potential difference. (SL)

  4. Low gravity liquid level sensor rake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, Gary D. (Inventor); Craddock, Jeffrey C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The low gravity liquid level sensor rake measures the liquid surface height of propellant in a propellant tank used in launch and spacecraft vehicles. The device reduces the tendency of the liquid propellant to adhere to the sensor elements after the bulk liquid level has dropped below a given sensor element thereby reducing the probability of a false liquid level measurement. The liquid level sensor rake has a mast attached internal to a propellant tank with an end attached adjacent the tank outlet. Multiple sensor elements that have an arm and a sensor attached at a free end thereof are attached to the mast at locations selected for sensing the presence or absence of the liquid. The sensor elements when attached to the mast have a generally horizontal arm and a generally vertical sensor.

  5. MISR Level 2 TOA/Cloud Versioning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-02

    ... Stage 3 Validated:  BRFs at Reflecting Level, Texture Indices Stage 1 Validated:  Local, Restrictive and ... Stage 3 Validated:  BRFs at RLRA, Texture Indices Stage 1 Validated:  Broadband Albedos ...

  6. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    Sternwheeler, W.D.E.

    1992-12-31

    This paper provides highlights from the 1992 winter meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Wastes Forum. Topics of discussion included: legal information; state and compact reports; freedom of information requests; and storage.

  7. Electronic Instrumentation in A-Level Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellse, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Describes: (1) the light beam galvanometer; (2) the electrometer/direct current amplifier; and (3) digital multimeters. Focuses on the uses or potential uses of these instruments in teaching A-level physics. (JN)

  8. Testing College-Level Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facione, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    At the college level, the obstacles to machine-testing of critical thinking are more pedagogical and practical than theoretical and include creating an operational definition, differentiating critical thinking skills and subskills, and establishing test reliability and validity. (MSE)

  9. Hierarchical Classification by Multi-Level Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuitty, Louis L.

    1970-01-01

    A method is developed and illustrated which relaxes the principle of reciprocity in relation to characteristics of data and classifies in terms of successive levels of reciprocity, using two versions: (a) successive linkages, and (b) core assignments. (Author/RF)

  10. Nuclear level density: Shell-model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen'kov, Roman; Zelevinsky, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the nuclear level density is necessary for understanding various reactions, including those in the stellar environment. Usually the combinatorics of a Fermi gas plus pairing is used for finding the level density. Recently a practical algorithm avoiding diagonalization of huge matrices was developed for calculating the density of many-body nuclear energy levels with certain quantum numbers for a full shell-model Hamiltonian. The underlying physics is that of quantum chaos and intrinsic thermalization in a closed system of interacting particles. We briefly explain this algorithm and, when possible, demonstrate the agreement of the results with those derived from exact diagonalization. The resulting level density is much smoother than that coming from conventional mean-field combinatorics. We study the role of various components of residual interactions in the process of thermalization, stressing the influence of incoherent collision-like processes. The shell-model results for the traditionally used parameters are also compared with standard phenomenological approaches.

  11. Getting Started: What's Your Fitness Level?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the following questions: Determine your current activity level. l How much time do you spend sitting? l How much time and how often are you active? l When you’re active, what kinds of activities ...

  12. Street Level Prostitution: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Love, Rene

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize research on female street level prostitutes for application in mental health practice and identification of future research needs. The data were from reports conducted in Westernized countries on female street level prostitutes between the years 2000 and 2014. Street level prostitutes are at high risk for HIV/STIs, chronic and acute physical/mental health problems, and violence, but there is a paucity of research on resilience and coping skills. We conclude that street level prostitutes suffer severe health disparities, yet they do not seek health care on a consistent basis. It is important for mental healthcare providers to offer women a safe, non-judgmental environment while providing assessment and referral. Future research on mental health consequences as well as resilience and coping skills would support effective interventions that address the women holistically. PMID:26379130

  13. ERIC/RCS: Adult Performance Level Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiss, Thom

    1976-01-01

    This second article in a two-part series reviews the literature in the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) on the Adult Performance Level (APL) project and other programs for adult education. (See CS 710 176) (KS)

  14. Ideology and 'A' Level Economics Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Angela

    1978-01-01

    Reviews economics textbooks frequently used in college level economics courses in England to determine the extent of bias. Topics analyzed include economics as science and ethics, profits, advertising, economic objectives, perfect competition, and nationalized industries. (Author/DB)

  15. The levels of edit, second edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanburen, R.; Buehler, M. F.

    1980-01-01

    The editorial process is analyzed, and five levels of edit are identified. These levels represent cumulative combinations of nine types of edit: Coordination, Policy, Integrity, Screening, Copy Clarification, Format, Mechanical Style, Language, and Substantive. The levels and types of edit, although developed for specific use with external reports at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, cover the general range of technical editing, especially as it applies to an in-house technical publications organization. Each type of edit is set forth in terms of groups of actions to be performed by editor. The edit-level concept has enhanced understanding and communication among editors, authors, and publications managers concerning the specific editorial work to be done on each manuscript. It has also proved useful as a management tool for estimating and monitoring cost.

  16. BTeV level 1 vertex trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Michael H.L.S. Wang

    2001-11-05

    BTeV is a B-physics experiment that expects to begin collecting data at the C0 interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron in the year 2006. Its primary goal is to achieve unprecedented levels of sensitivity in the study of CP violation, mixing, and rare decays in b and c quark systems. In order to realize this, it will employ a state-of-the-art first-level vertex trigger (Level 1) that will look at every beam crossing to identify detached secondary vertices that provide evidence for heavy quark decays. This talk will briefly describe the BTeV detector and trigger, focus on the software and hardware aspects of the Level 1 vertex trigger, and describe work currently being done in these areas.

  17. Typewriting Instruction for Diverse Preparation Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Mary Alice; Young, Marlin

    1976-01-01

    The advanced typewriting course (for college students) effectively provided for individual differences through the use of proficiency tests, pretests, learning assignment units at three student-selected levels, timed tests, and individual pacing. (MS)

  18. Community-level cohesion without cooperation.

    PubMed

    Tikhonov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    Recent work draws attention to community-community encounters ('coalescence') as likely an important factor shaping natural ecosystems. This work builds on MacArthur's classic model of competitive coexistence to investigate such community-level competition in a minimal theoretical setting. It is shown that the ability of a species to survive a coalescence event is best predicted by a community-level 'fitness' of its native community rather than the intrinsic performance of the species itself. The model presented here allows formalizing a macroscopic perspective whereby a community harboring organisms at varying abundances becomes equivalent to a single organism expressing genes at different levels. While most natural communities do not satisfy the strict criteria of multicellularity developed by multi-level selection theory, the effective cohesion described here is a generic consequence of resource partitioning, requires no cooperative interactions, and can be expected to be widespread in microbial ecosystems. PMID:27310530

  19. Level of constraint in revision knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Indelli, Pier Francesco; Giori, Nick; Maloney, William

    2015-12-01

    Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the setting of major bone deficiency and/or soft tissue laxity might require increasing levels of constraint to restore knee stability. However, increasing the level of constraint not always correlates with mid-to-long-term satisfactory results. Recently, modular components as tantalum cones and titanium sleeves have been introduced to the market with the goal of obtaining better fixation where bone deficiency is an issue; theoretically, satisfactory meta-diaphyseal fixation can reduce the mechanical stress at the level of the joint line, reducing the need for high levels of constraint. This article reviews the recent literature on the surgical management of the unstable TKA with the goal to propose a modern surgical algorithm for adult reconstruction surgeons. PMID:26373770

  20. Level-2 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.U.; /Purdue U.

    2007-04-01

    The CDF Run II Level-2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on an algorithm used in Run I. This system insured good performance at low luminosity obtained during the Tevatron Run II. However, as the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitations of the current system due to the algorithm start to become clear. In this paper, we will present an upgrade of the Level-2 calorimeter trigger system at CDF. The upgrade is based on the Pulsar board, a general purpose VME board developed at CDF and used for upgrading both the Level-2 tracking and the Level-2 global decision crate. This paper will describe the design, hardware and software implementation, as well as the advantages of this approach over the existing system.

  1. Model Rocketry: University-Level Educational Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrowman, James S.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how model rocketry can be a useful educational tool at the university level as a practical application of theoretical aerodynamic concepts and as a tool for students in experimental research. (BR)

  2. Task-level control for autonomous robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, Reid

    1994-01-01

    Task-level control refers to the integration and coordination of planning, perception, and real-time control to achieve given high-level goals. Autonomous mobile robots need task-level control to effectively achieve complex tasks in uncertain, dynamic environments. This paper describes the Task Control Architecture (TCA), an implemented system that provides commonly needed constructs for task-level control. Facilities provided by TCA include distributed communication, task decomposition and sequencing, resource management, monitoring and exception handling. TCA supports a design methodology in which robot systems are developed incrementally, starting first with deliberative plans that work in nominal situations, and then layering them with reactive behaviors that monitor plan execution and handle exceptions. To further support this approach, design and analysis tools are under development to provide ways of graphically viewing the system and validating its behavior.

  3. As Fitness Levels Rise, Diabetes Risk Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158889.html As Fitness Levels Rise, Diabetes Risk Drops But change ... of the overall population, the study author's explained. "As this benefit remained significant even when adjusting for ...

  4. Genesis and intersubjectivity: levels of mediation.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2012-09-01

    I will make a brief comment on the thesis of José C. Loredo-Narciandi and José C. Sánchez-González (2012) "Neither Dichotomies Nor Dualism; Simply Genesis". Denying any reductionism and reification, they insists the importance of inseparable relation between subject and object, then discuss about genesis. I pointed out that their argument lacks an important element, i.e., mediator that differ from mere physical object. After discussing mediators nature, I discriminate the three level of interaction which mediated by mediator. The first is the pre-interaction level, the second is physical interaction level and the third is sign or language interaction level. The last argument of mine is about how we can solve the problem of reification and reductionism. In the argument it is pointed out that intersubjectivity is key concept for understanding and solving the problem appropriately. PMID:22628155

  5. Chip level simulation of fault tolerant computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Chip-level modeling techniques in the evaluation of fault tolerant systems were researched. A fault tolerant computer was modeled. An efficient approach to functional fault simulation was developed. Simulation software was also developed.

  6. Conceptual and logical level of database modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunka, Frantisek; Matula, Jiri

    2016-06-01

    Conceptual and logical levels form the top most levels of database modeling. Usually, ORM (Object Role Modeling) and ER diagrams are utilized to capture the corresponding schema. The final aim of business process modeling is to store its results in the form of database solution. For this reason, value oriented business process modeling which utilizes ER diagram to express the modeling entities and relationships between them are used. However, ER diagrams form the logical level of database schema. To extend possibilities of different business process modeling methodologies, the conceptual level of database modeling is needed. The paper deals with the REA value modeling approach to business process modeling using ER-diagrams, and derives conceptual model utilizing ORM modeling approach. Conceptual model extends possibilities for value modeling to other business modeling approaches.

  7. Global sea level linked to global temperature

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, Martin; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simple relationship linking global sea-level variations on time scales of decades to centuries to global mean temperature. This relationship is tested on synthetic data from a global climate model for the past millennium and the next century. When applied to observed data of sea level and temperature for 1880–2000, and taking into account known anthropogenic hydrologic contributions to sea level, the correlation is >0.99, explaining 98% of the variance. For future global temperature scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fourth Assessment Report, the relationship projects a sea-level rise ranging from 75 to 190 cm for the period 1990–2100. PMID:19995972

  8. Leptin levels in the obese African parturient.

    PubMed

    Kafulafula, G; Moodley, J

    2001-05-01

    Prolactin, HCG and oestrogen are reported to have a role in regulating serum leptin levels and therefore adiposity in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine serum leptin levels during pregnancy in African women, and was conducted in the Antenatal Clinic, King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, South Africa. Eighty-two obese and non-obese women were studied. Demographic details and anthropometric measurements were recorded, and serum leptin levels determined by radio-immunoassay in all women. Age, parity and gestational age showed a weak correlation with leptin levels. Weight (4=0.6); body mass index (r=0.5), and the circumference of midarm (r=0.4), waist (4-0.6, hip (5=0.5) and thigh correlated positively with leptin values. Serum leptin values in African pregnant women are not dissimilar to that of studies in other racial groups. PMID:12521847

  9. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    This report provides highlights from the 1992 fall meeting of the Low LEvel Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included: disposal options after 1992; interregional agreements; management alternatives; policy; and storage.

