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Sample records for radiography industrial

  1. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS LABORATORY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR AN 80-HOUR COURSE IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY FOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES TRAINING TO BECOME BEGINNING RADIOGRAPHERS. IT IS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH TWO OTHER VOLUMES--(1) INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, AND (2) INUDSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY MANUAL. THE PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF REPRESENTATIVES…

  2. Industrial Radiography Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Harry D.

    This text was developed for use by students in an 80-hour course for industrial radiographers. Chapter headings are: (1) The Structure of Matter, (2) Radiation and Radiation Machines, (3) Nuclear Reactions and Radioisotopes, (4) Interaction of Radiation with Matter, (5) Radiation Detection and Measurement, (6) The Nature and Consequences of…

  3. Industrial Radiography Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Harry D.

    The curriculum guide was developed for teacher use in an 80-hour course for industrial radiographers. The units include: (1) The Structure of Matter and Radiation, (2) Nuclear Reactions and Radioisotopes, (3) The Nature and Consequences of Radiation Exposure, (4) Radiation Attenuation, (5) Absorption of Radiation, (6) Radiation Detection and…

  4. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY STUDENT GUIDE AND LABORATORY EXERCISES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE TO AN 80-HOUR COURSE IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY IS COORDINATED WITH LESSONS IN THE STUDENT GUIDE AND LABORATORY EXERCISES AND IS BASED ON MATERIAL IN THE COURSE MANUAL, INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY. THE COURSE IS INTENDED TO TRAIN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES AS BEGINNING RADIOGRAPHERS WHO ARE EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO EXTEND THEIR…

  5. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTORS' GUIDE. VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Engineering Extension Service.

    INFORMATION RELATIVE TO THE LESSON PLANS IN "INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, VOLUME I" (VT 003 565) IS PRESENTED ON 52 INFORMATION SHEETS INCLUDING THE SUBJECTS SHIELDING EQUATIONS AND LOGARITHMS, METAL PROPERTIES, FIELD TRIP INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS, WELDING SYMBOLS AND SIZES, SAMPLE REPORT FORMS, AND TYPICAL SHIPPING…

  6. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specific license for industrial radiography. 34.13 Section 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Specific Licensing Provisions § 34.13 Specific license...

  7. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific license for industrial radiography. 34.13 Section 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Specific Licensing Provisions § 34.13 Specific license...

  8. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specific license for industrial radiography. 34.13 Section 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Specific Licensing Provisions § 34.13 Specific license...

  9. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific license for industrial radiography. 34.13 Section 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Specific Licensing Provisions § 34.13 Specific license...

  10. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific license for industrial radiography. 34.13 Section 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Specific Licensing Provisions § 34.13 Specific license...

  11. Safety Testing of Industrial Radiography Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Trapp, D.J.

    1999-09-29

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted the Savannah River Technology Center to verify the relevancy of the 10 CFR Part 34 requirements for the normal use of portable gamma radiography systems and to propose recommendations for changes or modifications to the requirements.

  12. Occupational exposure in Greek industrial radiography laboratories (1996-2003).

    PubMed

    Economides, S; Tritakis, P; Papadomarkaki, E; Carinou, E; Hourdakis, C; Kamenopoulou, V; Dimitriou, P

    2006-01-01

    More than 40 industrial radiography laboratories are operating in Greece using X-ray or gamma-ray sources and more than 250 workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation in these facilities are monitored on a regular basis. This study presents the evolution of individual doses received by radiographers during the past years. The mean annual dose (MAD) of all workers as well as of exposed workers is estimated, and correlated to the types of laboratories and practices applied. The MAD of the exposed workers in industrial radiography is compared with the doses of workers in other specialties and with the doses of radiographers in other countries. Furthermore, the study attempts to propose dose constraints for the practices in industrial radiography, according to the BSS European directive and the relevant Greek radiation protection legislation. The proposed value was defined as the dose below which the annual doses of 75% of the exposed radiographers are expected to be included. PMID:16143723

  13. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, VOLUME 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Engineering Extension Service.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE GUIDE IS TO GIVE MAXIMUM ASSISTANCE TO INSTRUCTORS IN PLANNING THE TRAINING OF LICENSED INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY THE ENGINEERING EXTENSION SERVICE, TEXAS AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL UNIVERSITY, COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS. THE 21 UNITS INCLUDE (1) INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS, (2) NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS, (3)…

  14. Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radiography is discussed as a method for nondestructive evaluation of internal flaws of solids. Gamma ray and X-ray equipment are described along with radiographic film, radiograph interpretation, and neutron radiography.

  15. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures.

  16. An overexposure in industrial radiography using an 192Ir radionuclide.

    PubMed

    Jalil, A; Molla, M A

    1989-07-01

    An industrial radiographer was accidentally exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation from an 192Ir source during radiography of weldjoints in gas pipelines. Some symptoms of high radiation exposure occurred immediately after the incident. The clinical effect of skin erythema developed within 7 d, leading to progressive tissue deterioration. The dose to the body was estimated to be about 2-3 Gy, and the dose to the fingertips was approximately 24 Gy. PMID:2526106

  17. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  18. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  19. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  20. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  1. 10 CFR 34.61 - Records of the specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of the specific license for industrial radiography. 34.61 Section 34.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements §...

  2. DIANE stationary neutron radiography system image quality and industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cluzeau, S.; Huet, J.; Le Tourneur, P.

    1994-05-01

    The SODERN neutron radiography laboratory has operated since February 1993 using a sealed tube generator (GENIE 46). An experimental programme of characterization (dosimetry, spectroscopy) has confirmed the expected performances concerning: neutron flux intensity, neutron energy range, residual gamma flux. Results are given in a specific report [2]. This paper is devoted to the image performance reporting. ASTM and specific indicators have been used to test the image quality with various converters and films. The corresponding modulation transfer functions are to be determined from image processing. Some industrial applications have demonstrated the capabilities of the system: corrosion detection in aircraft parts, ammunitions filling testing, detection of polymer lacks in sandwich steel sheets, detection of moisture in a probe for geophysics, residual ceramic cores imaging in turbine blades. Various computerized electronic imaging systems will be tested to improve the industrial capabilities.

  3. Industrial applications at the new cold neutron radiography and tomography facility of the HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Manke, I.; Strobl, M.; Treimer, W.; Banhart, J.

    2005-04-01

    The new cold neutron radiography and tomography facility at the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin is suited for the investigation of components and materials from different industrial fields. The high-flux measuring position of the facility allows real-time imaging of fast dynamical processes. Cold neutrons interact stronger with the matter compared to thermal neutrons, which leads to a much better radiography contrast. Some examples of different industry applications like investigations on discharging of a Lithium battery or on oil sediments in a vent pipe are presented.

  4. Working safely in gamma radiography. A training manual for industrial radiographers

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, S.A.; Peabody, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This manual is designed for classroom training in working safely in industrial radiography using gamma sources. The purpose is to train radiographers' assistants to work safely as a qualified gamma radiographer. The contents cover the essentials of radiation, radiation protection, emergency procedures, gamma cameras, and biological effects of radiation. (ACR)

  5. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., and ALARA procedures as required by 10 CFR part 20 of this chapter, and reviewing them regularly to ensure that the procedures in use conform to current 10 CFR part 20 procedures, conform to other NRC... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography....

  6. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and ALARA procedures as required by 10 CFR part 20 of this chapter, and reviewing them regularly to ensure that the procedures in use conform to current 10 CFR part 20 procedures, conform to other NRC... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography....

  7. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and ALARA procedures as required by 10 CFR part 20 of this chapter, and reviewing them regularly to ensure that the procedures in use conform to current 10 CFR part 20 procedures, conform to other NRC... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography....

  8. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and ALARA procedures as required by 10 CFR part 20 of this chapter, and reviewing them regularly to ensure that the procedures in use conform to current 10 CFR part 20 procedures, conform to other NRC... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography....

  9. 10 CFR 34.42 - Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and ALARA procedures as required by 10 CFR part 20 of this chapter, and reviewing them regularly to ensure that the procedures in use conform to current 10 CFR part 20 procedures, conform to other NRC... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation Safety Officer for industrial radiography....

  10. Understanding the Challenges in the Transition from Film Radiography in the Nuclear Power Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Moran, Traci L.; Nove, Carol A.; Pardini, Allan F.

    2012-09-01

    Nondestructive examination (NDE) applications in the nuclear power industry using film radiography are shrinking due to the advent of modern digital imaging technologies and advances in alternative inspection methods that do not present an ionizing radiation hazard. Technologies that are used routinely in the medical industry for patient diagnosis are being adapted to industrial NDE applications including the detection and characterization of defects in welds. From the user perspective, non-film inspection techniques provide several advantages over film techniques. It is anticipated that the shift away from the application of film radiography in the nuclear power industry represents an irreversible trend. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has noted this trend in the U.S. nuclear power industry and will be working to ensure that the effectiveness and reliability of component inspections is not compromised by this transition. Currently, specific concerns are associated with 1) obtaining a fundamental understanding of how inspection effectiveness and reliability may be impacted by this transition and 2) ensuring training standards and qualifications remain compatible with modern industrial radiographic practice. This paper discusses recent trends in industrial radiography and assesses their advantages and disadvantages from the perspective of nuclear power plant component inspections.

  11. Tests of cosmic ray radiography for power industry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, J. M.; Guardincerri, E.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Fabritius, J.; Fellows, S.; Poulson, D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Renshaw, J.

    2015-06-01

    In this report, we assess muon multiple scattering tomography as a non-destructive inspection technique in several typical areas of interest to the nuclear power industry, including monitoring concrete degradation, gate valve conditions, and pipe wall thickness. This work is motivated by the need for imaging methods that do not require the licensing, training, and safety controls of x-rays, and by the need to be able to penetrate considerable overburden to examine internal details of components that are otherwise inaccessible, with minimum impact on industrial operations. In some scenarios, we find that muon tomography may be an attractive alternative to more typical measurements.

  12. Tests of cosmic ray radiography for power industry applications

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, J. M. Guardincerri, E.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Fabritius, J.; Fellows, S.; Poulson, D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Renshaw, J.

    2015-06-15

    In this report, we assess muon multiple scattering tomography as a non-destructive inspection technique in several typical areas of interest to the nuclear power industry, including monitoring concrete degradation, gate valve conditions, and pipe wall thickness. This work is motivated by the need for imaging methods that do not require the licensing, training, and safety controls of x-rays, and by the need to be able to penetrate considerable overburden to examine internal details of components that are otherwise inaccessible, with minimum impact on industrial operations. In some scenarios, we find that muon tomography may be an attractive alternative to more typical measurements.

  13. An overexposure in industrial radiography using an /sup 192/Ir radionuclide

    SciTech Connect

    Jalil, A.; Molla, M.A.

    1989-07-01

    An industrial radiographer was accidentally exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation from an /sup 192/Ir source during radiography of weldjoints in gas pipelines. Some symptoms of high radiation exposure occurred immediately after the incident. The clinical effect of skin erythema developed within 7 d, leading to progressive tissue deterioration. The dose to the body was estimated to be about 2-3 Gy, and the dose to the fingertips was approximately 24 Gy.

  14. An industrial radiography exposure device based on measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polee, C.; Chankow, N.; Srisatit, S.; Thong-Aram, D.

    2015-05-01

    In film radiography, underexposure and overexposure may happen particularly when lacking information of specimen material and hollowness. This paper describes a method and a device for determining exposure in industrial gamma-ray radiography based on quick measurement of transmitted gamma-ray intensity with a small detector. Application software was developed for Android mobile phone to remotely control the device and to display counting data via Bluetooth communication. Prior to film exposure, the device is placed behind a specimen to measure transmitted intensity which is inversely proportional to the exposure. Unlike in using the conventional exposure curve, correction factors for source decay, source-to- film distance, specimen thickness and kind of material are not needed. The developed technique and device make radiographic process economic, convenient and more reliable.

  15. Advances in digital industrial radiology - New application areas beyond film radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Similar to the success story of digital photography a major upheaval has been observed in digital industrial radiology. Digital Detector Arrays enable the increase of contrast sensitivity up to a factor of 10 in comparison to film radiography. Computed radiography with phosphor imaging plates substitutes film applications. The increased sensitivity of digital detectors enables the efficient usage for dimensional measurements and functionality tests substituting manual maintenance. The measurement of wall thickness and corrosion status is state of the art in petrochemical industry. X-ray back scatter techniques have been applied in safety and security relevant applications with single sided access of source and detector. Computed tomography (CT) applications cover the range from m to nm scale. The scope of CT applications changes from flaw detection to dimensional measurement in industry. Mobile computed tomography is applied for in-service radiographic crack detection and sizing in welded pipes in nuclear power industry and aerospace applications. CT has been applied for evaluation of hot cracking susceptibility of modern weld alloys. In combination with modified varestraint transvarestraint tests (MVT) the cumulative crack length as function of stress and depth was determined. This enables the quantitative characterization of the weldability properties of different materials.

  16. A Case Report: Cytogenetic Dosimetry after Accidental Radiation Exposure during (192)Ir Industrial Radiography Testing.

    PubMed

    Beinke, C; Ben-Shlomo, A; Abend, M; Port, M

    2015-07-01

    The accidental gamma radiation exposure of an industrial radiography worker and the cytogenetic examination of the worker's blood lymphocytes are described here. The exposure of the worker was due to a malfunction at the entrance into the depleted uranium-shielding device of a (192)Ir source during operation. Because the source was sealed no additional beta radiation exposure was assumed. The worker's thermoluminescent dosimeter indicated an absorbed dose of 0.078 Sv, which presumably took place in December 2013. No clinical symptoms were reported in the case history after the potential exposure to radiation. Four months after the incident it was decided that biological dosimetry using dicentric chromosome and micronucleus analysis would be performed to follow radiation protection aspects and to clarify the radiation dose uncertainties for the exposed worker. Micronucleus frequency was not increased above the laboratory's control value of micronucleus background frequency of unexposed individuals. However, the observed dicentric frequency (0.003 dicentric/cell) differs significantly from the laboratory's background level of dicentric chromosomes in unexposed individuals (0.0007 dicentric/cell). Dicentric analysis in 2,048 metaphase cells resulted in an estimated dose of no more than 0.181 Gy (95% upper confidence level), not less than 0.014 Gy (95% lower confidence level) and a mean dose of 0.066 Gy (photon-equivalent whole-body exposure) based on interpolation from the laboratory's calibration curve for (60)Co gamma radiation. Since overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes (u = 9.78) indicated a heterogeneous (partial-body) exposure, we applied the Dolphin method and estimated an exposure of 2.1 Sv affecting 21% of the body volume. Because the overdispersion of dicentric chromosomes was caused by only one heavily damaged cell containing two dicentrics, it is possible that this was an incidental finding. In summary, a radiation overexposure of the radiography worker

  17. Local liquid velocity measurement of Trickle Bed Reactor using Digital Industrial X-ray Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Salleh, Khairul Anuar

    Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are fixed beds of particles in which both liquid and gas flow concurrently downward. They are widely used to produce not only fuels but also lubrication products. The measurement and the knowledge of local liquid velocities (VLL) in TBRs is less which is essential for advancing the understanding of its hydrodynamics and for validation computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Therefore, this work focused on developing a new, non-invasive, statistically reliable technique that can be used to measure local liquid velocity (VLL) in two-dimensions (2-D). This is performed by combining Digital Industrial X-ray Radiography (DIR) and Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) techniques. This work also make possible the development of three-dimensional (3-D) VLL measurements that can be taken in TBRs. Measurements taken through both the combined and the novel technique, once validated, were found to be comparable to another technique (a two-point fiber optical probe) currently being developed at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The results from this study indicate that, for a gas-liquid-solid type bed, the measured VLL can have a maximum range that is between 35 and 51 times that of its superficial liquid velocity (VSL). Without the existence of gas, the measured VLL can have a maximum range that is between 4 and 4.7 times that of its VSL. At a higher V SL, the particle tracer was greatly distributed and became carried away by a high liquid flow rate. Neither the variance nor the range of measured VLL varied for any of the replications, confirming the reproducibility of the experimental measurements used, regardless of the VSL . The liquid's movement inside the pore was consistent with findings from previous studies that used various techniques.

  18. 10 CFR 34.20 - Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a)and 1 CFR... transport containers must meet the applicable requirements of 10 CFR part 71. (3) Modification of... radiography equipment can realistically exert on the lever or crankshaft of the drive mechanism....

  19. 10 CFR 34.20 - Performance requirements for industrial radiography equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... incorporation by reference by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a)and 1 CFR... transport containers must meet the applicable requirements of 10 CFR part 71. (3) Modification of... radiography equipment can realistically exert on the lever or crankshaft of the drive mechanism....

  20. Regulatory aspects of neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    1999-11-01

    While full legislation for industrial radiography with gamma and X-rays already exists in many countries, the situation is different for neutron radiography. Therefore, the licensing for equipment and procedures in this field has to be based on basic principles of national and international rules. This contribution will explain how the regulatory body in Switzerland deals with neutron radiography installations in order to maintain national standards of health and safety.

  1. Comparison of non-screen techniques (medical vs. industrial film) for fine-detail skeletal radiography.

    PubMed

    Genant, H K; Doi, K; Mall, J C

    High resolution radiographic techniques for imaging the peripheral skeleton (hand and foot) have gained wide clinical acceptance. The two procedures receiving widest attention are non-screen techniques: one uses medical film (Kodak RP); and the other uses industrial film (Kodak Type M) combined with optical magnification. The imaging properties and clinical applications of these two techniques were examined. The modulation transfer functions (MTF's) of the recording systems, Wiener spectrum analyses of noise, and film sensitometry were obtained. Clinical comparisons were made from 200 consecutive patients radiographed with both techniques and the relative merits in metabolic, arthritic and traumatic afflictions were assessed. The results demonstrate the superiority of the industrial film compared to medical film technique in all parameters of image quality. However, the inconveniences of special processing and viewing necessitated by this technique, as well as the increased radiation exposure, limit its clinical application to small, selection groups of patients as determined from the clinical comparative study. PMID:977266

  2. X-ray digital industrial radiography (DIR) for local liquid velocity (V{sub LL}) measurement in trickle bed reactors (TBRs): Validation of the technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd Salleh, Khairul Anuar Lee, Hyoung Koo; Rahman, Mohd Fitri Abdul; Al Dahhan, Muthanna H.

    2014-06-15

    Local liquid velocity measurements in Trickle Bed Reactors (TBRs) are one of the essential components in its hydrodynamic studies. These measurements are used to effectively determine a reactor's operating condition. This study was conducted to validate a newly developed technique that combines Digital Industrial Radiography (DIR) with Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) to measure the Local Liquid Velocity (V{sub LL}) inside TBRs. Three millimeter-sized Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) beads were used as packing material. Three validation procedures were designed to test the newly developed technique. All procedures and statistical approaches provided strong evidence that the technique can be used to measure the V{sub LL} within TBRs.

  3. Digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Mattoon, J S

    2006-01-01

    Digital radiography has been used in human medical imaging since the 1980s with recent and rapid acceptance into the veterinary profession. Using advanced image capture and computer technology, radiographic images are viewed on a computer monitor. This is advantageous because radiographic images can be adjusted using dedicated computer software to maximize diagnostic image quality. Digital images can be accessed at computer workstations throughout the hospital, instantly retrieved from computer archives, and transmitted via the internet for consultation or case referral. Digital radiographic data can also be incorporated into a hospital information system, making record keeping an entirely paperless process. Digital image acquisition is faster when compared to conventional screen-film radiography, improving workflow and patient throughput. Digital radiography greatly reduces the need for 'retake' radiographs because of wide latitude in exposure factors. Also eliminated are costs associated with radiographic film and x-ray film development. Computed radiography, charged coupled devices, and flat panel detectors are types of digital radiography systems currently available. PMID:16971994

  4. Skull Radiography

    MedlinePlus

    What you need to know about… Skull Radiography X-ray images of the skull are taken when it is necessary to see the cranium, facial bones or jaw bones. ... Among other things, x-ray exams of the skull can show fractures. Patient Preparation Before the examination, ...

  5. Endodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Nixon, P P; Robinson, P B

    1997-05-01

    The ability to take radiographs of good diagnostic quality is an essential prerequisite for successful root canal therapy. However, the operator also has a responsibility to limit the radiation dose to the patient. This article reviews the radiography required for root canal treatment with these criteria in mind. PMID:9515363

  6. Digital Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.

  7. Electron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  8. Trauma and Mobile Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Drafke, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Trauma and Mobile Radiography focuses on the radiography of trauma patients and of patients confined to bed. This book offers students a foundation in the skills they need to produce quality radiograms without causing additional injury or pain to the patient. Features of this new book include: coverage of the basics of radiography and patient care, including monitoring of heavily sedated, immobile, and accident patients. Information on the injuries associated with certain types of accidents, and methods for dealing with these problems. Detailed explanation of the positioning of each anatomical area. A Quick Reference Card with information on evaluating, monitoring and radiographing trauma patients.

  9. High energy neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-06-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos.

  10. 8. VIEW OF RADIOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS INCLUDED RADIOGRAPHY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF RADIOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS INCLUDED RADIOGRAPHY AND BETA BACKSCATTERING. (7/13/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. The Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Imel, G.R.; McClellan, G.C.; Pruett, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) operated by Argonne National Laboratory is described in this paper. NRAD was designed to allow radiography of highly absorbing reactor fuel assemblies in the vertical position on the routine basis. 7 figs.

  12. Real-time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  13. Flash Proton Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Frank E.

