Science.gov

Sample records for radiography thoracic

  1. Thoracic radiography in the cat: Identification of cardiomegaly and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Guglielmini, Carlo; Diana, Alessia

    2015-12-01

    Thoracic radiography is one of the most commonly employed diagnostic tools for the clinical evaluation of cats with suspected heart disease and is the standard diagnostic method in the confirmation of cardiogenic pulmonary edema. In the past, interpretation of feline radiographs focused on a description of the qualitative radiographic features of feline heart disease or the measurement of the cardiac silhouette in healthy cats and cats with different cardiovascular disorders. More recently, studies have begun to critically address the issue of the diagnostic accuracy of thoracic radiography in the diagnostic work-up of cats with heart disease. In these studies, qualitative and quantitative radiographic parameters were compared to echocardiographic findings to evaluate the usefulness of thoracic radiography for the identification of cardiac enlargement and pulmonary edema in the cat. Thoracic radiography is reasonably specific but has a low sensitivity when identifying cardiomegaly in cats with mild structural heart disease. Feline cardiogenic pulmonary edema has a variable radiographic presentation and several specific radiographic findings (i.e., enlargement of the left atrium and the pulmonary veins) can be absent or non-recognizable in affected cats. PMID:26776597

  2. Thoracic limb morphology of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) evidenced by osteology and radiography.

    PubMed

    Makungu, Modesta; Groenewald, Hermanus B; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N

    2015-01-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is distributed primarily in the Himalayas and southern China. It is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. The aim of this study was to describe the normal osteology and radiographic anatomy of the thoracic limb of the red panda. Radiography of the right thoracic limb was performed in seven captive adult red pandas. Radiographic findings were correlated with bone specimens from three adult animals. The scapula was wide craniocaudally and presented with a large area for the origin of the teres major muscle. The square-shaped major tubercle did not extend proximal to the head of the humerus. The medial epicondyle was prominent. A supracondylar foramen was present. The radial tuberosity and sesamoid bone for the abductor digiti I longus were prominent. The accessory carpal bone was directed palmarolaterally. Metacarpal bones were widely spread. The thoracic limb morphology of the red panda evidenced by osteology and radiography indicated flexibility of the thoracic limb joints and well-developed flexor and supinator muscles, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Knowledge gained during this study may prove useful in identifying skeletal material or remains and diagnosing musculoskeletal diseases and injuries of the thoracic limb. PMID:26244684

  3. THORACIC SPINE IMAGING: A COMPARISON BETWEEN RADIOGRAPHY AND TOMOSYNTHESIS USING VISUAL GRADING CHARACTERISTICS.

    PubMed

    Ceder, Erik; Danielson, Barbro; Kovàč, Peter; Fogel, Hanna; Svalkvist, Angelica; Vikgren, Jenny; Båth, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate digital tomosynthesis (DTS) in thoracic spine imaging, comparing the reproduction of anatomical structures with that achieved using digital radiography (DR). In a prospective visual grading study, 23 patients referred in 2014 for elective radiographic examination of the thoracic spine were examined using lateral DR and DTS. The DR image and the DTS section images were read in random order by four radiologists, evaluating the ability of the modalities to present a clear reproduction of nine specific relevant structures of the thoracic vertebrae 3, 6 and 9 (T3, T6 and T9). The data were analysed using visual grading characteristics (VGC) analysis. The VGC analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in favour of DTS for all evaluated structures, except for the anterior vertebral edges and lower end plate surfaces of T6 and T9 and the cancellous bone of T9. The difference was most striking in T3 and for posterior structures. For no structure in any vertebra was the reproduction rated significantly better for DR. In conclusion, DTS of the thoracic spine appears to be a promising alternative to DR, especially in areas where the problem of overlaying anatomy is accentuated, such as posterior and upper thoracic structures. PMID:26868012

  4. Thoracic Radiography as a Refinement Methodology for the Study of H1N1 Influenza in Cynomologus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Brining, Douglas L; Mattoon, John S; Kercher, Lisa; LaCasse, Rachael A; Safronetz, David; Feldmann, Heinz; Parnell, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology associated with digital radiography have created new opportunities for biomedical research applications. Here we evaluated the use of thoracic radiography as a noninvasive refinement methodology for the cynomologus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) model of H1N1 infection. Thoracic radiographic evaluations of macaques infected with any of 3 strains of emerging H1N1 swine-associated influenza virus isolated during the recent pandemic were compared with those of macaques infected with the currently circulating Kawasaki strain of H1N1 influenza. Ventrodorsal, right, and left lateral thoracic radiographs were obtained at days 0, 1, 6, 8, 11, and 14 after infection. A board-certified veterinary radiologist who was blinded to the study design evaluated the images. Numeric scores of extent and severity of lung involvement assigned to each radiograph were compared and demonstrated a significant and substantial difference among groups. The radiographic evaluation allowed for noninvasive assessment of lung involvement, disease onset, progression, and resolution of radiographic changes associated with H1N1 influenza infection. PMID:21262125

  5. Thoracic Limb Morphology of the Ring-tailed Lemur (Lemur catta) Evidenced by Gross Osteology and Radiography.

    PubMed

    Makungu, M; Groenewald, H B; du Plessis, W M; Barrows, M; Koeppel, K N

    2015-08-01

    There is limited information available on the morphology of the thoracic limb of the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). This study describes the morphology of the thoracic limb of captive ring-tailed lemurs evidenced by gross osteology and radiography as a guide for clinical use. Radiographic findings of 12 captive ring-tailed lemurs are correlated with bone specimens of three adult animals. The clavicle is well developed. The scapula has a large area for the origin of the m. teres major. The coracoid and hamate processes are well developed. The lateral supracondylar crest and medial epicondyle are prominent. The metacarpal bones are widely spread, and the radial tuberosity is prominent. These features indicate the presence of strong flexor muscles and flexibility of thoracic limb joints, which are important in arboreal quadrupedal locomotion. Furthermore, an ovoid ossicle is always seen at the inter-phalangeal joint of the first digit. Areas of increased soft tissue opacity are superimposed over the proximal half of the humerus and distal half of the antebrachium in male animals as a result of the scent gland. Knowledge of the morphology of the thoracic limb of individual species is important for accurate interpretation and diagnosis of musculoskeletal diseases. PMID:25105809

  6. Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, C. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radiography is discussed as a method for nondestructive evaluation of internal flaws of solids. Gamma ray and X-ray equipment are described along with radiographic film, radiograph interpretation, and neutron radiography.

  7. Comparison of Ultrasonography and Radiography in Detection of Thoracic Bone Fractures; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Baikpour, Masoud; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Asady, Hadi; Darafarin, Abolfazl; Amini Esfahani, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Mostafa; Yaseri, Mehdi; Safari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The potential benefit of ultrasonography for detection of thoracic bone fractures has been proven in various surveys but no comprehensive conclusion has been drawn yet; therefore, the present study aimed to conduct a thorough meta-analytic systematic review on this subject. Methods: Two reviewers independently carried out a comprehensive systematic search in Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and ProQuest databases. Data were summarized as true positive, false positive, true negative and false negative and were analyzed via STATA 11.0 software using a mixed-effects binary regression model. Sources of heterogeneity were further assessed through subgroup analysis. Results: Data on 1667 patients (807 subjects with and 860 cases without thoracic fractures), whose age ranged from 0 to 92 years, were extracted from 17 surveys. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography in detection of thoracic bone fractures were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.90-0.99; I2= 88.88, p<0.001) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.86-0.97; I2= 71.97, p<0.001), respectively. The same measures for chest radiography were found to be 0.77 (95% CI: 0.56-0.90; I2= 97.76, p<0.001) and 1.0 (95% CI: 0.91-1.00; I2= 97.24, p<0.001), respectively. The sensitivity of ultrasonography was higher in detection of rib fractures, compared to fractures of sternum or clavicle (97% vs. 91%). Moreover, the sensitivity was found to be higher when the procedure was carried out by a radiologist in comparison to an emergency medicine specialist (96% vs. 90%). Conclusion: Base on the findings of the present meta-analysis, screening performance characteristic of ultrasonography in detection of thoracic bone fractures was found to be higher than radiography. However, these characteristics were more prominent in detection of rib fractures and in cases where was performed by a radiologist. PMID:27274514

  8. Sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver variability of survey thoracic radiography for the detection of heart base masses in dogs.

    PubMed

    Guglielmini, Carlo; Baron Toaldo, Marco; Quinci, Manuela; Romito, Giovanni; Luciani, Alessia; Cipone, Mario; Drigo, Michele; Diana, Alessia

    2016-06-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver variability of survey thoracic radiography (STR) for the detection of heart base masses (HBMs) in dogs. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. ANIMALS 30 dogs with an HBM and 120 breed-matched control dogs (60 healthy dogs and 60 dogs with heart disease and no HBM). PROCEDURES In a blinded manner, 2 observers (designated as A and B) evaluated STR views from each dog for a mass-like opacity cranial to the heart, tracheal deviation, cardiomegaly, findings suggestive of pericardial effusion or right-sided congestive heart failure, and soft tissue opacities suggestive of pulmonary metastases. Investigators subsequently provided a final interpretation of each dog's HBM status (definitely affected, equivocal, or definitely not affected). RESULTS Considering equivocal interpretation as negative or positive for an HBM, the sensitivity of STR for diagnosis of an HBM was 40.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.5% to 57.5%) and 56.7% (95% CI, 38.9% to 74.4%), respectively, for observer A and 63% (95% CI, 46.1% to 80.6%) and 80.0% (95% CI, 65.7% to 94.3%), respectively, for observer B. The corresponding specificity was 96.7% (95% CI, 93.5% to 99.9%) and 92.5% (95% CI, 87.8% to 97.2%), respectively, for observer A and 99.2% (95% CI, 97.5% to 100%) and 92.5% (95% CI, 87.8% to 97.2%), respectively, for observer B. The presence of a mass-like opacity cranial to the heart or tracheal deviation, or both, was significantly associated with a true diagnosis of HBM. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that STR is a highly specific but not a highly sensitive predictor of HBM in dogs. PMID:27270062

  9. Thoracic spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... Gillard JH, Schaefer-Prokop CM, eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. New ...

  10. Thoracic spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... The test is done in a hospital radiology department or in the health care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

  11. Comparison between diagnostic ultrasonography and radiography in the evaluation of horses and cattle with thoracic disease: 56 cases (1984-1985).

    PubMed

    Reef, V B; Boy, M G; Reid, C F; Elser, A

    1991-06-15

    The results of radiography and ultrasonography were compared on 56 horses and cows with lower respiratory tract disease. Ultrasonography was more sensitive than radiography for the detection of small pleural effusions and consolidations in large animals. The side of the thorax affected and the character of the pleural fluid and lung in large animals with pleural effusion can be evaluated ultrasonographically. The periphery of the lung must be affected to characterize pulmonary lesions ultrasonographically. Radiography is the best technique to characterize lesions deep within the lung when the periphery of the lung is normal. PMID:1885315

  12. [Digital thoracic radiology: devices, image processing, limits].

    PubMed

    Frija, J; de Géry, S; Lallouet, F; Guermazi, A; Zagdanski, A M; De Kerviler, E

    2001-09-01

    In a first part, the different techniques of digital thoracic radiography are described. Since computed radiography with phosphore plates are the most commercialized it is more emphasized. But the other detectors are also described, as the drum coated with selenium and the direct digital radiography with selenium detectors. The other detectors are also studied in particular indirect flat panels detectors and the system with four high resolution CCD cameras. In a second step the most important image processing are discussed: the gradation curves, the unsharp mask processing, the system MUSICA, the dynamic range compression or reduction, the soustraction with dual energy. In the last part the advantages and the drawbacks of computed thoracic radiography are emphasized. The most important are the almost constant good quality of the pictures and the possibilities of image processing. PMID:11567193

  13. [Thoracic actinomycosis: three cases].

    PubMed

    Herrak, L; Msougar, Y; Ouadnouni, Y; Bouchikh, M; Benosmane, A

    2007-09-01

    Actinomycosis is a rare condition which, in the thoracic localisation, can mimic cancer or tuberculosis. We report a series of three case of thoracic actinomycosis treated in the Ibn Sina University Thoracic Surgery Unit in Rabat, Morocco. CASE N degrees 1: This 45-year-old patient presented a tumefaction on the left anterior aspect of the chest. Physical examination identified a parietal mass with fistulisation to the skin. Radiography demonstrated a left pulmonary mass. Transparietal puncture led to the pathological diagnosis of actinomycosis. The patient was given medical treatment and improved clinically and radiographically. CASE N degrees 2: This 68-year-old patient presented repeated episodes of hemoptysis. The chest x-ray revealed atelectasia of the middle lobe and bronchial fibroscopy demonstrated the presence of a bud in the middle lobar bronchus. Biopsies were negative. The patient underwent surgery and the histology examination of the operative specimen revealed pulmonary actinomycosis. The patient recovered well clinically and radiographically with antibiotic therapy. CASE N degrees 3: This 56-year-old patient presented cough and hemoptysis. Physical examination revealed a left condensation and destruction of the left lung was noted on the chest x-ray. Left pleuropulmonectomy was performed. Histological analysis of the surgical specimen identified associated Aspergillus and Actinomyces. The outcome was favorable with medical treatment. The purpose of this work was to recall the radiological, clinical, histological, therapeutic, outcome aspects of this condition and to relate the problems of differential diagnosis when can suggest other diseases. PMID:17978739

  14. Thoracic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Worrell, Stephanie G; Demeester, Steven R

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses thoracic emergencies, including the anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, examination, diagnosis, technique, management, and treatment of acute upper airway obstruction, massive hemoptysis, spontaneous pneumothorax, and pulmonary empyema. PMID:24267505

  15. Thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Toribio, R E; Kohn, C W; Lawrence, A E; Hardy, J; Hutt, J A

    1999-05-01

    A 5-year-old Quarter Horse mare was examined because of lethargy, fever, and weight loss of 1 month's duration. Thoracic auscultation revealed decreased lung sounds cranioventrally. Thoracic ultrasonography revealed bilateral anechoic areas with hyperechoic strands, consistent with pleural effusion and fibrin tags. A large amount of free fluid was evident during abdominal ultrasonography. Abnormalities included anemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperglobulinemia, hyperfibrinogenemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Thoracic radiography revealed alveolar infiltrates in the cranial and caudoventral lung fields. A cavitary mass, consistent with an abscess, could be seen caudodorsal to the crura of the diaphragm. Ultrasonographic evaluation of this area revealed a hypoechoic mass with septations. Bilateral thoracocentesis was performed. Bacterial culture of the pleural fluid did not yield growth, but Blastomyces dermatitidis was isolated from pleural fluid, abdominal fluid, and an aspirate of the abscess. The mare was euthanatized, and a diagnosis of thoracic and abdominal blastomycosis was confirmed at necropsy. PMID:10319179

  16. Detection of comorbidities and synchronous primary tumours via thoracic radiography and abdominal ultrasonography and their influence on treatment outcome in dogs with soft tissue sarcomas, primary brain tumours and intranasal tumours.

    PubMed

    Bigio Marcello, A; Gieger, T L; Jiménez, D A; Granger, L Abbigail

    2015-12-01

    Canine soft tissue sarcomas (STS), primary brain tumours and intranasal tumours are commonly treated with radiotherapy (RT). Given the low metastatic potential of these tumours, recommendations regarding imaging tests as staging are variable among institutions. The purpose of our study was to describe thoracic radiographic and abdominal ultrasonographic findings in dogs with these neoplasms and to investigate association of abnormal findings with alterations in recommended treatment. Medical records from 101 dogs, each having thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound performed as part of their staging, were reviewed. In 98 of 101 (97%), imaging abnormalities were detected, 27% of which were further investigated with fine needle aspiration cytology or biopsy. Nine percent of the detected abnormalities were considered serious comorbidities that altered treatment recommendations, including 3 (3%) which were confirmed as synchronous primary neoplasms. These findings may influence recommendations regarding the decision to perform thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound prior to initiation of RT. PMID:23968175

  17. Thoracic aortic aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    Aortic aneurysm - thoracic; Syphilitic aneurysm; Aneurysm - thoracic aortic ... The most common cause of a thoracic aortic aneurysm is hardening of the ... with high cholesterol, long-term high blood pressure, or who ...

  18. Thoracic actinomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Slade, P. R.; Slesser, B. V.; Southgate, J.

    1973-01-01

    Six cases of pulmonary infection with Actinomyces Israeli and one case of infection with Nocardia asteroides are described. The incidence of thoracic actinomycosis has declined recently and the classical presentation with chronic discharging sinuses is now uncommon. The cases described illustrate some of the forms which the disease may take. Actinomycotic infection has been noted, not infrequently, to co-exist with bronchial carcinoma and a case illustrating this association is described. Sputum cytology as practised for the diagnosis of bronchial carcinoma has helped to identify the fungi in the sputum. Treatment is discussed, particularly the possible use of oral antibiotics rather than penicillin by injection. Images PMID:4568119

  19. Emergency Thoracic US: The Essentials.

    PubMed

    Wongwaisayawan, Sirote; Suwannanon, Ruedeekorn; Sawatmongkorngul, Sorravit; Kaewlai, Rathachai

    2016-01-01

    Acute thoracic symptoms are common among adults visiting emergency departments in the United States. Adults with these symptoms constitute a large burden on the overall resources used in the emergency department. The wide range of possible causes can make a definitive diagnosis challenging, even after clinical evaluation and initial laboratory testing. In addition to radiography and computed tomography, thoracic ultrasonography (US) is an alternative imaging modality that can be readily performed in real time at the patient's bedside to help diagnose many thoracic diseases manifesting acutely and in the trauma setting. Advantages of US include availability, relatively low cost, and lack of ionizing radiation. Emergency thoracic US consists of two main parts, lung and pleura US and focused cardiac US, which are closely related. Acoustic mismatches among aerated lungs, pleura, chest wall, and pathologic conditions produce artifacts useful for diagnosis of pneumothorax and pulmonary edema and help in detection of subpleural, pleural, and chest wall pathologic conditions such as pneumonia, pleural effusion, and fractures. Visual assessment of cardiac contractility and detection of right ventricular dilatation and pericardial effusion at focused cardiac US are critical in patients presenting with acute dyspnea and trauma. Additional US examinations of the inferior vena cava for noninvasive volume assessment and of the groin areas for detection of deep venous thrombosis are often performed at the same time. This multiorgan US approach can provide valuable information for emergency treatment of both traumatic and nontraumatic thoracic diseases involving the lungs, pleura, chest wall, heart, and vascular system. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27035835

  20. Digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Mattoon, J S

    2006-01-01

    Digital radiography has been used in human medical imaging since the 1980s with recent and rapid acceptance into the veterinary profession. Using advanced image capture and computer technology, radiographic images are viewed on a computer monitor. This is advantageous because radiographic images can be adjusted using dedicated computer software to maximize diagnostic image quality. Digital images can be accessed at computer workstations throughout the hospital, instantly retrieved from computer archives, and transmitted via the internet for consultation or case referral. Digital radiographic data can also be incorporated into a hospital information system, making record keeping an entirely paperless process. Digital image acquisition is faster when compared to conventional screen-film radiography, improving workflow and patient throughput. Digital radiography greatly reduces the need for 'retake' radiographs because of wide latitude in exposure factors. Also eliminated are costs associated with radiographic film and x-ray film development. Computed radiography, charged coupled devices, and flat panel detectors are types of digital radiography systems currently available. PMID:16971994

  1. Skull Radiography

    MedlinePlus

    What you need to know about… Skull Radiography X-ray images of the skull are taken when it is necessary to see the cranium, facial bones or jaw bones. ... Among other things, x-ray exams of the skull can show fractures. Patient Preparation Before the examination, ...

  2. Endodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Nixon, P P; Robinson, P B

    1997-05-01

    The ability to take radiographs of good diagnostic quality is an essential prerequisite for successful root canal therapy. However, the operator also has a responsibility to limit the radiation dose to the patient. This article reviews the radiography required for root canal treatment with these criteria in mind. PMID:9515363

  3. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Its Intense Demands New Website from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Puts the Power of Information ... Hotel Discount for STS Members Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. All rights reserved. Expanded Proprietary ...

  4. Digital Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.

  5. Blunt thoracic trauma.

    PubMed

    Weyant, Michael J; Fullerton, David A

    2008-01-01

    Blunt thoracic trauma represents a significant portion of trauma admissions to hospitals in the United States. These injuries are encountered by physicians in many specialities such as emergency medicine, pediatrics, general surgery and thoracic surgery. Accurate diagnosis and treatment improves the chances of favorable outcomes and it is desirable for all treating physicians to have current knowledge of all aspects of blunt thoracic trauma. Cardiothoracic surgeons often treat the most severe forms of blunt thoracic injuries and we review the aspects of blunt thoracic trauma that are pertinent to the practicing cardiothoracic surgeon. PMID:18420123

  6. Electron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  7. Prospective Evaluation of Thoracic Ultrasound in the Detection of Pneumothorax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. W.; Hamilton, D. R.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Billica, R. D.; Williams, D. R.; Diebel, L. N.; Sargysan, A. E.; Dulchavsky, S. A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: Pneumothorax (PTX) occurs commonly in trauma patients and is confirmed by examination and radiography. Thoracic ultrasound (VIS) has been suggested as an alternative method for rapidly diagnosing PTX when X-ray is unavailable as in rural, military, or space flight settings; however, its accuracy and specificity are not known. Methods: We evaluated the accuracy of thoracic U/S detection of PTX compared to radiography in stable, emergency patients with a high suspicion of PTX at a Level-l trauma center over a 6-month period. Following University and NASA Institutional Review Board approval, informed consent was obtained from patients with penetrating or blunt chest trauma, or with a history consistent with PTX. Whenever possible, the presence or absence of the " lung sliding" sign or the "comet tail" artifact were determined by U/S in both hemithoraces by residents instructed in thoracic U/S before standard radiologic verification of PTX. Results were recorded on data sheets for comparison to standard radiography. Results: Thoracic VIS had a 94% sensitivity; two PTX could not be reliably diagnosed due to subcutaneous air; the true negative rate was 100%. In one patient, the VIS exam was positive while X ray did not confirm PTX; a follow-up film 1 hour later demonstrated a small PTX. The average time for bilateral thoracic VIS examination was 2 to 3 minutes. Conclusions: Thoracic ultrasound reliably diagnoses pneumothorax. Presence of the "lung sliding" sign conclusively excludes pneumothorax. Expansion of the FAST examination to include the thorax should be investigated.

  8. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS LABORATORY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR AN 80-HOUR COURSE IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY FOR HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES TRAINING TO BECOME BEGINNING RADIOGRAPHERS. IT IS USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH TWO OTHER VOLUMES--(1) INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, AND (2) INUDSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY MANUAL. THE PROGRAM WAS DEVELOPED BY A COMMITTEE OF REPRESENTATIVES…

  9. Results of hemivertebrectomy and fusion for symptomatic thoracic disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Debnath, U K; McConnell, J R; Sengupta, D K; Mehdian, S M H; Webb, J K

    2003-06-01

    We retrospectively analysed ten consecutive patients (age range 32-77 years) treated surgically from 1994 to 1999 for symptomatic thoracic disc herniation between the 6th and 12th thoracic discs. Clinically, eight patients had varying grades of back pain and eight patients had paraparesis. Radiography showed calcification in 50% of the herniated discs. Two patients had two-level thoracic disc herniation. Hemivertebrectomy followed by discectomy and fusion was carried out in all patients. Instrumentation with cages was performed in eight patients and bone grafting alone in two patients. The average follow-up was 24 months (range 13-36 months). Six patients had an excellent or good outcome, three had a fair outcome and one had a poor outcome. One patient had atelectasis, which recovered within 2 days of surgery. Another patient had developed complete paraplegia, detected at surgery by SSEPs, and underwent resurgery following magnetic resonance (MR) scan with complete corpectomy and instrumented fusion. At 2 years, she had a functional recovery. The patient with poor outcome had undergone a previous discectomy at T9/10. He developed severe back pain and generalised hyper-reflexia following corpectomy and fusion for disc herniation at T10/11. We advocate anterior transthoracic discectomy following partial corpectomy for symptomatic thoracic disc herniation between the 6th and 12th thoracic discs. This procedure offers improved access to the thoracic disc for an instrumented fusion, which is likely to decrease the risk of iatrogenic injury to the spinal cord. PMID:12800003

  10. Thoracic outlet anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal vertebra to the rib. There may be pain in the neck and shoulders, and numbess in the last 3 fingers and inner forearm. Thoracic outlet syndrome is usually treated with physical therapy which helps ...

  11. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) causes pain in the shoulder, arm, and neck. It happens when the nerves or blood vessels just below your ... vein is compressed, your hand might be sensitive to cold, or turn pale or bluish. Your arm ...

  12. Understanding Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Freischlag, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome was once debated in the world of vascular surgery. Today, it is more understood and surprisingly less infrequent than once thought. Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is composed of three types: neurogenic, venous, and arterial. Each type is in distinction to the others when considering patient presentation and diagnosis. Remarkable advances have been made in surgical approach, physical therapy, and rehabilitation of these patients. Dedicated centers of excellence with multidisciplinary teams have been developed and continue to lead the way in future research. PMID:25140278

  13. Radiology of thoracic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Swensen, S.J.; Pugatch, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents the essential clinical and radiologic findings of a wide variety of thoracic diseases. The authors include conventional, CT and MR images of each disease discussed. In addition, they present practical differential diagnostic considerations for most of the radiographic findings or patterns portrayed.

  14. [Thoracic oncology: annual review].

    PubMed

    Sculier, J-P; Berghmans, T; Meert, A-P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the literature published in 2011-12 in the field of thoracic oncology. Are discussed because of new original publications: epidemiology, screening, pulmonary nodule, diagnosis and assessment, treatment of lung cancer non-small cell, small cell lung cancer, prognosis, palliative care and end of life, organization of care, mesothelioma. PMID:23755717

  15. [Single Port Thoracic Surgery and Reduced Port Thoracic Surgery].

    PubMed

    Onodera, Ken; Noda, Masafumi

    2016-07-01

    Single port thoracic surgery, reduced port surgery and needlescopic surgery attract attention as one of the minimally invasive surgery in thoracic surgery recently. Single port thoracic surgery was advocated by Rocco in 2004, it was reported usefulness of single port thoracic surgery for primary spontaneous pneumothorax. The surgical procedure as single (or reduced) port thoracic surgery is roughly divided into the following. One is operated with instruments inserted from the single extended incision, and the other is operated with instruments punctured without extending incision. It is not generally complicated procedures in single port thoracic surgery. Primary spontaneous pneumothorax and biopsy for lung and pleura are considered the surgical indication for single (or reduced) port surgery. It is revealed that single port surgery for primary spontaneous pneumothorax is less invasive than conventional surgery. Single port and reduced port thoracic surgery will spread furthermore in the future. PMID:27440029

  16. Trauma and Mobile Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Drafke, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Trauma and Mobile Radiography focuses on the radiography of trauma patients and of patients confined to bed. This book offers students a foundation in the skills they need to produce quality radiograms without causing additional injury or pain to the patient. Features of this new book include: coverage of the basics of radiography and patient care, including monitoring of heavily sedated, immobile, and accident patients. Information on the injuries associated with certain types of accidents, and methods for dealing with these problems. Detailed explanation of the positioning of each anatomical area. A Quick Reference Card with information on evaluating, monitoring and radiographing trauma patients.

  17. High energy neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gavron, A.; Morley, K.; Morris, C.; Seestrom, S.; Ullmann, J.; Yates, G.; Zumbro, J.

    1996-06-01

    High-energy spallation neutron sources are now being considered in the US and elsewhere as a replacement for neutron beams produced by reactors. High-energy and high intensity neutron beams, produced by unmoderated spallation sources, open potential new vistas of neutron radiography. The authors discuss the basic advantages and disadvantages of high-energy neutron radiography, and consider some experimental results obtained at the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility at Los Alamos.

  18. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings*

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Gláucia; Araujo, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Pereira e Silva, Jorge Luiz; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. PMID:25410842

  19. 8. VIEW OF RADIOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS INCLUDED RADIOGRAPHY AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF RADIOGRAPHY EQUIPMENT, TEST METHODS INCLUDED RADIOGRAPHY AND BETA BACKSCATTERING. (7/13/56) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. Nonintubated anesthesia for thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Nonintubated thoracic surgery has been used in procedures including pleura, lungs and mediastinum. Appropriate anesthesia techniques with or without sedation allow thoracic surgery patients to avoid the potential risks of intubated general anesthesia, particularly for the high-risk patients. However, nonintubated anesthesia for thoracic surgery has some benefits as well as problems. In this review, the background, indication, perioperative anesthetic consideration and management, and advantages and disadvantages are discussed and summarized. PMID:25589994

  1. Nonmalignant Adult Thoracic Lymphatic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Itkin, Maxim; McCormack, Francis X

    2016-09-01

    The thoracic lymphatic disorders are a heterogeneous group of uncommon conditions that are associated with thoracic masses, interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, and chylous complications. Accurate diagnosis of the thoracic lymphatic disorders has important implications for the newest approaches to management, including embolization and treatment with antilymphangiogenic drugs. New imaging techniques to characterize lymphatic flow, such as dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiogram, are redefining approaches to disease classification and therapy. PMID:27514588

  2. The Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Imel, G.R.; McClellan, G.C.; Pruett, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) operated by Argonne National Laboratory is described in this paper. NRAD was designed to allow radiography of highly absorbing reactor fuel assemblies in the vertical position on the routine basis. 7 figs.

  3. Real-time radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-02-26

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  4. Thoracic trauma in horses.

    PubMed

    Sprayberry, Kim A; Barrett, Elizabeth J

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic injuries involving the thorax can be superficial, necessitating only routine wound care, or they may extend to deeper tissue planes and disrupt structures immediately vital to respiratory and cardiac function. Diagnostic imaging, especially ultrasound, should be considered part of a comprehensive examination, both at admission and during follow-up. Horses generally respond well to diligent monitoring, intervention for complications, and appropriate medical or surgical care after sustaining traumatic wounds of the thorax. This article reviews the various types of thoracic injury and their management. PMID:25770070

  5. Aneurysms: thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kevin C; Lee, Eugene S

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) have many possible etiologies, including congenital heart defects (eg, bicuspid aortic valves, coarctation of the aorta), inherited connective tissue disorders (eg, Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos, Loeys-Dietz syndromes), and degenerative conditions (eg, medial necrosis, atherosclerosis of the aortic wall). Symptoms of rupture include a severe tearing pain in the chest, back, or neck, sometimes associated with cardiovascular collapse. Before rupture, TAAs may exert pressure on other thoracic structures, leading to a variety of symptoms. However, most TAAs are asymptomatic and are found incidentally during imaging for other conditions. Diagnosis is confirmed with computed tomography scan or echocardiography. Asymptomatic TAAs should be monitored with imaging at specified intervals and patients referred for repair if the TAAs are enlarging rapidly (greater than 0.5 cm in diameter over 6 months for heritable etiologies; greater than 0.5 cm over 1 year for degenerative etiologies) or reach a critical aortic diameter threshold for elective surgery (5.5 cm for TAAs due to degenerative etiologies, 5.0 cm when associated with inherited syndromes). Open surgery is used most often to treat asymptomatic TAAs in the ascending aorta and aortic arch. Asymptomatic TAAs in the descending aorta often are treated medically with aggressive blood pressure control, though recent data suggest that endovascular procedures may result in better long-term survival rates. PMID:25860136

  6. Flash Proton Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, Frank E.

    Protons were first investigated as radiographic probes as high energy proton accelerators became accessible to the scientific community in the 1960s. Like the initial use of X-rays in the 1800s, protons were shown to be a useful tool for studying the contents of opaque materials, but the electromagnetic charge of the protons opened up a new set of interaction processes which complicated their use. These complications in combination with the high expense of generating protons with energies high enough to penetrate typical objects resulted in proton radiography becoming a novelty, demonstrated at accelerator facilities, but not utilized to their full potential until the 1990s at Los Alamos. During this time Los Alamos National Laboratory was investigating a wide range of options, including X-rays and neutrons, as the next generation of probes to be used for thick object flash radiography. During this process it was realized that the charge nature of the protons, which was the source of the initial difficulty with this idea, could be used to recover this technique. By introducing a magnetic imaging lens downstream of the object to be radiographed, the blur resulting from scattering within the object could be focused out of the measurements, dramatically improving the resolution of proton radiography of thick systems. Imaging systems were quickly developed and combined with the temporal structure of a proton beam generated by a linear accelerator, providing a unique flash radiography capability for measurements at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This technique has now been employed at LANSCE for two decades and has been adopted around the world as the premier flash radiography technique for the study of dynamic material properties.

  7. Thoracic injuries in professional rugby players: mechanisms of injury and imaging characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Daichi; Roemer, Frank W; Kohler, Ryan; Guermazi, Ali; Gebers, Chris; De Villiers, Richard

    2014-07-01

    Professional rugby players are prone to traumatic thoracic injuries due to the use of minimal protective gear to cover the torso. In the 2007 Rugby World Cup, thoracic injuries occurred at a rate of 8.3 cases/1000 player-hours. CT and MRI play an important role in the diagnosis of these injuries. Vital internal organs, such as the heart, lungs, trachea, liver and large blood vessels lie within close proximity to the bony structures and what seems to be a simple rib fracture or clavicular dislocation can have potentially life-threatening complications that are not detected by conventional radiography. Cross-sectional imaging helps to determine the choice of treatment. Ultrasound offers a quick and dynamic imaging examination and allows high-resolution assessment of superficial tissues that complements conventional imaging. In this review article, we (1) presented data on incidence of thoracic injuries in professional rugby players; (2) described the anatomy of the joints comprising the thoracic cage and major muscles attached to the rib cage; (3) discussed indications and relevance for MRI and presented an optimised MRI protocol for assessment of suspected thoracic injury; and (4) illustrated various types of thoracic injuries seen in professional rugby players, including sternal contusion, retrosternal haematoma, manubriosternal disruption, sternoclavicular dislocation, rib fractures and injuries of the pectoralis major muscle. PMID:23962879

  8. Thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozoa, Glenn; Alves, Daniel; Fish, David E

    2011-08-01

    Of the many clinical entities involving the neck region, one of the most intriguing is thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS). TOS is an array of disorders that involves injury to the neurovascular structures in the cervicobrachial region. A classification system based on etiology, symptoms, clinical presentation, and anatomy is supported by most physicians. The first type of TOS is vascular, involving compression of either the subclavian artery or vein. The second type is true neurogenic TOS, which involves injury to the brachial plexus. Finally, the third and most controversial type is referred to as disputed neurogenic TOS. This article aims to provide the reader some understanding of the pathophysiology, workup, and treatment of this fascinating clinical entity. PMID:21824588

  9. Vascular Thoracic Outlet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mohamad Anas; Aljabri, Badr; Al-Omran, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Two distinct terms are used to describe vascular thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) depending on which structure is predominantly affected: venous TOS (due to subclavian vein compression) and arterial TOS (due to subclavian artery compression). Although the venous and arterial subtypes of TOS affect only 3% and <1% of all TOS patients respectively, the diagnostic and management approaches to venous and arterial TOS have undergone considerable evolution due to the recent emergence of minimally invasive endovascular techniques such as catheter-directed arterial and venous thrombolysis, and balloon angioplasty. In this review, we discuss the anatomical factors, etiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of vascular TOS patients. In addition, we use the most up to date observational evidence available to provide a contemporary approach to the diagnosis and management of venous TOS and arterial TOS patients. PMID:27568153

  10. Apparatus for proton radiography

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.

    1976-01-01

    An apparatus for effecting diagnostic proton radiography of patients in hospitals comprises a source of negative hydrogen ions, a synchrotron for accelerating the negative hydrogen ions to a predetermined energy, a plurality of stations for stripping extraction of a radiography beam of protons, means for sweeping the extracted beam to cover a target, and means for measuring the residual range, residual energy, or percentage transmission of protons that pass through the target. The combination of information identifying the position of the beam with information about particles traversing the subject and the back absorber is performed with the aid of a computer to provide a proton radiograph of the subject. In an alternate embodiment of the invention, a back absorber comprises a plurality of scintillators which are coupled to detectors.

  11. Quantitative film radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

    1991-02-26

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects.

  12. Cosmic Ray Scattering Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Cosmic ray muons are ubiquitous, are highly penetrating, and can be used to measure material densities by either measuring the stopping rate or by measuring the scattering of transmitted muons. The Los Alamos team has studied scattering radiography for a number of applications. Some results will be shown of scattering imaging for a range of practical applications, and estimates will be made of the utility of scattering radiography for nondestructive assessments of large structures and for geological surveying. Results of imaging the core of the Toshiba Nuclear Critical Assembly (NCA) Reactor in Kawasaki, Japan and simulations of imaging the damaged cores of the Fukushima nuclear reactors will be presented. Below is an image made using muons of a core configuration for the NCA reactor.

  13. Digital radiography in space.

    PubMed

    Hart, Rob; Campbell, Mark R

    2002-06-01

    With the permanent habitation of the International Space Station, the planning of longer duration exploration missions, and the possibility of space tourism, it is likely that digital radiography will be needed in the future to support medical care in space. Ultrasound is currently the medical imaging modality of choice for spaceflight. Digital radiography in space is limited because of prohibitive launch costs (in the region of $20,000/kg) that severely restrict the volume, weight, and power requirements of medical care hardware. Technological increases in radiography, a predicted ten-fold decrease in future launch costs, and an increasing clinical need for definitive medical care in space will drive efforts to expand the ability to provide medical care in space including diagnostic imaging. Normal physiological responses to microgravity, in conjunction with the high-risk environment of spaceflight, increase the risk of injury and could imply an extended recovery period for common injuries. The advantages of gravity on Earth, such as the stabilization of patients undergoing radiography and the drainage of fluids, which provide radiographic contrast, are unavailable in space. This creates significant difficulties in patient immobilization and radiographic positioning. Gravity-dependent radiological signs, such as lipohemarthrosis in knee and shoulder trauma, air or fluid levels in pneumoperitoneum, pleural effusion, or bowel obstruction, and the apical pleural edge in pneumothorax become unavailable. Impaired healing processes such as delayed callus formation following fracture will have implications on imaging, and recovery time lines are unknown. The confined nature of spacecraft and the economic impossibility of launching lead-based personal protective equipment present significant challenges to crew radiation safety. A modified, free-floating radiographic C-arm device equipped with a digital detector and utilizing teleradiology support is proposed as a

  14. Particle Beam Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, Ken; Ekdahl, Carl

    2014-02-01

    Particle beam radiography, which uses a variety of particle probes (neutrons, protons, electrons, gammas and potentially other particles) to study the structure of materials and objects noninvasively, is reviewed, largely from an accelerator perspective, although the use of cosmic rays (mainly muons but potentially also high-energy neutrinos) is briefly reviewed. Tomography is a form of radiography which uses multiple views to reconstruct a three-dimensional density map of an object. There is a very wide range of applications of radiography and tomography, from medicine to engineering and security, and advances in instrumentation, specifically the development of electronic detectors, allow rapid analysis of the resultant radiographs. Flash radiography is a diagnostic technique for large high-explosive-driven hydrodynamic experiments that is used at many laboratories. The bremsstrahlung radiation pulse from an intense relativistic electron beam incident onto a high-Z target is the source of these radiographs. The challenge is to provide radiation sources intense enough to penetrate hundreds of g/cm2 of material, in pulses short enough to stop the motion of high-speed hydrodynamic shocks, and with source spots small enough to resolve fine details. The challenge has been met with a wide variety of accelerator technologies, including pulsed-power-driven diodes, air-core pulsed betatrons and high-current linear induction accelerators. Accelerator technology has also evolved to accommodate the experimenters' continuing quest for multiple images in time and space. Linear induction accelerators have had a major role in these advances, especially in providing multiple-time radiographs of the largest hydrodynamic experiments.

  15. Patient care in radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.A.; McCloskey, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on patient care procedures for radiographers. The authors focus on the role of the radiographer as a member of the health care team. The authors report on such topics as communication in patient care: safety, medico-legal considerations, transfer and positioning; physical needs; infection control; medication; CPR standards, acute situations; examination of the GI tract; contrast media; special imaging techniques and bedside radiography.

  16. Regulatory aspects of neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J.

    1999-11-01

    While full legislation for industrial radiography with gamma and X-rays already exists in many countries, the situation is different for neutron radiography. Therefore, the licensing for equipment and procedures in this field has to be based on basic principles of national and international rules. This contribution will explain how the regulatory body in Switzerland deals with neutron radiography installations in order to maintain national standards of health and safety.

  17. [Thoracic outlet syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a well-known disorder, but its definition has been disputed. TOS is differentiated into five distinct disorders: arterial vascular, venous vascular, traumatic neurovascular, true neurologic (TN-TOS), and nonspecific TOS. TN-TOS is caused by compression of the lower plexus (T1>C8 roots and/or lower trunk) by a fibrous band. The most frequent presenting symptoms are insidious-onset atrophy and weakness of the intrinsic hand muscles, predominantly in the thenar eminence and radial digital flexors. Numbness and sensory loss are usually present, mainly in the ulnar forearm, although severe pain or pain/paresthesia proximal to the elbow can occur; however, sensory symptoms or signs can be absent in some patients. Nerve conduction studies are pathognomonic and show the loss or severe attenuation of the sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve. Additionally, they show a severely depressed median compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and, subsequently, a depressed ulnar CMAP and SNAP. TN-TOS is a rare disorder, although its incidence may be higher than previously believed. Hirayama disease is an important differential diagnosis. Nonspecific TOS, which is mainly diagnosed by provocative maneuvers, corresponds to the classical concept of TOS. However, this concept is now challenged and the existence of nonspecific TOS is doubted. PMID:25475030

  18. Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract Lower gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... Radiography? What is Lower GI Tract X-ray Radiography (Barium Enema)? Lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract radiography, also ...

  19. Excision of Thoracic Chondrosarcoma: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Le, Hai V; Wadhwa, Rishi; Theodore, Pierre; Mummaneni, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Chondrosarcomas are cartilage-matrix-forming tumors that make up 20-27% of primary malignant bone tumors and are the third most common primary bone malignancy after multiple myelomas and osteosarcomas. Radiographic assessment of this condition includes plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for tumor characterization and delineation of intraosseous and extraosseous involvement. Most chondrosarcomas are refractory to chemotherapy and radiation therapy; therefore, wide en bloc surgical excision offers the best chance for cure. Chondrosarcomas frequently affect the pelvis and upper and lower extremities. In rare instances, the chest wall can be involved, with chondrosarcomas occurring in the ribs, sternum, anterior costosternal junction, and posterior costotransverse junction. In this article, we present a patient with thoracic chondrosarcoma centered at the left T7 costotransverse joint with effacement of the left T7-T8 neuroforamen. We also detail our operative technique of wide en bloc chondrosarcoma excision and review current literature on this topic. PMID:27588229

  20. Excision of Thoracic Chondrosarcoma: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Rishi; Theodore, Pierre; Mummaneni, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Chondrosarcomas are cartilage-matrix-forming tumors that make up 20-27% of primary malignant bone tumors and are the third most common primary bone malignancy after multiple myelomas and osteosarcomas. Radiographic assessment of this condition includes plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging for tumor characterization and delineation of intraosseous and extraosseous involvement. Most chondrosarcomas are refractory to chemotherapy and radiation therapy; therefore, wide en bloc surgical excision offers the best chance for cure. Chondrosarcomas frequently affect the pelvis and upper and lower extremities. In rare instances, the chest wall can be involved, with chondrosarcomas occurring in the ribs, sternum, anterior costosternal junction, and posterior costotransverse junction. In this article, we present a patient with thoracic chondrosarcoma centered at the left T7 costotransverse joint with effacement of the left T7-T8 neuroforamen. We also detail our operative technique of wide en bloc chondrosarcoma excision and review current literature on this topic.

  1. Scatter in Cargo Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Erin A. Miller; Joseph A. Caggiano; Robert C. Runkle; Timothy A. White; Aaron M. Bevill

    2011-03-01

    As a complement to passive detection systems, radiographic inspection of cargo is an increasingly important tool for homeland security because it has the potential to detect highly attenuating objects associated with special nuclear material or surrounding shielding, in addition to screening for items such as drugs or contraband. Radiographic detection of such threat objects relies on high image contrast between regions of different density and atomic number (Z). Threat detection is affected by scatter of the interrogating beamin the cargo, the radiographic system itself, and the surrounding environment, which degrades image contrast. Here, we estimate the extent to which scatter plays a role in radiographic imaging of cargo containers. Stochastic transport simulations were performed to determine the details of the radiography equipment and surrounding environment, which are important in reproducing measured data and to investigate scatter magnitudes for typical cargo. We find that scatter plays a stronger role in cargo radiography than in typicalmedical imaging scenarios, even for low-density cargo, with scatter-toprimary ratios ranging from 0.14 for very low density cargo, to between 0.20 and 0.40 for typical cargo, and higher yet for dense cargo.

  2. Optimisation in general radiography

    PubMed Central

    Martin, CJ

    2007-01-01

    Radiography using film has been an established method for imaging the internal organs of the body for over 100 years. Surveys carried out during the 1980s identified a wide range in patient doses showing that there was scope for dosage reduction in many hospitals. This paper discusses factors that need to be considered in optimising the performance of radiographic equipment. The most important factor is choice of the screen/film combination, and the preparation of automatic exposure control devices to suit its characteristics. Tube potential determines the photon energies in the X-ray beam, with the selection involving a compromise between image contrast and the dose to the patient. Allied to this is the choice of anti-scatter grid, as a high grid ratio effectively removes the larger component of scatter when using higher tube potentials. However, a high grid ratio attenuates the X-ray beam more heavily. Decisions about grids and use of low attenuation components are particularly important for paediatric radiography, which uses lower energy X-ray beams. Another factor which can reduce patient dose is the use of copper filtration to remove more low-energy X-rays. Regular surveys of patient dose and comparisons with diagnostic reference levels that provide a guide representing good practice enable units for which doses are higher to be identified. Causes can then be investigated and changes implemented to address any shortfalls. Application of these methods has led to a gradual reduction in doses in many countries. PMID:21614270

  3. Thoracic Radiculopathy due to Rare Causes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic radiculopathy represents an uncommon spinal disorder that is frequently overlooked in the evaluation of thoracic, or abdominal pain syndrome. The clinical representation of this uncommon disorder is often atypical. With many differential diagnoses to consider, it is not surprising that the cause of thoracic radiculopathy is often not discovered for months, or years, after the symptoms arise. We report two rare cases of thoracic radiculopathy; one case was caused by extraskeletal Ewing sarcoma (EES) along the thoracic paraspinal area, and the other by foraminal stenosis, due to a bony spur of the thoracic vertebra. As such, thoracic radiculopathy should be considered in the diagnosis of patients with thoracic and abdominal pain, especially if initial diagnostic studies are inconclusive. PMID:27446792

  4. [Thoracic endometriosis and catamenial pneumothorax].

    PubMed

    Voskresenskiĭ, O V; Smoliar, A N; Damirov, M M; Galankina, I E; Zhelev, I G

    2014-01-01

    It was analyzed own experience of diagnosis and treatment of catamenial (menstrual) pneumothorax and thoracic endometriosis and literature review. It is shown that catamenial pneumothorax has specific clinical and instrumental signs allowing to establish the diagnosis before surgery. It was proposed surgical treatment including the removal of trans diaphragmatic way of pneumothorax development, removal of thoracic endometriosis and the establishment of reliable pleurodesis. It was demonstrated that this volume of surgery can be successfully implemented by using of thoracoscopic access. Relapse prevention includes hormonal therapy for the 6 months after surgery under the supervision of an obstetrician-gynecologist. PMID:25484144

  5. Image Acquisition and Quality in Digital Radiography.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Shannon

    2016-09-01

    Medical imaging has undergone dramatic changes and technological breakthroughs since the introduction of digital radiography. This article presents information on the development of digital radiography and types of digital radiography systems. Aspects of image quality and radiation exposure control are highlighted as well. In addition, the article includes related workplace changes and medicolegal considerations in the digital radiography environment. PMID:27601691

  6. Digital radiography: an overview.

    PubMed

    Parks, Edwin T; Williamson, Gail F

    2002-11-15

    Since the discovery of X-rays in 1895, film has been the primary medium for capturing, displaying, and storing radiographic images. It is a technology that dental practitioners are the most familiar and comfortable with in terms of technique and interpretation. Digital radiography is the latest advancement in dental imaging and is slowly being adopted by the dental profession. Digital imaging incorporates computer technology in the capture, display, enhancement, and storage of direct radiographic images. Digital imaging offers some distinct advantages over film, but like any emerging technology, it presents new and different challenges for the practitioner to overcome. This article presents an overview of digital imaging including basic terminology and comparisons with film-based imaging. The principles of direct and indirect digital imaging modalities, intraoral and extraoral applications, image processing, and diagnostic efficacy will be discussed. In addition, the article will provide a list of questions dentists should consider prior to purchasing digital imaging systems for their practice. PMID:12444400

  7. Filters For Chest Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, N.; Paron, J.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of low dose radiography is achieved by a judicious combination of proper kV selection, fast film-screen systems and beam filtration. A systematic study of filters was undertaken to evaluate the improvements that can be realized in terms of patient Entrance Skin Exposures (ESE) for chest radiographs. The Picker CD 135 Generator and the Automatic Chest Filmer with dynamic phototiming were used for the study. The kV dependence of ESE with various amounts of zinc and aluminum filtration is presented. The effect of filtration on image contrast is discussed. The variations of ESE with phantom thickness under different filtration conditions are also considered. It was found that the ESE can be reduced by as much as a factor of 1.8 ± .1 with no significant increase in tube loading.

  8. Imaging of acute thoracic injury: the advent of MDCT screening.

    PubMed

    Mirvis, Stuart E

    2005-10-01

    Chest radiography remains the primary screening study for the assessment of victims of chest trauma, but computed tomography (CT), particularly multidetector CT (MDCT), has progressively changed the imaging approach to these patients. MDCT acquires thinner sections with greater speed, allowing higher quality axial images and nonaxial reformations than conventional or single-detector helical CT. The speed of MDCT, both in acquiring data and in reconstructing images, makes the performance of total body surveys in the blunt polytrauma patient practicable. In general, CT has been well documented to offer major advantages over chest radiography in both screening for thoracic injuries and in characterizing such injuries. This capacity has been enhanced by the application of multichannel data acquisition. The greater sensitivity of MDCT has been well demonstrated in diagnosing vascular and diaphragmatic injuries. This article reviews current concepts of diagnostic imaging in acute chest trauma from blunt force and penetrating mechanisms emphasizing the spectrum of diagnostic imaging findings for various injuries, based primarily on radiographic and CT appearances. The advantages of MDCT for selected injuries are emphasized. PMID:16274001

  9. Multiple-image radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernick, Miles N.; Wirjadi, Oliver; Chapman, Dean; Zhong, Zhong; Galatsanos, Nikolas P.; Yang, Yongyi; Brankov, Jovan G.; Oltulu, Oral; Anastasio, Mark A.; Muehleman, Carol

    2003-12-01

    Conventional radiography produces a single image of an object by measuring the attenuation of an x-ray beam passing through it. When imaging weakly absorbing tissues, x-ray attenuation may be a suboptimal signature of disease-related information. In this paper we describe a new phase-sensitive imaging method, called multiple-image radiography (MIR), which is an improvement on a prior technique called diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI). This paper elaborates on our initial presentation of the idea in Wernick et al (2002 Proc. Int. Symp. Biomed. Imaging pp 129-32). MIR simultaneously produces several images from a set of measurements made with a single x-ray beam. Specifically, MIR yields three images depicting separately the effects of refraction, ultra-small-angle scatter and attenuation by the object. All three images have good contrast, in part because they are virtually immune from degradation due to scatter at higher angles. MIR also yields a very comprehensive object description, consisting of the angular intensity spectrum of a transmitted x-ray beam at every image pixel, within a narrow angular range. Our experiments are based on data acquired using a synchrotron light source; however, in preparation for more practical implementations using conventional x-ray sources, we develop and evaluate algorithms designed for Poisson noise, which is characteristic of photon-limited imaging. The results suggest that MIR is capable of operating at low photon count levels, therefore the method shows promise for use with conventional x-ray sources. The results also show that, in addition to producing new types of object descriptions, MIR produces substantially more accurate images than its predecessor, DEI. MIR results are shown in the form of planar images of a phantom and a biological specimen. A preliminary demonstration of the use of MIR for computed tomography is also presented.

  10. [A case of thoracic actinomycosis].

    PubMed

    Denisova, O A; Cherniavskaia, G M; Beloborodova, É I; Topol'nitskiĭ, E B; Iakimenko, Iu V; Chernogoriuk, G É; Beloborodova, E V; Strezh, Iu A; Vil'danova, L R

    2014-01-01

    A case of thoracic actinomycosis manifest as round shadow in the lung is described. Diagnosis was based on the presence of actinomycetes in a transthoracic lung biopsy sample. Treatment for 3 months resulted in recovery. No relapse was documented during 1 year follow-up period. PMID:25265662

  11. Endovascular Repair of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Findeiss, Laura K.; Cody, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Degenerative aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are increasing in prevalence; open repair of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Repair of isolated descending thoracic aortic aneurysms using stent grafts was introduced in 1995, and in an anatomically suitable subgroup of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm, repair with endovascular stent graft provides favorable outcomes, with decreased perioperative morbidity and mortality relative to open repair. The cornerstones of successful thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair are appropriate patient selection, thorough preprocedural planning, and cautious procedural execution, the elements of which are discussed here. PMID:22379281

  12. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Upper GI Tract Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography or ... X-ray? What is Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract Radiography? Upper gastrointestinal tract radiography, also called an upper ...