  10. NASA Now: Climate Change: Sea Level Rise

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Josh Willis discusses the connection between oceans and global climate change. Learn why NASA measures greenhouse gases and how we detect ocean levels from space. These are crucial vital signs ...

  11. Characteristics of low-level smokers.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Andrew; Rezaishiraz, Hamed; Bauer, Joseph; Giovino, Gary A; Cummings, K Michael

    2005-06-01

    Average daily cigarette consumption has decreased, and some evidence suggests that the rate of "some day" smoking has increased; however, relatively little is known about low-level smokers. The present analysis describes and compares low-level versus heavier smokers, using cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Data from the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation (COMMIT) were used in this analysis. Population-based cross-sectional tobacco use telephone surveys were performed in 22 North American communities in 1988 and 1993, and the prevalence and characteristics of low-level smoking and reasons for quitting are reported from the 1993 prevalence survey. In addition, a cohort of 6,603 smokers was identified in 1988 and interviewed again in 1993 and 2001 to assess patterns of low-level smoking over time and its association with smoking cessation. In 1988, 7.6% were low-level smokers; in 1993, 10.7% were low-level smokers. Compared with heavier smokers, low-level smokers were more likely to be female, older, not married, Black or Hispanic; to have a 4-year college degree; to have no other adult smokers in the household; and to wait longer in the day to have their first cigarette. Low-level smokers also were less likely to report trying to quit because of the expense of smoking or physician advice to quit. They were more likely to try to quit because of trying to set a good example; concern for second-hand smoke; and factors such as bad breath, smell, or the taste of smoking. Those who smoked full-priced premium brands and who worked in a completely smoke-free worksite were more likely to be low-level smokers. Compared with heavier smokers, low-level smokers had similar rates of making a future quit attempt, lower use rates of nicotine replacement therapy, and higher cessation rates. Low-level smokers may be a growing segment of the smoker population and have different characteristics, health risks, and intervention needs compared with their heavier

  12. Future high sea levels in south Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Blomgren, S.H.; Hanson, H.

    1997-12-31

    An estimation of future mean high water levels in Oeresund and the southwest Baltic Sea is presented together with a discussion of probable consequences for Falsterbo Peninsula, a trumpet-shaped sandy formation of some 25 km{sup 2} size situated in the very southwest corner of Sweden. A literature review coupled with sea-level measurements and observations made in the area every four hours since October 1945 are given and comprise the base for the present analysis.

  13. Analysis of magnetic field levels at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulou, Christos G.

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this work is to evaluate the magnetic field levels of distribution systems and other equipment at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Magnetic fields levels in several operational areas and various facilities are investigated. Three dimensional mappings and contour are provided along with the measured data. Furthermore, the portion of magnetic fields generated by the 60 Hz fundamental frequency and the portion generated by harmonics are examined. Finally, possible mitigation techniques for attenuating fields from electric panels are discussed.

  14. A Primer on Architectural Level Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the fundamental concepts of fault tolerant computing. Key topics covered are voting, fault detection, clock synchronization, Byzantine Agreement, diagnosis, and reliability analysis. Low level mechanisms such as Hamming codes or low level communications protocols are not covered. The paper is tutorial in nature and does not cover any topic in detail. The focus is on rationale and approach rather than detailed exposition.

  15. Level of holographic noise in interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.

    2009-04-01

    The level of holographic noise expected to be observed in interferometric gravitational wave detectors such as GEO600 is reexamined. It is demonstrated that earlier estimates are based on assumed linear diffractive behavior of Planck radiation. Since nonlinear effects, such as self-focusing, are expected to appear at much lower energies, the expected level of holographic noise must be reduced by many orders of magnitude.

  16. Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 142 Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium (Web, free access)   This database provides theoretical values of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium for principle quantum numbers n = 1 to 200 and all allowed orbital angular momenta l and total angular momenta j. The values are based on current knowledge of the revelant theoretical contributions including relativistic, quantum electrodynamic, recoil, and nuclear size effects.

  17. Liquid-Level Monitor for Pressurized Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Mall, G. H.

    1986-01-01

    Technique for monitoring water levels in pressurized stainless-steel cylinders, based on differences in gamma-ray attenuation coefficients in water and air, developed. Full-scale laboratory prototype system constructed to test technique. Technique usable with liquids other than water, since linear attenuation coefficients for intermediate-energy gamma rays in air considerably lower than in liquids. Also adaptable for continuous monitoring of liquid levels in resevoir systems and in underground storage tanks.

  18. Metal levels in corrosion of spinal implants

    PubMed Central

    Beguiristain, Jose; Duart, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Corrosion affects spinal instrumentations and may cause local and systemic complications. Diagnosis of corrosion is difficult, and nowadays it is performed almost exclusively by the examination of retrieved instrumentations. We conducted this study to determine whether it is possible to detect corrosion by measuring metal levels on patients with posterior instrumented spinal fusion. Eleven asymptomatic patients, with radiological signs of corrosion of their stainless steel spinal instrumentations, were studied by performing determinations of nickel and chromium in serum and urine. Those levels were compared with the levels of 22 patients with the same kind of instrumentation but without evidence of corrosion and to a control group of 22 volunteers without any metallic implants. Statistical analysis of our results revealed that the patients with spinal implants without radiological signs of corrosion have increased levels of chromium in serum and urine (P < 0.001) compared to volunteers without implants. Corrosion significantly raised metal levels, including nickel and chromium in serum and urine when compared to patients with no radiological signs of corrosion and to volunteers without metallic implants (P < 0.001). Metal levels measured in serum have high sensibility and specificity (area under the ROC curve of 0.981). By combining the levels of nickel and chromium in serum we were able to identify all the cases of corrosion in our series of patients. The results of our study confirm that metal levels in serum and urine are useful in the diagnosis of corrosion of spinal implants and may be helpful in defining the role of corrosion in recently described clinical entities such as late operative site pain or late infection of spinal implants. PMID:17256156

  19. High bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children.

    PubMed

    Franco, Patricia; Junqua, Aurelie; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Raoux, Aude; Perier, Magali; Raverot, Veronique; Claustrat, Bruno; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of plasma bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children. Clinical, electrophysiological data and bicarbonate levels were evaluated retrospectively in children seen in our paediatric national reference centre for hypersomnia. The cohort included 23 control subjects (11.5 ± 4 years, 43% boys) and 51 patients presenting de-novo narcolepsy (N) (12.7 ± 3.7 years, 47% boys). In narcoleptic children, cataplexy was present in 78% and DQB1*0602 was positive in 96%. The control children were less obese (2 versus 47%, P = 0.001). Compared with control subjects, narcoleptic children had higher bicarbonate levels (P = 0.02) as well as higher PCO2 (P < 0.01) and lower venous pH gas (P < 0.01). Bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L(-1) were found in 41.2% of the narcoleptic children and 4.2% of the controls (P = 0.001). Bicarbonate levels were correlated with the Adapted Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P = 0.01). Narcoleptic patients without obesity often had bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L (-1) (55 versus 25%, P = 0.025). No differences were found between children with and without cataplexy. In conclusion, narcoleptic patients had higher bicarbonate plasma levels compared to control children. This result could be a marker of hypoventilation in this pathology, provoking an increase in PCO2 and therefore a respiratory acidosis, compensated by an increase in plasma bicarbonates. This simple screening tool could be useful for prioritizing children for sleep laboratory evaluation in practice. PMID:26574184

  20. Low-level-waste-form criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, R.E.; Davis, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Efforts in five areas are reported: technical considerations for a high-integrity container for resin wastes; permissible radionuclide loadings for organic ion exchange resin wastes; technical factors affecting low-level waste form acceptance requirements of the proposed 10 CFR 61 and draft BTP; modeling of groundwater transport; and analysis of soils from low-level waste disposal sites (Barnwell, Hanford, and Sheffield). (DLC)

  1. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    SciTech Connect

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  2. Rippled-spectrum resolution dependence on level.

    PubMed

    Supin, Alexander Ya; Popov, Vladimir V; Milekhina, Olga N; Tarakanov, Mikhail B

    2003-11-01

    Rippled-density resolution of a rippled sound spectrum (probe band) in both the presence and absence of another band (masker) was studied as a function of sound level in normal listeners. The resolvable ripple density in the probe band was measured by finding the highest ripple density at which an interchange of ripple peak and valley positions was detectable (the phase-reversal test). Probe bands were 0.5 oct wide with center frequencies of 1, 2, and 4 kHz. In the control condition (no masker), the ripple-density resolution was almost independent of sound level within a range of 40-90 dB SPL. When an on-frequency masker coincided with the probe band (that resulted in reduced ripple depth), resolution decreased slightly relative to the control condition but remained little dependent on level. With an off-frequency low-side masker, the ripple-density resolution was a little less than in the control but almost independent of level within a range of 40-60 dB SPL and progressively decreased with level increase from 70 to 90 dB SPL. The dependence on level was qualitatively similar at all probe frequencies and at various widths and positions of the low-side off-frequency masker band. PMID:14599687

  3. Features, Events, and Processes: system Level

    SciTech Connect

    D. McGregor

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the system-level features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either Included or Excluded, is given for each FEP along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.113 (d, e, and f) (DIRS 156605). The system-level FEPs addressed in this report typically are overarching in nature, rather than being focused on a particular process or subsystem. As a result, they are best dealt with at the system level rather than addressed within supporting process-level or subsystem-level analyses and models reports. The system-level FEPs also tend to be directly addressed by regulations, guidance documents, or assumptions listed in the regulations; or are addressed in background information used in development of the regulations. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in the TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from the TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). The initial version of this report (Revision 00) was developed to support the total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR). This revision addresses the license application (LA) FEP List (DIRS 170760).

  4. Setting dietary intake levels: problems and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Russell, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Recommended dietary intake levels are the nutrient standards used in designing food assistance programmes, institutional feeding programmes, counselling and teaching. In the USA, the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) are the basis for setting the poverty threshold and food stamp allotments. In the 1990s, a new paradigm was put forth for estimating nutrient requirements and recommended intake levels. This considered the level of nutrient needed for normal body functioning (versus the amount needed to prevent a deficiency state from occurring). An estimated average requirement (EAR), an RDA and a tolerable upper intake level (UL) were determined for most nutrients. In setting forth these nutrient intake levels (dietary reference intakes, DRIs), a number of data challenges were encountered. For example, it was recognized that for most nutrients there was an absence of dose-response data, and few chronic human or animal studies had been undertaken. In considering how to revise nutrient intake recommendations for populations in the future, the following pitfalls must be overcome: (1) invalid assumption that a threshold level for a requirement will hold for all nutrients; (2) lack of uniform criteria for the selection of the endpoints used (need for evidence-based review, consideration of comparative risk); (3) invalid extrapolations to children for many nutrients; (4) lack of information on variability of responses, and interactions with other nutrients; and (5) lack of understanding in the community of how to use the various DRI numbers. PMID:17913222

  5. Cytokine levels as biomarkers for leptospirosis patients.

    PubMed

    Chirathaworn, C; Supputtamongkol, Y; Lertmaharit, S; Poovorawan, Y

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory mediators were suggested to be biomarkers for prediction of disease severity. In this study, we investigated the levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α in leptospirosis patients with mild or severe illnesses. Sera samples were divided into two groups. The OI group and NOI groups included sera from patients with and without organ involvement, respectively. Each group consisted of 20 pairs of sera. Twenty-five sera from healthy individuals were included as controls. Cytokine levels were compared. Although IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 levels in acute sera from the OI group were significantly higher than NOI group, only IL-8 level was significantly higher in the OI group when cytokine levels in convalescent sera were compared. TNF-α, an inflammatory cytokine widely studied in leptospirosis was not significantly different between two groups of patients. Our data suggested that IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 were involved in disease severity. However, time of specimen collection could affect the significant levels of cytokines especially as biomarkers for monitoring disease severity. PMID:27295614