    Protons were first investigated as radiographic probes as high energy proton accelerators became accessible to the scientific community in the 1960s. Like the initial use of X-rays in the 1800s, protons were shown to be a useful tool for studying the contents of opaque materials, but the electromagnetic charge of the protons opened up a new set of interaction processes which complicated their use. These complications in combination with the high expense of generating protons with energies high enough to penetrate typical objects resulted in proton radiography becoming a novelty, demonstrated at accelerator facilities, but not utilized to their full potential until the 1990s at Los Alamos. During this time Los Alamos National Laboratory was investigating a wide range of options, including X-rays and neutrons, as the next generation of probes to be used for thick object flash radiography. During this process it was realized that the charge nature of the protons, which was the source of the initial difficulty with this idea, could be used to recover this technique. By introducing a magnetic imaging lens downstream of the object to be radiographed, the blur resulting from scattering within the object could be focused out of the measurements, dramatically improving the resolution of proton radiography of thick systems. Imaging systems were quickly developed and combined with the temporal structure of a proton beam generated by a linear accelerator, providing a unique flash radiography capability for measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This technique has now been employed at LANSCE for two decades and has been adopted around the world as the premier flash radiography technique for the study of dynamic material properties.

  14. Lessons Learned Through the Follow-up of the Long-Term Effects of Over-Exposure to an Ir192 Industrial Radiography Source in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Jalil, A.; Rabbani, G.; Hossain, M. K.; Alam, M. K.; Koddus, A.

    2003-02-24

    An industrial radiographer was accidentally over-exposed while taking the radiograph of weld-joints of gas pipe-lines in 1985 in Bangladesh. Symptoms of high radiation exposure occurred immediately after the accident and skin erythema developed leading to progressive tissue deterioration. The consequences of this over-exposure is being followed up to assess the long-term effects of ionizing radiation on the victim. Progressive tissue deteriorations have already led to multiple surgeries and successive amputations of the finger-tips so far. Lessons learned from this accident are also reported in this paper.

  15. Apparatus for proton radiography

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors.

  16. Cosmic Ray Scattering Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic ray muons are ubiquitous, are highly penetrating, and can be used to measure material densities by either measuring the stopping rate or by measuring the scattering of transmitted muons. The Los Alamos team has studied scattering radiography for a number of applications. Some results will be shown of scattering imaging for a range of practical applications, and estimates will be made of the utility of scattering radiography for nondestructive assessments of large structures and for geological surveying. Results of imaging the core of the Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly (NCA) Reactor in Kawasaki, Japan and simulations of imaging the damaged cores of the Fukushima nuclear reactors will be presented. Below is an image made using muons of a core configuration for the NCA reactor.

  17. Quantitative film radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

    1991-02-26

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects.

  18. Digital radiography in space.

    PubMed

    Hart, Rob; Campbell, Mark R

    2002-06-01

    With the permanent habitation of the International Space Station, the planning of longer duration exploration missions, and the possibility of space tourism, it is likely that digital radiography will be needed in the future to support medical care in space. Ultrasound is currently the medical imaging modality of choice for spaceflight. Digital radiography in space is limited because of prohibitive launch costs (in the region of $20,000/kg) that severely restrict the volume, weight, and power requirements of medical care hardware. Technological increases in radiography, a predicted ten-fold decrease in future launch costs, and an increasing clinical need for definitive medical care in space will drive efforts to expand the ability to provide medical care in space including diagnostic imaging. Normal physiological responses to microgravity, in conjunction with the high-risk environment of spaceflight, increase the risk of injury and could imply an extended recovery period for common injuries. The advantages of gravity on Earth, such as the stabilization of patients undergoing radiography and the drainage of fluids, which provide radiographic contrast, are unavailable in space. This creates significant difficulties in patient immobilization and radiographic positioning. Gravity-dependent radiological signs, such as lipohemarthrosis in knee and shoulder trauma, air or fluid levels in pneumoperitoneum, pleural effusion, or bowel obstruction, and the apical pleural edge in pneumothorax become unavailable. Impaired healing processes such as delayed callus formation following fracture will have implications on imaging, and recovery time lines are unknown. The confined nature of spacecraft and the economic impossibility of launching lead-based personal protective equipment present significant challenges to crew radiation safety. A modified, free-floating radiographic C-arm device equipped with a digital detector and utilizing teleradiology support is proposed as a

  19. Particle Beam Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, Ken; Ekdahl, Carl

    2014-02-01

    Particle beam radiography, which uses a variety of particle probes (neutrons, protons, electrons, gammas and potentially other particles) to study the structure of materials and objects noninvasively, is reviewed, largely from an accelerator perspective, although the use of cosmic rays (mainly muons but potentially also high-energy neutrinos) is briefly reviewed. Tomography is a form of radiography which uses multiple views to reconstruct a three-dimensional density map of an object. There is a very wide range of applications of radiography and tomography, from medicine to engineering and security, and advances in instrumentation, specifically the development of electronic detectors, allow rapid analysis of the resultant radiographs. Flash radiography is a diagnostic technique for large high-explosive-driven hydrodynamic experiments that is used at many laboratories. The bremsstrahlung radiation pulse from an intense relativistic electron beam incident onto a high-Z target is the source of these radiographs. The challenge is to provide radiation sources intense enough to penetrate hundreds of g/cm2 of material, in pulses short enough to stop the motion of high-speed hydrodynamic shocks, and with source spots small enough to resolve fine details. The challenge has been met with a wide variety of accelerator technologies, including pulsed-power-driven diodes, air-core pulsed betatrons and high-current linear induction accelerators. Accelerator technology has also evolved to accommodate the experimenters' continuing quest for multiple images in time and space. Linear induction accelerators have had a major role in these advances, especially in providing multiple-time radiographs of the largest hydrodynamic experiments.

  20. Patient care in radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.A.; McCloskey, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on patient care procedures for radiographers. The authors focus on the role of the radiographer as a member of the health care team. The authors report on such topics as communication in patient care: safety, medico-legal considerations, transfer and positioning; physical needs; infection control; medication; CPR standards, acute situations; examination of the GI tract; contrast media; special imaging techniques and bedside radiography.

  1. Multi-energy ZnSe-based radiography against terrorism: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, Sergey V.; Ryzhikov, Vladimir D.; Smith, Craig F.; Wood, Dennis; Kostioukevitych, Sergey; Lisetska, Elena

    2006-08-01

    Multi-energy radiography is a new direction in non-destructive testing. Its specific feature is separate detection of penetrating radiation in several energy channels. Multi-energy radiography allows quantitative determination of the atomic composition of objects. This is its principal advantage over conventional radiography. In particular, dual-energy radiography allows determination of the effective atomic number of a material with an accuracy of up to 80-90%. Development of three-energy radiography and radiography of higher multiplicity makes it possible to further improve the reconstruction of an object's chemical composition. This presents the possibility, for example, of detection of explosives and other illegal objects in luggage with a reliability approaching 95-98%. These developments can find application not only in anti-terrorist activities, but also in industrial testing and nuclear medicine.

  2. Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract Lower gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... Radiography? What is Lower GI Tract X-ray Radiography (Barium Enema)? Lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract radiography, also ...

  3. Scatter in Cargo Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Erin A. Miller; Joseph A. Caggiano; Robert C. Runkle; Timothy A. White; Aaron M. Bevill

    2011-03-01

    As a complement to passive detection systems, radiographic inspection of cargo is an increasingly important tool for homeland security because it has the potential to detect highly attenuating objects associated with special nuclear material or surrounding shielding, in addition to screening for items such as drugs or contraband. Radiographic detection of such threat objects relies on high image contrast between regions of different density and atomic number (Z). Threat detection is affected by scatter of the interrogating beamin the cargo, the radiographic system itself, and the surrounding environment, which degrades image contrast. Here, we estimate the extent to which scatter plays a role in radiographic imaging of cargo containers. Stochastic transport simulations were performed to determine the details of the radiography equipment and surrounding environment, which are important in reproducing measured data and to investigate scatter magnitudes for typical cargo. We find that scatter plays a stronger role in cargo radiography than in typicalmedical imaging scenarios, even for low-density cargo, with scatter-toprimary ratios ranging from 0.14 for very low density cargo, to between 0.20 and 0.40 for typical cargo, and higher yet for dense cargo.

  4. Optimisation in general radiography

    PubMed Central

    Martin, CJ

    2007-01-01

    Radiography using film has been an established method for imaging the internal organs of the body for over 100 years. Surveys carried out during the 1980s identified a wide range in patient doses showing that there was scope for dosage reduction in many hospitals. This paper discusses factors that need to be considered in optimising the performance of radiographic equipment. The most important factor is choice of the screen/film combination, and the preparation of automatic exposure control devices to suit its characteristics. Tube potential determines the photon energies in the X-ray beam, with the selection involving a compromise between image contrast and the dose to the patient. Allied to this is the choice of anti-scatter grid, as a high grid ratio effectively removes the larger component of scatter when using higher tube potentials. However, a high grid ratio attenuates the X-ray beam more heavily. Decisions about grids and use of low attenuation components are particularly important for paediatric radiography, which uses lower energy X-ray beams. Another factor which can reduce patient dose is the use of copper filtration to remove more low-energy X-rays. Regular surveys of patient dose and comparisons with diagnostic reference levels that provide a guide representing good practice enable units for which doses are higher to be identified. Causes can then be investigated and changes implemented to address any shortfalls. Application of these methods has led to a gradual reduction in doses in many countries. PMID:21614270

  5. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  6. Mobile real time radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  7. Image Acquisition and Quality in Digital Radiography.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Shannon

    2016-09-01

    Medical imaging has undergone dramatic changes and technological breakthroughs since the introduction of digital radiography. This article presents information on the development of digital radiography and types of digital radiography systems. Aspects of image quality and radiation exposure control are highlighted as well. In addition, the article includes related workplace changes and medicolegal considerations in the digital radiography environment. PMID:27601691

  8. Digital radiography: an overview.

    PubMed

    Parks, Edwin T; Williamson, Gail F

    2002-11-15

    Since the discovery of X-rays in 1895, film has been the primary medium for capturing, displaying, and storing radiographic images. It is a technology that dental practitioners are the most familiar and comfortable with in terms of technique and interpretation. Digital radiography is the latest advancement in dental imaging and is slowly being adopted by the dental profession. Digital imaging incorporates computer technology in the capture, display, enhancement, and storage of direct radiographic images. Digital imaging offers some distinct advantages over film, but like any emerging technology, it presents new and different challenges for the practitioner to overcome. This article presents an overview of digital imaging including basic terminology and comparisons with film-based imaging. The principles of direct and indirect digital imaging modalities, intraoral and extraoral applications, image processing, and diagnostic efficacy will be discussed. In addition, the article will provide a list of questions dentists should consider prior to purchasing digital imaging systems for their practice. PMID:12444400

  9. Filters For Chest Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, N.; Paron, J.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of low dose radiography is achieved by a judicious combination of proper kV selection, fast film-screen systems and beam filtration. A systematic study of filters was undertaken to evaluate the improvements that can be realized in terms of patient Entrance Skin Exposures (ESE) for chest radiographs. The Picker CD 135 Generator and the Automatic Chest Filmer with dynamic phototiming were used for the study. The kV dependence of ESE with various amounts of zinc and aluminum filtration is presented. The effect of filtration on image contrast is discussed. The variations of ESE with phantom thickness under different filtration conditions are also considered. It was found that the ESE can be reduced by as much as a factor of 1.8 ± .1 with no significant increase in tube loading.

  10. Multiple-image radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernick, Miles N.; Wirjadi, Oliver; Chapman, Dean; Zhong, Zhong; Galatsanos, Nikolas P.; Yang, Yongyi; Brankov, Jovan G.; Oltulu, Oral; Anastasio, Mark A.; Muehleman, Carol

    2003-12-01

    Conventional radiography produces a single image of an object by measuring the attenuation of an x-ray beam passing through it. When imaging weakly absorbing tissues, x-ray attenuation may be a suboptimal signature of disease-related information. In this paper we describe a new phase-sensitive imaging method, called multiple-image radiography (MIR), which is an improvement on a prior technique called diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI). This paper elaborates on our initial presentation of the idea in Wernick et al (2002 Proc. Int. Symp. Biomed. Imaging pp 129-32). MIR simultaneously produces several images from a set of measurements made with a single x-ray beam. Specifically, MIR yields three images depicting separately the effects of refraction, ultra-small-angle scatter and attenuation by the object. All three images have good contrast, in part because they are virtually immune from degradation due to scatter at higher angles. MIR also yields a very comprehensive object description, consisting of the angular intensity spectrum of a transmitted x-ray beam at every image pixel, within a narrow angular range. Our experiments are based on data acquired using a synchrotron light source; however, in preparation for more practical implementations using conventional x-ray sources, we develop and evaluate algorithms designed for Poisson noise, which is characteristic of photon-limited imaging. The results suggest that MIR is capable of operating at low photon count levels, therefore the method shows promise for use with conventional x-ray sources. The results also show that, in addition to producing new types of object descriptions, MIR produces substantially more accurate images than its predecessor, DEI. MIR results are shown in the form of planar images of a phantom and a biological specimen. A preliminary demonstration of the use of MIR for computed tomography is also presented.

  11. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... X-ray? What is Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Radiography? Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, also called an upper ...

  12. Angular signal radiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Panyun; Zhang, Kai; Bao, Yuan; Ren, Yuqi; Ju, Zaiqiang; Wang, Yan; He, Qili; Zhu, Zhongzhu; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi; Zhu, Peiping

    2016-03-21

    Microscopy techniques using visible photons, x-rays, neutrons, and electrons have made remarkable impact in many scientific disciplines. The microscopic data can often be expressed as the convolution of the spatial distribution of certain properties of the specimens and the inherent response function of the imaging system. The x-ray grating interferometer (XGI), which is sensitive to the deviation angle of the incoming x-rays, has attracted significant attention in the past years due to its capability in achieving x-ray phase contrast imaging with low brilliance source. However, the comprehensive and analytical theoretical framework is yet to be presented. Herein, we propose a theoretical framework termed angular signal radiography (ASR) to describe the imaging process of the XGI system in a classical, comprehensive and analytical manner. We demonstrated, by means of theoretical deduction and synchrotron based experiments, that the spatial distribution of specimens' physical properties, including absorption, refraction and scattering, can be extracted by ASR in XGI. Implementation of ASR in XGI offers advantages such as simplified phase retrieval algorithm, reduced overall radiation dose, and improved image acquisition speed. These advantages, as well as the limitations of the proposed method, are systematically investigated in this paper. PMID:27136780

  13. Neutron Radiography Facility at IBR-2 High Flux Pulsed Reactor: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlenko, D. P.; Kichanov, S. E.; Lukin, E. V.; Rutkauskas, A. V.; Bokuchava, G. D.; Savenko, B. N.; Pakhnevich, A. V.; Rozanov, A. Yu.

    A neutron radiography and tomography facilityhave been developed recently at the IBR-2 high flux pulsed reactor. The facility is operated with the CCD-camera based detector having maximal field of view of 20x20 cm, and the L/D ratio can be varied in the range 200 - 2000. The first results of the radiography and tomography experiments with industrial materials and products, paleontological and geophysical objects, meteorites, are presented.

  14. Fast and thermal neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Jay T.; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Wu, Xizeng

    2005-09-01

    There is a need for high brightness neutron sources that are portable, relatively inexpensive, and capable of neutron radiography in short imaging times. Fast and thermal neutron radiography is as an excellent method to penetrate high-density, high-Z objects, thick objects and image its interior contents, especially hydrogen-based materials. In this paper we model the expected imaging performance characteristics and limitations of fast and thermal radiography systems employing a Rose Model based transfer analysis. For fast neutron detection plastic fiber array scintllators or liquid scintillator filled capillary arrays are employed for fast neutron detection, and 6Li doped ZnS(Cu) phosphors are employed for thermal neutron detection. These simulations can provide guidance in the design, construction, and testing of neutron imaging systems. In particular we determined for a range of slab thickness, the range of thicknesses of embedded cracks (air-filled or filled with material such as water) which can be detected and imaged.

  15. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  16. Quality assurance in orthodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Brown, J E

    1995-02-01

    The implementation of a Quality Assurance (QA) programme in orthodontic radiography is designed to improve the quality of the resultant radiographs and to reduce the number of repeat exposures. This is particularly desirable in orthodontic practice where the majority of patients are young and therefore more at risk from the detrimental effects of X-rays. A programme is described and QA tests are given that may be applied in the surgery. Particular emphasis is placed on QA measures for extraoral radiography, since this is frequently undertaken in the treatment of the orthodontic patient. PMID:7786872

  17. High Brightness Neutron Source for Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, J. T.; Piestrup, Melvin, A.; Gary, Charles, K.; Harris, Jack, L. Williams, David, J.; Jones, Glenn, E.; Vainionpaa, J. , H.; Fuller, Michael, J.; Rothbart, George, H.; Kwan, J., W.; Ludewigt, B., A.; Gough, R.., A..; Reijonen, Jani; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-12-08

    of yield of two orders of magnitude. The first fast neutron radiographic images were obtained using neutron cameras and a new fast neutron generator. These early images demonstrated the feasibility of using fast neutrons for imaging and penetrating thick objects of high density and imaging. Fast neutrons can be used to image low atomic number materials (e.g. plastics, explosives, lubricants and ceramics) that are shielded by high density materials (e.g. lead, tungsten and uranium). Fast neutron radiography could be used as a means to screen weapons for flaws and chemical stability. X-ray radiography can not easily do this. Fast neutron imaging is technically difficult and, consequently, a completely undeveloped market. Two of the generators were designed to have small source size and high brightness, ideal for fast-neutron imaging. With these generators we successfully used two fast neutron cameras: one developed by us, and another developed by a collaborator, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, CSIRO. We have successfully used these cameras to obtain low resolution images of various objects such as pipe fittings filled with water and other mechanical objects. Higher resolution and contrast images are expected by decreasing the source size and increasing generator yield.

  18. The application and development of radiography technology based on x-ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Xu, Zhou; Li, Ming

    2009-07-01

    Modern Radiography technology was combined with radiation physics and modern imaging processing, which was an important branch of information obtainment and processing. We can get the inside information of the object, by the X ray's attenuation when the ray penetrated the object, and depending on the computer's fast processing, we can see the slice imaging of the object. Computerized Tomography, Computerized Laminography, and Digital Radiography were important parts in Radiography. The institute of applied electronics, CAEP in the research of intense radiation had developed several advanced radiation sources and some advanced radiography imaging systems, for example, S-band small spot linear accelerator, full solid state modulator, C-band linear accelerator, high energy Tera-hertz radiation source and CT technology based on cone beam, DR technology, CL Technology etc. Such imaging systems had been applied in industrial NDT/NDE, security check, medical diagnosis, petroleum and gas pipeline inspection system etc.

  19. Defective pixel map creation based on wavelet analysis in digital radiography detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chun Joo; Lee, Hyoung Koo; Song, William Y.; Achterkirchen, Thorsten Graeve; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2011-04-01

    The application of digital radiography detectors has attracted increasing attention in both medicine and industry. Since the imaging detectors are fabricated by semiconductor manufacturing process over large areas, defective pixels in the detectors are unavoidable. Moreover, the radiation damage due to the routine use of the detectors progressively increases the density of defective pixels. In this study, we present a method of identifying defective pixels in digital radiography detectors based on wavelet analysis. Artifacts generated due to wavelet transformations have been prevented by an additional local threshold method. The proposed method was applied to a sample digital radiography and the result was promising. The proposed method uses a single pair of dark and white images and does not require them to be corrected in gain-and-offset properties. This method will be helpful for the reliable use of digital radiography detectors through the working lifetime.

  20. Proximal caries detection accuracy using intraoral bitewing radiography, extraoral bitewing radiography and panoramic radiography

    PubMed Central

    Kamburoğlu, K; Kolsuz, E; Murat, S; Yüksel, S; Özen, T

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare proximal caries detection using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography. Methods 80 extracted human premolar and molar teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intraoral radiographs were taken with Kodak Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) using the bitewing technique. Extraoral bitewing and panoramic images were obtained using a Planmeca Promax Digital Panoramic X-ray unit (Planmeca Inc., Helsinki, Finland). Images were evaluated by three observers twice. In total, 160 proximal surfaces were assessed. Intra- and interobserver kappa coefficients were calculated. Scores obtained from the three techniques were compared with the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Az values for each image type, observer and reading were compared using z-tests, with a significance level of α = 0.05. Results Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.883 to 0.963 for the intraoral bitewing, from 0.715 to 0.893 for the extraoral bitewing, and from 0.659 to 0.884 for the panoramic radiography. Interobserver agreements for the first and second readings for the intraoral bitewing images were between 0.717 and 0.780, the extraoral bitewing readings were between 0.569 and 0.707, and the panoramic images were between 0.477 and 0.740. The Az values for both readings of all three observers were highest for the intraoral bitewing. Az values for the extraoral bitewing images were higher than those of the panoramic images without statistical significance (p > 0.05). Conclusion Intraoral bitewing radiography was superior to extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography in diagnosing proximal caries of premolar and molar teeth ex vivo. Similar intra- and interobserver coefficients were calculated for extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography. PMID:22868296

  1. A New Neutron Radiography / Tomography / Imaging Station DINGO at OPAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbe, U.; Randall, T.; Hughes, C.; Davidson, G.; Pangelis, S.; Kennedy, S. J.