  13. Reoperation for thoracic outlet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sessions, R T

    1989-01-01

    The clinical history and operative findings in a group of 60 patients who underwent reoperation for thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) are presented. The patients were severely disabled by arm, shoulder, and neck pain and presented with physical findings pointing to scar fixation of the brachial plexus in the neck (upper tract recurrence) or at the thoracic outlet (lower tract recurrence). The causes of recurrence of TOS as discovered at operation are outlined. Basic principles governing the surgical management of recurrent TOS are elimination of the known causes of recurrence, thorough neurolysis of the brachial plexus, and coverage of the nerves with healthy fat. The role of an expanded PTFE surgical membrane (Gortex) as an adjunct to prevent recurrent scarring is discussed. The surgeon who operates on patients with recurrent TOS must be capable of managing the potential intraoperative complications of severe nerve injury and life threatening bleeding. PMID:2745532

  14. Angular signal radiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Panyun; Zhang, Kai; Bao, Yuan; Ren, Yuqi; Ju, Zaiqiang; Wang, Yan; He, Qili; Zhu, Zhongzhu; Huang, Wanxia; Yuan, Qingxi; Zhu, Peiping

    2016-03-21

    Microscopy techniques using visible photons, x-rays, neutrons, and electrons have made remarkable impact in many scientific disciplines. The microscopic data can often be expressed as the convolution of the spatial distribution of certain properties of the specimens and the inherent response function of the imaging system. The x-ray grating interferometer (XGI), which is sensitive to the deviation angle of the incoming x-rays, has attracted significant attention in the past years due to its capability in achieving x-ray phase contrast imaging with low brilliance source. However, the comprehensive and analytical theoretical framework is yet to be presented. Herein, we propose a theoretical framework termed angular signal radiography (ASR) to describe the imaging process of the XGI system in a classical, comprehensive and analytical manner. We demonstrated, by means of theoretical deduction and synchrotron based experiments, that the spatial distribution of specimens' physical properties, including absorption, refraction and scattering, can be extracted by ASR in XGI. Implementation of ASR in XGI offers advantages such as simplified phase retrieval algorithm, reduced overall radiation dose, and improved image acquisition speed. These advantages, as well as the limitations of the proposed method, are systematically investigated in this paper. PMID:27136780

  15. Nanotechnology applications in thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-07-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging, rapidly evolving field with the potential to significantly impact care across the full spectrum of cancer therapy. Of note, several recent nanotechnological advances show particular promise to improve outcomes for thoracic surgical patients. A variety of nanotechnologies are described that offer possible solutions to existing challenges encountered in the detection, diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. Nanotechnology-based imaging platforms have the ability to improve the surgical care of patients with thoracic malignancies through technological advances in intraoperative tumour localization, lymph node mapping and accuracy of tumour resection. Moreover, nanotechnology is poised to revolutionize adjuvant lung cancer therapy. Common chemotherapeutic drugs, such as paclitaxel, docetaxel and doxorubicin, are being formulated using various nanotechnologies to improve drug delivery, whereas nanoparticle (NP)-based imaging technologies can monitor the tumour microenvironment and facilitate molecularly targeted lung cancer therapy. Although early nanotechnology-based delivery systems show promise, the next frontier in lung cancer therapy is the development of 'theranostic' multifunctional NPs capable of integrating diagnosis, drug monitoring, tumour targeting and controlled drug release into various unifying platforms. This article provides an overview of key existing and emerging nanotechnology platforms that may find clinical application in thoracic surgery in the near future. PMID:26843431

  16. Thoracic spine sports-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Menzer, Heather; Gill, G Keith; Paterson, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Although sports-related injuries to the thoracic spine are relatively uncommon, they are among the most feared due to the potential for catastrophic neurologic injury. The increased biomechanical support of the thoracic spine makes injuries in this region particularly rare compared with the cervical and lumbar spine. As a result, thoracic spine injuries can be missed easily, difficult to diagnose, and problematic to treat. Recognition of mechanism and awareness of injury patterns help physicians determine a diagnosis and create an index of suspicion for unstable thoracic spine injuries. Aggressive full-contact sports receive the most attention for spinal injury; however several sports with repetitive loading of the spine can cause severe injuries, including rowing, gymnastics, and golf. The goal of this article was to provide an overview of the unique anatomic and biomechanical features of the thoracic spine and to discuss some of the more common thoracic injuries that can affect athletes. PMID:25574880

  17. TEVAR: Endovascular Repair of the Thoracic Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Nation, David A.; Wang, Grace J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has allowed a minimally invasive approach for management of an array of thoracic aortic pathologies. Initially developed specifically for exclusion of thoracic aortic aneurysms, TEVAR is now used as an alternative to open surgery for a variety of disease pathologies due to the lower morbidity of this approach. Advances in endograft technology continue to broaden the applications of this technique. PMID:26327745

  18. Fast and thermal neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Jay T.; Piestrup, Melvin A.; Wu, Xizeng

    2005-09-01

    There is a need for high brightness neutron sources that are portable, relatively inexpensive, and capable of neutron radiography in short imaging times. Fast and thermal neutron radiography is as an excellent method to penetrate high-density, high-Z objects, thick objects and image its interior contents, especially hydrogen-based materials. In this paper we model the expected imaging performance characteristics and limitations of fast and thermal radiography systems employing a Rose Model based transfer analysis. For fast neutron detection plastic fiber array scintllators or liquid scintillator filled capillary arrays are employed for fast neutron detection, and 6Li doped ZnS(Cu) phosphors are employed for thermal neutron detection. These simulations can provide guidance in the design, construction, and testing of neutron imaging systems. In particular we determined for a range of slab thickness, the range of thicknesses of embedded cracks (air-filled or filled with material such as water) which can be detected and imaged.

  19. Practical genetics of thoracic aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Elefteriades, John A; Pomianowski, Pawel

    2013-01-01

    This chapter will provide a practical look at the rapidly evolving field regarding the genetics of thoracic aortic aneurysm. It will start with a look at the history of the genetics of thoracic aortic aneurysm and will then move on to elucidating the discovery of familial patterns of thoracic aortic aneurysm. We will next review the Mendelian genetics of transmission of thoracic aortic aneurysm. We will move on to the molecular genetics at the DNA level and finish with a discussion of the molecular genetics at the RNA level, including a promising investigational "RNA Signature" test that we have been developing at Yale. PMID:23993238

  20. Traumatic injury of the thoracic duct.

    PubMed

    Guzman, A E; Rossi, L; Witte, C L; Smyth, S

    2002-03-01

    Injuries to the thoracic duct are infrequent but may become life-threatening when chylous leakage persists. This report describes 6 patients with such injuries in whom the leakage resolved spontaneously in one, was corrected using microsurgical lymphatic repair or lymphatic-venous anastomosis in two, successfully treated either by ligation of the thoracic duct or insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt in two, and was eventually controlled after bilateral pleurodesis and thoracic duct ligation by insertion of a peritoneo-venous shunt in one. Conventional lymphography is superior to lymphoscintigraphy and is usually required to document disruption of the thoracic duct. PMID:11939572

  1. Quality assurance in orthodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Brown, J E

    1995-02-01

    The implementation of a Quality Assurance (QA) programme in orthodontic radiography is designed to improve the quality of the resultant radiographs and to reduce the number of repeat exposures. This is particularly desirable in orthodontic practice where the majority of patients are young and therefore more at risk from the detrimental effects of X-rays. A programme is described and QA tests are given that may be applied in the surgery. Particular emphasis is placed on QA measures for extraoral radiography, since this is frequently undertaken in the treatment of the orthodontic patient. PMID:7786872

  2. A simple approach for 3D reconstruction of the spine from biplanar radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhua; Shi, Xinling; Lv, Liang; Guo, Fei; Zhang, Yufeng

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposed a simple approach for 3D spinal reconstruction from biplanar radiography. The proposed reconstruction consisted in reconstructing the 3D central curve of the spine based on the epipolar geometry and automatically aligning vertebrae under the constraint of this curve. The vertebral orientations were adjusted by matching the projections of the 3D pedicles with the 2D pedicles in biplanar radiographs. The user interaction time was within one minute for a thoracic spine. Sixteen pairs of radiographs of a thoracic spinal model were used to evaluate the precision and accuracy. The precision was within 3.1 mm for the location and 3.5° for the orientation. The accuracy was within 3.5 mm for the location and 3.9° for the orientation. These results demonstrate that this approach can be a promising tool to obtain the 3D spinal geometry with acceptable user interactions in scoliotic clinics.

  3. Treatment of intrathoracic grass awn migration with video-assisted thoracic surgery in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Shamir, Shelly; Mayhew, Philipp D; Zwingenberger, Allison; Johnson, Lynelle R

    2016-07-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 17-month-old sexually intact male Vizsla and a 2-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog were examined because of suspected intrathoracic grass awn migration. CLINICAL FINDINGS Thoracic CT revealed focal areas of pulmonary infiltration in the right caudal lung lobe in one dog and in the left caudal lung lobe in the other. In 1 patient, bronchoscopy revealed 2 grass awns in the bronchi. Results of thoracic radiography and bronchoscopy were unremarkable in the second patient; however, a grass awn was recovered from the tonsillar crypt during oropharyngeal examination. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME In both dogs, grass awns were successfully retrieved from the pleural cavity by means of video-assisted thoracic surgery during 1-lung ventilation. In one patient, a grass awn was recovered bronchoscopically from the left caudal lung lobe bronchus and another was visualized distally in an accessory lung lobe bronchus but could not be retrieved. This dog underwent accessory lung lobectomy. The second dog underwent left caudal lung lobectomy. Both patients recovered uneventfully from surgery, were discharged from the hospital, and had no apparent recurrence of clinical signs at telephone follow-up 31 months and 18 months after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE With careful case selection, successful management of intrathoracic grass awn migration in dogs can be achieved by means of video-assisted thoracic surgery. Comprehensive preoperative evaluation including both computed tomography and bronchoscopy is suggested. Further investigation is necessary to evaluate whether treatment of this condition with video-assisted thoracic surgery is as effective as with traditional open thoracotomy. PMID:27379598

  4. Endovascular Repair of Traumatic Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta: Single-Center Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Saratzis, Nikolaos A. Saratzis, Athanasios N.; Melas, Nikolaos; Ginis, Georgios; Lioupis, Athanasios; Lykopoulos, Dimitrios; Lazaridis, John; Dimitrios, Kiskinis

    2007-06-15

    Purpose. Traumatic rupture of the thoracic aorta secondary to blunt chest trauma is a life-threatening emergency and a common cause of death, usually following violent collisions. The objective of this retrospective report was to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions with a single commercially available stent-graft. Methods. Nine men (mean age 29.5 years) were admitted to our institution between January 2003 and January 2006 due to blunt aortic trauma following violent motor vehicle collisions. Plain chest radiography, spiral computed tomography, aortography, and transesophageal echocardiography were used for diagnostic purposes in all cases. All patients were diagnosed with contained extramural thoracic aortic hematomas, secondary to aortic disruption. One patient was also diagnosed with a traumatic thoracic aortic dissection, secondary to blunt trauma. All subjects were poor surgical candidates, due to major injuries such as multiple bone fractures, abdominal hematomas, and pulmonary contusions. All repairs were performed using the EndoFit (LeMaitre Vascular) stent-graft. Results. Complete exclusion of the traumatic aortic disruption and pseudoaneurysm was achieved and verified at intraoperative arteriography and on CT scans, within 10 days of the repair in all patients. In 1 case the deployment of a second cuff was necessary due to a secondary endoleak. In 2 cases the left subclavian artery was occluded to achieve adequate graft fixation. No procedure-related deaths have occurred and no cardiac or peripheral vascular complications were observed within the 12 months (range 8-16 months) follow-up. Conclusions. This is the first time the EndoFit graft has been utilized in the treatment of thoracic aortic disruptions secondary to chest trauma. The repair of such pathologies is technically feasible and early follow-up results are promising.

  5. Evolution of thoracic surgery in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, Jean; Griffith Pearson, F; Nelems, Bill

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Canada’s contributions toward the 21st century’s practice of thoracic surgery have been both unique and multilayered. Scattered throughout are tales of pioneers where none had gone before, where opportunities were greeted by creativity and where iconic figures followed one another. OBJECTIVE: To describe the numerous and important achievements of Canadian thoracic surgeons in the areas of surgery for pulmonary tuberculosis, thoracic oncology, airway surgery and lung transplantation. METHOD: Information was collected through reading of the numerous publications written by Canadian thoracic surgeons over the past 100 years, interviews with interested people from all thoracic surgery divisions across Canada and review of pertinent material form the archives of several Canadian hospitals and universities. RESULTS: Many of the developments occurred by chance. It was the early and specific focus on thoracic surgery, to the exclusion of cardiac and general surgery, that distinguishes the Canadian experience, a model that is now emerging everywhere. From lung transplantation in chimera twin calves to ex vivo organ preservation, from the removal of airways to tissue regeneration, and from intensive care research to complex science, Canadians have excelled in their commitment to research. Over the years, the influence of Canadian thoracic surgery on international practice has been significant. CONCLUSIONS: Canada spearheaded the development of thoracic surgery over the past 100 years to a greater degree than any other country. From research to education, from national infrastructures to the regionalization of local practices, it happened in Canada.

  6. The Thoracic Shape of Hominoids

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lap Ki

    2014-01-01

    In hominoids, the broad thorax has been assumed to contribute to their dorsal scapular position. However, the dorsoventral diameter of their cranial thorax was found in one study to be longer in hominoids. There are insufficient data on thoracic shape to explain the relationship between broad thorax and dorsal scapular position. The current study presents data on multilevel cross-sectional shape and volume distribution in a range of primates. Biplanar radiographs of intact fluid-preserved cadavers were taken to measure the cross-sectional shape of ten equally spaced levels through the sternum (called decisternal levels) and the relative volume of the nine intervening thoracic segments. It was found that the cranial thorax of hominoids is larger and broader (except in the first two decisternal levels) than that of other primates. The cranial thorax of hominoids has a longer dorsoventral diameter because the increase in dorsoventral diameter caused by the increase in the volume of the cranial thorax overcompensates for the decrease caused by the broadening of the cranial thorax. The larger and broader cranial thorax in hominoids can be explained as a locomotor adaptation for scapular gliding and as a respiratory adaptation for reducing the effects of orthograde posture on ventilation-perfusion inequality. PMID:24818026

  7. Thoracic organ transplantation: laboratory methods.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jignesh K; Kobashigawa, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    Although great progress has been achieved in thoracic organ transplantation through the development of effective immunosuppression, there is still significant risk of rejection during the early post-transplant period, creating a need for routine monitoring for both acute antibody and cellular mediated rejection. The currently available multiplexed, microbead assays utilizing solubilized HLA antigens afford the capability of sensitive detection and identification of HLA and non-HLA specific antibodies. These assays are being used to assess the relative strength of donor specific antibodies; to permit performance of virtual crossmatches which can reduce the waiting time to transplantation; to monitor antibody levels during desensitization; and for heart transplants to monitor antibodies post-transplant. For cell mediated immune responses, the recent development of gene expression profiling has allowed noninvasive monitoring of heart transplant recipients yielding predictive values for acute cellular rejection. T cell immune monitoring in heart and lung transplant recipients has allowed individual tailoring of immunosuppression, particularly to minimize risk of infection. While the current antibody and cellular laboratory techniques have enhanced the ability to manage thoracic organ transplant recipients, future developments from improved understanding of microchimerism and graft tolerance may allow more refined allograft monitoring techniques. PMID:23775735

  8. The thoracic shape of hominoids.

    PubMed

    Chan, Lap Ki

    2014-01-01

    In hominoids, the broad thorax has been assumed to contribute to their dorsal scapular position. However, the dorsoventral diameter of their cranial thorax was found in one study to be longer in hominoids. There are insufficient data on thoracic shape to explain the relationship between broad thorax and dorsal scapular position. The current study presents data on multilevel cross-sectional shape and volume distribution in a range of primates. Biplanar radiographs of intact fluid-preserved cadavers were taken to measure the cross-sectional shape of ten equally spaced levels through the sternum (called decisternal levels) and the relative volume of the nine intervening thoracic segments. It was found that the cranial thorax of hominoids is larger and broader (except in the first two decisternal levels) than that of other primates. The cranial thorax of hominoids has a longer dorsoventral diameter because the increase in dorsoventral diameter caused by the increase in the volume of the cranial thorax overcompensates for the decrease caused by the broadening of the cranial thorax. The larger and broader cranial thorax in hominoids can be explained as a locomotor adaptation for scapular gliding and as a respiratory adaptation for reducing the effects of orthograde posture on ventilation-perfusion inequality. PMID:24818026

  9. Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of the left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery as a surgical strategy has been shown to improve the survival rate and decrease the risk of adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. These clinical benefits appear to be related to the superior short and long-term patency rates of the internal thoracic artery graft. Although the advantages of using of both internal thoracic arteries (ITA) for bypass grafting have taken longer to prove, recent results from multiple data sets now support these findings. The major advantage of bilateral ITA grafting appears to be improved survival rate, while the disadvantages of complex ITA grafting include the increased complexity of operation, and an increased risk of wound complications. While these short-term disadvantages have been mitigated in contemporary surgical practice, they have not eliminated. Bilateral ITA grafting should be considered the procedure of choice for patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery that have a predicted survival rate of longer than ten years. PMID:23977627

  10. Proximal caries detection accuracy using intraoral bitewing radiography, extraoral bitewing radiography and panoramic radiography

    PubMed Central

    Kamburoğlu, K; Kolsuz, E; Murat, S; Yüksel, S; Özen, T

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare proximal caries detection using intraoral bitewing, extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography. Methods 80 extracted human premolar and molar teeth with and without proximal caries were used. Intraoral radiographs were taken with Kodak Insight film (Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY) using the bitewing technique. Extraoral bitewing and panoramic images were obtained using a Planmeca Promax Digital Panoramic X-ray unit (Planmeca Inc., Helsinki, Finland). Images were evaluated by three observers twice. In total, 160 proximal surfaces were assessed. Intra- and interobserver kappa coefficients were calculated. Scores obtained from the three techniques were compared with the histological gold standard using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Az values for each image type, observer and reading were compared using z-tests, with a significance level of α = 0.05. Results Kappa coefficients ranged from 0.883 to 0.963 for the intraoral bitewing, from 0.715 to 0.893 for the extraoral bitewing, and from 0.659 to 0.884 for the panoramic radiography. Interobserver agreements for the first and second readings for the intraoral bitewing images were between 0.717 and 0.780, the extraoral bitewing readings were between 0.569 and 0.707, and the panoramic images were between 0.477 and 0.740. The Az values for both readings of all three observers were highest for the intraoral bitewing. Az values for the extraoral bitewing images were higher than those of the panoramic images without statistical significance (p > 0.05). Conclusion Intraoral bitewing radiography was superior to extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography in diagnosing proximal caries of premolar and molar teeth ex vivo. Similar intra- and interobserver coefficients were calculated for extraoral bitewing and panoramic radiography. PMID:22868296

  11. [Thoracic nocardiosis - a clinical report].

    PubMed

    Vale, Artur; Guerra, Miguel; Martins, Daniel; Lameiras, Angelina; Miranda, José; Vouga, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Nocardia genus microorganisms are ubiquitous, Gram positive aerobic bacterias, responsible for disease mainly in immunocompromised hosts, with cellular immune response commitment. Inhalation is the main form of transmition and pulmonary disease is the most frequent presentation. Dissemination may occur by contiguity and also via hematogenous. The clinical and imaging presentation is not specific, and diagnosis is obtained after identification of Nocardia bacteria in biological samples. Since there are no reliable studies that indicate the best therapeutic option, treatment should be individualized and based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Surgical drainage should also be considered in all patients. The authors present a clinical case of a patient with thoracic nocardiosis, and make a short literature review on the theme. PMID:25596394

  12. Ossification of thoracic ligamenta flava

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, S.; Minoru, O.; Russell, W.J.

    1983-07-01

    Although ligamentum flavum ossification (LFO) often occurs in normal persons, there are no reports of its detection on lateral chest radiographs made during screening examinations. Review of 1,744 consecutive lateral chest radiographs identified LFO in 6.2% of males and 4.8% of females. LFO occurred mainly at the intervertebral segments from T9-T10 through T12-L1. Most prevalent was the hook-shaped LFO, protruding inferoirly from the inferior facets into the projections of the intervertabral foramina. Though LFO can cause severe neurologic symptoms, none of the affected persons in this study reported such symptoms. LFO was first visualized radiographically when the subjects were 20-40 years old, and it may be a physiologic condition. The LFO in these cases existed independent of thoracic posterior longitudinal ligament ossification, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, and degenerative osteoarthritis.

  13. Chest wall deformities and thoracic scoliosis after costal cartilage graft harvesting.

    PubMed

    Ohara, K; Nakamura, K; Ohta, E

    1997-04-01

    Donor-site complications, specifically chest wall deformities and thoracic scoliosis, occurring after harvest of costal cartilage grafts are presented and discussed. The cases of 18 patients (12 male and 6 female), who underwent costal cartilage grafts for microtia reconstruction from 1975 to 1993, were reviewed for donor-site complications using radiography and physical examination. Ribs from which costal cartilage had been harvested showed increased inward bowing on radiographs in 16 of 32 donor sites. The frequency of rib deformity in donor sites was 20.0 percent when cartilages were harvested from patients older than 10 years of age, whereas it was 63.6 percent in patients younger than 10 years old. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.027, Fisher's exact test), although only 32 grafts were performed in 18 cases. The upper ribs demonstrate a higher incidence of deformity than lower ribs. Thoracic scoliosis was found in 4 of 16 cases. The biomechanical impact of these deformities was considered because of respiratory movement of the thorax and injury to the germinal growth center of the ribs. We recommend delaying costal cartilage grafts for as long as possible, leaving the costochondral junction intact to minimize chest wall deformity and thoracic scoliosis. PMID:9091899

  14. [Thoracic actinomycosis versus bronchial cancer].

    PubMed

    Brombacher-Frey, I; Wöckel, W; Kreusser, T

    1992-01-01

    We report on 4 thoracic actinomycoses; in three of these four cases a bronchial carcinoma was suspected, and in case No. 2 this carcinoma had been considered to be in a very advanced and inoperable stage. A man of 51 years of age was in a generally run-down condition. He also noticed that his sputum was tinged with blood. The x-ray film showed a large space-occupying growth at the right lung hilus. Repeated perbronchial biopsies of the focus did not yield any diagnosis. Actinomycosis was identified histologically only in the tissue samples obtained via thoracotomy. After a three-month penicillin course the hilar shadow receded. A 61-year old male patient was transferred to our Pneumological Hospital, being strongly suspected of suffering from an extensive bronchial carcinoma, and having multiple intrathoracic space-occupying growths as well as pleural effusions, a pericardial effusion, and an infiltration of the left thoracic wall with fistula formation; however, histological examination of skin biopsies revealed that he was suffering from actinomycosis. Antibiotic therapy cured him completely in a six-month course. In a man of 32 years of age who had been indulging for many years in a severe abuse of nicotin, we suspected a central bronchial carcinoma on the basis of his x-ray, but histology of the tissue taken from the space-occupying growth via diagnostic thoracotomy revealed that this patient, too, suffered from actinomycosis. Complete recession occurred after several months of antibiotic treatment. A woman of 82 years had been an inpatient for several months in another hospital because of relapsing pleuropneumonias on the right side. She was transferred to us as an outpatient after a renewed relapse. We conducted a transcutaneous fine-needle biopsy of the right indurating pleural effusion. A few actinomyces filaments were seen on histological examination of the purulent exudate. Hence, actinomycosis was confirmed. After antibiotic therapy the finding receded

  15. System for uncollimated digital radiography

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Han; Hall, James M.; McCarrick, James F.; Tang, Vincent

    2015-08-11

    The inversion algorithm based on the maximum entropy method (MEM) removes unwanted effects in high energy imaging resulting from an uncollimated source interacting with a finitely thick scintillator. The algorithm takes as input the image from the thick scintillator (TS) and the radiography setup geometry. The algorithm then outputs a restored image which appears as if taken with an infinitesimally thin scintillator (ITS). Inversion is accomplished by numerically generating a probabilistic model relating the ITS image to the TS image and then inverting this model on the TS image through MEM. This reconstruction technique can reduce the exposure time or the required source intensity without undesirable object blurring on the image by allowing the use of both thicker scintillators with higher efficiencies and closer source-to-detector distances to maximize incident radiation flux. The technique is applicable in radiographic applications including fast neutron, high-energy gamma and x-ray radiography using thick scintillators.

  16. Thoracic Wall Reconstruction in Advanced Breast Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Daigeler, A.; Harati, K.; Goertz, O.; Hirsch, T.; Behr, B.; Lehnhardt, M.; Kolbenschlag, J.

    2014-01-01

    In advanced mammary tumours, extensive resections, sometimes involving sections of the thoracic wall, are often necessary. Plastic surgery reconstruction procedures offer sufficient opportunities to cover even large thoracic wall defects. Pedicled flaps from the torso but also free flap-plasties enable, through secure defect closure, the removal of large, ulcerated, painful or bleeding tumours with moderate donor site morbidity. The impact of thoracic wall resection on the respiratory mechanism can be easily compensated for and patientsʼ quality of life in the palliative stage of disease can often be improved. PMID:24976636

  17. Mobile accelerator neutron radiography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dance, W. E.; Carollo, S. F.; Bumgardner, H. M.

    1984-10-01

    The use of neutron radiography for the inspection and maintenance of large structures such as aircraft has been delayed by the absence of a mobile system particularly suited to the requirements of field use. This report describes the production, extensive field testing, evaluation and disposition of the first mobile neutron radiography system to satisfy the majority of requirements for field use. The system is based upon the concept of a mobile on-off neutron radiography system based on a sealed-tube ion accelerator as neutron source demonstrated earlier by the Vought Corporation. Primary features of the system are its self-propelled mobility, versatile positioning capability scaled to Army helicopter dimensions, an on-off beam capability, exposure capability measured in minutes, and suitability for AMMRC laboratory and field use. Included in the report are a description of all components of the system, an evaluation of the operation of the system, an evaluation of its radiographic capabilities, a description of installation elements for the AMMRC site, and recommendations for next-generation systems.

  18. Management of a Left Internal Thoracic Artery Graft Injury during Left Thoracotomy for Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Oates, Matthew; Yadav, Sumit; Saxena, Pankaj

    2016-07-01

    There have been some recent reports on the surgical treatment of lung cancer in patients following previous coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Use of internal thoracic artery graft is a gold standard in cardiac surgery with superior long-term patency. Left internal thoracic artery graft is usually patent during left lung resection in patients who present to the surgeon with an operable lung cancer. We have presented our institutional experience with left-sided thoracic surgery in patients who have had previous coronary artery surgery with a patent internal thoracic artery graft. PMID:26907619

  19. Modern impact of video assisted thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    With advancement in technology, experience and training over the last two decades, video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has become widely accepted and utilized all over the world. VATS started as a diagnostic tool in the early 1990s, technique of VATS lobectomy evolved and became safer over the next 10-15 years and now it is being used for more advanced and hybrid operations. VATS has contributed to the development of minimally invasive surgical interventions for other thoracic disorders like mediastinal tumors and esophageal cancer as well. This article looks at the advantages of VATS, technique advancements and its applications in other thoracic operations and its influence on the present and future of thoracic surgery. PMID:25379201

  20. Uniportal video-assisted thoracic (VATS) lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Sihoe, Alan D L

    2016-03-01

    Uniportal video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has become one of the most exciting new developments in minimally invasive thoracic surgery in recent years. While the debate over its purported advantages continues, this chapter instead focuses on the technical aspects of performing a lobectomy via the uniportal approach. Using clear medical illustrations to show how each step is performed, the key tips and tricks are laid out for the beginner hoping to learn the technique. PMID:27134841

  1. Uniportal video-assisted thoracic (VATS) lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Uniportal video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has become one of the most exciting new developments in minimally invasive thoracic surgery in recent years. While the debate over its purported advantages continues, this chapter instead focuses on the technical aspects of performing a lobectomy via the uniportal approach. Using clear medical illustrations to show how each step is performed, the key tips and tricks are laid out for the beginner hoping to learn the technique. PMID:27134841

  2. Nonintubated anesthesia in thoracic surgery: general issues

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Anesthetic management for awake thoracic surgery (ATS) is more difficult than under general anesthesia (GA), being technically extremely challenging for the anesthesiologist. Therefore, thorough preparation and vigilance are paramount for successful patient management. In this review, important considerations of nonintubated anesthesia for thoracic surgery are discussed in view of careful patient selection, anesthetic preparation, potential perioperative difficulties and the management of its complications. PMID:26046051

  3. Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin After Thoracic Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Grossi, Paolo; Mohacsi, Paul; Szabolcs, Zoltán; Potena, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a highly complex pathogen which, despite modern prophylactic regimens, continues to affect a high proportion of thoracic organ transplant recipients. The symptomatic manifestations of CMV infection are compounded by adverse indirect effects induced by the multiple immunomodulatory actions of CMV. These include a higher risk of acute rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy after heart transplantation, and potentially bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in lung transplant recipients, with a greater propensity for opportunistic secondary infections. Prophylaxis for CMV using antiviral agents (typically oral valganciclovir or intravenous ganciclovir) is now almost universal, at least in high-risk transplants (D+/R−). Even with extended prophylactic regimens, however, challenges remain. The CMV events can still occur despite antiviral prophylaxis, including late-onset infection or recurrent disease, and patients with ganciclovir-resistant CMV infection or who are intolerant to antiviral therapy require alternative strategies. The CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) and antiviral agents have complementary modes of action. High-titer CMVIG preparations provide passive CMV-specific immunity but also exert complex immunomodulatory properties which augment the antiviral effect of antiviral agents and offer the potential to suppress the indirect effects of CMV infection. This supplement discusses the available data concerning the immunological and clinical effects of CMVIG after heart or lung transplantation. PMID:26900989

  4. [Thoracic endometriosis: A difficult diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Hagneré, P; Deswarte, S; Leleu, O

    2011-09-01

    Thoracic endometriosis is a rare disease, which presents in women at a mean age of 35 years, later than for pelvic endometriosis. There are no known predisposing factors for the condition and its pathogenesis is not yet clearly established. The symptoms always appear in connection with the periods of the person affected by the condition, occurring within 24-48 h after the start of menstruation. Catamenial pneumothorax is the most common clinical entity. It is associated with pelvic endometriosis in 30-50% of cases. Thoracoscopy, preferably performed during menstruation, allows full inspection of the diaphragm and the pleural cavity for defects in the diaphragm, endometrial nodules and bullae. The level of CA 125 is often elevated but this is not a reliable or specific marker. Medical treatment is aimed at blocking the action of estrogen on the endometrium and ectopic endometrial implants. GnRH analogues or danazol are the preferred treatments. Surgery to repair and strengthen the diaphragm and/or resect nodules or bullae also has a role, supplemented by pleurodesis to prevent further pneumothorax or effusions. The main risk is recurrence, and thus the current usual practice is to combine surgery, immediately followed by hormone therapy focusing on GnRH analogues. PMID:21943537

  5. PROTON RADIOGRAPHY FOR AN ADVANCED HYDROTEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    C. MORRIS

    2000-11-01

    Analysis of data from BNL experiment 933 is presented. Results demonstrate that proton radiography can meet many of the requirements for an Advanced Hydrotest Facility (AHF). Results for background, position resolution, metrology, quantitative radiography, material identification, and edge resolution are presented.

  6. ARG portable neutron radiography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    In this report all available neutron radiographic data, including results of tests run at LANL, McClellan AFB, and University of Virginia, will be combined to outline specific transportable neutron radiography systems that could achieve the desired results as a complement to x-radiography capabilities for the Accident Response Group (ARG).

  7. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY STUDENT GUIDE AND LABORATORY EXERCISES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE TO AN 80-HOUR COURSE IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY IS COORDINATED WITH LESSONS IN THE STUDENT GUIDE AND LABORATORY EXERCISES AND IS BASED ON MATERIAL IN THE COURSE MANUAL, INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY. THE COURSE IS INTENDED TO TRAIN HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES AS BEGINNING RADIOGRAPHERS WHO ARE EXPECTED TO BE ABLE TO EXTEND THEIR…

  8. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  9. Radiography of Chaotically Moving Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Vavrik, Daniel; Jandejsek, Ivan; Dammer, Jiri; Holy, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jakubek, Martin

    2007-11-26

    Radiography of moving objects is an advanced problem when the dynamic range of acquired radiograms is restricted by a limited exposition time. Exposition time has to be short to avoid image blurring due to object moving. It is possible to increase the dynamic range by summing short time radiograms set when the periodical object movement is presented as in the case of heart beating for instance. On the other hand a non periodical movement can be studied using tools of X-ray Digital Image Correlation technique. Short time radiograms are fitted into corresponding positions and consequently summed for higher data statistics as it is presented in this work.

  10. Visualization of basal pleural space and lung with advanced multiple beam equalization radiography (AMBER).

    PubMed

    Aarts, N J; Oestmann, J W; Kool, L J

    1993-02-01

    During clinical use of AMBER (Advanced Multiple Beam Equalization Radiography) it was frequently felt that the basal lung and pleural space were better appreciated than with standard chest radiography. We aimed to quantify the amount of additional relevant anatomy seen in this part region and to review the normal radiographic anatomy. Four hundred patients without known chest disease were evaluated. Two groups of 200 patients (50% female) were studied with either AMBER or standard chest radiography (140 kVp, 180 cm FFD, Kodak Tmat G film, Lanex regular screen; for both techniques). Visualization of the pleural sinuses (in percent of the transverse thoracic diameter) and the basal pulmonary vessels (4-point scale) was evaluated by a panel of 3 radiologists. The shape of the sinus was traced if sufficiently visible and subjectively evaluated. A significantly (P < 0.05) larger segment of the dorsal (41 +/- 34%) and ventral (14 +/- 15%) sinuses was seen with the AMBER technique than with the standard technique (16 +/- 21% and 9 +/- 11%, respectively). Vessel visibility was also significantly (P < 0.001) better with AMBER (3.2 +/- 0.6) than with the standard technique (1.9 +/- 0.6). The dorsal sinus showed alternatively a curved or pointed configuration. PMID:8462578

  11. A clinical image preference study comparing digital tomosynthesis with digital radiography for pediatric spinal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jenna M.; Elbakri, Idris A.; Reed, Martin; Wrogemann, Jens

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic quality of digital tomosynthesis (DT) images for pediatric imaging of the spine. We performed a phantom image rating study to assess the visibility of anatomical spinal structures in DT images relative to digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT). We collected DT and DR images of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine using anthropomorphic phantoms. Four pediatric radiologists and two residents rated the visibility of structures on the DT image sets compared to DR using a four point scale (0 = not visible; 1 = visible; 2 = superior to DR; 3 = excellent, CT unnecessary). In general, the structures in the spine received ratings between 1 and 3 (cervical), or 2 and 3 (thoracic, lumbar), with a few mixed scores for structures that are usually difficult to see on diagnostic images, such as vertebrae near the cervical-thoracic joint and the apophyseal joints of the lumbar spine. The DT image sets allow most critical structures to be visualized as well or better than DR. When DR imaging is inconclusive, DT is a valuable tool to consider before sending a pediatric patient for a higher-dose CT exam.

  12. [Video-assisted thoracic surgery, lung transplantation and mediastinitis: major issues in thoracic surgery in 2010].

    PubMed

    Borro, José M; Moreno, Ramón; Gómez, Ana; Duque, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed the major issues in thoracic surgery relating to the advances made in our specialty in 2010. To do this, the 43(rd) Congress of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery held in La Coruña and the articles published in the Society's journal, Archivos de Bronconeumología, were reviewed. The main areas of interest were related to the development of video-assisted thoracic surgery, lung transplantation and descending mediastinitis. The new tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification (7(th) edition), presented last year, was still a topical issue this year. The First Forum of Thoracic Surgeons and the Update in Thoracic Surgery together with the Nurses' Area have constituted an excellent teaching program. PMID:21300211

  13. Direct detector radiography versus dual reading computed radiography: feasibility of dose reduction in chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Michael; Uffmann, Martin; Weber, Michael; Prokop, Mathias; Balassy, Csilla; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia

    2006-07-01

    The image quality of dual-reading computed radiography and dose-reduced direct radiography of the chest was compared in a clinical setting. The study group consisted of 50 patients that underwent three posteroanterior chest radiographs within minutes, one image obtained with a dual read-out computed radiography system (CR; Fuji 5501) at regular dose and two images with a flat panel direct detector unit (DR; Diagnost, Philips). The DR images were obtained with the same and with 50% of the dose used for the CR images. Images were evaluated in a blinded side-by-side comparison. Eight radiologists ranked the visually perceivable difference in image quality using a three-point scale. Then, three radiologists scored the visibility of anatomic landmarks in low and high attenuation areas and image noise. Statistical analysis was based on Friedman tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests at a significance level of P<0.05. DR was judged superior to CR for the delineation of structures in high attenuation areas of the mediastinum even when obtained with 50% less dose (P<0.001). The visibility of most pulmonary structures was judged equivalent with both techniques, regardless of acquisition dose and speed level. Scores for image noise were lower for DR compared with CR, with the exception of DR obtained at a reduced dose. Thus, in this clinical preference study, DR was equivalent or even superior to the most modern dual read-out CR, even when obtained with 50% dose. A further dose reduction does not appear to be feasible for DR without significant loss of image quality. PMID:16404566

  14. No Value for Routine Chest Radiography in the Work-Up of Early Stage Cervical Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hoogendam, Jacob P.; Zweemer, Ronald P.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; de Jong, Pim A.; van den Bosch, Maurice A. A. J.; Verheijen, René H. M.; Veldhuis, Wouter B.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Evidence supporting the recommendation to include chest radiography in the work-up of all cervical cancer patients is limited. We investigated the diagnostic value of routine chest radiography in cervical cancer staging. Methods All consecutive cervical cancer patients who presented at our tertiary referral center in the Netherlands (January 2006 – September 2013), and for whom ≥6 months follow-up was available, were included. As part of the staging procedure, patients underwent a routine two-directional digital chest radiograph. Findings were compared to a composite reference standard consisting of all imaging studies and histology obtained during the 6 months following radiography. Results Of the 402 women who presented with cervical cancer, 288 (71.6%) underwent chest radiography and had ≥6 months follow-up. Early clinical stage (I/II) cervical cancer was present in 244/288 (84.7%) women, while 44 (15.3%) presented with advanced disease (stage III/IV). The chest radiograph of 1 woman – with advanced pre-radiograph stage (IVA) disease – showed findings consistent with pulmonary metastases. Radiographs of 7 other women – 4 early, 3 advanced stage disease – were suspicious for pulmonary metastases which was confirmed by additional imaging in only 1 woman (with pre-radiograph advanced stage (IIIB) disease) and excluded in 6 cases, including all women with early stage disease. In none of the 288 women were thoracic skeletal metastases identified on imaging or during 6 months follow up. Radiography was unremarkable in 76.4% of the study population, and showed findings unrelated to the cervical carcinoma in 21.2%. Conclusion Routine chest radiography was of no value for any of the early stage cervical cancer patients presenting at our tertiary center over a period of 7.7 years. PMID:26135733

  15. Thoracoscopic Ligation of the Thoracic Duct

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Julio A.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: When nonoperative treatment of chylothorax fails, thoracic duct ligation is usually performed through a thoracotomy. We describe two cases of persistent chylothorax, in a child and an adult, successfully treated with thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct. Methods: A 4-year-old girl developed a right chylothorax following a Fontan procedure. Aggressive nonoperative management failed to eliminate the persistent chyle loss. A 72-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic man was involved in a motor vehicle accident, in which he sustained multiple fractured ribs, a right hemopneumothorax, a right femoral shaft fracture, and a T-11 thoracic vertebral fracture. Subsequently, he developed a right chylothorax, which did not respond to nonoperative management. Both patients were successfully treated with thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct. Results: The child had significant decrease of chyle drainage following surgery. Increased drainage that appeared after the introduction of full feedings five days postoperatively was controlled with the somatostatin analog octreotide. The chest tube was removed two weeks after surgery. After two years' follow-up, she has had no recurrence of chylothorax. The adult had no chyle drainage following surgery. He was maintained on a medium-chain triglyceride diet postoperatively for two weeks. The chest tube was removed four days after surgery. After six months' follow-up, he has had no recurrence of chylothorax. Conclusions: Thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct provides a safe and effective treatment of chylothorax and may avoid thoracotomy and its associated morbidity. PMID:10987402

  16. Penetrating injuries to the thoracic great vessels.

    PubMed

    Demetriades, D

    1997-01-01

    Penetrating injuries to the thoracic great vessels have been diagnosed with increased frequency because of the escalating use of automatic weapons. The overall incidence is 5.3% of gunshot wounds and 2% of stab wounds to the chest. Most of these patients reach the hospital dead or in severe shock. The overall mortality of thoracic aortic injuries is higher than 90% and in subclavian vascular injuries higher than 65%. In the prehospital phase, the "scoop and run" policy offers the best chances of survival and no attempts should be made for any form of stabilization. Investigations should be reserved only for fairly stable patients. Angiography, color flow Doppler, and transesophageal echocardiography may be useful in selected cases. Patients in cardiac arrest or imminent cardiac arrest may benefit from an emergency room thoracotomy. The surgical approach to specific thoracic great vessels is described. PMID:9271743

  17. European institutional accreditation of general thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Alessandro; Falcoz, Pierre Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    To improve standardization of general thoracic surgery (GTS) practice across Europe, the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) has implemented a program of Institutional Accreditation. We reviewed the methods and rules of engagement of this program. A composite performance score (CPS) including outcome and process indicators is used to measure institutional performance and assess eligibility for accreditation. Eligible units are invited to participate and accept a local audit performed by an external auditors team composed by data inspectors and thoracic surgeons. In addition to data quality, a series of structural, procedural and qualification characteristics are inspected. Once the visit is complete, the team will produce an audit report to be sent to the members of the database committee for deliberation on the institutional accreditation of that unit. The Database committee will send an executive report to the ESTS Executive Committee for their final decision on the accreditation. PMID:24868447

  18. Acute Shingles after Resection of Thoracic Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Muesse, Jason L.; Blackmon, Shanda H.; Harris, Richard L.; Kim, Min P.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes zoster is relatively uncommon after surgery in immunocompetent patients. To our knowledge, there have been no reports of herpes zoster after the resection of a thoracic schwannoma. We report the case of a 48-year-old woman in whom acute shingles developed after the video-assisted thoracic surgical resection of a posterior mediastinal schwannoma adjacent to the 4th thoracic vertebral body. The patient recovered after receiving timely antiviral therapy. Rash and pain are common in patients who have wound infections and contact dermatitis after surgery, so the possible reactivation of varicella virus might not be prominent in the surgeon's mind. This case serves as a reminder that viral infections such as shingles should be considered in the differential diagnosis of postoperative erythema and pain. PMID:22740749

  19. Pleural abnormalities: thoracic ultrasound to the rescue!

    PubMed Central

    Pathmanathan, Sega; Lakshminarayana, Umesh B.; Avery, Gerard R.; Kastelik, Jack A.; Morjaria, Jaymin B.

    2013-01-01

    Diaphragmatic hernias that are diagnosed in adulthood may be traumatic or congenital in nature. Therefore, respiratory specialists need to be aware of the presentation of patients with these conditions. In this report, we describe a case series of patients with congenital and traumatic diaphragmatic hernias and highlight a varied range of their presentations. Abnormalities were noted in the thorax on the chest radiographs, but it was unclear as to the nature of the anomaly. The findings on thoracic ultrasound conducted by a pulmonologist helped to direct appropriate investigations avoiding unnecessary interventions. Instead of pleural effusions, consolidation or collapse, thoracic computed tomography demonstrated diaphragmatic hernias which were managed either conservatively or by surgery. There is increasing evidence that pulmonary specialists should be trained in thoracic ultrasonography to identify pleural pathology as well as safely conducting pleural-based interventions. PMID:23819018

  20. Pleural abnormalities: thoracic ultrasound to the rescue!

    PubMed

    Aslam, Imran; Pathmanathan, Sega; Lakshminarayana, Umesh B; Avery, Gerard R; Kastelik, Jack A; Morjaria, Jaymin B

    2013-07-01

    Diaphragmatic hernias that are diagnosed in adulthood may be traumatic or congenital in nature. Therefore, respiratory specialists need to be aware of the presentation of patients with these conditions. In this report, we describe a case series of patients with congenital and traumatic diaphragmatic hernias and highlight a varied range of their presentations. Abnormalities were noted in the thorax on the chest radiographs, but it was unclear as to the nature of the anomaly. The findings on thoracic ultrasound conducted by a pulmonologist helped to direct appropriate investigations avoiding unnecessary interventions. Instead of pleural effusions, consolidation or collapse, thoracic computed tomography demonstrated diaphragmatic hernias which were managed either conservatively or by surgery. There is increasing evidence that pulmonary specialists should be trained in thoracic ultrasonography to identify pleural pathology as well as safely conducting pleural-based interventions. PMID:23819018

  1. Change of paradigm in thoracic radionecrosis management.

    PubMed

    Dast, S; Assaf, N; Dessena, L; Almousawi, H; Herlin, C; Berna, P; Sinna, R

    2016-06-01

    Classically, muscular or omental flaps are the gold standard in the management of thoracic defects following radionecrosis debridement. Their vascular supply and antibacterial property was supposed to enhance healing compared with cutaneous flaps. The evolution of reconstructive surgery allowed us to challenge this dogma. Therefore, we present five consecutive cases of thoracic radionecrosis reconstructed with cutaneous perforator flaps. In four patients, we performed a free deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap and one patient had a thoracodorsal perforator (TDAP) flap. Median time healing was 22.6 days with satisfactory cutaneous covering and good aesthetic results. There were no flap necrosis, no donor site complications. We believe that perforator flaps are a new alternative, reliable and elegant option that questions the dogma of muscular flaps in the management of thoracic radionecrosis. PMID:26831037

  2. Genetics Home Reference: familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions familial TAAD familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection ( familial TAAD ) involves problems with the ...

  3. The History of Duke Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter K; Mulvihill, Michael S; D'Amico, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Since 1931, Duke Thoracic Surgery has been defined by excellence in patient care, research, and the education of leaders in surgery. In this work, the history, contributions, historic figures, and current structure of the program are reviewed. The program has cultivated a commitment to surgical investigation and training that persists to the present day. This commitment is manifest by the program's contributions to the field of cardiothoracic surgery, from the fundamental investigation of the coronary circulation and the development of the heat exchanger for myocardial preservation, to large-scale clinical trials in cardiac and thoracic surgery. PMID:26811042

  4. CT of nontraumatic thoracic aortic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Sanjeev; West, O Clark

    2005-10-01

    Computed tomography (CT), especially multidetector row CT (MDCT), is often the preferred imaging test used for evaluation of nontraumatic thoracic aortic abnormalities. Unenhanced images, usually followed by contrast-enhanced arterial imaging, allow for rapid detailed aortic assessment. Understanding the spectrum of acute thoracic aortic conditions which may present similarly (aortic dissection, aneurysm rupture, penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer, intramural hematoma) will ensure that patients are diagnosed and treated appropriately. Familiarity with imaging protocols and potential mimics will prevent confusion of normal anatomy and variants with aortic disease. PMID:16274000

  5. Metal thickness measurements using radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achrekar, P. M.

    1986-04-01

    The present invention relates broadly to a radiographic inspection technique, and in particular to a metal thickness measurement method using radiography. The localized areas wherein the effective metal thickness is less than the minimum that is required for radiation shielding and which can render a shielding enclosure functionless, is readily determined. The invention comprises a process for assuring metal thickness in small regions. The actual metal thickness of small regions can be verified by comparing the optical densities of sections of the metal i.e., stepwedge. A comparator microphotometer, which compares optical densities of spectrum lines from spectrophotometers, compares the optical density of spectrum lines on an exposed spectrum plate (metal under test) with a standard plate (stepwedge).

  6. New developments in flash radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattsson, Arne

    2007-01-01

    The paper will review some of the latest developments in flash radiography. A series of multi anode tubes has been developed. These are tubes with several x-ray sources within the same vacuum enclosure. The x-ray sources are closely spaced, to come as close as possible to a single source. The x-ray sources are sequentially pulsed, at times that can be independently chosen. Tubes for voltages in the range 150 - 500 kV, with up to eight x-ray sources, will be described. Combining a multi anode tube with an intensified CCD camera, will make it possible to generate short "x-ray movies". A new flash x-ray control system has been developed. The system is operated from a PC or Laptop. All parameters of a multi channel flash x-ray system can be remotely set and monitored. The system will automatically store important operation parameters.

  7. Mayo Clinic: An Institutional History of General Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gillaspie, Erin A; Nichols, Francis C; Allen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic was started in Rochester, MN after a 1883 tornado disaster. The Mayo brothers, William and Charles began thoracic surgical procedures early in their career. Dr. Samuel Robinson is recognized as the first thoracic surgeon at Mayo. He was followed by Drs. Harrington and Claret who became famous surgeons. Many other notable surgeons have help to build the thoracic surgical practice into what is today a world renown center of excellence in thoracic surgery. PMID:26811041

  8. Sensitivity of Thoracic Digital Tomosynthesis (DTS) for the Identification of Lung Nodules.

    PubMed

    Langer, Steve G; Graner, Brian D; Schueler, Beth A; Fetterly, Kenneth A; Kofler, James M; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Bartholmai, Brian J

    2016-02-01

    Thoracic computed tomography (CT) is considered the gold standard for detection lung pathology, yet its efficacy as a screening tool in regards to cost and radiation dose continues to evolve. Chest radiography (CXR) remains a useful and ubiquitous tool for detection and characterization of pulmonary pathology, but reduced sensitivity and specificity compared to CT. This prospective, blinded study compares the sensitivity of digital tomosynthesis (DTS), to that of CT and CXR for the identification and characterization of lung nodules. Ninety-five outpatients received a posteroanterior (PA) and lateral CXR, DTS, and chest CT at one care episode. The CXR and DTS studies were independently interpreted by three thoracic radiologists. The CT studies were used as the gold standard and read by a fourth thoracic radiologist. Nodules were characterized by presence, location, size, and composition. The agreement between observers and the effective radiation dose for each modality was objectively calculated. One hundred forty-five nodules of greatest diameter larger than 4 mm and 215 nodules less than 4 mm were identified by CT. DTS identified significantly more >4 mm nodules than CXR (DTS 32 % vs. CXR 17 %). CXR and DTS showed no significant difference in the ability to identify the smaller nodules or central nodules within 3 cm of the hilum. DTS outperformed CXR in identifying pleural nodules and those nodules located greater than 3 cm from the hilum. Average radiation dose for CXR, DTS, and CT were 0.10, 0.21, and 6.8 mSv, respectively. Thoracic digital tomosynthesis requires significantly less radiation dose than CT and nearly doubles the sensitivity of that of CXR for the identification of lung nodules greater than 4 mm. However, sensitivity and specificity for detection and characterization of lung nodules remains substantially less than CT. The apparent benefits over CXR, low cost, rapid acquisition, and minimal radiation dose of thoracic DTS suggest that it may be a

  9. Information extraction from muon radiography data

    SciTech Connect

    Borozdin, K. N.; Asaki, T. J.; Chartrand, R.; Hengartner, N. W.; Hogan, G. E.; Morris, C. L.; Priedhorsky, W. C.; Schirato, R.C.; Schultz, L. J.; Sottile, M. J.; Vixie, K. R.; Wohlberg, B. E.; Blanpied, G.

    2004-01-01

    Scattering muon radiography was proposed recently as a technique of detection and 3-d imaging for dense high-Z objects. High-energy cosmic ray muons are deflected in matter in the process of multiple Coulomb scattering. By measuring the deflection angles we are able to reconstruct the configuration of high-Z material in the object. We discuss the methods for information extraction from muon radiography data. Tomographic methods widely used in medical images have been applied to a specific muon radiography information source. Alternative simple technique based on the counting of high-scattered muons in the voxels seems to be efficient in many simulated scenes. SVM-based classifiers and clustering algorithms may allow detection of compact high-Z object without full image reconstruction. The efficiency of muon radiography can be increased using additional informational sources, such as momentum estimation, stopping power measurement, and detection of muonic atom emission.

  10. Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis: spectrum of thoracic imaging findings in the adult patient.

    PubMed

    Khorashadi, L; Wu, C C; Betancourt, S L; Carter, B W

    2015-05-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary haemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare disease characterized by alveolar capillary haemorrhage resulting in deposition and accumulation of haemosiderin in the lungs. Although its precise pathophysiology remains unclear, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the aetiology of the disorder, including autoimmune, environmental, allergic, and genetic theories. IPH is typically diagnosed in childhood, usually before the age of 10 years; however, this entity may be encountered in older patients given the greater awareness of the diagnosis, availability and utilization of advanced imaging techniques, and improved treatment and survival. The classic presentation of IPH consists of the triad of haemoptysis, iron-deficiency anaemia, and pulmonary opacities on chest radiography. The diagnosis is usually confirmed via bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), at which time haemosiderin-laden macrophages referred to as siderophages, considered pathognomonic for IPH, may be identified. However, lung biopsy may ultimately be necessary to exclude other disease processes. For children with IPH, the disease course is severe and the prognosis is poor. However, adults generally have a longer disease course with milder symptoms and the prognosis is more favourable. Specific imaging features, although non-specific in isolation, may be identified on thoracic imaging studies, principally chest radiography and CT, depending on the phase of disease (acute or chronic). Recognition of these findings is important to guide appropriate clinical management. PMID:25515792

  11. Cranio-thoracic bullet migration over a period of 27 years: case report.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Rangel, C; Reyes-Soto, G; Mendizábal-Guerra, R

    2010-08-01

    We report the case of a 36 year old woman that was hurt in the head with a lost bullet while walking through the street when she was 9 years old. On admission, the patient was fully conscious with no neurological deficits. Skull radiography showed the intracranial bullet but she was dispatched after 24 hours of observation without neurological deterioration. Six months later she suddenly presented quadriplegia and after one year of rehabilitation she recovered the mobility and strength in all her limbs. 25 years latter she began with thoracic pain (dermatomal sensory changes), constipation, paresthesias and weakness in the lower extremities; the X-Ray showed a bullet caliber 9 mm in the thoracic canal at T4 level. The bullet was removed via posterior laminectomy and dorsal midline mielotomy. 12 hours after surgery, the patient presented signs of medullar shock. The post-operatory MRI showed the trajectory of the bullet through the brain to the spinal cord in FLAIR, and spinal cord edema as well. The patient received steroids as treatment for the spinal cord edema, and with the help of rehabilitation she recovered movement in the lower extremities 30 days after the surgery. PMID:20725703

  12. Functional chiral asymmetry in descending thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Frazin, L J; Lanza, G; Vonesh, M; Khasho, F; Spitzzeri, C; McGee, S; Mehlman, D; Chandran, K B; Talano, J; McPherson, D

    1990-12-01

    To determine whether rotational blood flow or chiral asymmetry exists in the human descending thoracic aorta, we established the ability of color Doppler ultrasound to detect rotational flow in a tornado tube model of a vortex descending fluid column. In a model of the human aortic arch with a pulse duplicator, color Doppler was then used to demonstrate that rotational flow occurs first in the transverse arch and then in the proximal descending thoracic aorta. With the use of color Doppler esophageal echocardiography, 53 patients (age range, 25-78 years; mean age, 56.4 years) were prospectively examined for rotational flow in the descending thoracic aorta. At 10 cm superior to retro-left ventricular position, 22 of 38 patients (58%) revealed rotational flow with obvious diastolic counterclockwise rotation but less obvious systolic clockwise rotation. At 5 cm superior to retro-left ventricular position, 29 of 46 patients (63%) revealed rotational flow with a tendency toward systolic clockwise and diastolic counterclockwise rotation. At the retro-left ventricular position, 47 of 53 patients (89%) revealed rotational flow, usually of a clockwise direction, occurring in systole. Our data suggest that aortic flow is not purely pulsatile and axial but has a rotational component. Rotational flow begins in the aortic arch and is carried through to the descending thoracic aorta, where flow is chirally asymmetric with systolic clockwise and diastolic counterclockwise components. These data demonstrate an aortic rotational flow component that may have physiological implications for organ perfusion. PMID:2242523

  13. Corrosion Inhibitors as Penetrant Dyes for Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid/vapor-phase corrosion inhibitors (LVCIs) have been found to be additionally useful as penetrant dyes for neutron radiography (and perhaps also x-radiography). Enhancement of radiographic contrasts by use of LVCIs can reveal cracks, corrosion, and other defects that may be undetectable by ultrasonic inspection, that are hidden from direct optical inspection, and/or that are difficult or impossible to detect in radiographs made without dyes.