  6. Laws, causation and dynamics at different levels

    PubMed Central

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    I have two main aims. The first is general, and more philosophical (§2). The second is specific, and more closely related to physics (§§3 and 4). The first aim is to state my general views about laws and causation at different ‘levels’. The main task is to understand how the higher levels sustain notions of law and causation that ‘ride free’ of reductions to the lower level or levels. I endeavour to relate my views to those of other symposiasts. The second aim is to give a framework for describing dynamics at different levels, emphasizing how the various levels' dynamics can mesh or fail to mesh. This framework is essentially that of elementary dynamical systems theory. The main idea will be, for simplicity, to work with just two levels, dubbed ‘micro’ and ‘macro’, which are related by coarse-graining. I use this framework to describe, in part, the first four of Ellis' five types of top-down causation. PMID:23386965

  7. A Wireless Fluid-Level Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a recently developed wireless measurement acquisition system to fluid-level measurement. This type of fluid-level measurement system alleviates many shortcomings of fluid-level measurement methods currently being used, including limited applicability of any one fluid-level sensor design. Measurement acquisition shortcomings include the necessity for power to be supplied to each sensor and for the measurement to be extracted from each sensor via a physical connection to the sensor. Another shortcoming is existing measurement systems require that a data channel and signal conditioning electronics be dedicated to each sensor. Use of wires results in other shortcomings such as logistics needed to add or replace sensors, weight, potential for electrical arcing and wire degradations. The fluid level sensor design is a simple passive inductor-capacitor circuit that is not subject to mechanical failure that is possible when float and lever-arm systems are used. Methods are presented for using the sensor in caustic, acidic or cryogenic fluids. Oscillating magnetic fields are used to power the sensor. Once electrically excited, the sensor produces a magnetic field response. The response frequency corresponds to the amount to fluid within the capacitor s electric field. The sensor design can be modified for measuring the level of any fluid or fluent substance that can be stored in a non-conductive reservoir. The interrogation method for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency is also presented.

  8. A Note on the Level of Recall, Level of Processing, and Imagery Hypotheses of Hypermnesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdelyi, Matthew

    1982-01-01

    Reviews empirical evidence which suggests that level of recall does not determine hypermnesia (increased recall with repeated testing). Discusses the problem of deciding between a levels-of-processing and an imagery hypothesis of hypermnesia. (EKN)

  9. State-Level Reforms That Support College-Level Program Changes in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling, R. Edward; Morrissey, Sharon; Fouts, George M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the concurrent reforms occurring in North Carolina--both campus-level changes focused on such issues as developing structured programs of study and state-level reforms aimed at supporting the campus efforts.

  10. Tidal level response to sea-level rise in the yangtze estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zheng; Zhang, Chang-kuan; Wan, Li-ming; Zuo, Jun-cheng

    2012-03-01

    The rise of tidal level in tidal reaches induced by sea-level rise has a large impact on flood control and water supply for the regions around the estuary. This paper focuses on the variations of tidal level response along the tidal reaches in the Yangtze Estuary, as well as the impacts of upstream discharge on tidal level response, due to the sea-level rise of the East China Sea. Based on the Topex/Poseidon altimeter data obtained during the period 1993˜2005, a stochastic dynamic analysis was performed and a forecast model was run to predict the sea-level rise of the East China Sea. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical models downscaling from the East China Sea to estuarine areas were implemented to analyze the rise of tidal level along the tidal reaches. In response to the sea-level rise, the tidal wave characteristics change slightly in nearshore areas outside the estuaries, involving the tidal range and the duration of flood and ebb tide. The results show that the rise of tidal level in the tidal reaches due to the sea-level rise has upstream decreasing trends. The step between the stations of Zhangjiagang and Shiyiwei divides the tidal reaches into two parts, in which the tidal level response declines slightly. The rise of tidal level is 1˜2.5 mm/a in the upper part, and 4˜6 mm/a in the lower part. The stations of Jiangyin and Yanglin, as an example of the upper part and the lower part respectively, are extracted to analyze the impacts of upstream discharge on tidal level response to the sea-level rise. The relation between the rise of tidal level and the upstream discharge can be fitted well with a quadratic function in the upper part. However, the relation is too complicated to be fitted in the lower part because of the tide dominance. For comparison purposes, hourly tidal level observations at the stations of Xuliujing and Yanglin during the period 1993˜2009 are adopted. In order to uniform the influence of upstream discharge on tidal level for a

  11. ESA Sea Level Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larnicol, Gilles; Cazenave, Anny; Faugere, Yannice; Ablain, Michael; Johannessen, Johnny; Stammer, Detlef; Timms, Gary; Knudsen, Per; Cipollini, Paolo; Roca, Monica; Rudenko, Sergei; Fernandes, Joana; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Guinle, Thierry; Benveniste, Jerome

    2013-04-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. As the ocean warms in response to global warming, sea waters expand and, as a result, sea level rises. When mountain glaciers melt in response to increasing air temperature, sea level rises because more freshwater glacial runoff discharges into the oceans. Similarly, ice mass loss from the ice sheets causes sea-level rise. Therefore, understanding the sea level variability and changes implies in addition to the understanding of the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere, an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales. That is why Sea Level is one of the variables selected in the frame of the ESA Climate change Initiative (CCI) program initiated by ESA in July 2010. In overall, this program aims to provide an adequate, comprehensive, and timely response to the extremely challenging set of requirements for highly stable, long-term satellite-based products for climate, that have been addressed to Space Agencies via the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). In order to achieve this global objective, the specific objectives of the sea level CCI project are: to involve the climate research community to collect their needs and feedbacks on product quality, to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate a climate time series (so called SL ECV products), and to provide a complete specification of the production system. After two of projects the first two objectives have been completed. Hereafter, we aim to provide an overview and the current status of the Sea Level project of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) that has started in july 2010. The main objective of this project is to produce and validate the Sea Level Essential Climate Variable (ECV) product. Two years after the project kick-off, the 20 Years of Progress in Radar Altimetry Symposium was

  12. Spatiotemporal characteristics of flood protection level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanoue, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding is the most frequent natural hazard and its global impacts will be rising associated with climate change and socioeconomic growth. So, the understanding of the physical and spatial-temporal patterns of risk drivers (exposure, damage, and flood protection level) are required to conduct effective adaptation and reduce the negative impacts of flooding. Although the understanding of exposure and damage has greatly improved using a combination of numerical model simulation and spatiotemporal distributions of population and asset, that of flood protection level is still lacking in particular spatial patterns. Previous research clarifies its temporal variation and relationship with per-capita income, however they do not consider its spatial variation. Flood protection level was associated with geographical characteristics (e.g., soil type and tectonic zone etc). This study tried to estimate spatiotemporal of flood protection level at country level and discuss about relationship between its spatial patterns and geographical characteristics. Mortality rate (percentage of fatalities in modeled exposed population) and loss rate (percentage of losses in modeled exposed GDP) to fluvial river flooding across the world suggested by Jongmann et al. (2015) were estimated from modeled flood exposure and damage statistics taken from the International Emergency Disasters Database. The result indicated that mortality rate reduced across the world from 1990 to 2005. The degree of its reduction decreased with increasing per-capita income level. On the other hand, loss rate at high income and middle low income levels reduced, while that at middle high income and low income levels drastically increased between 1995 and 2000 due to growth economic and occurrence of serious fluvial river flooding. Spatial distribution of mortality and loss rates were high in East Asia, the western part of South America, and the eastern part of Europe. These regions seem to be corresponded to the

  13. The Association between County-Level IQ and County-Level Crime Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Wright, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    An impressive body of research has revealed that individual-level IQ scores are negatively associated with criminal and delinquent involvement. Recently, this line of research has been extended to show that state-level IQ scores are associated with state-level crime rates. The current study uses this literature as a springboard to examine the…

  14. Differential Associations between CDH13 Genotypes, Adiponectin Levels, and Circulating Levels of Cellular Adhesive Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Ming-Sheng; Wu, Semon; Hsu, Lung-An; Chou, Hsin-Hua; Ko, Yu-Lin

    2015-01-01

    CDH13 gene variants with lower adiponectin levels are paradoxically associated with a more favorable metabolic profile. We investigated the statistical association between CDH13 locus variants and adiponectin levels by examining 12 circulating inflammation marker levels and adiposity status in 530 Han Chinese people in Taiwan. After adjustments for clinical covariates, adiponectin levels were positively associated with soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM1) levels and negatively associated with adiposity status and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM1). In addition, minor alleles of the CDH13 rs12051272 polymorphism were found to have lower adiponectin levels and higher CRP, sE-selectin, sICAM1, and sVCAM1 levels as well as higher body mass indices and waist circumferences in participants (all P < 0.05). In a subgroup analysis stratified by sex, significant associations between CDH13 genotypes and sE-selectin levels occurred only in men (P = 3.9 × 10−4 and interaction P = 0.005). CDH13 locus variants and adiponectin levels are associated with circulating levels of cellular adhesion molecules and adiposity status in a differential manner that interacts with sex. These results provide further evidence for the crucial role of adiponectin levels and CDH13 gene variants in immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26600672

  15. Propagation & Level: Factors Influencing in the ICT Composite Index at the School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Hiroyuki; Kim, JaMee; Lee, WonGyu

    2013-01-01

    Many nations are greatly affected by their education policies, and the educational level of different schools is relevant to a nation's ICT policy. In the area of ICT, Korea has achieved quite high levels of competency. This study analyzed the level of ICT competency of 4490 elementary and 2419 middle schools in Korea within the context of the…

  16. A Framework for Translating a High Level Security Policy into Low Level Security Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Ahmed A.; Bahgat, Waleed M.

    2010-01-01

    Security policies have different components; firewall, active directory, and IDS are some examples of these components. Enforcement of network security policies to low level security mechanisms faces some essential difficulties. Consistency, verification, and maintenance are the major ones of these difficulties. One approach to overcome these difficulties is to automate the process of translation of high level security policy into low level security mechanisms. This paper introduces a framework of an automation process that translates a high level security policy into low level security mechanisms. The framework is described in terms of three phases; in the first phase all network assets are categorized according to their roles in the network security and relations between them are identified to constitute the network security model. This proposed model is based on organization based access control (OrBAC). However, the proposed model extend the OrBAC model to include not only access control policy but also some other administrative security policies like auditing policy. Besides, the proposed model enables matching of each rule of the high level security policy with the corresponding ones of the low level security policy. Through the second phase of the proposed framework, the high level security policy is mapped into the network security model. The second phase could be considered as a translation of the high level security policy into an intermediate model level. Finally, the intermediate model level is translated automatically into low level security mechanism. The paper illustrates the applicability of proposed approach through an application example.

  17. Differential Use and Benefits of PowerPoint in Upper Level versus Lower Level Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehling, Patricia V.; Trent-Brown, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    The study examines whether college instructors use PowerPoint differently in upper level versus lower level courses and whether PowerPoint differentially affects the learning and behaviours of students in those courses. The authors surveyed 191 students from 14 psychology classes and found that instructors teaching higher level courses use…

  18. 24 CFR 990.180 - Utilities expense level: Computation of the rolling base consumption level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: Computation of the rolling base consumption level. 990.180 Section 990.180 Housing and Urban Development... Calculating Formula Expenses § 990.180 Utilities expense level: Computation of the rolling base consumption... RBCL not to be comparable to the current year's consumption level. (c) Financial incentives. The...

  19. 3000 Years of Sea Level Change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, William F.