    A new neutron radiography / tomography / imaging instrument DINGO was built to support the area of neutron imaging research (neutron radiography/tomography) at ANSTO. The instrument is designed for an international user community and for routine quality control for defense, industrial, cultural heritage and archaeology applications. In the industrial field it provides a useful tool for studying cracking and defects in steel or other metals. The instrument construction was completed at the end of June 2013 and it is currently in the hot commissioning stage. The usable neutron flux is mainly determined by the neutron source, but it depends on the instrument position and the resolution. The instrument position for DINGO is the thermal neutron beam port HB-2 in the reactor hall. The measured flux (using gold foil) for an L/D of approximately 500 at HB-2 is 5.3*107 [n/cm2s], which is in a similar range to other facilities. A special feature of DINGO is the in-pile collimator position in front of the main shutter at HB-2. The collimator offers two pinholes with a possible L/D of 500 and 1000. A secondary collimator separates the two beams by blocking one and positions another aperture for the other beam. The whole instrument operates in two different positions, one for high resolution and one for high speed. In the current configuration DINGO measured first radiography and tomography data sets on friendly user test samples.

  2. System for uncollimated digital radiography

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Han; Hall, James M.; McCarrick, James F.; Tang, Vincent

    2015-08-11

    The inversion algorithm based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) removes unwanted effects in high energy imaging resulting from an uncollimated source interacting with a finitely thick scintillator. The algorithm takes as input the image from the thick scintillator (TS) and the radiography setup geometry. The algorithm then outputs a restored image which appears as if taken with an infinitesimally thin scintillator (ITS). Inversion is accomplished by numerically generating a probabilistic model relating the ITS image to the TS image and then inverting this model on the TS image through MEM. This reconstruction technique can reduce the exposure time or the required source intensity without undesirable object blurring on the image by allowing the use of both thicker scintillators with higher efficiencies and closer source-to-detector distances to maximize incident radiation flux. The technique is applicable in radiographic applications including fast neutron, high-energy gamma and x-ray radiography using thick scintillators.

  3. An improved method for profile radiography of piping

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.S.; Haupt, J.D.

    1996-07-01

    The Petro-Chemical industry has used profile radiography for more than thirty years to find, and evaluate, corrosion in piping systems. The technique offers a method of ``seeing into`` a piece of pipe. This allows the inspector to see the ``whole picture``. Single point ultrasonic measurements cannot provide this degree of information. Shell`s objective for studying the use of this method centered on optimizing their profile radiography technique to improve accuracy and reproducibility of wall thickness measurements. Accuracy and reproducibility of measurements are particularly important when used to determine corrosion rates. To help achieve this objective, the authors developed an inspection procedure to minimize the more prominent sources of inaccuracies associated with this technique. Along with this procedure, they also developed an associated training program. All of Shell Oil`s Pressure Equipment inspectors and key contract employees have received this training.

  4. Mobile accelerator neutron radiography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dance, W. E.; Carollo, S. F.; Bumgardner, H. M.

    1984-10-01

    The use of neutron radiography for the inspection and maintenance of large structures such as aircraft has been delayed by the absence of a mobile system particularly suited to the requirements of field use. This report describes the production, extensive field testing, evaluation and disposition of the first mobile neutron radiography system to satisfy the majority of requirements for field use. The system is based upon the concept of a mobile on-off neutron radiography system based on a sealed-tube ion accelerator as neutron source demonstrated earlier by the Vought Corporation. Primary features of the system are its self-propelled mobility, versatile positioning capability scaled to Army helicopter dimensions, an on-off beam capability, exposure capability measured in minutes, and suitability for AMMRC laboratory and field use. Included in the report are a description of all components of the system, an evaluation of the operation of the system, an evaluation of its radiographic capabilities, a description of installation elements for the AMMRC site, and recommendations for next-generation systems.

  5. PROTON RADIOGRAPHY FOR AN ADVANCED HYDROTEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    C. MORRIS

    2000-11-01

    Analysis of data from BNL experiment 933 is presented. Results demonstrate that proton radiography can meet many of the requirements for an Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF). Results for background, position resolution, metrology, quantitative radiography, material identification, and edge resolution are presented.

  6. ARG portable neutron radiography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    In this report all available neutron radiographic data, including results of tests run at LANL, McClellan AFB, and University of Virginia, will be combined to outline specific transportable neutron radiography systems that could achieve the desired results as a complement to x-radiography capabilities for the Accident Response Group (ARG).

  7. Radiography of Chaotically Moving Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrik, Daniel; Jandejsek, Ivan; Dammer, Jiri; Holy, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jakubek, Martin

    2007-11-26

    Radiography of moving objects is an advanced problem when the dynamic range of acquired radiograms is restricted by a limited exposition time. Exposition time has to be short to avoid image blurring due to object moving. It is possible to increase the dynamic range by summing short time radiograms set when the periodical object movement is presented as in the case of heart beating for instance. On the other hand a non periodical movement can be studied using tools of X-ray Digital Image Correlation technique. Short time radiograms are fitted into corresponding positions and consequently summed for higher data statistics as it is presented in this work.

  8. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  9. Direct detector radiography versus dual reading computed radiography: feasibility of dose reduction in chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Michael; Uffmann, Martin; Weber, Michael; Prokop, Mathias; Balassy, Csilla; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia

    2006-07-01

    The image quality of dual-reading computed radiography and dose-reduced direct radiography of the chest was compared in a clinical setting. The study group consisted of 50 patients that underwent three posteroanterior chest radiographs within minutes, one image obtained with a dual read-out computed radiography system (CR; Fuji 5501) at regular dose and two images with a flat panel direct detector unit (DR; Diagnost, Philips). The DR images were obtained with the same and with 50% of the dose used for the CR images. Images were evaluated in a blinded side-by-side comparison. Eight radiologists ranked the visually perceivable difference in image quality using a three-point scale. Then, three radiologists scored the visibility of anatomic landmarks in low and high attenuation areas and image noise. Statistical analysis was based on Friedman tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests at a significance level of P<0.05. DR was judged superior to CR for the delineation of structures in high attenuation areas of the mediastinum even when obtained with 50% less dose (P<0.001). The visibility of most pulmonary structures was judged equivalent with both techniques, regardless of acquisition dose and speed level. Scores for image noise were lower for DR compared with CR, with the exception of DR obtained at a reduced dose. Thus, in this clinical preference study, DR was equivalent or even superior to the most modern dual read-out CR, even when obtained with 50% dose. A further dose reduction does not appear to be feasible for DR without significant loss of image quality. PMID:16404566

  10. A dose monitoring system for dental radiography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chena; Kim, Jo-Eun; Symkhampha, Khanthaly; Lee, Woo-Jin; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Yeom, Heon-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The current study investigates the feasibility of a platform for a nationwide dose monitoring system for dental radiography. The essential elements for an unerring system are also assessed. Materials and Methods An intraoral radiographic machine with 14 X-ray generators and five sensors, 45 panoramic radiographic machines, and 23 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) models used in Korean dental clinics were surveyed to investigate the type of dose report. A main server for storing the dose data from each radiographic machine was prepared. The dose report transfer pathways from the radiographic machine to the main sever were constructed. An effective dose calculation method was created based on the machine specifications and the exposure parameters of three intraoral radiographic machines, five panoramic radiographic machines, and four CBCTs. A viewing system was developed for both dentists and patients to view the calculated effective dose. Each procedure and the main server were integrated into one system. Results The dose data from each type of radiographic machine was successfully transferred to the main server and converted into an effective dose. The effective dose stored in the main server is automatically connected to a viewing program for dentist and patient access. Conclusion A patient radiation dose monitoring system is feasible for dental clinics. Future research in cooperation with clinicians, industry, and radiologists is needed to ensure format convertibility for an efficient dose monitoring system to monitor unexpected radiation dose. PMID:27358817

  11. New developments in flash radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Arne

    2007-01-01

    The paper will review some of the latest developments in flash radiography. A series of multi anode tubes has been developed. These are tubes with several x-ray sources within the same vacuum enclosure. The x-ray sources are closely spaced, to come as close as possible to a single source. The x-ray sources are sequentially pulsed, at times that can be independently chosen. Tubes for voltages in the range 150 - 500 kV, with up to eight x-ray sources, will be described. Combining a multi anode tube with an intensified CCD camera, will make it possible to generate short "x-ray movies". A new flash x-ray control system has been developed. The system is operated from a PC or Laptop. All parameters of a multi channel flash x-ray system can be remotely set and monitored. The system will automatically store important operation parameters.

  12. Metal thickness measurements using radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achrekar, P. M.

    1986-04-01

    The present invention relates broadly to a radiographic inspection technique, and in particular to a metal thickness measurement method using radiography. The localized areas wherein the effective metal thickness is less than the minimum that is required for radiation shielding and which can render a shielding enclosure functionless, is readily determined. The invention comprises a process for assuring metal thickness in small regions. The actual metal thickness of small regions can be verified by comparing the optical densities of sections of the metal i.e., stepwedge. A comparator microphotometer, which compares optical densities of spectrum lines from spectrophotometers, compares the optical density of spectrum lines on an exposed spectrum plate (metal under test) with a standard plate (stepwedge).

  13. Quantitative measurement of segregation phenomena in a binary-mixture fluidized bed by neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Furui, Shuji; Oshima, Yoshihiro; Okura, Masashi; Ozawa, Mamoru; Takenaka, Nobuyuki

    2005-04-01

    Owing to a wide variety in fluidization properties of particles, segregation phenomena are hardly avoided in industrial fluidized-bed facilities. For the stability and controllability in the operation of such fluidized-beds, understanding of the relevant mechanism of particulate segregation is indispensable. Many factors, such as the difference in particle size, density, shape, and also arrangement of distributors, can be pointed out as the dominant causes for the segregation. Thus, any marking of particles for quantitative measurement may severely influence the segregation characteristic to be measured. But neutron radiography can be used for the quantitative measurement without disturbing the segregation characteristic. For estimating the segregation phenomena, evaluations of the particle fraction and the void fraction are required. For this purpose, two types of radiographies, i.e., X-ray and neutron radiographies were used in this investigation. Experimental results demonstrated the high performance of this method in investigating of segregation phenomena.

  14. The new cold neutron radiography and tomography instrument CONRAD at HMI Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilger, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Strobl, M.; Treimer, W.; Banhart, J.

    2006-11-01

    The new cold neutron radiography instrument CONRAD is a multifunctional facility for radiography and tomography with cold neutrons at Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin. It is located at the end of a curved neutron guide, which faces the cold-neutron source of the BER-II research reactor. The geometry provides a cold-neutron beam with wavelengths between 2 and 12 Å. Two measuring positions are available for radiography and tomography investigations. The first one is placed at the end of the guide and it is optimized for in situ experiments in which a high neutron flux is required. The available flux at this position is approximately 10 8 cm -2 s -1. The second measuring position uses a pin-hole geometry which allows better beam collimation ( L/ D up to 1000) and higher image resolution in the range of 200 μm in the CCD based detector system (10×10 cm 2). The use of cold neutrons for radiography purposes increases the image contrast and improves the sensibility e.g., the detection of small amounts of water and hydrogen-containing materials in metal matrixes. On the other hand the cold-neutron beam can be modified easily by using diffraction and neutron optical techniques. This enables to perform radiography and tomography experiments with more sophisticated measuring techniques. Recent examples of research and industrial applications will be presented.

  15. Information extraction from muon radiography data

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, K. N.; Asaki, T. J.; Chartrand, R.; Hengartner, N. W.; Hogan, G. E.; Morris, C. L.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Schirato, R.C.; Schultz, L. J.; Sottile, M. J.; Vixie, K. R.; Wohlberg, B. E.; Blanpied, G.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering muon radiography was proposed recently as a technique of detection and 3-d imaging for dense high-Z objects. High-energy cosmic ray muons are deflected in matter in the process of multiple Coulomb scattering. By measuring the deflection angles we are able to reconstruct the configuration of high-Z material in the object. We discuss the methods for information extraction from muon radiography data. Tomographic methods widely used in medical images have been applied to a specific muon radiography information source. Alternative simple technique based on the counting of high-scattered muons in the voxels seems to be efficient in many simulated scenes. SVM-based classifiers and clustering algorithms may allow detection of compact high-Z object without full image reconstruction. The efficiency of muon radiography can be increased using additional informational sources, such as momentum estimation, stopping power measurement, and detection of muonic atom emission.

  16. Corrosion Inhibitors as Penetrant Dyes for Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid/vapor-phase corrosion inhibitors (LVCIs) have been found to be additionally useful as penetrant dyes for neutron radiography (and perhaps also x-radiography). Enhancement of radiographic contrasts by use of LVCIs can reveal cracks, corrosion, and other defects that may be undetectable by ultrasonic inspection, that are hidden from direct optical inspection, and/or that are difficult or impossible to detect in radiographs made without dyes.

  17. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  18. Modified Bootstrap Sensitometry In Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    1981-04-01

    A new modified bootstrap approach to sensitometry is presented which provides H and D curves that show almost exact agreement with those obtained using conventional methods. Two bootstrap techniques are described; both involve a combination of inverse-square and stepped-wedge modulation of the radiation field and provide intensity-scale sensitometric curves as appropriate for medical radiography. H and D curves obtained with these modified techniques are compared with those obtained for screen-film combinations using inverse-square sensitometry as well as with those obtained for direct x-ray film using time-scale sensitometry. The stepped wedge of the Wisconsin X-Ray Test Cassette was used in the bootstrap approach since it provides sufficient exposure latitude to encompass the useful density range of medical x-ray film. This approach makes radiographic sensitometry quick and convenient, allowing accurate characteristic curves to be obtained for any screen-film cassette using standard diagnostic x-ray equipment.

  19. Time of flight fast neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveman, R.; Bendahan, J.; Gozani, T.; Stevenson, J.

    1995-05-01

    Neutron radiography with fast or thermal neutrons is a standard technique for non-destructive testing (NDT). Here we report results for fast neutron radiography both as an adjunct to pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNA) and as a stand-alone method for NDT. PFNA is a new technique for utilizing a collimated pulsed neutron beam to interrogate items and determine their elemental composition. By determining the time of flight for gamma-rays produced by (n,n' gamma X) reactions, a three dimensional image can be produced. Neutron radiography data taken with the same beam provides an important constraint for image reconstruction, and in particular is important in inferring the amount of hydrogen within the interrogated item. As a stand-alone device, the radiography measurement can be used to image items as large as cargo containers as long as their density is not too high. The use of a pulsed beam gives the further advantage of a time of flight measurement on the transmitted neutrons. By gating the radiography signal on the time of flight appropriate to the energy of the primary neutrons, most build-up from scattered neutrons can be eliminated. The pulsed beam also greatly improves the signal to background and extends the range of the neutron radiography. Simulation results will be presented which display the advantage of this constraint in particular for statistically limited data. Experimental results will be presented which show some of the limitations likely in a PFNA system utilizing neutron radiography data. Experimental and simulation results will demonstrate possible uses for this type of radiographic data in identifying contraband substances such as drugs.

  20. Digital Radiography Using Digital Detector Arrays Fulfills Critical Applications for Offshore Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, EdsonVasques; Barbosa Rabello, JoséMaurício; Pereira, MarcelodosSantos; Lopes, RicardoTadeu; Zscherpel, Uwe

    2010-12-01

    Digital radiography in the inspection of welded pipes to be installed under deep water offshore gas and oil pipelines, like a presalt in Brazil, in the paper has been investigated. The aim is to use digital radiography for nondestructive testing of welds as it is already in use in the medical, aerospace, security, automotive, and petrochemical sectors. Among the current options, the DDA (Digital Detector Array) is considered as one of the best solutions to replace industrial films, as well as to increase the sensitivity to reduce the inspection cycle time. This paper shows the results of this new technique, comparing it to radiography with industrial films systems. In this paper, 20 test specimens of longitudinal welded pipe joints, specially prepared with artificial defects like cracks, lack of fusion, lack of penetration, and porosities and slag inclusions with varying dimensions and in 06 different base metal wall thicknesses, were tested and a comparison of the techniques was made. These experiments verified the purposed rules for parameter definitions and selections to control the required digital radiographic image quality as described in the draft international standard ISO/DIS 10893-7. This draft is first standard establishing the parameters for digital radiography on weld seam of welded steel pipes for pressure purposes to be used on gas and oil pipelines.

  1. Development of Nuclear Emulsion Detector for Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, A.; Morishima, K.; Kuwabara, K.; Nakamura, M.

    Muon radiography is the non-destructive testing technique of large-scale constructions with cosmic ray muon. Cosmic ray muon has high penetrating power and it always comes from the whole sky. In the same way of taking a X-ray photograph, we can obtain integrated density of constructions which thickness are several tens to several hundreds. We had ever applied this technique to nuclear reactors, volcanos, and so on. Nuclear emulsion is three dimensional track detector with micrometric position accuracy. Thanks to high position resolution, Nuclear emulsion has mrad angular resolution. In addition, the features which require no power supply and can observe in a large area suitable for muon radiography. In Nagoya University, we launched emulsion manufacturing equipment at 2010. It has become possible to flexible development of our detector and succeeded to development of high sensitive nuclear emulsion film (Nagoya emulsion). An important factor is the temperature characteristic to withstand the outdoor observation as a detector to be used in the muon radiography. There is a phenomenon of a latent image fading, whichit is well known in the photographic industry, and this phenomenon is known that temperature and water are involved. So we examined temperature and humidity characteristic of latent image fading about Nagoya emulsion. As a result, we found latent image fading is strongly depends on both temperature and humidity. By dehydrating emulsion film in RH8%, over 95% (Grain Density>40) detection efficiency of muon track keeps over 3months in 25degree, for 2months in 35degree. Additionally it was showed in this test that increasing back ground noise "fog", which may have occurred by sealing emulsion film in a narrow space, is reduced by buffer space in the bag.

  2. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, S.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Jones, C. E.; Plaut, J. P.; Webb, F. H.

    2013-06-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of large-scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  3. Weakly ionized cerium plasma radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Germer, Rudolf; Koorikawa, Yoshitake; Murakami, Kazunori; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Ichimaru, Toshio; Obata, Fumiko; Takahashi, Kiyomi; Sato, Sigehiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki

    2004-02-01

    In the plasma flash x-ray generator, high-voltage main condenser of about 200 nF is charged up to 55 kV by a power supply, and electric charges in the condenser are discharged to an x-ray tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is of a demountable triode that is connected to a turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. As electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to a rod cerium target of 3.0 mm in diameter by electric field in the x-ray tube, the weakly ionized linear plasma, which consists of cerium ions and electrons, forms by target evaporating. At a charging voltage of 55 kV, the maximum tube voltage was almost equal to the charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current was about 20 kA. When the charging voltage was increased, weakly ionized cerium plasma formed, and the K-series characteristic x-ray intensities increased. The x-ray pulse widths were about 500 ns, and the time-integrated x-ray intensity had a value of about 40 μC/kg at 1.0 m from x-ray source with a charging voltage of 55 kV. In the angiography, we employed a film-less computed radiography (CR) system and iodine-based microspheres. Because K-series characteristic x-rays are absorbed easily by the microspheres, high-contrast angiography has been performed.

  4. Development of a Logging Tool for Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suenaga, H.; Kiho, K.; Miyakawa, K.; Tanaka, H.

    2012-04-01

    A research for high level radioactive waste disposal should investigate geological structure and saturation change of rock mass around a disposal cavern. In the CO2 geological storage and the underground storage of crude oil, natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), it is necessary to monitor an upward migration of a gaseous fluid which is stored in underground. For an investigation of slope stability, it is effective to evaluate a high saturation area in the ground's pore space as the area should be the same as that of a rainfall infiltration. Since these phenomena could be evaluated by a measurement of a density variation in underground rock, an application of muon radiography is highly prospective. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) has a plan to conduct a field experiment to evaluate an applicability of the muon radiography to engineering geology in cooperation with Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. (J-POWER). The field experiment will be performed this year in slope topography. If the applicability will be revealed as a result of the field experiment, CRIEPI will start a research on development of a logging tool which can measure muon in a borehole. We plan to build a prototype of the logging tool in around three years and will put it into practical use in around five years.

  5. DETECTION OF LACK OF FUSION WELD DEFECTS BY RADIOGRAPHY

    SciTech Connect

    Souza, M. P.; Almeida, R. M.; Rebello, J. M. A.

    2009-03-03

    In this work, radiography was employed as the NDT technique for detection of flaws in circumferential girth welds of steel pipelines used in offshore installations in the petroleum industry. The kind of defect specifically focused was lack of fusion. It is currently accepted in the literature that radiography is not as sensitive as ultrasonics to detect lack of fusion defects. Unfortunately, the radiographic inspection can barely detect lack of fusion and only when it is associated to inclusions and voids of considerable size. However, in a previous article ('Reliability of radiographic inspection of steel pipeline girth welds', QNDE Conference, 2007), the authors showed that it is possible to detect lack of fusion defects if, in the radiographic tests, the angle of incidence is the same angle that the weld bevel makes with the test piece surface, which means lowering the angle of disorientation between the flaw and the radiographic beam. However, no concerns were made to sizing the defects. Computational simulation was used with XRSIM software to establish the optimal radiographic parameters to reach the lower limit for detection for this kind of defect.

  6. Toward practical 3D radiography of pipeline girth welds

    SciTech Connect

    Wassink, Casper

    2015-03-31

    Digital radiography has made its way into in-the-field girth weld testing. With recent generations of detectors and x-ray tubes it is possible to reach the image quality desired in standards as well as the speed of inspection desired to be competitive with film radiography and automated ultrasonic testing. This paper will show the application of these technologies in the RTD Rayscan system. The method for achieving an image quality that complies with or even exceeds prevailing industrial standards will be presented, as well as the application on pipeline girth welds with CRA layers. A next step in development will be to also achieve a measurement of weld flaw height to allow for performing an Engineering Critical Assessment on the weld. This will allow for similar acceptance limits as currently used with Automated Ultrasonic Testing of pipeline girth welds. Although a sufficient sizing accuracy was already demonstrated and qualified in the TomoCAR system, testing in some applications is restricted to time limits. The paper will present some experiments that were performed to achieve flaw height approximation within these time limits.