  14. Chronic pain and the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Louw, Adriaan; Schmidt, Stephen G

    2015-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2-4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7-10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain. In line with their increased use, both of these approaches have exponentially gathered increasing evidence to support their use.4,10 For example, various randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown that teaching patients more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience leads to positive changes in pain, pain catastrophization, function, physical movement and healthcare utilisation.7-10 Graded motor imagery, in turn, has shown increasing evidence to help pain and disability in complex pain states such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).11,12 Most research using TNE and GMI has focussed on chronic low back pain (CLBP) and CRPS and none of these advanced pain treatments have been trialled on the thoracic spine. This lack of research and writings in regards to the thoracic spine is not unique to pain science, but also in manual therapy. There are, however, very unique pain neuroscience issues that skilled manual therapists may find clinically meaningful when treating a patient struggling with persistent thoracic pain. Utilising the latest understanding of pain neuroscience, three key clinical chronic thoracic issues will be discussed - hypersensitisation of intercostal nerves, posterior primary rami nerves mimicking Cloward areas and mechanical and sensitisation issues of the spinal dura in the

  15. Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage after Thoracic Decompression

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Pan-Pan; Liu, Xiao-Guang; Yu, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to review cerebrospinal fluid leakage (CSFL) after thoracic decompression and describe its regular and special features. Data Sources: Literature cited in this review was retrieved from PubMed and Medline and was primarily published during the last 10 years. “Cerebrospinal fluid”, “leakage”, “dural tears”, and “thoracic decompression” were the indexed terms. Relevant citations in the retrieved articles were also screened to include more data. Study Selection: All retrieved literature was scrutinized, and four categories were recorded: incidence and risk factors, complications, treatment modalities, and prognosis. Results: CSFL is much more frequent after thoracic decompression than after cervical and lumbar spinal surgeries. Its occurrence is related to many clinical factors, especially the presence of ossified ligaments and the adhesion of the dural sac. While its impact on the late neurological recovery is currently controversial, CSFL increases the risk of other perioperative complications, such as low intracranial pressure symptoms, infection, and vascular events. The combined use of primary repairs during the operation and conservative treatment postoperatively is generally effective for most CSFL cases, whereas lumbar drains and reoperations should be implemented as rescue options for refractory cases only. Conclusions: CSFL after thoracic decompression has not been specifically investigated, so the present study provides a systematic and comprehensive review of the issue. CSFL is a multi-factor-related complication, and pathological factors play a decisive role. The importance of CSFL is in its impact on the increased risk of other complications during the postoperative period. Methods to prevent these complications are in need. In addition, though the required treatment resources are not special for CSFL after thoracic decompression, most CSFL cases are conservatively curable, and surgeons should be

  16. Chronic pain and the thoracic spine

    PubMed Central

    Louw, Adriaan; Schmidt, Stephen G.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2–4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7–10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain. In line with their increased use, both of these approaches have exponentially gathered increasing evidence to support their use.4,10 For example, various randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews have shown that teaching patients more about the biology and physiology of their pain experience leads to positive changes in pain, pain catastrophization, function, physical movement and healthcare utilisation.7–10 Graded motor imagery, in turn, has shown increasing evidence to help pain and disability in complex pain states such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).11,12 Most research using TNE and GMI has focussed on chronic low back pain (CLBP) and CRPS and none of these advanced pain treatments have been trialled on the thoracic spine. This lack of research and writings in regards to the thoracic spine is not unique to pain science, but also in manual therapy. There are, however, very unique pain neuroscience issues that skilled manual therapists may find clinically meaningful when treating a patient struggling with persistent thoracic pain. Utilising the latest understanding of pain neuroscience, three key clinical chronic thoracic issues will be discussed – hypersensitisation of intercostal nerves, posterior primary rami nerves mimicking Cloward areas and mechanical and sensitisation issues of the spinal dura in

  17. Non-intubated anesthesia in thoracic surgery—technical issues

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Performing awake thoracic surgery (ATS) is technically more challenging than thoracic surgery under general anesthesia (GA), but it can result in a greater benefit for the patient. Local wound infiltration and lidocaine administration in the pleural space can be considered for ATS. More invasive techniques are local wound infiltration with wound catheter insertion, thoracic wall blocks, selective intercostal nerve blockade, thoracic paravertebral blockade and thoracic epidural analgesia, offering the advantage of a catheter placement which can also be continued for postoperative analgesia. PMID:26046050

  18. Dry needling for the management of thoracic spine pain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Layton, Michelle; Dommerholt, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Thoracic spine pain is as disabling as neck and low back pain without receiving the same level of attention in the scientific literature. Among the different structures that can refer pain to the thoracic spine, muscles often play a relevant role. Trigger points (TrPs) from neck, shoulder and spinal muscles can induce pain in the region of the thoracic spine. There is a lack of evidence reporting the presence of TrPs in the region of the thoracic spine, but clinical evidence suggests that TrPs can be a potential source of thoracic spine pain. The current paper discusses the role of TrPs in the thoracic spine and dry needling (DN) for the management of TrPs in the thoracic multifidi and longissimus thoracis. This paper also includes a brief discussion of the application of DN in other tissues such as tendons, ligaments and scars. PMID:26309385

  19. Dry needling for the management of thoracic spine pain

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Layton, Michelle; Dommerholt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic spine pain is as disabling as neck and low back pain without receiving the same level of attention in the scientific literature. Among the different structures that can refer pain to the thoracic spine, muscles often play a relevant role. Trigger points (TrPs) from neck, shoulder and spinal muscles can induce pain in the region of the thoracic spine. There is a lack of evidence reporting the presence of TrPs in the region of the thoracic spine, but clinical evidence suggests that TrPs can be a potential source of thoracic spine pain. The current paper discusses the role of TrPs in the thoracic spine and dry needling (DN) for the management of TrPs in the thoracic multifidi and longissimus thoracis. This paper also includes a brief discussion of the application of DN in other tissues such as tendons, ligaments and scars. PMID:26309385

  20. Single-image hard-copy display of the spine utilizing digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Dorothy S.; Janchar, Timothy; Milzman, David; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-04-01

    Regions of the entire spine contain a wide latitude of tissue densities within the imaged field of view presenting a problem for adequate radiological evaluation. With screen/film technology, the optimal technique for one area of the radiograph is sub-optimal for another area. Computed radiography (CR) with its inherent wide dynamic range, has been shown to be better than screen/film for lateral cervical spine imaging, but limitations are still present with standard image processing. By utilizing a dynamic range control (DRC) algorithm based on unsharp masking and signal transformation prior to gradation and frequency processing within the CR system, more vertebral bodies can be seen on a single hard copy display of the lateral cervical, thoracic, and thoracolumbar examinations. Examinations of the trauma cross-table lateral cervical spine, lateral thoracic spine, and lateral thoracolumbar spine were collected on live patient using photostimulable storage phosphor plates, the Fuji FCR 9000 reader, and the Fuji AC-3 computed radiography reader. Two images were produced from a single exposure; one with standard image processing and the second image with the standard process and the additional DRC algorithm. Both sets were printed from a Fuji LP 414 laser printer. Two different DRC algorithms were applied depending on which portion of the spine was not well visualized. One algorithm increased optical density and the second algorithm decreased optical density. The resultant image pairs were then reviewed by a panel of radiologists. Images produced with the additional DRC algorithm demonstrated improved visualization of previously 'under exposed' and 'over exposed' regions within the same image. Where lung field had previously obscured bony detail of the lateral thoracolumbar spine due to 'over exposure,' the image with the DRC applied to decrease the optical density allowed for easy visualization of the entire area of interest. For areas of the lateral cervical spine

  1. Mobile real time radiography system

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  2. Modified Bootstrap Sensitometry In Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    1981-04-01

    A new modified bootstrap approach to sensitometry is presented which provides H and D curves that show almost exact agreement with those obtained using conventional methods. Two bootstrap techniques are described; both involve a combination of inverse-square and stepped-wedge modulation of the radiation field and provide intensity-scale sensitometric curves as appropriate for medical radiography. H and D curves obtained with these modified techniques are compared with those obtained for screen-film combinations using inverse-square sensitometry as well as with those obtained for direct x-ray film using time-scale sensitometry. The stepped wedge of the Wisconsin X-Ray Test Cassette was used in the bootstrap approach since it provides sufficient exposure latitude to encompass the useful density range of medical x-ray film. This approach makes radiographic sensitometry quick and convenient, allowing accurate characteristic curves to be obtained for any screen-film cassette using standard diagnostic x-ray equipment.

  3. Thorium-uranium fission radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, E. L.; Weiss, J. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    Results are described for studies designed to develop routine methods for in-situ measurement of the abundance of Th and U on a microscale in heterogeneous samples, especially rocks, using the secondary high-energy neutron flux developed when the 650 MeV proton beam of an accelerator is stopped in a 42 x 42 cm diam Cu cylinder. Irradiations were performed at three different locations in a rabbit tube in the beam stop area, and thick metal foils of Bi, Th, and natural U as well as polished silicate glasses of known U and Th contents were used as targets and were placed in contact with mica which served as a fission track detector. In many cases both bare and Cd-covered detectors were exposed. The exposed mica samples were etched in 48% HF and the fission tracks counted by conventional transmitted light microscopy. Relative fission cross sections are examined, along with absolute Th track production rates, interaction tracks, and a comparison of measured and calculated fission rates. The practicality of fast neutron radiography revealed by experiments to data is discussed primarily for Th/U measurements, and mixtures of other fissionable nuclei are briefly considered.

  4. Time of flight fast neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveman, R.; Bendahan, J.; Gozani, T.; Stevenson, J.

    1995-05-01

    Neutron radiography with fast or thermal neutrons is a standard technique for non-destructive testing (NDT). Here we report results for fast neutron radiography both as an adjunct to pulsed fast neutron analysis (PFNA) and as a stand-alone method for NDT. PFNA is a new technique for utilizing a collimated pulsed neutron beam to interrogate items and determine their elemental composition. By determining the time of flight for gamma-rays produced by (n,n' gamma X) reactions, a three dimensional image can be produced. Neutron radiography data taken with the same beam provides an important constraint for image reconstruction, and in particular is important in inferring the amount of hydrogen within the interrogated item. As a stand-alone device, the radiography measurement can be used to image items as large as cargo containers as long as their density is not too high. The use of a pulsed beam gives the further advantage of a time of flight measurement on the transmitted neutrons. By gating the radiography signal on the time of flight appropriate to the energy of the primary neutrons, most build-up from scattered neutrons can be eliminated. The pulsed beam also greatly improves the signal to background and extends the range of the neutron radiography. Simulation results will be presented which display the advantage of this constraint in particular for statistically limited data. Experimental results will be presented which show some of the limitations likely in a PFNA system utilizing neutron radiography data. Experimental and simulation results will demonstrate possible uses for this type of radiographic data in identifying contraband substances such as drugs.

  5. The European educational platform on thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Gaetano; Venuta, Federico

    2014-01-01

    As the largest scientific organisation world-wide exclusively dedicated to general thoracic surgery (GTS), the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) recognized that one of its priorities is education. The educational platform designed ESTS addresses not only trainees, but also confirmed thoracic surgeons. The two main aims are (I) to prepare trainees to graduation and to the certification by the European Board of Thoracic Surgery and (II) to offer opportunities for continuous medical education in the perspective of life-long learning and continuous professional development to certified thoracic surgeons. It is likely that recertification will become an obligation during the coming decade. At its inception, the platform differentiated two different events. A 6-day course emphasizing on theoretic knowledge was created in Antalya in 2007. The same year, a 2-day school oriented to practical issues with hands-on in the animal lab was launched in Antalya. These two teaching tracks need further development. In the knowledge track, we intend to organize highly specialized 2-day courses to deepen insight into theoretical questions. The skill track will be implemented by specialized courses for high technology such as tracheal surgery, ECMO, robotics or chest wall reconstruction. In order to promote tomorrows’ leadership, we created an academic competence track giving an insight into medical communication, methodology and management. We also had to respond to an increasing demand from the Russian speaking countries, where colleagues may face problems to attend western meetings, and where the language bareer may be a major impediment. We initiated a Russian school with three events yearly in 2012. Contemporary teaching must be completed with an e-learning platform, which is currently under development. The school activities are organized by the educational committee, which is headed by the ESTS Director of Education, assisted by coordinators of the teaching tracks

  6. The European educational platform on thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Massard, Gilbert; Rocco, Gaetano; Venuta, Federico

    2014-05-01

    As the largest scientific organisation world-wide exclusively dedicated to general thoracic surgery (GTS), the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) recognized that one of its priorities is education. The educational platform designed ESTS addresses not only trainees, but also confirmed thoracic surgeons. The two main aims are (I) to prepare trainees to graduation and to the certification by the European Board of Thoracic Surgery and (II) to offer opportunities for continuous medical education in the perspective of life-long learning and continuous professional development to certified thoracic surgeons. It is likely that recertification will become an obligation during the coming decade. At its inception, the platform differentiated two different events. A 6-day course emphasizing on theoretic knowledge was created in Antalya in 2007. The same year, a 2-day school oriented to practical issues with hands-on in the animal lab was launched in Antalya. These two teaching tracks need further development. In the knowledge track, we intend to organize highly specialized 2-day courses to deepen insight into theoretical questions. The skill track will be implemented by specialized courses for high technology such as tracheal surgery, ECMO, robotics or chest wall reconstruction. In order to promote tomorrows' leadership, we created an academic competence track giving an insight into medical communication, methodology and management. We also had to respond to an increasing demand from the Russian speaking countries, where colleagues may face problems to attend western meetings, and where the language bareer may be a major impediment. We initiated a Russian school with three events yearly in 2012. Contemporary teaching must be completed with an e-learning platform, which is currently under development. The school activities are organized by the educational committee, which is headed by the ESTS Director of Education, assisted by coordinators of the teaching tracks and

  7. An unusual case of thoracic ectopia cordis in a Toggenburg Goat and its three-dimensional images constructed with X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jyh-Mirn; Wu, Jui-Te; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Chao, Ming-Hsin; Nagahata, Hajime

    2016-05-01

    A two-day-old female Toggenburg goat with thoracic ectopia cordis (EC) was diagnosed via radiography and computed tomography. The goat was born with EC, defects of the sternum and a supra-umbilical abdominal wall, but without the presence of Cantrell's syndrome. Necropsy and histopathological findings indicated the affected kid had malformation of the heart with an enlarged left ventricle. The findings showed the heart (9 x 5 x 5 cm) stayed outside the thorax, and was covered by a semitransparent membrane. This report is the first to describe a case of thoracic EC in a goat whose sternum was not developed fully and was not connected to the ribs. It is also the first paper to describe three-dimensional images of this condition constructed from computed tomography scans. PMID:27506092

  8. Thoracic Endometriosis Syndrome: A Veritable Pandora's Box.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sobha S; Nayar, Jayashree

    2016-04-01

    Thoracic endometriosis syndrome is a rare disorder characterised by the presence of functioning endometrial tissue in pleura, lung parenchyma, airways, and/or encompasses mainly four clinical entities-catamenial pneumothorax, catamenial haemothorax, catamenial haemoptysis and lung nodules. The cases were studied retrospectively by reviewing the records at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, for duration of five years i.e., form March 2010-2014 and analysed for the clinical presentation and management of thoracic endometriosis syndrome. Catamenial breathlessness was the main symptom. Pneumothorax and pleural effusion were the findings on investigations. Histopathology report of endometriosis was present in three cases (50%). Conditions with excess oestrogen like endometriosis, fibroid, adenomyosis were diagnosed in these patients by pelvic scan. After the initial supportive treatment with hormones, pleurodesis, hysterectomy and lung decortication were the treatment modalities. Two cases that had multiple recurrences were diagnosed as disseminated TES. They underwent combined treatment of surgery and hormones. PMID:27190904

  9. Thoracic Aortic Dissection: Are Matrix Metalloproteinases Involved?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Shen, Ying H.; LeMaire, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection, one of the major diseases affecting the aorta, carries a very high mortality rate. Improving our understanding of the pathobiology of this disease may help us develop medical treatments to prevent dissection and subsequent aneurysm formation and rupture. Dissection is associated with degeneration of the aortic media. Recent studies have shown increased expression and activation of a family of proteolytic enzymes—called matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)—in dissected aortic tissue, suggesting that MMPs may play a major role in this disease. Inhibition of MMPs may be beneficial in reducing MMP-mediated aortic damage associated with dissection. This article reviews the recent literature and summarizes our current understanding of the role of MMPs in the pathobiology of thoracic aortic dissection. The potential importance of MMP inhibition as a future treatment of aortic dissection is also discussed. PMID:19476747

  10. Acute Aortic Syndromes and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Ramanath, Vijay S.; Oh, Jae K.; Sundt, Thoralf M.; Eagle, Kim A.

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic aortic diseases have been diagnosed and studied by physicians for centuries. Both the diagnosis and treatment of aortic diseases have been steadily improving over time, largely because of increased physician awareness and improvements in diagnostic modalities. This comprehensive review discusses the pathophysiology and risk factors, classification schemes, epidemiology, clinical presentations, diagnostic modalities, management options, and outcomes of various aortic conditions, including acute aortic dissection (and its variants intramural hematoma and penetrating aortic ulcers) and thoracic aortic aneurysms. Literature searches of the PubMed database were conducted using the following keywords: aortic dissection, intramural hematoma, aortic ulcer, and thoracic aortic aneurysm. Retrospective and prospective studies performed within the past 20 years were included in the review; however, most data are from the past 15 years. PMID:19411444

  11. Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Cartes-Zumelzu, F; Lammer, J; Kretschmer, G; Hoelzenbein, T; Grabenwöger, M; Thurnher, S

    2000-03-01

    The standard technique for the treatment of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms is elective open surgical repair with graft interposition. This standard approach, although steadily improving, is associated with high morbidity and substantial mortality rates and implies a major surgical procedure with lateral thoracotomy, use of cardiopulmonary bypass, long operation times and a variety of peri- and postoperative complications. This and the success of the first endoluminal treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms by Parodi et al. prompted the attention to be thrown on the treatment of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms with endoluminal stent-grafts in many large centres. The aim of this new minimally invasive technique is to exclude the aneurysm from blood flow and in consequence to avoid pressure stress on the aneurysmatic aortic wall, by avoiding a large open operation with significant perioperative morbidity. The potentially beneficial effect of this new treatment approach was evaluated in the course of this study. PMID:10875224

  12. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, S.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Jones, C. E.; Plaut, J. P.; Webb, F. H.

    2013-06-01

    Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays) to image the interior of large-scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  13. Imaging diagnosis--canine thoracic mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Echandi, Rita L; Morandi, Federica; Newman, Shelley J; Holford, Amy

    2007-01-01

    A 12-year-old neutered female Pembroke Welsh Corgi had a 2-month history of a progressive, productive cough nonresponsive to therapy. Mild pleural effusion, right middle lung lobe collapse, and multiple subpleural nodular lesions were detected in thoracic radiographs and computed tomography (CT) images. Histopathologic diagnosis of the pleural nodules was mesothelioma. Mesothelioma should be considered in patients where pleural masses are detected in radiographs or CT images. PMID:17508511

  14. Thoracic Cavernous Lymphangioma Provoking Massive Chyloptysis

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Robert; Hodges, Jeffrey; Harness-Brumley, Cayce; Girod, Carlos; Bartolome, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Chyloptysis is a relatively rare embodiment of disease that encompasses a lengthy differential and provides many diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Presented here is the case of a young woman with massive chyloptysis due to a thoracic cavernous lymphangioma arising in the peripartum period. The severity of her condition mandated the use of cardiopulmonary bypass to resect her lymphangioma. We believe that the extent of her symptoms, etiology of disease, and surgical management represent a unique scenario in the literature. PMID:26425583

  15. Managing Dissections of the Thoracic Aorta

    PubMed Central

    WONG, DANIEL R.; LEMAIRE, SCOTT A.; COSELLI, JOSEPH S.

    2010-01-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, and it requires timely and accurate diagnosis and treatment. Long-term antihypertensive therapy remains critical for the treatment of this disease. Surgical intervention, although still a formidable undertaking, has evolved to better address both acute and chronic dissection, and the results have improved. Basic and clinical research, as well as technological advances, have increased our understanding of this challenging disease state. PMID:18481490

  16. The European general thoracic surgery database project

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) Database is a free registry created by ESTS in 2001. The current online version was launched in 2007. It runs currently on a Dendrite platform with extensive data security and frequent backups. The main features are a specialty-specific, procedure-specific, prospectively maintained, periodically audited and web-based electronic database, designed for quality control and performance monitoring, which allows for the collection of all general thoracic procedures. Data collection is the “backbone” of the ESTS database. It includes many risk factors, processes of care and outcomes, which are specially designed for quality control and performance audit. The user can download and export their own data and use them for internal analyses and quality control audits. The ESTS database represents the gold standard of clinical data collection for European General Thoracic Surgery. Over the past years, the ESTS database has achieved many accomplishments. In particular, the database hit two major milestones: it now includes more than 235 participating centers and 70,000 surgical procedures. The ESTS database is a snapshot of surgical practice that aims at improving patient care. In other words, data capture should become integral to routine patient care, with the final objective of improving quality of care within Europe. PMID:24868445

  17. The European general thoracic surgery database project.

    PubMed

    Falcoz, Pierre Emmanuel; Brunelli, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    The European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) Database is a free registry created by ESTS in 2001. The current online version was launched in 2007. It runs currently on a Dendrite platform with extensive data security and frequent backups. The main features are a specialty-specific, procedure-specific, prospectively maintained, periodically audited and web-based electronic database, designed for quality control and performance monitoring, which allows for the collection of all general thoracic procedures. Data collection is the "backbone" of the ESTS database. It includes many risk factors, processes of care and outcomes, which are specially designed for quality control and performance audit. The user can download and export their own data and use them for internal analyses and quality control audits. The ESTS database represents the gold standard of clinical data collection for European General Thoracic Surgery. Over the past years, the ESTS database has achieved many accomplishments. In particular, the database hit two major milestones: it now includes more than 235 participating centers and 70,000 surgical procedures. The ESTS database is a snapshot of surgical practice that aims at improving patient care. In other words, data capture should become integral to routine patient care, with the final objective of improving quality of care within Europe. PMID:24868445

  18. Weakly ionized cerium plasma radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Germer, Rudolf; Koorikawa, Yoshitake; Murakami, Kazunori; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Ichimaru, Toshio; Obata, Fumiko; Takahashi, Kiyomi; Sato, Sigehiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki

    2004-02-01

    In the plasma flash x-ray generator, high-voltage main condenser of about 200 nF is charged up to 55 kV by a power supply, and electric charges in the condenser are discharged to an x-ray tube after triggering the cathode electrode. The flash x-rays are then produced. The x-ray tube is of a demountable triode that is connected to a turbo molecular pump with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. As electron flows from the cathode electrode are roughly converged to a rod cerium target of 3.0 mm in diameter by electric field in the x-ray tube, the weakly ionized linear plasma, which consists of cerium ions and electrons, forms by target evaporating. At a charging voltage of 55 kV, the maximum tube voltage was almost equal to the charging voltage of the main condenser, and the peak current was about 20 kA. When the charging voltage was increased, weakly ionized cerium plasma formed, and the K-series characteristic x-ray intensities increased. The x-ray pulse widths were about 500 ns, and the time-integrated x-ray intensity had a value of about 40 μC/kg at 1.0 m from x-ray source with a charging voltage of 55 kV. In the angiography, we employed a film-less computed radiography (CR) system and iodine-based microspheres. Because K-series characteristic x-rays are absorbed easily by the microspheres, high-contrast angiography has been performed.

  19. Survey radiography and computerized tomography imaging of the thorax in female dogs with mammary tumors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Accurate early diagnosis of lung metastases is important for establishing therapeutic measures. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare survey thoracic radiographs and computerized tomography (CT) scans to specifically identify lung metastases in female dogs with mammary tumors. Methods Twenty-one female dogs, weighing 3 to 34 kg and aged from 5 years to 14 years and 10 months, with mammary tumors were studied. In all dogs before the imaging examinations, fine-needle aspiration cytology of the mammary tumors was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Three-view thoracic radiographs were accomplished: right lateral, left lateral and ventrodorsal views. Sequential transverse images of the thorax were acquired on a spiral Scanner, before and after intravenous bolus injection of nonionic iodine contrast. Soft-tissue and lung windows were applied. All the mammary tumors were surgically removed and examined histologically. Results The correlation between the cytological and histological results regarding presence of malignancy was observed in only 17 cases. In radiographic examinations, no dog displayed signs of lung metastases or thorax chest lesions. CT detected lung metastasis in two cases, while small areas of lung atelectasis located peripherally were found in 28.57% of the dogs. Conclusion In this study population, spiral CT showed higher sensitivity than chest radiographies to detect lung metastasis; this indicates that CT should be performed on all female dogs with malignant mammary tumors. PMID:20214816

  20. Thyroid dose distribution in dental radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Bristow, R.G.; Wood, R.E.; Clark, G.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The anatomic position and proven radiosensitivity of the thyroid gland make it an organ of concern in dental radiography. A calibrated thermoluminescent dosimetry system was used to investigate the absorbed dose (microGy) to the thyroid gland resultant from a minimum irradiated volume, intraoral full-mouth radiography technique with the use of rectangular collimation with a lead-backed image receptor, and conventional panoramic radiography performed with front and rear lead aprons. Use of the minimum irradiated volume technique resulted in a significantly decreased absorbed dose over the entire thyroid region ranging from 100% to 350% (p less than 0.05). Because this intraoral technique results in radiographs with greater image quality and also exposes the thyroid gland to less radiation than the panoramic, this technique may be an alternative to the panoramic procedure.

  1. Problems associated with veterinary dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Eisner, E R

    1990-03-01

    Veterinarians have been radiographing animal skulls for many years, but sophisticated dentistry was not widely used until the 1970s. Elevated awareness of veterinary dental techniques has led to the need for producing accurate radiographic images of the teeth and periodontal structures. Many problems arise for the clinician who treats small animals who has, before this time, radiographed the skull of dogs and cats solely for the purpose of assessing neoplastic, infectious, or traumatic disease of the mandible, maxilla, or calvarium and now desires to perform dental radiography. This chapter will describe the advantages and disadvantages of some of the more common types of radiographic equipment and supplies, discuss extraoral and intraoral radiographic positioning and technique, identify anatomic landmarks and diagnostic features of intraoral radiography, and offer suggestions concerning the art of using dental radiography in veterinary practice. PMID:2134590

  2. Neutron radiography at the NRAD facility

    SciTech Connect

    McClellan, G.C.; Richards, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The NRAD facility uses a 150 kW TRIGA reactor as a source of neutrons and is integrated with a hot cell such that highly radioactive specimens can be radiographed without removing them from the hot cell environment. A second beam tube is located in a separate shielded addition to HFEF and permits neutron radiography of irradiated or unirradiated specimens without subjecting them to the alpha-contaminated hot cell environment. Both beams are optimized for neutron radiography of highly radioactive nuclear fuels. Techniques for using these facilities are described. Advantages include: the ability to perform thermal and epithermal neutron radiography on specimens either inside or outside the hot cell, lack of competition for the use of the reactor, versatility of facility design, and the addition of neutron tomography. (LEW)

  3. Lung ultrasound versus chest radiography for the diagnosis of pneumothorax in critically ill patients: A prospective, single-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, W; Elgendy, M; Abdelaziz, AA; Ammar, MA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radiologic data remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of pneumothorax (PTX). The use of ultrasonography (US) has recently emerged as the method of choice with physicians who can perform bedside US. Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of lung US against bedside chest radiography (CR) for the detection of PTX using thoracic computed tomography (CT) as the gold standard. Materials and Methods: We conducted a prospective, single-blind study on 192 critically ill patients; each patient received lung US examination, bedside CR, followed by thoracic CT scan searching for PTX. Results: Of the studied patients, CT of the chest confirmed the diagnosis of PTX in 36 (18.75%) patients of which 31 were diagnosed by thoracic US while CR detected only 19 cases. Overall lung US showed a considerable higher sensitivity than bedside CR (86.1% vs. 52.7%), lung US also showed higher, negative predictive values, and diagnostic accuracy against CR (96.8% vs. 90.1%), and (95.3% vs. 90.6%), respectively. CR had a slightly higher specificity than lung US (99.4% vs. 97.4%), and higher positive predictive values (95.0% vs. 88.6%). Conclusion: Lung US is an accurate modality more than anteroposterior bedside CR in comparison with CT scanning when evaluating critically ill mechanically ventilated patients, patients underwent thoracocentesis, central venous catheter insertion, or patients with polytrauma. PMID:27375379

  4. Digital radiography. A comparison with modern conventional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, G J

    2006-01-01

    The development of computed radiography over the past two decades has transformed radiological imaging. The radiology departments in the 21st century will look very different from those in the preceding period. In this review, the development of digital radiography is presented with a description of its various forms and a comparison with screen film radiography. PMID:16822918

  5. Proton Radiography: Its uses and Resolution Scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Mariam, Fesseha G.

    2012-08-09

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has used high energy protons as a probe in flash radiography for over a decade. In this time the proton radiography project has used 800 MeV protons, provided by the LANSCE accelerator facility at LANL, to diagnose over five-hundred dynamic experiments in support of stockpile stewardship programs as well as basic materials science. Through this effort significant experience has been gained in using charged particles as direct radiographic probes to diagnose transient systems. The results of this experience will be discussed through the presentation of data from experiments recently performed at the LANL pRad.

  6. [Conventional dental radiography and future prospectives].

    PubMed

    Youssefzadeh, S; Gahleitner, A; Bernhart, D; Bernhart, T

    1999-12-01

    Until recently, conventional dental radiology was performed by dentists and orofacial surgeons. Due to the rapid development of radiological technique, the demand of radiological advice is increasing. The radiologists see more and more dental patients in their daily routine. The aim of this article is to give an overview on established dental radiology and a glimpse into the future. Conventional dental radiology and digital radiography are presently in use. Intraoral technique comprises dental films, bite-wing views and occlusal radiographs. Panoramic views and cephalometric radiographs are done with extraoral technique. Digital radiography lacks all processes in behalf of film development. It leads to dose reduction and enables image manipulation. PMID:10643025

  7. New developments in proton radiography at LANSCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Christopher; Proton Radiography Team

    2014-09-01

    In a new application of nuclear physics, a facility for using proton for flash radiography has been developed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). Protons have proven far superior to high energy x-rays for flash radiography. Although this facility is primarily used for studying very fast phenomena such as high explosive driven experiments, it is finding increasing application to other fields, such as tomography of static objects, phase changes in materials, and the dynamics of chemical reactions. The advantages of protons will be discussed and data from some of the recent experiments will be presented.

  8. Lithium batteries: Application of neutron radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Esaka, Takao; Fujine, Shigenori; Yoneda, Kenji; Kanda, Keiji

    Several kinds of primary and secondary commercial lithium batteries, such as CR1/3 · 1H (Fujitsu), CR1220 and BR435 (Panasonic), ML1220 (Sanyo Excel) were investigated using neutron radiography; the variation of the lithium distribution inside these batteries upon discharging (and charging) were clarified by analyzing their visualized images. It was demonstrated that neutron radiography is a potential and useful method, especially in evaluating the reversibility of rechargeable batteries, which have been used under different discharging/charging conditions.

  9. CT and MRI in the Evaluation of Thoracic Aortic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most commonly used imaging examinations to evaluate thoracic aortic diseases because of their high spatial and temporal resolutions, large fields of view, and multiplanar imaging reconstruction capabilities. CT and MRI play an important role not only in the diagnosis of thoracic aortic disease but also in the preoperative assessment and followup after treatment. In this review, the CT and MRI appearances of various acquired thoracic aortic conditions are described and illustrated. PMID:24396601

  10. Thoracic Endovascular Stent Graft Repair of Middle Aortic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joung Taek; Lee, Mina; Kim, Young Sam; Yoon, Yong Han; Baek, Wan Ki

    2016-09-01

    Middle aortic syndrome is a rare disease defined as a segmental narrowing of the distal descending thoracic or abdominal aorta. A thoracoabdominal bypass or endovascular treatment is the choice of treatment. Endovascular therapy consists of a balloon dilatation and stent implantation. Recently, thoracic endovascular aortic repair has been widely used in a variety of aortic diseases. We report a case of middle aortic syndrome treated with a thoracic endovascular stent graft. PMID:27549552

  11. INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTORS' GUIDE. VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Engineering Extension Service.

    INFORMATION RELATIVE TO THE LESSON PLANS IN "INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY COURSE, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE, VOLUME I" (VT 003 565) IS PRESENTED ON 52 INFORMATION SHEETS INCLUDING THE SUBJECTS SHIELDING EQUATIONS AND LOGARITHMS, METAL PROPERTIES, FIELD TRIP INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS, WELDING SYMBOLS AND SIZES, SAMPLE REPORT FORMS, AND TYPICAL SHIPPING…

  12. Infection control practices for dental radiography.

    PubMed

    Palenik, Charles John

    2004-06-01

    Infection control for dental radiography employs the same materials, processes, and techniques used in the operatory, yet unless proper procedures are established and followed, there is a definite potential for cross-contamination to clinical area surfaces and DHCP. In general, the aseptic practices used are relatively simple and inexpensive, yet they require complete application in every situation. PMID:15218669

  13. Safety Testing of Industrial Radiography Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Trapp, D.J.

    1999-09-29

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted the Savannah River Technology Center to verify the relevancy of the 10 CFR Part 34 requirements for the normal use of portable gamma radiography systems and to propose recommendations for changes or modifications to the requirements.

  14. Video-Assisted Thoracic Sympathectomy for Hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Milanez de Campos, Jose Ribas; Kauffman, Paulo; Gomes, Oswaldo; Wolosker, Nelson

    2016-08-01

    By the 1980s, endoscopy was in use by some groups in sympathetic denervation of the upper limbs with vascular indications. Low morbidity, cosmetic results, reduction in the incidence of Horner syndrome, and the shortened time in hospital made video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy (VATS) better accepted by those undergoing treatment for hyperhidrosis. Over the last 25 years, this surgical procedure has become routine in the treatment of hyperhidrosis, leading to a significant increase in the number of papers on the subject in the literature. PMID:27427529

  15. Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Following Breast Implant Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Caplash, Yugesh; Giri, Pratyush; Kearney, Daniel; Wagstaff, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We present a patient with bilateral breast implant rupture who developed severe locoregional silicone granulomatous lymphadenopathy. Poly Implant Prothese silicone implants had been used for bilateral breast augmentation 5 years prior. Extracapsular implant rupture and bilateral axillary lymphadenopathy indicated explantation, capsulectomy, and selective lymph node excision. Histology demonstrated silicone lymphadenopathy with no evidence of malignancy. Over the subsequent 12 months, she developed progressive locoregional lymphadenopathy involving bilateral cervical, axillary, and internal mammary groups, resulting in bilateral thoracic outlet syndrome. We report the unusual presentation, progression, and the ultimate surgical management of this patient. PMID:25878942

  16. Dynamic thoracoplasty for asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kaddoura, I L; Obeid, M Y; Mroueh, S M; Nasser, A A

    2001-11-01

    The life-saving procedures to expand the chests of infants born with Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy provide a static solution incapable of responding to the growth demands of thriving patients. We describe an instrument that provided a dynamic solution for an infant, where an initial methyl methacrylate midsternotomy spacer placed at 4 months of age was followed at 11 months with recurrence of his difficulties. At 8 months after the second operation the patient was stable and thriving with no recurrence of symptoms. The instrument modifications, limitations, and possible complications are described. PMID:11722089

  17. Video-assisted thoracic surgery complications

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is a miniinvasive technique commonly applied worldwide. Indications for VATS are very broad and include the diagnosis of mediastinal, lung and pleural diseases, as well as large resection procedures such as pneumonectomy. The most frequent complication is prolonged postoperative air leak. The other significant complications are bleeding, infections, postoperative pain and recurrence at the port site. Different complications of VATS procedures can occur with variable frequency in various diseases. Despite the large number of their types, such complications are rare and can be avoided through the proper selection of patients and an appropriate surgical technique. PMID:25561984

  18. Thoracic-pelvic dysostosis: a 'new' autosomal dominant form.

    PubMed Central

    Bankier, A; Danks, D M

    1983-01-01

    A form of thoracic and pelvic dysostosis is reported in a mother and her son. The short ribs caused respiratory distress in the baby and raised the possibility of asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD). The radiological features, however, distinguish this benign condition from ATD and other described skeletal dysplasias. Images PMID:6620328

  19. Anomalous azygos vein: a potential danger during endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Sieunarine, K; May, J; White, G H; Harris, J P

    1997-08-01

    A report of a patient with an azygos lobe and an associated anomalous azygos vein covering the upper thoracic sympathetic chain. This anomaly poses a significant risk during the procedure of endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy. A chest X-ray is useful in detecting this anomaly and alerting the surgeon to potential problems. PMID:9287933

  20. Surgical efficacy of minimally invasive thoracic discectomy.

    PubMed

    Elhadi, Ali M; Zehri, Aqib H; Zaidi, Hasan A; Almefty, Kaith K; Preul, Mark C; Theodore, Nicholas; Dickman, Curtis A

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to determine the clinical indications and surgical outcomes for thoracoscopic discectomy. Thoracic disc disease is a rare degenerative process. Thoracoscopic approaches serve to minimize tissue injury during the approach, but critics argue that this comes at the cost of surgical efficacy. Current reports in the literature are limited to small institutional patient series. We systematically identified all English language articles on thoracoscopic discectomy with at least two patients, published from 1994 to 2013 on MEDLINE, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. We analyzed 12 articles that met the inclusion criteria, five prospective and seven retrospective studies comprising 545 surgical patients. The overall complication rate was 24% (n=129), with reported complications ranging from intercostal neuralgia (6.1%), atelectasis (2.8%), and pleural effusion (2.6%), to more severe complications such as pneumonia (0.8%), pneumothorax (1.3%), and venous thrombosis (0.2%). The average reported postoperative follow-up was 20.5 months. Complete resolution of symptoms was reported in 79% of patients, improvement with residual symptoms in 10.2%, no change in 9.6%, and worsening in 1.2%. The minimally invasive endoscopic approaches to the thoracic spine among selected patients demonstrate excellent clinical efficacy and acceptable complication rates, comparable to the open approaches. Disc herniations confined to a single level, with small or no calcifications, are ideal for such an approach, whereas patients with calcified discs adherent to the dura would benefit from an open approach. PMID:26206758

  1. Developing the academic thoracic surgeon: teaching surgery.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, W A; Greene, P S

    2000-04-01

    Teaching surgery can be a very gratifying experience for those of us involved in academic thoracic surgery. Fundamentals of a good residency program require that patients should always be placed in the highest priority. However, the residency program should also be committed to teaching as a priority. Creating the proper operating room environment is essential for optimal conduct of the operation. This environment is similar to that of the airline industry, which is known as crew or cockpit resource management. The design of a teaching program needs to have evaluation as one of its key elements. In addition to resident evaluation, it is also important to have faculty evaluation by the residents. The goal of any residency program should be to foster the development of the future leaders in our specialty. The information contained within this article represents the art and science of teaching thoracic surgery as applied by the faculty in the Division of Cardiac Surgery at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. PMID:10727957

  2. The thoracic anterior spinal cord adhesion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, T R; Dineen, R; White, B; Jaspan, T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study included a series of middle-aged male and female patients who presented with chronic anterior hemicord dysfunction progressing to paraplegia. Imaging of anterior thoracic cord displacement by either a dural adhesion or a dural defect with associated cord herniation is presented. Methods This is a retrospective review of cases referred to a tertiary neuroscience centre over a 19-year period. Imaging series were classified by two experienced neuroradiologists against several criteria and correlated with clinical examination and/or findings at surgery. Results 16 cases were available for full review. Nine were considered to represent adhesions (four confirmed surgically) and four to represent true herniation (three confirmed surgically). In the three remaining cases the diagnosis was radiologically uncertain. Conclusion The authors propose “thoracic anterior spinal cord adhesion syndrome” as a novel term to describe this patient cohort and suggest appropriate clinicoradiological features for diagnosis. Several possible aetiologies are also suggested, with disc rupture and inflammation followed by disc resorption and dural pocket formation being a possible mechanism predisposing to herniation at the extreme end of a clinicopathological spectrum. PMID:22665931

  3. History and current status of mini-invasive thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    He, Jianxing

    2011-01-01

    Mini-invasive thoracic technique mainly refers to a technique involving the significant reduction of the chest wall access-related trauma. Notably, thoracoscope is the chief representative. The development of thoracoscope technique is characterized by: developing from direct peep to artificial lighting, then combination with image and video technique in equipments; technically developing from diagnostic to therapeutic approaches; developing from simpleness to complexity in application scope; and usually developing together with other techniques. At present, the widely used mini-invasive thoracic surgery refers to the mini-open thoracic surgery performed mainly by using some instruments to control target tissues and organs based on the vision associated with multi-limb coordination, which may be hand-assisted if necessary. The mini-invasive thoracic surgery consists of three approaches including video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), video-assisted Hybrid and hand-assisted VATS. So far the mini-invasive thoracic technique has achieved great advances due to the development in instruments of mini-invasive thoracic surgery which has the following features: instruments of mini-invasive thoracic surgery appear to be safe and practical, and have successive improvement and diversification in function; the specific instruments of open surgeries has been successively developed into dedicated instruments of endoscopic surgery; the application of endoscopic mechanical suture device generates faster fragmentation and reconstruction of organ tissues; the specific delicated instruments of endoscopic surgery have rapid development and application; and the simple instruments structurally similar to the conventional instruments are designed according to the mini-incison. In addition, the mini-invasive thoracic technique is widely used in five aspects including diseases of pleura membrane and chest wall, lung diseases, esophageal diseases, mediastinal diseases and heart diseases

  4. Thoracic size-selective sampling of fibres: performance of four types of thoracic sampler in laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    Jones, A D; Aitken, R J; Fabriès, J F; Kauffer, E; Liden, G; Maynard, A; Riediger, G; Sahle, W

    2005-08-01

    The counting of fibres on membrane filters could be facilitated by using size-selective samplers to exclude coarse particulate and fibres that impede fibre counting. Furthermore, the use of thoracic size selection would also remove the present requirement to discriminate fibres by diameter during counting. However, before thoracic samplers become acceptable for sampling fibres, their performance with fibres needs to be determined. This study examines the performance of four thoracic samplers: the GK2.69 cyclone, a Modified SIMPEDS cyclone, the CATHIA sampler (inertial separation) and the IOM thoracic sampler (porous foam pre-selector). The uniformity of sample deposit on the filter samples, which is important when counts are taken on random fields, was examined with two sizes of spherical particles (1 and 10 microm) and a glass fibre aerosol with fibres spanning the aerodynamic size range of the thoracic convention. Counts by optical microscopy examined fields on a set scanning pattern. Hotspots of deposition were detected for one of the thoracic samplers (Modified SIMPEDS with the 10 microm particles and the fibres). These hotspots were attributed to the inertial flow pattern near the port from the cyclone pre-separator. For the other three thoracic samplers, the distribution was similar to that on a cowled sampler, the current standard sampler for fibres. Aerodynamic selection was examined by comparing fibre concentration on thoracic samples with those measured on semi-isokinetic samples, using fibre size (and hence calculated aerodynamic diameter) and number data obtained by scanning electron microscope evaluation in four laboratories. The size-selection characteristics of three thoracic samplers (GK2.69, Modified SIMPEDS and CATHIA) appeared very similar to the thoracic convention; there was a slight oversampling (relative to the convention) for d(ae) < 7 microm, but that would not be disadvantageous for comparability with the cowled sampler. Only the IOM

  5. Preliminary study of visualizing membrane structures of spiculated pulmonary nodules in three-dimensional thoracic CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Ohmatsu, H.; Aokage, K.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.

    2016-03-01

    Research results from the National Lung Screening Trial revealed that screening for lung cancer with low-dose CT (LDCT) reduces lung cancer mortality in heavy smokers by 20% compared to radiography. While this study does show the efficacy of CT-based screening, radiologists often face the problem of estimating the malignant likelihoods of pulmonary nodules detected on LDCT screening for maximizing patient survival and for preserving lung function. Spiculation is considered as one of the indicators of nodule malignancy and an important feature to assess requirements on a patient-tailored follow-up procedure. However, the spiculation is also observed in some benign nodules, particularly in tuberculoma. The elucidation of the spliculation morphology in 3D thoracic CT images is an important preliminary step towards developing the malignant discrimination strategies from benign nodules. In this study, we present a visualization method to reveal a spatial configuration of spiculation of pulmonary nodules in three-dimensional thoracic CT images. Applying the method to an example of malignant nodule with the spiculated margins, the visualizing preliminary result of the spatial configuration reveals the presence of membrane structures of spiculation.

  6. Digital radiography: a focus on clinical utility

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.R.; Rollo, F.D.; Monahan, W.G.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This book is interesting and timely in that it covers the new and exciting area of digital radiography. The book begins with chapters on the physics, instrumentation, and terminology of digital radiography. Then cost-benefit ratios, legal implication, and outpatient vs. inpatient studies are discussed. The clinical chapters follow. These are applicable to the head and neck, heart, lungs, kidneys, peripheral arteries, and pediatric population. Discussion then centers on intraarterial digital subtraction, clinical experience at Wisconsin, nonangiography application of digital radiology in children, and analog film-screen subtraction intravenous angiography. The book ends by briefly discussing microwave imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance, emission tomography, real-time and Doppler sonography, analog tomography, and the future photoelectric radiology department.

  7. Point projection radiography with the FXI

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K.; Perry, T.S.; Alvarez, S.A.

    1996-05-06

    Radiography techniques utilizing large area x-ray sources (typically {<=} 7 keV) and pinhole-imaging gated x-ray diagnostics have long been used at the Nova laser facility. However, for targets requiring higher energy x-ray backlighters (> 9 keV), low conversion efficiencies and pinhole losses combine to make this scheme unworkable. The technique of point projection radiography has been improved upon to make imaging at high x-ray energies feasible. In this scheme a {open_quotes}point{close_quotes} source of x-rays, usually a small diameter ({<=}25 {mu}m) fiber, is illuminated with a single, 100 ps pulse from the Nova laser. A gated x-ray imager with a 500 ps electronic gate width is used to record the projected image. The experimental challenges this technique presents and experimental results will be discussed.

  8. Characterizing flash-radiography source spots.

    PubMed

    Ekdahl, Carl

    2011-12-01

    Flash radiography of large hydrodynamic experiments driven by high explosives is a venerable diagnostic technique in use at many laboratories. The size of the radiographic source spot is often quoted as an indication of the resolving power of a particular flash-radiography machine. A variety of techniques for measuring spot size have evolved at the different laboratories, as well as different definitions of spot size. Some definitions are highly dependent on the source spot intensity distributions, and not necessarily well correlated with resolution. The concept of limiting resolution based on bar target measurements is introduced, and shown to be equivalent to the spatial wavenumber at a modulation transfer function value of 5%. This resolution is shown to be better correlated with the full width at half-maximum of the spot intensity distribution than it is with other definitions of spot size. PMID:22193263

  9. Deflection evaluation using time-resolved radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, D.A.; Lucero, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Time-resolved radiography is the creation of an x-ray image for which both the start-exposure and stop-exposure times are known with respect to the event under study. The combination of image and timing are used to derive information about the event. We have applied time-resolved radiography to evaluate motions of explosive-driven events. In the particular application discussed here, our intent is to measure maximum deflections of the components involved. Exposures are made during the time just before to just after the event of interest occurs. A smear or blur of motion out to its furthest extent is recorded on the image. Comparison of the dynamic images with static images allows deflection measurements to be made. 2 figs.

  10. A system for fast neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.

    1996-05-01

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this sytem, objects as small as a coin or as large as a waste drum can be radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3x10{sup 10} neutrons/second with an average energy of 14.5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to convert neutrons to protons through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9x10{sup 7} to 3.8x10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2} depending on the type of screen and film.

  11. Essentials of tuberculosis control for the practising physician. Tuberculosis Committee, Canadian Thoracic Society.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To recommend guidelines for the management of tuberculosis (TB), particularly in high-risk groups including poor and homeless people, aboriginal Canadians, immigrants from countries where TB is highly prevalent and people with HIV infection. OPTIONS: Diagnosis, pharmacotherapy, vaccination and chemoprophylaxis. OUTCOMES: Prevention of infection and diagnosis and cure of TB. EVIDENCE: The evidence was gathered in late 1992 from previous guidelines, recommendations by specialist societies and new studies. VALUES: Evidence was categorized into four levels: I, randomized clinical trials of therapeutic interventions or prospective studies of diagnostic strategies; II, case-control studies; III, retrospective descriptive studies; and IV, consensus of the committee members and published statements. The Tuberculosis Committee of the Canadian Thoracic Society comprises experts in TB from across Canada. BENEFITS, HARM AND COSTS: The benefits of early diagnosis and prompt initiation of therapy are well documented. The cost effectiveness of antituberculous therapy in developing countries is well documented. In developed countries chemoprophylaxis has been shown to be cost effective, and directly observed chemotherapy has recently been hypothesized to have economic benefits. RECOMMENDATIONS: In the appropriate clinical setting, particularly when patients are known to be at high risk of TB, clinicians should consider TB, reserve body secretions for mycobacteriologic tests and conduct other investigations such as chest radiography. Furthermore, if TB is strongly suspected or confirmed by appropriate investigation the early initiation of multi-drug therapy, including at least three first-line drugs, is strongly recommended. If drug resistance is suspected a regimen of four to five drugs, including at least two drugs with which the patient has not been treated, should be started. If the strain is found to be resistant to any of the drugs in the regimen appropriate

  12. Wizardry and radiography: a clinical case.

    PubMed

    Desrentes, M

    1990-10-01

    The author encountered a patient who had undergone various sorcery and wizardry practices. At radiography performed because of lower back pain, 100 sharp metal foreign bodies (such as needles and sharpened paper clips) were found scattered between his neck and pelvis. The patient evidently swallowed some of the objects to gain protection against aggression from humans or spiritual beings. However, the means of introduction of some of the objects (eg, the needles in the neck) cannot be determined. PMID:2399308

  13. Digital radiography: Present detectors and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    1990-08-01

    Present detectors for digital radiography are of two classes: real time detectors and storage (non real time) types. Present real time detectors consist of image intensifier tubes with an internal cesium iodide layer x-ray converter. Non real time detectors involve linear sweep arrays or storage detectors such as film. Future detectors discussed here can be of both types utilizing new technologies such as hydrogenated amorphous silicon photodiode arrays coupled to thin film transistor arrays. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Progress in thermal neutron radiography at LENS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jack; Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) at Indiana University Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    An end station for thermal neutron radiography and tomography is in operation at the Indiana University LENS facility. Neutrons from proton-induced nuclear reactions in Beryllium are moderated and collimated into a beam which is attenuated by a scanned object on a remotely-controlled rotating table. Neutron signal is then converted to a light signal with a ZnS scintillating screen and recorded in a cooled CCD. The author has performed diagnostics on the radiography hardware and software and has tested the system's capabilities by imaging a stack of high density polyethylene cubes with diverse inlet holes and grooves on an 80/20 aluminum base. The resolution of the radiographs are seen to be less than 1mm and 3D rending software is capable of reconstructing the internal structure of the aluminum. An end station for thermal neutron radiography and tomography is in operation at the Indiana University LENS facility. Neutrons from proton-induced nuclear reactions in Beryllium are moderated and collimated into a beam which is attenuated by a scanned object on a remotely-controlled rotating table. Neutron signal is then converted to a light signal with a ZnS scintillating screen and recorded in a cooled CCD. The author has performed diagnostics on the radiography hardware and software and has tested the system's capabilities by imaging a stack of high density polyethylene cubes with diverse inlet holes and grooves on an 80/20 aluminum base. The resolution of the radiographs are seen to be less than 1mm and 3D rending software is capable of reconstructing the internal structure of the aluminum. NSF.