    1992-03-01

    Sea level change is generally taken to indicate climate change, and may be more nearly global than what we perceive to be climate change. Close to the beach, even a small sea level change (such as 1-3 m) produces important changes in local depositional conditions. This effect can be deduced from a study of properly selected beach deposits.Various measures of beach-sand grain size indicate conditions of deposition. The best of these parameters is the kurtosis; it is a reliable indicator of surf-zone wave energy density. An abrupt energy-level shift, after centuries with little change, indicates sea level rise or drop. Kurtosis, within stated limits, shows this.Beach ridge systems (successive, distinct old beach deposits) span the last several thousand years. A sequence of sand samples across such a deposit provides grain-size evidence for alternating high and low sea level. Changes were 1 to 3 m vertically, and took place at rates of about 1 ern yr1. There were at least seven such events in the last 3000 years.The two most recent changes were the drop and subsequent rise that marked the Little Ice Age (starting about 1200 A.D.). One cannot say, from these data, that the planet has come fully out of the Little ice Age. Predictions about what sea level will do in the near future should be based on the many small changes (1 to 3 m) in the last few thousand years, rather than on the arbitrary, fictitious, and unrealistic absolute sea level that appears to underlie various popular forecasts.

  20. Extended Late Pleistocene Sea Level Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbanks, R. G.; Cao, L.; Mortlock, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    Several hundred new closed system 230Th/234U and radiocarbon dates and the addition of more cores and coral samples from the islands of Barbados, Kiritimati and Araki contribute to an enhanced sea level record for the late Pleistocene ranging from the present to 240,000 yrs BP. Application of more rigorous sample screening criteria, including redundant 231Pa/235U dates have resulted in more closed system ages and better sea level resolution. In addition, a multibeam survey has mapped an extensive glacial lowstand reef on a ridge south of Barbados that is capped by a set of pinnacle reefs that grew during the early deglaciation. Among our new observations, the more detailed Barbados sea level record now resolves a Younger Dryas still- stand and a sea level drop between 16,140 and 14,690, overlapping the timing of H1 by some age estimates. The coral ages bracketing melt water pulse 1A have been further refined to 14,082 +/- 28 yrs BP and 13,632 +/- 32 yrs BP (2-sigma). The Isotope Stage 3 interstadial ended with sea level near 87.5 meters below present at 29,500 years ago before dropping to full glacial levels. The last glacial sea level lowstand began as early as 26,000 yrs BP. Extensive dating of Marine Isotope Stage 3 interstadial reefs on the islands of Araki and Barbados have added considerable resolution to this time interval and reliably bracket lowstand intervals separating the interstadials. A new diagenesis model has improved our prospecting success for closed system ages from older reefs and added some critical dates to the sparse closed-system data set for MIS-5 and MIS-7 high stand reefs..

  1. Criteria for level 1 and level 2 trauma codes: Are pelvic ring injuries undertriaged?

    PubMed Central

    Haws, Brittany E; Wuertzer, Scott; Raffield, Laura; Lenchik, Leon; Miller, Anna N

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the association of unstable pelvic ring injuries with trauma code status. METHODS A retrospective review of all pelvic ring injuries at a single academic center from July 2010 to June 2013 was performed. The trauma registry was used to identify level 1 and level 2 trauma codes for each injury. The computed tomography scans in all patients were classified as stable or unstable using the Abbreviated Injury Scale. Pelvic injury classifications in level 1 and level 2 groups were compared. Patient disposition at discharge in level 1 and level 2 groups were also compared. RESULTS There were 108 level 1 and 130 level 2 blunt trauma admissions. In the level 1 group, 67% of pelvic injuries were classified as stable fracture patterns and 33% were classified as unstable. In the level 2 group, 62% of pelvic injuries were classified as stable fracture patterns and 38% were classified as unstable. level 1 trauma code was not associated with odds of having an unstable fracture pattern (OR = 0.83, 95%CI: 0.48-1.41, P = 0.485). In the level 1 group with unstable pelvic injuries, 33% were discharged to home, 36% to a rehabilitation facility, and 32% died. In the level 2 group with unstable pelvic injuries, 65% were discharged to home, 31% to a rehabilitation facility, and 4% died. For those with unstable pelvic fractures (n = 85), assignment of a level 2 trauma code was associated with reduced odds of death (OR = 0.07, 95%CI: 0.01-0.35, P = 0.001) as compared to being discharged to home. CONCLUSION Trauma code level assignment is not correlated with severity of pelvic injury. Because an unstable pelvis can lead to hemodynamic instability, these injuries may be undertriaged. PMID:27622148

  2. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    SciTech Connect

    Morinet, Frédéric; Casetti, Luana; François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude; Pillet, Sylvie

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  3. Association between diabetic retinopathy and hemoglobin level

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Adele; Kashi, Zahra; Ahmadzadeh Amiri, Ahmad; Nabipour, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anemia may be considered to be an independent risk factor for the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in patients with renal failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between blood hemoglobin level and retinopathy in diabetic patients with normal renal function tests. Methods: From 2009 to 2011, 1100 diabetic patients underwent retinal examination. Among them, 159 subjects were diagnosed to have DR and were compared with 318 diabetic subjects with normal retinal examination as the control group. The level of hemoglobin (Hb), Hb A1C, serum iron, ferritin, and total iron binding capacity were compared between these two groups. Results: Among the 159 patients with DR, 112 (70.4%) had mild to moderate no proliferative retinopathy (NPDR) and 47 (29.6%) had advanced retinopathy (severe NPDR or proliferative). The mean hemoglobin level in case and control group was 12.15±1.50 and 12.73±1.38 g/dl, respectively (p<0.001). Anemia was seen in 45.9% and 26.1% in the case and the control groups, respectively (p<0.001). Ferritin <15ng/ml was seen in 7.4% and 6.1% of patients with and without DR, respectively (p=0.8). Conclusion: The results show that diabetic patients with retinopathy have lower level of hemoglobin and higher frequency of anemia. It is suggested that the level of hemoglobin should be evaluated periodically in diabetic patients. PMID:24294469

  4. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  5. Factors discriminating gymnasts by competitive level.

    PubMed

    Vandorpe, B; Vandendriessche, J; Vaeyens, R; Pion, J; Lefevre, J; Philippaerts, R; Lenoir, M

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between the performance level as evaluated by expert coaches and the results on a multidimensional test battery in female gymnastics. 4 coaches assigned 168 female gymnasts aged 6-8 years into 2 groups (Elite-level potential, n=103 and Sub-elite-level potential, n=65) based upon their technical evaluation of the gymnastics abilities on the 4 apparatus. Moreover, anthropometric, physical and coordinative characteristics were assessed. ANOVA with age as fixed factor revealed that results on all aforementioned characteristics, except body fat%, sit-and-reach, rope climbing and a motor coordination test, significantly improved with increasing age. MANCOVA with competitive level as fixed factor and age and maturity as covariates indicated that all gymnasts portrayed a similar athletic built (Wilks' lambda=0.95, F=2.20, p=0.071), but the elite-level potential gymnasts outperformed the less gifted gymnasts on all physical (Wilks' lambda=0.65, F=8.00, p<0.001) and coordinative variables (Wilks' lambda=0.79, F=22.10, p<0.001). Discriminant analysis revealed motor coordination to be the most important factor in discriminating between young female elite and sub-elite gymnasts. A test battery measuring multidimensional performance characteristics is valuable in addition to the coaches' technical judgment in the search of young gifted female gymnasts. PMID:21563024

  6. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  7. Quasiparticle Level Alignment for Photocatalytic Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Migani, Annapaoala; Mowbray, Duncan J; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje; Rubio, Angel

    2014-05-13

    Electronic level alignment at the interface between an adsorbed molecular layer and a semiconducting substrate determines the activity and efficiency of many photocatalytic materials. Standard density functional theory (DFT)-based methods have proven unable to provide a quantitative description of this level alignment. This requires a proper treatment of the anisotropic screening, necessitating the use of quasiparticle (QP) techniques. However, the computational complexity of QP algorithms has meant a quantitative description of interfacial levels has remained elusive. We provide a systematic study of a prototypical interface, bare and methanol-covered rutile TiO2(110) surfaces, to determine the type of many-body theory required to obtain an accurate description of the level alignment. This is accomplished via a direct comparison with metastable impact electron spectroscopy (MIES), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and two-photon photoemission (2PP) spectroscopy. We consider GGA DFT, hybrid DFT, and G0W0, scQPGW1, scQPGW0, and scQPGW QP calculations. Our results demonstrate that G0W0, or our recently introduced scQPGW1 approach, are required to obtain the correct alignment of both the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied interfacial molecular levels (HOMO/LUMO). These calculations set a new standard in the interpretation of electronic structure probe experiments of complex organic molecule/semiconductor interfaces. PMID:26580537

  8. Chaos and structure of level densities

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, Peter; Aberg, Sven; Uhrenholt, Henrik; Ickhikawa, Takatoshi

    2008-01-01

    The energy region of the first few MeV above the ground state shows interesting features of the nucleus. Beyond an ordered energy region just above the ground-state the dynamics changes, and chaotic features are observed in the neutron resonance region. The statistical properties of energies and wave-functions are common to all chaotic nuclei. However, if instead a global property, like the local level-density function is studied, strong structure effects emerge. In this contribution we discuss these two different facets of warm nuclei. In section 2 the onset of chaos with increasing excitation energy is discussed, with both experimental observations and proposed theoretical mechanisms as starting points. The structure of level densities in the same excitation energy region based on the two different starting points, is treated in section 3, where we give a short presentation of a newly developed combinatorial level-density modell. Some results from the model are presented and discussed. Two coexisting facets of warm nuclei, quantum chaos and structure of the level density, are considered. A newly developed combinatorial level-density model is presented, and the role of collective enhancements discussed. An example of extreme parity enhancement is shown.

  9. Serum estradiol levels in male cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, E L; Broverman, D M; Dalen, J E

    1984-11-01

    Serum estradiol levels were compared in smoking and nonsmoking men in two separate samples. Sample I consisted of 41 young adult male volunteers ranging in age from 18 to 24 years. Twenty-three men smoked an average of 24.5 +/- 6.9 cigarettes daily. The duration of smoking averaged 5.2 +/- 2.2 years. Sample II consisted of 35 husbands who had been evaluated for infertility; they ranged in age from 19 to 49 years. Eighteen men smoked an average of 21.6 +/- 7.9 cigarettes daily. The duration of smoking averaged 11.5 +/- 4.5 years. Age, height, and weight did not differ significantly between smokers and nonsmokers within either group. Serum estradiol levels were significantly elevated in smokers compared with nonsmokers in both groups (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.0001 in Samples I and II, respectively). No significant correlations were found between serum estradiol levels and the number of cigarettes smoked daily, or with the duration of smoking in either sample. The differences in serum estradiol levels between smokers and nonsmokers could not be attributed to the differences in marijuana and alcohol use that existed between the smokers and nonsmokers in each sample. The recent reports of elevated serum estradiol levels as a possible risk factor in coronary heart disease are discussed in view of the known relationship of cigarette smoking to coronary heart disease. PMID:6496540

  10. Decreased selenium levels in acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, F.J.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.; de Bruijn, A.M.; Kruyssen, D.H.C.M.; de Bruin, M.; Valkenburg, H.A. )

    1989-02-24

    To study the association between selenium status and the risk of myocardial infarction, the authors compared plasma, erythrocyte, and toenail selenium levels and the activity of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase among 84 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 84 population controls. Mean concentrations of all selenium measurements were lower in cases than controls. The differences were statistically significant, except for the plasma selenium level. A positive trend in the risk of acute myocardial infarction from high to low toenail selenium levels was observed, which persisted after adjustment for other risk factors for myocardial infarction. In contrast, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in cases than controls. Because toenail selenium level reflects blood levels up to one year before sampling, these findings suggest that a low selenium status was present before the infarction and, thus, may be of etiologic relevance. The higher glutathione peroxidase activity in the cases may be interpreted as a defense against increased oxidant stress either preceding or following the acute event.