  7. Toward practical 3D radiography of pipeline girth welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassink, Casper; Hol, Martijn; Flikweert, Arjan; van Meer, Philip

    2015-03-01

    Digital radiography has made its way into in-the-field girth weld testing. With recent generations of detectors and x-ray tubes it is possible to reach the image quality desired in standards as well as the speed of inspection desired to be competitive with film radiography and automated ultrasonic testing. This paper will show the application of these technologies in the RTD Rayscan system. The method for achieving an image quality that complies with or even exceeds prevailing industrial standards will be presented, as well as the application on pipeline girth welds with CRA layers. A next step in development will be to also achieve a measurement of weld flaw height to allow for performing an Engineering Critical Assessment on the weld. This will allow for similar acceptance limits as currently used with Automated Ultrasonic Testing of pipeline girth welds. Although a sufficient sizing accuracy was already demonstrated and qualified in the TomoCAR system, testing in some applications is restricted to time limits. The paper will present some experiments that were performed to achieve flaw height approximation within these time limits.

  8. Problems associated with veterinary dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Eisner, E R

    1990-03-01

    Veterinarians have been radiographing animal skulls for many years, but sophisticated dentistry was not widely used until the 1970s. Elevated awareness of veterinary dental techniques has led to the need for producing accurate radiographic images of the teeth and periodontal structures. Many problems arise for the clinician who treats small animals who has, before this time, radiographed the skull of dogs and cats solely for the purpose of assessing neoplastic, infectious, or traumatic disease of the mandible, maxilla, or calvarium and now desires to perform dental radiography. This chapter will describe the advantages and disadvantages of some of the more common types of radiographic equipment and supplies, discuss extraoral and intraoral radiographic positioning and technique, identify anatomic landmarks and diagnostic features of intraoral radiography, and offer suggestions concerning the art of using dental radiography in veterinary practice. PMID:2134590

  9. Thyroid dose distribution in dental radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bristow, R.G.; Wood, R.E.; Clark, G.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The anatomic position and proven radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland make it an organ of concern in dental radiography. A calibrated thermoluminescent dosimetry system was used to investigate the absorbed dose (microGy) to the thyroid gland resultant from a minimum irradiated volume, intraoral full-mouth radiography technique with the use of rectangular collimation with a lead-backed image receptor, and conventional panoramic radiography performed with front and rear lead aprons. Use of the minimum irradiated volume technique resulted in a significantly decreased absorbed dose over the entire thyroid region ranging from 100% to 350% (p less than 0.05). Because this intraoral technique results in radiographs with greater image quality and also exposes the thyroid gland to less radiation than the panoramic, this technique may be an alternative to the panoramic procedure.

  10. Neutron radiography at the NRAD facility

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, G.C.; Richards, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The NRAD facility uses a 150 kW TRIGA reactor as a source of neutrons and is integrated with a hot cell such that highly radioactive specimens can be radiographed without removing them from the hot cell environment. A second beam tube is located in a separate shielded addition to HFEF and permits neutron radiography of irradiated or unirradiated specimens without subjecting them to the alpha-contaminated hot cell environment. Both beams are optimized for neutron radiography of highly radioactive nuclear fuels. Techniques for using these facilities are described. Advantages include: the ability to perform thermal and epithermal neutron radiography on specimens either inside or outside the hot cell, lack of competition for the use of the reactor, versatility of facility design, and the addition of neutron tomography. (LEW)

  11. Digital radiography. A comparison with modern conventional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, G J

    2006-01-01

    The development of computed radiography over the past two decades has transformed radiological imaging. The radiology departments in the 21st century will look very different from those in the preceding period. In this review, the development of digital radiography is presented with a description of its various forms and a comparison with screen film radiography. PMID:16822918

  12. Proton Radiography: Its uses and Resolution Scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Mariam, Fesseha G.

    2012-08-09

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has used high energy protons as a probe in flash radiography for over a decade. In this time the proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons, provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose over five-hundred dynamic experiments in support of stockpile stewardship programs as well as basic materials science. Through this effort significant experience has been gained in using charged particles as direct radiographic probes to diagnose transient systems. The results of this experience will be discussed through the presentation of data from experiments recently performed at the LANL pRad.

  13. [Conventional dental radiography and future prospectives].

    PubMed

    Youssefzadeh, S; Gahleitner, A; Bernhart, D; Bernhart, T

    1999-12-01

    Until recently, conventional dental radiology was performed by dentists and orofacial surgeons. Due to the rapid development of radiological technique, the demand of radiological advice is increasing. The radiologists see more and more dental patients in their daily routine. The aim of this article is to give an overview on established dental radiology and a glimpse into the future. Conventional dental radiology and digital radiography are presently in use. Intraoral technique comprises dental films, bite-wing views and occlusal radiographs. Panoramic views and cephalometric radiographs are done with extraoral technique. Digital radiography lacks all processes in behalf of film development. It leads to dose reduction and enables image manipulation. PMID:10643025

  14. New developments in proton radiography at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Christopher; Proton Radiography Team

    2014-09-01

    In a new application of nuclear physics, a facility for using proton for flash radiography has been developed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Protons have proven far superior to high energy x-rays for flash radiography. Although this facility is primarily used for studying very fast phenomena such as high explosive driven experiments, it is finding increasing application to other fields, such as tomography of static objects, phase changes in materials, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The advantages of protons will be discussed and data from some of the recent experiments will be presented.

  15. Lithium batteries: Application of neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Esaka, Takao; Fujine, Shigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji

    Several kinds of primary and secondary commercial lithium batteries, such as CR1/3 · 1H (Fujitsu), CR1220 and BR435 (Panasonic), ML1220 (Sanyo Excel) were investigated using neutron radiography; the variation of the lithium distribution inside these batteries upon discharging (and charging) were clarified by analyzing their visualized images. It was demonstrated that neutron radiography is a potential and useful method, especially in evaluating the reversibility of rechargeable batteries, which have been used under different discharging/charging conditions.

  16. Industrial Analytics Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Industrial Analytics Corporation

    2004-01-30

    The lost foam casting process is sensitive to the properties of the EPS patterns used for the casting operation. In this project Industrial Analytics Corporation (IAC) has developed a new low voltage x-ray instrument for x-ray radiography of very low mass EPS patterns. IAC has also developed a transmitted visible light method for characterizing the properties of EPS patterns. The systems developed are also applicable to other low density materials including graphite foams.

  17. Dynamic radiography using a carbon-nanotube-based field-emission x-ray source

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.; Zhang, J.; Lee, Y.Z.; Gao, B.; Dike, S.; Lin, W.; Lu, J.P.; Zhou, O.

    2004-10-01

    We report a dynamic radiography system with a carbon nanotube based field-emission microfocus x-ray source. The system can readily generate x-ray radiation with continuous variation of temporal resolution as short as nanoseconds. Its potential applications for dynamic x-ray imaging are demonstrated. The performance characteristics of this compact and versatile system are promising for noninvasive imaging in biomedical research and industrial inspection.

  18. Low-voltage radiography on aircraft composite doublers

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.; Murray, J.D.

    1997-11-01

    Composite doublers are gaining popularity for their ability to repair and reinforce commercial aircraft structures and it is anticipated that the potential cost savings may spur wider use of this technology. But before composite doublers can be accepted by the civil aviation industry, inspection techniques must be developed to verify the integrity of the doubler and the parent material under the doubler. The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is currently developing test methods to inspect aircraft structures under composite doublers using low kilovoltage radiography. This paper documents the radiographic techniques developed by the AANC which have been found to give the best contrast of the radiographic image with reduced image distortion.

  19. Radiation characteristics of scintillator coupled CMOS APS for radiography conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Soongpyung; Kang, Dong-Won; Kim, Dong-Kie

    2006-11-01

    Under industrial radiography conditions, we analyzed short-term radiation characteristics of scintillator coupled CMOS APS (hereinafter SC CMOS APS). By means of experimentation, the contribution of the transmitted X-ray through the scintillator to the properties of the CMOS APS and the afterimage, generated in the acquired image even at low dose condition, were investigated. To see the transmitted X-ray effects on the CMOS APS, Fein focus™ X-ray machine, two scintillators of Lanex™ Fine and Regular, and two CMOS APS array of RadEye™ were used under the conditions of 50 kV p/1 mAs and 100 kV p/1 mAs. By measuring the transmitted X-ray on signal and Noise Power Spectrum, we analytically examined the generation mechanism of the afterimage, based on dark signal or dark current increase in the sensor, and explained the afterimage in the SC CMOS APS.

  20. Infection control practices for dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Palenik, Charles John

    2004-06-01

    Infection control for dental radiography employs the same materials, processes, and techniques used in the operatory, yet unless proper procedures are established and followed, there is a definite potential for cross-contamination to clinical area surfaces and DHCP. In general, the aseptic practices used are relatively simple and inexpensive, yet they require complete application in every situation. PMID:15218669

  1. Point projection radiography with the FXI

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K.; Perry, T.S.; Alvarez, S.A.

    1996-05-06

    Radiography techniques utilizing large area x-ray sources (typically {<=} 7 keV) and pinhole-imaging gated x-ray diagnostics have long been used at the Nova laser facility. However, for targets requiring higher energy x-ray backlighters (> 9 keV), low conversion efficiencies and pinhole losses combine to make this scheme unworkable. The technique of point projection radiography has been improved upon to make imaging at high x-ray energies feasible. In this scheme a {open_quotes}point{close_quotes} source of x-rays, usually a small diameter ({<=}25 {mu}m) fiber, is illuminated with a single, 100 ps pulse from the Nova laser. A gated x-ray imager with a 500 ps electronic gate width is used to record the projected image. The experimental challenges this technique presents and experimental results will be discussed.

  2. Characterizing flash-radiography source spots.

    PubMed

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2011-12-01

    Flash radiography of large hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives is a venerable diagnostic technique in use at many laboratories. The size of the radiographic source spot is often quoted as an indication of the resolving power of a particular flash-radiography machine. A variety of techniques for measuring spot size have evolved at the different laboratories, as well as different definitions of spot size. Some definitions are highly dependent on the source spot intensity distributions, and not necessarily well correlated with resolution. The concept of limiting resolution based on bar target measurements is introduced, and shown to be equivalent to the spatial wavenumber at a modulation transfer function value of 5%. This resolution is shown to be better correlated with the full width at half-maximum of the spot intensity distribution than it is with other definitions of spot size. PMID:22193263

  3. Digital radiography: a focus on clinical utility

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.R.; Rollo, F.D.; Monahan, W.G.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This book is interesting and timely in that it covers the new and exciting area of digital radiography. The book begins with chapters on the physics, instrumentation, and terminology of digital radiography. Then cost-benefit ratios, legal implication, and outpatient vs. inpatient studies are discussed. The clinical chapters follow. These are applicable to the head and neck, heart, lungs, kidneys, peripheral arteries, and pediatric population. Discussion then centers on intraarterial digital subtraction, clinical experience at Wisconsin, nonangiography application of digital radiology in children, and analog film-screen subtraction intravenous angiography. The book ends by briefly discussing microwave imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance, emission tomography, real-time and Doppler sonography, analog tomography, and the future photoelectric radiology department.

  4. A system for fast neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.

    1996-05-01

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this sytem, objects as small as a coin or as large as a waste drum can be radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3x10{sup 10} neutrons/second with an average energy of 14.5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to convert neutrons to protons through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9x10{sup 7} to 3.8x10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2} depending on the type of screen and film.

  5. Deflection evaluation using time-resolved radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.A.; Lucero, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Time-resolved radiography is the creation of an x-ray image for which both the start-exposure and stop-exposure times are known with respect to the event under study. The combination of image and timing are used to derive information about the event. We have applied time-resolved radiography to evaluate motions of explosive-driven events. In the particular application discussed here, our intent is to measure maximum deflections of the components involved. Exposures are made during the time just before to just after the event of interest occurs. A smear or blur of motion out to its furthest extent is recorded on the image. Comparison of the dynamic images with static images allows deflection measurements to be made. 2 figs.

  6. Wizardry and radiography: a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Desrentes, M

    1990-10-01

    The author encountered a patient who had undergone various sorcery and wizardry practices. At radiography performed because of lower back pain, 100 sharp metal foreign bodies (such as needles and sharpened paper clips) were found scattered between his neck and pelvis. The patient evidently swallowed some of the objects to gain protection against aggression from humans or spiritual beings. However, the means of introduction of some of the objects (eg, the needles in the neck) cannot be determined. PMID:2399308

  7. Digital radiography: Present detectors and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1990-08-01

    Present detectors for digital radiography are of two classes: real time detectors and storage (non real time) types. Present real time detectors consist of image intensifier tubes with an internal cesium iodide layer x-ray converter. Non real time detectors involve linear sweep arrays or storage detectors such as film. Future detectors discussed here can be of both types utilizing new technologies such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode arrays coupled to thin film transistor arrays. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Progress in thermal neutron radiography at LENS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jack; Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) at Indiana University Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    An end station for thermal neutron radiography and tomography is in operation at the Indiana University LENS facility. Neutrons from proton-induced nuclear reactions in Beryllium are moderated and collimated into a beam which is attenuated by a scanned object on a remotely-controlled rotating table. Neutron signal is then converted to a light signal with a ZnS scintillating screen and recorded in a cooled CCD. The author has performed diagnostics on the radiography hardware and software and has tested the system's capabilities by imaging a stack of high density polyethylene cubes with diverse inlet holes and grooves on an 80/20 aluminum base. The resolution of the radiographs are seen to be less than 1mm and 3D rending software is capable of reconstructing the internal structure of the aluminum. An end station for thermal neutron radiography and tomography is in operation at the Indiana University LENS facility. Neutrons from proton-induced nuclear reactions in Beryllium are moderated and collimated into a beam which is attenuated by a scanned object on a remotely-controlled rotating table. Neutron signal is then converted to a light signal with a ZnS scintillating screen and recorded in a cooled CCD. The author has performed diagnostics on the radiography hardware and software and has tested the system's capabilities by imaging a stack of high density polyethylene cubes with diverse inlet holes and grooves on an 80/20 aluminum base. The resolution of the radiographs are seen to be less than 1mm and 3D rending software is capable of reconstructing the internal structure of the aluminum. NSF.

  9. Water diffusion profile measurements in epoxy using neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, John T.; Matsubayashi, Masahito; Nurul Islam, Md.

    1994-12-01

    The diffusion characteristics of water in polymer materials have been studied for a few decades. Several methods have been developed to provide water diffusion characteristics as a function of time, temperature, pressure, or thickness of polymer. Unfortunately, most of these methods give the amount of water absorbed as a function of weight versus time at given environmental conditions. Concentration profiles of the water diffusion through the polymer have been unobtainable by these established methods. Neutron radiography is a method of non-destructive testing that has grown rapidly over the past ten years and is capable of giving these concentration profiles. Epoxy is one of the most commonly used polymers for which water diffusion information is important. In the automotive industry, epoxy is used both as a sealant and a bonder to prevent water from getting inside structures and causing corrosion. To prevent this corrosion, it is important to know the diffusion behavior of water in the epoxy adhesive.p ]This paper will demonstrate the use of high resolution neutron radiography as a viable method for the determination of the diffusion profile of water in commercially available epoxies. Aluminum coupons were constructed and joined together using four different epoxies. These coupons were then submerged in water. Neutron radiographs were made of the coupons as a function of total time submerged and water temperature. The weights of the coupons were also obtained as a function of submerged time for comparison with other methods. Four different epoxies were tested. Profiles of the water concentration are easily observed and measured.

  10. Quantitative Performance Assessment of Computed Radiography for Corrosion Detection in Process Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatachalam, Rajashekar; Raghu, C.; Pandey, Pramod; Vedula, Venumadhav; Thapa, Prasad; Venugopal, Manoharan

    2007-03-01

    Evaluation of integrity of process pipes in service is an important preventive maintenance issue for power generation and petrochemical industries. Ultrasonic wall thickness is traditionally used to measure wall thickness loss due to corrosion. This technique has various limitations such as need for removal of insulation, point based measurements and unsuitability for high temperature applications. Many have attempted computed radiography to quantify corrosion in pipelines as an alternative technique. Computed Radiography can be carried out without removing insulation and also at higher temperatures. However, the minimum detectability limit of wall thickness loss is limited by various physics complications in radiographic imaging process i.e. scattering, modulation due to detector response, focal spot blurring, the effective thickness of insulation and fluid inside pipe. An attempt has been made to study the effect of insulation and fluid inside pipe on detectability of wall loss due to corrosion using physics simulations and experiments.

  11. Portable digital electronic radiography system with a solid-state area-imaging detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicka, Barbara D.; Reynolds, Paul; Sonnenburg, Ken

    1999-06-01

    A digital system for radiographic inspection was constructed in a portable version suitable for field use. The system uses typical film radiography sources, including 60Co, 192Ir and X-ray generators. Radiographic images are formed using an area-imaging scintillating detector coupled to a charge-coupled device camera and a portable industrial computer. Compared to film radiography, this technology offers imaging without wet-film processing, shorter exposure times, larger dynamic range, and digital imaging that permits compact archiving, easy data access and mathematical image processing to improve sensitivity. System performance is illustrated for typical applications, i.e., for radiographing valves and pipes. Using 192Ir, the system works well on smaller water-filled valves and pipes; larger valves have to be drained. Work is under way to address this problem.

  12. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conducting industrial radiographic operations. 34.41 Section 34.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  13. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conducting industrial radiographic operations. 34.41 Section 34.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  14. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conducting industrial radiographic operations. 34.41 Section 34.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  15. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conducting industrial radiographic operations. 34.41 Section 34.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  16. 10 CFR 34.41 - Conducting industrial radiographic operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conducting industrial radiographic operations. 34.41 Section 34.41 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements §...

  17. Proton Radiography Peers into Metal Solidification

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Clarke, Amy J.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Cooley, Jason C.; Morris, Christopher; Merrill, Frank E.; Hollander, Brian J.; Mariam, Fesseha G.; Ott, Thomas J.; Barker, Martha R.; et al

    2013-06-19

    Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. In this study, we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000 mm3) during melting and solidification.more » We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1mm3), bridging four orders of magnitude. In conclusion, real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of the structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models.« less

  18. Proton Radiography Peers into Metal Solidification

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Amy; Imhoff, Seth; Gibbs, Paul; Cooley, Jason; Morris, Christopher; Merrill, Frank; Hollander, Brian; Mariam, Fesseha; Ott, Thomas; Barker, Martha; Tucker, Tim; Lee, Wah-Keat; Fezzaa, Kamel; Deriy, Alex; Patterson, Brian; Clarke, Kester; Montalvo, Joel; Field, Robert; Thoma, Dan; Smith, James; Teter, David

    2013-01-01

    Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. Here we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000 mm3) during melting and solidification. We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1 mm3), bridging four orders of magnitude. Real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models. PMID:23779063

  19. Novel embossed radiography system utilizing energy subtraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Akihiro; Sato, Eiichi; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Nagao, Jiro; Abderyim, Purkhet; Tanaka, Etsuro; Izumisawa, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Akira; Sato, Shigehiro

    2008-08-01

    Digital subtraction is useful for carrying out embossed radiography by shifting an x-ray source, and energy subtraction is an important technique for imaging target region by deleting unnecessary region in vivo. X-ray generator had a 100-μm-focus tube, energy subtraction was performed at tube voltages of 40 and 60 kV, and a 3.0-mm-thick aluminum filter was used to absorb low-photon-energy bremsstrahlung x-rays. Embossed radiography was achieved with cohesion imaging using a flat panel detector (FPD) with pixel sizes of 48×48 μm, and the shifting distance of the x-ray source in horizontal direction and the distance between the x-ray source and the FPD face were 5.0 mm and 1.0 m, respectively. At a tube voltage of 60 kV and a tube current of 0.50 mA, x-ray intensities without filtering and with filtering were 307 and 28.4 μGy/s, respectively, at 1.0 m from the source. In embossed radiography of non-living animals, the spatial resolution measured using a lead test chart was approximately 70 μm, and we observed embossed images of fine bones, soft tissues, and coronary arteries of approximately 100 μm.

  20. Proton Radiography Peers into Metal Solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy J.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Cooley, Jason C.; Morris, Christopher; Merrill, Frank E.; Hollander, Brian J.; Mariam, Fesseha G.; Ott, Thomas J.; Barker, Martha R.; Tucker, Tim J.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Fezzaa, Kamel; Deriy, Alex; Patterson, Brian M.; Clarke, Kester D.; Montalvo, Joel D.; Field, Robert D.; Thoma, Dan J.; Smith, James L.; Teter, David F.

    2013-06-19

    Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. In this study, we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000 mm3) during melting and solidification. We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1mm3), bridging four orders of magnitude. In conclusion, real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of the structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models.

  1. Alteration of computer dental radiography images.

    PubMed

    Bruder, G A; Casale, J; Goren, A; Friedman, S

    1999-04-01

    This study was designed to determine if digital images stored on the hard drive of a Schick computer dental radiography system could be exported, altered, and then restored to the drive without any visible signs of alteration. Digital images were downloaded from the computer dental radiography system using an I-Omega Zip Drive, 100-MB capacity, and then opened in Corel Photo Paint where images were altered and manufacturer export symbols were edited. The resulting images were printed to a default printer (Fargo Foto Fun). The ease of manipulation of the exported digital images reflects the need for the manufacturer to implement safeguards so that the integrity of digital imaging cannot be compromised. Computer dental radiography has many advantages: conservation of time (instant radiographs), less radiation (50 to 60%), no chemical waste, and many viewing options. However, questions that might be raised regarding the ability of persons with minimal computer expertise, using a commercially available program to alter images should be addressed. PMID:10425956

  2. Emergency skull radiography: the effect of restrictive criteria on skull radiography and CT use

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.R.; Gaylord, G.M.; Lantos, G.; Tabaddor, K.; Gallagher, E.J.