  15. Non-intubated thoracic surgery—A survey from the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Sorge, Roberto; Akopov, Andrej; Congregado, Miguel; Grodzki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Background A survey amongst the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) members has been performed to investigate the currents trends, rates of adoption as well as potential for future expansion of non-intubated thoracic surgery (NITS) performed under spontaneous ventilation. Methods A 14-question-based questionnaire has been e-mailed to ESTS members. To facilitate the completion of the questionnaire, questions entailed either quantitative or multiple-choice answers. Investigated issues included previous experience with NITS and number of procedures performed, preferred types of anesthesia protocols (i.e., thoracic epidural anesthesia, intercostal or paravertebral blocks, laryngeal mask, use of additional sedation), type of procedures, ideal candidates for NITS, main advantages and technical disadvantages. Non-univocal answer to multiple-choice questions was permitted. Results Out of 105 responders, 62 reported an experience with NITS. The preferred types of anesthesia were intercostal blocks with (59%) or without (50%) sedation, followed by laryngeal mask with sedation (43%) and thoracic epidural anesthesia with sedation (20%). The most frequently performed procedures included thoracoscopic management of recurrent pleural effusion (98%), pleural decortication for empyema thoracis and lung biopsy for interstitial lung disease (26% each); pericardial window and mediastinal biopsy (20% each). More complex procedures such as lobectomy, lung volume reduction surgery and thymectomy have been performed by a minority of responders (2% each). Poor-risk patients due to co-morbidities (70%) and patients with poor pulmonary function (43%) were considered the ideal candidates. Main advantages included faster, recovery (67%), reduced morbidity (59%) and shorter hospital stay with decreased costs (43% each). Reported technical disadvantages included coughing (59%) and poor maneuverability due to diaphragmatic and lung movements (56%). Overall, 69% of responders indicated

  16. Proton Radiography Peers into Metal Solidification

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Amy; Imhoff, Seth; Gibbs, Paul; Cooley, Jason; Morris, Christopher; Merrill, Frank; Hollander, Brian; Mariam, Fesseha; Ott, Thomas; Barker, Martha; Tucker, Tim; Lee, Wah-Keat; Fezzaa, Kamel; Deriy, Alex; Patterson, Brian; Clarke, Kester; Montalvo, Joel; Field, Robert; Thoma, Dan; Smith, James; Teter, David

    2013-01-01

    Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. Here we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000 mm3) during melting and solidification. We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1 mm3), bridging four orders of magnitude. Real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models. PMID:23779063

  17. Novel embossed radiography system utilizing energy subtraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Akihiro; Sato, Eiichi; Matsukiyo, Hiroshi; Enomoto, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Manabu; Nagao, Jiro; Abderyim, Purkhet; Tanaka, Etsuro; Izumisawa, Mitsuru; Ogawa, Akira; Sato, Shigehiro

    2008-08-01

    Digital subtraction is useful for carrying out embossed radiography by shifting an x-ray source, and energy subtraction is an important technique for imaging target region by deleting unnecessary region in vivo. X-ray generator had a 100-μm-focus tube, energy subtraction was performed at tube voltages of 40 and 60 kV, and a 3.0-mm-thick aluminum filter was used to absorb low-photon-energy bremsstrahlung x-rays. Embossed radiography was achieved with cohesion imaging using a flat panel detector (FPD) with pixel sizes of 48×48 μm, and the shifting distance of the x-ray source in horizontal direction and the distance between the x-ray source and the FPD face were 5.0 mm and 1.0 m, respectively. At a tube voltage of 60 kV and a tube current of 0.50 mA, x-ray intensities without filtering and with filtering were 307 and 28.4 μGy/s, respectively, at 1.0 m from the source. In embossed radiography of non-living animals, the spatial resolution measured using a lead test chart was approximately 70 μm, and we observed embossed images of fine bones, soft tissues, and coronary arteries of approximately 100 μm.

  18. Proton Radiography Peers into Metal Solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy J.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Cooley, Jason C.; Morris, Christopher; Merrill, Frank E.; Hollander, Brian J.; Mariam, Fesseha G.; Ott, Thomas J.; Barker, Martha R.; Tucker, Tim J.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Fezzaa, Kamel; Deriy, Alex; Patterson, Brian M.; Clarke, Kester D.; Montalvo, Joel D.; Field, Robert D.; Thoma, Dan J.; Smith, James L.; Teter, David F.

    2013-06-19

    Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. In this study, we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000 mm3) during melting and solidification. We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1mm3), bridging four orders of magnitude. In conclusion, real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of the structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models.

  19. Proton Radiography Peers into Metal Solidification

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Clarke, Amy J.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Cooley, Jason C.; Morris, Christopher; Merrill, Frank E.; Hollander, Brian J.; Mariam, Fesseha G.; Ott, Thomas J.; Barker, Martha R.; et al

    2013-06-19

    Historically, metals are cut up and polished to see the structure and to infer how processing influences the evolution. We can now peer into a metal during processing without destroying it using proton radiography. Understanding the link between processing and structure is important because structure profoundly affects the properties of engineering materials. Synchrotron x-ray radiography has enabled real-time glimpses into metal solidification. However, x-ray energies favor the examination of small volumes and low density metals. In this study, we use high energy proton radiography for the first time to image a large metal volume (>10,000 mm3) during melting and solidification.more » We also show complementary x-ray results from a small volume (<1mm3), bridging four orders of magnitude. In conclusion, real-time imaging will enable efficient process development and the control of the structure evolution to make materials with intended properties; it will also permit the development of experimentally informed, predictive structure and process models.« less

  20. Alteration of computer dental radiography images.

    PubMed

    Bruder, G A; Casale, J; Goren, A; Friedman, S

    1999-04-01

    This study was designed to determine if digital images stored on the hard drive of a Schick computer dental radiography system could be exported, altered, and then restored to the drive without any visible signs of alteration. Digital images were downloaded from the computer dental radiography system using an I-Omega Zip Drive, 100-MB capacity, and then opened in Corel Photo Paint where images were altered and manufacturer export symbols were edited. The resulting images were printed to a default printer (Fargo Foto Fun). The ease of manipulation of the exported digital images reflects the need for the manufacturer to implement safeguards so that the integrity of digital imaging cannot be compromised. Computer dental radiography has many advantages: conservation of time (instant radiographs), less radiation (50 to 60%), no chemical waste, and many viewing options. However, questions that might be raised regarding the ability of persons with minimal computer expertise, using a commercially available program to alter images should be addressed. PMID:10425956

  1. Multifocal thoracic chordoma mimicking a paraganglioma.

    PubMed

    Conzo, Giovanni; Gambardella, Claudio; Pasquali, Daniela; Ciancia, Giuseppe; Avenia, Nicola; Pietra, Cristina Della; Napolitano, Salvatore; Palazzo, Antonietta; Mauriello, Claudio; Parmeggiani, Domenico; Pettinato, Guido; Napolitano, Vincenzo; Santini, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Chordoma of thoracic vertebras is a very rare locally invasive neoplasm with low grade malignancy arising from embryonic notochordal remnants. Radical surgery remains the cornerstone of the treatment. We describe a case of multifocal T1-T2 chordoma, without bone and disc involvement, incidentally misdiagnosed as a paraganglioma, occurring in a 47-year-old male asymptomatic patient. Neoplasm was radically removed by an endocrine surgeon through a right extended cervicotomy. A preoperative reliable diagnosis of chordoma, as in the reported case, is often difficult. Radical surgery can provide a favorable outcome but, given the high rates of local recurrence of this neoplasm, a strict and careful follow-up is recommended. Although very rare, chordoma should be suggested in the differential diagnosis of the paravertebral cervical masses of unknown origin. Spine surgeon consultation and a FNB should be routinely included in the multidisciplinary preoperative work-up of these neoplasms. PMID:24125991

  2. Idiopathic Thoracic Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Aycan, Abdurrahman; Ozdemir, Seymen; Arslan, Harun; Gonullu, Edip; Bozkına, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    A 33-year-old male patient experienced temporary sensory loss and weakness in the right lower extremity one month prior to admission. The patient was admitted to a private clinic with a three-day history of acute onset of sensory loss and weakness in both lower extremities and was treated and followed up with a prediagnosis of transverse myelitis and the Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). The patient was subsequently transferred to our clinic and the neurologic examination revealed paraplegia in both lower extremities, positive bilateral Babinski signs, and hypesthesia below the T10 dermatome with saddle anesthesia. The patient had urinary incontinence and thoracic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an image of a mass compressing the medulla. PMID:27088028

  3. Idiopathic Thoracic Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Aycan, Abdurrahman; Ozdemir, Seymen; Gonullu, Edip; Bozkına, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    A 33-year-old male patient experienced temporary sensory loss and weakness in the right lower extremity one month prior to admission. The patient was admitted to a private clinic with a three-day history of acute onset of sensory loss and weakness in both lower extremities and was treated and followed up with a prediagnosis of transverse myelitis and the Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). The patient was subsequently transferred to our clinic and the neurologic examination revealed paraplegia in both lower extremities, positive bilateral Babinski signs, and hypesthesia below the T10 dermatome with saddle anesthesia. The patient had urinary incontinence and thoracic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an image of a mass compressing the medulla. PMID:27088028

  4. Respiratory Displacement of the Thoracic Aorta: Physiological Phenomenon With Potential Implications for Thoracic Endovascular Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Tim Frederik; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Rengier, Fabian; Geisbuesch, Philipp; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Boeckler, Dittmar; Eichinger, Monika; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik von

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude and direction of respiratory displacement of the ascending and descending thoracic aorta during breathing maneuvers. In 11 healthy nonsmokers, dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was performed in transverse orientation at the tracheal bifurcation during maximum expiration and inspiration as well as tidal breathing. The magnitude and direction of aortic displacement was determined relatively to resting respiratory position for the ascending (AA) and descending (DA) aorta. To estimate a respiratory threshold for occurrence of distinct respiratory aortic motion, the latter was related to the underlying change in anterior-posterior thorax diameter. Compound displacement between maximum expiration and inspiration was 24.3 {+-} 6.0 mm for the AA in the left anterior direction and 18.2 {+-} 5.5 mm for the DA in the right anterior direction. The mean respiratory thorax excursion during tidal breathing was 8.9 {+-} 2.8 mm. The respiratory threshold, i.e., the increase in thorax diameter necessary to result in respiratory aortic displacement, was estimated to be 15.7 mm. The data suggest that after a threshold of respiratory thorax excursion is exceeded, respiration is accompanied by significant displacement of the thoracic aorta. Although this threshold may not be reached during tidal breathing in the majority of individuals, segmental differences during forced respiration impact on aortic geometry, may result in additional extrinsic forces on the aortic wall, and may be of significance for aortic prostheses designed for thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

  5. Possibilities of scar treatment after thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Maragakis, M; Willital, G H; Michel, G; Görtelmeyer, R

    1995-01-01

    During a ten year observation period it was found that scar formation after thoracic surgery is influenced by various factors: metabolism, operative technique and factors of a general nature. On the basis of these findings, a study was carried out to investigate the effect of the scar-specific Contractubex gel (Merz+Co., D-Frankfurt/Main), containing 10% onion extract, 50 U sodium heparin per g of gel and 1% allantoin, in the treatment of children who underwent thoracic surgery and to evaluate its effect on scar development. Before and during the six-month treatment period, both macromorphology and scar colour were assessed; furthermore, a global evaluation of the therapeutic result was made. Additionally, the scars were characterized after a six-month treatment-free follow-up period. The results of 38 Contractubex-treated and 27 untreated patients were compared. In the treated scars, the global evaluation of the therapeutic result was better than in the untreated scars. In the Contractubex group, the rating was "good" and "very good" in 84% of cases, as compared to 59% of the untreated cases. In the treated group, the increase in scar size was markedly lower than in the untreated patients. The treated scars showed a tendency towards quicker paling than the untreated scars. In the treated group, the conversion of primary physiological scars to unphysiological scars (hypertrophic or keloidal scars) was less frequent than in the untreated group. The tolerability of the product was very good in 37 of the 38 treated patients, and good in one patient. All scar-specific effects of Contractubex continued to persist after the end of treatment. PMID:8846750

  6. Congenital thoracic lordosis and scoliosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Lee, Maris S; Taylor, Jim; Lefbom, Bonnie

    2014-08-01

    A 10-week-old domestic shorthair kitten was referred for intermittent episodes of dyspnea, cyanosis and a suspected congenital thoracic anomaly. Physical examination showed an obvious palpable concavity in the caudal thoracic spine. Thoracic radiographs showed severe caudal thoracic lordosis from T5 to T13 with a Cobb angle of -77°, a centroid lordosis angle of -68°, a vertebral index of 6.3 and a flattened sternum. Severe loss of vital capacity was suspected and surgical correction of the thoracic deformity was to be performed in two separate stages, the first being surgical ventral distraction on the sternum to increase thoracic volume and rigid fixation with an external splint. The second stage, if required, would be surgical correction of the spinal deformity to also increase thoracic volume. The initial stage of surgery was performed and postoperative radiographs showed a vertebral index of 10.3. The kitten suffered a left sided pneumothorax in recovery and died from cardiorespiratory arrest despite immediate pleural drainage and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Treatment recommendations that may benefit future case management are discussed. PMID:24393777

  7. Emergency skull radiography: the effect of restrictive criteria on skull radiography and CT use

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.R.; Gaylord, G.M.; Lantos, G.; Tabaddor, K.; Gallagher, E.J.

    1985-08-01

    A prospective study was performed to determine the effect of restrictive criteria on the use of emergency skull radiography and computed tomography (CT) of the head. Emergency skull radiography required the completion of a special requisition form. Emergency CT of the head was done at the request of senior consultants and was available on a full-time basis. Over 1 year, 2758 skull studies were performed, a decrease of 39.1% when compared with the year before restrictive criteria were instituted, during which 4587 skull examinations were done. In the same period, the number of emergency CT scans of the head increased by 45.7%, from 471 in the control year to 686 in the experimental year. With the use of restrictive criteria, a net savings of $164,000 was achieved. Our results suggest that the use of restrictive criteria is a cost-effective means of limiting skull radiography when CT of the head is readily available.

  8. Robotic thoracic surgery: The state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; Asaf, Belal Bin

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive thoracic surgery has come a long way. It has rapidly progressed to complex procedures such as lobectomy, pneumonectomy, esophagectomy, and resection of mediastinal tumors. Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) offered perceptible benefits over thoracotomy in terms of less postoperative pain and narcotic utilization, shorter ICU and hospital stay, decreased incidence of postoperative complications combined with quicker return to work, and better cosmesis. However, despite its obvious advantages, the General Thoracic Surgical Community has been relatively slow in adapting VATS more widely. The introduction of da Vinci surgical system has helped overcome certain inherent limitations of VATS such as two-dimensional (2D) vision and counter intuitive movement using long rigid instruments allowing thoracic surgeons to perform a plethora of minimally invasive thoracic procedures more efficiently. Although the cumulative experience worldwide is still limited and evolving, Robotic Thoracic Surgery is an evolution over VATS. There is however a lot of concern among established high-volume VATS centers regarding the superiority of the robotic technique. We have over 7 years experience and believe that any new technology designed to make minimal invasive surgery easier and more comfortable for the surgeon is most likely to have better and safer outcomes in the long run. Our only concern is its cost effectiveness and we believe that if the cost factor is removed more and more surgeons will use the technology and it will increase the spectrum and the reach of minimally invasive thoracic surgery. This article reviews worldwide experience with robotic thoracic surgery and addresses the potential benefits and limitations of using the robotic platform for the performance of thoracic surgical procedures. PMID:25598601

  9. Radiography and fluoroscopy, 1920 to the present.

    PubMed

    Krohmer, J S

    1989-11-01

    A survey of radiological procedures carried out in 1980 by J. L. Johnson and D. L. Abernathy indicated that of the 181 million procedures performed in that year, there were 77.5% plain radiographic studies, 12.7% contrast studies, 4.0% sonographic studies, 3.2% nuclear medicine studies, 1.8% CT studies and 0.8% special vascular procedures and cardiac catheterizations. Note that over 90% of all the studies were of the "conventional" type and that fewer than 2% were CT studies. In the early 70's when CT was introduced, it was predicted that it would soon take over most of radiography; some 7 or 8 years later, it was obvious that this would not take place. According to Tanako of the Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd., conventional radiography has resisted being pushed aside because of its very high information content: 4-6 megabytes per image. A CT image contains about 0.5 megabytes. If a system is to take over from conventional radiography, it will have to overcome this large difference in information content. Digital or computed radiography seems capable of this, but probably not for some time (perhaps, 10 or 20 years). It seems unlikely that there will be much change, except for refinement, in the image intensified fluoroscopy equipment used for observing dynamic processes, and it will probably not be replaced. Another situation which will preclude the rapid demise of conventional radiography is financial inertia: There is between 5 and 10 billion dollars worth of diagnostic equipment in hospitals in this country and significant amount more in private offices and clinics. It is true that the amount has diminished in recent years, but this has been more because of DRG's than because of "takeover" by new modes of imaging. It is not likely that this investment will be given up quickly or easily. One must also keep in mind that the film digitization and the photostimulable phosphor digital systems, described above, do use existing radiographic equipment, and the image

  10. Wavelength tunable device for neutron radiography and tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Treimer, W.; Strobl, M.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Manke, I.

    2006-11-13

    A special double monochromator system was tested for a conventional operating tomography setup in order to use a broad wavelength band of monochromatic neutrons for radiography and tomography. Scanning through the wavelength region of Bragg edges, it is possible to make series of radiographs and tomographs at different wavelengths from 2.0 until 6.5 A. So no beam hardening influences the measurements and is not to be corrected. With this instrument for cold neutron radiography and tomography, energy selecting quantitative radiography, stress and strain mapping, and phase radiography were performed.

  11. Rare case of thoracic kidney detected by renal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Aravintho; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic kidney is a rare congenital abnormality with lowest frequency among all renal ectopias. Patients with thoracic kidneys are usually asymptomatic, and the condition is usually discovered incidentally during radiological evaluation for other conditions or during thoracic surgery. We report a case of a 62-year-old male who was referred to our department for renal scintigraphy for a nonvisualized left kidney on ultrasonography report. Both Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scans revealed a left thoracic kidney which was confirmed by CT scan of the thorax and abdomen. PMID:27385896

  12. Rare case of thoracic kidney detected by renal scintigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Aravintho; Agrawal, Archi; Purandare, Nilendu; Shah, Sneha; Rangarajan, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic kidney is a rare congenital abnormality with lowest frequency among all renal ectopias. Patients with thoracic kidneys are usually asymptomatic, and the condition is usually discovered incidentally during radiological evaluation for other conditions or during thoracic surgery. We report a case of a 62-year-old male who was referred to our department for renal scintigraphy for a nonvisualized left kidney on ultrasonography report. Both Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid scans revealed a left thoracic kidney which was confirmed by CT scan of the thorax and abdomen. PMID:27385896

  13. Trans-arterial Onyx Embolization of a Functional Thoracic Paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Chacón-Quesada, Tatiana; Maud, Alberto; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Torabi, Alireza; Fitzgerald, Tamara; Akle, Nassim; Cruz Flores, Salvador; Trier, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Paragangliomas are rare tumors of the endocrine system. They are highly vascular and in some cases hormonally active, making their management challenging. Although there is strong evidence of the safety and effectiveness of preoperative embolization in the management of spinal tumors, only five cases have been reported in the setting of thoracic paragangliomas. We present the case of a 19-year-old man with a large, primary, functional, malignant paraganglioma of the thoracic spine causing a vertebral fracture and spinal cord compression. To our knowledge this is the first report of preoperative trans-arterial balloon augmented Onyx embolization of a thoracic paraganglioma. PMID:25763296

  14. Implementing effective and sustainable multidisciplinary clinical thoracic oncology programs

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Richard K.; Krasna, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Three models of care are described, including two models of multidisciplinary care for thoracic malignancies. The pros and cons of each model are discussed, the evidence supporting each is reviewed, and the need for more (and better) research into care delivery models is highlighted. Key stakeholders in thoracic oncology care delivery outcomes are identified, and the need to consider stakeholder perspectives in designing, validating and implementing multidisciplinary programs as a vehicle for quality improvement in thoracic oncology is emphasized. The importance of reconciling stakeholder perspectives, and identify meaningful stakeholder-relevant benchmarks is also emphasized. Metrics for measuring program implementation and overall success are proposed. PMID:26380186

  15. Chimeric Anterolateral Thigh Flap for Total Thoracic Esophageal Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Moya, Alejandro; Segura-Sampedro, Juan J; Sicilia-Castro, Domingo; Carvajo-Pérez, Francisco; Gómez-Cía, Tomás; Vázquez-Medina, Antonio; Ibáñez-Delgado, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Gastric pull-up is generally the first choice for a total thoracic esophageal reconstruction. Malfunction of this gastric conduit is uncommon, but devastating when it occurs: it causes marked comorbidity to the patient, preventing oral intake and worsening quality of life. Secondary salvage thoracic esophageal reconstruction surgery is usually performed with free or pedicled jejunum flaps or colon interposition. We present a case of a total thoracic esophageal reconstruction with an externally monitored chimeric anterolateral thigh flap, extending from the cervical esophagus to the retrosternal gastroplasty remnant. Intestinal reconstructive techniques were not an available option for this patient. PMID:26694271

  16. Thoracic and lumbar extradural structure examined by extraduroscope.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, T; Hirabayashi, Y; Shimizu, R; Saitoh, K; Fukuda, H

    1998-08-01

    We examined the extradural space using a flexible extraduroscope in 113 patients undergoing extradural anaesthesia. Patients were classified into two groups to receive either thoracic or lumbar extradural anaesthesia as needed for perioperative analgesia. The extraduroscopy showed that the thoracic extradural space becomes widely patent after injecting a given amount of air and that the amount of fatty and fibrous connective tissue is less in the thoracic extradural space compared with the lumbar extradural space. We suggest that differences between the structure of these two vertebral regions may affect the spread of local anaesthetics in the extradural space. PMID:9813508

  17. Nearly Asymptomatic Eight-Month Thoracic Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arjun; Kumar, Krishan; Zeltser, Roman; Makaryus, Amgad N.

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection is a rare, but lethal, medical condition that is either misdiagnosed as a myocardial infarction or overlooked completely. Though thoracic aortic dissections are commonly diagnosed in patients exhibiting sharp chest pain, there are some notable cases where patients do not report the expected severity of pain. We report a unique case of a patient with a thoracic aortic dissection who was initially nearly asymptomatic for eight months, in order to heighten awareness, highlight diagnosis protocol, and improve prognosis for this commonly misdiagnosed, but fatal, condition. PMID:27257400

  18. Chronic Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Presenting 29 Years following Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sarah; Kumar, Prashant; Van den Bosch, Rene; Khanafer, Adib

    2015-01-01

    Blunt, nonpenetrating injuries of the thoracic aorta are uncommon and associated with a high mortality rate within the first hour. Aortic injury is missed in 1-2% of patients that survive to hospital, and a chronic thoracic aortic aneurysm may subsequently form. We present a case in which a chronic thoracic aortic aneurysm was diagnosed 29 years following a significant motor vehicle accident. We discuss the epidemiology, presentation, and management of this uncommon consequence of blunt, nonpenetrating aortic injury. Our case illustrates an important clinical lesson; a past medical history of trauma should not be overlooked at any patient assessment. PMID:26351610

  19. Thoracic and respirable particle definitions for human health risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Provides estimates of the thoracic and respirable fractions, for adults and children during typical activities during both nasal and oral inhalation, that may be used in the design of experimental studies and interpretation of evidence of health effects.

  20. Robotic thoracic surgery: from the perspectives of European chest surgeons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although thoracic surgery is one of the fastest growing programs, the results of robotic thoracic surgery reports are presented very rarely. In this manuscript, the development of robotic thoracic surgery programs in Europe and the initial results are discussed. Several European countries lead the development of robotic surgery in the world, especially for lung cancer surgery and for thymus—thymoma surgery. Yet, we may not recognize any major advantage in the outcome when compared to video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). But, certainly, the superior capabilities of the intraoperative instrumentation of robotic surgery will be beneficial. More experience in robotic surgery may provide superior results in oncological, physiological and life quality measurements. PMID:24868438

  1. Successful treatment of an infected thoracic endovascular stent graft.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Taijiro; Takahashi, Shinya; Katayama, Keijiro; Imai, Katsuhiko

    2016-05-01

    A 70-year-old man with a chronic type B aortic dissection was treated with two stent grafts deployed in the descending thoracic aorta. The patient was re-admitted to the hospital at 16 months after thoracic endovascular stent grafting because of a high fever. A blood culture showed sepsis due to a Staphylococcus species. A CT scan showed an increase in the size of the thrombosed false lumen. Complete excision of the infected descending aortic wall and infected stent graft were performed. The descending thoracic aorta was reconstructed using a rifampicin-bonded Dacron graft and omental wrapping. The combination of in situ graft replacement using a rifampicin-bonded graft and omental wrapping is considered an effective treatment for thoracic stent graft infection. PMID:24990657

  2. Radiation dose to patients from X-ray radiographic examinations using computed radiography imaging system.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Reena; Sharma, Sunil Dutt; Pawar, Shramika; Chaubey, Ajay; Kantharia, S; Babu, D A R

    2015-01-01

    The screen-film system is replaced by computed radiography system for recording the images of the patients during X-ray radiography examinations. The change in imaging system requires the re-establishment of the institutional diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for different types of X-ray examinations conducted at the hospital. For this purpose, patient specific parameters [age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), object to image distance (OID)] and machine specific parameters (kVp, mAs, distance and field sizes) of 1875 patients during 21 different types of X-ray examinations were recorded for estimating the entrance skin dose (ESD). The ESD for each of these patients were estimated using measured X-ray beam output and the standard value of the back scatter factor. Five number summary was calculated for all the data for their presentation in the Box-Whisker plot, which provides the statistical distribution of the data. The data collected indicates that majorly performed examinations are cervical spine AP, Chest PA and Knee Lat with percentage contributions of 16.05, 16 and 8.27% respectively. The lowest contribution comes from Hip Lat which is about 1.01%. The ratio of measured ESD (maximum to minimum) for these examinations is found to be highest for the cervical spine AP with a value of 50 followed by Thoracic spine AP of 32.36. The ESD ratio for Chest PA, Knee Lat and Lumbar Spine AP are 30.75, 30.4 and 30.2 respectively. The lowest ESD ratio is for Hip Lat which is 2.68. The third quartile values of ESDs are established as the institutional DRLs. The ESD values obtained for 21 different X-ray projections are either comparable or lesser than the reported national/international values. PMID:26150685

  3. Threshold perception performance with computed and screen-film radiography: implications for chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, J T; Rice, J J; Beam, C A; Ravin, C E

    1992-04-01

    Images of a phantom obtained with computed radiography and standard screen-film imaging were compared to evaluate observer threshold perception performance with a modified contrast-detail technique. Optimum exposure necessary for performance with the imaging plate technique to match that with screen-film techniques was determined, as was comparative performance with variation in kilovoltages, plate type, spatial enhancement, and hard-copy interpolation method. It was found that computed radiography necessitates about 75%-100% more exposure than screen-film radiography to optimally match performance with Ortho-C film with Lanex regular or medium screens (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY) for detection of objects 0.05-2.0 cm in diameter. However, only minimal loss of detection performance (approximately 10% overall) was experienced if standard screen-film exposures were used with computed radiography. Little change in observer performance was found with variation in plate type, spatial enhancement, or method of hard-copy interpolation. However, perception performance with computed radiographic images was better at lower kilovoltages. PMID:1549669

  4. Salmonella osteomyelitis of the thoracic spine: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Pandit, A; White, D G; Evans, P D

    2004-02-01

    A case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis due to Salmonella enteritidis phage type 2 in an immunocompetent patient is reported. The patient initially presented with abdominal, urinary and chest symptoms, which were followed by a large pleural effusion. The infection was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin. This is the only case of salmonella thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent patient reported in the English literature. PMID:14970302

  5. Clinical pathway for thoracic surgery in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm for postoperative care for thoracic surgical patients in the United States has shifted with efforts to reduce hospital length of stay and improve quality of life. The increasing usage of minimally invasive techniques in thoracic surgery has been an important part of this. In this review we will examine our standard practices as well as the evidence behind both general contemporary postoperative care principles and those specific to certain operations. PMID:26941967

  6. Double migration of a schwannoma of thoracic spine

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Robert Ahmed; Rahman, Asifur; Bhandari, Paawan Bahadur; Khan, SIM Khairun Nabi

    2013-01-01

    Mobile intraspinal tumours have rarely been reported. In most cases, mobile tumours such as schwannomas or ependymomas were located in the cauda equina. Perusal of the literature revealed only two reports of mobile schwannomas in the cervical and thoracic regions. We report a case of thoracic schwannoma which migrated twice in successive operations resulting in negative exploration in the expected area. The aim of this report is to remind the surgeons about the possibility of migration of intradural-extramedullary tumour. PMID:23349180

  7. [Thoracic duct valves in man and albino rat].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, V M; Kruglov, S V

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the number, structure and position of valves along the whole length of thoracic duct in man and albino rat. The study was performed using the material obtained from 30 human corpses of men and women aged 17 to 60 years with no history of cardiovascular pathology and from 60 outbred albino rats of both sexes aged 5 to 12 months. Material was fixed in 10% neutral formalin. Anterior wall of thoracic duct was longitudinally dissected. Thoracic duct of 30 rats was stained with gallocyanin-chrome alum, in the remaining animals it was studied after its injection with blue Gerota's mass. In most cases, the valves consisted of two semilunar cusps. Thoracic duct was found to contain on the average 14.7+/-0.2 valves in man and 11.9+/-0.2 valves in rat. Most of all valves were found in the upper (anterior) 1/3 of the thoracic duct, least--in its middle part. This seems to be determined by anatomo-topographic features of the different parts of thoracic duct. PMID:15839250

  8. Normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage development

    PubMed Central

    Canavese, Federico; Dimeglio, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Development of the spine and thoracic cage consists of a complex series of events involving multiple metabolic processes, genes and signaling pathways. During growth, complex phenomena occur in rapid succession. This succession of events, this establishment of elements, is programmed according to a hierarchy. These events are well synchronized to maintain harmonious limb, spine and thoracic cage relationships, as growth in the various body segments does not occur simultaneously at the same magnitude or rate. In most severe cases of untreated progressive early-onset spinal deformities, respiratory insufficiency and pulmonary and cardiac hypertension (cor pulmonale), which characterize thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS), can develop, sometimes leading to death. TIS is the inability of the thorax to ensure normal breathing. This clinical condition can be linked to costo-vertebral malformations (e.g., fused ribs, hemivertebrae, congenital bars), neuromuscular diseases (e.g., expiratory congenital hypotonia), Jeune or Jarcho-Levin syndromes or to 50% to 75% fusion of the thoracic spine before seven years of age. Complex spinal deformities alter normal growth plate development, and vertebral bodies become progressively distorted, perpetuating the disorder. Therefore, many scoliotic deformities can become growth plate disorders over time. This review aims to provide a comprehensive review of how spinal deformities can affect normal spine and thoracic cage growth. Previous conceptualizations are integrated with more recent scientific data to provide a better understanding of both normal and abnormal spine and thoracic cage growth. PMID:24147251

  9. Donor to recipient sizing in thoracic organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, Michael; Reed, Robert M

    2016-03-24

    Donor-to-recipient organ size matching is a critical aspect of thoracic transplantation. In the United States potential recipients for lung transplant and heart transplant are listed with limitations on donor height and weight ranges, respectively. Height is used as a surrogate for lung size and weight is used as a surrogate for heart size. While these measures are important predictors of organ size, they are crude surrogates that fail to incorporate the influence of sex on organ size. Independent of other measures, a man's thoracic organs are approximately 20% larger than a woman's. Lung size can be better estimated using the predicted total lung capacity, which is derived from regression equations correcting for height, sex and age. Similarly, heart size can be better estimated using the predicted heart mass, which adjusts for sex, age, height, and weight. These refined organ sizing measures perform better than current sizing practice for the prediction of outcomes after transplantation, and largely explain the outcome differences observed after sex-mismatch transplantation. An undersized allograft is associated with worse outcomes. In this review we examine current data pertaining to size-matching in thoracic transplantation. We advocate for a change in the thoracic allocation mechanism from a height-or-weight-based strategy to a size-matching process that utilizes refined estimates of organ size. We believe that a size-matching approach based on refined estimates of organ size would optimize outcomes in thoracic transplantation without restricting or precluding patients from thoracic transplantation. PMID:27011913

  10. Computed radiography in an emergency department setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriole, Katherine P.; Gould, Robert G.; Arenson, Ronald L.

    1997-05-01

    Evaluation of radiologist and non-radiologist physician acceptance of computed radiography (CR) as an alternative to film-based radiography in an emergency department (ED) is performed. All emergency department radiographs are performed using photostimulable phosphor plates and rad by a computed radiography laser reader placed in the former emergency department darkroom. Soft copy images are simultaneously transmitted to high- and medium-resolution dual-monitor display stations located in radiology and ED reading rooms respectively. The on-call radiologist is automatically paged by the Radiology Information System (RIS) upon exam completion, to read the new ED imaging study. Patient demographic information including relevant clinical history is conveyed to the radiologist via the RIS. A 'wet read' preliminary radiology report is immediately transmitted back to the ED. Radiology and ED physicians are surveyed to ascertain preferences for CR or traditional screen-film, based on system implementation, image viewing and clinical impact issues. Preliminary results indicate a preference for filmless CR among the ED physicians if digital reliability and speed issues are met. This preference appears to be independent of physician level of experience. Inexperienced radiologists-in-training appear to have less comfort with softcopy reading for primary diagnosis. However, additional training in softcopy reading techniques can improve confidences. Image quality issues are most important tot he radiologist, while speed and reliability are the major issues for ED physicians. Reasons for CR preference include immediate access to images on display stations, near-zero exam retake rates, and improved response time and communication between radiology and the emergency department clinician.

  11. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specific license for industrial radiography. 34.13 Section 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Specific Licensing Provisions § 34.13 Specific license...

  12. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific license for industrial radiography. 34.13 Section 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Specific Licensing Provisions § 34.13 Specific license...

  13. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specific license for industrial radiography. 34.13 Section 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Specific Licensing Provisions § 34.13 Specific license...

  14. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific license for industrial radiography. 34.13 Section 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Specific Licensing Provisions § 34.13 Specific license...

  15. 10 CFR 34.13 - Specific license for industrial radiography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific license for industrial radiography. 34.13 Section 34.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Specific Licensing Provisions § 34.13 Specific license...

  16. [Digital radiography in tomography of the facial bones].

    PubMed

    Ibing, H P; Vogel, H; Biebesheimer, V

    1988-09-01

    In 14 patients the x-ray findings of dental, mandibular and maxillary roentgen diagnosis were compared with conventional tomography and tomography by digital radiography. All details important for diagnosis were shown by both techniques. Tomography by digital radiography offered a more convenient approach and pictures easier to be interpreted than pictures by conventional tomography. PMID:3175474

  17. Diagnostics of coated fuel particles by neutron and synchrotron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Momot, G. V.; Podurets, K. M.; Pogorelyi, D. K.; Somenkov, V. A.; Yakovenko, E. V.

    2011-12-15

    The nondestructive monitoring of coated fuel particles has been performed using contact neutron radiography and refraction radiography based on synchrotron radiation. It is shown that these methods supplement each other and have a high potential for determining the sizes, densities, and isotopic composition of the particle components.

  18. Neutron beam characterization at the Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Imel, G.R.; Urbatsch, T.; Pruett, D.P.; Ross, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) is a 250-kW TRIGA Reactor operated by Argonne National Laboratory and is located near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The reactor and its facilities regarding radiography are detailed in another paper at this conference; this paper summarizes neutron flux measurements and calculations that have been performed to better understand and potentially improve the neutronics characteristics of the reactor.

  19. Computed radiography imaging plates and associated methods of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Henry, Nathaniel F.; Moses, Alex K.

    2015-08-18

    Computed radiography imaging plates incorporating an intensifying material that is coupled to or intermixed with the phosphor layer, allowing electrons and/or low energy x-rays to impart their energy on the phosphor layer, while decreasing internal scattering and increasing resolution. The radiation needed to perform radiography can also be reduced as a result.

  20. Learning Styles of Radiography Students during Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, L. Patrice

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the common learning styles of radiography students during clinical practice. Quantitative, descriptive research methodology identified the learning styles of radiography students. A single self-report questionnaire, developed to assess learning styles in clinical practice, was administered…

  1. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  2. Digital Radiography Qualification of Tube Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The Orion Project will be directing Lockheed Martin to perform orbital arc welding on commodities metallic tubing as part of the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle assembly and integration process in the Operations and Checkout High bay at Kennedy Space Center. The current method of nondestructive evaluation is utilizing traditional film based x-rays. Due to the high number of welds that are necessary to join the commodities tubing (approx 470), a more efficient and expeditious method of nondestructive evaluation is desired. Digital radiography will be qualified as part of a broader NNWG project scope.

  3. Hot Fuel Examination Facility's neutron radiography reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pruett, D.P.; Richards, W.J.; Heidel, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West is located near Idaho Falls, Idaho, and is operated by the University of Chicago for the United States Department of Energy in support of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program, LMFBR. The Hot Fuel Examination Facility, HFEF, is one of several facilities located at the Argonne Site. HFEF comprises a large hot cell where both nondestructive and destructive examination of highly-irradiated reactor fuels are conducted in support of the LMFBR program. One of the nondestructive examination techniques utilized at HFEF is neutron radiography, which is provided by the NRAD reactor facility (a TRIGA type reactor) below the HFEF hot cell.

  4. Technique for chest radiography for pneumoconiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    Routine radiographic chest examinations have been performed using a variety of techniques. Although chest radiography is one of the most commonly performed radiographic examinations, it is often difficult to obtain consistently good quality roentgenograms. This publication provides a simple guide and relatively easy solution to the many problems that radiologic technologists might encounter. The language is purposely relatively simple and care has been taken to avoid difficult mathematical and physical explanations. The intent is to provide an easily referrable text for those who may encounter difficulties in producing acceptable chest radiographs.

  5. Some problems encountered in endodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Lim, K C; Teo, C S

    1986-07-01

    This retrospective survey highlights some of the problems faced by undergraduate students using the bisecting angle technique in endodontic radiography. The radiographs of maxillary incisors and premolars were observed to suffer from a greater amount of distortion than radiographs of the corresponding mandibular teeth. Further, the presence of rubber dam equipment affected the accuracy of the radiographs, and this was more apparent on the radiographs of the maxillary incisors and premolars compared to the mandibular incisors and premolars. Other problems identified included superimposition, indistinct and missed root apices. Methods to overcome these problems are suggested. PMID:3777839

  6. Imaging in thoracic oncology: case studies from Multidisciplinary Thoracic Tumor Board

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Rishindra M.; Lin, Jules; Arenberg, Douglas A.; Speers, Corey; Hayman, James A.; Kong, Fengming P.; Orringer, Mark B.; Kalemkerian, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multidisciplinary tumor board conferences foster collaboration among health care providers from a variety of specialties and help to facilitate optimal patient care. Generally, the clinical questions revolve around the best options for establishing a diagnosis, staging the disease and directing treatment. This article describes and illustrates the clinical scenarios of three patients who were presented at our thoracic Tumor Board, focusing on management issues and the role of imaging. These patients had invasive thymoma; concurrent small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer; and esophageal cancer with celiac lymph node metastases, respectively. PMID:24325879

  7. Quantitative normal thoracic anatomy at CT.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Monica M S; Udupa, Jayaram K; Tong, Yubing; Saboury, Babak; Torigian, Drew A

    2016-07-01

    Automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) methodologies for a body region require detailed understanding of the morphology, architecture, and geographical layout of the organs within the body region. The aim of this paper was to quantitatively characterize the normal anatomy of the thoracic region for AAR. Contrast-enhanced chest CT images from 41 normal male subjects, each with 11 segmented objects, were considered in this study. The individual objects were quantitatively characterized in terms of their linear size, surface area, volume, shape, CT attenuation properties, inter-object distances, size and shape correlations, size-to-distance correlations, and distance-to-distance correlations. A heat map visualization approach was used for intuitively portraying the associations between parameters. Numerous new observations about object geography and relationships were made. Some objects, such as the pericardial region, vary far less than others in size across subjects. Distance relationships are more consistent when involving an object such as trachea and bronchi than other objects. Considering the inter-object distance, some objects have a more prominent correlation, such as trachea and bronchi, right and left lungs, arterial system, and esophagus. The proposed method provides new, objective, and usable knowledge about anatomy whose utility in building body-wide models toward AAR has been demonstrated in other studies. PMID:27065241

  8. Selective lung intubation during paediatric thoracic surgeries.

    PubMed

    Mixa, V; Nedomova, B; Rygl, M

    2016-01-01

    Selective lung intubation is a necessary prerequisite for the completion of most interventions comprising thoracotomy and thoracoscopy. In paediatric care, our site uses Univent tubes for children up to the age of three years and double-lumen tubes (DLT) for children from 6-8 years of age. In younger children, we usually use regular endotracheal intubation, with the lung being held in the hemithorax position being operated on using a surgical retractor. The article presents the analysis of 860 thoracic surgeries, of which 491 comprised selective intubation (Univent 57 cases, DLT 434 cases). The use of the aforementioned devices is connected with certain complications. Univent tube can be connected with intraoperative dislocation of the obturating balloon (29.8%) and balloon perforation (5.2%). DLT insertion may be connected with failure of tube fitting. In 84 cases we had to repeat DLT insertion (20.6%). In 8 cases we were not able to insert DLT at all (1.8%). Standard use of selective intubation methods in paediatric patients from two years of age improved the conditions for surgical interventions (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 19). PMID:27546541

  9. [Intraoperative risk management during thoracic procedures].

    PubMed

    Tsuzaki, Koichi

    2009-05-01

    Risk management in clinical practice is an impor part of medical audit. Although, medical audit consists of monitoring, data collection, peer review and establishing standards, these four steps should be regarded as a series of cyclical process. As a general rule, this concept should be applied to any field of clinical medicine and will contribute to the development of sound quality control scheme. Several complications are known to occur in thoracic anesthesia, especially in one-lung ventilation. For example, malposition of double-lumen endotracheal tube, severe hypoxia and higher airway pressure are relatively common problems, and it would be better for us to prepare for these adverse events beforehand. Auscultation, fiber-optic visualization and proper ventilatory management (eg. lower tidal volume with dependent lung PEEP, alveolar recruitment maneuver, application of CPAP to non-dependent lung) are the recommended technique required to correct these abnormalities. When life-threatening hypoxia is imminent, we should convert to two-lung ventilation without any delay. In this regard, verbal communication between surgical teams should be kept on even ground, each playing key roles in the management of such a critical situation. PMID:19462793

  10. Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin After Thoracic Transplantation: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Paolo; Mohacsi, Paul; Szabolcs, Zoltán; Potena, Luciano

    2016-03-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a highly complex pathogen which, despite modern prophylactic regimens, continues to affect a high proportion of thoracic organ transplant recipients. The symptomatic manifestations of CMV infection are compounded by adverse indirect effects induced by the multiple immunomodulatory actions of CMV. These include a higher risk of acute rejection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy after heart transplantation, and potentially bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in lung transplant recipients, with a greater propensity for opportunistic secondary infections. Prophylaxis for CMV using antiviral agents (typically oral valganciclovir or intravenous ganciclovir) is now almost universal, at least in high-risk transplants (D+/R-). Even with extended prophylactic regimens, however, challenges remain. The CMV events can still occur despite antiviral prophylaxis, including late-onset infection or recurrent disease, and patients with ganciclovir-resistant CMV infection or who are intolerant to antiviral therapy require alternative strategies. The CMV immunoglobulin (CMVIG) and antiviral agents have complementary modes of action. High-titer CMVIG preparations provide passive CMV-specific immunity but also exert complex immunomodulatory properties which augment the antiviral effect of antiviral agents and offer the potential to suppress the indirect effects of CMV infection. This supplement discusses the available data concerning the immunological and clinical effects of CMVIG after heart or lung transplantation. PMID:26900989

  11. Molecular Mechanisms of Thoracic Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Darrell; Shen, Ying H.; Russell, Ludivine; Coselli, Joseph S.; LeMaire, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is a highly lethal vascular disease. In many patients with TAD, the aorta progressively dilates and ultimately ruptures. Dissection formation, progression, and rupture cannot be reliably prevented pharmacologically because the molecular mechanisms of aortic wall degeneration are poorly understood. The key histopathologic feature of TAD is medial degeneration, a process characterized by smooth muscle cell depletion and extracellular matrix degradation. These structural changes have a profound impact on the functional properties of the aortic wall and can result from excessive protease-mediated destruction of the extracellular matrix, altered signaling pathways, and altered gene expression. Review of the literature reveals differences in the processes that lead to ascending versus descending and sporadic versus hereditary TAD. These differences add to the complexity of this disease. Although tremendous progress has been made in diagnosing and treating TAD, a better understanding of the molecular, cellular, and genetic mechanisms that cause this disease is necessary to developing more effective preventative and therapeutic treatment strategies. PMID:23856125

  12. Endovascular Management of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Fattori, Rossella Russo, Vincenzo; Lovato, Luigi; Buttazzi, Katia; Rinaldi, Giovanni

    2011-12-15

    The overall survival of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) has improved significantly in the past few years. Endovascular treatment, proposed as an alternative to surgery, has been considered a therapeutic innovation because of its low degree of invasiveness, which allows the treatment of even high-surgical risk patients with limited complications and mortality. A major limitation is the lack of adequate evidence regarding long-term benefit and durability because follow-up has been limited to just a few years even in the largest series. The combination of endovascular exclusion with visceral branch revascularization for the treatment of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysms involving the visceral aorta has also been attempted. As an alternative, endografts with branches represent a technological evolution that allows treatment of complex anatomy. Even if only small numbers of patients and short follow-up are available, this technical approach, which has with limited mortality (<10%) and paraplegia rates, to expand endovascular treatment to TAA seems feasible. With improved capability to recognize proper anatomy and select clinical candidates, the choice of endovascular stent-graft placement may offer a strategy to optimize management and improve prognosis.

  13. Simulation of computed radiography with imaging plate detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tisseur, D.; Costin, M.; Mathy, F.; Schumm, A.

    2014-02-18

    Computed radiography (CR) using phosphor imaging plate detectors is taking an increasing place in Radiography Testing. CR uses similar equipment as conventional radiography except that the classical X-ray film is replaced by a numerical detector, called image plate (IP), which is made of a photostimulable layer and which is read by a scanning device through photostimulated luminescence. Such digital radiography has already demonstrated important benefits in terms of exposure time, decrease of source energies and thus reduction of radioprotection area besides being a solution without effluents. This paper presents a model for the simulation of radiography with image plate detectors in CIVA together with examples of validation of the model. The study consists in a cross comparison between experimental and simulation results obtained on a step wedge with a classical X-ray tube. Results are proposed in particular with wire Image quality Indicator (IQI) and duplex IQI.

  14. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Smolinski, Andrew T.

    2015-09-10

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This study describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities,more » the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.« less

  15. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Smolinski, Andrew T.

    2015-09-10

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This study describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities, the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.

  16. Neutron Radiography of Irradiated Nuclear Fuel at Idaho National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Wachs, Daniel M.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Chichester, David L.; Williams, Walter J.; Papaioannou, Glen C.; Smolinski, Andrew T.

    Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has multiple nuclear fuels research and development programs that routinely evaluate irradiated fuels using neutron radiography. The Neutron Radiography reactor (NRAD) sits beneath a shielded hot cell facility where neutron radiography and other evaluation techniques are performed on these highly radioactive objects. The NRAD currently uses the foil-film transfer technique for imaging fuel that is time consuming but provides high spatial resolution. This paper describes the NRAD and hot cell facilities, the current neutron radiography capabilities available at INL, planned upgrades to the neutron imaging systems, and new facilities being brought online at INL related to neutron imaging.

  17. Application of Ultrasonography and Radiography in Detection of Hemothorax; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Baikpour, Masoud; Tafakhori, Abbas; Asady, Hadi; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Hosseini, Mostafa; Safari, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hemothorax is one of the most prevalent injuries caused by thoracic traumas. Early detection and treatment of this injury is of utmost importance in prognosis of the patient, but there are still controversial debates on the diagnostic value of imaging techniques in detection of hemothorax. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of chest ultrasonography and radiography in detection of hemothorax through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Two independent reviewers performed an extended systematic search in databases of Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and ProQuest. Data were extract and quality of the relevant studies were assessed. The number of true positive, false positive, true negative and false negative cases were extracted and screening performance characteristics of two imaging techniques were calculated using a mixed-effects binary regression model. Results: Data from 12 studies were extracted and included in the meta-analysis (7361 patients, 77.1% male). Pooled sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography in detection of hemothorax were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.41-0.86; I2= 68.38, p<0.001) and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.95-1.0; I2= 88.16, p<0.001), respectively. These measures for radiography were 0.54 (95% CI: 0.33-0.75; I2= 92.85, p<0.001) and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.94-1.0; I2= 99.22, p<0.001), respectively. Subgroup analysis found operator of the ultrasonography device, frequency of the transducer and sample size to be important sources of heterogeneity of included studies. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that although the sensitivity of ultrasonography in detection of hemothorax is relatively higher than radiography, but it is still at a moderate level (0.67%). The specificity of both imaging modalities were found to be at an excellent level in this regard. The screening characteristics of ultrasonography was found to be influenced of the operator and frequency of transducer

  18. Conical Rotating Aperture Geometries In Digital Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Wong, Roland

    1981-11-01

    Applications of conical rotating aperture (RA) geometries to digital radiography are described. Two kinds of conical RA imaging systems are the conical scanning beam and the conical scanning grid assemblies. These assemblies comprise coaxial conical surface(s) the axis of which is collinear with the x-ray focal spot. This geometry allows accurate alignment and continuous focusing of the slits or the grid lines. Image receptors which use solid state photodiode arrays are described for each type of conical RA system: multiple linear arrays for the conical scanning beam assembly and multiple area arrays for the conical scanning grid assembly. The digital rotating-aperture systems combine the wide dynamic range characteristics of solid state detectors with the superior scatter-rejection advantages of scanned beam approaches. The high scanning-beam velocities attainable by the use of rotating apertures should make it possible to obtain digital images for those procedures such as chest radiography which require large fields of view and short exposure times.

  19. Beam characterization at the Neutron Radiography Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah W. Morgan; Jeffrey C. King; Chad L. Pope

    2013-12-01

    The quality of a neutron-imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, potential image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This paper provides a characterization of the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio and potential image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. The NRAD has an effective collimation ratio greater than 125, a beam divergence of 0.3 +_ 0.1 degrees, and a gold foil cadmium ratio of 2.7. The flux profile has been quantified and the facility is an ASTM Category 1 radiographic facility. Based on bare and cadmium covered foil activation results, the neutron energy spectrum used in the current MCNP model of the radiography beamline over-samples the thermal region of the neutron energy spectrum.

  20. Patient dose management in digital radiography

    PubMed Central

    Vano, E; Fernandez Soto, JM

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To present the experience in patient dose management and the development of an online audit tool for digital radiography. Materials and methods: Several tools have been developed to extract the information contained in the DICOM header of digital images, collect radiographic parameters, calculate patient entrance doses and other related parameters, and audit image quality. Results: The tool has been used for mammography, and includes images from over 25,000 patients, over 75,000 chest images, 100,000 computed radiography procedures and more than 1,000 interventional radiology procedures. Examples of calculation of skin dose distribution in interventional cardiology based upon information of DICOM header and the results of dosimetric parameters for cardiology procedures in 2006 are presented. Conclusion: Digital radiology has great advantages for imaging and patient dose management. Dose reports, QCONLINE systems and the MPPS DICOM service are good tools to optimise procedures and to manage patient dosimetry data. The implementation of the ongoing IEC-DICOM standard for patient dose structured reports will improve dose management in digital radiology. PMID:21614273

  1. Optimization and quality control of computed radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Charles E.; Weiser, John C.; Leckie, Robert G.; Romlein, John R.; Norton, Gary S.

    1994-05-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is a relatively new technique for projection radiography. Few hospitals have CR devices in routine service and only a handful have more than one CR unit. As such, the clinical knowledge base does not yet exist to establish quality control (QC) procedures for CR devices. Without assurance that CR systems are operating within nominal limits, efforts to optimize CR performance are limited in value. A complete CR system includes detector plates that vary in response, cassettes, an electro-optical system for developing the image, computer algorithms for processing the raw image, and a hard copy output device. All of these subsystems are subject to variations in performance that can degrade image quality. Using CR manufacturer documentation, we have defined acceptance protocols for two different Fuji CR devices, the FCR 7000 and the AC1+, and have applied these tests to ten individual machines. We have begun to establish baseline performance measures and to determine measurement frequencies. CR QC is only one component of the overall quality control for totally digital radiology departments.

  2. Neutron Radiography Reactor Reactivity -- Focused Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Woolstenhulme; Randal Damiana; Kenneth Schreck; Ann Marie Phillips; Dana Hewit

    2010-11-01

    As part of the Global Threat Reduction Initiative, the Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was converted from using highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. After the conversion, NRAD resumed operations and is meeting operational requirements. Radiography image quality and the number of images that can be produced in a given time frame match pre-conversion capabilities. However, following the conversion, NRAD’s excess reactivity with the LEU fuel was less than it had been with the HEU fuel. Although some differences between model predictions and actual performance are to be expected, the lack of flexibility in NRAD’s safety documentation prevented adjusting the reactivity by adding more fuel, until the safety documentation could be modified. To aid future reactor conversions, a reactivity-focused Lessons Learned meeting was held. This report summarizes the findings of the lessons learned meeting and addresses specific questions posed by DOE regarding NRAD’s conversion and reactivity.

  3. A system for fast neutron radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.

    1997-04-01

    A system has been designed and a neutron generator installed to perform fast neutron radiography. With this system, objects as small as a coin and as large as a 19 liter container have been radiographed. The neutron source is an MF Physics A-711 neutron generator which produces 3 x 10[sup 10] neutrons/second with an average energy of 14. 5 MeV. The radiography system uses x-ray scintillation screens and film in commercially available light-tight cassettes. The cassettes have been modified to include a thin sheet of plastic to produce protons from the neutron beam through elastic scattering from hydrogen and other low Z materials in the plastic. For film densities from 1.8 to 3.0, exposures range from 1.9 x 10[sup 7] n/cm[sup 2] to 3.8 x 10[sup 8] n/cm[sup 2] depending on the type of screen and film. The optimum source-to-film distance was found to be 150 cm. At this distance, the geometric unsharpness was determined to be approximately 2.2-2.3 mm and the smallest hole that could be resolved in a 1.25 cm thick sample had a diameter of 0.079 cm.