  11. Fluorescent Optical Liquid-Level Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1999-07-26

    An optical method of detecting liquid level is presented that uses fluorescence radiation generated in an impurity-doped glass or plastic slab. In operation, the slab is inserted into the liquid and pump light is coupled into it so that the light is guided by the slab-air interface above the liquid and escapes into the liquid just below its surface. Since the fluorescence is generated only in that section of the slab above the liquid, the fluorescence power will monotonically decrease with increasing liquid level. Thus, a relationship can be established between any signal proportional to it and the liquid level. Because optical fibers link the pump source and the detector of fluorescence radiation to the sensor, no electrical connections are needed in or near the liquid. Their absence vastly decreases the hazard associated with placing a liquid-level sensor in a potentially explosive environment. A laboratory prototype, consisting of a methyl styrene slab doped with an organic dye, has been built and successfully tested in water. Its response to liquid level when pumped by a tunable argon-ion laser at 476, 488, and 496 nm, and by a blue LED, is presented and shown to be consistent with theory. The fluorescence spectra are also presented and discussed.

  12. Decision-level adaptation in motion perception.

    PubMed

    Mather, George; Sharman, Rebecca J

    2015-12-01

    Prolonged exposure to visual stimuli causes a bias in observers' responses to subsequent stimuli. Such adaptation-induced biases are usually explained in terms of changes in the relative activity of sensory neurons in the visual system which respond selectively to the properties of visual stimuli. However, the bias could also be due to a shift in the observer's criterion for selecting one response rather than the alternative; adaptation at the decision level of processing rather than the sensory level. We investigated whether adaptation to implied motion is best attributed to sensory-level or decision-level bias. Three experiments sought to isolate decision factors by changing the nature of the participants' task while keeping the sensory stimulus unchanged. Results showed that adaptation-induced bias in reported stimulus direction only occurred when the participants' task involved a directional judgement, and disappeared when adaptation was measured using a non-directional task (reporting where motion was present in the display, regardless of its direction). We conclude that adaptation to implied motion is due to decision-level bias, and that a propensity towards such biases may be widespread in sensory decision-making. PMID:27019726

  13. Decision-level adaptation in motion perception

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to visual stimuli causes a bias in observers' responses to subsequent stimuli. Such adaptation-induced biases are usually explained in terms of changes in the relative activity of sensory neurons in the visual system which respond selectively to the properties of visual stimuli. However, the bias could also be due to a shift in the observer's criterion for selecting one response rather than the alternative; adaptation at the decision level of processing rather than the sensory level. We investigated whether adaptation to implied motion is best attributed to sensory-level or decision-level bias. Three experiments sought to isolate decision factors by changing the nature of the participants' task while keeping the sensory stimulus unchanged. Results showed that adaptation-induced bias in reported stimulus direction only occurred when the participants' task involved a directional judgement, and disappeared when adaptation was measured using a non-directional task (reporting where motion was present in the display, regardless of its direction). We conclude that adaptation to implied motion is due to decision-level bias, and that a propensity towards such biases may be widespread in sensory decision-making. PMID:27019726

  14. Apelin Levels In Isolated Coronary Artery Ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, İbrahim; Yıldız, Abdulkadir; Akıl, Mehmet Ata; Acet, Halit; Yüksel, Murat; Polat, Nihat; Aydın, Mesut; Oylumlu, Mustafa; Ertaș, Faruk; Kaya, Hasan; Alan, Sait

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The etiopathogenesis of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is not known completely. In most of the cases, CAE is associated with atherosclerosis; however, isolated CAE has a nonatherosclerotic mechanism. The association between atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and apelin has been examined in previous studies. However, the role of plasma apelin in isolated coronary artery ectasia has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relationship between plasma apelin levels and isolated coronary artery ectasia. Subjects and Methods The study population included a total of 54 patients. Twenty-six patients had isolated CAE (53.6±8.1 years); 28 patients with normal coronary arteries (51.6±8.8 years) and with similar risk factors and demographic characteristics served as the control group. Apelin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. Results Apelin level in the CAE group was significantly lower (apelin=0.181±0.159 ng/mL) than that in the control group (apelin=0.646±0.578 ng/mL) (p=0.033). Glucose, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion In this study, we showed that patients with isolated CAE have decreased plasma apelin levels compared with the control group. Based on the data, a relationship between plasma apelin and isolated CAE was determined. PMID:26413106

  15. Processing AIRS Scientific Data Through Level 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliphant, Robert; Lee, Sung-Yung; Chahine, Moustafa; Susskind, Joel; arnet, Christopher; McMillin, Larry; Goldberg, Mitchell; Blaisdell, John; Rosenkranz, Philip; Strow, Larrabee

    2007-01-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Spectrometer (AIRS) Science Processing System (SPS) is a collection of computer programs, denoted product generation executives (PGEs), for processing the readings of the AIRS suite of infrared and microwave instruments orbiting the Earth aboard NASA s Aqua spacecraft. AIRS SPS at an earlier stage of development was described in "Initial Processing of Infrared Spectral Data' (NPO-35243), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 39. To recapitulate: Starting from level 0 (representing raw AIRS data), the PGEs and their data products are denoted by alphanumeric labels (1A, 1B, and 2) that signify the successive stages of processing. The cited prior article described processing through level 1B (the level-2 PGEs were not yet operational). The level-2 PGEs, which are now operational, receive packages of level-1B geolocated radiance data products and produce such geolocated geophysical atmospheric data products such as temperature and humidity profiles. The process of computing these geophysical data products is denoted "retrieval" and is quite complex. The main steps of the process are denoted microwave-only retrieval, cloud detection and cloud clearing, regression, full retrieval, and rapid transmittance algorithm.

  16. Umbilical cord blood lead levels in California.

    PubMed

    Satin, K P; Neutra, R R; Guirguis, G; Flessel, P

    1991-01-01

    During the fall of 1984, we conducted a survey of umbilical cord blood lead levels of 723 live births that occurred at 5 hospitals located in 5 cities in California. Historical ambient air lead levels were used as a qualitative surrogate of air and dust exposure. The area-specific cord blood means (all means approximately 5 micrograms/dl), medians, deciles, and distributions did not vary among locations. The California distributions included means that were lower than the 6.6 micrograms/dl reported in Needleman et al.'s Boston study in 1979. Indeed, the entire California distribution was shifted to the left of the Boston study distribution, even though 3% of the California cord lead levels exceeded 10 micrograms/dl--the level above which Needleman et al. have documented psychoneurological effects in children during the first few years of life. Fourteen percent of premature babies had cord blood lead levels above 10 micrograms/dl. The association between prematurity (i.e., less than 260 d gestation) and elevated (greater than 5 micrograms/dl) cord blood lead was observed in all hospitals and yielded a relative risk of 2.9 (95% CI: .9, 9.2) and a population attributable risk of 47%. Further research is needed to confirm this association and to explore the roles of endogenous and exogenous sources of lead exposure to the mothers who give birth to premature infants. PMID:2039272

  17. Concerns with low-level ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yalow, R.S.

    1994-12-31

    Populations have been studied in geographic areas of increased natural radiation, in radiation-exposed workers, in patients medically exposed, and in accidental exposures. No reproducible evidence exists of harmful effects from increases in background radiation three to ten times the usual levels. There is no increase in leukemia or other cancers among American military participants in nuclear testing, no increase in leukemia or thyroid cancer among medical patients receiving {sup 131}I for diagnosis or treatment of hypothyroidism, and no increase in lung cancer among nonsmokers exposed to increased radon in the home. The association of radiation with the atomic bomb and with excessive regulatory and health physics as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) radiation levels practices has created a climate of fear about the dangers of radiation at any level. However, there is no evidence that radiation exposures at the levels equivalent to medical usage are harmful. The unjustified excessive concern with radiation at any level, however, precludes beneficial uses of radiation and radioactivity in medicine, science, and industry.

  18. Regional frequency analysis of extreme groundwater levels.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Josef; Bichler, Andrea; Konecny, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Flood risk is generally perceived as being a consequence of surface water inundation. However, large damage is also caused by high groundwater levels. In surface hydrology, statistical frequency analysis is a standard tool to estimate discharge with a given return period or exceedance probability. First, a suitable probability distribution is fit to a series of annual maximum peaks. Second, this distribution is used to determine the discharge corresponding to the desired return period. Where only short series of recorded data are available, the estimates can often be improved by regional frequency analysis (RFA). Unfortunately, there is little information in the literature on analogous approaches for the estimation of extreme groundwater levels. In this contribution, the applicability of l-moments-based RFA for the estimation of extreme groundwater levels is investigated. The main issues specific to groundwater levels are (1) appropriate transformation of the data, (2) criteria for identification of statistically homogeneous regions, (3) consideration of correlation between sites, and (4) choice of distribution function. This study is based on data from more than 1100 observation sites in four shallow Austrian Aquifers with a record length of 10 to 50 years. Results show that homogeneous regions for l-moments-based RFA can be identified covering about one half of the total area of the aquifers. The confidence intervals for the 30- and 100-year return levels can be significantly reduced by RFA. Out of the four investigated distribution functions, none is to be preferred generally. PMID:24903411

  19. Quasiparticle Level Alignment for Photocatalytic Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Migani, Annapaola; Mowbray, Duncan J.; Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje; Rubio, Angel

    2014-05-13

    Electronic level alignment at the interface between an adsorbed molecular layer and a semiconducting substrate determines the activity and efficiency of many photocatalytic materials. Standard density functional theory (DFT)-based methods have proven unable to provide a quantitative description of this level alignment. This requires a proper treatment of the anisotropic screening, necessitating the use of quasiparticle (QP) techniques. However, the computational complexity of QP algorithms has meant a quantitative description of interfacial levels has remained elusive. We provide a systematic study of a prototypical interface, bare and methanol-covered rutile TiO2(110) surfaces, to determine the type of many-body theory required to obtain an accurate description of the level alignment. This is accomplished via a direct comparison with metastable impact electron spectroscopy (MIES), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), and two-photon photoemission (2PP) spectroscopy. We consider GGA DFT, hybrid DFT, and G0W0, scQPGW1, scQPGW0, and scQPGW QP calculations. Our results demonstrate that G0W0, or our recently introduced scQPGW1 approach, are required to obtain the correct alignment of both the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied interfacial molecular levels (HOMO/LUMO). These calculations set a new standard in the interpretation of electronic structure probe experiments of complex organic molecule/semiconductor interfaces.

  20. A Late Pleistocene sea level stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spratt, Rachel M.; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.

    2016-04-01

    Late Pleistocene sea level has been reconstructed from ocean sediment core data using a wide variety of proxies and models. However, the accuracy of individual reconstructions is limited by measurement error, local variations in salinity and temperature, and assumptions particular to each technique. Here we present a sea level stack (average) which increases the signal-to-noise ratio of individual reconstructions. Specifically, we perform principal component analysis (PCA) on seven records from 0 to 430 ka and five records from 0 to 798 ka. The first principal component, which we use as the stack, describes ˜ 80 % of the variance in the data and is similar using either five or seven records. After scaling the stack based on Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) sea level estimates, the stack agrees to within 5 m with isostatically adjusted coral sea level estimates for Marine Isotope Stages 5e and 11 (125 and 400 ka, respectively). Bootstrapping and random sampling yield mean uncertainty estimates of 9-12 m (1σ) for the scaled stack. Sea level change accounts for about 45 % of the total orbital-band variance in benthic δ18O, compared to a 65 % contribution during the LGM-to-Holocene transition. Additionally, the second and third principal components of our analyses reflect differences between proxy records associated with spatial variations in the δ18O of seawater.

  1. Diffracted Fringes of Compound Nucleus Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ideno, Kazumi

    2016-06-01

    We investigate a relation between the energies of nuclear excited levels and its periodic phases for nuclei with A = 14 - 244 in the energy region up to several tens MeV. These levels include neutron and proton resonances, excited levels below neutron and proton separation energies and also vibrational and rotational bands in unstable nuclei. Here we use level periods less than 50 keV. We found that series of parabolic fringes appear in the plots of level energies vs. its periodic phases in various excitation modes. Distinguished fringes can be observed for neutron and proton resonances in nuclei with neutron or proton magic numbers: 37Cl, 59Ni, 61Ni and 62Ni. For neutron and proton resonances in a wide mass range of nuclei, parabolic fringes with the same periods and scales can be observed at the same incident energies. Each fringe is separated by a phase difference of 1/n, where n is an integer. We interpret the parabolic fringes as a result of interference effects based on time; a quantized phase difference of 1/n can be connected to a discrete time delay of wave pulsations. These fringe spectra were compared between different nuclear excitation modes.