    1985-08-01

    A prospective study was performed to determine the effect of restrictive criteria on the use of emergency skull radiography and computed tomography (CT) of the head. Emergency skull radiography required the completion of a special requisition form. Emergency CT of the head was done at the request of senior consultants and was available on a full-time basis. Over 1 year, 2758 skull studies were performed, a decrease of 39.1% when compared with the year before restrictive criteria were instituted, during which 4587 skull examinations were done. In the same period, the number of emergency CT scans of the head increased by 45.7%, from 471 in the control year to 686 in the experimental year. With the use of restrictive criteria, a net savings of $164,000 was achieved. Our results suggest that the use of restrictive criteria is a cost-effective means of limiting skull radiography when CT of the head is readily available.

  3. Radiography and fluoroscopy, 1920 to the present.

    PubMed

    Krohmer, J S

    1989-11-01

    A survey of radiological procedures carried out in 1980 by J. L. Johnson and D. L. Abernathy indicated that of the 181 million procedures performed in that year, there were 77.5% plain radiographic studies, 12.7% contrast studies, 4.0% sonographic studies, 3.2% nuclear medicine studies, 1.8% CT studies and 0.8% special vascular procedures and cardiac catheterizations. Note that over 90% of all the studies were of the "conventional" type and that fewer than 2% were CT studies. In the early 70's when CT was introduced, it was predicted that it would soon take over most of radiography; some 7 or 8 years later, it was obvious that this would not take place. According to Tanako of the Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd., conventional radiography has resisted being pushed aside because of its very high information content: 4-6 megabytes per image. A CT image contains about 0.5 megabytes. If a system is to take over from conventional radiography, it will have to overcome this large difference in information content. Digital or computed radiography seems capable of this, but probably not for some time (perhaps, 10 or 20 years). It seems unlikely that there will be much change, except for refinement, in the image intensified fluoroscopy equipment used for observing dynamic processes, and it will probably not be replaced. Another situation which will preclude the rapid demise of conventional radiography is financial inertia: There is between 5 and 10 billion dollars worth of diagnostic equipment in hospitals in this country and significant amount more in private offices and clinics. It is true that the amount has diminished in recent years, but this has been more because of DRG's than because of "takeover" by new modes of imaging. It is not likely that this investment will be given up quickly or easily. One must also keep in mind that the film digitization and the photostimulable phosphor digital systems, described above, do use existing radiographic equipment, and the image

  4. Wavelength tunable device for neutron radiography and tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Treimer, W.; Strobl, M.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Manke, I.

    2006-11-13

    A special double monochromator system was tested for a conventional operating tomography setup in order to use a broad wavelength band of monochromatic neutrons for radiography and tomography. Scanning through the wavelength region of Bragg edges, it is possible to make series of radiographs and tomographs at different wavelengths from 2.0 until 6.5 A. So no beam hardening influences the measurements and is not to be corrected. With this instrument for cold neutron radiography and tomography, energy selecting quantitative radiography, stress and strain mapping, and phase radiography were performed.

  5. Threshold perception performance with computed and screen-film radiography: implications for chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, J T; Rice, J J; Beam, C A; Ravin, C E

    1992-04-01

    Images of a phantom obtained with computed radiography and standard screen-film imaging were compared to evaluate observer threshold perception performance with a modified contrast-detail technique. Optimum exposure necessary for performance with the imaging plate technique to match that with screen-film techniques was determined, as was comparative performance with variation in kilovoltages, plate type, spatial enhancement, and hard-copy interpolation method. It was found that computed radiography necessitates about 75%-100% more exposure than screen-film radiography to optimally match performance with Ortho-C film with Lanex regular or medium screens (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY) for detection of objects 0.05-2.0 cm in diameter. However, only minimal loss of detection performance (approximately 10% overall) was experienced if standard screen-film exposures were used with computed radiography. Little change in observer performance was found with variation in plate type, spatial enhancement, or method of hard-copy interpolation. However, perception performance with computed radiographic images was better at lower kilovoltages. PMID:1549669

  6. Computed radiography in an emergency department setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriole, Katherine P.; Gould, Robert G.; Arenson, Ronald L.

    1997-05-01

    Evaluation of radiologist and non-radiologist physician acceptance of computed radiography (CR) as an alternative to film-based radiography in an emergency department (ED) is performed. All emergency department radiographs are performed using photostimulable phosphor plates and rad by a computed radiography laser reader placed in the former emergency department darkroom. Soft copy images are simultaneously transmitted to high- and medium-resolution dual-monitor display stations located in radiology and ED reading rooms respectively. The on-call radiologist is automatically paged by the Radiology Information System (RIS) upon exam completion, to read the new ED imaging study. Patient demographic information including relevant clinical history is conveyed to the radiologist via the RIS. A 'wet read' preliminary radiology report is immediately transmitted back to the ED. Radiology and ED physicians are surveyed to ascertain preferences for CR or traditional screen-film, based on system implementation, image viewing and clinical impact issues. Preliminary results indicate a preference for filmless CR among the ED physicians if digital reliability and speed issues are met. This preference appears to be independent of physician level of experience. Inexperienced radiologists-in-training appear to have less comfort with softcopy reading for primary diagnosis. However, additional training in softcopy reading techniques can improve confidences. Image quality issues are most important tot he radiologist, while speed and reliability are the major issues for ED physicians. Reasons for CR preference include immediate access to images on display stations, near-zero exam retake rates, and improved response time and communication between radiology and the emergency department clinician.

  7. Computed radiography imaging plates and associated methods of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Henry, Nathaniel F.; Moses, Alex K.

    2015-08-18

    Computed radiography imaging plates incorporating an intensifying material that is coupled to or intermixed with the phosphor layer, allowing electrons and/or low energy x-rays to impart their energy on the phosphor layer, while decreasing internal scattering and increasing resolution. The radiation needed to perform radiography can also be reduced as a result.

  8. [Digital radiography in tomography of the facial bones].

    PubMed

    Ibing, H P; Vogel, H; Biebesheimer, V

    1988-09-01

    In 14 patients the x-ray findings of dental, mandibular and maxillary roentgen diagnosis were compared with conventional tomography and tomography by digital radiography. All details important for diagnosis were shown by both techniques. Tomography by digital radiography offered a more convenient approach and pictures easier to be interpreted than pictures by conventional tomography. PMID:3175474

  9. Diagnostics of coated fuel particles by neutron and synchrotron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Momot, G. V.; Podurets, K. M.; Pogorelyi, D. K.; Somenkov, V. A.; Yakovenko, E. V.

    2011-12-15

    The nondestructive monitoring of coated fuel particles has been performed using contact neutron radiography and refraction radiography based on synchrotron radiation. It is shown that these methods supplement each other and have a high potential for determining the sizes, densities, and isotopic composition of the particle components.

  10. Learning Styles of Radiography Students during Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Patrice

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. Quantitative, descriptive research methodology identified the learning styles of radiography students. A single self-report questionnaire, developed to assess learning styles in clinical practice, was administered…

  11. Neutron beam characterization at the Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Imel, G.R.; Urbatsch, T.; Pruett, D.P.; Ross, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) is a 250-kW TRIGA Reactor operated by Argonne National Laboratory and is located near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The reactor and its facilities regarding radiography are detailed in another paper at this conference; this paper summarizes neutron flux measurements and calculations that have been performed to better understand and potentially improve the neutronics characteristics of the reactor.

  12. Digital Radiography Qualification of Tube Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Project will be directing Lockheed Martin to perform orbital arc welding on commodities metallic tubing as part of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle assembly and integration process in the Operations and Checkout High bay at Kennedy Space Center. The current method of nondestructive evaluation is utilizing traditional film based x-rays. Due to the high number of welds that are necessary to join the commodities tubing (approx 470), a more efficient and expeditious method of nondestructive evaluation is desired. Digital radiography will be qualified as part of a broader NNWG project scope.

  13. Hot Fuel Examination Facility's neutron radiography reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pruett, D.P.; Richards, W.J.; Heidel, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West is located near Idaho Falls, Idaho, and is operated by the University of Chicago for the United States Department of Energy in support of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program, LMFBR. The Hot Fuel Examination Facility, HFEF, is one of several facilities located at the Argonne Site. HFEF comprises a large hot cell where both nondestructive and destructive examination of highly-irradiated reactor fuels are conducted in support of the LMFBR program. One of the nondestructive examination techniques utilized at HFEF is neutron radiography, which is provided by the NRAD reactor facility (a TRIGA type reactor) below the HFEF hot cell.

  14. Technique for chest radiography for pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Routine radiographic chest examinations have been performed using a variety of techniques. Although chest radiography is one of the most commonly performed radiographic examinations, it is often difficult to obtain consistently good quality roentgenograms. This publication provides a simple guide and relatively easy solution to the many problems that radiologic technologists might encounter. The language is purposely relatively simple and care has been taken to avoid difficult mathematical and physical explanations. The intent is to provide an easily referrable text for those who may encounter difficulties in producing acceptable chest radiographs.

  15. Some problems encountered in endodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Lim, K C; Teo, C S

    1986-07-01

    This retrospective survey highlights some of the problems faced by undergraduate students using the bisecting angle technique in endodontic radiography. The radiographs of maxillary incisors and premolars were observed to suffer from a greater amount of distortion than radiographs of the corresponding mandibular teeth. Further, the presence of rubber dam equipment affected the accuracy of the radiographs, and this was more apparent on the radiographs of the maxillary incisors and premolars compared to the mandibular incisors and premolars. Other problems identified included superimposition, indistinct and missed root apices. Methods to overcome these problems are suggested. PMID:3777839

  16. Simulation of computed radiography with imaging plate detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tisseur, D.; Costin, M.; Mathy, F.; Schumm, A.

    2014-02-18

    Computed radiography (CR) using phosphor imaging plate detectors is taking an increasing place in Radiography Testing. CR uses similar equipment as conventional radiography except that the classical X-ray film is replaced by a numerical detector, called image plate (IP), which is made of a photostimulable layer and which is read by a scanning device through photostimulated luminescence. Such digital radiography has already demonstrated important benefits in terms of exposure time, decrease of source energies and thus reduction of radioprotection area besides being a solution without effluents. This paper presents a model for the simulation of radiography with image plate detectors in CIVA together with examples of validation of the model. The study consists in a cross comparison between experimental and simulation results obtained on a step wedge with a classical X-ray tube. Results are proposed in particular with wire Image quality Indicator (IQI) and duplex IQI.

  17. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Smolinski, Andrew T.

    2015-09-10

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This study describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities,more » the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.« less

  18. Neutron Radiography of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Smolinski, Andrew T.

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This paper describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities, the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.

  19. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Smolinski, Andrew T.

    2015-09-10

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This study describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities, the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.

  20. Optimization and quality control of computed radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Charles E.; Weiser, John C.; Leckie, Robert G.; Romlein, John R.; Norton, Gary S.

    1994-05-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is a relatively new technique for projection radiography. Few hospitals have CR devices in routine service and only a handful have more than one CR unit. As such, the clinical knowledge base does not yet exist to establish quality control (QC) procedures for CR devices. Without assurance that CR systems are operating within nominal limits, efforts to optimize CR performance are limited in value. A complete CR system includes detector plates that vary in response, cassettes, an electro-optical system for developing the image, computer algorithms for processing the raw image, and a hard copy output device. All of these subsystems are subject to variations in performance that can degrade image quality. Using CR manufacturer documentation, we have defined acceptance protocols for two different Fuji CR devices, the FCR 7000 and the AC1+, and have applied these tests to ten individual machines. We have begun to establish baseline performance measures and to determine measurement frequencies. CR QC is only one component of the overall quality control for totally digital radiology departments.

  1. Patient dose management in digital radiography

    PubMed Central

    Vano, E; Fernandez Soto, JM

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To present the experience in patient dose management and the development of an online audit tool for digital radiography. Materials and methods: Several tools have been developed to extract the information contained in the DICOM header of digital images, collect radiographic parameters, calculate patient entrance doses and other related parameters, and audit image quality. Results: The tool has been used for mammography, and includes images from over 25,000 patients, over 75,000 chest images, 100,000 computed radiography procedures and more than 1,000 interventional radiology procedures. Examples of calculation of skin dose distribution in interventional cardiology based upon information of DICOM header and the results of dosimetric parameters for cardiology procedures in 2006 are presented. Conclusion: Digital radiology has great advantages for imaging and patient dose management. Dose reports, QCONLINE systems and the MPPS DICOM service are good tools to optimise procedures and to manage patient dosimetry data. The implementation of the ongoing IEC-DICOM standard for patient dose structured reports will improve dose management in digital radiology. PMID:21614273

  2. Neutron Radiography Reactor Reactivity -- Focused Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Woolstenhulme; Randal Damiana; Kenneth Schreck; Ann Marie Phillips; Dana Hewit

    2010-11-01

    As part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, the Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was converted from using highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. After the conversion, NRAD resumed operations and is meeting operational requirements. Radiography image quality and the number of images that can be produced in a given time frame match pre-conversion capabilities. However, following the conversion, NRAD’s excess reactivity with the LEU fuel was less than it had been with the HEU fuel. Although some differences between model predictions and actual performance are to be expected, the lack of flexibility in NRAD’s safety documentation prevented adjusting the reactivity by adding more fuel, until the safety documentation could be modified. To aid future reactor conversions, a reactivity-focused Lessons Learned meeting was held. This report summarizes the findings of the lessons learned meeting and addresses specific questions posed by DOE regarding NRAD’s conversion and reactivity.

  3. Conical Rotating Aperture Geometries In Digital Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Wong, Roland

    1981-11-01

    Applications of conical rotating aperture (RA) geometries to digital radiography are described. Two kinds of conical RA imaging systems are the conical scanning beam and the conical scanning grid assemblies. These assemblies comprise coaxial conical surface(s) the axis of which is collinear with the x-ray focal spot. This geometry allows accurate alignment and continuous focusing of the slits or the grid lines. Image receptors which use solid state photodiode arrays are described for each type of conical RA system: multiple linear arrays for the conical scanning beam assembly and multiple area arrays for the conical scanning grid assembly. The digital rotating-aperture systems combine the wide dynamic range characteristics of solid state detectors with the superior scatter-rejection advantages of scanned beam approaches. The high scanning-beam velocities attainable by the use of rotating apertures should make it possible to obtain digital images for those procedures such as chest radiography which require large fields of view and short exposure times.

  4. Beam characterization at the Neutron Radiography Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah W. Morgan; Jeffrey C. King; Chad L. Pope

    2013-12-01

    The quality of a neutron-imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, potential image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This paper provides a characterization of the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio and potential image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. The NRAD has an effective collimation ratio greater than 125, a beam divergence of 0.3 +_ 0.1 degrees, and a gold foil cadmium ratio of 2.7. The flux profile has been quantified and the facility is an ASTM Category 1 radiographic facility. Based on bare and cadmium covered foil activation results, the neutron energy spectrum used in the current MCNP model of the radiography beamline over-samples the thermal region of the neutron energy spectrum.

  5. A system for fast neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.

    1997-04-01

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this system, objects as small as a coin and as large as a 19 liter container have been radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3 x 10[sup 10] neutrons/second with an average energy of 14. 5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available light-tight cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to produce protons from the neutron beam through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9 x 10[sup 7] n/cm[sup 2] to 3.8 x 10[sup 8] n/cm[sup 2] depending on the type of screen and film. The optimum source-to-film distance was found to be 150 cm. At this distance, the geometric unsharpness was determined to be approximately 2.2-2.3 mm and the smallest hole that could be resolved in a 1.25 cm thick sample had a diameter of 0.079 cm.

  6. Imaging properties of digital magnification radiography.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Sarah J; Samei, Ehsan

    2006-04-01

    Flat panel detectors exhibit improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and display capabilities compared to film. This improvement necessitates a new evaluation of optimal geometry for conventional projection imaging applications such as digital projection mammography as well as for advanced x-ray imaging applications including cone-beam computed tomography (CT), tomosynthesis, and mammotomography. Such an evaluation was undertaken in this study to examine the effects of x-ray source distribution, inherent detector resolution, magnification, scatter rejection, and noise characteristics including noise aliasing. A model for x-ray image acquisition was used to develop generic results applicable to flat panel detectors with similar x-ray absorption characteristics. The model assumed a Gaussian distribution for the focal spot and a rectangular distribution for a pixel. A generic model for the modulated transfer function (MTF) of indirect flat panel detectors was derived by a nonlinear fit of empirical receptor data to the Burgess model for phosphor MTFs. Noise characteristics were investigated using a generic noise power spectrum (NPS) model for indirect phosphor-based detectors. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) was then calculated from the MTF and NPS models. The results were examined as a function of focal spot size (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mm) and pixel size (50, 100, 150, and 200 microm) for magnification ranges 1 to 3. Mammography, general radiography (also applicable to mammotomography), and chest radiography applications were explored using x-ray energies of 28, 74, and 120 kVp, respectively. Nodule detection was examined using the effective point source scatter model, effective DQE, and the Hotelling SNR2 efficiency. Results indicate that magnification can potentially improve the signal and noise performance of digital images. Results also show that a cross over point occurs in the spatial frequency above and below which the effects of magnification differ

  7. Imaging properties of digital magnification radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, Sarah J.; Samei, Ehsan

    2006-04-15

    Flat panel detectors exhibit improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and display capabilities compared to film. This improvement necessitates a new evaluation of optimal geometry for conventional projection imaging applications such as digital projection mammography as well as for advanced x-ray imaging applications including cone-beam computed tomography (CT), tomosynthesis, and mammotomography. Such an evaluation was undertaken in this study to examine the effects of x-ray source distribution, inherent detector resolution, magnification, scatter rejection, and noise characteristics including noise aliasing. A model for x-ray image acquisition was used to develop generic results applicable to flat panel detectors with similar x-ray absorption characteristics. The model assumed a Gaussian distribution for the focal spot and a rectangular distribution for a pixel. A generic model for the modulated transfer function (MTF) of indirect flat panel detectors was derived by a nonlinear fit of empirical receptor data to the Burgess model for phosphor MTFs. Noise characteristics were investigated using a generic noise power spectrum (NPS) model for indirect phosphor-based detectors. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) was then calculated from the MTF and NPS models. The results were examined as a function of focal spot size (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mm) and pixel size (50, 100, 150, and 200 {mu}m) for magnification ranges 1 to 3. Mammography, general radiography (also applicable to mammotomography), and chest radiography applications were explored using x-ray energies of 28, 74, and 120 kVp, respectively. Nodule detection was examined using the effective point source scatter model, effective DQE, and the Hotelling SNR{sup 2} efficiency. Results indicate that magnification can potentially improve the signal and noise performance of digital images. Results also show that a cross over point occurs in the spatial frequency above and below which the effects of magnification differ

  8. Discriminated neutron and X-ray radiography using multi-color scintillation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittoh, Koichi; Takahara, Takeshi; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tamura, Toshiyuki

    1999-06-01

    A new conversion screen Gd 2O 2S:Eu is developed, which emits red light on irradiation by thermal neutrons. By applying this in combination with the currently used Gd 2O 2S:Tb, a green-light scintillator, in the radiography under a neutron + X-ray coexisting field, we can easily separate the neutron image and the X-ray image by simple color-image processing. This technique enables a non-destructive and detailed inspection of industrial products composed both of light elements (water, plastics, etc.) and heavy elements (metals), widening the horizon of new applications.

  9. Nondestructive testing: Neutron radiography and neutron activation. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the technology of neutron radiography and neutron activation for nondestructive testing of materials. The development and evaluation of neutron activation analysis and neutron diffraction examination of liquids and solids are presented. Citations also discuss nondestructive assay, verification, evaluation, and multielement analysis of biomedical, environmental, industrial, and geological materials. Nondestructive identification of chemical agents, explosives, weapons, and drugs in sealed containers are explored. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Laser-Compton photon radiography for nondestructive test of bulk materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyokawa, Hiroyuki; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Kudo, Katshuhisa; Takeda, Naoto; Mikado, Tomohisa; Yamada, Kawakatsu

    2001-12-01

    Experimental results of transmission photon radiography of bulk materials using the laser-Compton photon beam in the energy range of 2-20 MeV are given. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the effectiveness and to survey a potential need and a technical limit of the present method for industrial application, such as nondestructive test of bulk materials. Several radiographs of metals, ceramics, and concrete were measured with the present method. Position resolution of the system was measured with using 10 MeV photon beam and slit. It was less than 1 mm.