  4. Analgesia in post-thoracotomy patients: Comparison between thoracic epidural and thoracic paravertebral blocks

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Goswami, Anupam; Gupta, Sampa Dutta; Sarbapalli, Debabrata; Pal, Ranabir; Kar, Sumit

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute postoperative pain can cause detrimental effects on multiple organ systems, leading to chronic pain syndromes. Objective: To compare thoracic epidural block (TEB) and paravertebral block (PVB) for relief of postoperative pain in adult patients undergoing thoracotomy. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, single-blinded, prospective study, 60 adult patients of both sexes, belonging to ASA physical status I and II, were scheduled for elective thoracotomy under general anesthesia. They were randomly divided into two groups, A and B of 30 each, who were comparable in terms of demographic parameters and body weight. Group A received TEB and Group B received PVB. All the patients underwent thoracotomy under general anesthesia using a uniform standard anesthetic technique. Thirty minutes before the anticipated end of skin suture, blocks were activated in both the groups with 7.5 ml for TEB and 15 ml for thoracic PVB of 0.25% bupivacaine, along with 1 ml of fentanyl for postoperative analgesia. Results: Patients receiving PVB for postoperative analgesia experienced better analgesia than those receiving TEB from the immediate postoperative period that lasted longer. Intragroup comparison showed that in the cases receiving TEB, there was a significant statistical difference in preoperative and postoperative values with regard to the mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure and mean pulse rate. However, in patients receiving PVB, significant difference in preoperative and postoperative values was seen in mean SBP only. Conclusions: We observed longer duration of analgesia with PVB compared to TEB. PMID:25885234

  5. Imaging properties of digital magnification radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, Sarah J.; Samei, Ehsan

    2006-04-15

    Flat panel detectors exhibit improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and display capabilities compared to film. This improvement necessitates a new evaluation of optimal geometry for conventional projection imaging applications such as digital projection mammography as well as for advanced x-ray imaging applications including cone-beam computed tomography (CT), tomosynthesis, and mammotomography. Such an evaluation was undertaken in this study to examine the effects of x-ray source distribution, inherent detector resolution, magnification, scatter rejection, and noise characteristics including noise aliasing. A model for x-ray image acquisition was used to develop generic results applicable to flat panel detectors with similar x-ray absorption characteristics. The model assumed a Gaussian distribution for the focal spot and a rectangular distribution for a pixel. A generic model for the modulated transfer function (MTF) of indirect flat panel detectors was derived by a nonlinear fit of empirical receptor data to the Burgess model for phosphor MTFs. Noise characteristics were investigated using a generic noise power spectrum (NPS) model for indirect phosphor-based detectors. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) was then calculated from the MTF and NPS models. The results were examined as a function of focal spot size (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mm) and pixel size (50, 100, 150, and 200 {mu}m) for magnification ranges 1 to 3. Mammography, general radiography (also applicable to mammotomography), and chest radiography applications were explored using x-ray energies of 28, 74, and 120 kVp, respectively. Nodule detection was examined using the effective point source scatter model, effective DQE, and the Hotelling SNR{sup 2} efficiency. Results indicate that magnification can potentially improve the signal and noise performance of digital images. Results also show that a cross over point occurs in the spatial frequency above and below which the effects of magnification differ

  6. High Brightness Neutron Source for Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, J. T.; Piestrup, Melvin, A.; Gary, Charles, K.; Harris, Jack, L. Williams, David, J.; Jones, Glenn, E.; Vainionpaa, J. , H.; Fuller, Michael, J.; Rothbart, George, H.; Kwan, J., W.; Ludewigt, B., A.; Gough, R.., A..; Reijonen, Jani; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-12-08

    This research and development program was designed to improve nondestructive evaluation of large mechanical objects by providing both fast and thermal neutron sources for radiography. Neutron radiography permits inspection inside objects that x-rays cannot penetrate and permits imaging of corrosion and cracks in low-density materials. Discovering of fatigue cracks and corrosion in piping without the necessity of insulation removal is possible. Neutron radiography sources can provide for the nondestructive testing interests of commercial and military aircraft, public utilities and petrochemical organizations. Three neutron prototype neutron generators were designed and fabricated based on original research done at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The research and development of these generators was successfully continued by LBNL and Adelphi Technology Inc. under this STTR. The original design goals of high neutron yield and generator robustness have been achieved, using new technology developed under this grant. In one prototype generator, the fast neutron yield and brightness was roughly 10 times larger than previously marketed neutron generators using the same deuterium-deuterium reaction. In another generator, we integrate a moderator with a fast neutron source, resulting in a high brightness thermal neutron generator. The moderator acts as both conventional moderator and mechanical and electrical support structure for the generator and effectively mimics a nuclear reactor. In addition to the new prototype generators, an entirely new plasma ion source for neutron production was developed. First developed by LBNL, this source uses a spiral antenna to more efficiently couple the RF radiation into the plasma, reducing the required gas pressure so that the generator head can be completely sealed, permitting the possible use of tritium gas. This also permits the generator to use the deuterium-tritium reaction to produce 14-MeV neutrons with increases

  7. Imaging properties of digital magnification radiography.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Sarah J; Samei, Ehsan

    2006-04-01

    Flat panel detectors exhibit improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and display capabilities compared to film. This improvement necessitates a new evaluation of optimal geometry for conventional projection imaging applications such as digital projection mammography as well as for advanced x-ray imaging applications including cone-beam computed tomography (CT), tomosynthesis, and mammotomography. Such an evaluation was undertaken in this study to examine the effects of x-ray source distribution, inherent detector resolution, magnification, scatter rejection, and noise characteristics including noise aliasing. A model for x-ray image acquisition was used to develop generic results applicable to flat panel detectors with similar x-ray absorption characteristics. The model assumed a Gaussian distribution for the focal spot and a rectangular distribution for a pixel. A generic model for the modulated transfer function (MTF) of indirect flat panel detectors was derived by a nonlinear fit of empirical receptor data to the Burgess model for phosphor MTFs. Noise characteristics were investigated using a generic noise power spectrum (NPS) model for indirect phosphor-based detectors. The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) was then calculated from the MTF and NPS models. The results were examined as a function of focal spot size (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mm) and pixel size (50, 100, 150, and 200 microm) for magnification ranges 1 to 3. Mammography, general radiography (also applicable to mammotomography), and chest radiography applications were explored using x-ray energies of 28, 74, and 120 kVp, respectively. Nodule detection was examined using the effective point source scatter model, effective DQE, and the Hotelling SNR2 efficiency. Results indicate that magnification can potentially improve the signal and noise performance of digital images. Results also show that a cross over point occurs in the spatial frequency above and below which the effects of magnification differ

  8. Investigation of pulsatile flowfield in healthy thoracic aorta models.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Yung; Yang, An-Shik; Tseng, Li-Yu; Chai, Jyh-Wen

    2010-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Complex hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of aortic dissection and atherosclerosis, as well as many other diseases. Since fundamental fluid mechanics are important for the understanding of the blood flow in the cardiovascular circulatory system of the human body aspects, a joint experimental and numerical study was conducted in this study to determine the distributions of wall shear stress and pressure and oscillatory WSS index, and to examine their correlation with the aortic disorders, especially dissection. Experimentally, the Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PC-MRI) method was used to acquire the true geometry of a normal human thoracic aorta, which was readily converted into a transparent thoracic aorta model by the rapid prototyping (RP) technique. The thoracic aorta model was then used in the in vitro experiments and computations. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code ACE+((R)) to determine flow characteristics of the three-dimensional, pulsatile, incompressible, and Newtonian fluid in the thoracic aorta model. The unsteady boundary conditions at the inlet and the outlet of the aortic flow were specified from the measured flowrate and pressure results during in vitro experiments. For the code validation, the predicted axial velocity reasonably agrees with the PC-MRI experimental data in the oblique sagittal plane of the thoracic aorta model. The thorough analyses of the thoracic aorta flow, WSSs, WSS index (OSI), and wall pressures are presented. The predicted locations of the maxima of WSS and the wall pressure can be then correlated with that of the thoracic aorta dissection, and thereby may lead to a useful biological significance. The numerical results also suggest that the effects of low WSS and high OSI tend to cause wall thickening occurred along the inferior wall of the aortic arch and the

  9. Organ-specific dosimetry in spinal radiography: an analysis of genetic and somatic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Fickel, T.E.

    1988-02-01

    Radiation doses absorbed by the uterus, ovary, testicle and active bone marrow are computed for cervical, thoracic, lumbar, full spine and chest series performed under typical office conditions. Assuming a nonthreshold, linear relationship between dose and radiogenic effect, the computed tissue-specific doses are used to estimate the probability that each X-ray series might enhance the statistical probability of occurrence of an adult leukemia fatality of the irradiated patient; a childhood leukemia, mental retardation or cancer fatality as a result of fetal irradiation; or a variety of sex cell chromosomal aberrations in irradiated patients. It is concluded that the greatest hazard to active bone marrow, the uterus and the gonads is posed by lumbar and full spine radiography and that the need to adequately justify such exposure is mandatory; furthermore, in these series, irradiation of the ovary is 10 times as great as that of the testicle. Lumbar radiographic examinations can be made significantly safer by the elimination of the lumbosacral spot view.

  10. Clinical utility of wavelet compression for resolution-enhanced chest radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriole, Katherine P.; Hovanes, Michael E.; Rowberg, Alan H.

    2000-05-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of wavelet compression for resolution-enhanced storage phosphor chest radiographs in the detection of subtle interstitial disease, pneumothorax and other abnormalities. A wavelet compression technique, MrSIDTM (LizardTech, Inc., Seattle, WA), is implemented which compresses the images from their original 2,000 by 2,000 (2K) matrix size, and then decompresses the image data for display at optimal resolution by matching the spatial frequency characteristics of image objects using a 4,000- square matrix. The 2K-matrix computed radiography (CR) chest images are magnified to a 4K-matrix using wavelet series expansion. The magnified images are compared with the original uncompressed 2K radiographs and with two-times magnification of the original images. Preliminary results show radiologist preference for MrSIDTM wavelet-based magnification over magnification of original data, and suggest that the compressed/decompressed images may provide an enhancement to the original. Data collection for clinical trials of 100 chest radiographs including subtle interstitial abnormalities and/or subtle pneumothoraces and normal cases, are in progress. Three experienced thoracic radiologists will view images side-by- side on calibrated softcopy workstations under controlled viewing conditions, and rank order preference tests will be performed. This technique combines image compression with image enhancement, and suggests that compressed/decompressed images can actually improve the originals.

  11. Comparison of conventional radiography and MDCT in suspected scaphoid fractures

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Cyrus; Karul, Murat; Henes, Frank Oliver; Laqmani, Azien; Catala-Lehnen, Philipp; Lehmann, Wolfgang; Nagel, Hans-Dieter; Adam, Gerhard; Regier, Marc

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose of conventional radiography and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in suspected scaphoid fractures. METHODS: One hundred twenty-four consecutive patients were enrolled in our study who had suffered from a wrist trauma and showed typical clinical symptoms suspicious of an acute scaphoid fracture. All patients had initially undergone conventional radiography. Subsequent MDCT was performed within 10 d because of persisting clinical symptoms. Using the MDCT data as the reference standard, a fourfold table was used to classify the test results. The effective dose and impaired energy were assessed in order to compare the radiation burden of the two techniques. The Wilcoxon test was performed to compare the two diagnostic modalities. RESULTS: Conventional radiography showed 34 acute fractures of the scaphoid in 124 patients (42.2%). Subsequent MDCT revealed a total of 42 scaphoid fractures. The sensitivity of conventional radiography for scaphoid fracture detection was 42.8% and its specificity was 80% resulting in an overall accuracy of 59.6%. Conventional radiography was significantly inferior to MDCT (P < 0.01) concerning scaphoid fracture detection. The mean effective dose of MDCT was 0.1 mSv compared to 0.002 mSv of conventional radiography. CONCLUSION: Conventional radiography is insufficient for accurate scaphoid fracture detection. Regarding the almost negligible effective dose, MDCT should serve as the first imaging modality in wrist trauma. PMID:25628802

  12. Regional interdependence and manual therapy directed at the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Amy; Young, Jodi; Mintken, Paul; Cleland, Josh

    2015-07-01

    Thoracic spine manipulation is commonly used by physical therapists for the management of patients with upper quarter pain syndromes. The theoretical construct for using thoracic manipulation for upper quarter conditions is a mainstay of a regional interdependence (RI) approach. The RI concept is likely much more complex and is perhaps driven by a neurophysiological response including those related to peripheral, spinal cord and supraspinal mechanisms. Recent evidence suggests that thoracic spine manipulation results in neurophysiological changes, which may lead to improved pain and outcomes in individuals with musculoskeletal disorders. The intent of this narrative review is to describe the research supporting the RI concept and its application to the treatment of individuals with neck and/or shoulder pain. Treatment utilizing both thrust and non-thrust thoracic manipulation has been shown to result in improvements in pain, range of motion and disability in patients with upper quarter conditions. Research has yet to determine optimal dosage, techniques or patient populations to which the RI approach should be applied; however, emerging evidence supporting a neurophysiological effect for thoracic spine manipulation may negate the need to fully answer this question. Certainly, there is a need for further research examining both the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of manual therapy interventions utilized in the RI model as well as the neurophysiological effects resulting from this intervention. PMID:26309384

  13. Mechanism of the formation for thoracic impedance change.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Ming-Xing; Xiao, Qiu-Jin; Cui, Chao-Ying; Kuang, Nan-Zhen; Hong, Wen-Qin; Hu, Ai-Rong

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of the formation for thoracic impedance change. On the basis of Ohm's law and the electrical field distribution in the cylindrical volume conductor, the formula about the thoracic impedance change are deduced, and they are demonstrated with the model experiment. The results indicate that the thoracic impedance change caused by single blood vessel is directly proportional to the ratio of the impedance change to the basal impedance of the blood vessel itself, to the length of the blood vessel appearing between the current electrodes, and to the basal impedance between two detective electrodes on the chest surface, while it is inversely proportional to the distance between the blood vessel and the line joining two detective electrodes. The thoracic impedance change caused by multiple blood vessels together is equal to the algebraic addition of all thoracic impedance changes resulting from the individual blood vessels. That is, the impedance changes obey the principle of adding scalars in the measurement of the electrical impedance graph. The present study can offer the theoretical basis for the waveform reconstruction of Impedance cardiography (ICG). PMID:20336823

  14. Endovascular aortic injury repair after thoracic pedicle screw placement.

    PubMed

    Pesenti, S; Bartoli, M A; Blondel, B; Peltier, E; Adetchessi, T; Fuentes, S

    2014-09-01

    Our objective was to describe the management and prevention of thoracic aortic injuries caused by a malposition of pedicle screws in corrective surgery of major spine deformities. Positioning pedicle screws in thoracic vertebras by posterior approach exposes to the risk of injury of the elements placed ahead of the thoracic spine, as the descending thoracic aorta. This complication can result in a cataclysmic bleeding, needing urgent vascular care, but it can also be totally asymptomatic, resulting in the long run in a pseudoaneurysm, justifying the systematic removal of the hardware. We report the case of a 76-year-old woman who underwent spinal correction surgery for thoraco-lumbar degenerative kypho-scoliosis. Immediately after the surgery, a thoracic aortic injury caused by the left T7 pedicle screw was diagnosed. The patient underwent a two-step surgery. The first step was realized by vascular surgeons and aimed to secure the aortic wall by short endovascular aortic grafting. During the second step, spine surgeons removed the responsible screw by posterior approach. The patient was discharged in a rehabilitation center 7 days after the second surgery. When such a complication occurs, a co-management by vascular and spine surgeons is necessary to avoid major complications. Endovascular management of this kind of vascular injuries permits to avoid an open surgery that have a great rate of morbi-mortality in frail patients. Nowadays, technologies exist to prevent this kind of event and may improve the security when positioning pedicle screws. PMID:25023930

  15. X-ray sources for radiography of warm dense matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benuzzi-Mounaix, Alessandra; Brambrink, Erik; Barbrel, Benjamin; Koenig, Michel; Gregory, Chris; Loupias, Bérénice; Ravasio, Alessandra; Rabec Le Gloahec, Marc; Vinci, Tommaso; Boehly, Tom; Endo, Takashi; Kimura, Tomoaki; Ozaki, Norimasa; Wei, Huigang; Aglitskiy, Yefim; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tatiana

    2008-11-01

    The knowledge of Warm Dense Matter is important in different domains such as inertial confinement fusion, astrophysics and geophysics. The development of techniques for direct probing of this type of matter is of great interest. X-ray radiography is one of the most promising diagnostic to measure density directly. Here we present some results of low-Z material radiography and an experiment devoted to characterize a short pulse laser driven hard x-ray source for the radiography of medium and high Z matter. Experiments have been performed on LULI2000 and TW facilities at the Ecole Polytechnique.

  16. Linear induction accelerator approach for advanced radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.

    1997-05-01

    Recent advances in induction accelerator technology make it possible to envision a single accelerator that can serve as an intense, precision multiple pulse x-ray source for advanced radiography. Through the use of solid-state modulator technology repetition rates on the order of 1 MHz can be achieved with beam pulse lengths ranging from 200 ns to 2 {micro}secs. By using fast kickers, these pulses may be sectioned into pieces which are directed to different beam lines so as to interrogate the object under study from multiple lines of sight. The ultimate aim is to do a time dependent tomographic reconstruction of a dynamic object. The technology to accomplish these objectives along with a brief discussion of the experimental plans to verify it will be presented.

  17. Digital radiography exposure indices: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette; Robinson, John

    2014-06-15

    Digital radiography (DR) technologies have the advantage of a wide dynamic range compared to their film-screen predecessors, however, this poses a potential for increased patient exposure if left unchecked. Manufacturers have developed the exposure index (EI) to counter this, which provides radiographers with feedback on the exposure reaching the detector. As these EIs were manufacturer-specific, a wide variety of EIs existed. To offset this, the international standardised EI has been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The purpose of this article is to explore the current literature relating to EIs, beginning with the historical development of the EI, the development of the standardised EI and an exploration of common themes and studies as evidenced in the research literature. It is anticipated that this review will provide radiographers with a useful guide to understanding EIs, their application in clinical practice, limitations and suggestions for further research.

  18. Digital radiography exposure indices: A review

    PubMed Central

    Mothiram, Ursula; Brennan, Patrick C; Lewis, Sarah J; Moran, Bernadette; Robinson, John

    2014-01-01

    Digital radiography (DR) technologies have the advantage of a wide dynamic range compared to their film-screen predecessors, however, this poses a potential for increased patient exposure if left unchecked. Manufacturers have developed the exposure index (EI) to counter this, which provides radiographers with feedback on the exposure reaching the detector. As these EIs were manufacturer-specific, a wide variety of EIs existed. To offset this, the international standardised EI has been developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). The purpose of this article is to explore the current literature relating to EIs, beginning with the historical development of the EI, the development of the standardised EI and an exploration of common themes and studies as evidenced in the research literature. It is anticipated that this review will provide radiographers with a useful guide to understanding EIs, their application in clinical practice, limitations and suggestions for further research. PMID:26229645

  19. NBS work on neutron resonance radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Schrack, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    NBS has been engaged in a wide-ranging program in Neutron Resonance Radiography utilizing both one- and two-dimensional position-sensitive neutron detectors. The ability to perform a position-sensitive assay of up to 16 isotopes in a complex matrix has been demonstrated for a wide variety of sample types, including those with high gamma activity. A major part of the program has been the development and application of the microchannel-plate-based position-sensitive neutron detector. This detector system has high resolution and sensitivity, together with adequate speed of response to be used with neutron time-of-flight techniques. This system has demonstrated the ability to simultaneously image three isotopes in a sample with no interference.

  20. Estimated radiation risks associated with endodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Danforth, R A; Torabinejad, M

    1990-02-01

    Endodontic patients are sometimes concerned about the risks of tumors or cataracts from radiation exposure during root canal therapy. By using established dose and risk information, we calculated the extent of these risks. The chance of getting leukemia from an endodontic x-ray survey using 90 kVp was found to be 1 in 7.69 million, the same as the risk of dying from cancer from smoking 0.94 cigarettes or from an auto accident when driving 3.7 km. Risk of thyroid gland neoplasia was 1 in 667,000 (smoking 11.6 cigarettes, driving 45 km) and risk of salivary gland neoplasia 1 in 1.35 million (smoking 5.4 cigarettes, driving 21.1 km). Use of 70 kVp radiography reduced these risks only slightly. To receive the threshold dose to eyes to produce cataract changes, a patient would have to undergo 10,900 endodontic surveys. PMID:2390963

  1. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  2. Medical radiography examinations and carcinogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Domina, E A

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the review was the synthesis of the literature data and the results of our radiobiological (biodosimetric) research on the development of radiation-associated tumors as a result of medical radiography (X-ray) diagnostic. Medical X-ray examinations contribute the most to the excess of radiation exposure of the population, much of which is subject to examination to diagnose the underlying disease, the dynamic observation of the patient during treatment, the research of related deseases, and preventative examinations. The review provides arguments for the necessity of developing a more balanced indication for preventative radiological examination of the population in the aftermath of radio-ecological crisis caused by the Chornobyl accident, taking into account the likelihood of radiation carcinogenesis. The problems and tasks of biological (cytogenetic) dosimetry in radiology are formulated. PMID:25536546

  3. Recent developments in digital radiography detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yorkston, John

    2007-10-01

    Medical projection radiography is currently undergoing a major transformation into the digital age. New digital X-ray detectors are providing improved image quality as well as increased functionality. These advances promise to significantly change the practice of radiology in the coming years. This review paper will describe some of the issues associated with the new digital detectors, their design, capabilities and limitations as well as a few of the promising new clinical applications being enabled by their introduction. The review will focus mainly on the new amorphous silicon flat-panel detectors but will also touch on other technologies and promising new developments that may be introduced into the clinical environment in the not too distant future.

  4. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2 to 2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR(6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  5. Direct magnification radiography of the newborn infant

    SciTech Connect

    Brasch, R.C.; Gould, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    Recent advances in technology have made direct radiographic magnification of the newborn infant clinically feasible. A microfocus radiographic tube and a rare-earth, high-speed recording system were combined to obtain more than 2,000 radiographs at magnifications of 2-2.5. Special positioning devices permitted imaging of even those infants confined to incubators and connected to life-supporting systems. When quantitatively compared with three conventional contact radiographic systems with respect to resolution, contrast, and noise, magnification radiography showed overall superiority of image characteristics. Definition of subtle abnormalities and anatomically small structures permitted diagnoses which could not be made from conventional images. Furthermore, infant radiation exposure was markedly less (15 mR (3.9 mC/kg) maximum skin exposure) as compared with conventional contact radiographic systems (24 mR (6.1 mC/kg) to 45 mR (11.6 mC/kg)).

  6. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography

    PubMed Central

    Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-01-01

    Background The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. Purpose To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. Material and Methods All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Results Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. Conclusion The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality. PMID:26500784

  7. Muscle parameters estimation based on biplanar radiography.

    PubMed

    Dubois, G; Rouch, P; Bonneau, D; Gennisson, J L; Skalli, W

    2016-11-01

    The evaluation of muscle and joint forces in vivo is still a challenge. Musculo-Skeletal (musculo-skeletal) models are used to compute forces based on movement analysis. Most of them are built from a scaled-generic model based on cadaver measurements, which provides a low level of personalization, or from Magnetic Resonance Images, which provide a personalized model in lying position. This study proposed an original two steps method to access a subject-specific musculo-skeletal model in 30 min, which is based solely on biplanar X-Rays. First, the subject-specific 3D geometry of bones and skin envelopes were reconstructed from biplanar X-Rays radiography. Then, 2200 corresponding control points were identified between a reference model and the subject-specific X-Rays model. Finally, the shape of 21 lower limb muscles was estimated using a non-linear transformation between the control points in order to fit the muscle shape of the reference model to the X-Rays model. Twelfth musculo-skeletal models were reconstructed and compared to their reference. The muscle volume was not accurately estimated with a standard deviation (SD) ranging from 10 to 68%. However, this method provided an accurate estimation the muscle line of action with a SD of the length difference lower than 2% and a positioning error lower than 20 mm. The moment arm was also well estimated with SD lower than 15% for most muscle, which was significantly better than scaled-generic model for most muscle. This method open the way to a quick modeling method for gait analysis based on biplanar radiography. PMID:27082150

  8. Deadly dozen: dealing with the 12 types of thoracic injuries.

    PubMed

    Cipolle, Mark; Rhodes, Michael; Tinkoff, Glen

    2012-09-01

    Although most thoracic trauma may be treated non-operatively, major thoracic trauma accounts for 25% of trauma deaths. Except for provision of a definitive airway and/or relief of a tension pneumothorax with a needle decompression, the vast majority of thoracic trauma is best served with "load and go," high-flow oxygen, placement of an IV line and administration of crystalloid solutions as the clinical scenario would indicate. Understanding the mechanism of injury is helpful in establishing both prehospital and in-hospital management priorities. Patients who sustain a single penetrating wound to the chest have the best survivability after a resuscitative thoracotomy. Practicing chest assessment skills is vital to being a good prehospital provider. Ultrasound, NIRS tissue oxygenation and telemedicine will likely become more commonly employed as prehospital monitoring options. PEEP, or "over bagging," may exacerbate a simple or open pneumothorax, converting it to a tension pneumothorax. PMID:23342703

  9. Neurogenic thoracic outlet and pectoralis minor syndromes in children.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Richard J; Annest, Stephen J; Goldson, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Brachial plexus compression (BPC) occurs above the clavicle as neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (NTOS) and below as neurogenic pectoralis minor syndrome (NPMS). It was recently noted that 75% of the adults seen for NTOS also had NPMS and in some this was the only diagnosis. This is also true in children but has not yet been reported. Because surgical treatment of NPMS is a minimum risk operation for pectoralis minor tenotomy (PMT), recognition of NPMS and distinguishing it from NTOS becomes important. In this study, 40 operations, 20 PMT and 20 NTOS procedures, were performed. Success rate for PMT was 85% and for thoracic outlet decompression was 70%. It was concluded that in children, as in adults, BPC is more often due to combined NTOS and NPMS. Surgical PMT should be considered first as the treatment of choice for children with NPMS. Thoracic outlet decompression is available if PMT is unsuccessful. PMID:23503361

  10. A comparison of thoracic or lumbar patient-controlled epidural analgesia methods after thoracic surgery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to compare patient-controlled thoracic or lumbar epidural analgesia methods after thoracotomy operations. Methods One hundred and twenty patients were prospectively randomized to receive either thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA group) or lumbar epidural analgesia (LEA group). In both groups, epidural catheters were administered. Hemodynamic measurements, visual analog scale scores at rest (VAS-R) and after coughing (VAS-C), analgesic consumption, and side effects were compared at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours postoperatively. Results The VAS-R and VAS-C values were lower in the TEA group in comparison to the LEA group at 2, 4, 8, and 16 hours after surgery (for VAS-R, P = 0.001, P = 0.01, P = 0.008, and P = 0.029, respectively; and for VAS-C, P = 0.035, P = 0.023, P = 0.002, and P = 0.037, respectively). Total 24-hour analgesic consumption was different between groups (175 +/- 20 mL versus 185 +/- 31 mL; P = 0.034). The comparison of postoperative complications revealed that the incidence of hypotension (21/57, 36.8% versus 8/63, 12.7%; P = 0.002), bradycardia (9/57, 15.8% versus 2/63, 3.2%; P = 0.017), atelectasis (1/57, 1.8% versus 7/63, 11.1%; P = 0.04), and the need for intensive care unit (ICU) treatment (0/57, 0% versus 5/63, 7.9%; P = 0.03) were lower in the TEA group in comparison to the LEA group. Conclusions TEA has beneficial hemostatic effects in comparison to LEA after thoracotomies along with more satisfactory pain relief profile. PMID:24885545

  11. Donor to recipient sizing in thoracic organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Eberlein, Michael; Reed, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    Donor-to-recipient organ size matching is a critical aspect of thoracic transplantation. In the United States potential recipients for lung transplant and heart transplant are listed with limitations on donor height and weight ranges, respectively. Height is used as a surrogate for lung size and weight is used as a surrogate for heart size. While these measures are important predictors of organ size, they are crude surrogates that fail to incorporate the influence of sex on organ size. Independent of other measures, a man’s thoracic organs are approximately 20% larger than a woman’s. Lung size can be better estimated using the predicted total lung capacity, which is derived from regression equations correcting for height, sex and age. Similarly, heart size can be better estimated using the predicted heart mass, which adjusts for sex, age, height, and weight. These refined organ sizing measures perform better than current sizing practice for the prediction of outcomes after transplantation, and largely explain the outcome differences observed after sex-mismatch transplantation. An undersized allograft is associated with worse outcomes. In this review we examine current data pertaining to size-matching in thoracic transplantation. We advocate for a change in the thoracic allocation mechanism from a height-or-weight-based strategy to a size-matching process that utilizes refined estimates of organ size. We believe that a size-matching approach based on refined estimates of organ size would optimize outcomes in thoracic transplantation without restricting or precluding patients from thoracic transplantation. PMID:27011913

  12. Strategies to treat thoracic aortitis and infected aortic grafts.

    PubMed

    Kahlberg, A; Melissano, G; Tshomba, Y; Leopardi, M; Chiesa, R

    2015-04-01

    Infectious thoracic aortitis is a rare disease, especially since the incidence of syphilis and tuberculosis has dropped in western countries. However, the risk to develop an infectious aortitis and subsequent mycotic aneurysm formation is still present, particularly in case of associated endocarditis, sepsis, and in immunosuppressive disorders. Moreover, the number of surgical and endovascular thoracic aortic repairs is continuously increasing, and infective graft complications are observed more frequently. Several etiopathogenetic factors may play a role in thoracic aortic and prosthetic infections, including hematogenous seeding, local bacterial translocation, and iatrogenous contamination. Also, fistulization of the esophagus or the bronchial tree is commonly associated with these diseases, and it represents a critical event requiring a multidisciplinary management. Knowledge on underlying micro-organisms, antibiotic efficacy, risk factors, and prevention strategies has a key role in the management of this spectrum of infectious diseases involving the thoracic aorta. When the diagnosis of a mycotic aneurysm or a prosthetic graft infection is established, treatment is demanding, often including a number of surgical options. Patients are usually severely compromised by sepsis, and in most cases they are considered unfit for surgery for general clinical conditions or local concerns. Thus, results of different therapeutic strategies for infectious diseases of the thoracic aorta are still burdened with very high morbidity and mortality. In this manuscript, we review the literature regarding the main issues related to thoracic infectious aortitis and aortic graft infections, and we report our personal series of patients surgically treated at our institution for these conditions from 1993 to 2014. PMID:25608572

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction of thoracic structures: based on Chinese Visible Human.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi; Luo, Na; Tan, Liwen; Fang, Binji; Li, Ying; Xie, Bing; Liu, Kaijun; Chu, Chun; Li, Min; Zhang, Shaoxiang

    2013-01-01

    We managed to establish three-dimensional digitized visible model of human thoracic structures and to provide morphological data for imaging diagnosis and thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. With Photoshop software, the contour line of lungs and mediastinal structures including heart, aorta and its ramus, azygos vein, superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, thymus, esophagus, diaphragm, phrenic nerve, vagus nerve, sympathetic trunk, thoracic vertebrae, sternum, thoracic duct, and so forth were segmented from the Chinese Visible Human (CVH)-1 data set. The contour data set of segmented thoracic structures was imported to Amira software and 3D thorax models were reconstructed via surface rendering and volume rendering. With Amira software, surface rendering reconstructed model of thoracic organs and its volume rendering reconstructed model were 3D reconstructed and can be displayed together clearly and accurately. It provides a learning tool of interpreting human thoracic anatomy and virtual thoracic and cardiovascular surgery for medical students and junior surgeons. PMID:24369489

  14. The role of radiation therapy in thoracic tumors.

    PubMed

    Kong, Feng-Ming Spring; Zhao, Lujun; Hayman, James A

    2006-04-01

    Radiation plays an important role in the treatment of thoracic tumors. During the last 10 years there have been several major advances in thoracic RT including the incorporation of concurrent chemotherapy and the application of con-formal radiation-delivery techniques (eg, stereotactic RT, three-dimensional conformal RT, and intensity-modulated RT) that allow radiation dose escalation. Radiation as a local measure remains the definitive treatment of medically inoperable or surgically unresectable disease in NSCLC and part of a multimodality regimen for locally advanced NSCLC, limited stage SCLC, esophageal cancer, thymoma, and mesothelioma. PMID:16730299

  15. Thoracic outlet syndrome after corrective surgery for pectus excavatum.

    PubMed

    Donders, H P; Geelen, J A

    1988-02-01

    Two patients are described who developed a thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) after undergoing Ravitch's operation for the correction of pectus excavatum. In one case the syndrome developed a few days after surgery, whereas in the second patient it manifested more gradually. A third patient presented with latent TOS and pectus excavatum. It is recommended that prior to the correction of pectus excavatum, the patient should be examined to detect signs of neurovascular compression due to latent thoracic outlet syndrome. After surgery the possibility of this complication should be kept in mind to avoid permanent lesions of the cervicobrachial plexus. PMID:3352940

  16. Reasons to participate in European Society of Thoracic Surgeons database

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The process of data collection inevitably involves costs at various levels. Nevertheless, this effort is essential to base our knowledge and the consequent decision making on solid foundations. The European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS) database collects a large amount of data on general thoracic surgery derived from about 60 units representative of 11 nations. Since its beginning in 2001, the ESTS database has contributed to increase the knowledge and the quality of care in our specialty. The present paper illustrates the ultimate finalities and the obtained results of this data collection, providing a broad overview of the motivations to participate to the ESTS database. PMID:25984355

  17. Aortoesophageal fistula after thoracic endovascular aortic repair and transthoracic embolization.

    PubMed

    Riesenman, Paul J; Farber, Mark A; Mauro, Matthew A; Selzman, Craig H; Feins, Richard H

    2007-10-01

    Endografts are more commonly being used to treat thoracic aortic aneurysms and other vascular lesions. Endoleaks are a potential complication of this treatment modality and can be associated with aneurysmal sac expansion and rupture. This case report presents a patient who developed a type IA endoleak after endograft repair of a descending thoracic aneurysm. The endoleak was successfully treated through computed tomographic-guided transthoracic embolization, although the patient experienced lower extremity paraparesis postprocedurally. The patient's endovascular repair was complicated by the development of an aortoesophageal fistula and endograft infection necessitating operative débridement and endograft explantation. PMID:17903656

  18. Skeletal Dysplasias That Cause Thoracic Insufficiency in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    İpek, Mehmet Sah; Akgul Ozmen, Cihan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Skeletal dysplasias are a heterogeneous group of conditions associated with various abnormalities of the skeleton. Some of them are perinatally lethal and can be diagnosed at birth. Lethality is usually due to thoracic underdevelopment and lung hypoplasia. A correct diagnosis and typing of the skeletal disorder is essential for the prognosis as is genetic counseling of the family. A retrospective review of 12 cases of clinico-radiologic diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia, leading to thoracic insufficiency, was conducted. We aimed to make differential diagnosis with special emphasis on radiological findings, and to emphasize the importance of parental counseling. PMID:27057899

  19. Dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysm associated with tuberculous pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Im, Kyong Shil; Choi, Min Kyung; Jeon, Yong Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of thoracic aortic aneurysm associated with the tuberculous pleural effusion. An 82-year-old woman underwent emergency stent graft under a diagnosis of dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysm. Preoperative computed tomography revealed right pleural effusion supposed to the hemothorax caused by the dissecting aneurysm. But, the effusion was sanguineous color fluid and it was determined to result from pulmonary tuberculosis. The medical team was exposed to the pulmonary tuberculosis; fortunately no one became infected. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of an infected aortic aneurysm and prepare for pathogen transmission. PMID:27499987

  20. "Lower limbs revascularization from supraceliac and thoracic aorta".

    PubMed

    Wistuba, Mariel Riedemann; Alonso-Pérez, Manuel; Al-Sibbai, Amer Zanabili; González-Gay, Mario; Alvarez Marcos, Francisco; Camblor, Lino A; Llaneza-Coto, José Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Revascularization of femoral arteries from descending thoracic or supraceliac aorta is an uncommon procedure, in part because of the popularization of the technically easier extra-anatomic bypasses. However, using those aortic levels as the source of the bypass inflow is a useful alternative in selected patients with aortoiliac disease, with excellent results. We report long-term results in 4 patients with revascularization from thoracic aorta and another 2 cases from aorta at supraceliac level. This technique should be considered as a good alternative in patients with adverse abdominal conditions or with a severely diseased infrarenal aorta due to heavy calcification. PMID:25771745

  1. Comparison of patient specific dose metrics between chest radiography, tomosynthesis, and CT for adult patients of wide ranging body habitus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yakun; Li, Xiang; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-02-15

    metrics only increased slightly for radiographic modalities and for chest tomosynthesis. Effective and organ doses normalized to mAs all illustrated an exponential decrease with increasing patient size. As a surface organ, breast doses had less correlation with body size than that of lungs or liver. Conclusions: Patient body size has a much greater impact on radiation dose of chest CT examinations than chest radiography and tomosynthesis. The size of a patient should be considered when choosing the best thoracic imaging modality.

  2. Comparison of patient specific dose metrics between chest radiography, tomosynthesis, and CT for adult patients of wide ranging body habitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yakun; Li, Xiang; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    only increased slightly for radiographic modalities and for chest tomosynthesis. Effective and organ doses normalized to mAs all illustrated an exponential decrease with increasing patient size. As a surface organ, breast doses had less correlation with body size than that of lungs or liver. Conclusions: Patient body size has a much greater impact on radiation dose of chest CT examinations than chest radiography and tomosynthesis. The size of a patient should be considered when choosing the best thoracic imaging modality. PMID:24506654

  3. 5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING A CONTROL ROOM INSIDE THE RADIOGRAPHY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW, SHOWING A CONTROL ROOM INSIDE THE RADIOGRAPHY ROOM; PASS-THROUGH FOR EXPOSED FILM ON RIGHT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1031, North side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  4. Simple methods to reduce patient exposure during scoliosis radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.F.; Thomas, A.W.; Thompson, W.E.; Wollerton, M.A.; Rachlin, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Radiation exposure to the breasts of adolescent females can be reduced significantly through the use of one or all of the following methods: fast, rare-earth screen-film combinations; specially designed compensating filters; and breast shielding. The importance of exposure reduction during scoliosis radiography as well as further details on the above described methods are discussed. In addition, the early results of a Center for Devices and Radiological Health study, which recorded exposure and technique data for scoliosis radiography, is presented.

  5. Survey of Thoracic CT Protocols and Technical Parameters in Korean Hospitals: Changes before and after Establishment of Thoracic CT Guideline by Korean Society of Thoracic Radiology in 2008

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the thoracic CT scan protocols and technical parameters obtained from hospitals in Korea, one group during May 2007 (n = 100) and the other group during January 2012 (n = 173), before and after the establishment of the thoracic CT Guideline in 2008. Each group was also divided into two subgroups according to the health care delivery level, i.e. the “A” subgroup from primary and the “B” subgroup from secondary and tertiary care hospitals. When comparing the data from 2007 and 2012, the tube current decreased from 179.1 mAs to 137.2 mAs. The scan interval decreased from 6.4 mm to 4.8 mm. Also, the insufficient scan range decreased from 19.0% to 8.7%, and the suboptimal quality scans decreased from 33.0% to 5.2%. Between groups A and B, group B had lower tube voltages, smaller scan thicknesses, and smaller scan intervals. However, group B had more phase numbers. In terms of the suboptimal quality scans, a decrease was seen in both groups. In conclusion, during the five-year time period between 2007 and 2012, a reduction in the tube current values was seen. And the overall image quality improved over the same time period. We assume that these changes are attributed to the implementation of the thoracic CT guideline in 2008. PMID:26908985

  6. Hereditary Influence in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection.

    PubMed

    Isselbacher, Eric M; Lino Cardenas, Christian Lacks; Lindsay, Mark E

    2016-06-14

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm is a potentially life-threatening condition in that it places patients at risk for aortic dissection or rupture. However, our modern understanding of the pathogenesis of thoracic aortic aneurysm is quite limited. A genetic predisposition to thoracic aortic aneurysm has been established, and gene discovery in affected families has identified several major categories of gene alterations. The first involves mutations in genes encoding various components of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling cascade (FBN1, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, TGFB2, TGFB3, SMAD2, SMAD3 and SKI), and these conditions are known collectively as the TGF-β vasculopathies. The second set of genes encode components of the smooth muscle contractile apparatus (ACTA2, MYH11, MYLK, and PRKG1), a group called the smooth muscle contraction vasculopathies. Mechanistic hypotheses based on these discoveries have shaped rational therapies, some of which are under clinical evaluation. This review discusses published data on genes involved in thoracic aortic aneurysm and attempts to explain divergent hypotheses of aneurysm origin. PMID:27297344

  7. Normal Range of Thoracic Kyphosis in Male School Children

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, MohammadBagher; Veisi, Korosh; Karimi, Loghman; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Najafi, Farid

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although there are frequent studies about normal range of thoracic kyphosis, there is still a controversy about the exact values of this curve. In nine reported studies on 10 to 20 years of age boys, the value ranged from 25.1° to 53.3°. Objective for the Study. The aim of the present research was investigation of normal ranges of thoracic kyphosis in school children in Kermanshah, western Iran. Methods. 582 male students aged 13 to 18 years old using cluster random sampling were recruited from schools in Kermanshah city, 97 students for each age. Thoracic curves were measured using the flexicurve method. Results. Mean thoracic kyphosis for whole population was 35.49° SD 7.83 and plus or minus two standard deviations ranged from 19.83° to 51.15°. It increased gradually from 13 to 16 and then there was a little decrease to 18 years. Mean values for each age (13–16) were 13 (34.41 SD 7.47°), 14 (34.86 SD 8.29°), 15 (35.79 SD 7.93°), 16 (36.49 SD 7.85°), 17 (35.84 SD 8.33°), and 18 (35.55 SD 7.07°). Conclusions. Our results are in agreement with previous reports and can be used as normal values for local and regional purposes. PMID:24967122

  8. Xanthorrhizol induces endothelium-independent relaxation of rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Campos, M G; Oropeza, M V; Villanueva, T; Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Ponce, H A

    2000-06-01

    Xanthorrhizol, a bisabolene isolated from the medicinal plant Iostephane heterophylla, was assayed on rat thoracic aorta rings to elucidate its effect and likely mechanism of action, by measuring changes of isometric tension. Xanthorrhizol (1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 microg/mL) significantly inhibited precontractions induced by KCI-; (60mM), noradrenaline (10(-6) M) or CaCl2 (1.0 mM). Increasing concentrations of external calcium antagonized the inhibitory effect on KCl-induced contractions. The vasorelaxing effect of xanthorrhizol was not affected by indomethacin (10 microM) or L-NAME (100 microM) in intact rat thoracic aorta rings precontracted by noradrenaline, which suggested that the effect was not mediated through either endothelium-derived prostacyclin (PGI2) or nitric oxide release from endothelial cells. Endothelium removal did not affect the relaxation induced by xanthorrhizol on rat thoracic aorta rings, discarding the participation of any substance released by the endothelium. Xanthorrhizol inhibitory effect was greater on KCI- and CaCl2-induced contractions than on those induced by noradrenaline. Xanthorrhizol inhibitory effect in rat thoracic aorta is likely explained for interference with calcium availability by inhibiting calcium influx through both voltage- and receptor-operated channels. PMID:10983876

  9. [Pulmological aspects of diagnosis of thoracic pain (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Meier-Sydow, J

    1980-05-16

    A number of medical disciplines are involved in the diagnosis and therapy of thoracic pain. The origin may be somatic or visceral. Individual diseases are discussed in particular such as myalgia epidemica, intercostal neuralgia, herpes zoster, pleuritis and pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, mediastinal emphysema, mediastinitis, pulmonary hypertension and the hyperventilation syndrome. Differential diagnosis is also referred to. PMID:6771586

  10. Thoracoscopic Pericardial Window Creation and Thoracic Duct Ligation in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Ouzounian, Steven P.; Napoleon, Lori; Permut, Lester C.; Golombek, Sergio G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: We describe 2 newborn infants with persistent pericardial effusion treated with thoracoscopic pericardial window and thoracic duct ligation. Methods: Patient 1 was a premature female newborn who presented with severe cardiac anomalies, including dextrocardia. She was treated with pulmonary artery banding and pacemaker placement for complete cardiac block. Postoperatively, she developed pericarditis with persistent symptomatic pericardial effusion. She did not improve despite pericardial drain placement. She was treated with a thoracoscopic pericardial window. Patient 2 was a newborn male who presented with cardiac tamponade secondary to congenital chylopericardium. He did not respond to pericardial drain placement or medical management with fasting, total parenteral nutrition, and octreotide. He was treated with thoracoscopic pericardial window and thoracic duct ligation. Results: Patient 1 improved rapidly. The pericardial effusion disappeared. The chest tube was removed 5 days following surgery. She died 6 weeks later of a cardiac arrhythmia secondary to pacemaker failure. The pericardial effusion had resolved. Patient 2 responded to the pericardial window and thoracic duct ligation. He was discharged 10 days following the procedure. Conclusions: Thoracoscopy provides an excellent approach to the pericardium. Pericardial windows and biopsy can be safely performed with this approach. The thoracic duct can be easily identified and ligated even in small babies. Recovery can be fast with minimal postoperative discomfort. Cosmetic results are excellent and length of hospitalization is minimized. PMID:14626403

  11. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for acute thoracic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Michael; Lewis, Jaime; Guitron, Julian; Reed, Michael; Pritts, Timothy; Starnes, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Operative intervention for thoracic trauma typically requires thoracotomy. We hypothesized that thoracoscopy may be safely and effectively utilized for the acute management of thoracic injuries. Materials and Methods: The Trauma Registry of a Level I trauma center was queried from 1999 through 2010 for all video-assisted thoracic procedures within 24 h of admission. Data collected included initial vital signs, operative indication, intraoperative course, and postoperative outcome. Results: Twenty-three patients met inclusion criteria: 3 (13%) following blunt injury and 20 (87%) after penetrating trauma. Indications for urgent thoracoscopy included diaphragmatic/esophageal injury, retained hemothorax, ongoing hemorrhage, and open/persistent pneumothorax. No conversions to thoracotomy were required and no patient required re-operation. Mean postoperative chest tube duration was 2.9 days and mean length of stay was 5.6 days. Conclusion: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is safe and effective for managing thoracic trauma in hemodynamically stable patients within the first 24 h post-injury. PMID:23723618

  12. Research and education in thoracic surgery: the European trainees’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ilonen, Ilkka K.

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic surgery training within Europe is diverse and a consensus may help to harmonise the training. Currently, training for thoracic surgery compromises thoracic, cardiothoracic and aspects of general surgical training. The recognition of specialist degrees should be universal and equal. Between different nations significant differences in training exist, especially in general surgery rotations and in the role of oesophageal surgery. The European board examination for thoracic surgery is one of the key ways to achieve harmonisation within the European Union (EU) and internationally. Further support and encouragement may be beneficial to promote diverse and engaging fellowships and clinical exchange programmes between nations. International fellowships may even benefit young residents, in both clinical and academic settings. Many studies currently would benefit from multi-centre and multi-national design, enhancing the results and giving better understanding of clinical scenarios. Educational content provided by independent organisations should be more recognised as an integral part in both resident training and continuing development throughout surgeons’ careers. During annual society meetings, trainees should have some sessions that are aimed at enhancing their training and establishing networks of international peers. PMID:25984356

  13. Video-assisted thoracic surgery for mediastinal extramedullary haematopoiesis.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, C. S. H.; Wan, S.; Lee, T. W.; Sihoe, A. D. L.; Wan, I. Y. P.; Arifi, A. A.; Yim, A. P. C.

    2002-01-01

    Extramedullary haematopoiesis is a rare cause of an intrathoracic mass. We report a case of posterior mediastinal extramedullary haematopoietic mass in a 50-year-old man who presented with non-specific symptoms and a paravertebral mass on chest X-ray. Diagnosis was achieved by using video-assisted thoracic surgery. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:12092864

  14. [Unusual fatal thoracic injury due to glass splinters].

    PubMed

    Korman, V; Soral, A

    1976-05-01

    The authors report on a case of unusual lethal penetrating puncture-incised thoracic wound in a male aged 33 following an incidental fall into the glass panel of a glass-panelled door. The glass splinters of the bre. The case as well as the pertinent literatury data and to the diagnostic problems pertaining to the determination of the injurious mechanism. PMID:1013734

  15. Thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis: an unusual complication of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Olushola; Mayooran, Nithiananthan; Iqbal, Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis complicating Crohn's disease is a rare occurrence and mostly occurred in patients with Crohn's disease complicated by an abscess or fistulising disease. We report a case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis, occurring in a refractory Crohn's disease without contiguous abscess or fistula with the bowel. PMID:24916975

  16. New applications of magnetic resonance imaging for thoracic oncology.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Yoshiharu

    2014-02-01

    Since the clinical introduction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the chest has been one of its most challenging applications, and since the 1980s many physicists and radiologists have been trying to evaluate images for various lung diseases as well as mediastinal and pleural diseases. However, thoracic MRI could not yield image quality sufficient for a convincing diagnosis within an acceptable examination time, so MRI did not find acceptance as a substitute for computed tomography (CT) and other modalities. Until the 2000, thoracic MRI was generally used only for select, minor clinical indications. Within the past decade, however, technical advances in sequencing, scanners and coils, adaptation of parallel imaging techniques, utilization of contrast media, and development of postprocessing tools have been developed. In addition, pulmonary functional MRI has been extensively researched, and MR is being assessed as a new research and diagnostic tool for pulmonary diseases. State-of-the art thoracic MRI now has the potential as a substitute for traditional imaging techniques and/or to play a complimentary role in patient management. In this review, we focus on these advances in MRI for thoracic oncologic imaging, especially for pulmonary nodule assessment, lung cancer staging, mediastinal tumor diagnosis and malignant mesothelioma evaluation, prediction of postoperative lung function, and prediction or evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness. We also discuss the potential and limitations of these advances for routine clinical practice in comparison with other modalities such as CT, positron emission tomography (PET), PET/CT, or nuclear medicine studies. PMID:24481757

  17. Neutron radiography inspection of investment castings.

    PubMed

    Richards, W J; Barrett, J R; Springgate, M E; Shields, K C

    2004-10-01

    Investment casting, also known as the lost wax process, is a manufacturing method employed to produce near net shape metal articles. Traditionally, investment casting has been used to produce structural titanium castings for aero-engine applications with wall thickness less than 1 in (2.54 cm). Recently, airframe manufacturers have been exploring the use of titanium investment casting to replace components traditionally produced from forgings. Use of titanium investment castings for these applications reduces weight, cost, lead time, and part count. Recently, the investment casting process has been selected to produce fracture critical structural titanium airframe components. These airframe components have pushed the traditional inspection techniques to their physical limits due to cross sections on the order of 3 in (7.6 cm). To overcome these inspection limitations, a process incorporating neutron radiography (n-ray) has been developed. In this process, the facecoat of the investment casting mold material contains a cocalcined mixture of yttrium oxide and gadolinium oxide. The presence of the gadolinium oxide, allows for neutron radiographic imaging (and eventual removal and repair) of mold facecoat inclusions that remain within these thick cross sectional castings. Probability of detection (POD) studies have shown a 3 x improvement of detecting a 0.050 x 0.007 in2 (1.270 x 0.178 mm2) inclusion of this cocalcined material using n-ray techniques when compared to the POD using traditional X-ray techniques. Further, it has been shown that this n-ray compatible mold facecoat material produces titanium castings of equal metallurgical quality when compared to the traditional materials. Since investment castings can be very large and heavy, the neutron radiography facilities at the University of California, Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center (UCD/MNRC) were used to develop the inspection techniques. The UCD/MNRC has very unique facilities that can handle large

  18. Use and effectiveness of chest radiography and low-back radiography in screening

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph, L.P.; Rachlin, J.A.

    1986-10-01

    One of the Food and Drug Administration's educational programs to optimize the use of medical radiation is the investigation of the efficacy of selected x-ray film examinations. The goal of this program is to provide clinical information needed to aid physicians in their judgment. The routine chest-radiograph screening examination has been studied, and recommendations for five applications of chest-radiograph screening have been published. These recommendations, plus results of FDA research on the efficacy of low-back radiography, are discussed.

  19. Alpha1-adrenoceptors in the guinea pig thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Koike, K

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, we tried to determine which alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes are involved in the guinea pig thoracic aorta by using in vitro functional analysis. In first, we tried to estimate the pA2 values of some key alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists (prazosin, 5-methylurapidil, WB4101, BMY7378 and tamsulosin) against responses to norepinephrine in the thoracic aorta of guinea pigs. The concentration-response curves of norepinephrine were rightward shifted by the presence of prazosin, 5 methylurapidil, WB4101, BMY7378 and tamsulosin. The pA2 values for these antagonists against norepinephrine were 7.83, 7.78, 8.20, 5.73 and 9.57, respectively. In second, we tried to compare the estimated pA2 values obtained in the present study with reported pKi and pA2 values for cloned and native alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes. In rabbit mesenteric artery, trigone, urethra, prostate and human lower urinary tract which were proposed to contain the putative alpha1L-adenoceptor, we obtained the good correlation for the pA2 values reported in these tissues with pA2 values estimated in guinea pig thoracic aorta. Moreover, regression lines were close to the line of identity. These results suggest that the alpha1-adenoceptors mediating contraction of guinea pig thoracic aorta are similar pharmacologically to the putative alpha1L-adenoceptor subtype in rabbit mesenteric artery, trigone, urethra, prostate and human lower urinary tract. As a final point, guinea pig thoracic aorta may be able to use as a tool to develop the new alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist which is therapeutically advantageous in the treatment of urinary tract obstruction (e. g., in benign prostatic hyperplasia). PMID:10733154

  20. Penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign body: can video-assisted thoracic surgery take up the leading role in acute management?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peter S. Y.; Chan, Herman H. M.; Lau, Rainbow W. H.; Capili, Freddie G.; Underwood, Malcolm J.

    2016-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is widely adopted in acute management of patient with thoracic trauma, but its use in penetrating thoracic injuries with retained foreign bodies were rarely reported. We described three of such cases using VATS as the first line approach. Identification of injuries, control of bleeders, clot evacuation, resection of damaged lung parenchyma and safe retrieval of foreign bodies were all performed via complete VATS within short operative time. Patient were uneventfully discharged during early post-operative period. We suggest that, for haemodynamically stable patients, VATS offers a safe and minimally-invasive alternative to conventional thoracotomy for penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign bodies. PMID:27621884

  1. Penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign body: can video-assisted thoracic surgery take up the leading role in acute management?

    PubMed

    Yu, Peter S Y; Chan, Herman H M; Lau, Rainbow W H; Capili, Freddie G; Underwood, Malcolm J; Wan, Innes Y P

    2016-08-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is widely adopted in acute management of patient with thoracic trauma, but its use in penetrating thoracic injuries with retained foreign bodies were rarely reported. We described three of such cases using VATS as the first line approach. Identification of injuries, control of bleeders, clot evacuation, resection of damaged lung parenchyma and safe retrieval of foreign bodies were all performed via complete VATS within short operative time. Patient were uneventfully discharged during early post-operative period. We suggest that, for haemodynamically stable patients, VATS offers a safe and minimally-invasive alternative to conventional thoracotomy for penetrating thoracic injury with retained foreign bodies. PMID:27621884

  2. Beam Characterization at the Neutron Radiography Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah Morgan; Jeffrey King

    2013-01-01

    The quality of a neutron imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam’s effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This project characterized the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam’s effective length-to-diameter ratio and image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. Improvement of the existing NRAD MCNP beamline model includes validation of the model’s energy spectrum and the development of enhanced image simulation methods. The image simulation methods predict the radiographic image of an object based on the foil reaction rate data obtained by placing a model of the object in front of the image plane in an MCNP beamline model.

  3. Portable Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-11-01

    This user manual describes the function and use of the portable digital radiography and computed tomography (DRCT) scanner. The manual gives a general overview of x-ray imaging systems along with a description of the DRCT system. An inventory of the all the system components, organized by shipping container, is also included. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are provided for all of the exercises necessary for a novice user to successfully collect digital radiographs and tomographic images of an object, including instructions on system assembly and detector calibration and system alignment. There is also a short section covering the limited system care and maintenance needs. Descriptions of the included software packages, the DRCT Digital Imager used for system operation, and the DRCT Image Processing Interface used for image viewing and tomographic data reconstruction are given in the appendixes. The appendixes also include a cheat sheet for more experienced users, a listing of known system problems and how to mitigate them, and an inventory check-off sheet suitable for copying and including with the machine for shipment purposes.