  2. Background noise levels in PC home environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Rina; Salskov, Eric; Corriveau, Philip J.; Sorenson, Paul; Gabel, Doug; Beltman, Willem M.

    2005-09-01

    A study was designed and conducted to determine the background noise levels in the home environment. This is an important factor in determining the acoustic performance of the computing devices that go into these environments. A specialized methodology was developed and measurements were carried out in homes in the United States, Sweden, Germany, and China. The sound levels in three rooms in 15-18 homes in each country were collected over 24-h periods. The results indicated that the background noise levels ranged between 30 and 40 dBA across the four countries. Variations in the background noise levels between the different rooms in the homes were minimal. No significant variations were found between home types (detached, semi-detached, and apartment) and community types (urban, suburban). However, European homes were quieter than United States and Chinese homes. The variations between countries were statistically significant. In addition to the background noise levels, the acoustical characteristics of the rooms were measured. The results indicated that the reverberation radius was typically below 1 m and was fairly consistent between geographies.

  3. Umbilical cord blood lead levels in California

    SciTech Connect

    Satin, K.P.; Neutra, R.R.; Guirguis, G.; Flessel, P. )

    1991-05-01

    During the fall of 1984, we conducted a survey of umbilical cord blood lead levels of 723 live births that occurred at 5 hospitals located in 5 cities in California. Historical ambient air lead levels were used as a qualitative surrogate of air and dust exposure. The area-specific cord blood means (all means {approximately} 5 micrograms/dl), medians, deciles, and distributions did not vary among locations. The California distributions included means that were lower than the 6.6 micrograms/dl reported in Needleman et al.'s Boston study in 1979. Indeed, the entire California distribution was shifted to the left of the Boston study distribution, even though 3% of the California cord lead levels exceeded 10 micrograms/dl--the level above which Needleman et al. have documented psychoneurological effects in children during the first few years of life. Fourteen percent of premature babies had cord blood lead levels above 10 micrograms/dl. The association between prematurity (i.e., less than 260 d gestation) and elevated (greater than 5 micrograms/dl) cord blood lead was observed in all hospitals and yielded a relative risk of 2.9 (95% CI: .9, 9.2) and a population attributable risk of 47%. Further research is needed to confirm this association and to explore the roles of endogenous and exogenous sources of lead exposure to the mothers who give birth to premature infants.

  4. Low-level awareness accompanies "unconscious" high-level processing during continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Gelbard-Sagiv, Hagar; Faivre, Nathan; Mudrik, Liad; Koch, Christof

    2016-01-01

    The scope and limits of unconscious processing are a matter of ongoing debate. Lately, continuous flash suppression (CFS), a technique for suppressing visual stimuli, has been widely used to demonstrate surprisingly high-level processing of invisible stimuli. Yet, recent studies showed that CFS might actually allow low-level features of the stimulus to escape suppression and be consciously perceived. The influence of such low-level awareness on high-level processing might easily go unnoticed, as studies usually only probe the visibility of the feature of interest, and not that of lower-level features. For instance, face identity is held to be processed unconsciously since subjects who fail to judge the identity of suppressed faces still show identity priming effects. Here we challenge these results, showing that such high-level priming effects are indeed induced by faces whose identity is invisible, but critically, only when a lower-level feature, such as color or location, is visible. No evidence for identity processing was found when subjects had no conscious access to any feature of the suppressed face. These results suggest that high-level processing of an image might be enabled by-or co-occur with-conscious access to some of its low-level features, even when these features are not relevant to the processed dimension. Accordingly, they call for further investigation of lower-level awareness during CFS, and reevaluation of other unconscious high-level processing findings. PMID:26756173

  5. A Software Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shen,G.

    2009-05-04

    A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

  6. Walkyourplace - Evaluating Neighbourhood Accessibility at Street Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiniger, S.; Poorazizi, M. E.; Hunter, A. J. S.

    2013-05-01

    The popularity of a neighbourhood is often explained by its perceived "higher" quality of life. Good access to shops, restaurants, parks, etc., is seen as an indicator that reflects improved quality of life. We present a web-based tool for assessment of accessibility to such services. The system evaluates in real time an area that is accessible using pedestrian, transit, and cycling infrastructure. The accessible area is evaluated using "quality of life" indicators, such as the number of grocery stores, shopping and recreation facilities, and local crime within that area. This tool sets itself apart from pre-computed and neighbourhood-level walkability indices, because it makes use of detailed street-level data, rather than block-level generalizations. It uses real network travel time, and, when transit data are provided, permits the creation and evaluation of accessibility areas for a combination of travel modes such as walking with transit use.

  7. Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milesi, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Presentation by Cristina Milesi, First Author, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA at the "Meeting the Challenge of Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County" on June 19, 2005 Santa Clara County, bordering with the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay, is highly vulnerable to flooding and to sea level rise (SLR). In this presentation, the latest sea level rise projections for the San Francisco Bay will be discussed in the context of extreme water height frequency and extent of flooding vulnerability. I will also present preliminary estimations of levee requirements and possible mitigation through tidal restoration of existing salt ponds. The examples will draw mainly from the work done by the NASA Climate Adaptation Science Investigators at NASA Ames.

  8. Quantum Synchronization of three-level atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Peiru; Rey, Ana Maria; Holland, Murray

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies show that quantum synchronization, the spontaneous alignment of the quantum phase between different oscillators, can be used to build superradiant lasers with ultranarrow linewidth. We theoretically investigate the effect of quantum synchronization on many coupled three-level atoms where there are richer phase diagrams than the standard two-level system. This three-level model allows two-color ultranarrow coherent light to be produced where more than one phase must be simultaneously synchronized. Of particular interest, we study the V-type geometry that is relevant to current 87 Sr experiments in JILA. As well as the synchronization phenomenon, we explore other quantum effects such as photon correlations and squeezing. This work is supported by the DARPA QuASAR program, the NSF, and NIST.

  9. Torsional ultrasonic wave based level measurement system

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David E.; Kisner, Roger A.

    2012-07-10

    A level measurement system suitable for use in a high temperature and pressure environment to measure the level of coolant fluid within the environment, the system including a volume of coolant fluid located in a coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment and having a level therein; an ultrasonic waveguide blade that is positioned within the desired coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment; a magnetostrictive electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment and configured to operate in the environment and cooperate with the waveguide blade to launch and receive ultrasonic waves; and an external signal processing system located outside of the high temperature and pressure environment and configured for communicating with the electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment.

  10. Isomer ratio calculations using modeled discrete levels

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, M.A.; Gardner, D.G.; Hoff, R.W.

    1984-10-16

    Isomer ratio calculations were made for the reactions: /sup 175/Lu(n,..gamma..)/sup 176m,g/Lu, /sup 175/Lu(n,2n)/sup 174m,g/Lu, /sup 237/Np(n,2n)/sup 236m,g/Np, /sup 241/Am(n,..gamma..)/sup 242m,g/Am, and /sup 243/Am(n,..gamma..)/sup 244m,g/Am using modeled level structures in the deformed, odd-odd product nuclei. The hundreds of discrete levels and their gamma-ray branching ratios provided by the modeling are necessary to achieve agreement with experiment. Many rotational bands must be included in order to obtain a sufficiently representative selection of K quantum numbers. The levels of each band must be extended to appropriately high values of angular momentum.

  11. Applied uses of level density models

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, A.B.; Smith, D.L.; Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1989-01-01

    This paper addresses issues associated with the use of nuclear level density models in calculations made for data applications. The two most commonly used models, the Gilbert Cameron and the Back-Shifted Fermi Gas, are briefly summarized and examples are provided of recent efforts to improve their parameterization. Calculated particle emission spectra are compared with recent experimental data in order to assess performance and sensitivity to these models. Extrapolation of nuclear level densities for calculations involving nuclei away from stability poses special problems and examples of recent efforts to improve such extrapolations are cited. The sensitivity of current schemes in the modeling of fission transition state densities are explored through calculated (n,f) cross sections. Two newer phenomenological models, those of Ignatyuk and Schmidt, provide a more physically realistic description of level densities. Calculations concerning {sup 207}Pb(n,xn) cross sections compare results using the Ignatyuk formalism with the Gilbert Cameron results. 31 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Statistical approach to nuclear level density

    SciTech Connect

    Sen'kov, R. A.; Horoi, M.; Zelevinsky, V. G.

    2014-10-15

    We discuss the level density in a finite many-body system with strong interaction between the constituents. Our primary object of applications is the atomic nucleus but the same techniques can be applied to other mesoscopic systems. We calculate and compare nuclear level densities for given quantum numbers obtained by different methods, such as nuclear shell model (the most successful microscopic approach), our main instrument - moments method (statistical approach), and Fermi-gas model; the calculation with the moments method can use any shell-model Hamiltonian excluding the spurious states of the center-of-mass motion. Our goal is to investigate statistical properties of nuclear level density, define its phenomenological parameters, and offer an affordable and reliable way of calculation.

  13. Multi-level coupled cluster theory

    SciTech Connect

    Myhre, Rolf H.; Koch, Henrik; Sánchez de Merás, Alfredo M. J.

    2014-12-14

    We present a general formalism where different levels of coupled cluster theory can be applied to different parts of the molecular system. The system is partitioned into subsystems by Cholesky decomposition of the one-electron Hartree-Fock density matrix. In this way the system can be divided across chemical bonds without discontinuities arising. The coupled cluster wave function is defined in terms of cluster operators for each part and these are determined from a set of coupled equations. The total wave function fulfills the Pauli-principle across all borders and levels of electron correlation. We develop the associated response theory for this multi-level coupled cluster theory and present proof of principle applications. The formalism is an essential tool in order to obtain size-intensive complexity in the calculation of local molecular properties.

  14. Visualizing Sea Level Rise with Augmented Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Looking Glass is an application on the iPhone that visualizes in 3-D future scenarios of sea level rise, overlaid on live camera imagery in situ. Using a technology known as augmented reality, the app allows a layperson user to explore various scenarios of sea level rise using a visual interface. Then the user can see, in an immersive, dynamic way, how those scenarios would affect a real place. The first part of the experience activates users' cognitive, quantitative thinking process, teaching them how global sea level rise, tides and storm surge contribute to flooding; the second allows an emotional response to a striking visual depiction of possible future catastrophe. This project represents a partnership between a science journalist, MIT, and the Rhode Island School of Design, and the talk will touch on lessons this projects provides on structuring and executing such multidisciplinary efforts on future design projects.

  15. Using groundwater levels to estimate recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Healy, R.W.; Cook, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate estimation of groundwater recharge is extremely important for proper management of groundwater systems. Many different approaches exist for estimating recharge. This paper presents a review of methods that are based on groundwater-level data. The water-table fluctuation method may be the most widely used technique for estimating recharge; it requires knowledge of specific yield and changes in water levels over time. Advantages of this approach include its simplicity and an insensitivity to the mechanism by which water moves through the unsaturated zone. Uncertainty in estimates generated by this method relate to the limited accuracy with which specific yield can be determined and to the extent to which assumptions inherent in the method are valid. Other methods that use water levels (mostly based on the Darcy equation) are also described. The theory underlying the methods is explained. Examples from the literature are used to illustrate applications of the different methods.

  16. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    SciTech Connect

    Tuite, K.T.; Winberg, M.; Flores, A.Y.; Killian, E.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1996-08-01

    Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site operators have no method of independently verifying the radionuclide content of packaged LLW that arrive at disposal sites for disposal. At this time, disposal sites rely on LLW generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to insure that LLW received meets the waste acceptance criteria. An independent verification system would provide a method of checking generator LLW characterization methods and help ensure that LLW disposed of at disposal facilities meets requirements. The Mobile Low-Level Waste Verification System (MLLWVS) provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of LLW shipping records to insure that disposal site waste acceptance criteria are being met. The MLLWVS system was developed under a cost share subcontract between WMG, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies through the Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  17. High-level waste processing and disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, J. L.; Drause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    The national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high level waste disposal will probably and about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. Third conclusion is less optimistic.