  11. Comparison of conventional radiography and MDCT in suspected scaphoid fractures

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Cyrus; Karul, Murat; Henes, Frank Oliver; Laqmani, Azien; Catala-Lehnen, Philipp; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Nagel, Hans-Dieter; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose of conventional radiography and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in suspected scaphoid fractures. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four consecutive patients were enrolled in our study who had suffered from a wrist trauma and showed typical clinical symptoms suspicious of an acute scaphoid fracture. All patients had initially undergone conventional radiography. Subsequent MDCT was performed within 10 d because of persisting clinical symptoms. Using the MDCT data as the reference standard, a fourfold table was used to classify the test results. The effective dose and impaired energy were assessed in order to compare the radiation burden of the two techniques. The Wilcoxon test was performed to compare the two diagnostic modalities. RESULTS: Conventional radiography showed 34 acute fractures of the scaphoid in 124 patients (42.2%). Subsequent MDCT revealed a total of 42 scaphoid fractures. The sensitivity of conventional radiography for scaphoid fracture detection was 42.8% and its specificity was 80% resulting in an overall accuracy of 59.6%. Conventional radiography was significantly inferior to MDCT (P < 0.01) concerning scaphoid fracture detection. The mean effective dose of MDCT was 0.1 mSv compared to 0.002 mSv of conventional radiography. CONCLUSION: Conventional radiography is insufficient for accurate scaphoid fracture detection. Regarding the almost negligible effective dose, MDCT should serve as the first imaging modality in wrist trauma. PMID:25628802

  12. X-ray sources for radiography of warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benuzzi-Mounaix, Alessandra; Brambrink, Erik; Barbrel, Benjamin; Koenig, Michel; Gregory, Chris; Loupias, Bérénice; Ravasio, Alessandra; Rabec Le Gloahec, Marc; Vinci, Tommaso; Boehly, Tom; Endo, Takashi; Kimura, Tomoaki; Ozaki, Norimasa; Wei, Huigang; Aglitskiy, Yefim; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tatiana

    2008-11-01

    The knowledge of Warm Dense Matter is important in different domains such as inertial confinement fusion, astrophysics and geophysics. The development of techniques for direct probing of this type of matter is of great interest. X-ray radiography is one of the most promising diagnostic to measure density directly. Here we present some results of low-Z material radiography and an experiment devoted to characterize a short pulse laser driven hard x-ray source for the radiography of medium and high Z matter. Experiments have been performed on LULI2000 and TW facilities at the Ecole Polytechnique.

  13. Medical radiography examinations and carcinogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Domina, E A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the review was the synthesis of the literature data and the results of our radiobiological (biodosimetric) research on the development of radiation-associated tumors as a result of medical radiography (X-ray) diagnostic. Medical X-ray examinations contribute the most to the excess of radiation exposure of the population, much of which is subject to examination to diagnose the underlying disease, the dynamic observation of the patient during treatment, the research of related deseases, and preventative examinations. The review provides arguments for the necessity of developing a more balanced indication for preventative radiological examination of the population in the aftermath of radio-ecological crisis caused by the Chornobyl accident, taking into account the likelihood of radiation carcinogenesis. The problems and tasks of biological (cytogenetic) dosimetry in radiology are formulated. PMID:25536546

  14. Digital radiography exposure indices: A review

    PubMed Central

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette; Robinson, John

    2014-01-01

    Digital radiography (DR) technologies have the advantage of a wide dynamic range compared to their film-screen predecessors, however, this poses a potential for increased patient exposure if left unchecked. Manufacturers have developed the exposure index (EI) to counter this, which provides radiographers with feedback on the exposure reaching the detector. As these EIs were manufacturer-specific, a wide variety of EIs existed. To offset this, the international standardised EI has been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The purpose of this article is to explore the current literature relating to EIs, beginning with the historical development of the EI, the development of the standardised EI and an exploration of common themes and studies as evidenced in the research literature. It is anticipated that this review will provide radiographers with a useful guide to understanding EIs, their application in clinical practice, limitations and suggestions for further research. PMID:26229645

  15. Recent developments in digital radiography detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorkston, John

    2007-10-01

    Medical projection radiography is currently undergoing a major transformation into the digital age. New digital X-ray detectors are providing improved image quality as well as increased functionality. These advances promise to significantly change the practice of radiology in the coming years. This review paper will describe some of the issues associated with the new digital detectors, their design, capabilities and limitations as well as a few of the promising new clinical applications being enabled by their introduction. The review will focus mainly on the new amorphous silicon flat-panel detectors but will also touch on other technologies and promising new developments that may be introduced into the clinical environment in the not too distant future.

  16. Linear induction accelerator approach for advanced radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1997-05-01

    Recent advances in induction accelerator technology make it possible to envision a single accelerator that can serve as an intense, precision multiple pulse x-ray source for advanced radiography. Through the use of solid-state modulator technology repetition rates on the order of 1 MHz can be achieved with beam pulse lengths ranging from 200 ns to 2 {micro}secs. By using fast kickers, these pulses may be sectioned into pieces which are directed to different beam lines so as to interrogate the object under study from multiple lines of sight. The ultimate aim is to do a time dependent tomographic reconstruction of a dynamic object. The technology to accomplish these objectives along with a brief discussion of the experimental plans to verify it will be presented.

  17. Digital radiography exposure indices: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette; Robinson, John

    2014-06-15

    Digital radiography (DR) technologies have the advantage of a wide dynamic range compared to their film-screen predecessors, however, this poses a potential for increased patient exposure if left unchecked. Manufacturers have developed the exposure index (EI) to counter this, which provides radiographers with feedback on the exposure reaching the detector. As these EIs were manufacturer-specific, a wide variety of EIs existed. To offset this, the international standardised EI has been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The purpose of this article is to explore the current literature relating to EIs, beginning with the historical development of the EI, the development of the standardised EI and an exploration of common themes and studies as evidenced in the research literature. It is anticipated that this review will provide radiographers with a useful guide to understanding EIs, their application in clinical practice, limitations and suggestions for further research.

  18. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  19. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2 to 2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR(6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  20. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2-2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR (6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  1. NBS work on neutron resonance radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Schrack, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    NBS has been engaged in a wide-ranging program in Neutron Resonance Radiography utilizing both one- and two-dimensional position-sensitive neutron detectors. The ability to perform a position-sensitive assay of up to 16 isotopes in a complex matrix has been demonstrated for a wide variety of sample types, including those with high gamma activity. A major part of the program has been the development and application of the microchannel-plate-based position-sensitive neutron detector. This detector system has high resolution and sensitivity, together with adequate speed of response to be used with neutron time-of-flight techniques. This system has demonstrated the ability to simultaneously image three isotopes in a sample with no interference.

  2. Estimated radiation risks associated with endodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Danforth, R A; Torabinejad, M

    1990-02-01

    Endodontic patients are sometimes concerned about the risks of tumors or cataracts from radiation exposure during root canal therapy. By using established dose and risk information, we calculated the extent of these risks. The chance of getting leukemia from an endodontic x-ray survey using 90 kVp was found to be 1 in 7.69 million, the same as the risk of dying from cancer from smoking 0.94 cigarettes or from an auto accident when driving 3.7 km. Risk of thyroid gland neoplasia was 1 in 667,000 (smoking 11.6 cigarettes, driving 45 km) and risk of salivary gland neoplasia 1 in 1.35 million (smoking 5.4 cigarettes, driving 21.1 km). Use of 70 kVp radiography reduced these risks only slightly. To receive the threshold dose to eyes to produce cataract changes, a patient would have to undergo 10,900 endodontic surveys. PMID:2390963

  3. Muscle parameters estimation based on biplanar radiography.

    PubMed

    Dubois, G; Rouch, P; Bonneau, D; Gennisson, J L; Skalli, W

    2016-11-01

    The evaluation of muscle and joint forces in vivo is still a challenge. Musculo-Skeletal (musculo-skeletal) models are used to compute forces based on movement analysis. Most of them are built from a scaled-generic model based on cadaver measurements, which provides a low level of personalization, or from Magnetic Resonance Images, which provide a personalized model in lying position. This study proposed an original two steps method to access a subject-specific musculo-skeletal model in 30 min, which is based solely on biplanar X-Rays. First, the subject-specific 3D geometry of bones and skin envelopes were reconstructed from biplanar X-Rays radiography. Then, 2200 corresponding control points were identified between a reference model and the subject-specific X-Rays model. Finally, the shape of 21 lower limb muscles was estimated using a non-linear transformation between the control points in order to fit the muscle shape of the reference model to the X-Rays model. Twelfth musculo-skeletal models were reconstructed and compared to their reference. The muscle volume was not accurately estimated with a standard deviation (SD) ranging from 10 to 68%. However, this method provided an accurate estimation the muscle line of action with a SD of the length difference lower than 2% and a positioning error lower than 20 mm. The moment arm was also well estimated with SD lower than 15% for most muscle, which was significantly better than scaled-generic model for most muscle. This method open the way to a quick modeling method for gait analysis based on biplanar radiography. PMID:27082150

  4. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography

    PubMed Central

    Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. Purpose To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. Material and Methods All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Results Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. Conclusion The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality. PMID:26500784

  5. 5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING A CONTROL ROOM INSIDE THE RADIOGRAPHY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING A CONTROL ROOM INSIDE THE RADIOGRAPHY ROOM; PASS-THROUGH FOR EXPOSED FILM ON RIGHT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1031, North side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  6. Simple methods to reduce patient exposure during scoliosis radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.F.; Thomas, A.W.; Thompson, W.E.; Wollerton, M.A.; Rachlin, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation exposure to the breasts of adolescent females can be reduced significantly through the use of one or all of the following methods: fast, rare-earth screen-film combinations; specially designed compensating filters; and breast shielding. The importance of exposure reduction during scoliosis radiography as well as further details on the above described methods are discussed. In addition, the early results of a Center for Devices and Radiological Health study, which recorded exposure and technique data for scoliosis radiography, is presented.

  7. Quantitative studies on inner interfaces in conical metal joints using hard x-ray inline phase contrast radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabler, S.; Rack, T.; Rack, A.; Nelson, K.

    2010-10-01

    Quantitative investigation of micrometer and submicrometer gaps between joining metal surfaces is applied to conical plug-socket connections in dental titanium implants. Microgaps of widths well beyond the resolving power of industrial x-ray systems are imaged by synchrotron phase contrast radiography. Furthermore, by using an analytical model for the relatively simple sample geometry and applying it to numerical forward simulations of the optical Fresnel propagation, we show that quantitative measurements of the microgap width down to 0.1 μm are possible. Image data recorded at the BAMline (BESSY-II light source, Germany) are presented, with the resolving power of the imaging system being 4 μm in absorption mode and ˜14 μm in phase contrast mode (z2=0.74 m). Thus, phase contrast radiography, combined with numerical forward simulations, is capable of measuring the widths of gaps that are two orders of magnitude thinner than the conventional detection limit.

  8. Neutron radiography inspection of investment castings.

    PubMed

    Richards, W J; Barrett, J R; Springgate, M E; Shields, K C

    2004-10-01

    Investment casting, also known as the lost wax process, is a manufacturing method employed to produce near net shape metal articles. Traditionally, investment casting has been used to produce structural titanium castings for aero-engine applications with wall thickness less than 1 in (2.54 cm). Recently, airframe manufacturers have been exploring the use of titanium investment casting to replace components traditionally produced from forgings. Use of titanium investment castings for these applications reduces weight, cost, lead time, and part count. Recently, the investment casting process has been selected to produce fracture critical structural titanium airframe components. These airframe components have pushed the traditional inspection techniques to their physical limits due to cross sections on the order of 3 in (7.6 cm). To overcome these inspection limitations, a process incorporating neutron radiography (n-ray) has been developed. In this process, the facecoat of the investment casting mold material contains a cocalcined mixture of yttrium oxide and gadolinium oxide. The presence of the gadolinium oxide, allows for neutron radiographic imaging (and eventual removal and repair) of mold facecoat inclusions that remain within these thick cross sectional castings. Probability of detection (POD) studies have shown a 3 x improvement of detecting a 0.050 x 0.007 in2 (1.270 x 0.178 mm2) inclusion of this cocalcined material using n-ray techniques when compared to the POD using traditional X-ray techniques. Further, it has been shown that this n-ray compatible mold facecoat material produces titanium castings of equal metallurgical quality when compared to the traditional materials. Since investment castings can be very large and heavy, the neutron radiography facilities at the University of California, Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center (UCD/MNRC) were used to develop the inspection techniques. The UCD/MNRC has very unique facilities that can handle large

  9. Use and effectiveness of chest radiography and low-back radiography in screening

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, L.P.; Rachlin, J.A.

    1986-10-01

    One of the Food and Drug Administration's educational programs to optimize the use of medical radiation is the investigation of the efficacy of selected x-ray film examinations. The goal of this program is to provide clinical information needed to aid physicians in their judgment. The routine chest-radiograph screening examination has been studied, and recommendations for five applications of chest-radiograph screening have been published. These recommendations, plus results of FDA research on the efficacy of low-back radiography, are discussed.

  10. Portable Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-11-01

    This user manual describes the function and use of the portable digital radiography and computed tomography (DRCT) scanner. The manual gives a general overview of x-ray imaging systems along with a description of the DRCT system. An inventory of the all the system components, organized by shipping container, is also included. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are provided for all of the exercises necessary for a novice user to successfully collect digital radiographs and tomographic images of an object, including instructions on system assembly and detector calibration and system alignment. There is also a short section covering the limited system care and maintenance needs. Descriptions of the included software packages, the DRCT Digital Imager used for system operation, and the DRCT Image Processing Interface used for image viewing and tomographic data reconstruction are given in the appendixes. The appendixes also include a cheat sheet for more experienced users, a listing of known system problems and how to mitigate them, and an inventory check-off sheet suitable for copying and including with the machine for shipment purposes.

  11. [Optimal beam quality for chest digital radiography].

    PubMed

    Oda, Nobuhiro; Tabata, Yoshito; Nakano, Tsutomu

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the optimal beam quality for chest computed radiography (CR), we measured the radiographic contrast and evaluated the image quality of chest CR using various X-ray tube voltages. The contrast between lung and rib or heart increased on CR images obtained by lowering the tube voltage from 140 to 60 kV, but the degree of increase was less. Scattered radiation was reduced on CR images with a lower tube voltage. The Wiener spectrum of CR images with a low tube voltage showed a low value under identical conditions of amount of light stimulated emission. The quality of chest CR images obtained using a lower tube voltage (80 kV and 100 kV) was evaluated as being superior to those obtained with a higher tube voltage (120 kV and 140 kV). Considering the problem of tube loading and exposure in clinical applications, a tube voltage of 90 to 100 kV (0.1 mm copper filter backed by 0.5 mm aluminum) is recommended for chest CR. PMID:25410333

  12. Evaluation and testing of computed radiography systems.

    PubMed

    Charnock, P; Connolly, P A; Hughes, D; Moores, B M

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of film replacement digital radiographic imaging systems throughout Europe is now gathering momentum. Such systems create the foundations for totally digital departments of radiology, since radiographic examinations constitute the most prevalent modality. Although this type of development will lead to improvements in the delivery and management of radiological service, such widespread implementation of new technology must be carefully monitored. The implementation of effective QA tests on installation, at periodic intervals and as part of a routine programme will aid this process. This paper presents the results of commissioning tests undertaken on a number of computed radiography imaging systems provided by different manufacturers. The aim of these tests was not only to provide baseline performance measurements against which subsequent measurements can be compared but also to explore any differences in performance, which might exist between different units. Results of measurements will be presented for (1) monitor and laser printer set-up; (2) imaging plates, including sensitivity, consistency and uniformity; (3) resolution and contrast detectability; and (4) signal and noise performance. Results from the latter are analysed in relationship with both system and quantum noise components. PMID:15933109

  13. Beam Characterization at the Neutron Radiography Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah Morgan; Jeffrey King

    2013-01-01

    The quality of a neutron imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam’s effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This project characterized the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam’s effective length-to-diameter ratio and image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. Improvement of the existing NRAD MCNP beamline model includes validation of the model’s energy spectrum and the development of enhanced image simulation methods. The image simulation methods predict the radiographic image of an object based on the foil reaction rate data obtained by placing a model of the object in front of the image plane in an MCNP beamline model.

  14. Neutron radiography in Indian space programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, K.

    1999-11-01

    Pyrotechnic devices are indispensable in any space programme to perform such critical operations as ignition, stage separation, solar panel deployment, etc. The nature of design and configuration of different types of pyrotechnic devices, and the type of materials that are put in their construction make the inspection of them with thermal neutrons more favourable than any other non destructive testing methods. Although many types of neutron sources are available for use, generally the radiographic quality/exposure duration and cost of source run in opposite directions even after four decades of research and development. But in the area of space activity, by suitably combining the X-ray and neutron radiographic requirements, the inspection of the components can be made economically viable. This is demonstrated in the Indian space programme by establishing a 15 MeV linear accelerator based neutron generator facility to inspect medium to giant solid propellant boosters by X-ray inspection and all types of critical pyro and some electronic components by neutron radiography. Since the beam contains unacceptable gamma, transfer imaging technique has been evolved and the various parameters have been optimised to get a good quality image.

  15. Beam characterization at the neutron radiography reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Sarah

    The quality of a neutron imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This thesis characterized the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio and image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. Improvement of the existing NRAD MCNP beamline model includes validation of the model's energy spectrum and the development of enhanced image simulation methods. The image simulation methods predict the radiographic image of an object based on the foil reaction rate data obtained by placing a model of the object in front of the image plane in an MCNP beamline model.

  16. Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treimer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Neutron imaging became important when, besides providing impressive radiographic and tomographic images of various objects, physical, quantification of chemical, morphological or other parameters could be derived from 2D or 3D images. The spatial resolution of approximately 50 µm (and less) yields real space images of the bulk of specimens with more than some cm3 in volume. Thus the physics or chemistry of structures in a sample can be compared with scattering functions obtained e.g. from neutron scattering. The advantages of using neutrons become more pronounced when the neutron spin comes into play. The interaction of neutrons with magnetism is unique due to their low attenuation by matter and because their spin is sensitive to magnetic fields. Magnetic fields, domains and quantum effects such as the Meissner effect and flux trapping can only be visualized and quantified in the bulk of matter by imaging with polarized neutrons. This additional experimental tool is gaining more and more importance. There is a large number of new fields that can be investigated by neutron imaging, not only in physics, but also in geology, archeology, cultural heritage, soil culture, applied material research, magnetism, etc. One of the top applications of polarized neutron imaging is the large field of superconductivity where the Meissner effect and flux pinning can be visualized and quantified. Here we will give a short summary of the results achieved by radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons.

  17. Towards Proton Therapy and Radiography at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prall, M.; Lang, P. M.; LaTessa, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Varentsov, D.; Durante, M.

    2015-04-01

    Protons having energies in the GeV range have been proposed as an alternative to Bragg-peak hadron therapy. This strategy reduces lateral scattering and overcomes uncertainties of particle range and relative biological effectiveness. GeV protons could additionally be used for targeting in image guided stereotactic radiosurgery. We experimentally demonstrated the potential of GeV protons for imaging of biological samples using E=0.8 GeV protons and the pRad setup at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In this setup, a system of magnetic lenses creates a point-to-point mapping from object to detector. This mapping compensates image blur due to lateral scattering inside the imaged (biological) object. We produced 2-dim proton radiographs of biological samples, an anthropomorphic phantom and performed simple dosimetry. High resolution tomographic reconstructions were derived from the 2-dim proton radiographs. Our experiment was performed within the framework of the PANTERA (Proton Therapy and Radiography) project. In the future, the proton microscope PRIOR (Proton Microscope for FAIR) located in the FAIR facility (Darmstadt), will focus on optimizing the technique for imaging of lesions implanted in animals and couple the irradiation with standard radiotherapy.

  18. Applications of Cosmic Ray Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, E.; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C. L.; Rowe, C. A.; Poulson, D. C.; Bacon, J. D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Morley, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, was built between 1420 and 1436 by architect Filippo Brunelleschi and it is now cracking under its own weight. Engineering efforts are underway to model the dome's structure and reinforce it against further deterioration. According to some scholars, Brunelleschi might have built reinforcement structures into the dome itself; however, the only confirmed known subsurface reinforcement is a chain of iron and stone around the dome's base. Tomography with cosmic ray muons is a non-destructive imaging method that can be used to image the interior of the wall and therefore ascertain the layout and status of any iron substructure in the dome. We will show the results from a muon tomography measurement of iron hidden in a mockup of the dome's wall performed at Los Alamos National Lab in 2015. The sensitivity of this technique, and the status of this project will be also discussed. At last, we will show results on muon attenuation radiography of larger shallow targets.