  4. [Optimal beam quality for chest digital radiography].

    PubMed

    Oda, Nobuhiro; Tabata, Yoshito; Nakano, Tsutomu

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the optimal beam quality for chest computed radiography (CR), we measured the radiographic contrast and evaluated the image quality of chest CR using various X-ray tube voltages. The contrast between lung and rib or heart increased on CR images obtained by lowering the tube voltage from 140 to 60 kV, but the degree of increase was less. Scattered radiation was reduced on CR images with a lower tube voltage. The Wiener spectrum of CR images with a low tube voltage showed a low value under identical conditions of amount of light stimulated emission. The quality of chest CR images obtained using a lower tube voltage (80 kV and 100 kV) was evaluated as being superior to those obtained with a higher tube voltage (120 kV and 140 kV). Considering the problem of tube loading and exposure in clinical applications, a tube voltage of 90 to 100 kV (0.1 mm copper filter backed by 0.5 mm aluminum) is recommended for chest CR. PMID:25410333

  5. Evaluation and testing of computed radiography systems.

    PubMed

    Charnock, P; Connolly, P A; Hughes, D; Moores, B M

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of film replacement digital radiographic imaging systems throughout Europe is now gathering momentum. Such systems create the foundations for totally digital departments of radiology, since radiographic examinations constitute the most prevalent modality. Although this type of development will lead to improvements in the delivery and management of radiological service, such widespread implementation of new technology must be carefully monitored. The implementation of effective QA tests on installation, at periodic intervals and as part of a routine programme will aid this process. This paper presents the results of commissioning tests undertaken on a number of computed radiography imaging systems provided by different manufacturers. The aim of these tests was not only to provide baseline performance measurements against which subsequent measurements can be compared but also to explore any differences in performance, which might exist between different units. Results of measurements will be presented for (1) monitor and laser printer set-up; (2) imaging plates, including sensitivity, consistency and uniformity; (3) resolution and contrast detectability; and (4) signal and noise performance. Results from the latter are analysed in relationship with both system and quantum noise components. PMID:15933109

  6. Radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treimer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Neutron imaging became important when, besides providing impressive radiographic and tomographic images of various objects, physical, quantification of chemical, morphological or other parameters could be derived from 2D or 3D images. The spatial resolution of approximately 50 µm (and less) yields real space images of the bulk of specimens with more than some cm3 in volume. Thus the physics or chemistry of structures in a sample can be compared with scattering functions obtained e.g. from neutron scattering. The advantages of using neutrons become more pronounced when the neutron spin comes into play. The interaction of neutrons with magnetism is unique due to their low attenuation by matter and because their spin is sensitive to magnetic fields. Magnetic fields, domains and quantum effects such as the Meissner effect and flux trapping can only be visualized and quantified in the bulk of matter by imaging with polarized neutrons. This additional experimental tool is gaining more and more importance. There is a large number of new fields that can be investigated by neutron imaging, not only in physics, but also in geology, archeology, cultural heritage, soil culture, applied material research, magnetism, etc. One of the top applications of polarized neutron imaging is the large field of superconductivity where the Meissner effect and flux pinning can be visualized and quantified. Here we will give a short summary of the results achieved by radiography and tomography with polarized neutrons.

  7. Towards Proton Therapy and Radiography at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prall, M.; Lang, P. M.; LaTessa, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Varentsov, D.; Durante, M.

    2015-04-01

    Protons having energies in the GeV range have been proposed as an alternative to Bragg-peak hadron therapy. This strategy reduces lateral scattering and overcomes uncertainties of particle range and relative biological effectiveness. GeV protons could additionally be used for targeting in image guided stereotactic radiosurgery. We experimentally demonstrated the potential of GeV protons for imaging of biological samples using E=0.8 GeV protons and the pRad setup at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In this setup, a system of magnetic lenses creates a point-to-point mapping from object to detector. This mapping compensates image blur due to lateral scattering inside the imaged (biological) object. We produced 2-dim proton radiographs of biological samples, an anthropomorphic phantom and performed simple dosimetry. High resolution tomographic reconstructions were derived from the 2-dim proton radiographs. Our experiment was performed within the framework of the PANTERA (Proton Therapy and Radiography) project. In the future, the proton microscope PRIOR (Proton Microscope for FAIR) located in the FAIR facility (Darmstadt), will focus on optimizing the technique for imaging of lesions implanted in animals and couple the irradiation with standard radiotherapy.

  8. Neutron radiography in Indian space programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, K.

    1999-11-01

    Pyrotechnic devices are indispensable in any space programme to perform such critical operations as ignition, stage separation, solar panel deployment, etc. The nature of design and configuration of different types of pyrotechnic devices, and the type of materials that are put in their construction make the inspection of them with thermal neutrons more favourable than any other non destructive testing methods. Although many types of neutron sources are available for use, generally the radiographic quality/exposure duration and cost of source run in opposite directions even after four decades of research and development. But in the area of space activity, by suitably combining the X-ray and neutron radiographic requirements, the inspection of the components can be made economically viable. This is demonstrated in the Indian space programme by establishing a 15 MeV linear accelerator based neutron generator facility to inspect medium to giant solid propellant boosters by X-ray inspection and all types of critical pyro and some electronic components by neutron radiography. Since the beam contains unacceptable gamma, transfer imaging technique has been evolved and the various parameters have been optimised to get a good quality image.

  9. Applications of Cosmic Ray Muon Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardincerri, E.; Durham, J. M.; Morris, C. L.; Rowe, C. A.; Poulson, D. C.; Bacon, J. D.; Plaud-Ramos, K.; Morley, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Dome of Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence Cathedral, was built between 1420 and 1436 by architect Filippo Brunelleschi and it is now cracking under its own weight. Engineering efforts are underway to model the dome's structure and reinforce it against further deterioration. According to some scholars, Brunelleschi might have built reinforcement structures into the dome itself; however, the only confirmed known subsurface reinforcement is a chain of iron and stone around the dome's base. Tomography with cosmic ray muons is a non-destructive imaging method that can be used to image the interior of the wall and therefore ascertain the layout and status of any iron substructure in the dome. We will show the results from a muon tomography measurement of iron hidden in a mockup of the dome's wall performed at Los Alamos National Lab in 2015. The sensitivity of this technique, and the status of this project will be also discussed. At last, we will show results on muon attenuation radiography of larger shallow targets.

  10. Beam characterization at the neutron radiography reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Sarah

    The quality of a neutron imaging beam directly impacts the quality of radiographic images produced using that beam. Fully characterizing a neutron beam, including determination of the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio, neutron flux profile, energy spectrum, image quality, and beam divergence, is vital for producing quality radiographic images. This thesis characterized the east neutron imaging beamline at the Idaho National Laboratory Neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD). The experiments which measured the beam's effective length-to-diameter ratio and image quality are based on American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. An analysis of the image produced by a calibrated phantom measured the beam divergence. The energy spectrum measurements consist of a series of foil irradiations using a selection of activation foils, compared to the results produced by a Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the beamline. Improvement of the existing NRAD MCNP beamline model includes validation of the model's energy spectrum and the development of enhanced image simulation methods. The image simulation methods predict the radiographic image of an object based on the foil reaction rate data obtained by placing a model of the object in front of the image plane in an MCNP beamline model.

  11. A dose monitoring system for dental radiography

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chena; Kim, Jo-Eun; Symkhampha, Khanthaly; Lee, Woo-Jin; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Yeom, Heon-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The current study investigates the feasibility of a platform for a nationwide dose monitoring system for dental radiography. The essential elements for an unerring system are also assessed. Materials and Methods An intraoral radiographic machine with 14 X-ray generators and five sensors, 45 panoramic radiographic machines, and 23 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) models used in Korean dental clinics were surveyed to investigate the type of dose report. A main server for storing the dose data from each radiographic machine was prepared. The dose report transfer pathways from the radiographic machine to the main sever were constructed. An effective dose calculation method was created based on the machine specifications and the exposure parameters of three intraoral radiographic machines, five panoramic radiographic machines, and four CBCTs. A viewing system was developed for both dentists and patients to view the calculated effective dose. Each procedure and the main server were integrated into one system. Results The dose data from each type of radiographic machine was successfully transferred to the main server and converted into an effective dose. The effective dose stored in the main server is automatically connected to a viewing program for dentist and patient access. Conclusion A patient radiation dose monitoring system is feasible for dental clinics. Future research in cooperation with clinicians, industry, and radiologists is needed to ensure format convertibility for an efficient dose monitoring system to monitor unexpected radiation dose. PMID:27358817

  12. Impact of Nonvascular Thoracic MR Imaging on the Clinical Decision Making of Thoracic Surgeons: A 2-year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ackman, Jeanne B; Gaissert, Henning A; Lanuti, Michael; Digumarthy, Subba R; Shepard, Jo-Anne O; Halpern, Elkan F; Wright, Cameron D

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of nonvascular thoracic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging on the clinical decision making and diagnostic certainty of thoracic surgeons. Materials and Methods Seven thoracic surgeons at Massachusetts General Hospital, an academic quaternary referral hospital, participated in this 2-year, prospective, institution review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant pre- and post-MR imaging survey study after completing a one-time demographic survey. Between July 16, 2013, and July 13, 2015, each time a thoracic surgeon ordered a nonvascular thoracic MR imaging study via radiology order entry, he or she was sent a link to the pre-test survey that ascertained the clinical rationale for MR imaging, the clinical management plan if MR imaging was not an option, and pre-test diagnostic certainty. Upon completion of the MR imaging report, the surgeon was sent a link to the post-test survey assessing if/how MR imaging changed clinical management, the surgeon's comfort with the clinical management plan, and post-test diagnostic certainty. Data were analyzed with Student t, Wilcoxon, and McNemar tests. Results A total of 99 pre- and post-test surveys were completed. Most MR imaging studies (64 of 99 [65%]) were requested because of indeterminate computed tomographic findings. The use of MR imaging significantly reduced the number of planned surgical interventions (P < .001), modified the surgical approach in 54% (14 of 26) of surgical cases, and increased surgeon comfort with the patient management plan in 95% (94 of 99) of cases. Increased diagnostic certainty as a result of MR imaging was highly significant (P < .0001). In 21% (21 of 99) of cases, definitive MR imaging results warranted no further follow-up or clinical care. Conclusion In appropriate cases, assessment with nonvascular thoracic MR imaging substantially affects the clinical decision making and diagnostic certainty of thoracic surgeons. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available

  13. Effect of thoracic and cervical joint mobilization on pulmonary function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sang-Hun; Bang, Hyun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to conduct thoracic and cervical mobilization in stroke patients and determine its effects on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one stroke patients were studied. Subjects were divided into a control group (control group, n=11) who did not undergo thoracic and cervical joint mobilization, and an experimental group (thoracic and cervical mobilization group, n=10) who underwent thoracic and cervical joint mobilization. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second, well-known indicators of respiratory capabilities, were measured. Peak cough flow was measured as an indicator of cough capability. [Results] After the exercise, respiratory function in the thoracic and cervical mobilization group showed statistically significant improvements demonstrated by increases in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in the first second, and peak cough flow. [Conclusion] The findings indicate that thoracic and cervical mobilization can improve the thoracic movements of stroke patients resulting in improved pulmonary function. PMID:26957769

  14. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of direct digital radiography system, filtered images, and subtraction radiography

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Vessoni Iwaki, Lilian Cristina; Da Silva, Mariliani Chicarelli; Filho, Liogi Iwaki; Queiroz, Alfredo De Franco; Geron, Lucas Bachegas Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Background: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of three different imaging systems: Direct digital radiography system (DDR-CMOS), four types of filtered images, and a priori and a posteriori registration of digital subtraction radiography (DSR) in the diagnosis of proximal defects. Materials and Methods: The teeth were arranged in pairs in 10 blocks of vinyl polysiloxane, and proximal defects were performed with drills of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mm diameter. Kodak RVG 6100 sensor was used to capture the images. A posteriori DSR registrations were done with Regeemy 0.2.43 and subtraction with Image Tool 3.0. Filtered images were obtained with Kodak Dental Imaging 6.1 software. Images (n = 360) were evaluated by three raters, all experts in dental radiology. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of the area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) were higher for DSR images with all three drills (Az = 0.896, 0.979, and 1.000 for drills 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mm, respectively). The highest values were found for 1-mm drills and the lowest for 0.25-mm drills, with negative filter having the lowest values of all (Az = 0.631). Conclusion: The best method of diagnosis was by using a DSR. The negative filter obtained the worst results. Larger drills showed the highest sensitivity and specificity values of the area under the ROC curve. PMID:24124300

  15. A method to optimize the processing algorithm of a computed radiography system for chest radiography.

    PubMed

    Moore, C S; Liney, G P; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R

    2007-09-01

    A test methodology using an anthropomorphic-equivalent chest phantom is described for the optimization of the Agfa computed radiography "MUSICA" processing algorithm for chest radiography. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the lung, heart and diaphragm regions of the phantom, and the "system modulation transfer function" (sMTF) in the lung region, were measured using test tools embedded in the phantom. Using these parameters the MUSICA processing algorithm was optimized with respect to low-contrast detectability and spatial resolution. Two optimum "MUSICA parameter sets" were derived respectively for maximizing the CNR and sMTF in each region of the phantom. Further work is required to find the relative importance of low-contrast detectability and spatial resolution in chest images, from which the definitive optimum MUSICA parameter set can then be derived. Prior to this further work, a compromised optimum MUSICA parameter set was applied to a range of clinical images. A group of experienced image evaluators scored these images alongside images produced from the same radiographs using the MUSICA parameter set in clinical use at the time. The compromised optimum MUSICA parameter set was shown to produce measurably better images. PMID:17709364

  16. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Thoracic Duct Anatomy and Function in Open Surgery and Video-Assisted Thoracic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Tanaka, Eiichi; Stockdale, Alan; Choi, Hak Soo; Frangioni, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Chylothorax resulting from damage to the thoracic duct is often difficult to identify and repair. We hypothesized that near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light could provide sensitive, real-time, high-resolution intraoperative imaging of thoracic duct anatomy and function. Methods In 16 rats (n=16), four potential NIR fluorescent lymphatic tracers were compared in terms of signal strength and imaging time: indocyanine green (ICG), the carboxylic acid of CW800, ICG adsorbed to human serum albumin (HSA), and CW800 conjugated covalently to HSA (HSA800). The optimal agent was validated in eight pigs approaching the size of humans, n = 6 by open surgery using the Fluorescence-Assisted Resection and Exploration (FLARE) imaging system and n = 2 by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) using the minimally invasive imaging system (m-FLARE). Lymphatic tracer injection site, dose, and timing were optimized. Results For signal strength, sustained imaging time, and clinical translatability, the best lymphatic tracer was ICG, which is already FDA-approved for other indications. In pigs, a simple subcutaneous injection of ICG into the lower leg, at a dose ≥36 μg/kg, provided thoracic duct imaging with an onset of 5 min after injection, sustained imaging for at least 60 min after injection, and a signal-to-background ratio ≥2. Using this technology, normal thoracic duct flow, collateral flow, injury models, and repair models could all be observed under direct visualization. Conclusions NIR fluorescent light could provide sensitive, sustained, real-time imaging of thoracic duct anatomy and function during both open surgery and VATS in animal models. PMID:21477818

  17. A benchmark for comparison of dental radiography analysis algorithms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Wei; Huang, Cheng-Ta; Lee, Jia-Hong; Li, Chung-Hsing; Chang, Sheng-Wei; Siao, Ming-Jhih; Lai, Tat-Ming; Ibragimov, Bulat; Vrtovec, Tomaž; Ronneberger, Olaf; Fischer, Philipp; Cootes, Tim F; Lindner, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    Dental radiography plays an important role in clinical diagnosis, treatment and surgery. In recent years, efforts have been made on developing computerized dental X-ray image analysis systems for clinical usages. A novel framework for objective evaluation of automatic dental radiography analysis algorithms has been established under the auspices of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging 2015 Bitewing Radiography Caries Detection Challenge and Cephalometric X-ray Image Analysis Challenge. In this article, we present the datasets, methods and results of the challenge and lay down the principles for future uses of this benchmark. The main contributions of the challenge include the creation of the dental anatomy data repository of bitewing radiographs, the creation of the anatomical abnormality classification data repository of cephalometric radiographs, and the definition of objective quantitative evaluation for comparison and ranking of the algorithms. With this benchmark, seven automatic methods for analysing cephalometric X-ray image and two automatic methods for detecting bitewing radiography caries have been compared, and detailed quantitative evaluation results are presented in this paper. Based on the quantitative evaluation results, we believe automatic dental radiography analysis is still a challenging and unsolved problem. The datasets and the evaluation software will be made available to the research community, further encouraging future developments in this field. (http://www-o.ntust.edu.tw/~cweiwang/ISBI2015/). PMID:26974042

  18. Recent advances in fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowerby, B. D.; Tickner, J. R.

    2007-09-01

    Fast neutron radiography techniques are attractive for screening cargo for contraband such as narcotics and explosives. Neutrons have the required penetration, they interact with matter in a manner complementary to X-rays and they can be used to determine elemental composition. Compared to neutron interrogation techniques that measure secondary radiation (neutron or gamma-rays), neutron radiography systems are much more efficient and rapid and they are much more amenable to imaging. However, for neutron techniques to be successfully applied to cargo screening, they must demonstrate significant advantages over well-established X-ray techniques. This paper reviews recent developments and applications of fast neutron radiography for cargo inspection. These developments include a fast neutron and gamma-ray radiography system that utilizes a 14 MeV neutron generator as well as fast neutron resonance radiography systems that use variable energy quasi-monoenergetic neutrons and pulsed broad energy neutron beams. These systems will be discussed and compared with particular emphasis on user requirements, sources, detector systems, imaging ability and performance.

  19. Cross table lateral radiography for measurement of acetabular cup version

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Ragnhild Beate

    2016-01-01

    Background Appropriate orientation of the acetabular cup is an important factor for long-term results of total hip arthroplasty. For measurement of cup version cross-table lateral radiography is frequently used, but the reliability has been questioned. We compared cross table lateral radiography with computed tomography in patients that had undergone primary total hip arthroplasty. Methods The study was prospectively done in 117 patients (117 hips). At 3 months after total hip replacement the acetabular version was measured by cross table lateral radiography and compared to measurements by computed tomography. Results By cross table lateral radiography acetabular anteversion was on mean 13.9° with a standard deviation of 10.1° as compared to 17.8°±12.6° by computed tomography. Mean difference was −3.8 with a distribution of measurements of ±13 degrees for 95% of the cases. Conclusions Our study shows that cross table radiography provides acceptable information for clinical use, but has limited use for precise analysis of acetabular cup version. PMID:27275482

  20. Radiographic detection of thoracic lesions in adult cows: A retrospective study of 42 cases (1995–2002)

    PubMed Central

    Masseau, Isabelle; Fecteau, Gilles; Breton, Luc; Hélie, Pierre; Beauregard, Guy; Blond, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Medical records of 42 cows that underwent both thoracic radiographic and postmortem examinations within a period of 7 days were reviewed to develop an evaluation grid to interpret bovine thoracic radiographs and to determine the sensitivity and the specificity of thoracic radiographs for detection of thoracic lesions, based on postmortem examination. Most cows (64%) had clinical signs of respiratory disease, whereas 19% showed signs of cardiac problems. The sensitivity and specificity of radiographs for identifying cows with thoracic lesions were 94% and 50%, respectively. In this study, with a prevalence of thoracic lesions of 86%, the positive- and negative-predictive values were 92% and 57%, respectively. This study provides an evaluation grid that allows standardization of the reading of bovine thoracic radiographs and the identification of most thoracic lesions. Bovine thoracic radiographs are useful in detecting thoracic lesions in cows. PMID:18390098

  1. Patient safety in thoracic surgery and European Society of Thoracic Surgeons checklist

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Improving patient safety seems to be a new interesting clinical subject but, in fact, it is no new. It has to do with one of the oldest ethical principles of our profession: curing and not harming. The important research that has been done in a short period of time has brought in new insight to this complex area that is fast developing. The creation of safety managing systems will allow coordinating efforts from very different, although complementary, areas to create real safety culture and safety climate in every organization. In the surgical settings, teamwork is basic to provide good quality of care. Safety leaders in every team have an important role in establishing priorities, summarizing proposals, coordinating efforts, launching new initiatives and transmitting that safety efforts are worth taken. Preparedness and anticipation are key points for avoiding most of the diverse types of patient harm that can occur. As has been published, a great number of errors can be avoided simply using crosscheck based on specialized checklist that reviews every important detail of the procedure. This strategy has been demonstrated very useful at other high risk industries such as aviation, nuclear or food management. The Safe Surgery Saves Lives program launched in 2002 by the WHO has taught us that improvement is possible using a simple checklist. More complex and detail checklist can be more adequate for more complex procedures and settings. The proposed ESTS checklist reviews different areas of possible error in deeper detail allowing the finest adjustment of the patient before the skin incision. It has been recently released to the general thoracic community and monitors its use and usefulness has to be warrantied. PMID:25984360

  2. Patient safety in thoracic surgery and European Society of Thoracic Surgeons checklist.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Nuria M

    2015-04-01

    Improving patient safety seems to be a new interesting clinical subject but, in fact, it is no new. It has to do with one of the oldest ethical principles of our profession: curing and not harming. The important research that has been done in a short period of time has brought in new insight to this complex area that is fast developing. The creation of safety managing systems will allow coordinating efforts from very different, although complementary, areas to create real safety culture and safety climate in every organization. In the surgical settings, teamwork is basic to provide good quality of care. Safety leaders in every team have an important role in establishing priorities, summarizing proposals, coordinating efforts, launching new initiatives and transmitting that safety efforts are worth taken. Preparedness and anticipation are key points for avoiding most of the diverse types of patient harm that can occur. As has been published, a great number of errors can be avoided simply using crosscheck based on specialized checklist that reviews every important detail of the procedure. This strategy has been demonstrated very useful at other high risk industries such as aviation, nuclear or food management. The Safe Surgery Saves Lives program launched in 2002 by the WHO has taught us that improvement is possible using a simple checklist. More complex and detail checklist can be more adequate for more complex procedures and settings. The proposed ESTS checklist reviews different areas of possible error in deeper detail allowing the finest adjustment of the patient before the skin incision. It has been recently released to the general thoracic community and monitors its use and usefulness has to be warrantied. PMID:25984360

  3. Bilateral Thoracic Ganglion Cyst : A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kazanci, Burak; Tehli, Ozkan; Guclu, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Ganglion cysts usually arise from the tissues around the facet joints. It is usually associated with degenerative cahanges in facet joints. Bilateral thoracic ganglion cysts are very rare and there is no previous case that located in bilateral intervertebral foramen compressing the L1 nerve root associated with severe radiculopathy. We report a 53 years old woman who presented with bilateral groin pain and severe numbness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral cystic mass in the intervertebral foramen between 12th thoracal and 1st lumbar vertebrae. The cystic lesions were removed after bilateral exposure of Th12-L1 foramens. The result of hystopathology confirmed the diagnosis as ganglion cyst. The ganglion cyst may compromise lumbar dorsal ganglion when it located in the intervertebral foramen. The surgeon should keep this rare entity in their mind for differential diagnosis. PMID:23908708

  4. Photodynamic Therapy in Non-Gastrointestinal Thoracic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kidane, Biniam; Hirpara, Dhruvin; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has a role in the management of early and late thoracic malignancies. It can be used to facilitate minimally-invasive treatment of early endobronchial tumours and also to palliate obstructive and bleeding effects of advanced endobronchial tumours. Photodynamic therapy has been used as a means of downsizing tumours to allow for resection, as well as reducing the extent of resection necessary. It has also been used successfully for minimally-invasive management of local recurrences, which is especially valuable for patients who are not eligible for radiation therapy. Photodynamic therapy has also shown promising results in mesothelioma and pleural-based metastatic disease. As new generation photosensitizers are being developed and tested and methodological issues continue to be addressed, the role of photodynamic therapy in thoracic malignancies continues to evolve. PMID:26805818

  5. Late presentation of jejunal perforation after thoracic trauma.

    PubMed

    Kouritas, Vasileios K; Matheos, Efthimiou; Baloyiannis, Ioannis; Spyridakis, Michalis; Desimonas, Nikolaos; Hatzitheofilou, Kostas

    2009-11-01

    Jejunal perforation is extremely rare in trauma especially without initial involvement of the abdomen. We present the case of a delayed jejunal perforation after thoracic trauma with no initial indication of abdominal trauma in a 55-year-old man who was admitted to our department after a road traffic accident. The patient sustained thoracic trauma with rib fractures of the left hemithorax and hemopneumothorax and a mild head injury. On the fourth day of his in-hospital stay, he complained of severe abdominal pain and signs of acute abdomen were observed. He underwent emergency laparotomy where a perforation of the jejunum near the ligament of Treitz was noticed and sutured. His postoperative recovery was uneventful. Physicians treating trauma should always have a high degree of suspicion regarding rare abdominal injuries, with delayed presentation, even if no abdominal involvement is noticed during the initial survey. PMID:19931795

  6. Rosai-Dorfman Disease Isolated to the Thoracic Epidural Spine.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Benjamin; Talbott, Jason; Uzelac, Alina; Rehani, Bhavya

    2015-11-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare benign histiocytic disease that infrequently presents in the spine. We report a case of Rosai-Dorfman disease isolated to the epidural thoracic spine in a 26-year-old male. To our knowledge, this is the 15th reported case of isolated spinal disease and only the fourth case of isolated thoracic epidural disease. Given its rarity as well as non-specific symptoms and imaging findings, Rosai-Dorfman disease is often not considered and misdiagnosed on imaging studies. To help improve awareness of Rosai-Dorfman spinal disease, we review the literature and discuss the epidemiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment considerations for this condition. PMID:27252790

  7. Canine lateral thoracic fasciocutaneous flap: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Cao Minh; Hoàng, Văn Lu'o'ng; Pham, Thi Ngoc; Hoàng, Manh An

    2009-10-01

    For the purpose of reconstructive surgery training and research, we have developed a new skin flap model: canine lateral thoracic fasciocutaneous flap. Anatomical study found that the lateral thoracic arteries in dogs have similar anatomical characteristics to human's ones. Based on these vessels, if a skin flap was designed within the vessels territory (size 5 x 8 cm) it could survive completely, whereas, if designed beyond the vessels territory (size 5 x 14 cm) would result in partial necrosis of the flap. This fasciocutaneous flap model closely simulates the human surgery and could be valuable for training and research. Furthermore, this flap could be applied in the veterinary practice for reconstruction of canine forelimbs and cervical area. PMID:19638323

  8. [Prevention and treatment of intraoperative complications of thoracic surgery].

    PubMed

    Lampl, L

    2015-05-01

    In order to achieve a minimal complication rate there is a need for a comprehensive strategy. This means in the first line preventive steps which include patient positioning, suitable approaches and access, an appropriately qualified surgical team as well as a carefully planned dissection and preparation. Furthermore, a supply of additional instrumentation, such as thrombectomy catheters, special vascular clamps and even extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and a heart-lung machine (HLM) in cases of centrally located lesions should be on stand-by. Control instruments, such as a bronchoscope and esophagoscope should not be forgotten. In selected cases a preoperative embolization (vascular malformation) or cream swallow (thoracic duct injury) can be helpful. Special interventions to overcome complications arising are described for the chest wall, lung parenchyma, pulmonary vessels, great vessels, bronchial arteries, trachea and bronchi, esophagus, thoracic duct, heart, vertebral column and sternum corresponding to the topography. PMID:25691227

  9. Single-Port Thoracic Surgery: A New Direction

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Calvin S. H.

    2014-01-01

    Single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has slowly established itself as an alternate surgical approach for the treatment of an increasingly wide range of thoracic conditions. The potential benefits of fewer surgical incisions, better cosmesis, and less postoperative pain and paraesthesia have led to the technique’s popularity worldwide. The limited single small incision through which the surgeon has to operate poses challenges that are slowly being addressed by improvements in instrument design. Of note, instruments and video-camera systems that are narrower and angulated have made single-port VATS major lung resection easier to perform and learn. In the future, we may see the development of subcostal or embryonic natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery access, evolution in anaesthesia strategies, and cross-discipline imaging-assisted lesion localization for single-port VATS procedures. PMID:25207240

  10. Anesthetic management for thoracic surgery in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, E; Narváez, D; Fernandez-Lopez, A; Garcia-Aparicio, L

    2016-01-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a chromosomopathy associated to molecular mutations or microdeletions of chromosome 16. It has an incidence of 1:125,000-700,000 live births. RTS patients present craniofacial and thoracic anomalies that lead to a probable difficult-to-manage airway and ventilation. They also present mental retardation and comorbidity, such as congenital cardiac defects, pulmonary structural anomalies and recurrent respiratory infections, which increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia. Cardiac arrhythmias have been reported after the use of certain drugs such as succinylcholine and atropine, in a higher incidence than in general population. There is an increased risk of postoperative apnea-hypopnea in these patients. We report the anesthetic management in a RTS patient undergoing emergent thoracic surgery due to oesophageal perforation and mediastinitis. Lung isolation was achieved with a bronchial blocker guided with a fiberoptic bronchoscope and one-lung ventilation was performed successfully. PMID:27062171

  11. Rosai-Dorfman Disease Isolated to the Thoracic Epidural Spine

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Benjamin; Talbott, Jason; Uzelac, Alina; Rehani, Bhavya

    2015-01-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare benign histiocytic disease that infrequently presents in the spine. We report a case of Rosai-Dorfman disease isolated to the epidural thoracic spine in a 26-year-old male. To our knowledge, this is the 15th reported case of isolated spinal disease and only the fourth case of isolated thoracic epidural disease. Given its rarity as well as non-specific symptoms and imaging findings, Rosai-Dorfman disease is often not considered and misdiagnosed on imaging studies. To help improve awareness of Rosai-Dorfman spinal disease, we review the literature and discuss the epidemiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment considerations for this condition. PMID:27252790

  12. Thoracic Endometriosis Syndrome: A Veritable Pandora’s Box

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Jayashree

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic endometriosis syndrome is a rare disorder characterised by the presence of functioning endometrial tissue in pleura, lung parenchyma, airways, and/or encompasses mainly four clinical entities–catamenial pneumothorax, catamenial haemothorax, catamenial haemoptysis and lung nodules. The cases were studied retrospectively by reviewing the records at Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, for duration of five years i.e., form March 2010-2014 and analysed for the clinical presentation and management of thoracic endometriosis syndrome. Catamenial breathlessness was the main symptom. Pneumothorax and pleural effusion were the findings on investigations. Histopathology report of endometriosis was present in three cases (50%). Conditions with excess oestrogen like endometriosis, fibroid, adenomyosis were diagnosed in these patients by pelvic scan. After the initial supportive treatment with hormones, pleurodesis, hysterectomy and lung decortication were the treatment modalities. Two cases that had multiple recurrences were diagnosed as disseminated TES. They underwent combined treatment of surgery and hormones. PMID:27190904

  13. Descending thoracic aorta remodeling after multilayer stent release.

    PubMed

    Bozzani, Antonio; Arici, Vittorio; Bonalumi, Giovanni; Argenteri, Angelo

    2015-07-01

    The multilayer flow modulator (MFM) is a device whose real effectiveness in the treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms is not clear yet. A 68-year-old man with a 18-mm blister-like aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta underwent endovascular exclusion, complicated by the thrombosis of a previous aortobi-iliac prosthesis, treated with embolectomy and femorofemoral bypass. Therefore, an MFM placement was planned. The postoperative course was uneventful and the 6-month computed tomography scan showed a complete thrombosis and remodeling of the aneurysm. The MFM stent could be an alternative treatment for saccular thoracic aortic aneurysm in high-risk patients but should not be used indiscriminately when other modalities of aortic repair are not feasible. Longer follow-up is mandatory to prove the efficacy of this technology. PMID:25765638

  14. Photodynamic Therapy in Non-Gastrointestinal Thoracic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kidane, Biniam; Hirpara, Dhruvin; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy has a role in the management of early and late thoracic malignancies. It can be used to facilitate minimally-invasive treatment of early endobronchial tumours and also to palliate obstructive and bleeding effects of advanced endobronchial tumours. Photodynamic therapy has been used as a means of downsizing tumours to allow for resection, as well as reducing the extent of resection necessary. It has also been used successfully for minimally-invasive management of local recurrences, which is especially valuable for patients who are not eligible for radiation therapy. Photodynamic therapy has also shown promising results in mesothelioma and pleural-based metastatic disease. As new generation photosensitizers are being developed and tested and methodological issues continue to be addressed, the role of photodynamic therapy in thoracic malignancies continues to evolve. PMID:26805818

  15. [A Dumbbell-Type Thoracic Spinal Lipoma: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Takamiya, Soichiro; Hida, Kazutoshi; Yano, Shunsuke; Sasamori, Toru; Seki, Toshitaka; Saito, Hisatoshi

    2016-06-01

    Spinal lipomas are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all spinal tumors. Most are associated with spinal dysraphism. Spinal lipomas without spinal dysraphism are uncommon;they are typically subpial tumors. Some tumors are located both inside and outside the dura mater (so-called "dumbbell-type"). Herein, we report a patient with a dumbbell-type thoracic spinal lipoma. A man in his 50's complained of progressive gait disturbance, dysesthesia in his left leg, and hyperesthesia in his right leg. His symptoms were worsened by exercise. CT and MRI revealed a thoracic spinal lipoma extending from the spinal cord to the intervertebral foramen at the Th 6-8 level. He underwent partial tumor removal and untethering. Postoperatively he reported gradual symptom abatement. Dumbbell-type spinal lipomas are very rare. Besides partial removal of the tumor, untethering should be considered when symptoms are associated with tethering of the spinal cord. PMID:27270148

  16. Primary Intradural Extramedullary Spinal Melanoma in the Lower Thoracic Spine

    PubMed Central

    Hering, Kathrin; Bresch, Anke; Lobsien, Donald; Mueller, Wolf; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Seidel, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Background Context. Up to date, only four cases of primary intradural extramedullary spinal cord melanoma (PIEM) have been reported. No previous reports have described a case of PIEM located in the lower thoracic spine with long-term follow-up. Purpose. Demonstrating an unusual, extremely rare case of melanoma manifestation. Study Design. Case report. Methods. We report a case of a 57-year-old female suffering from increasing lower extremity pain, left-sided paresis, and paraesthesia due to spinal cord compression caused by PIEM in the lower thoracic spine. Results. Extensive investigation excluded other possible primary melanoma sites and metastases. For spinal cord decompression, the tumor at level T12 was resected, yet incompletely. Adjuvant radiotherapy was administered two weeks after surgery. The patient was recurrence-free at 104 weeks after radiotherapy but presents with unchanged neurological symptoms. Conclusion. Primary intradural extramedullary melanoma (PIEM) is extremely rare and its clinical course is unpredictable. PMID:27127667

  17. The history of surgery of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Cooley, D A

    1999-11-01

    Until the late 19th century, treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms relied on ligation of the parent vessel or introduction of foreign materials to promote coagulation or fibrosis. A major breakthrough occurred in 1888, when Rudolph Matas reported an internal repair technique known as endoaneurysmorrhaphy. In this approach, the clot was excised from the aneurysmal sac, and the orifices of the arteries that entered the sac were sutured from within, reestablishing continuous blood flow. At the beginning of the 20th century, Alexis Carrel and Charles Guthrie began to lay the foundation for modern vascular anastomotic techniques. Although isolated successes were reported, optimal treatment of thoracic aortic disease awaited the development of reliable synthetic grafts in the 1950s and 1960s. During the past 15 years, the treatment goal has reverted to endoaneurysmorrhaphy, involving the use of a suitable graft to restore aortic continuity. PMID:10589335

  18. Study of pipe thickness loss using a neutron radiography method

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Wahab, Aliff Amiru Bin; Yazid, Hafizal B.; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid B. Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi B.; Azman, Azraf B.; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Md; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2014-02-12

    The purpose of this preliminary work is to study for thickness changes in objects using neutron radiography. In doing the project, the technique for the radiography was studied. The experiment was done at NUR-2 facility at TRIGA research reactor in Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Malaysia. Test samples of varying materials were used in this project. The samples were radiographed using direct technique. Radiographic images were recorded using Nitrocellulose film. The films obtained were digitized to processed and analyzed. Digital processing is done on the images using software Isee!. The images were processed to produce better image for analysis. The thickness changes in the image were measured to be compared with real thickness of the objects. From the data collected, percentages difference between measured and real thickness are below than 2%. This is considerably very low variation from original values. Therefore, verifying the neutron radiography technique used in this project.

  19. Magnifying lens for 800 MeV proton radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, F. E.; Campos, E.; Espinoza, C.; Hogan, G.; Hollander, B.; Lopez, J.; Mariam, F. G.; Morley, D.; Morris, C. L.; Murray, M.; Saunders, A.; Schwartz, C.; Thompson, T. N.

    2011-10-15

    This article describes the design and performance of a magnifying magnetic-lens system designed, built, and commissioned at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for 800 MeV flash proton radiography. The technique of flash proton radiography has been developed at LANL to study material properties under dynamic loading conditions through the analysis of time sequences of proton radiographs. The requirements of this growing experimental program have resulted in the need for improvements in spatial radiographic resolution. To meet these needs, a new magnetic lens system, consisting of four permanent magnet quadrupoles, has been developed. This new lens system was designed to reduce the second order chromatic aberrations, the dominant source of image blur in 800 MeV proton radiography, as well as magnifying the image to reduce the blur contribution from the detector and camera systems. The recently commissioned lens system performed as designed, providing nearly a factor of three improvement in radiographic resolution.

  20. Application of Neutron Radiography to Flow Visualization in Supercritical Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, N.; Sugimoto, K.; Takami, S.; Sugioka, K.; Tsukada, T.; Adschiri, T.; Saito, Y.

    Supercritical water is used in various chemical reaction processes including hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide nano-particles, oxidation, chemical conversion of biomass and plastics. Density of the super critical water is much less than that of the sub-critical water. By using neutron radiography, Peterson et al. have studied salt precipitation processes in supercritical water and the flow pattern in a reverse-flow vessel for salt precipitation, and Balasko et al. have revealed the behaviour of supercritical water in a container. The nano-particles were made by mixing the super critical flow and the sub critical water solution. In the present study, neutron radiography was applied to the flow visualization of the super and sub critical water mixture in a T-junction made of stainless steel pipes for high pressure and temperature conditions to investigate their mixing process. Still images by a CCD camera were obtained by using the neutron radiography system at B4 port in KUR.

  1. Digital radiography for the field: a portable prototype.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kenneth H; Freckleton, Michael W

    2002-01-01

    The US military has been investigating methods for improving radiographic support for field medical operations. The purpose of this project was to develop and test a portable digital radiography (DR) system to determine its feasibility for field operations. A prototype portable digital radiography device was designed and assembled using a commercially available DR sensor. The sensor and necessary hardware were mounted into a ruggedized aluminum case. The device underwent testing in the hospital and field environments. The prototype rapidly provided digital radiographs in a variety of settings. Shortcomings of the device affecting usability and reliable operation were identified. The successful construction and operation of a portable digital radiography prototype shows that such a device is feasible for field applications. The prototype requires further modification and testing to improve its usability and reliability, and to explore other potential applications, both military and civilian. PMID:12105726

  2. NEUTRON RADIOGRAPHY (NRAD) REACTOR 64-ELEMENT CORE UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Bess

    2014-03-01

    The neutron radiography (NRAD) reactor is a 250 kW TRIGA (registered) (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) Mark II , tank-type research reactor currently located in the basement, below the main hot cell, of the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). It is equipped with two beam tubes with separate radiography stations for the performance of neutron radiography irradiation on small test components. The interim critical configuration developed during the core upgrade, which contains only 62 fuel elements, has been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. The final 64-fuel-element operational core configuration of the NRAD LEU TRIGA reactor has also been evaluated as an acceptable benchmark experiment. Calculated eigenvalues differ significantly (approximately +/-1%) from the benchmark eigenvalue and have demonstrated sensitivity to the thermal scattering treatment of hydrogen in the U-Er-Zr-H fuel.

  3. Studies of solid propellant combustion with pulsed radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godai, T.; Tanemura, T.; Fujiwara, T.; Shimizu, M.

    1987-01-01

    Pulsed radiography was applied to observe solid propellant surface regression during rocket motor operation. Using a 150 KV flash X-ray system manufactured by the Field Emission Corporation and two kinds of film suppliers, images of the propellant surface of a 5 cm diameter end burning rocket motor were recorded on film. The repetition frame rate of 8 pulses per second and the pulse train length of 10 pulses are limited by the capability of the power supply and the heat build up within the X-ray tube, respectively. The experiment demonstrated the effectiveness of pulsed radiography for observing solid propellant surface regression. Measuring the position of burning surface images on film with a microdensitometer, quasi-instantaneous burning rate as a function of pressure and the variation of characteristic velocity with pressure and gas stay time were obtained. Other research items to which pulsed radiography can be applied are also suggested.

  4. Study of pipe thickness loss using a neutron radiography method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Wahab, Aliff Amiru Bin; Yazid, Hafizal B.; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid B. Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi B.; Azman, Azraf B.; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Md; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this preliminary work is to study for thickness changes in objects using neutron radiography. In doing the project, the technique for the radiography was studied. The experiment was done at NUR-2 facility at TRIGA research reactor in Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Malaysia. Test samples of varying materials were used in this project. The samples were radiographed using direct technique. Radiographic images were recorded using Nitrocellulose film. The films obtained were digitized to processed and analyzed. Digital processing is done on the images using software Isee!. The images were processed to produce better image for analysis. The thickness changes in the image were measured to be compared with real thickness of the objects. From the data collected, percentages difference between measured and real thickness are below than 2%. This is considerably very low variation from original values. Therefore, verifying the neutron radiography technique used in this project.

  5. Occupational exposure in Greek industrial radiography laboratories (1996-2003).

    PubMed

    Economides, S; Tritakis, P; Papadomarkaki, E; Carinou, E; Hourdakis, C; Kamenopoulou, V; Dimitriou, P

    2006-01-01

    More than 40 industrial radiography laboratories are operating in Greece using X-ray or gamma-ray sources and more than 250 workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation in these facilities are monitored on a regular basis. This study presents the evolution of individual doses received by radiographers during the past years. The mean annual dose (MAD) of all workers as well as of exposed workers is estimated, and correlated to the types of laboratories and practices applied. The MAD of the exposed workers in industrial radiography is compared with the doses of workers in other specialties and with the doses of radiographers in other countries. Furthermore, the study attempts to propose dose constraints for the practices in industrial radiography, according to the BSS European directive and the relevant Greek radiation protection legislation. The proposed value was defined as the dose below which the annual doses of 75% of the exposed radiographers are expected to be included. PMID:16143723

  6. Deterministic simulation of thermal neutron radiography and tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal Chowdhury, Rajarshi; Liu, Xin

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, thermal neutron radiography and tomography have gained much attention as one of the nondestructive testing methods. However, the application of thermal neutron radiography and tomography is hindered by their technical complexity, radiation shielding, and time-consuming data collection processes. Monte Carlo simulations have been developed in the past to improve the neutron imaging facility's ability. In this paper, a new deterministic simulation approach has been proposed and demonstrated to simulate neutron radiographs numerically using a ray tracing algorithm. This approach has made the simulation of neutron radiographs much faster than by previously used stochastic methods (i.e., Monte Carlo methods). The major problem with neutron radiography and tomography simulation is finding a suitable scatter model. In this paper, an analytic scatter model has been proposed that is validated by a Monte Carlo simulation.

  7. Improved track-etch neutron radiography using CR-39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M. A. Stanojev; Marques, J. G.; Pugliesi, R.; Santos, J. P.

    2014-11-01

    Currently most state-of-the-art setups for neutron radiography use scintillator screens and CCD cameras for imaging. However, in some situations it is not possible to use a CCD and alternatives must be considered. One such alternative is the well-established technique of track-etch neutron radiography, which has as main disadvantages requiring a long time for image recording and generating images with a relatively low contrast. In this work we address these negative issues and report significant improvements to recording and digitizing images using an improved setup consisting of an enriched 10B converter, a CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector and a flatbed scanner. The improved setup enables a significant reduction of the fluence required to obtain a neutron radiography image using this technique. Comparisons are made with imaging using two CCD models in the same beam line, so that the results can be extrapolated for other facilities.

  8. Proton Radiography as an electromagnetic field and density perturbation diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Mackinnon, A; Patel, P; Town, R; Edwards, M; Phillips, T; Lerner, S; Price, D; Hicks, D; Key, M; Hatchett, S; Wilks, S; King, J; Snavely, R; Freeman, R; Boehlly, T; Koenig, M; Martinolli, E; Lepape, S; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Audebert, P; Gauthier, J; Borghesi, M; Romagnani, L; Toncian, T; Pretzler, G; Willi, O

    2004-04-15

    Laser driven proton beams have been used to diagnose transient fields and density perturbations in laser produced plasmas. Grid deflectometry techniques have been applied to proton radiography to obtain precise measurements of proton beam angles caused by electromagnetic fields in laser produced plasmas. Application of proton radiography to laser driven implosions has demonstrated that density conditions in compressed media can be diagnosed with MeV protons. This data has shown that proton radiography can provide unique insight into transient electromagnetic fields in super critical density plasmas and provide a density perturbation diagnostics in compressed matter . PACS numbers: 52.50.Jm, 52.40.Nk, 52.40.Mj, 52.70.Kz

  9. Scattering corrections in neutron radiography using point scattered functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kardjilov, N.; de Beer, F.; Hassanein, R.; Lehmann, E.; Vontobel, P.

    2005-04-01

    Scattered neutrons cause distortions and blurring in neutron radiography pictures taken at small distances between the investigated object and the detector. This defines one of the most significant problems in quantitative neutron radiography. The quantification of strong scattering materials such as hydrogenous materials—water, oil, plastic, etc.—with a high precision is very difficult due to the scattering effect in the radiography images. The scattering contribution in liquid test samples (H 2O, D 2O and a special type oil ISOPAR L) at different distances between the samples and the detector, the so-called Point Scattered Function (PScF), was calculated with the help of MCNP-4C Monte Carlo code. Corrections of real experimental data were performed using the calculated PScF. Some of the results as well as the correction algorithm will be presented.

  10. Image segmentation and registration algorithm to collect thoracic skeleton semilandmarks for characterization of age and sex-based thoracic morphology variation.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Ashley A; Nguyen, Callistus M; Schoell, Samantha L; Maldjian, Joseph A; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-12-01

    Thoracic anthropometry variations with age and sex have been reported and likely relate to thoracic injury risk and outcome. The objective of this study was to collect a large volume of homologous semilandmark data from the thoracic skeleton for the purpose of quantifying thoracic morphology variations for males and females of ages 0-100 years. A semi-automated image segmentation and registration algorithm was applied to collect homologous thoracic skeleton semilandmarks from 343 normal computed tomography (CT) scans. Rigid, affine, and symmetric diffeomorphic transformations were used to register semilandmarks from an atlas to homologous locations in the subject-specific coordinate system. Homologous semilandmarks were successfully collected from 92% (7077) of the ribs and 100% (187) of the sternums included in the study. Between 2700 and 11,000 semilandmarks were collected from each rib and sternum and over 55 million total semilandmarks were collected from all subjects. The extensive landmark data collected more fully characterizes thoracic skeleton morphology across ages and sexes. Characterization of thoracic morphology with age and sex may help explain variations in thoracic injury risk and has important implications for vulnerable populations such as pediatrics and the elderly. PMID:26496701

  11. Thoracic surgical training in Europe: what has changed recently?

    PubMed Central

    Lerut, Antoon E. M. R.

    2016-01-01

    Training in thoracic surgery (TS) traditionally varies amongst countries in Europe. The theoretical content of the training, the length of training, the amount of self-performed procedures to be done and the definition of training units all differ in European countries. However, in the past two decades, several initiatives were taken to harmonize TS training in Europe. The purpose of this paper is to highlight these initiatives and their impact on today’s TS training in Europe. PMID:27047948

  12. Current costs of video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Lacin, Tunc; Swanson, Scott

    2013-08-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy has many benefits over open surgery such as smaller incisions, less pain, less blood loss, faster postoperative recovery, shortened hospital stay, similar or superior survival rates. In contrast video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has higher equipment costs, increased operating room times, at least initially, and a learning curve for the team. However when an experienced surgeon performs the surgery, significant hospital savings combined with better outcomes are achieved by video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy. PMID:24040522

  13. The wide spectrum of the asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Cortina, H; Beltran, J; Olague, R; Ceres, L; Alonso, A; Lanuza, A

    1979-04-19

    Seven cases of A. T. D. are presented. Radiological findings were extraordinarily diverse. The prognosis of the disease is difficult for each individual case, because of the frequent pulmonary complications and cystic renal lesions are not always directly related to the severity of the bone changes. The authors believe that the term "thoracic-pelvic-phalangeal dysplasia" proposed by Langer, is the most adequate, since it points to the key factors in the diagnosis of the disease. PMID:450492

  14. Thoracic neoplasms: imaging requirements for diagnosis and staging

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J.D. II; Bragg, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    This article reviews the pathophysiology of thoracic neoplams and discusses current imaging recommendations for diagnosis and staging of these tumors. Particular emphasis is given to primary lung cancers, which comprise a variety of tumors of differing histologic type and behavior. The development of cost-effective diagnostic/staging sequences with continually changing imaging technology continues to be a challenging goal. The authors' recommendations are based on the TNM system and data from the current literature employing the experience from their institution.

  15. Neurological Complications Following Endoluminal Repair of Thoracic Aortic Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, J. P.; Taylor, P. R.; Bell, R. E.; Chan, Y. C.; Sabharwal, T.; Carrell, T. W. G.; Reidy, J. F.

    2007-09-15

    Open surgery for thoracic aortic disease is associated with significant morbidity and the reported rates for paraplegia and stroke are 3%-19% and 6%-11%, respectively. Spinal cord ischemia and stroke have also been reported following endoluminal repair. This study reviews the incidence of paraplegia and stroke in a series of 186 patients treated with thoracic stent grafts. From July 1997 to September 2006, 186 patients (125 men) underwent endoluminal repair of thoracic aortic pathology. Mean age was 71 years (range, 17-90 years). One hundred twenty-eight patients were treated electively and 58 patients had urgent procedures. Anesthesia was epidural in 131, general in 50, and local in 5 patients. Seven patients developed paraplegia (3.8%; two urgent and five elective). All occurred in-hospital apart from one associated with severe hypotension after a myocardial infarction at 3 weeks. Four of these recovered with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. One patient with paraplegia died and two had permanent neurological deficit. The rate of permanent paraplegia and death was 1.6%. There were seven strokes (3.8%; four urgent and three elective). Three patients made a complete recovery, one had permanent expressive dysphasia, and three died. The rate of permanent stroke and death was 2.1%. Endoluminal treatment of thoracic aortic disease is an attractive alternative to open surgery; however, there is still a risk of paraplegia and stroke. Permanent neurological deficits and death occurred in 3.7% of the patients in this series. We conclude that prompt recognition of paraplegia and immediate insertion of a CSF drain can be an effective way of recovering spinal cord function and improving the prognosis.

  16. Calibration of high flow rate thoracic-size selective samplers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Taekhee; Thorpe, Andrew; Cauda, Emanuele; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    High flow rate respirable size selective samplers, GK4.126 and FSP10 cyclones, were calibrated for thoracic-size selective sampling in two different laboratories. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) utilized monodisperse ammonium fluorescein particles and scanning electron microscopy to determine the aerodynamic particle size of the monodisperse aerosol. Fluorescein intensity was measured to determine sampling efficiencies of the cyclones. The Health Safety and Laboratory (HSL) utilized a real time particle sizing instrument (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer) and polydisperse glass sphere particles and particle size distributions between the cyclone and reference sampler were compared. Sampling efficiency of the cyclones were compared to the thoracic convention defined by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)/Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN)/International Standards Organization (ISO). The GK4.126 cyclone showed minimum bias compared to the thoracic convention at flow rates of 3.5 l min(-1) (NIOSH) and 2.7-3.3 l min(-1) (HSL) and the difference may be from the use of different test systems. In order to collect the most dust and reduce the limit of detection, HSL suggested using the upper end in range (3.3 l min(-1)). A flow rate of 3.4 l min(-1) would be a reasonable compromise, pending confirmation in other laboratories. The FSP10 cyclone showed minimum bias at the flow rate of 4.0 l min(-1) in the NIOSH laboratory test. The high flow rate thoracic-size selective samplers might be used for higher sample mass collection in order to meet analytical limits of quantification. PMID:26891196

  17. Mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta caused by Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Rose, H D; Stuart, J L

    1976-07-01

    A 54-year-old diabetic patient had unexplained fever and embolic occlusion of the splenic, right renal, right hypogastric, right superficial femoral, and left popliteal arteries. Aspergillus fumigatus was recovered from a femoral clot. An aortogram revealed a mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta to be the source of the infected emboli. Surgical excision of the aneurysm and therapy with amphotericin B were unsuccessful. PMID:776547

  18. Calibration of high flow rate thoracic-size selective samplers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taekhee; Thorpe, Andrew; Cauda, Emanuele; Harper, Martin

    2016-01-01

    High flow rate respirable size selective samplers, GK4.126 and FSP10 cyclones, were calibrated for thoracic-size selective sampling in two different laboratories. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) utilized monodisperse ammonium fluorescein particles and scanning electron microscopy to determine the aerodynamic particle size of the monodisperse aerosol. Fluorescein intensity was measured to determine sampling efficiencies of the cyclones. The Health Safety and Laboratory (HSL) utilized a real time particle sizing instrument (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer) and poly-disperse glass sphere particles and particle size distributions between the cyclone and reference sampler were compared. Sampling efficiency of the cyclones were compared to the thoracic convention defined by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)/Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN)/International Standards Organization (ISO). The GK4.126 cyclone showed minimum bias compared to the thoracic convention at flow rates of 3.5 l min−1 (NIOSH) and 2.7–3.3 l min−1 (HSL) and the difference may be from the use of different test systems. In order to collect the most dust and reduce the limit of detection, HSL suggested using the upper end in range (3.3 l min−1). A flow rate of 3.4 l min−1 would be a reasonable compromise, pending confirmation in other laboratories. The FSP10 cyclone showed minimum bias at the flow rate of 4.0 l min−1 in the NIOSH laboratory test. The high flow rate thoracic-size selective samplers might be used for higher sample mass collection in order to meet analytical limits of quantification. PMID:26891196

  19. [Digital subtraction radiography for the detection of periodontal bone changes].