  18. Level set method for microfabrication simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranski, Maciej; Kasztelanic, Rafal; Albero, Jorge; Nieradko, Lukasz; Gorecki, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    The article describes application of Level Set method for two different microfabrication processes. First is shape evolution of during reflow of the glass structure. Investigated problem were approximated by viscous flow of material thus kinetics of the process were known from physical model. Second problem is isotropic wet etching of silicon. Which is much more complicated because dynamics of the shape evolution is strongly coupled with time and geometry shapes history. In etching simulations Level Set method is coupled with Finite Element Method (FEM) that is used for calculation of etching acid concentration that determine geometry evolution of the structure. The problem arising from working with FEM with time varying boundaries was solved with the use of the dynamic mesh technique employing the Level Set formalism of higher dimensional function for geometry description. Isotropic etching was investigated in context of mico-lenses fabrication. Model was compared with experimental data obtained in etching of the silicon moulds used for micro-lenses fabrication.

  19. Statistics of high-level scene context

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Michelle R.

    2013-01-01

    Context is critical for recognizing environments and for searching for objects within them: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48, 167 objects were hand-labeled in 3499 scenes using the LabelMe tool (Russell et al., 2008). From these data, I computed a variety of descriptive statistics at three different levels of analysis: the ensemble statistics that describe the density and spatial distribution of unnamed “things” in the scene; the bag of words level where scenes are described by the list of objects contained within them; and the structural level where the spatial distribution and relationships between the objects are measured. The utility of each level of description for scene categorization was assessed through the use of linear classifiers, and the plausibility of each level for modeling human scene categorization is discussed. Of the three levels, ensemble statistics were found to be the most informative (per feature), and also best explained human patterns of categorization errors. Although a bag of words classifier had similar performance to human observers, it had a markedly different pattern of errors. However, certain objects are more useful than others, and ceiling classification performance could be achieved using only the 64 most informative objects. As object location tends not to vary as a function of category, structural information provided little additional information. Additionally, these data provide valuable information on natural scene redundancy that can be exploited for machine vision, and can help the visual cognition community to design experiments guided by

  20. [Diagnostic reference levels in interventional radiology].

    PubMed

    Vañó Carruana, E; Fernández Soto, J M; Sánchez Casanueva, R M; Ten Morón, J I

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses the diagnostic reference levels for radiation exposure proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to facilitate the application of the optimization criteria in diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures. These levels are normally established as the third quartile of the dose distributions to patients in an ample sample of centers and are supposed to be representative of good practice regarding patient exposure. In determining these levels, it is important to evaluate image quality as well to ensure that it is sufficient for diagnostic purposes. When the values for the dose received by patients are systematically higher or much lower than the reference levels, an investigation should determine whether corrective measures need to be applied. The European and Spanish regulations require the use of these reference values in quality assurance programs. For interventional procedures, the dose area product (or kerma area product) values are usually used as reference values together with the time under fluoroscopy and the total number of images acquired. The most modern imaging devices allow the value of the accumulated dose at the entrance to the patient to be calculated to optimize the distribution of the dose on the skin. The ICRP recommends that the complexity of interventional procedures be taken into account when establishing reference levels. In the future, diagnostic imaging departments will have automatic systems to manage patient dosimetric data; these systems will enable continuous dosage auditing and alerts about individual procedures that might involve doses several times above the reference values. This article also discusses aspects that need to be clarified to take better advantage of the reference levels in interventional procedures. PMID:24211195

  1. The Sea Level Fingerprints of Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovica, J. X.; Hay, C.; Kopp, R. E., III; Morrow, E.

    2014-12-01

    It may be difficult to persuade those living in northern Europe that the sea level changes that their coastal communities face depends less on the total melting of polar ice sheets and glaciers than on the individual contributions to this total. In particular, melting of a specific ice sheet or mountain glacier drives deformational, gravitational and rotational perturbations to the Earth system that are manifest in a unique geometry, or fingerprint, of global sea level change. For example, melting from the Greenland Ice Sheet equivalent to 1 mm/yr of global mean sea level (GMSL) rise will lead to sea level rise of ~0 mm/yr in Dublin, ~0.2 mm/yr in Amsterdam, ~0.4 mm/yr in Boston and ~1.2 mm/yr in Cape Town. In contrast, if the same volume of ice melted from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, all of the above sites would experience a sea level rise in the range 1.1-1.2 mm/yr. These fingerprints of modern ice melting, together with ocean thermal expansion and dynamic effects, and the ongoing signal from glacial isostatic adjustment in response to the last ice age, combine to produce a sea level field with significant geographic variability. In this talk I will highlight an analysis of global tide gauge records that takes full advantage of this variability to estimate both GMSL and the sources of meltwater over the last century, and to project GMSL to the end of the current century.

  2. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-17

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, {tau} leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  3. Gallium Nitride: Charge Neutrality Level and Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brudnyi, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    An analysis of experimental data revealed the dependence of the metal/ n-GaN GaN(0001) barrier height on the metal work function, as predicted by the model that takes into account the charge neutrality level of the semiconductor. In case of the metal/ p-GaN(Mg) barriers, significant scatter of the corresponding experimental data is observed and pinning of the near-surface Fermi level near E v + 2.5 eV takes place in most structures, which is due to the influence of high density of interface defect states formed during the process of the GaN doping by Mg impurity.

  4. Community noise levels in Patras, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Stathis, T.C.

    1981-02-01

    In the city of Patras (Greece), noise measurements were made for the purposes of determining the present noise-pollution levels and the reaction of the people to them. Noise pollution is ranked second in order after air pollution, and traffic was the principal noise pollutant. The mean noise levels, in 25 monitorig stations throughout the city, were found to be high and definitely unacceptable. For three representative locations, corresponding to high, medium, and low traffic volume, various statistical noise descriptors were used, together with the other measurements, to estimate the noise environment of the entire city.

  5. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1998-03-03

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units. 12 figs.

  6. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  7. Fault-tolerant three-level inverter

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, John; Xu, Longya; Bhargava, Brij B.

    2006-12-05

    A method for driving a neutral point clamped three-level inverter is provided. In one exemplary embodiment, DC current is received at a neutral point-clamped three-level inverter. The inverter has a plurality of nodes including first, second and third output nodes. The inverter also has a plurality of switches. Faults are checked for in the inverter and predetermined switches are automatically activated responsive to a detected fault such that three-phase electrical power is provided at the output nodes.

  8. Three-level superadiabatic quantum driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannelli, Luigi; Arimondo, Ennio

    2014-03-01

    The superadiabatic quantum driving, producing a perfect adiabatic transfer on a given Hamiltonian by introducing an additional Hamiltonian, is theoretically analyzed for transfers within a three-level system. Our starting point is the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, realized through different schemes of laser pulses. We determine the superadiabatic correction for each scheme. The fidelity, robustness, and transfer time of all the superadiabatic transfer schemes are discussed. We derive that all superadiabatic corrections are based on a π- (or near-π)-area pulse coupling between the initial and final states. The benefits in the protocol robustness overcome the difficulties associated to the actual implementation of the three-level superadiabatic transfer.

  9. Disocclusion: a variational approach using level lines.

    PubMed

    Masnou, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Object recognition, robot vision, image and film restoration may require the ability to perform disocclusion. We call disocclusion the recovery of occluded areas in a digital image by interpolation from their vicinity. It is shown in this paper how disocclusion can be performed by means of the level-lines structure, which offers a reliable, complete and contrast-invariant representation of images. Level-lines based disocclusion yields a solution that may have strong discontinuities. The proposed method is compatible with Kanizsa's amodal completion theory. PMID:18244613

  10. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1998-01-01

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  11. Level-scheme investigation of 33S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, G. Tz; Goutev, N.; Dimitrov, B. I.; Tonev, D.; Petkov, P.; de Angelis, G.; Recchia, F.; Farnea, E.; Ur, C. A.; Aydin, S.; Bizzeti, P. G.; Bizzeti-Sona, A. M.; Deloncle, I.; Gottardo, A.; Laftchiev, H.; Lunardi, S.; Mengoni, D.; Michelangoli, C.; Napoli, D. R.; Orlandi, R.; Sahin, E.; Stefanova, E. A.; Valente-Dobon, J. J.; Marinov, Tz K.; Yavahchova, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    An angular correlation experiment was carried out for 33 S at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro with the gamma-ray detector array GASP. The reaction used was 24Mg(14N,α p)33S at a beam energy of 40MeV. An analysis of DCO ratios and triple gamma coincidences was performed. So far, a new level depopulated by 3 γ -ray transitions has been found and its spin was determined. The work for further extension of the level scheme is in progress.

  12. On the level system of Bi II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrzejewska, M.; Meijer, F. G.; Stachowska, E.

    2013-10-01

    The spectrum of Bi II was remeasured in the wavelength range 620-74 nm, using different hollow cathode light sources, resulting in 91 new classified lines. We found two even and eight odd new levels. Fine and hyperfine structure analysis has been performed with a many configurations approach. We determined for all levels the Landé gJ-factors and the hfs A-constants, using the wavefunctions calculated. For the first time, radial hyperfine structure parameters were determined for the excited configurations 6s26pnl (l = s, p, d, f, g). We will also discuss the important role of configuration interaction effects on fine and hyperfine structures.

  13. Mapping probability of shipping sound exposure level.

    PubMed

    Gervaise, Cédric; Aulanier, Florian; Simard, Yvan; Roy, Nathalie

    2015-06-01

    Mapping vessel noise is emerging as one method of identifying areas where sound exposure due to shipping noise could have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems. The probability distribution function (pdf) of sound exposure levels (SEL) is an important metric for identifying areas of concern. In this paper a probabilistic shipping SEL modeling method is described to obtain the pdf of SEL using the sonar equation and statistical relations linking the pdfs of ship traffic density, source levels, and transmission losses to their products and sums. PMID:26093451

  14. Ultraviolet radiation levels during the Antarctic spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, John E.; Snell, Hilary E.

    1988-01-01

    The decrease in atmospheric ozone over Antarctica during spring implies enhanced levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation received at the earth's surface. Model calculations show that UV irradiances encountered during the occurrence of an Antarctic 'ozone hole' remain less than those typical of a summer solstice at low to middle latitudes. However, the low ozone amounts observed in October 1987 imply biologically effective irradiances for McMurdo Station, Antarctica, that are comparable to or greater than those for the same location at December solstice. Life indigenous to Antarctica thereby experiences a greatly extended period of summerlike UV radiation levels.