  19. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography system, filtered images, and subtraction radiography

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Vessoni Iwaki, Lilian Cristina; Da Silva, Mariliani Chicarelli; Filho, Liogi Iwaki; Queiroz, Alfredo De Franco; Geron, Lucas Bachegas Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Background: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of three different imaging systems: Direct digital radiography system (DDR-CMOS), four types of filtered images, and a priori and a posteriori registration of digital subtraction radiography (DSR) in the diagnosis of proximal defects. Materials and Methods: The teeth were arranged in pairs in 10 blocks of vinyl polysiloxane, and proximal defects were performed with drills of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mm diameter. Kodak RVG 6100 sensor was used to capture the images. A posteriori DSR registrations were done with Regeemy 0.2.43 and subtraction with Image Tool 3.0. Filtered images were obtained with Kodak Dental Imaging 6.1 software. Images (n = 360) were evaluated by three raters, all experts in dental radiology. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) were higher for DSR images with all three drills (Az = 0.896, 0.979, and 1.000 for drills 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mm, respectively). The highest values were found for 1-mm drills and the lowest for 0.25-mm drills, with negative filter having the lowest values of all (Az = 0.631). Conclusion: The best method of diagnosis was by using a DSR. The negative filter obtained the worst results. Larger drills showed the highest sensitivity and specificity values of the area under the ROC curve. PMID:24124300

  20. A method to optimize the processing algorithm of a computed radiography system for chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Moore, C S; Liney, G P; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2007-09-01

    A test methodology using an anthropomorphic-equivalent chest phantom is described for the optimization of the Agfa computed radiography "MUSICA" processing algorithm for chest radiography. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the lung, heart and diaphragm regions of the phantom, and the "system modulation transfer function" (sMTF) in the lung region, were measured using test tools embedded in the phantom. Using these parameters the MUSICA processing algorithm was optimized with respect to low-contrast detectability and spatial resolution. Two optimum "MUSICA parameter sets" were derived respectively for maximizing the CNR and sMTF in each region of the phantom. Further work is required to find the relative importance of low-contrast detectability and spatial resolution in chest images, from which the definitive optimum MUSICA parameter set can then be derived. Prior to this further work, a compromised optimum MUSICA parameter set was applied to a range of clinical images. A group of experienced image evaluators scored these images alongside images produced from the same radiographs using the MUSICA parameter set in clinical use at the time. The compromised optimum MUSICA parameter set was shown to produce measurably better images. PMID:17709364

  1. A benchmark for comparison of dental radiography analysis algorithms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Wei; Huang, Cheng-Ta; Lee, Jia-Hong; Li, Chung-Hsing; Chang, Sheng-Wei; Siao, Ming-Jhih; Lai, Tat-Ming; Ibragimov, Bulat; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Ronneberger, Olaf; Fischer, Philipp; Cootes, Tim F; Lindner, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    Dental radiography plays an important role in clinical diagnosis, treatment and surgery. In recent years, efforts have been made on developing computerized dental X-ray image analysis systems for clinical usages. A novel framework for objective evaluation of automatic dental radiography analysis algorithms has been established under the auspices of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging 2015 Bitewing Radiography Caries Detection Challenge and Cephalometric X-ray Image Analysis Challenge. In this article, we present the datasets, methods and results of the challenge and lay down the principles for future uses of this benchmark. The main contributions of the challenge include the creation of the dental anatomy data repository of bitewing radiographs, the creation of the anatomical abnormality classification data repository of cephalometric radiographs, and the definition of objective quantitative evaluation for comparison and ranking of the algorithms. With this benchmark, seven automatic methods for analysing cephalometric X-ray image and two automatic methods for detecting bitewing radiography caries have been compared, and detailed quantitative evaluation results are presented in this paper. Based on the quantitative evaluation results, we believe automatic dental radiography analysis is still a challenging and unsolved problem. The datasets and the evaluation software will be made available to the research community, further encouraging future developments in this field. (http://www-o.ntust.edu.tw/~cweiwang/ISBI2015/). PMID:26974042

  2. Recent advances in fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowerby, B. D.; Tickner, J. R.

    2007-09-01

    Fast neutron radiography techniques are attractive for screening cargo for contraband such as narcotics and explosives. Neutrons have the required penetration, they interact with matter in a manner complementary to X-rays and they can be used to determine elemental composition. Compared to neutron interrogation techniques that measure secondary radiation (neutron or gamma-rays), neutron radiography systems are much more efficient and rapid and they are much more amenable to imaging. However, for neutron techniques to be successfully applied to cargo screening, they must demonstrate significant advantages over well-established X-ray techniques. This paper reviews recent developments and applications of fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection. These developments include a fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography system that utilizes a 14 MeV neutron generator as well as fast neutron resonance radiography systems that use variable energy quasi-monoenergetic neutrons and pulsed broad energy neutron beams. These systems will be discussed and compared with particular emphasis on user requirements, sources, detector systems, imaging ability and performance.

  3. Cross table lateral radiography for measurement of acetabular cup version

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Ragnhild Beate

    2016-01-01

    Background Appropriate orientation of the acetabular cup is an important factor for long-term results of total hip arthroplasty. For measurement of cup version cross-table lateral radiography is frequently used, but the reliability has been questioned. We compared cross table lateral radiography with computed tomography in patients that had undergone primary total hip arthroplasty. Methods The study was prospectively done in 117 patients (117 hips). At 3 months after total hip replacement the acetabular version was measured by cross table lateral radiography and compared to measurements by computed tomography. Results By cross table lateral radiography acetabular anteversion was on mean 13.9° with a standard deviation of 10.1° as compared to 17.8°±12.6° by computed tomography. Mean difference was −3.8 with a distribution of measurements of ±13 degrees for 95% of the cases. Conclusions Our study shows that cross table radiography provides acceptable information for clinical use, but has limited use for precise analysis of acetabular cup version. PMID:27275482

  4. Brighter Screens for Nondestructive Digital X-ray Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Jr., A. C.; Bell, Z. W.; Carpenter, D. A.

    2003-09-15

    Fine resolution, bright X-ray screens are needed for digital radiography and material characterization at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Current technology is simply not adequate for transferring high-energy X-ray images to visible light for demanding digital applications. Low energy radiography and especially emerging tomographic technologies are severely hampered for Y-12 nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications by dim screens with poor resolution. Also, the development of more advanced materials characterization techniques, such as electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), is driven by a design agency desire for tighter specifications and more uniform materials. Brighter screens would allow us to probe materials on a finer scale, leading to a better understanding of material behavior. A number of X-ray screen materials were studied that would be suitable for direct replacement in existing digital imaging systems. Spectroscopic evaluations were first made for a several candidates and indicated that lutetium orthosilicate (LSO) would be a promising candidate for MeV images. A relative comparison of brightness at various energies was then completed which showed that cesium iodide (CsI) could increase brightness by over an order of magnitude. Since image quality is also important for better screens, the resolving capabilities of candidate materials were measured. Resolution measurements were completed at X-ray peak energies up to 420KeV with magnified optical imaging systems, and indicated that LSO and Industrial Quality Incorporated glass (IQI) exhibited higher resolution than the CsI screen. The results give a choice of materials that can be tailored to the particular test under consideration. If high-speed images are necessary and some resolution can be sacrificed, the CsI screen will be a good choice. The screen can be replaced by an IQI or LSO unit if higher resolution is needed later, for instance to focus in on a region of interest. A number of

  5. AIRIX: a new tool for flash radiography in detonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavailler, Claude

    2001-04-01

    AIRIX is an induction linear accelerator which will be used for flash radiography in Commissariat A L'Energie Atomique In France. Designed to produce an X-ray dose of some hundreds Rads at 1 meter with an X-ray focal spot size diameter of less than 2 mm (LANL-CEA DAM definition), this facility consists in a 3,8 MeV/2 kA pulsed electron injector and 15,4 MeV induction accelerator powered by 32 high voltage generators. A prototype of this accelerator, called PIVAIR, has been studied and realized in CEA CESTA near Bordeaux. PIVAIR is a validation step for AIRIX at 8 MeV. It includes an injector (3,6 MeV, 3,2 kA, 60 ns) and 16 induction cells supplied by 8 high voltage generators (250 kV, 70 ns). Two different technologies of induction cells have been tested (Rexolite insulator or ferrite Under Vacuum). We have chosen ferrite under vacuum cells technology after comparison of results on beam transport and reliability tests. A focusing experiment at 7.2 MeV of the electron beam has been achieved during summer 1997. We have begun to produce X-rays in October 1997. A dose level of 50 Rad at 1 meter has been achieved with an X-ray spot size diameter of 3.5 to 4 mm (LANL-CEA DAM definition). Static flash radiography of very dense object have been achieved from November 1997 until February 1998. We have been able to test in situ new kinds of very high sensitive X-ray detectors and to check they had reached our very ambitious goals: quantum efficiency at 5 MeV > 50% instead of 1% for luminous screens and film, sensitivity < 10 (mu) Rad (100 time more sensitive than radiographic luminous screens and films), dynamic range > 100, resolution < 2 mm. The AIRIX accelerator has been built in the CEA-MORONVILLIERS test site near Reims under an industrial collaboration with the THOMSON- CSF Company. It is housed in a reinforced concrete bunker and has an overall length of 60 meters. The 20 MeV electron beam has been focused on a 1 mm thick Tantalum target to produce an X-ray fluence of

  6. Recent developments in a CdTe-based x-ray detector for digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, Francis; Martin, Jean-Luc; Thevenin, Bernard; Schermesser, Patrick; Pantigny, Philippe; Laurent, Jean Yves; Rambaud, Philippe; Pitault, Bernard; Paltrier, Sylvain

    1997-05-01

    The performance of a new CdTe based x-ray detector devoted to digital radiography are presented. The detectors consist of a 6 cm2 CdTe 2D-array connected to CMOS readout circuit by indium bumps. The final image has 400 X 600 pixels with a 50 micron pitch. This solid-state detector presents the advantages of direct conversion, i.e. high stopping power with high spatial resolution and a significantly higher signal than commercially available scintillator/photodetector systems. The experimental results show excellent linearity, spatial resolution and detective quantum efficiency. The MTF was measured by the angled-slit method: 20 to 30 percent at 10 1p/mm depending on the incident x-ray energy. The measured DQE is about 0.8 at 40 KeV and 100 (mu) Gray dose. Our simulation shows that these experimental results do not reach the theoretical limit. Further improvements are in progress. The first industrial application will be dental radiography due to the small size and the excellent performances. We also tested the detector with x-rays form 20 KeV to 1.25 MeV. Of course the CdTe thickness should then be adapted to the incident x-ray energy.

  7. A dynamic material discrimination algorithm for dual MV energy X-ray digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Li, Ruizhe; Zhang, Siyuan; Zhao, Tiao; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2016-08-01

    Dual-energy X-ray radiography has become a well-established technique in medical, industrial, and security applications, because of its material or tissue discrimination capability. The main difficulty of this technique is dealing with the materials overlapping problem. When there are two or more materials along the X-ray beam path, its material discrimination performance will be affected. In order to solve this problem, a new dynamic material discrimination algorithm is proposed for dual-energy X-ray digital radiography, which can also be extended to multi-energy X-ray situations. The algorithm has three steps: α-curve-based pre-classification, decomposition of overlapped materials, and the final material recognition. The key of the algorithm is to establish a dual-energy radiograph database of both pure basis materials and pair combinations of them. After the pre-classification results, original dual-energy projections of overlapped materials can be dynamically decomposed into two sets of dual-energy radiographs of each pure material by the algorithm. Thus, more accurate discrimination results can be provided even with the existence of the overlapping problem. Both numerical and experimental results that prove the validity and effectiveness of the algorithm are presented. PMID:27239987

  8. Digital radiography for the field: a portable prototype.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kenneth H; Freckleton, Michael W

    2002-01-01

    The US military has been investigating methods for improving radiographic support for field medical operations. The purpose of this project was to develop and test a portable digital radiography (DR) system to determine its feasibility for field operations. A prototype portable digital radiography device was designed and assembled using a commercially available DR sensor. The sensor and necessary hardware were mounted into a ruggedized aluminum case. The device underwent testing in the hospital and field environments. The prototype rapidly provided digital radiographs in a variety of settings. Shortcomings of the device affecting usability and reliable operation were identified. The successful construction and operation of a portable digital radiography prototype shows that such a device is feasible for field applications. The prototype requires further modification and testing to improve its usability and reliability, and to explore other potential applications, both military and civilian. PMID:12105726

  9. NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY (NRAD) REACTOR 64-ELEMENT CORE UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2014-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA (registered) (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The interim critical configuration developed during the core upgrade, which contains only 62 fuel elements, has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The final 64-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has also been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (approximately +/-1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  10. Studies of solid propellant combustion with pulsed radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godai, T.; Tanemura, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Shimizu, M.

    1987-01-01

    Pulsed radiography was applied to observe solid propellant surface regression during rocket motor operation. Using a 150 KV flash X-ray system manufactured by the Field Emission Corporation and two kinds of film suppliers, images of the propellant surface of a 5 cm diameter end burning rocket motor were recorded on film. The repetition frame rate of 8 pulses per second and the pulse train length of 10 pulses are limited by the capability of the power supply and the heat build up within the X-ray tube, respectively. The experiment demonstrated the effectiveness of pulsed radiography for observing solid propellant surface regression. Measuring the position of burning surface images on film with a microdensitometer, quasi-instantaneous burning rate as a function of pressure and the variation of characteristic velocity with pressure and gas stay time were obtained. Other research items to which pulsed radiography can be applied are also suggested.

  11. Study of pipe thickness loss using a neutron radiography method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Wahab, Aliff Amiru Bin; Yazid, Hafizal B.; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid B. Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi B.; Azman, Azraf B.; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Md; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this preliminary work is to study for thickness changes in objects using neutron radiography. In doing the project, the technique for the radiography was studied. The experiment was done at NUR-2 facility at TRIGA research reactor in Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Malaysia. Test samples of varying materials were used in this project. The samples were radiographed using direct technique. Radiographic images were recorded using Nitrocellulose film. The films obtained were digitized to processed and analyzed. Digital processing is done on the images using software Isee!. The images were processed to produce better image for analysis. The thickness changes in the image were measured to be compared with real thickness of the objects. From the data collected, percentages difference between measured and real thickness are below than 2%. This is considerably very low variation from original values. Therefore, verifying the neutron radiography technique used in this project.

  12. Deterministic simulation of thermal neutron radiography and tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal Chowdhury, Rajarshi; Liu, Xin

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, thermal neutron radiography and tomography have gained much attention as one of the nondestructive testing methods. However, the application of thermal neutron radiography and tomography is hindered by their technical complexity, radiation shielding, and time-consuming data collection processes. Monte Carlo simulations have been developed in the past to improve the neutron imaging facility's ability. In this paper, a new deterministic simulation approach has been proposed and demonstrated to simulate neutron radiographs numerically using a ray tracing algorithm. This approach has made the simulation of neutron radiographs much faster than by previously used stochastic methods (i.e., Monte Carlo methods). The major problem with neutron radiography and tomography simulation is finding a suitable scatter model. In this paper, an analytic scatter model has been proposed that is validated by a Monte Carlo simulation.

  13. Improved track-etch neutron radiography using CR-39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. A. Stanojev; Marques, J. G.; Pugliesi, R.; Santos, J. P.

    2014-11-01

    Currently most state-of-the-art setups for neutron radiography use scintillator screens and CCD cameras for imaging. However, in some situations it is not possible to use a CCD and alternatives must be considered. One such alternative is the well-established technique of track-etch neutron radiography, which has as main disadvantages requiring a long time for image recording and generating images with a relatively low contrast. In this work we address these negative issues and report significant improvements to recording and digitizing images using an improved setup consisting of an enriched 10B converter, a CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector and a flatbed scanner. The improved setup enables a significant reduction of the fluence required to obtain a neutron radiography image using this technique. Comparisons are made with imaging using two CCD models in the same beam line, so that the results can be extrapolated for other facilities.

  14. Study of pipe thickness loss using a neutron radiography method

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Wahab, Aliff Amiru Bin; Yazid, Hafizal B.; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid B. Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi B.; Azman, Azraf B.; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Md; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2014-02-12

    The purpose of this preliminary work is to study for thickness changes in objects using neutron radiography. In doing the project, the technique for the radiography was studied. The experiment was done at NUR-2 facility at TRIGA research reactor in Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Malaysia. Test samples of varying materials were used in this project. The samples were radiographed using direct technique. Radiographic images were recorded using Nitrocellulose film. The films obtained were digitized to processed and analyzed. Digital processing is done on the images using software Isee!. The images were processed to produce better image for analysis. The thickness changes in the image were measured to be compared with real thickness of the objects. From the data collected, percentages difference between measured and real thickness are below than 2%. This is considerably very low variation from original values. Therefore, verifying the neutron radiography technique used in this project.

  15. Magnifying lens for 800 MeV proton radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, F. E.; Campos, E.; Espinoza, C.; Hogan, G.; Hollander, B.; Lopez, J.; Mariam, F. G.; Morley, D.; Morris, C. L.; Murray, M.; Saunders, A.; Schwartz, C.; Thompson, T. N.

    2011-10-15

    This article describes the design and performance of a magnifying magnetic-lens system designed, built, and commissioned at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for 800 MeV flash proton radiography. The technique of flash proton radiography has been developed at LANL to study material properties under dynamic loading conditions through the analysis of time sequences of proton radiographs. The requirements of this growing experimental program have resulted in the need for improvements in spatial radiographic resolution. To meet these needs, a new magnetic lens system, consisting of four permanent magnet quadrupoles, has been developed. This new lens system was designed to reduce the second order chromatic aberrations, the dominant source of image blur in 800 MeV proton radiography, as well as magnifying the image to reduce the blur contribution from the detector and camera systems. The recently commissioned lens system performed as designed, providing nearly a factor of three improvement in radiographic resolution.

  16. Application of Neutron Radiography to Flow Visualization in Supercritical Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, N.; Sugimoto, K.; Takami, S.; Sugioka, K.; Tsukada, T.; Adschiri, T.; Saito, Y.

    Supercritical water is used in various chemical reaction processes including hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide nano-particles, oxidation, chemical conversion of biomass and plastics. Density of the super critical water is much less than that of the sub-critical water. By using neutron radiography, Peterson et al. have studied salt precipitation processes in supercritical water and the flow pattern in a reverse-flow vessel for salt precipitation, and Balasko et al. have revealed the behaviour of supercritical water in a container. The nano-particles were made by mixing the super critical flow and the sub critical water solution. In the present study, neutron radiography was applied to the flow visualization of the super and sub critical water mixture in a T-junction made of stainless steel pipes for high pressure and temperature conditions to investigate their mixing process. Still images by a CCD camera were obtained by using the neutron radiography system at B4 port in KUR.

  17. Scattering corrections in neutron radiography using point scattered functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardjilov, N.; de Beer, F.; Hassanein, R.; Lehmann, E.; Vontobel, P.

    2005-04-01

    Scattered neutrons cause distortions and blurring in neutron radiography pictures taken at small distances between the investigated object and the detector. This defines one of the most significant problems in quantitative neutron radiography. The quantification of strong scattering materials such as hydrogenous materials—water, oil, plastic, etc.—with a high precision is very difficult due to the scattering effect in the radiography images. The scattering contribution in liquid test samples (H 2O, D 2O and a special type oil ISOPAR L) at different distances between the samples and the detector, the so-called Point Scattered Function (PScF), was calculated with the help of MCNP-4C Monte Carlo code. Corrections of real experimental data were performed using the calculated PScF. Some of the results as well as the correction algorithm will be presented.

  18. Proton Radiography as an electromagnetic field and density perturbation diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; Patel, P; Town, R; Edwards, M; Phillips, T; Lerner, S; Price, D; Hicks, D; Key, M; Hatchett, S; Wilks, S; King, J; Snavely, R; Freeman, R; Boehlly, T; Koenig, M; Martinolli, E; Lepape, S; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Audebert, P; Gauthier, J; Borghesi, M; Romagnani, L; Toncian, T; Pretzler, G; Willi, O

    2004-04-15

    Laser driven proton beams have been used to diagnose transient fields and density perturbations in laser produced plasmas. Grid deflectometry techniques have been applied to proton radiography to obtain precise measurements of proton beam angles caused by electromagnetic fields in laser produced plasmas. Application of proton radiography to laser driven implosions has demonstrated that density conditions in compressed media can be diagnosed with MeV protons. This data has shown that proton radiography can provide unique insight into transient electromagnetic fields in super critical density plasmas and provide a density perturbation diagnostics in compressed matter . PACS numbers: 52.50.Jm, 52.40.Nk, 52.40.Mj, 52.70.Kz

  19. Coupling High-Energy Radiography And Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) To Optimize The Characterization Of Nuclear Waste Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Carrel, F.; Agelou, M.; Gmar, M.; Laine, F.; Lamotte, T.; Lazaro, D.; Poumarede, B.; Rattoni, B.

    2009-12-02

    Radiological characterization of nuclear waste packages is an industrial issue in order to select the best mode of storage. The alpha-activity, mainly due to the presence of actinides ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu,...) inside the package, is one of the most important parameter to assess during the characterization. Photon Activation Analysis (PAA) is a non-destructive active method (NDA method) based on the photofission process and on the detection of delayed particles (neutrons and gammas). This technique is well-adapted to the characterization of large concrete waste packages. However, PAA methods often require a simulation step which is necessary to analyze experimental results and to quantify the global mass of actinides. The weak point of this approach is that characteristics of the package are often not well-known, these latter having a huge impact on the final simulation result. High-energy radiography, based on the use of a linear electron accelerator (LINAC), allows to visualize the content of the package and is also a performing way to tune simulation models and to optimize the characterization process by PAA. In this article, we present high-energy radiography results obtained for two different large concrete waste packages in the SAPHIR facility (Active Photon and Irradiation System). This facility is dedicated to PAA study and development and setup for a decade in CEA Saclay. We also discuss possibilities offered by the coupling between high-energy radiography and PAA techniques.

  20. NEW INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENT METHODS: Medical ion radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafranova, M. G.; Shafranov, M. D.

    1980-06-01

    The aim of this review is to acquaint the reader with the principles and methods of ion radiography—a method of studying the inner structure of an object by using heavy charged particles. Along with the refinement of the traditional x-ray method of diagnostics and the development of a number of new methods, such as positron tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance, and in spite of the great advances attained in x-radiography in recent years, a persistent search continues for new, refined methods. First of all, efforts are directed toward seeking effective methods of early diagnosis of tumor lesions with less danger than in x-radiography. Studies have been conducted in a number of countries in the past decade on the possibility of applying heavy charged particles of relatively high energies for these purposes. Ion radiography enables one to obtain a higher contrast image than x-radiography at lower doses of irradiation, and to differentiate soft tissues and to detect in them anomalies of small dimensions. It opens up the possibility of obtaining new diagnostic information. Theoretical studies in the field of ion radiography and experiments on animals, on human tissues, and in a number of cases, on patients, have shown the promise offered by using ions for diagnosing not only tumors, but also a number of other serious lesions. This new field of study has incorporated the experience of particle and nuclear physics and widely employs its variety of investigational methods. This article also treats problems involving the application of accelerators for ion radiography and specifications for the beam parameters and for the particle detectors. This review gives an account of the advances in this new field of studies and the prospects for its development and the difficulties on the pathway of introducing it into practice.