    PubMed

    Mera, T

    1989-03-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of digital subtraction radiography in detecting alveolar bone changes. In order to test the sensitivity of quantitative evaluation by subtraction radiography, a copper equivalent thickness obtained from digitized radiographs was compared with the actual mineral content of bone phantoms with 15 different minerals and 25 bone specimens. Results demonstrated that the copper equivalent thickness correlated well with the actual mineral content (bone phantoms: gamma s = 1.0, bone specimens: gamma s = 0.985). In order to test the ability of digitized subtraction radiography in assessing alveolar bone changes in vivo, subtraction images were compared with histological features. The experimental angular bony defects were treated with conservative periodontal therapy in 3 monkeys. The standardized radiographs were taken longitudinally after therapy, and subtraction images were made from the sequentially obtained radiographs. In addition, for fluorescent histomorphometrical evaluations of new bone formations, the animals were dosed with oxytetracycline, calsein solution and arizarin complex solution. Radiographic and histological evaluations were scheduled to provide healing periods of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 9 weeks after periodontal therapy. Subtraction radiography offered an objective method to follow histological changes of alveolar bone, and the copper equivalent thickness obtained from subtraction radiographs correlated with the histometric bone volume (gamma s = 0.9023, p less than 0.01). The results of these studies indicated that subtraction radiography was useful in monitoring alveolar bone changes associated with periodontal disease and treatment and that the quanitative measurement of periodontal bone changes by subtraction radiography was feasible. PMID:2517790

  20. NEW INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENT METHODS: Medical ion radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafranova, M. G.; Shafranov, M. D.

    1980-06-01

    The aim of this review is to acquaint the reader with the principles and methods of ion radiography—a method of studying the inner structure of an object by using heavy charged particles. Along with the refinement of the traditional x-ray method of diagnostics and the development of a number of new methods, such as positron tomography and nuclear magnetic resonance, and in spite of the great advances attained in x-radiography in recent years, a persistent search continues for new, refined methods. First of all, efforts are directed toward seeking effective methods of early diagnosis of tumor lesions with less danger than in x-radiography. Studies have been conducted in a number of countries in the past decade on the possibility of applying heavy charged particles of relatively high energies for these purposes. Ion radiography enables one to obtain a higher contrast image than x-radiography at lower doses of irradiation, and to differentiate soft tissues and to detect in them anomalies of small dimensions. It opens up the possibility of obtaining new diagnostic information. Theoretical studies in the field of ion radiography and experiments on animals, on human tissues, and in a number of cases, on patients, have shown the promise offered by using ions for diagnosing not only tumors, but also a number of other serious lesions. This new field of study has incorporated the experience of particle and nuclear physics and widely employs its variety of investigational methods. This article also treats problems involving the application of accelerators for ion radiography and specifications for the beam parameters and for the particle detectors. This review gives an account of the advances in this new field of studies and the prospects for its development and the difficulties on the pathway of introducing it into practice.

  1. Cardiovascular effects of thoracic compression in horses subjected to euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, J A; Muir, W W; Gaynor, J S

    1993-07-01

    Six horses scheduled for euthanasia were instrumented for the measurement of blood flow by thermodilution, pulmonary arterial, right atrial and arterial blood pressures and collection of arterial blood for pH and blood gas analysis. The horses were anaesthetised with intravenous (iv) thiamylal sodium (10 mg/kg) and placed in right lateral recumbency. After euthanasia with an overdose of pentobarbitone sodium (100 mg/kg, iv) and loss of the electrocardiogram and arterial pulse pressure, thoracic compression at rates of 40, 60 and 80 compressions/min was instituted. Thoracic compression was accomplished by an investigator who delivered a blow to the chest wall with his knee while dropping from a standing or crouching position. Compression rates of 40, 60 and 80/min produced blood flows of 5.65 +/- 0.5, 6.33 +/- 1.11 and 8.28 +/- 2.16 litres/min, respectively. Compression rates of 80/min produced significantly (P < 0.05) greater blood flows and mean arterial blood pressures than did slower rates. The blood flows produced by 80 thoracic compressions/min were approximately 50% of those reported for deeply anaesthetised horses and while not sufficient to sustain life might be used to prolong life in order to facilitate distribution of resuscitative drugs to vital tissues. PMID:8354212

  2. Pulmonary Complications following Thoracic Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gabel, Brandon C.; Schnell, Eric C.; Dettori, Joseph R.; Jeyamohan, Shiveindra; Oskouian, Rod

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Objective To determine the frequency of pulmonary effusion, pneumothorax, and hemothorax in adult patients undergoing thoracic corpectomy or osteotomy for any condition and to determine if these frequencies vary by surgical approach (i.e., anterior, posterior, or lateral). Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched through September 21, 2015, to identify studies specifically evaluating the frequency of pulmonary effusion, pneumothorax, and hemothorax in patients undergoing thoracic spine surgery. Results Fourteen studies, 13 retrospective and 1 prospective, met inclusion criteria. The frequency across studies of pulmonary effusion ranged from 0 to 77%; for hemothorax, 0 to 77%; and for pneumothorax, 0 to 50%. There was no clear pattern of pulmonary complications with respect to surgical approach. Conclusions There is insufficient data to determine the risk of pulmonary complications following anterior, posterior, or lateral approaches to the thoracic spine. Methods for assessing pulmonary complications were not well reported, and data is sparse. PMID:27099821

  3. Instantaneous Respiratory Estimation from Thoracic Impedance by Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fu-Tai; Chan, Hsiao-Lung; Wang, Chun-Li; Jian, Hung-Ming; Lin, Sheng-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    Impedance plethysmography provides a way to measure respiratory activity by sensing the change of thoracic impedance caused by inspiration and expiration. This measurement imposes little pressure on the body and uses the human body as the sensor, thereby reducing the need for adjustments as body position changes and making it suitable for long-term or ambulatory monitoring. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) can decompose a signal into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) that disclose nonstationary components as well as stationary components and, similarly, capture respiratory episodes from thoracic impedance. However, upper-body movements usually produce motion artifacts that are not easily removed by digital filtering. Moreover, large motion artifacts disable the EMD to decompose respiratory components. In this paper, motion artifacts are detected and replaced by the data mirrored from the prior and the posterior before EMD processing. A novel intrinsic respiratory reconstruction index that considers both global and local properties of IMFs is proposed to define respiration-related IMFs for respiration reconstruction and instantaneous respiratory estimation. Based on the experiments performing a series of static and dynamic physical activates, our results showed the proposed method had higher cross correlations between respiratory frequencies estimated from thoracic impedance and those from oronasal airflow based on small window size compared to the Fourier transform-based method. PMID:26198231

  4. Effect of Massage on Pain Management for Thoracic Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dion, Liza; Rodgers, Nancy; Cutshall, Susanne M.; Cordes, Mary Ellen; Bauer, Brent; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cha, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Integrative therapies such as massage have gained support as interventions that improve the overall patient experience during hospitalization. Thoracic surgery patients undergo long procedures and commonly have postoperative back, neck, and shoulder pain. Purpose: Given the promising effects of massage therapy for alleviation of pain, we studied the effectiveness and feasibility of massage therapy delivered in the postoperative thoracic surgery setting. Methods: Patients who received massage in the postoperative setting had pain scores evaluated pre and post massage on a rating scale of 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain). Results: In total, 160 patients completed the pilot study and received massage therapy that was individualized. Patients receiving massage therapy had significantly decreased pain scores after massage (p ≤ .001), and patients’ comments were very favorable. Patients and staff were highly satisfied with having massage therapy available, and no major barriers to implementing massage therapy were identified. Conclusions: Massage therapy may be an important additional pain management component of the healing experience for patients after thoracic surgery. PMID:21847428

  5. Depth of the thoracic epidural space in children.

    PubMed

    Masir, F; Driessen, J J; Thies, K C; Wijnen, M H; van Egmond, J

    2006-01-01

    Thoracic epidural anaesthesia in anaesthetized children requires a meticulous technique and may have an increased success rate when the distance between skin and epidural space is known. The objective of this observational study was to measure the skin to epidural distance (SED) during thoracic epidural puncture in 61 children. The epidural puncture was performed using the loss of resistance technique with saline 0.9%. The distance from the needle tip to the point where the needle emerged from the skin was measured. The post-operative analgesia parameters were also measured. Skin to epidural distance correlated significantly with the age and weight of the children. The equation for the relation between SED (cm) and age was 2.15 + (0.01 x months) and for SED vs weight was 1.95 + (0.045 x kg). Despite considerable variability among individuals, the observed correlation of SED with both age and weight shows that this parameter may be helpful to guide thoracic epidural puncture in anaesthetized children. PMID:17067139

  6. Endovascular Repair of Contained Rupture of the Thoracic Aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Robert; Loosemore, Tom; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2002-08-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of stent-grafts for the treatment of acute rupture of the thoracic aorta. Methods: Four patients with acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta were treated by insertion of stent-grafts. The underlying aortic lesions were aneurysm, acute aortic ulcer, acute type B dissection and giant cell aortitis. The procedures were performed under general anesthesia in three patients and local anesthesia in one patient. Results: All stent-grafts were successfully deployed. All patients survived the procedure and are now alive and well at follow-up (mean 6.3 months, range 44 days-16 months). One patient underwent a second stent procedure 10 days after the first procedure because of a proximal endoleak. All hemothoraces have resolved. There were no complications. Conclusion:Treatment of acute contained ruptures of the thoracic aorta by the insertion of stent-grafts is feasible. The technical success rates,complication rates and patient survival compare favorably with emergency surgery.

  7. FOXE3 mutations predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Medina-Martinez, Olga; Guo, Dong-chuan; Gong, Limin; Regalado, Ellen S.; Reynolds, Corey L.; Boileau, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Prakash, Siddharth K.; Kwartler, Callie S.; Zhu, Lawrence Yang; Peters, Andrew M.; Duan, Xue-Yan; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Santos-Cortez, Regie L.; Dong, Xiurong; Leal, Suzanne M.; Majesky, Mark W.; Swindell, Eric C.; Jamrich, Milan; Milewicz, Dianna M.

    2016-01-01

    The ascending thoracic aorta is designed to withstand biomechanical forces from pulsatile blood. Thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections (TAADs) occur as a result of genetically triggered defects in aortic structure and a dysfunctional response to these forces. Here, we describe mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXE3 that predispose mutation-bearing individuals to TAAD. We performed exome sequencing of a large family with multiple members with TAADs and identified a rare variant in FOXE3 with an altered amino acid in the DNA-binding domain (p.Asp153His) that segregated with disease in this family. Additional pathogenic FOXE3 variants were identified in unrelated TAAD families. In mice, Foxe3 deficiency reduced smooth muscle cell (SMC) density and impaired SMC differentiation in the ascending aorta. Foxe3 expression was induced in aortic SMCs after transverse aortic constriction, and Foxe3 deficiency increased SMC apoptosis and ascending aortic rupture with increased aortic pressure. These phenotypes were rescued by inhibiting p53 activity, either by administration of a p53 inhibitor (pifithrin-α), or by crossing Foxe3–/– mice with p53–/– mice. Our data demonstrate that FOXE3 mutations lead to a reduced number of aortic SMCs during development and increased SMC apoptosis in the ascending aorta in response to increased biomechanical forces, thus defining an additional molecular pathway that leads to familial thoracic aortic disease. PMID:26854927

  8. Thoracic percussion yields reversible mechanical changes in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Fernando S; Zin, Walter A

    2008-11-01

    In order to characterize the mechanical effects of thoracic percussion per se in lung parenchyma, we analyzed respiratory impedance parameters by impulse oscillometry (12 healthy subjects) and lung mechanics by the least square method (6 healthy subjects) before (PRE-TP) and after (POS-TP) thoracic percussion, and after a deep-breath-maneuver (POS-DB). Pulmonary resistance was similar among PRE-TP, POS-TP and POS-DB while pulmonary dynamic compliance showed a significant reduction after TP (mean +/- SEM: from 0.15 +/- 0.018 L/cmH(2)O to 0.12 +/- 0.016 L/cmH(2)O; P = 0.001), returning to basal values (mean +/- SEM: 0.15 +/- 0.021; P = 0.004) after DB. Reactance parameters (AX and f (0)) evaluated by oscillometry increased significantly after TP, returning to previous values after DB. Total impedance (Z5) and respiratory system resistance at 5 Hz (R5) did not differ significantly among experimental conditions. Our data strongly suggest that thoracic percussion can promote changes in respiratory mechanics compatible with lung collapse and/or pneumoconstriction, which are, however, reversible by deep inspirations. PMID:18584197

  9. Thoracic epaxial muscles in living archosaurs and ornithopod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Organ, Christopher Lee

    2006-07-01

    Crocodylians possess the same thoracic epaxial muscles as most other saurians, but M. transversospinalis is modified by overlying osteoderms. Compared with crocodylians, the thoracic epaxial muscles of birds are reduced in size, disrupted by the synsacrum, and often modified by intratendinous ossification and the notarium. A phylogenetic perspective is used to determine muscle homologies in living archosaurs (birds and crocodylians), evaluate how the apparent disparity evolved, and reconstruct the thoracic epaxial muscles in ornithopod dinosaurs. The avian modifications of the epaxial musculoskeletal system appear to have coevolved with the synsacrum and notarium. The lattice of ossified tendons in iguanodontoidean dinosaurs (Hadrosauridae and Iguanodontidae) is homologized to M. transversospinalis in crocodylians and M. longus colli dorsalis, pars thoracica in birds. Birds have an arrangement of tendons within M. longus colli dorsalis, pars thoracica identical to that observed in the epaxial ossified tendons of iguanodontoid dinosaurs. Moreover, many birds (such as grebes and turkeys) ossify these tendons, resulting in a two- or three-layered lattice of ossified tendons, a morphology also seen in iguanodontoid dinosaurs. Although the structure of M. transversospinalis appears indistinguishable between birds and iguanodontoid dinosaurs, intratendinous ossification within this epaxial muscle evolved convergently. PMID:16779820

  10. An L-Shaped Incision for an Extensive Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Coronary Artery Bypass Using the Left Internal Thoracic Artery

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Tomonobu; Suenaga, Hiroto; Oshima, Hideki; Araki, Yoshimori; Mutsuga, Masato; Fujimoto, Kazuro; Usui, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    An L-shaped incision combining an upper half mid-sternotomy and a left antero-lateral thoracotomy at the fourth intercostal space has been proposed by several authors for extensive aneurysms involving the aortic arch and the proximal thoracic descending aorta. This approach usually requires the division of the left internal thoracic artery at its mid position, thus making it unusable for coronary artery bypass. We herein report a modified surgical approach for simultaneous extensive arch and proximal thoracic descending aorta replacement and coronary artery bypass using the left internal thoracic artery combining a left antero-lateral thoracotomy at the sixth intercostal space and upper mid-sternotomy. The visualization of the whole diseased aorta down to the level below the hilum of the left lung was good, and the integrity of the left internal thoracic artery graft was preserved by early heparin administration before sternotomy. PMID:26798763

  11. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sjue, Sky K.

    2015-11-04

    The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.

  12. Neutron radiography and tomography facility at IBR-2 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlenko, D. P.; Kichanov, S. E.; Lukin, E. V.; Rutkauskas, A. V.; Belushkin, A. V.; Bokuchava, G. D.; Savenko, B. N.

    2016-05-01

    An experimental station for investigations using neutron radiography and tomography was developed at the upgraded high-flux pulsed IBR-2 reactor. The 20 × 20 cm neutron beam is formed by the system of collimators with the characteristic parameter L/D varying from 200 to 2000. The detector system is based on a 6LiF/ZnS scintillation screen; images are recorded using a high-sensitivity video camera based on the high-resolution CCD matrix. The results of the first neutron radiography and tomography experiments at the developed facility are presented.

  13. Fast Neutron Radiography at an RFQ Accelerator System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, G. C.; Franklyn, C. B.; Dangendorf, V.; Buffler, A.; Bromberger, B.

    This work introduces the Necsa Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator facility and its work concerning fast neutron radiography (FNR). Necsa operates a 4-5 MeV, up to 50 mA deuteron RFQ. The previous deuterium gas target station has been modified to enable producing a white neutron beam employing a solid B4C target. Furthermore, the high energy beam transport (HEBT) section is under adjustment to achieve a longer flight-path and a better focus. This work presents an overview of the facility, the modifications made, and introduces past and ongoing neutron radiography investigations.

  14. Radiation Exposure in the NICU: Computed Radiography versus Digital Detector Radiography.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Medical radiation exposure to pediatric patients has gained national attention in the last few years. New guidelines encourage technologists, managers, radiologists, and equipment manufacturers to tailor imaging to smaller sized patients. With the advent of computed radiography, patient radiation doses have doubled. This literature review addresses how cumulative doses received by highly radiosensitive infants in neonatal intensive care units correspond to similar doses received by infants that later developed radiation induced cancers. While technologist expertise is important for dose management with any receptor technology, converting to digital flat panel detectors can reduce dose to these areas by > 50%, and minimize risks for radiation induced cancers that often do not present until several decades after exposure. PMID:26710555

  15. Measuring microfocal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A; Ewert, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification is especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application; and (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. The following equations are used for the focal spot size measurement: By similar triangles the following equations are presupposed: f/a = U/b and M = (a+b)/a. These equations can be combined to yield the well known expression: U = f(M - 1). Solving for f, f = U/(M-1). Therefore, the focal spot size, f, can be calculated by measuring the radiographic unsharpness and magnification of a known object. This is the basis for these tests. The European standard actually uses one-half of the unsharpness (which are then added together) from both sides of the object to avoid additional unsharpness contributions due to edge transmission unsharpness of the round test object (the outside of the object is measured). So the equation becomes f = (1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2})/(M-1). In practice 1/2 U is measured from the 50% to the 90% signal points on the transition profile from ''black'' to ''white,'' (positive image) or attenuated to unattenuated portion of the image. The 50% to 90% points are chosen as a best fit to an assumed Gaussian radiation distribution from the focal spot and to avoid edge transmission effects. 1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2} corresponds about to the full width at half height of a Gaussian focal spot. A highly absorbing material (Tungsten, Tungsten Alloy, or Platinum) is used for the object. Either wires or a sphere are used as the object to eliminate alignment issues. One

  16. Thoracic and respirable particle definitions for human health risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Particle size-selective sampling refers to the collection of particles of varying sizes that potentially reach and adversely affect specific regions of the respiratory tract. Thoracic and respirable fractions are defined as the fraction of inhaled particles capable of passing beyond the larynx and ciliated airways, respectively, during inhalation. In an attempt to afford greater protection to exposed individuals, current size-selective sampling criteria overestimate the population means of particle penetration into regions of the lower respiratory tract. The purpose of our analyses was to provide estimates of the thoracic and respirable fractions for adults and children during typical activities with both nasal and oral inhalation, that may be used in the design of experimental studies and interpretation of health effects evidence. Methods We estimated the fraction of inhaled particles (0.5-20 μm aerodynamic diameter) penetrating beyond the larynx (based on experimental data) and ciliated airways (based on a mathematical model) for an adult male, adult female, and a 10 yr old child during typical daily activities and breathing patterns. Results Our estimates show less penetration of coarse particulate matter into the thoracic and gas exchange regions of the respiratory tract than current size-selective criteria. Of the parameters we evaluated, particle penetration into the lower respiratory tract was most dependent on route of breathing. For typical activity levels and breathing habits, we estimated a 50% cut-size for the thoracic fraction at an aerodynamic diameter of around 3 μm in adults and 5 μm in children, whereas current ambient and occupational criteria suggest a 50% cut-size of 10 μm. Conclusions By design, current size-selective sample criteria overestimate the mass of particles generally expected to penetrate into the lower respiratory tract to provide protection for individuals who may breathe orally. We provide estimates of thoracic and

  17. Morphology and dimensions of the thoracic cord by computer-assisted metrizamide myelography.

    PubMed

    Gellad, F; Rao, K C; Joseph, P M; Vigorito, R D

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) measurements of the thoracic spine and its contents were obtained in 33 patients undergoing metrizamide myelography for various spinal disorders. Twenty-eight of these patients had symptoms referable to the cervical or lumbar region and form the basis of this study. Five patients had symptoms referable to the thoracic spine. Sagittal and coronal CT measurements of the thoracic cord and subarachnoid space were obtained in all cases. In addition, macroscopic measurements of the thoracic cord were obtained from 10 autopsies for correlation with the CT findings. The technical aspects of the measurements are discussed; the normal morphology of the thoracic cord and thecal sac is presented; and the metrizamide CT pattern associated with pathologic lesions involving the thoracic cord is analyzed. PMID:6410813

  18. Post-operative care to promote recovery for thoracic surgical patients: a nursing perspective

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The change in patient population leads to an inevitable transformation among the healthcare system. Over the past decades, thoracic surgical technique has been evolving from conventional open thoracotomy to minimally invasive video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Thoracic nursing team of Prince of Wales Hospital (PWH) grows together with the evolution and aims at providing holistic and quality care to patients require thoracic operation. In order to enhance patient post-operative recovery, few strategies have been implemented including early mobilization, staff training and clinical audit. On the other hand, nursing case management approach was proved to be a cost-effective method in managing patients. It is also suitable for thoracic patients, especially for those who are suffering from thoracic neoplasm. It is believed that, the introduction of nursing case management approach would provide a better holistic care to the thoracic patients. PMID:26941973

  19. Thoracic ROM measurement system with visual bio-feedback: system design and biofeedback evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ando, Takeshi; Kawamura, Kazuya; Fujitani, Junko; Koike, Tomokazu; Fujimoto, Masashi; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2011-01-01

    Patients with diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) need to improve their thorax mobility. Thoracic ROM is one of the simplest and most useful indexes to evaluate the respiratory function. In this paper, we have proposed the prototype of a simple thoracic ROM measurement system with real-time visual bio-feedback in the chest expansion test. In this system, the thoracic ROM is measured using a wire-type linear encoder whose wire is wrapped around the thorax. In this paper, firstly, the repeatability and reliability of measured thoracic ROM was confirmed as a first report of the developed prototype. Secondly, we analyzed the effect of the bio-feedback system on the respiratory function. The result of the experiment showed that it was easier to maintain a large and stable thoracic ROM during deep breathing by using the real-time visual biofeedback system of the thoracic ROM. PMID:22254548

  20. Inadvertent Puncture of the Thoracic Duct During Attempted Central Venous Catheter Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Teichgraber, Ulf K.M. Nibbe, Lutz; Gebauer, Bernhard; Wagner, Hans-Joachim

    2003-11-15

    We report a case of puncture of the thoracic duct during left subclavian vein catheterization on the intensive care unit. Computed tomography and measurement of the triglyceride levels in the aspirated fluid proved the inadvertent penetration of the guidewire into the thoracic duct. Early recognition of central line misplacement avoided serious complications. Inadvertent central venous catheter placement into the thoracic duct may have the potential complications of infusion mediastinum and chylothorax.

  1. Usefulness of galvanic skin reflex monitor in CT-guided thoracic sympathetic blockade for palmar hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Seiichi; Miura, Hitoshi; Hirabayashi, Go; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Ohta, Takashi; Ishii, Nagao; Ito, Tatsushi

    2007-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT)-guided thoracic sympathetic blockade with ethanol was performed while monitoring sympathetic nerve activity, with an alternating current (AC) galvanic skin reflex (GSR) monitor, in a patient with palmar hyperhidrosis in whom endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy was impossible because of pleural adhesion. Sweating was suppressed after the thoracic sympathetic blockade, and the monitor showed a significant increase in skin resistance. The effect of sympathetic blockade could be evaluated directly and in real time using a GSR monitor. PMID:17680195

  2. Thoracic Aortic Stent-Graft Placement for Safe Removal of a Malpositioned Pedicle Screw

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hongtao; Shin, Ji Hoon Hwang, Jae-Yeon; Cho, Young Jun; Ko, Gi-Young; Yoon, Hyun-Ki

    2010-10-15

    We describe a case of percutaneous placement of a thoracic aortic stent-graft for safe removal of a malpositioned pedicle screw in a 52-year-old man. The patient had undergone posterior thoracic spinal instrumentation for pyogenic spondylitis and spinal deformity 8 months previously. Follow-up CT images showed a malpositioned pedicle screw which was abutting the thoracic aorta at the T5 level. After percutaneous stent-graft placement, the malpositioned pedicle screw was safely and successfully removed.

  3. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review.

    PubMed

    Rondon, Rafael Henrique Nunes; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; do Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro

    2014-03-01

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body. PMID:24701452

  4. Radiography Capabilities for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Walstrom, Peter Lowell; Garnett, Robert William; Chapman, Catherine A. B; Salazar, Harry Richard; Otoole, Joseph Alfred; Barber, Ronald L.; Gomez, Tony Simon

    2015-04-28

    The Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes (MaRIE) experimental facility will be used to discover and design the advanced materials needed to meet 21st century national security and energy security challenges. This new facility will provide the new tools scientists need to develop next-generation materials that will perform predictably and on-demand for currently unattainable lifetimes in extreme environments. The MaRIE facility is based on upgrades to the existing LANSCE 800-MeV proton linac and a new 12-GeV electron linac and associated X-ray FEL to provide simultaneous multiple probe beams, and new experimental areas. In addition to the high-energy photon probe beam, both electron and proton radiography capabilities will be available at the MaRIE facility. Recently, detailed radiography system studies have been performed to develop conceptual layouts of high-magnification electron and proton radiography systems that can meet the experimental requirements for the expected first experiments to be performed at the facility. A description of the radiography systems, their performance requirements, and a proposed facility layout are presented.

  5. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review

    PubMed Central

    Rondon, Rafael Henrique Nunes; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara

    2014-01-01

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body. PMID:24701452

  6. Neutron Radiography Visualization of Solid Particles in Stirring Liquid Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, M.; Ščepanskis, M.; Jakovičs, A.; Thomsen, K.; Nikoluškins, R.; Vontobel, P.; Beinerts, T.; Bojarevičs, A.; Platacis, E.

    This paper presents the analysis of the first dynamic neutron radiography experiment that visualized motion of solid particles in liquid metal, which was stirred by a system of four counter-rotating magnets. The paper also contains the quantitative results derived from neutron images: the distribution of particle concentration, number of admixed particles and velocities as functions of the magnet rotation speed.

  7. Neutron radiography and neutron-induced autoradiography for the classroom

    SciTech Connect

    Aderhold, H.C. )

    1992-01-01

    The Cornell 500-kW MARK II TRIGA reactor at the Ward Laboratory of Nuclear Engineering has been used to illustrate the application of neutron radiography (NR) and neutron-induced autoradiography (NIAR) for solving problems in engineering as well as problems in art history. The applications are described in the paper.

  8. Optical velocimetry at the Los Alamos Proton Radiography Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupa, Dale; Tainter, Amy; Neukirch, Levi; Hollander, Brian; Buttler, William; Holtkamp, David; The Los Alamos Proton Radiography Team Team

    2016-05-01

    The Los Alamos Proton Radiography Facility (pRad) employs a high-energy proton beam to image the properties and behavior of materials driven by high explosives. We will discuss features of pRad and describe some recent experiments, highlighting optical diagnostics for surface velocity measurements.

  9. Method and Apparatus for Computed Imaging Backscatter Radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shedlock, Daniel (Inventor); Meng, Christopher (Inventor); Sabri, Nissia (Inventor); Dugan, Edward T. (Inventor); Jacobs, Alan M. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Systems and methods of x-ray backscatter radiography are provided. A single-sided, non-destructive imaging technique utilizing x-ray radiation to image subsurface features is disclosed, capable of scanning a region using a fan beam aperture and gathering data using rotational motion.

  10. Trichobezoars Detected and Treated Based on Plain Radiography.

    PubMed

    Barrows, Amy; Vachon, Tyler; Campin, Richard C; Ignacio, Romeo C

    2015-10-01

    Bezoars are conglomerations of indigestible material that become trapped in the gastrointestinal tract. We present a case of an 8-year-old female child diagnosed with a gastric bezoar solely on plain radiography and treated with abdominal surgical exploration and removal. In addition, traditional characteristic radiographic findings and treatment options for bezoars found in the current literature are reviewed. PMID:26444484

  11. Thoracic duct cyst of posterior mediastinum: a “challenging” differential diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Electra, Michalopoulou-Manoloutsiou; Evangelia, Athanasiou; Mattheos, Bobos; Dimitris, Hatzibougias I.; Tsavlis, Drosos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Charalampidis, Chralampos; Fassiadis, Nikolaos; Mparmpetakis, Nikolaos; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Andreas, Mpakas; Stamatis, Arikas; Alexandros, Kolettas; Kosmas, Tsakiridis

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic duct cysts of the mediastinum are extremely rare entities and their pathogenesis still remains unknown. Imaging methods are not specific and show a cystic mass, however the real nature of the lesion is confirmed only with the help of histopathological examination after surgical excision. Here, we present a case of thoracic cyst in a 28-year-old female, lining in posterior lower mediastinum. The cyst was removed by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) and the histopathological findings were that of thoracic duct cyst. Through this case, we propose an ideal surgical approach and diagnostic procedure. PMID:27275479

  12. From Diagnosis to Treatment: Clinical Applications of Nanotechnology in Thoracic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Digesu, Christopher S; Hofferberth, Sophie C; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2016-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an emerging field with potential as an adjunct to cancer therapy, particularly thoracic surgery. Therapy can be delivered to tumors in a more targeted fashion, with less systemic toxicity. Nanoparticles may aid in diagnosis, preoperative characterization, and intraoperative localization of thoracic tumors and their lymphatics. Focused research into nanotechnology's ability to deliver both diagnostics and therapeutics has led to the development of nanotheranostics, which promises to improve the treatment of thoracic malignancies through enhanced tumor targeting, controlled drug delivery, and therapeutic monitoring. This article reviews nanoplatforms, their unique properties, and the potential for clinical application in thoracic surgery. PMID:27112260

  13. JAG Tearing Technique with Radiofrequency Guide Wire for Aortic Fenestration in Thoracic Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Ricci, Carmelo; Ceccherini, Claudio Leonini, Sara; Cini, Marco; Vigni, Francesco; Neri, Eugenio; Tucci, Enrico; Benvenuti, Antonio; Tommasino, Giulio; Sassi, Carlo

    2012-02-15

    An innovative approach, the JAG tearing technique, was performed during thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair in a patient with previous surgical replacement of the ascending aorta with a residual uncomplicated type B aortic dissection who developed an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta with its lumen divided in two parts by an intimal flap. The proximal landing zone was suitable to place a thoracic stent graft. The distal landing zone was created by cutting the intimal flap in the distal third of the descending thoracic aorta with a radiofrequency guide wire and intravascular ultrasound catheter.

  14. TEVAR for Flash Pulmonary Edema Secondary to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm to Pulmonary Artery Fistula.

    PubMed

    Bornak, Arash; Baqai, Atif; Li, Xiaoyi; Rey, Jorge; Tashiro, Jun; Velazquez, Omaida C

    2016-01-01

    Enlarging aneurysms in the thoracic aorta frequently remain asymptomatic. Fistulization of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) to adjacent structures or the presence of a patent ductus arteriosus and TAA may lead to irreversible cardiopulmonary sequelae. This article reports on a large aneurysm of the thoracic aorta with communication to the pulmonary artery causing pulmonary edema and cardiorespiratory failure. The communication was ultimately closed after thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair allowing rapid symptom resolution. Early diagnosis and closure of such communication in the presence of TAA are critical for prevention of permanent cardiopulmonary damage. PMID:26522587

  15. Radiation-absorbed doses and energy imparted from panoramic tomography, cephalometric radiography, and occlusal film radiography in children

    SciTech Connect

    Bankvall, G.; Hakansson, H.A.

    1982-05-01

    The absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examinations of children, using panoramic tomography (PTG), cephalometric radiography (CPR), and maxillary frontal occlusal overview (FOO), were examined. The absorbed dose at various sites of the head were measured with TL dosimeters in a phantom and in patients. The energy imparted was calculated from measurements of areal exposure using a planparallel ionization chamber. The maximum absorbed doses for panoramic tomography were located around the lateral rotation center, for cephalometric radiography in the left (tube side) parotid region, and for frontal occlusal radiography in the nose. The absorbed doses in the eyes, thyroid gland, and skin are discussed and compared with previous reports and, for the most part, are found to be in agreement. The mean energy imparted from all three examination methods is 5 mJ with about 57 percent from panoramic, 33 percent from cephalometric, and 10 percent from frontal occlusal examinations. The energy imparted from cephalometric radiography can be reduced to about 10 percent with the use of an improved examination technique, leaving panoramic tomography responsible for contributing about 80 percent of the total energy imparted.

  16. [Early discharge following major thoracic surgery: identification of related factors].

    PubMed

    de Lima, Nuno Fevereiro Ferreira; Carvalho, André Luís de Aquino

    2003-01-01

    There is a direct relation between hospital costs and hospital length of stay after the operation. In the other hand, reduced stay increases the productivity of the public hospitals with high service demanding. The objective of this study was to identify factors determining the decrease in hospital stay after major thoracic surgery. A two-phase retrospective study was conducted on analysis of medical records. In the first phase, data on length of hospital stay and related factors were collected from a consecutive series of 169 patients divided into group I (n=81)--patients operated on between June 1990 and 1995, and group II (n=88)--1996 through May 2000. In the second phase, data were collected from a consecutive series of 20 patients (group III) starting backwards from March 2002, for analysis and comparison with a internet survey sent to 21 thoracic surgeons. Intensive care unit was avoided for most patients in the immediate post operative period. The mean hospital stay decreased from 7.6 days (median 7) in group I to 5.1 days (median 4) in group II (p<0.001). The more frequent utilization of epidural analgesia and less traumatic thoracotomy in group II reached statistic significance (p<0.001). In group III, the mean hospital stay was 4.2 days (median 4), and there was a more effective use of epidural analgesia (75%) and muscle-sparing thoracotomy (90%). Eight thoracic surgeons answered the survey: the mean hospital stay varied from 5 to 9 days and all patients were sent to intensive care or similar units. Only two surgeons utilize muscle-sparing thoracotomy. This study confirms that pain control and less traumatic surgical approach are important for faster functional recovery of the patients. It suggests that the IC units may be used only for selected patients. PMID:14685631

  17. Thoracic radiographic features of silicosis in 19 horses.

    PubMed

    Berry, C R; O'Brien, T R; Madigan, J E; Hager, D A

    1991-01-01

    Clinical records and thoracic radiographs of 19 horses with a confirmed pathologic diagnosis of silicosis were reviewed. These horses had histories of varying degrees of chronic weight loss, exercise intolerance, and respiratory distress. At the time of presentation, two horses were asymptomatic. Ten horses were geldings and nine were female. The mean age of the 19 horses was 10.7 +/- 5.5 years. Fourteen horses were identified as being from the Monterey-Carmel Peninsula of midcoastal California. An abnormal, structured interstitial pulmonary pattern was identified on thoracic radiographs in each horse. The interstitial pulmonary changes were classified as miliary (13 horses), reticulonodular (4), or linear interstitial (2), and were best visualized dorsally and caudodorsally. In addition to the abnormal interstitial pulmonary pattern, areas of pulmonary consolidation were evident caudodorsally in seven horses. Other thoracic radiographic features included: hilar lymphadenopathy (4 horses), pleural effusion/thickening (4), cranial mediastinal lymphadenopathy (2), hyperinflation (1), and a discrete pulmonary mass (1). Necropsy findings in eight horses and results of lung biopsies in an additional five horses showed a diffuse, multifocal, granulomatous pneumonia with areas of pulmonary fibrosis. Cellular infiltrates included predominantly macrophages with intracellular and/or extracellular crystalline material, occasional lymphocytes, and giant cells. Similar cellular changes were also identified, during necropsy, in the hilar and tracheobronchial lymph nodes in each of the eight horses, although gross enlargement of the lymph nodes was present in only six horses. The radiographic and pathologic findings of these 19 horses are consistent with chronic or the accelerated forms of silicosis that are recognized in humans. PMID:1941758

  18. The Biomechanics of the Pediatric and Adult Human Thoracic Spine

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Lau, Sabrina; Riley, Patrick; Lamp, John; Kent, Richard

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature points out the relevance of the thoracic spine dynamics in understanding the thorax-restraint interaction as well as in determining the kinematics of the head and cervical spine. This study characterizes the dynamic response in bending of eight human spinal specimens (4 pediatric: ages 7 and 15 years, 4 adult: ages 48 and 52 years) from two sections along the thoracic spine (T2–T4 and T7–T9). Each specimen consisted of three vertebral bodies connected by the corresponding intervertebral discs. All ligaments were preserved in the preparation with the exception of the inter-transverse ligament. Specimens were exposed to a series of five dynamic bending ramp-and-hold tests with varying amplitudes at a nominal rate of 2 rad/s. After this battery of tests, failure experiments were conducted. The 7-year-old specimen showed the lowest tolerance to a moment (T2–T4: 12.1 Nm; T7–T9: 11.6 Nm) with no significant reduction of the relative rotation between the vertebrae. The 15-year-old failure tolerance was comparable to that of the adult specimens. Failure of the adult specimens occurred within a wide range at the T2–T4 thoracic section (23.3 Nm- 53.0 Nm) while it was circumscribed to the interval 48.3 Nm-52.5 Nm for the T7–T9 section. The series of dynamic ramp-and-hold were used to assess two different scaling methods (mass scaling and SAE scaling). Neither method was able to capture the stiffness, peak moment and relaxation characteristics exhibited by the pediatric specimens. PMID:22105396

  19. Physiological Interaction of Heart and Lung in Thoracic Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghobadi, Ghazaleh; Veen, Sonja van der; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Boer, Rudolf A. de; Dickinson, Michael G.; Jong, Johan R. de; Faber, Hette; Niemantsverdriet, Maarten; Brandenburg, Sytze; Berger, Rolf M.F.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Coppes, Robert P.; Luijk, Peter van

    2012-12-01

    Introduction: The risk of early radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) limits the dose and efficacy of radiation therapy of thoracic tumors. In addition to lung dose, coirradiation of the heart is a known risk factor in the development RILT. The aim of this study was to identify the underlying physiology of the interaction between lung and heart in thoracic irradiation. Methods and Materials: Rat hearts, lungs, or both were irradiated to 20 Gy using high-precision proton beams. Cardiopulmonary performance was assessed using breathing rate measurements and F{sup 18}-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET) scans biweekly and left- and right-sided cardiac hemodynamic measurements and histopathology analysis at 8 weeks postirradiation. Results: Two to 12 weeks after heart irradiation, a pronounced defect in the uptake of {sup 18}F-FDG in the left ventricle (LV) was observed. At 8 weeks postirradiation, this coincided with LV perivascular fibrosis, an increase in LV end-diastolic pressure, and pulmonary edema in the shielded lungs. Lung irradiation alone not only increased pulmonary artery pressure and perivascular edema but also induced an increased LV relaxation time. Combined irradiation of lung and heart induced pronounced increases in LV end-diastolic pressure and relaxation time, in addition to an increase in right ventricle end-diastolic pressure, indicative of biventricular diastolic dysfunction. Moreover, enhanced pulmonary edema, inflammation and fibrosis were also observed. Conclusions: Both lung and heart irradiation cause cardiac and pulmonary toxicity via different mechanisms. Thus, when combined, the loss of cardiopulmonary performance is intensified further, explaining the deleterious effects of heart and lung coirradiation. Our findings show for the first time the physiological mechanism underlying the development of a multiorgan complication, RILT. Reduction of dose to either of these organs offers new opportunities to

  20. Magnetic resonance angiography in the diagnosis of thoracic venous obstruction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y C; Su, C T; Yang, P C; Wang, T C; Chiu, L C; Hsu, J C

    1998-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic value of orthogonal magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and to compare the results of MRA with those of digital subtraction venography (DSV) in thoracic venous diseases. Ten normal volunteers were evaluated using two-dimensional time-of-flight MRA in three orthogonal planes to determine the image quality of each venous segment. Twelve consecutive patients suspected of having thoracic venous disease were studied with both MRA and DSV. In the normal subjects, the plane perpendicular to the target vein provided the most consistent visualization. Using three orthogonal MRA images, a diagnostic-quality image was obtained in 175 (83%) of 210 venous segments in normal volunteers. In patients with thoracic venous obstructive disease, MRA was more effective than DSV in detecting total (84 vs 54), patent (56 vs 36), stenotic (13 vs 10), and obstructive (15 vs 8) venous segments, poststenotic or postobstructive veins (15 vs 10), thrombosis of the internal jugular vein (7 vs 2), intraluminal thrombus (5 vs 3), and azygos veins (12 vs 2). Using venous segments visible on DVS (n = 54) as the standard, the sensitivity and specificity of MRA were 94% and 100%, respectively, in detecting venous patency, and 100% and 98% in detecting complete venous obstruction. In the shoulder region, the sensitivity and specificity of MRA were 93% and 100%, respectively, in detecting venous patency, and 100% and 97% in detecting venous obstruction. We conclude that MRA with three orthogonal planes can provide relatively complete and reliable venous mapping, without the need for contrast medium. PMID:9481063

  1. Lower thoracic rib stress fractures in baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Gerrie, Brayden J; Harris, Joshua D; Lintner, David M; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Stress fractures of the first rib on the dominant throwing side are well-described in baseball pitchers; however, lower thoracic rib fractures are not commonly recognized. While common in other sports such as rowing, there is scant literature on these injuries in baseball. Intercostal muscle strains are commonly diagnosed in baseball pitchers and have a nearly identical presentation but also a highly variable healing time. The diagnosis of a rib stress fracture can predict a more protracted recovery. This case series presents two collegiate baseball pitchers on one team during the same season who were originally diagnosed with intercostal muscle strains, which following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were found to have actually sustained lower thoracic rib stress fractures. The first sustained a stress fracture of the posterior aspect of the right 8th rib on the dominant arm side, while the second presented with a left-sided 10th rib stress fracture on the nondominant arm side. In both cases, MRI was used to visualize the fractures as plain radiographs are insensitive and commonly negative early in patient presentation. Patients were treated with activity modification, and symptomatic management for 4-6 weeks with a graduated return to throwing and competition by 8-10 weeks. The repetitive high stresses incurred by pitching may cause either dominant or nondominant rib stress fractures and this should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic injuries in throwers. It is especially important that athletic trainers and team physicians consider this diagnosis, as rib fractures may have a protracted course and delayed return to play. Additionally, using the appropriate imaging techniques to establish an accurate diagnosis can help inform return-to-play decisions, which have important practical applications in baseball, such as roster management and eligibility. PMID:26559562

  2. A Twelve-Year Consecutive Case Experience in Thoracic Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jenny T.; Bonneau, Laura A.; Weigel, Tracey L.; Maloney, James D.; Castro, Francisco; Shulzhenko, Nikita

    2016-01-01

    Background: We describe the second largest contemporary series of flaps used in thoracic reconstruction. Methods: A retrospective review of patients undergoing thoracomyoplasty from 2001 to 2013 was conducted. Ninety-one consecutive patients were identified. Results: Thoracomyoplasty was performed for 67 patients with intrathoracic indications and 24 patients with chest wall defects. Malignancy and infection were the most common indications for reconstruction (P < 0.01). The latissimus dorsi (LD), pectoralis major, and serratus anterior muscle flaps remained the workhorses of reconstruction (LD and pectoralis major: 64% flaps in chest wall reconstruction; LD and serratus anterior: 85% of flaps in intrathoracic indication). Only 12% of patients required mesh. Only 6% of patients with <2 ribs resected required mesh when compared with 24% with 3–4 ribs, and 100% with 5 or more ribs resected (P < 0.01). Increased rib resections required in chest wall reconstruction resulted in a longer hospital stay (P < 0.01). Total comorbidities and complications were related to length of stay only in intrathoracic indication (P < 0.01). Average intubation time was significantly higher in patients undergoing intrathoracic indication (5.51 days) than chest wall reconstruction (0.04 days), P < 0.05. Average hospital stay was significantly higher in patients undergoing intrathoracic indication (23 days) than chest wall reconstruction (12 days), P < 0.05. One-year survival was most poor for intrathoracic indication (59%) versus chest wall reconstruction (83%), P = 0.0048. Conclusion: Thoracic reconstruction remains a safe and successful intervention that reliably treats complex and challenging problems, allowing more complex thoracic surgery problems to be salvaged. PMID:27257568

  3. A deleterious MYH11 mutation causing familial thoracic aortic dissection

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Norifumi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Fujita, Daishi; Inuzuka, Ryo; Taniguchi, Yuki; Nawata, Kan; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    The L1264P and R1275L heterozygous mutations of the myosin heavy chain 11 (MYH11) gene, which are on the same allele, have been reported to cause thoracic aortic aneurysms and/or dissections (TAAD) complicated with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA); however, their contributions to the pathogenesis of TAAD/PDA have not been elucidated. Here we report the first familial case of TAAD with only a MYH11 L1264P mutation, in which PDA was not observed, indicating that L1264P, not R1275L, is responsible for TAAD formation. PMID:27081537

  4. Advances in chest drain management in thoracic disease

    PubMed Central

    George, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    An adequate chest drainage system aims to drain fluid and air and restore the negative pleural pressure facilitating lung expansion. In thoracic surgery the post-operative use of the conventional underwater seal chest drainage system fulfills these requirements, however they allow great variability amongst practices. In addition they do not offer accurate data and they are often inconvenient to both patients and hospital staff. This article aims to simplify the myths surrounding the management of chest drains following chest surgery, review current experience and explore the advantages of modern digital chest drain systems and address their disease-specific use. PMID:26941971

  5. The view within: the emerging technology of thoracic electrical bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Lasater, M

    1998-11-01

    With the increasing incidence of catheter-related sepsis and recognition of increased mortality and cost of care with pulmonary artery catheters, the need for a safe, cost-effective, and clinically accurate means of obtaining hemodynamic data has become evident. Through the technology of thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB), non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring is now possible with the BioZ.com, manufactured by CardioDynamics International Corporation. The BioZ.com provides continuous hemodynamic readings safely, accurately, and inexpensively. TEB is proving to be a valuable adjunct to patient assessment and treatment across multiple health care settings. PMID:10646425

  6. Thoracic involvement in generalised lymphatic anomaly (or lymphangiomatosis).

    PubMed

    Luisi, Francesca; Torre, Olga; Harari, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    Generalised lymphatic anomaly (GLA), also known as lymphangiomatosis, is a rare disease caused by congenital abnormalities of lymphatic development. It usually presents in childhood but can also be diagnosed in adults. GLA encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from single-organ involvement to generalised disease. Given the rarity of the disease, most of the information regarding it comes from case reports. To date, no clinical trials concerning treatment are available. This review focuses on thoracic GLA and summarises possible diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:27246594

  7. [Echographic Examination for Leg Vein Thromboembolism in Thoracic Surgery].

    PubMed

    Mawatari, Tohru; Narayama, Kouhei; Shibata, Tsuyoshi; Saga, Toshifumi; Baba, Toshio; Morishita, Kiyofumi; Niwa, Jun; Watanabe, Yuusuke; Yamashita, Tatsushi; Hirakata, Natsuko; Watanabe, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    Echographic examination for leg vein thromboembolism was carried out in 123 patients scheduled for thoracic surgery. Preventive measures for thromboembolism were conducted after the risk assessment. Echography was done after surgery in 72 cases, most of which were cases of lung malignant tumors, and thromboembolism was detected in 4 cases. Thus, the incidence rate of venous thromboembolism was 5.6%( 4/72). There was no patients who developed pulmonary thromboembolism during the examination period, suggesting reasonable risk assessment and preventive measures in our procedure. PMID:27365057

  8. Salmonella spondylodiscitis of the thoracic vertebrae mimicking spine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Muhamad Effendi, Ferdhany; Ibrahim, Mohd Ikraam; Mohd Miswan, Mohd Fairudz

    2016-01-01

    Extraintestinal Salmonella infection involving the thoracic spine is very rare. It commonly presents with non-specific chronic back pain and can occur with no gastrointestinal manifestation. Blood test results and imaging findings are often indistinguishable from more common chronic spine infections such as spine tuberculosis. Culture studies remain the key to establishing a definitive diagnosis and subsequently successful treatment. We report a case in which a patient presented with symptoms and signs suggestive of spine tuberculosis, yet the culture examination revealed otherwise. PMID:27381996

  9. Aneurysm growth after late conversion of thoracic endovascular aortic repair

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Ichiro; Haijima, Norimasa

    2015-01-01

    A 69-year-old man underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair of a descending aortic aneurysm. Three years later, he developed impending rupture due to aneurysmal expansion that included the proximal landing zone. Urgent open surgery was performed via lateral thoracotomy, and a Dacron graft was sewn to the previous stent graft distally with Teflon felt reinforcement. Postoperatively, four sequential computed tomography scans demonstrated that the aneurysm was additionally increasing in size probably due to continuous hematoma production, suggesting a possibility of endoleaks. This case demonstrates the importance of careful radiologic surveillance after endovascular repair, and also after partial open conversion. PMID:27489673

  10. Characteristics and Outcomes of Ascending Versus Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Vapnik, Joshua S; Kim, Joon Bum; Isselbacher, Eric M; Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Cheng, Yisha; Sundt, Thoralf M; MacGillivray, Thomas E; Cambria, Richard P; Lindsay, Mark E

    2016-05-15

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAs) occur in reproducible patterns, but etiologic factors determining the anatomic distribution of these aneurysms are not well understood. This study sought to gain insight into etiologic differences and clinical outcomes associated with repetitive anatomic distributions of TAs. From 3,247 patients registered in an institutional Thoracic Aortic Center database from July 1992 to August 2013, we identified 844 patients with full aortic dimensional imaging by computerized axial tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan (mean age 62.8 ± 14 years, 37% women, median follow-up 40 months) with TA diameter >4.0 cm and without evidence of previous aortic dissection. Patient demographic and imaging data were analyzed in 3 groups: isolated ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (AAs; n = 628), isolated descending TAs (DTAs; n = 130), and combined AA and DTA (mixed thoracic aortic aneurysm, MTA; n = 86). Patients with DTA had more hypertension (82% vs 59%, p <0.001) and a higher burden of atherosclerosis (88% vs 9%, p <0.001) than AA. Conversely, patients with isolated AA were younger (59.5 ± 13.5 vs 71.0 ± 11.8 years, p <0.001) and contained almost every case of overt, genetically triggered TA. Patients with isolated DTA were demographically indistinguishable from patients with MTA. In follow-up, patients with DTA/MTA experienced more aortic events (aortic dissection/rupture) and had higher mortality than patients with isolated AA. In multivariate analysis, aneurysm size (odds ratio 1.1, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.16, p <0.001) and the presence of atherosclerosis (odds ratio 5.7, 95% CI 2.02 to 16.15, p <0.001) independently predicted adverse aortic events. We find that DTA with or without associated AA appears to be a disease more highly associated with atherosclerosis, hypertension, and advanced age. In contrast, isolated AA appears to be a clinically distinct entity with a greater burden of genetically triggered disease. PMID:27015890

  11. Dual-energy CT imaging of thoracic malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Yang, Gui Fen; Wu, Sheng Yong; Lu, Guang Ming; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Computed tomography (CT) plays a pivotal role in the detection, characterization, and staging of lung cancer and other thoracic malignancies. Since the introduction of clinically viable dual-energy CT techniques, substantial evidence has accumulated on the use of this modality for imaging chest malignancies. This article describes the principles of dual-energy CT along with suitable image acquisition, reconstruction, and postprocessing strategies for oncologic applications in the chest. The potential of dual-energy CT techniques for the detection, characterization, staging, and surveillance of chest malignancy, as well as the limitations of this modality are discussed. PMID:23470989

  12. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Thoracic Aortic Dissection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yik; Fan, Yi; Cheng, Stephen; Chow, Kwok

    2011-11-01

    Thoracic Aortic Dissection (TAD) is a cardiovascular disease with high mortality. An aortic dissection is formed when blood infiltrates the layers of the vascular wall, and a new artificial channel, the false lumen, is created. The expansion of the blood vessel due to the weakened wall enhances the risk of rupture. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is performed to study the hemodynamics of this pathological condition. Both idealized geometry and realistic patient configurations from computed tomography (CT) images are investigated. Physiological boundary conditions from in vivo measurements are employed. Flow configuration and biomechanical forces are studied. Quantitative analysis allows clinicians to assess the risk of rupture in making decision regarding surgical intervention.

  13. Retained Intra- Thoracic Surgical Pack Mimicking as Recurrent Aspergilloma

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Ruquaya; Singh, Vikram P.