  15. Plants tolerant of high boron levels.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Kyoko; Takano, Junpei; Omori, Hiroyuki; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Toru

    2007-11-30

    Reduced crop productivity due to soils containing toxic levels of boron (B) is a worldwide problem in food production. It is estimated that up to 17% of the barley yield losses in southern Australia are caused by B toxicity. We found that the expression of AtBOR4, an Arabidopsis paralog of BOR1, the first identified boron transporter gene, generates plants that are tolerant of high B levels. BOR4 is a polarly localized borate exporter that enhances B efflux from roots. The present study is a foundation for the improvement of crop productivity in soils containing excess B, which are distributed in arid areas of the world. PMID:18048682

  16. Male prolactinomas presenting with normal testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Shimon, Ilan; Benbassat, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    In men harboring prolactinoma the most common symptoms are related to hypogonadism, including decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and gynecomastia. These men characteristically present with elevated serum prolactin (PRL) levels, suppressed gonadotropins, and low testosterone levels. We studied a group of 11 unique men with prolactinomas presenting with testosterone levels within the normal range (≥2.6 ng/ml; cohort A), and compared them to 11 prolactinoma men with borderline baseline testosterone (2.1-2.5 ng/ml; cohort B) and to a cohort of 34 prolactinoma patients with low testosterone levels (≤2 ng/ml; cohort C). Mean testosterone levels at presentation were 3.91 ± 0.9 ng/ml in cohort A (range, 2.6-5.2 ng/ml), 2.44 ± 0.16 ng/ml in cohort B and 0.96 ± 0.6 in cohort C (p < 0.001). Mean baseline PRL levels were >20 times above normal in cohort A compared to >100 times above normal in cohorts B and C. Symptoms of hypogonadism were present in 55, 64 and 76% of men in groups A, B and C, respectively. There was a trend towards a larger tumor size in the low testosterone group (p = 0.06). Visual fields defects at presentation were more prevalent in this cohort (C). With cabergoline, testosterone level increased from 3.91 to 6.42 ng/ml (Δ = 2.51 ng/ml) in cohort A, from 2.44 to 5.63 ng/ml (Δ = 3.19 ng/ml) in cohort B, and from 0.96 to 3.30 ng/ml (Δ = 2.34 ng/ml) in cohort C (p < 0.05 for each group). Symptoms of hypogonadism improved following treatment in 83% of symptomatic men in cohort A. Normal testosterone does not exclude the likelihood of prolactinoma in men. When treated with cabergoline, testosterone levels in these men can increase higher within the normal range together with clinical improvement. PMID:23756784

  17. BOREAS Level-0 ER-2 Navigation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strub, Richard; Dominguez, Roseanne; Newcomer, Jeffrey A.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS Staff Science effort covered those activities that were BOREAS community-level activities or required uniform data collection procedures across sites and time. These activities included the acquisition, processing, and archiving of aircraft navigation/attitude data to complement the digital image data. The level-0 ER-2 navigation data files contain aircraft attitude and position information acquired during the digital image and photographic data collection missions. Temporally, the data were acquired from April to September 1994. Data were recorded at intervals of 5 seconds. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  18. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  19. Revised level structure of Te120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Somnath; Singh, Purnima; Singh, A. K.; Bürger, A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chmel, S.; Fallon, P.; Hagemann, G. B.; Herskind, B.; Hübel, H.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Juhász, K.; Khoo, T. L.; Kondev, F. G.; Korichi, A.; Lauritsen, T.; Nyakó, B. M.; Ragnarsson, I.; Rogers, J.; Sletten, G.; Timár, J.; Wilson, A. N.; Zhu, S.

    2014-09-01

    The level scheme of the nucleus Te120, populated in the reaction Se80(Ca48,α4n), was reinvestigated using γ-ray coincidence data measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer. Previously, five high-spin rotational bands were discovered in this nucleus. The present reinvestigation revealed that the decay of band b1 is more complex than suggested in the earlier work and that it cannot be uniquely determined. Furthermore, a number of new transitions are added to the level scheme. The implications for the spin assignments and excitation energies of the five bands and for comparisons with cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations are discussed.

  20. Solution notches, earthquakes, and sea level, Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, C. R.; Mildor, B. S.; Bilham, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    Shortly after the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake, we installed an array of five tide gauges to determine sea level and its variability in the region of uplifted corals on the coast SW of Leogane, Haiti, that had been uplift ≤30 cm during the earthquake. Each gauge consists of a pressure transducer bolted 50-80 cm below mean sea level, which samples the difference between atmospheric pressure and sea pressure every 10 minutes. The data are transmitted via the Iridium satellite and are publically available with a latency of 10 minutes to 2 hours. The measurements reveal a maximum tidal range of ≈50 cm with 2-4 week oscillations in mean sea level of several cm. Sea slope, revealed by differences between adjacent gauges, varies 2-5 cm per 10 km at periods of 2-5 weeks, which imposes a disappointing limit to the utility of the gauges in estimating post seismic vertical motions. A parallel study of the form and elevation of coastal notches and mushroom rocks (rocks notched on all sides, hence forming a mushroom shape), along the coast west of Petit Goave suggests that these notches may provide an uplift history of the region over the past several hundreds of years. Notch sections in two areas were contoured, digitized, and compared to mean sea level. The notches mimic the histogram of sea level, suggesting that they are formed by dissolution by acidic surface waters. Notches formed two distinct levels, one approximately 58 cm above mean sea level, and the other approximately 157 cm above mean sea level. Several landslide blocks fell into the sea during the 2010 earthquake, and we anticipate these are destined for conversion to future mushroom rocks. Surfaces have been prepared on these blocks to study the rate of notch formation in situ, and samples are being subjected to acid corrosion in laboratory conditions, with the hope that the depth of notches may provide an estimate of the time of fall of previous rocks to help constrain the earthquake history of this area

  1. THE STAR LEVEL-3 TRIGGER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    LANGE, J.S.; ADLER, C.; BERGER, J.; DEMELLO, M.; FLIERL, D.; ET AL

    1999-11-15

    The STAR level-3 trigger is a MYRINET interconnected ALPHA processor farm, performing online tracking of N{sub track} {ge} 8000 particles (N{sub point} {le} 45 per track) with a design input rate of R=100 Hz. A large scale prototype system was tested in 12/99 with laser and cosmic particle events.

  2. Evaluation of Stress Levels of Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnorr, Janet K.; McWilliams, Jettie M.

    This study was conducted to analyze levels and areas of stress of professionals in selected service professions and to establish national norms of stress for these professions. The 60-item Tennessee Stress Scale-R (TSS-R) is a work-related stress inventory for professionals which provides a measure of stress in three areas: stress producers,…

  3. CLIL Learning: Achievement Levels and Affective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seikkula-Leino, Jaana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how successfully pupils had learned content in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) and to assess pupils' affective learning factors, such as motivation and self-esteem, in CLIL. Learning was presented in terms of achievement level, which was described as the relationship between measured levels…

  4. Modelling Continuing Load at Disaggregated Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidel, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    The current methodology of estimating load in the following year at Flinders University has achieved reasonable accuracy in the previous capped funding environment, particularly at the university level, due largely to our university having stable intakes and student profiles. While historically within reasonable limits, variation in estimates at…

  5. Low-level waste forum meeting reports

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    This report contains highlights from the 1991 fall meeting of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Forum. Topics included legal updates; US NRC updates; US EPA updates; mixed waste issues; financial assistance for waste disposal facilities; and a legislative and policy report.

  6. ESTIMATION OF BACKGROUND LEVELS OF CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples from hazardous waste site investigations frequently come from two or more statistical populations. Assessment of "background" levels of contaminants can be a significant problem. This problem is being investigated at the US EPA's EMSL in Las Vegas. This paper describes a ...

  7. Transforming Middle Level Education: Perspectives and Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvin, Judith L., Ed.

    This book addresses the critical issues of curriculum and instruction as they pertain to the restructuring of middle-level education. The first part deals with developing a sense of identity both with the middle-school movement and with young adolescents. Chapters include the following: "Perspectives on the Middle School Movement" (John H.…

  8. Teaching Quantum Mechanics on an Introductory Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Rainer; Wiesner, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    Presents a new research-based course on quantum mechanics in which the conceptual issues of quantum mechanics are taught at an introductory level. Involves students in the discovery of how quantum phenomena deviate from classical everyday experiences. (Contains 31 references.) (Author/YDS)

  9. Energy levels for F-16 (Fluorine-16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of Subvolume C `Tables of Excitations of Proton- and Neutron-rich Unstable Nuclei' of Volume 19 `Nuclear States from Charged Particle Reactions' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides energy levels for atomic nuclei of the isotope F-16 (fluorine, atomic number Z = 9, mass number A = 16).

  10. Outsourcing goes to a deeper level.

    PubMed

    Davies, Julie

    2003-12-01

    Medical device manufacturers and diagnostics companies are among the fastest adopters of the outsourcing model. This article outlines how a deeper level of outsourcing is evolving and how this will transform just about every part of a company's business. PMID:14981887

  11. Colleges Overproducing Elementary-Level Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Data, while imprecise, suggest that some states are producing far more new teachers at the elementary level than will be able to find jobs in their respective states--even as districts struggle to find enough recruits in other certification fields. For some observers, the imbalances reflect a failure of teacher colleges--by far, the largest source…

  12. Agriculture, Levels 1-4. Agriculture & Commercial Horticulture, Levels 1-4. Commercial Horticulture, Levels 1-3. Environmental Conservation, Levels 2-4. National Vocational Qualifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business and Technology Education Council, London (England).

    Britain's National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) are work qualifications that measure what an employee or potential employee can do as well as how much he or she knows and understands about a particular job. Used as written proof of usable workplace skills that can be put to profitable use by an employer, NVQs range from basic Level 1, for…

  13. Toward Graduate-Level Writing Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micciche, Laura R.

    2011-01-01

    Critical writing is intertwined with performances of professional identity, voice, and persona--performances that can be studied and practiced. To that end, the author proposes that one intuitive place to locate such study and practice is in English graduate curricula. This essay calls for an explicit commitment to graduate-level writing…

  14. Factors Influencing Cypriot Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Chedzoy, Sue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present selected findings from a larger study, which set out to examine the physical activity levels of Cypriot primary school children and determinants of their activity. Twenty parents of children who obtained high and low activity scores based on pedometer counts and self-reports scores were interviewed. By…

  15. The Threshold Level--For Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauerbach, Gerda

    1979-01-01

    Comments on the document "Threshold Level for Modern Language Learning Schools" (J. A. Van Ek, Strasbourg, 1976) and its appropriateness as a description of learning goals for the first years of foreign language teaching. Criticizes particularly the "reduced learning" concept, on which the threshold projects are based. (IFS/WGA)

  16. Manual of Tape Scripts: French, Level 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Gladys; And Others

    Designed specifically for use in the oral phase of first-level French classes in New York City Public Schools, these scripts may be used as supplemental drill or review material in any beginning conversational French course with or without the accompanying audio tapes. The two-part manual treats through a variety of drills such aspects of grammar…

  17. Media Literacy Education at the University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the media literacy education movement has developed to help individuals of all ages acquire the competencies necessary to fully participate in the modern world of media convergence. Yet media literacy education is not practiced uniformly at all educational levels. This study used a survey to compare the extent to which students…

  18. ZIP. Economic Insulation Levels for Houses

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, D.

    1989-01-01

    ZIP was developed to support the calculations and database used to estimate the economic levels of insulation published in the U.S. Department of Energy`s Insulation Fact Sheet. The program allows the user to estimate economic levels of insulation for attics, exterior walls, floors over unheated areas, slab floors, and basement and crawlspace walls for new and existing houses in any 3-digit zip code location in the U.S., based on local climate data, local prices for energy and insulation, and the type and estimated efficiency of its heating and cooling system. ZIP recognizes five different heating systems: natural gas, oil furnaces, electric furnaces, electric baseboard, and electric heat pump and two cooling systems: central and window electric air conditioners. An evaporative cooling system can also be specified, but this is not treated as a true air-conditioning system. In addition, the user can specify the approximate operating efficiency of the heating and cooling systems (low, medium, high, or very high). ZIP can be run for a single zip code and specified heating and cooling system or in a batch mode for any number of consecutive zip codes to provide a table of economic insulation levels for use at the state or national level.

  19. ZIP. Economic Insulation Levels for Houses

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, D. )

    1989-01-01

    ZIP was developed to support the calculations and database used to estimate the economic levels of insulation published in the U.S. Department of Energy's Insulation Fact Sheet. The program allows the user to estimate economic levels of insulation for attics, exterior walls, floors over unheated areas, slab floors, and basement and crawlspace walls for new and existing houses in any 3-digit zip code location in the U.S., based on local climate data, local prices for energy and insulation, and the type and estimated efficiency of its heating and cooling system. ZIP recognizes five different heating systems: natural gas, oil furnaces, electric furnaces, electric baseboard, and electric heat pump and two cooling systems: central and window electric air conditioners. An evaporative cooling system can also be specified, but this is not treated as a true air-conditioning system. In addition, the user can specify the approximate operating efficiency of the heating and cooling systems (low, medium, high, or very high). ZIP can be run for a single zip code and specified heating and cooling system or in a batch mode for any number of consecutive zip codes to provide a table of economic insulation levels for use at the state or national level.

  20. High School Accounting at Two Instructional Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helme, Rebecca E.

    1980-01-01

    Offering two levels of accounting results in a broader base of student enrollment. Reiterating theory, giving practical examples, and stressing "why" as well as "how" enable the instructor to foster the environment the students need. The teacher must also instill self-confidence in the students. (JOW)