  1. [Digital subtraction radiography for the detection of periodontal bone changes].

    PubMed

    Mera, T

    1989-03-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of digital subtraction radiography in detecting alveolar bone changes. In order to test the sensitivity of quantitative evaluation by subtraction radiography, a copper equivalent thickness obtained from digitized radiographs was compared with the actual mineral content of bone phantoms with 15 different minerals and 25 bone specimens. Results demonstrated that the copper equivalent thickness correlated well with the actual mineral content (bone phantoms: gamma s = 1.0, bone specimens: gamma s = 0.985). In order to test the ability of digitized subtraction radiography in assessing alveolar bone changes in vivo, subtraction images were compared with histological features. The experimental angular bony defects were treated with conservative periodontal therapy in 3 monkeys. The standardized radiographs were taken longitudinally after therapy, and subtraction images were made from the sequentially obtained radiographs. In addition, for fluorescent histomorphometrical evaluations of new bone formations, the animals were dosed with oxytetracycline, calsein solution and arizarin complex solution. Radiographic and histological evaluations were scheduled to provide healing periods of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 9 weeks after periodontal therapy. Subtraction radiography offered an objective method to follow histological changes of alveolar bone, and the copper equivalent thickness obtained from subtraction radiographs correlated with the histometric bone volume (gamma s = 0.9023, p less than 0.01). The results of these studies indicated that subtraction radiography was useful in monitoring alveolar bone changes associated with periodontal disease and treatment and that the quanitative measurement of periodontal bone changes by subtraction radiography was feasible. PMID:2517790

  2. Fast Neutron Radiography at an RFQ Accelerator System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, G. C.; Franklyn, C. B.; Dangendorf, V.; Buffler, A.; Bromberger, B.

    This work introduces the Necsa Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator facility and its work concerning fast neutron radiography (FNR). Necsa operates a 4-5 MeV, up to 50 mA deuteron RFQ. The previous deuterium gas target station has been modified to enable producing a white neutron beam employing a solid B4C target. Furthermore, the high energy beam transport (HEBT) section is under adjustment to achieve a longer flight-path and a better focus. This work presents an overview of the facility, the modifications made, and introduces past and ongoing neutron radiography investigations.

  3. Neutron radiography and tomography facility at IBR-2 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlenko, D. P.; Kichanov, S. E.; Lukin, E. V.; Rutkauskas, A. V.; Belushkin, A. V.; Bokuchava, G. D.; Savenko, B. N.

    2016-05-01

    An experimental station for investigations using neutron radiography and tomography was developed at the upgraded high-flux pulsed IBR-2 reactor. The 20 × 20 cm neutron beam is formed by the system of collimators with the characteristic parameter L/D varying from 200 to 2000. The detector system is based on a 6LiF/ZnS scintillation screen; images are recorded using a high-sensitivity video camera based on the high-resolution CCD matrix. The results of the first neutron radiography and tomography experiments at the developed facility are presented.

  4. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sjue, Sky K.

    2015-11-04

    The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.

  5. Radiation Exposure in the NICU: Computed Radiography versus Digital Detector Radiography.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Medical radiation exposure to pediatric patients has gained national attention in the last few years. New guidelines encourage technologists, managers, radiologists, and equipment manufacturers to tailor imaging to smaller sized patients. With the advent of computed radiography, patient radiation doses have doubled. This literature review addresses how cumulative doses received by highly radiosensitive infants in neonatal intensive care units correspond to similar doses received by infants that later developed radiation induced cancers. While technologist expertise is important for dose management with any receptor technology, converting to digital flat panel detectors can reduce dose to these areas by > 50%, and minimize risks for radiation induced cancers that often do not present until several decades after exposure. PMID:26710555

  6. Measuring microfocal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A; Ewert, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification is especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application; and (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. The following equations are used for the focal spot size measurement: By similar triangles the following equations are presupposed: f/a = U/b and M = (a+b)/a. These equations can be combined to yield the well known expression: U = f(M - 1). Solving for f, f = U/(M-1). Therefore, the focal spot size, f, can be calculated by measuring the radiographic unsharpness and magnification of a known object. This is the basis for these tests. The European standard actually uses one-half of the unsharpness (which are then added together) from both sides of the object to avoid additional unsharpness contributions due to edge transmission unsharpness of the round test object (the outside of the object is measured). So the equation becomes f = (1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2})/(M-1). In practice 1/2 U is measured from the 50% to the 90% signal points on the transition profile from ''black'' to ''white,'' (positive image) or attenuated to unattenuated portion of the image. The 50% to 90% points are chosen as a best fit to an assumed Gaussian radiation distribution from the focal spot and to avoid edge transmission effects. 1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2} corresponds about to the full width at half height of a Gaussian focal spot. A highly absorbing material (Tungsten, Tungsten Alloy, or Platinum) is used for the object. Either wires or a sphere are used as the object to eliminate alignment issues. One

  7. Reduction of absorbed dose in radiography of the breast. Experience with a new screen-film combination.

    PubMed

    Andersson, I; Andrén, L; Nilsson, M; Pettersson, C

    1977-03-01

    The mean absorbed dose in radiography of the breast with industrial film (Mamoray T3, Agfa-Gevaert), the Lo-dose system (Du Pont) and a new screen-film combination (MR 50-Mamoray RP 3, Agfa-Gevaert) was determined. The mean values were 17,2 and 1 mGy, respectively. Thus, the absorbed dose was considerably reduced by using the screen-film combination. This is of utmost importance as the potential risk of inducing malignancy is remarkably reduced, probably negligible. PMID:860660

  8. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review

    PubMed Central

    Rondon, Rafael Henrique Nunes; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara

    2014-01-01

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body. PMID:24701452

  9. Neutron Radiography Visualization of Solid Particles in Stirring Liquid Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, M.; Ščepanskis, M.; Jakovičs, A.; Thomsen, K.; Nikoluškins, R.; Vontobel, P.; Beinerts, T.; Bojarevičs, A.; Platacis, E.

    This paper presents the analysis of the first dynamic neutron radiography experiment that visualized motion of solid particles in liquid metal, which was stirred by a system of four counter-rotating magnets. The paper also contains the quantitative results derived from neutron images: the distribution of particle concentration, number of admixed particles and velocities as functions of the magnet rotation speed.

  10. Neutron radiography and neutron-induced autoradiography for the classroom

    SciTech Connect

    Aderhold, H.C. )

    1992-01-01

    The Cornell 500-kW MARK II TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory of Nuclear Engineering has been used to illustrate the application of neutron radiography (NR) and neutron-induced autoradiography (NIAR) for solving problems in engineering as well as problems in art history. The applications are described in the paper.

  11. Optical velocimetry at the Los Alamos Proton Radiography Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupa, Dale; Tainter, Amy; Neukirch, Levi; Hollander, Brian; Buttler, William; Holtkamp, David; The Los Alamos Proton Radiography Team Team

    2016-05-01

    The Los Alamos Proton Radiography Facility (pRad) employs a high-energy proton beam to image the properties and behavior of materials driven by high explosives. We will discuss features of pRad and describe some recent experiments, highlighting optical diagnostics for surface velocity measurements.

  12. Method and Apparatus for Computed Imaging Backscatter Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shedlock, Daniel (Inventor); Meng, Christopher (Inventor); Sabri, Nissia (Inventor); Dugan, Edward T. (Inventor); Jacobs, Alan M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Systems and methods of x-ray backscatter radiography are provided. A single-sided, non-destructive imaging technique utilizing x-ray radiation to image subsurface features is disclosed, capable of scanning a region using a fan beam aperture and gathering data using rotational motion.

  13. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review.

    PubMed

    Rondon, Rafael Henrique Nunes; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; do Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro

    2014-03-01

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body. PMID:24701452

  14. Radiography Capabilities for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Walstrom, Peter Lowell; Garnett, Robert William; Chapman, Catherine A. B; Salazar, Harry Richard; Otoole, Joseph Alfred; Barber, Ronald L.; Gomez, Tony Simon

    2015-04-28

    The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) experimental facility will be used to discover and design the advanced materials needed to meet 21st century national security and energy security challenges. This new facility will provide the new tools scientists need to develop next-generation materials that will perform predictably and on-demand for currently unattainable lifetimes in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility is based on upgrades to the existing LANSCE 800-MeV proton linac and a new 12-GeV electron linac and associated X-ray FEL to provide simultaneous multiple probe beams, and new experimental areas. In addition to the high-energy photon probe beam, both electron and proton radiography capabilities will be available at the MaRIE facility. Recently, detailed radiography system studies have been performed to develop conceptual layouts of high-magnification electron and proton radiography systems that can meet the experimental requirements for the expected first experiments to be performed at the facility. A description of the radiography systems, their performance requirements, and a proposed facility layout are presented.

  15. Trichobezoars Detected and Treated Based on Plain Radiography.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Amy; Vachon, Tyler; Campin, Richard C; Ignacio, Romeo C

    2015-10-01

    Bezoars are conglomerations of indigestible material that become trapped in the gastrointestinal tract. We present a case of an 8-year-old female child diagnosed with a gastric bezoar solely on plain radiography and treated with abdominal surgical exploration and removal. In addition, traditional characteristic radiographic findings and treatment options for bezoars found in the current literature are reviewed. PMID:26444484

  16. Radiation-absorbed doses and energy imparted from panoramic tomography, cephalometric radiography, and occlusal film radiography in children

    SciTech Connect

    Bankvall, G.; Hakansson, H.A.

    1982-05-01

    The absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examinations of children, using panoramic tomography (PTG), cephalometric radiography (CPR), and maxillary frontal occlusal overview (FOO), were examined. The absorbed dose at various sites of the head were measured with TL dosimeters in a phantom and in patients. The energy imparted was calculated from measurements of areal exposure using a planparallel ionization chamber. The maximum absorbed doses for panoramic tomography were located around the lateral rotation center, for cephalometric radiography in the left (tube side) parotid region, and for frontal occlusal radiography in the nose. The absorbed doses in the eyes, thyroid gland, and skin are discussed and compared with previous reports and, for the most part, are found to be in agreement. The mean energy imparted from all three examination methods is 5 mJ with about 57 percent from panoramic, 33 percent from cephalometric, and 10 percent from frontal occlusal examinations. The energy imparted from cephalometric radiography can be reduced to about 10 percent with the use of an improved examination technique, leaving panoramic tomography responsible for contributing about 80 percent of the total energy imparted.

  17. Proton Radiography: Cross Section Measurements and Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Longo; H. R. Gustafson: Durga Rajaram; Turgun Nigmanov

    2010-04-16

    Proton radiography has become an important tool for predicting the performance of stockpiled nuclear weapons. Current proton radiography experiments at LANSCE are confined to relatively small targets on the order of centimeters in size because of the low beam energy. LANL scientists have made radiographs with 12 and 24 GeV protons produced by the accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These energies are in the range required for hydrotest radiography. The design of a facility for hydrotest radiography requires knowledge of the cross sections for producing high-energy particles in the forward direction, which are incorporated into the Monte Carlo simulation used in designing the beam and detectors. There are few existing measurements of neutron production cross sections for proton-nuclei interactions in the 50 GeV range, and almost no data exist for forward neutron production, especially for heavy target nuclei. Thus the data from the MIPP EMCAL and HCAL, for which our group was responsible, are critical to proton radiography. Since neutrons and photons cannot be focused by magnets, they cause a background “fog” on the images. This problem can be minimized by careful design of the focusing system and detectors. The purpose of our research was to measure forward production of neutrons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. The forward-going particles carry most of the energy from a high-energy proton interaction, so these are the most important to proton radiography. This work was carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab E-907 (MIPP) collaboration. Our group was responsible for designing and building the E907 forward neutron and photon calorimeters. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grants, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. The MIPP experiment accumulated a large amount of data in the first run that ended in early 2006. Our group has

  18. Development of Compton radiography of inertial confinement fusion implosionsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasini, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Hey, D. S.; Iglesias, C.; Izumi, N.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Sorce, C.; Delettrez, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2011-05-01

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60 to 200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of ˜10 μm and ˜10 ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of ˜0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D nonuniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  19. Monte Carlo Modeling of High-Energy Film Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.C., Jr.; Cochran, J.L.; Lamberti, V.E.

    2003-03-28

    High-energy film radiography methods, adapted in the past to performing specific tasks, must now meet increasing demands to identify defects and perform critical measurements in a wide variety of manufacturing processes. Although film provides unequaled resolution for most components and assemblies, image quality must be enhanced with much more detailed information to identify problems and qualify features of interest inside manufactured items. The work described is concerned with improving current 9 MeV nondestructive practice by optimizing the important parameters involved in film radiography using computational methods. In order to follow important scattering effects produced by electrons, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was used with advanced, highly parallel computer systems. The work has provided a more detailed understanding of latent image formation at high X-ray energies, and suggests that improvements can be made in our ability to identify defects and to obtain much more detail in images of fine features.

  20. Development of Compton Radiography Diagnostics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; Hatchett, S P; Hey, D S; Izumi, N; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Mackinnon, A J; Delettrez, J; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C

    2010-11-16

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60-200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton Radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {micro}m and {approx}10ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D non-uniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  1. AEC set-up optimisation with computed radiography imaging.

    PubMed

    Mazzocchi, S; Belli, G; Busoni, S; Gori, C; Menchi, I; Salucci, P; Taddeucci, A; Zatelli, G

    2005-01-01

    Phototimer set-up is a critical procedure for dose and image quality optimisation in computed radiography (CR) systems. While a conventional radiography automatic exposure control device (AEC) can be calibrated in order to gain a constant optical density on the film independent of beam quality and patient size, CR detectors present a high dynamic range which allows a much larger dose interval, but with different image quality levels. CR leads to a less frequent exam repetition, but may produce quite noisy images if the exposure level on the plate is not correct. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a CR plate (Agfa MD40) in order to optimally calibrate an AEC device. The plate response has been characterised in terms of digital signal, exposure on the plate and signal-to-noise ratio for different beam qualities, in a patient of standard size. PMID:16461503

  2. Proton radiography and tomography with application to proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Allinson, N M; Evans, P M

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiography and tomography have long promised benefit for proton therapy. Their first suggestion was in the early 1960s and the first published proton radiographs and CT images appeared in the late 1960s and 1970s, respectively. More than just providing anatomical images, proton transmission imaging provides the potential for the more accurate estimation of stopping-power ratio inside a patient and hence improved treatment planning and verification. With the recent explosion in growth of clinical proton therapy facilities, the time is perhaps ripe for the imaging modality to come to the fore. Yet many technical challenges remain to be solved before proton CT scanners become commonplace in the clinic. Research and development in this field is currently more active than at any time with several prototype designs emerging. This review introduces the principles of proton radiography and tomography, their historical developments, the raft of modern prototype systems and the primary design issues. PMID:26043157

  3. Comparison of Digital Imaging Systems for Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliesi, R.; Pugliesi, Fábio; Stanojev Pereira, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    The characteristics of three digital imaging systems for neutron radiography purposes have been compared. Two of them make use of films, CR-39 and Kodak AA, and the third makes use of a LiF scintillator, for image registration. The irradiations were performed in the neutron radiography facility installed at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. According to the obtained results, the system based on CR-39 is the slowest to obtain an image, and the best in terms of resolution but the worse in terms of contrast. The system based on Kodak AA is faster than the prior, exhibits good resolution and contrast. The system based on the scintillator is the fastest to obtain an image, and best in terms of contrast but the worse in terms of resolution.

  4. Simulation study of Fast Neutron Radiography using GEANT4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishnoi, S.; Thomas, R. G.; Sarkar, P. S.; Datar, V. M.; Sinha, A.

    2015-02-01

    Fast neutron radiography (FNR) is an important non-destructive technique for the imaging of thick bulk material. We are designing a FNR system using a laboratory based 14 MeV D-T neutron generator [1]. Simulation studies have been carried using Monte Carlo based GEANT4 code to understand the response of the FNR system for various objects. Different samples ranging from low Z, metallic and high Z materials were simulated for their radiographic images. The quality of constructed neutron radiography images in terms of relative contrast ratio and the contrast to noise ratio were investigated for their dependence on various parameters such as thickness, voids inside high/low Z material and also for low Z material hidden behind high Z material. We report here the potential and limitations of FNR for imaging different materials and a few configurations and also the possible areas where FNR can be implemented.

  5. Neutron Radiography of Fluid Flow for Geothermal Energy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, P.; Polsky, Y.; Anovitz, L.; Carmichael, J.; Bilheux, H.; Jacobsen, D.; Hussey, D.

    Enhanced geothermal systems seek to expand the potential for geothermal energy by engineering heat exchange systems within the earth. A neutron radiography imaging method has been developed for the study of fluid flow through rock under environmental conditions found in enhanced geothermal energy systems. For this method, a pressure vessel suitable for neutron radiography was designed and fabricated, modifications to imaging instrument setups were tested, multiple contrast agents were tested, and algorithms developed for tracking of flow. The method has shown success for tracking of single phase flow through a manufactured crack in a 3.81 cm (1.5 inch) diameter core within a pressure vessel capable of confinement up to 69 MPa (10,000 psi) using a particle tracking approach with bubbles of fluorocarbon-based fluid as the "particles" and imaging with 10 ms exposures.

  6. Flash radiography with 24 GeV/c protons

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C. L.; Alrick, K. R.; Buescher, K. L.; Cagliostro, D. J.; Clark, D. A.; Clark, D. J.; Espinoza, C. J.; Ferm, E. N.; Gallegos, R. A.; Gomez, J. J.; Hogan, G. E.; King, N. S. P.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Liljestrand, R. P.; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morley, K. B.; Mottershead, C. T.; Murray, M. M.; Pazuchanics, P. D.

    2011-05-15

    The accuracy of density measurements and position resolution in flash (40 ns) radiography of thick objects with 24 Gev/c protons is investigated. A global model fit to step wedge data is shown to give a good description spanning the periodic table. The parameters obtained from the step wedge data are used to predict transmission through the French Test Object (FTO), a test object of nested spheres, to a precision better than 1%. Multiple trials have been used to show that the systematic errors are less than 2%. Absolute agreement between the average radiographic measurements of the density and the known density is 1%. Spatial resolution has been measured to be 200 {mu}m at the center of the FTO. These data verify expectations of the benefits provided by high energy hadron radiography for thick objects.

  7. Development of Compton radiography of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Hey, D. S.; Iglesias, C.; Izumi, N.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Sorce, C.; Delettrez, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2011-05-15

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60 to 200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {mu}m and {approx}10 ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D nonuniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  8. [Development of breathing chest radiography: study of exposure timing].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Takeshi; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2003-08-01

    The flat-panel detector (FPD) has been introduced into clinical practice. A modified FPD, which has the ability to obtain dynamic chest radiographs, was introduced into our hospital, and clinical testing is ongoing. Both the inspiratory and expiratory phases have to be included in dynamic chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most appropriate chest radiography signal for observation of the respiratory process. We prepared ten protocol patterns that differed in terms of respiratory phase at X-ray exposure, exposure duration, and signal multiplicity. We also performed preliminary experiments and administered several questionnaires to ten volunteers. The volunteers breathed according to vocal and visual signals, and their respiratory waves were recorded by spirometer. The most appropriate protocol was similar to the method used for conventional chest radiography. PMID:12960952

  9. The MU-RAY detector for muon radiography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Basta, D.; Bonechi, L.; Brianzi, M.; Bross, A.; Callier, S.; Caputo, A.; Ciaranfi, R.; Cimmino, L.; D'Alessandro, R.; D'Auria, L.; de La Taille, C.; Energico, S.; Garufi, F.; Giudicepietro, F.; Lauria, A.; Macedonio, G.; Martini, M.; Masone, V.; Mattone, C.; Montesi, M. C.; Noli, P.; Orazi, M.; Passeggio, G.; Peluso, R.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Raux, L.; Rubinov, P.; Saracino, G.; Scarlini, E.; Scarpato, G.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Starodubtsev, O.; Strolin, P.; Taketa, A.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Vanzanella, A.

    2013-12-01

    The MU-RAY detector has been designed to perform muon radiography of volcanoes. The possible use on the field introduces several constraints. First the electric power consumption must be reduced to the minimum, so that the detector can be solar-powered. Moreover it must be robust and transportable, for what concerns the front-end electronics and data acquisition. A 1 m2 prototype has been constructed and is taking data at Mt. Vesuvius. The detector consists of modules of 32 scintillator bars with wave length shifting fibers and silicon photomultiplier read-out. A dedicated front-end electronics has been developed, based on the SPIROC ASIC. An introduction to muon radiography principles, the MU-RAY detector description and results obtained in laboratory will be presented.

  10. Study of a loop heat pipe using neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Cimbala, John M; Brenizer, Jack S; Chuang, Abel Po-Ya; Hanna, Shane; Thomas Conroy, C; El-Ganayni, A A; Riley, David R

    2004-10-01

    An explanation is given of what a loop heat pipe (LHP) is, and how it works. It is then shown that neutron imaging (both real time neutron radioscopy and single exposure neutron radiography) is an effective experimental tool for the study of LHPs. Specifically, neutron imaging has helped to identify and correct a cooling water distribution problem in the condenser, and has enabled visualization of two-phase flow (liquid and vapor) in various components of the LHP. In addition, partial wick dry-out, a phenomenon of great importance in the effective operation of LHPs, is potentially identifiable with neutron imaging. It is anticipated that neutron radioscopy and radiography will greatly contribute to our understanding of LHP operation, and will lead to improvement of LHP modeling and design. PMID:15246420