    2012-01-01

    An intrathoracic gossypiboma is a rare condition. We are reporting a case of intrathoracicgossypiboma which was misdiagnosed as a recurrent aspergilloma. In our patient, the gossypiboma manifested as a pleural- based extra pulmonary mass which had a large contact area with the pleura and it displayed an extra pulmonary location. A retained surgical swab (gossypiboma) is a rare but an important complication of an intra- thoracic surgery. The diagnosis is usually overlooked, as in our case, resulting in delay of treatment, complications and a prolonged hospitalization. PMID:23373051

  14. Laparoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct in management of chylothorax.

    PubMed

    Icaza, Orlando J; Andrews, Kris; Kuhnke, Mark

    2002-04-01

    Laparoscopic ligation of the cisterna chyli at the level of the aortic hiatus was performed in a 69-year-old woman with post-lobectomy chylothorax refractory to 3 weeks of conservative therapy and one repeat thoracotomy with attempted ligation of a leaking lymphatic channel. This laparoscopic procedure was successful, and resolution of the chylothorax was achieved. We feel that this technique offers surgeons a valid, minimally invasive treatment option for a persistent chylothorax in which conservative management or more direct thoracic procedures have failed to control the chyle leak. PMID:12019574

  15. Giant Thoracic Aneurysm Following Valve Replacement for Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Tran, Cao; Ul Haq, Ehtesham; Nguyen, Ngoc; Omar, Bassam

    2015-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve is a common congenital anomaly associated with aortopathy, which can cause aortic root dilatation, necessitating regular screening if the aortic root is > 4.0 cm. Despite the low absolute incidence of aortic complications associated with bicuspid aortic valve in the general population, the consequences of such complications for an individual patient can be devastating. Herein we propose a balanced algorithm that incorporates recommendations from the three major guidelines for follow-up imaging of the aortic root and ascending thoracic aorta in patients with a bicuspid aortic valve, maintaining the current recommendations with regard to surgical thresholds. PMID:26827748

  16. Estimating Hemodynamic Responses to the Wingate Test Using Thoracic Impedance

    PubMed Central

    Astorino, Todd A.; Bovee, Curtis; DeBoe, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Techniques including direct Fick and Doppler echocardiography are frequently used to assess hemodynamic responses to exercise. Thoracic impedance has been shown to be a noninvasive alternative to these methods for assessing these responses during graded exercise to exhaustion, yet its feasibility during supramaximal bouts of exercise is relatively unknown. We used thoracic impedance to estimate stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) during the Wingate test (WAnT) and compared these values to those from graded exercise testing (GXT). Active men (n = 9) and women (n = 7) (mean age = 24.8 ± 5.9 yr) completed two Wingate tests and two graded exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. During exercise, heart rate (HR), SV, and CO were continuously estimated using thoracic impedance. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to identify potential differences in hemodynamic responses across protocols. Results: Maximal SV (138.6 ± 37.4 mL vs. 135.6 ± 26.9 mL) and CO (24.5 ± 6.1 L·min-1 vs. 23.7 ± 5.1 L·min-1) were similar (p > 0.05) between repeated Wingate tests. Mean maximal HR was higher (p < 0.01) for GXT (185 ± 7 b·min-1) versus WAnT (177 ± 11 b·min-1), and mean SV was higher in response to WAnT (137.1 ± 32.1 mL) versus GXT (123.0 ± 32.0 mL), leading to similar maximal cardiac output between WAnT and GXT (23.9 ± 5.6 L·min-1 vs. 22.5 ± 6.0 L·min-1). Our data show no difference in hemodynamic responses in response to repeated administrations of the Wingate test. In addition, the Wingate test elicits similar cardiac output compared to progressive cycling to VO2max. Key points Measurement of cardiac output (CO), the rate of oxygen transport delivered by the heart to skeletal muscle, is not widely-employed in Exercise Physiology due to the level of difficulty and invasiveness characteristic of most techniques used to measure this variable. Nevertheless, thoracic impedance has been shown to provide a noninvasive and simpler approach to continuously

  17. Thoracic intramedullary chordoma without bone involvement: a rare clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Faheem, Mohd; Zeeshan, Qazi; Ojha, Balkrishna; Agrawal, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy presented with a 1-year history of low backache, followed by paraparesis and urinary incontinence. MRI of the thoracic spine revealed an intramedullary, intensely contrast-enhancing lesion extending from T11 to L1 vertebral level, consistent with astrocytoma, ependymoma or haemangioblastoma. A diagnosis of intramedullary chordoma was made on tissue biopsy and immunohistochemical study. This is the second report of an intramedullary chordoma without bone involvement in English literature. After 6 months of follow-up, patient showed good clinical outcome in terms of improvement in power in lower limbs and backache. PMID:27469385

  18. Thoracic intramedullary chordoma without bone involvement: a rare clinical entity

    PubMed Central

    Faheem, Mohd; Zeeshan, Qazi; Ojha, Balkrishna; Agrawal, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy presented with a 1-year history of low backache, followed by paraparesis and urinary incontinence. MRI of the thoracic spine revealed an intramedullary, intensely contrast-enhancing lesion extending from T11 to L1 vertebral level, consistent with astrocytoma, ependymoma or haemangioblastoma. A diagnosis of intramedullary chordoma was made on tissue biopsy and immunohistochemical study. This is the second report of an intramedullary chordoma without bone involvement in English literature. After 6 months of follow-up, patient showed good clinical outcome in terms of improvement in power in lower limbs and backache. PMID:27469385

  19. Pregnancy and Thoracic Aortic Disease: Managing the Risks.

    PubMed

    Wanga, Shaynah; Silversides, Candice; Dore, Annie; de Waard, Vivian; Mulder, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The most common aortopathies in women of childbearing age are bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of the aorta, Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, SMAD3 aortopathy, Turner syndrome, and familial thoracic aneurysm and dissection. The hemodynamic and hormonal changes of pregnancy increase the risk of progressive dilatation or dissection of the aorta in these women. The presence of hypertension increases the risk further. Therefore, appropriate preconception counselling is advised. For women who become pregnant, serial follow-up by a specialized multidisciplinary team throughout pregnancy and postpartum period is required. In this review we discuss risk assessment and management strategies for women with aortopathies. PMID:26604124

  20. Needlescopic video-assisted thoracic surgery pleurodesis for primary pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Sihoe, Alan D L; Hsin, Michael K Y; Yu, Peter S Y

    2014-01-01

    Conventional video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) is already well established as the approach of choice for definitive surgical management for primary pneumothorax. However, VATS itself is a constantly evolving technique. The needlescopic VATS (nVATS) approach uses the existing chest drain wound as a working port and adds only two 3-mm ports to provide equally effective pleurodesis as conventional VATS. Staple resection of bullae or blebs plus complete mechanical parietal pleural abrasion is achievable using nVATS. By potentially reducing morbidity for the individual patient, the nVATS approach may lower thresholds for surgical candidacy-even for first episodes of primary pneumothorax. PMID:24969616

  1. Asymptomatic Stenosis in the Cervical and Thoracic Spines of Patients with Symptomatic Lumbar Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Moon Soo; Moon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Oh, Jae Keun; Lyu, Ho Dong; Lee, Jae-Hoo; Riew, K. Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Objective Studies on age-related degenerative changes causing concurrent stenoses in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spines (triple stenosis) are rare in the literature. Our objectives were to determine: (1) the incidence of asymptomatic radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis in elderly patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis, (2) the incidence of concurrent radiologic spinal stenosis in the cervical and thoracic spines, and (3) the radiologic features of cervical stenosis that might predict concurrent thoracic stenosis. Methods Whole-spine T2 sagittal magnetic resonance images of patients older than 80 and diagnosed with lumbar spinal stenosis between January 2003 and January 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. We included patients with asymptomatic spondylotic cervical and thoracic stenosis. We measured the anteroposterior diameters of the vertebral body, bony spinal canal, and spinal cord, along with the Pavlov ratio and anterior or posterior epidural stenosis at the level of the disk for each cervical and thoracic level. We compared the radiologic parameters between the subgroups of cervical stenosis with and without thoracic stenosis. Results Among the 460 patients with lumbar stenosis, 110 (23.9%) had concurrent radiologic cervical stenosis and 112 (24.3%) had concurrent radiologic thoracic stenosis. Fifty-six patients (12.1%) had combined radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis in addition to their symptomatic lumbar stenosis (triple stenosis). Anterior epidural stenosis at C7–T1 was associated with a high prevalence of thoracic stenosis. Conclusions It appears that asymptomatic radiologic cervical and thoracic stenosis is common in elderly patients with symptomatic lumbar stenosis. PMID:26430589

  2. Proton Radiography: Cross Section Measurements and Detector Development

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Longo; H. R. Gustafson: Durga Rajaram; Turgun Nigmanov

    2010-04-16

    Proton radiography has become an important tool for predicting the performance of stockpiled nuclear weapons. Current proton radiography experiments at LANSCE are confined to relatively small targets on the order of centimeters in size because of the low beam energy. LANL scientists have made radiographs with 12 and 24 GeV protons produced by the accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These energies are in the range required for hydrotest radiography. The design of a facility for hydrotest radiography requires knowledge of the cross sections for producing high-energy particles in the forward direction, which are incorporated into the Monte Carlo simulation used in designing the beam and detectors. There are few existing measurements of neutron production cross sections for proton-nuclei interactions in the 50 GeV range, and almost no data exist for forward neutron production, especially for heavy target nuclei. Thus the data from the MIPP EMCAL and HCAL, for which our group was responsible, are critical to proton radiography. Since neutrons and photons cannot be focused by magnets, they cause a background “fog” on the images. This problem can be minimized by careful design of the focusing system and detectors. The purpose of our research was to measure forward production of neutrons produced by high-energy proton beams striking a variety of targets. The forward-going particles carry most of the energy from a high-energy proton interaction, so these are the most important to proton radiography. This work was carried out in conjunction with the Fermilab E-907 (MIPP) collaboration. Our group was responsible for designing and building the E907 forward neutron and photon calorimeters. With the support of our Stewardship Science Academic Alliances grants, we were able to design, build, and commission the calorimeters on budget and ahead of schedule. The MIPP experiment accumulated a large amount of data in the first run that ended in early 2006. Our group has

  3. Chylous Ascites: A Rare Complication of Thoracic Duct Embolization for Chylothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Gaba, Ron C. Owens, Charles A.; Bui, James T.; Carrillo, Tami C.; Knuttinen, M. Grace

    2011-02-15

    Thoracic duct embolization represents a safe and effective method to treat postsurgical chylothorax. Complications of this procedure are rare despite transabdominal puncture of lymphatic channels for thoracic duct access, and chylous ascites is unreported. Herein, we describe a case of chylous ascites formation after lymphatic puncture and attempted cannulation. Our management approach is also discussed.

  4. Calcifying Fibrous Pseudotumor of the Posterior Mediastinum With Encapsulation of the Thoracic Duct.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Sumudu N; Hagen, Jeffrey; Fedenko, Alexander; Lee, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    We report the first case of calcifying fibrous pseudotumor (CFPT) to arise in the posterior mediastinum with encapsulation of the thoracic duct. This exceedingly rare lesion was incidentally discovered in an asymptomatic young woman and treated with surgical resection, requiring ligation and excision of the thoracic duct. There has been no evidence of tumor recurrence or postoperative complication. PMID:27343527

  5. Video-assisted thoracic surgery―the past, present status and the future

    PubMed Central

    Luh, Shi-ping; Liu, Hui-ping

    2006-01-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) has developed very rapidly in these two decades, and has replaced conventional open thoracotomy as a standard procedure for some simple thoracic operations as well as an option or a complementary procedure for some other more complex operations. In this paper we will review its development history, the present status and the future perspectives. PMID:16421967

  6. Thoracic wall defects: surgical management of 205 consecutive patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pairolero, P.C.; Arnold, P.G.

    1986-07-01

    In this article, we review our experience during the past 9 years with 205 consecutive thoracic wall reconstructions. The 100 female and 105 male patients ranged in age from 12 to 85 years (mean, 53.4 years). One hundred fourteen patients had thoracic wall tumors, 56 had radiation necrosis, 56 had infected median sternotomy wounds, and 8 had costochondritis. Twenty-nine of these patients had combinations of the aforementioned conditions. One hundred seventy-eight patients underwent skeletal resection. A mean of 5.4 ribs were resected in 142 patients. Total or partial sternectomies were performed in 60. Skeletal defects were closed with prosthetic material in 66 patients and with autogenous ribs in 12. One hundred sixty-eight patients underwent 244 muscle flap procedures: 149 pectoralis major, 56 latissimus dorsi, 14 rectus abdominis, 13 serratus anterior, 8 external oblique, 2 trapezius, and 2 advancement of diaphragm. The omentum was transposed in 20 patients. The mean number of operations per patient was 1.9 (range, 1 to 8). The mean duration of hospitalization was 16.5 days. One perioperative death occurred (at 29 days). Four patients required tracheostomy. During a mean follow-up of 32.4 months, there were 49 late deaths, predominantly due to malignant disease. All 204 patients who were alive 30 days after operation had excellent surgical results at last follow-up examination or at the time of death due to causes unrelated to the reconstructive procedure.

  7. Treatment of acute thoracic aortic syndromes using endovascular techniques

    PubMed Central

    Uğuz, Emrah; Canyiğit, Murat; Hıdıroğlu, Mete; Şener, Erol

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Acute thoracic aortic syndrome (ATAS) is a novel term to define emergency aortic conditions with common clinical features and challenges. Traditional management of ATAS includes surgical replacement of the aorta and is correlated with high perioperative mortality and morbidity. We aimed to evaluate our experience and outcomes in patients presenting with ATAS, managed by endovascular techniques. METHODS This cohort consisted of 31 consecutive patients (24 males; mean age, 57.5±13.81 years; range, 19–84 years) with acute thoracic aortic pathologies who underwent endovascular repair between January 2011 and January 2015. The study was designed as a retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained data. RESULTS Complicated acute type-B aortic dissection was the most common pathology (35.5%). All aortic stent-grafts (n=37) and dissection stents (n=9) were implanted with 100% procedural success. The overall in-hospital mortality was 9.7%. The mean follow-up duration of patients who were alive at 30 days was 25.9±11.49 months (3–53 months). So far, there have been no late deaths after 30 days. CONCLUSION In the high-risk setting of ATAS, endovascular procedures come forward as novel therapeutic strategies with promising results. Endovascular repair of ATAS can be considered as a first-line treatment alternative under emergency conditions with encouraging results, particularly when conventional surgical repair cannot be implemented due to prohibitive comorbidities. PMID:27113420

  8. [TOS (thoracic outlet syndrome)--a challenge to conservative treatment].

    PubMed

    Lindgren, K A

    1997-10-01

    Functional impairment and pain in the upper extremities may indicate a functional deficit in the thoracic outlet. Static work posture, trauma and whiplash injury may be predisposing factors. The younger generation who often spend long hours in front of a computer are in danger of becoming a future risk group. The primary care physician should be familiar with the syndrome which can be identified by careful clinical examination. Timely intervention can prevent much of the disabling symptomatology. Treatment is primarily conservative and should be aimed at the restoration of functional capacity. As in other disorders, the individual constellation of symptoms is dependent on circumstantial factors, an aspect meriting particular attention in treatment and follow-up. Optimisation of ergonomic conditions is important feature of treatment, and long-term follow-up is necessary. Transient exacerbation is not an indication for surgical treatment. If cervical and thoracic outlet function has normalised but the patient still has symptoms, then the differential diagnosis should be reconsidered. Examination and treatment of patients with pain in the upper extremities requires the collaboration of the physician and physical and occupational therapists. Treatment can be delivered in the primary care setting. PMID:9411397

  9. Uncertainty Quantification applied to flow simulations in thoracic aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccadifuoco, Alessandro; Mariotti, Alessandro; Celi, Simona; Martini, Nicola; Salvetti, Maria Vittoria

    2015-11-01

    The thoracic aortic aneurysm is a progressive dilatation of the thoracic aorta causing a weakness in the aortic wall, which may eventually cause life-threatening events. Clinical decisions on treatment strategies are currently based on empiric criteria, like the aortic diameter value or its growth rate. Numerical simulations can give the quantification of important indexes which are impossible to be obtained through in-vivo measurements and can provide supplementary information. Hemodynamic simulations are carried out by using the open-source tool SimVascular and considering patient-specific geometries. One of the main issues in these simulations is the choice of suitable boundary conditions, modeling the organs and vessels not included in the computational domain. The current practice is to use outflow conditions based on resistance and capacitance, whose values are tuned to obtain a physiological behavior of the patient pressure. However it is not known a priori how this choice affects the results of the simulation. The impact of the uncertainties in these outflow parameters is investigated here by using the generalized Polynomial Chaos approach. This analysis also permits to calibrate the outflow-boundary parameters when patient-specific in-vivo data are available.

  10. EFFECTIVE DOSE TO PATIENTS FROM THORACIC SPINE EXAMINATIONS WITH TOMOSYNTHESIS.

    PubMed

    Svalkvist, Angelica; Söderman, Christina; Båth, Magnus

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of the present work were to calculate the average effective dose to patients from lateral tomosynthesis examinations of the thoracic spine, compare the results with the corresponding conventional examination and to determine a conversion factor between dose-area product (DAP) and effective dose for the tomosynthesis examination. Thoracic spine examinations from 17 patients were included in the study. The registered DAP and information about the field size for each projection radiograph were, together with patient height and mass, used to calculate the effective dose for each projection radiograph. The total effective doses for the tomosynthesis examinations were obtained by adding the effective doses from the 60 projection radiographs included in the examination. The mean effective dose was 0.47 mSv (range 0.24-0.81 mSv) for the tomosynthesis examinations and 0.20 mSv (range 0.07-0.29 mSv) for the corresponding conventional examinations (anteroposterior + left lateral projection). For the tomosynthesis examinations, a conversion factor between total DAP and effective dose of 0.092 mSv Gycm(-2) was obtained. PMID:26675145

  11. Tumoral calcinosis presenting as a deformity of the thoracic spine.

    PubMed

    Kalani, M Yashar S; Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Little, Andrew S; Kakarla, Udaya K; Theodore, Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    The authors describe a rare case of tumoral calcinosis (TC) of the thoracic spine in a 13-year-old boy with thoracic scoliosis. The patient presented with a 2-year history of back pain. He had no personal or family history of bone disease, deformity, or malignancy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneously enhancing mass involving the T-7 vertebral body and the left pedicle. Computed tomography findings suggested that the mass was calcified and that this had resulted in scalloping of the vertebral body. The lesion was resected completely by using a left T-7 costotransversectomy and corpectomy. The deformity was corrected with placement of a vertebral body cage and pedicle screw fixation from T-5 to T-9. Pathological analysis of the mass demonstrated dystrophic calcification with marked hypercellularity and immunostaining consistent with TC. This represents the third reported case of vertebral TC in the pediatric population. Pediatric neurosurgeons should be familiar with lesions such as TC, which may be encountered in the elderly and in hemodialysis-dependent populations, and may not always require aggressive resection. PMID:22132916

  12. Interventional bronchoscopy in the management of thoracic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hardavella, Georgia; George, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    Interventional bronchoscopy is a rapidly expanding field in respiratory medicine offering minimally invasive therapeutic and palliative procedures for all types of lung neoplasms. This field has progressed over the last couple of decades with the application of new technology. The HERMES European curriculum recommendations include interventional bronchoscopy skills in the modules of thoracic tumours and bronchoscopy [1]. However, interventional bronchoscopy is not available in all training centres and consequently, not all trainees will obtain experience unless they rotate to centres specifically offering such training. In this review, we give an overview of interventional bronchoscopic procedures used for the treatment and palliation of thoracic malignancy. These can be applied either with flexible or rigid bronchoscopy or a combination of both depending on the anatomical location of the tumour, the complexity of the case, bleeding risk, the operator's expertise and preference as well as local availability. Specialised anaesthetic support and appropriately trained endoscopy staff are essential, allowing a multimodality approach to meet the high complexity of these cases. PMID:26632425

  13. Early structural changes in sheep lung following thoracic irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Guerry-Force, M.L.; Perkett, E.A.; Brigham, K.L.; Meyrick, B.

    1988-04-01

    Using a large animal model of radiation lung injury--the sheep exposed to bilateral thoracic irradiation--we have recently shown the development of sustained pulmonary hypertension during the first 4 weeks following radiation. This is the period prior to the onset of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. In the present study, we have examined biopsy and autopsy lung tissue from these same sheep and assessed the sequential changes in lung morphology. Six unanesthetized sheep received bilateral thoracic irradiation (a total of 15 Gy); control sheep were sham irradiated. Lung biopsy tissue was taken prior to and at weekly or biweekly intervals during the 4 weeks immediately following radiation. The lungs were also removed at autopsy for light and electron microscopic examination. Our results show early (Week 1) interstitial and progressive intraalveolar edema accompanied by endothelial and epithelial injury. A gradual increase in number of interstitial mononuclear cells was evident from Week 1, both in the lung tissue and in perivascular cuffs. The number of peripheral lung interstitial mononuclear cells was twice baseline from Week 3 and included accumulation of lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and intravascular macrophages. The increased numbers of mononuclear cells paralleled the development of chronic pulmonary hypertension, perhaps suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. Alternatively, it may be that increased mononuclear cell number represents a stage of lung repair.

  14. Improved on-line thoracic duct drainage for lymphocytapheresis.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Koga, N; Nagano, T; Ohteki, H; Masuda, T; Agishi, T

    1991-12-01

    Lymphocytapheresis using thoracic duct drainage (TDD) is a recognized technique of extracorporeal immunomodulation for various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and its clinical benefit has been reported and generally accepted. Lymphocytapheresis using TDD is very selective for removing lymphocytes (especially helper T-cells) but raises some problems such as hypoproteinemia due to the massive removal of lymph, and difficulties in repeated treatment. Along with the development of a new polyester fiber filter, we have developed a simple and effective method of lymphocytapheresis for wide adoption for these techniques. We performed lymphocytapheresis using TDD in patients with RA and previously reported its clinical efficacy indicated by the significantly lower number of peripheral lymphocytes and T4/T8 ratio. We present here our newly-developed on-line system designed to prevent hypoproteinemia. Furthermore we report on the advantages with a new subcutaneous vascular access device set up to manage the problems of repeated treatments. A small reservoir for keeping the thoracic duct open and returning lymph to the patient permitted sufficient lymph drainage and removal of lymphocytes and the clinical application of TDD is discussed. PMID:1783455

  15. Measurement of the lateral thoracic reflex latency in ponies.

    PubMed

    Hahn, C N; Mayhew, I G; Washbourne, J R

    1998-01-01

    Lateral thoracic nerve reflex latencies values were measured in ponies using a simple, non-invasive technique. The reflex was elicited using an external triggering hammer attached to an electrodiagnostic unit. The resulting evoked, compound muscle action potentials were recorded with electrodes, which were placed over the 6th ribs or 11th rib level with the axilla. Two superimposed repeats of 4 signal-averaged sweeps of 50 or 100 milliseconds were recorded and the estimated reflex pathway was measured for each subject in order to calculate the reflex latencies and latency velocities. Mean left and right 6th rib peak latencies were not significantly different from each other (P = .609), but left 6th rib latencies were shorter than those recorded from the 11th rib (P < .0001), substantiating the existence of an indirect (central) pathway to the reflex. The calculated left and right 6th rib latency velocities were not significantly different from each other (P = .58) but left 6th rib latency velocities were different from left 11th rib (P = .009). The calculated latency velocities were within the broad range for corticospinal tract motor conduction velocities and comparable to magnetic motor evoked latency velocities. The use of lateral thoracic reflex latency measurements to objectively identify the site of spinal cord lesions is discussed. PMID:9686392

  16. Interventional bronchoscopy in the management of thoracic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Hardavella, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Educational Aims To highlight the various methods of interventional bronchoscopy. To inform about the indications for palliation and curative bronchoscopy in lung cancer. Interventional bronchoscopy is a rapidly expanding field in respiratory medicine offering minimally invasive therapeutic and palliative procedures for all types of lung neoplasms. This field has progressed over the last couple of decades with the application of new technology. The HERMES European curriculum recommendations include interventional bronchoscopy skills in the modules of thoracic tumours and bronchoscopy [1]. However, interventional bronchoscopy is not available in all training centres and consequently, not all trainees will obtain experience unless they rotate to centres specifically offering such training. In this review, we give an overview of interventional bronchoscopic procedures used for the treatment and palliation of thoracic malignancy. These can be applied either with flexible or rigid bronchoscopy or a combination of both depending on the anatomical location of the tumour, the complexity of the case, bleeding risk, the operator’s expertise and preference as well as local availability. Specialised anaesthetic support and appropriately trained endoscopy staff are essential, allowing a multimodality approach to meet the high complexity of these cases. PMID:26632425

  17. Interactive annotation of textures in thoracic CT scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kockelkorn, Thessa T. J. P.; de Jong, Pim A.; Gietema, Hester A.; Grutters, Jan C.; Prokop, Mathias; van Ginneken, Bram

    2010-03-01

    This study describes a system for interactive annotation of thoracic CT scans. Lung volumes in these scans are segmented and subdivided into roughly spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) with homogeneous texture using a clustering procedure. For each 3D VOI, 72 features are calculated. The observer inspects the scan to determine which textures are present and annotates, with mouse clicks, several VOIs of each texture. Based on these annotations, a k-nearest-neighbor classifier is trained, which classifies all remaining VOIs in the scan. The algorithm then presents a slice with suggested annotations to the user, in which the user can correct mistakes. The classifier is retrained, taking into account these new annotations, and the user is presented another slice for correction. This process continues until at least 50% of all lung voxels in the scan have been classified. The remaining VOIs are classified automatically. In this way, the entire lung volume is annotated. The system has been applied to scans of patients with usual and non-specific interstitial pneumonia. The results of interactive annotation are compared to a setup in which the user annotates all predefined VOIs manually. The interactive system is 3.7 times as fast as complete manual annotation of VOIs and differences between the methods are similar to interobserver variability. This is a first step towards precise volumetric quantitation of texture patterns in thoracic CT in clinical research and in clinical practice.

  18. Dual-Energy CT: Spectrum of Thoracic Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Otrakji, Alexi; Digumarthy, Subba R; Lo Gullo, Roberto; Flores, Efren J; Shepard, Jo-Anne O; Kalra, Mannudeep K

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that dual-energy computed tomography (CT) can provide useful information in several chest-related clinical indications. Compared with single-energy CT, dual-energy CT of the chest is feasible with the use of a radiation-dose-neutral scanning protocol. This article highlights the different types of images that can be generated by using dual-energy CT protocols such as virtual monochromatic, virtual unenhanced (ie, water), and pulmonary blood volume (ie, iodine) images. The physical basis of dual-energy CT and material decomposition are explained. The advantages of the use of virtual low-monochromatic images include reduced volume of intravenous contrast material and improved contrast resolution of images. The use of virtual high-monochromatic images can reduce beam hardening and contrast streak artifacts. The pulmonary blood volume images can help differentiate various parenchymal abnormalities, such as infarcts, atelectasis, and pneumonias, as well as airway abnormalities. The pulmonary blood volume images allow quantitative and qualitative assessment of iodine distribution. The estimation of iodine concentration (quantitative assessment) provides objective analysis of enhancement. The advantages of virtual unenhanced images include differentiation of calcifications, talc, and enhanced thoracic structures. Dual-energy CT has applications in oncologic imaging, including diagnosis of thoracic masses, treatment planning, and assessment of response to treatment. Understanding the concept of dual-energy CT and its clinical application in the chest are the goals of this article. PMID:26761530

  19. Symptomatic Thoracic Spinal Cord Herniation: Case Series and Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Hawasli, Ammar H.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Wright, Neill M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Importance Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is an uncommon condition located predominantly in the thoracic spine and often associated with a remote history of a major traumatic injury. ISCH has an incompletely described presentation and unknown etiology. There is no consensus on treatment algorithm and surgical technique, and there is little data on clinical outcomes. Clinical Presentation In this case series and technical report, we describe the atypical myelopathy presentation, remote history of traumatic injury, radiographic progression, treatment, and outcomes of 5 patients treated at Washington University for symptomatic ISCH. A video showing surgical repair is presented. In contrast to classic compressive myelopathy symptomology, ISCH patients presented with an atypical myelopathy, characterized by asymmetric motor and sensory deficits and early-onset urinary incontinence. Clinical deterioration correlated with progressive spinal cord displacement and herniation observed on yearly spinal imaging in a patient imaged serially due to multiple sclerosis. Finally compared to compressive myelopathy in the thoracic spine, surgical treatment of ISH led to rapid improvement despite long duration of symptoms. Conclusion Symptomatic ISCH presents with atypical myelopathy and slow temporal progression and can be successfully managed with surgical repair. PMID:24871148

  20. Endovascular Treatment of Acute and Chronic Thoracic Aortic Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Raupach, Jan Ferko, Alexander; Lojik, Miroslav; Krajina, Antonin; Harrer, Jan; Dominik, Jan

    2007-11-15

    Our aim is to present midterm results after endovascular repair of acute and chronic blunt aortic injury. Between December 1999 and December 2005, 13 patients were endovascularly treated for blunt aortic injury. Ten patients, 8 men and 2 women, mean age 38.7 years, were treated for acute traumatic injury in the isthmus region of thoracic aorta. Stent-graftings were performed between the fifth hour and the sixth day after injury. Three patients (all males; mean age, 66 years; range, 59-71 years) were treated due to the presence of symptoms of chronic posttraumatic pseudoaneurysm of the thoracic aorta (mean time after injury, 29.4 years, range, 28-32). Fifteen stent-grafts were implanted in 13 patients. In the group with acute aortic injury one patient died due to failure of endovascular technique. Lower leg paraparesis appeared in one patient; the other eight patients were regularly followed up (1-72 months; mean, 35.6 months), without complications. In the group with posttraumatic pseudoaneurysms all three patients are alive. One patient suffered postoperatively from upper arm claudication, which was treated by carotidosubclavian bypass. We conclude that the endoluminal technique can be used successfully in the acute repair of aortic trauma and its consequences. Midterm results are satisfactory, with a low incidence of neurologic complications.

  1. Stenotic and obstructive lesions in acute dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Shumacker, H B; Isch, J H; Jolly, W W

    1975-05-01

    The present study of 33 operatively treated patients, 88 per cent of whom survived the procedure, is concerned with an important problem associated with acute thoracic aortic dissection, the stenotic and obstructive lesions of the aorta and its branches. Their variety and nature are described, as are the additional operative procedures deemed necessary at the time of the operation, immediately thereafter, or later on. Much has been learned about these difficulties from clinical and autopsy observations and especially from careful arteriographic surveys. They seem to be generally well withstood following resectional and grafting procedures upon the affected segment of the thoracic aorta. Occasionally, additional operative manipulations may be necessary at the same time, for example, interpolation of grafts between the ascending aortic graft and a coronary when the origin of the latter is sheared off by the dissection, and distal arterial manipulations when the patient still has ischemic lower extremities immediately after the primary procedure. Later operations must sometimes be performed because of persistence of complaints such as intermittent claudication. It is extremely rare that immediate reoperation is advisable because of indications of intra-abdominal ischemia. Much more can be learned from careful pre- and postoperative arteriographic study. PMID:1130882

  2. Stenotic and obstructive lesions in acute dissecting thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Shumacker, H B; Isch, J H; Jolly, W W

    1975-01-01

    The present study of 33 operatively treated patients, 88 per cent of whom survived the procedure, is concerned with an important problem associated with acute thoracic aortic dissection, the stenotic and obstructive lesions of the aorta and its branches. Their variety and nature are described, as are the additional operative procedures deemed necessary at the time of the operation, immediately thereafter, or later on. Much has been learned about these difficulties from clinical and autopsy observations and especially from careful arteriographic surveys. They seem to be generally well withstood following resectional and grafting procedures upon the affected segment of the thoracic aorta. Occasionally, additional operative manipulations may be necessary at the same time, for example, interpolation of grafts between the ascending aortic graft and a coronary when the origin of the latter is sheared off by the dissection, and distal arterial manipulations when the patient still has ischemic lower extremities immediately after the primary procedure. Later operations must sometimes be performed because of persistence of complaints such as intermittent claudication. It is extremely rare that immediate reoperation is advisable because of indications of intra-abdominal ischemia. Much more can be learned from careful pre- and postoperative arteriographic study. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:1130882

  3. Systematic survey of opinion regarding the thoracic surgery residency.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, B R; Stritter, F T; Anderson, R P; Gay, W A; Kaiser, G C; Orringer, M B; Rainer, W G; Replogle, R L

    1993-05-01

    To summarize this rather wide-ranging study, let us review the high points. The future practice of thoracic surgery will be increasingly affected by governmental factors and will have even greater technological dimensions. To do this work, we must continue to attract high-caliber individuals, and this is best accomplished by the early and continuing involvement in the educational process of strong role models from our field. These future surgeons must be motivated to do good work and should have high ethical standards as well as maturity and high intelligence. Experienced, involved faculty leading the residents through a broad program that offers graduated assumption of clinical and leadership responsibilities will facilitate the development of mature clinical judgment. Residents must be taught the clinical skills necessary to do all thoracic operations, leaving subspecialization to postresidency fellowships. The educational program should be humane in its demands and collegial in its application. It should incorporate experiences beyond the operating room, including the opportunity to read, think, and interact with local mentors and colleagues from around the country. The requirements of certification should not be so rigid as to preclude the development of different pathways to the same end. Likewise, although the accreditation process must protect the resident from exploitation, it must not be so restrictive that it does not allow for educational innovation and justifiable differences among programs. These are the thoughtful opinions of our colleagues. They deserve serious consideration. PMID:8494460

  4. A Primer on Health Economic Evaluations in Thoracic Oncology.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Melanie D; Atherly, Adam J; Bocsi, Gregary T; Camidge, D Ross

    2016-08-01

    There is growing interest for economic evaluation in oncology to illustrate the value of multiple new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. As these analyses have started to move from specialist publications into mainstream medical literature, the wider medical audience consuming this information may need additional education to evaluate it appropriately. Here we review standard practices in economic evaluation, illustrating the different methods with thoracic oncology examples where possible. When interpreting and conducting health economic studies, it is important to appraise the method, perspective, time horizon, modeling technique, discount rate, and sensitivity analysis. Guidance on how to do this is provided. To provide a method to evaluate this literature, a literature search was conducted in spring 2015 to identify economic evaluations published in the Journal of Thoracic Oncology. Articles were reviewed for their study design, and areas for improvement were noted. Suggested improvements include using more rigorous sensitivity analyses, adopting a standard approach to reporting results, and conducting complete economic evaluations. Researchers should design high-quality studies to ensure the validity of the results, and consumers of this research should interpret these studies critically on the basis of a full understanding of the methodologies used before considering any of the conclusions. As advancements occur on both the research and consumer sides, this literature can be further developed to promote the best use of resources for this field. PMID:27079184

  5. [A case report of emergency surgical repair of traumatic transection of thoracic descending aorta].

    PubMed

    Noguchi, K; Sudo, K; Kodama, J; Unno, T; Hayashi, N; Tadokoro, M; Kokubo, J; Ikeda, K; Mizuno, A; Tanaka, H

    1991-10-01

    The injury to the thoracic aorta caused by blunt chest trauma is often fatal. This case is 22-year-old male suffering from transection of the thoracic descending aorta caused by traffic accident. He was transported to our emergency room by an ambulance 15 minutes after the accident. Hundred fifty minutes after arrival to the hospital, we were rush to bring him to the operation theater suspecting serious injury of the thoracic organs in association with left hemothorax. The left standard thoracotomy disclosed the injury of the thoracic descending aorta. Simple cross clamp was applied to the thoracic descending aorta distal to the left subclavian artery for 20 minutes. Completely transected aorta was reapproximated using monofilament 3-0 polypropylene sutures with running manner. He tolerated the procedure well without any complication. His postoperative course was uneventful. He was followed up at the orthopedic department for associated hip fracture thereafter. PMID:1942696

  6. Comparison of Digital Imaging Systems for Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliesi, R.; Pugliesi, Fábio; Stanojev Pereira, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    The characteristics of three digital imaging systems for neutron radiography purposes have been compared. Two of them make use of films, CR-39 and Kodak AA, and the third makes use of a LiF scintillator, for image registration. The irradiations were performed in the neutron radiography facility installed at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. According to the obtained results, the system based on CR-39 is the slowest to obtain an image, and the best in terms of resolution but the worse in terms of contrast. The system based on Kodak AA is faster than the prior, exhibits good resolution and contrast. The system based on the scintillator is the fastest to obtain an image, and best in terms of contrast but the worse in terms of resolution.

  7. An improved method for profile radiography of piping

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.S.; Haupt, J.D.

    1996-07-01

    The Petro-Chemical industry has used profile radiography for more than thirty years to find, and evaluate, corrosion in piping systems. The technique offers a method of ``seeing into`` a piece of pipe. This allows the inspector to see the ``whole picture``. Single point ultrasonic measurements cannot provide this degree of information. Shell`s objective for studying the use of this method centered on optimizing their profile radiography technique to improve accuracy and reproducibility of wall thickness measurements. Accuracy and reproducibility of measurements are particularly important when used to determine corrosion rates. To help achieve this objective, the authors developed an inspection procedure to minimize the more prominent sources of inaccuracies associated with this technique. Along with this procedure, they also developed an associated training program. All of Shell Oil`s Pressure Equipment inspectors and key contract employees have received this training.

  8. Simulation study of Fast Neutron Radiography using GEANT4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishnoi, S.; Thomas, R. G.; Sarkar, P. S.; Datar, V. M.; Sinha, A.

    2015-02-01

    Fast neutron radiography (FNR) is an important non-destructive technique for the imaging of thick bulk material. We are designing a FNR system using a laboratory based 14 MeV D-T neutron generator [1]. Simulation studies have been carried using Monte Carlo based GEANT4 code to understand the response of the FNR system for various objects. Different samples ranging from low Z, metallic and high Z materials were simulated for their radiographic images. The quality of constructed neutron radiography images in terms of relative contrast ratio and the contrast to noise ratio were investigated for their dependence on various parameters such as thickness, voids inside high/low Z material and also for low Z material hidden behind high Z material. We report here the potential and limitations of FNR for imaging different materials and a few configurations and also the possible areas where FNR can be implemented.

  9. Neutron Radiography of Fluid Flow for Geothermal Energy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, P.; Polsky, Y.; Anovitz, L.; Carmichael, J.; Bilheux, H.; Jacobsen, D.; Hussey, D.

    Enhanced geothermal systems seek to expand the potential for geothermal energy by engineering heat exchange systems within the earth. A neutron radiography imaging method has been developed for the study of fluid flow through rock under environmental conditions found in enhanced geothermal energy systems. For this method, a pressure vessel suitable for neutron radiography was designed and fabricated, modifications to imaging instrument setups were tested, multiple contrast agents were tested, and algorithms developed for tracking of flow. The method has shown success for tracking of single phase flow through a manufactured crack in a 3.81 cm (1.5 inch) diameter core within a pressure vessel capable of confinement up to 69 MPa (10,000 psi) using a particle tracking approach with bubbles of fluorocarbon-based fluid as the "particles" and imaging with 10 ms exposures.

  10. Flash radiography with 24 GeV/c protons

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C. L.; Alrick, K. R.; Buescher, K. L.; Cagliostro, D. J.; Clark, D. A.; Clark, D. J.; Espinoza, C. J.; Ferm, E. N.; Gallegos, R. A.; Gomez, J. J.; Hogan, G. E.; King, N. S. P.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Liljestrand, R. P.; Mariam, F. G.; Merrill, F. E.; Morley, K. B.; Mottershead, C. T.; Murray, M. M.; Pazuchanics, P. D.

    2011-05-15

    The accuracy of density measurements and position resolution in flash (40 ns) radiography of thick objects with 24 Gev/c protons is investigated. A global model fit to step wedge data is shown to give a good description spanning the periodic table. The parameters obtained from the step wedge data are used to predict transmission through the French Test Object (FTO), a test object of nested spheres, to a precision better than 1%. Multiple trials have been used to show that the systematic errors are less than 2%. Absolute agreement between the average radiographic measurements of the density and the known density is 1%. Spatial resolution has been measured to be 200 {mu}m at the center of the FTO. These data verify expectations of the benefits provided by high energy hadron radiography for thick objects.

  11. Development of Compton radiography of inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Hey, D. S.; Iglesias, C.; Izumi, N.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Sorce, C.; Delettrez, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2011-05-15

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60 to 200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {mu}m and {approx}10 ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D nonuniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  12. [Development of breathing chest radiography: study of exposure timing].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Sanada, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Matsui, Takeshi; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2003-08-01

    The flat-panel detector (FPD) has been introduced into clinical practice. A modified FPD, which has the ability to obtain dynamic chest radiographs, was introduced into our hospital, and clinical testing is ongoing. Both the inspiratory and expiratory phases have to be included in dynamic chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most appropriate chest radiography signal for observation of the respiratory process. We prepared ten protocol patterns that differed in terms of respiratory phase at X-ray exposure, exposure duration, and signal multiplicity. We also performed preliminary experiments and administered several questionnaires to ten volunteers. The volunteers breathed according to vocal and visual signals, and their respiratory waves were recorded by spirometer. The most appropriate protocol was similar to the method used for conventional chest radiography. PMID:12960952

  13. Development of Compton radiography of inertial confinement fusion implosionsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasini, R.; Hatchett, S. P.; Hey, D. S.; Iglesias, C.; Izumi, N.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Sorce, C.; Delettrez, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2011-05-01

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60 to 200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of ˜10 μm and ˜10 ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of ˜0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D nonuniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  14. Monte Carlo Modeling of High-Energy Film Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.C., Jr.; Cochran, J.L.; Lamberti, V.E.

    2003-03-28

    High-energy film radiography methods, adapted in the past to performing specific tasks, must now meet increasing demands to identify defects and perform critical measurements in a wide variety of manufacturing processes. Although film provides unequaled resolution for most components and assemblies, image quality must be enhanced with much more detailed information to identify problems and qualify features of interest inside manufactured items. The work described is concerned with improving current 9 MeV nondestructive practice by optimizing the important parameters involved in film radiography using computational methods. In order to follow important scattering effects produced by electrons, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code was used with advanced, highly parallel computer systems. The work has provided a more detailed understanding of latent image formation at high X-ray energies, and suggests that improvements can be made in our ability to identify defects and to obtain much more detail in images of fine features.

  15. Development of Compton Radiography Diagnostics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; Hatchett, S P; Hey, D S; Izumi, N; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Mackinnon, A J; Delettrez, J; Glebov, V; Stoeckl, C

    2010-11-16

    An important diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion will be time-resolved radiographic imaging of the dense cold fuel surrounding the hot spot. The measurement technique is based on point-projection radiography at photon energies from 60-200 keV where the Compton effect is the dominant contributor to the opacity of the fuel or pusher. We have successfully applied this novel Compton Radiography technique to the study of the final compression of directly driven plastic capsules at the OMEGA facility. The radiographs have a spatial and temporal resolution of {approx}10 {micro}m and {approx}10ps, respectively. A statistical accuracy of {approx}0.5% in transmission per resolution element is achieved, allowing localized measurements of areal mass densities to 7% accuracy. The experimental results show 3D non-uniformities and lower than 1D expected areal densities attributed to drive asymmetries and hydroinstabilities.

  16. AEC set-up optimisation with computed radiography imaging.

    PubMed

    Mazzocchi, S; Belli, G; Busoni, S; Gori, C; Menchi, I; Salucci, P; Taddeucci, A; Zatelli, G

    2005-01-01

    Phototimer set-up is a critical procedure for dose and image quality optimisation in computed radiography (CR) systems. While a conventional radiography automatic exposure control device (AEC) can be calibrated in order to gain a constant optical density on the film independent of beam quality and patient size, CR detectors present a high dynamic range which allows a much larger dose interval, but with different image quality levels. CR leads to a less frequent exam repetition, but may produce quite noisy images if the exposure level on the plate is not correct. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a CR plate (Agfa MD40) in order to optimally calibrate an AEC device. The plate response has been characterised in terms of digital signal, exposure on the plate and signal-to-noise ratio for different beam qualities, in a patient of standard size. PMID:16461503

  17. Proton radiography and tomography with application to proton therapy

    PubMed Central

    Allinson, N M; Evans, P M

    2015-01-01

    Proton radiography and tomography have long promised benefit for proton therapy. Their first suggestion was in the early 1960s and the first published proton radiographs and CT images appeared in the late 1960s and 1970s, respectively. More than just providing anatomical images, proton transmission imaging provides the potential for the more accurate estimation of stopping-power ratio inside a patient and hence improved treatment planning and verification. With the recent explosion in growth of clinical proton therapy facilities, the time is perhaps ripe for the imaging modality to come to the fore. Yet many technical challenges remain to be solved before proton CT scanners become commonplace in the clinic. Research and development in this field is currently more active than at any time with several prototype designs emerging. This review introduces the principles of proton radiography and tomography, their historical developments, the raft of modern prototype systems and the primary design issues. PMID:26043157

  18. Proton radiography and tomography with application to proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Poludniowski, G; Allinson, N M; Evans, P M

    2015-09-01

    Proton radiography and tomography have long promised benefit for proton therapy. Their first suggestion was in the early 1960s and the first published proton radiographs and CT images appeared in the late 1960s and 1970s, respectively. More than just providing anatomical images, proton transmission imaging provides the potential for the more accurate estimation of stopping-power ratio inside a patient and hence improved treatment planning and verification. With the recent explosion in growth of clinical proton therapy facilities, the time is perhaps ripe for the imaging modality to come to the fore. Yet many technical challenges remain to be solved before proton CT scanners become commonplace in the clinic. Research and development in this field is currently more active than at any time with several prototype designs emerging. This review introduces the principles of proton radiography and tomography, their historical developments, the raft of modern prototype systems and the primary design issues. PMID:26043157

  19. Radiography and ultrasonic calculation workbooks: installation and use

    SciTech Connect

    Rikard, D; Dolan, K

    2000-03-24

    The radiography and ultrasonic calculation workbooks are intended to assist Level I, II and III NDE personnel in calculations used in routine job applications. These workbooks are an upgraded version of Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} spreadsheets, which were originally set up in October 1988, using a Macintosh Plus{reg_sign} computer and Microsoft Excel{reg_sign} version 1.5. A description of these was released as ''Computerized Calculations for Radiography and Ultrasonics'', UCRL-JC-105419 in November 1990 and published in Materials Evaluation, Volume 49/Number 4, in April 1991. Over the years as Microsoft improved the capabilities of the Excel program to include the abilities to make sketches and to have multiple tabbed pages in a document called a ''workbook'' we have now modified the calculation spreadsheets to include these enhancements. Following is a short description on how to install and use these workbooks on a Macintosh or PC.

  20. The MU-RAY detector for muon radiography of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasio, A.; Ambrosino, F.; Basta, D.; Bonechi, L.; Brianzi, M.; Bross, A.; Callier, S.; Caputo, A.; Ciaranfi, R.; Cimmino, L.; D'Alessandro, R.; D'Auria, L.; de La Taille, C.; Energico, S.; Garufi, F.; Giudicepietro, F.; Lauria, A.; Macedonio, G.; Martini, M.; Masone, V.; Mattone, C.; Montesi, M. C.; Noli, P.; Orazi, M.; Passeggio, G.; Peluso, R.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Raux, L.; Rubinov, P.; Saracino, G.; Scarlini, E.; Scarpato, G.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Starodubtsev, O.; Strolin, P.; Taketa, A.; Tanaka, H. K. M.; Vanzanella, A.

    2013-12-01

    The MU-RAY detector has been designed to perform muon radiography of volcanoes. The possible use on the field introduces several constraints. First the electric power consumption must be reduced to the minimum, so that the detector can be solar-powered. Moreover it must be robust and transportable, for what concerns the front-end electronics and data acquisition. A 1 m2 prototype has been constructed and is taking data at Mt. Vesuvius. The detector consists of modules of 32 scintillator bars with wave length shifting fibers and silicon photomultiplier read-out. A dedicated front-end electronics has been developed, based on the SPIROC ASIC. An introduction to muon radiography principles, the MU-RAY detector description and results obtained in laboratory will be presented.

  1. Study of a loop heat pipe using neutron radiography.

    PubMed

    Cimbala, John M; Brenizer, Jack S; Chuang, Abel Po-Ya; Hanna, Shane; Thomas Conroy, C; El-Ganayni, A A; Riley, David R

    2004-10-01

    An explanation is given of what a loop heat pipe (LHP) is, and how it works. It is then shown that neutron imaging (both real time neutron radioscopy and single exposure neutron radiography) is an effective experimental tool for the study of LHPs. Specifically, neutron imaging has helped to identify and correct a cooling water distribution problem in the condenser, and has enabled visualization of two-phase flow (liquid and vapor) in various components of the LHP. In addition, partial wick dry-out, a phenomenon of great importance in the effective operation of LHPs, is potentially identifiable with neutron imaging. It is anticipated that neutron radioscopy and radiography will greatly contribute to our understanding of LHP operation, and will lead to improvement of LHP modeling and design. PMID:15246420

  2. Proton Radiography of a Thermal Explosion in PBX 9501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilowitz, Laura; Henson, Bryan; Romero, Jerry; Asay, Blaine; Sandstrom, Mary

    2007-06-01

    The understanding of thermal explosions and burn propagation lags that of detonations and shock propagation. Diagnostics such as high energy radiography have been used to image shocks, but have been previously precluded from use in thermal explosions due to their stringent timing requirements: shock propagation can be synchronized to an external diagnostic while thermal explosion can not. This issue is solved by following the evolution of the ignition volume in a thermal explosion and using a laser pulse to provide a temperature jump in that central volume during the final thermal runaway leading to ignition. Details of the laser heating which minimize the perturbation of the thermal explosion will be discussed with comparisons between auto-ignited and laser ignited tests. Thermal explosion experiments have been conducted at the Los Alamos Proton Radiography facility and have yielded images of the evolution of ignition, post-ignition burn propagation, and case failure in a radially confined cylinder of PBX 9501.

  3. Proton Radiography of a Thermal Explosion in PBX9501

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilowitz, L.; Henson, B. F.; Romero, J. J.; Sandstrom, M. M.; Asay, B. W.; Schwartz, C.; Saunders, A.; Merrill, F.; Morris, C.; Murray, M. M.; McNeil, W. V.; Marr-Lyon, M.; Rightley, P. M.

    2007-12-01

    The understanding of thermal explosions and burn propagation lags that of detonations and shock propagation. Diagnostics such as high energy radiography have been used to image shocks, but have been previously precluded from use in thermal explosions due to their stringent timing requirements: shock propagation can be synchronized to an external diagnostic while thermal explosion can not. This issue is solved by following the evolution of the ignition volume in a thermal explosion and using a laser pulse to provide a temperature jump in that central volume during the final thermal runaway leading to ignition. Thermal explosion experiments have been conducted at the Los Alamos Proton Radiography facility and have yielded images of the evolution of ignition, post-ignition burn propagation, and case failure in a radially confined cylinder of PBX 9501. This paper presents images taken during the hours long quasistatic heating, the final minutes of thermal runaway, and the post ignition burn propagation.

  4. Human performance analysis of industrial radiography radiation exposure events

    SciTech Connect

    Reece, W.J.; Hill, S.G.

    1995-12-01

    A set of radiation overexposure event reports were reviewed as part of a program to examine human performance in industrial radiography for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Incident records for a seven year period were retrieved from an event database. Ninety-five exposure events were initially categorized and sorted for further analysis. Descriptive models were applied to a subset of severe overexposure events. Modeling included: (1) operational sequence tables to outline the key human actions and interactions with equipment, (2) human reliability event trees, (3) an application of an information processing failures model, and (4) an extrapolated use of the error influences and effects diagram. Results of the modeling analyses provided insights into the industrial radiography task and suggested areas for further action and study to decrease overexposures.

  5. Lung nodules detection in chest radiography: image components analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Tao; Mou, Xuanqin; Yang, Ying; Yan, Hao

    2009-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of different components of chest image on performances of both human observer and channelized Fisher-Hotelling model (CFH) in nodule detection task. Irrelevant and relevant components were separated from clinical chest radiography by employing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) methods. Human observer performance was evaluated in two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) on original clinical images and anatomical structure only images obtained by PCA methods. Channelized Fisher-Hotelling model with Laguerre-Gauss basis function was evaluated to predict human performance. We show that relevant component is the primary factor influencing on nodule detection in chest radiography. There is obvious difference of detectability between human observer and CFH model for nodule detection in images only containing anatomical structure. CFH model should be used more carefully.

  6. Advances in pulsed-power-driven radiography system design.

    SciTech Connect

    Portillo, Salvador; Hinshelwood, David D.; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Cordova, Steve Ray; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Weber, Bruce V.; Welch, Dale Robert; Shelton, Bradley Allen; Sceiford, Matthew E.; Cooperstein, Gerald; Gignac, Raymond Edward; Puetz, Elizabeth A.; Rose, David Vincent; Barker, Dennis L.; Van De Valde, David M.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Wilkins, Frank Lee; Molina, Isidro; Jaramillo, Deanna M.; Swanekamp, Stephen Brian; Commisso, Robert J.; Bailey, Vernon Leslie; Maenchen, John Eric; Johnson, David Lee; Griffin, Fawn A.; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Smith, Ian

    2004-07-01

    Flash x-ray radiography has undergone a transformation in recent years with the resurgence of interest in compact, high intensity pulsed-power-driven electron beam sources. The radiographic requirements and the choice of a consistent x-ray source determine the accelerator parameters, which can be met by demonstrated Induction Voltage Adder technologies. This paper reviews the state of the art and the recent advances which have improved performance by over an order of magnitude in beam brightness and radiographic utility.

  7. PyRAT - python radiography analysis tool (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Temple, Brian A; Buescher, Kevin L; Armstrong, Jerawan C

    2011-01-14

    PyRAT is a radiography analysis tool used to reconstruction images of unknown 1-0 objects. The tool is written in Python and developed for use on LINUX and Windows platforms. The tool is capable of performing nonlinear inversions of the images with minimal manual interaction in the optimization process. The tool utilizes the NOMAD mixed variable optimization tool to perform the optimization.

  8. Optimizing the tonescale display of computed radiography images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, Walter; Slone, Richard M.; Hoyle, Beverly A.; Jing, Xhenxue; Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.

    1996-03-01

    Computed radiography (CR) systems transform exposures incident on the imaging plates to image densities using examination specific tonescale display algorithms. A procedure is proposed which permits CR users to optimize these algorithms based on the premise that image contrast should be optimized. This procedure was applied to portable chest x-rays on a medical intensive care unit. Changes made to the display parameters supplied by the manufacturer resulted in an improved quality of the displayed image.

  9. An overexposure in industrial radiography using an 192Ir radionuclide.

    PubMed

    Jalil, A; Molla, M A

    1989-07-01

    An industrial radiographer was accidentally exposed to a high dose of ionizing radiation from an 192Ir source during radiography of weldjoints in gas pipelines. Some symptoms of high radiation exposure occurred immediately after the incident. The clinical effect of skin erythema developed within 7 d, leading to progressive tissue deterioration. The dose to the body was estimated to be about 2-3 Gy, and the dose to the fingertips was approximately 24 Gy. PMID:2526106

  10. Displacement Maps in Taylor Impact Using Speckle Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, S. G.; Braithwaite, C. H.; Proud, W. G.; Williamson, D. M.

    2006-07-01

    A method was developed at the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge University) to determine the internal displacement characteristics of a polymer rod undergoing classic Taylor impact. Using a layer of lead filings on the central plane of the rod and Digital Speckle Radiography with flash x-rays it was possible to build up a dynamic displacement map. This technique can be used to derive material properties such as yield strength and provide data for model validation.

  11. Fast neutron radiography research at ANL-W

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R.T.; Natale, M.D.

    1996-06-01

    Thirty-seven different elements were tested for their suitability as converter screens for direct and indirect fast neutron radiography. The use of commercial X-ray scintillator screens containing YTaO{sub 4}, LaOBr:Tm, YTaO{sub 4}:Nb, YTaO{sub 4}:Tm, CaWO{sub 4}, BaSO{sub 4}:Sr, and GdO{sub 2}S:Tb was also explored for direct fast neutron radiography. For the indirect radiographic process, only one element, holmium, was found to be better than copper. Iron was also found to work as well as copper. All other elements that were tested were inferior to copper for indirect fast neutron radiography. For direct fast neutron radiography, the results were markedly different. Copper was found to be a poor material to sue, as thirty-two of the elements performed better than the copper. Tantalum was found to be the best material to use. Several other materials that also performed remarkably well include, in order of decreasing utility, gold, lutetium, germanium, dysprosium, and thulium. Several interesting results were obtained for the commercial X-ray scintillator screens. Most notably, useful radiographs were produced with all of the various scintillation screens. However, the screens containing YTaO{sub 4}:Nb offered the greatest film densities for the shortest exposure times. Screens using GdSO{sub 4}:Tb provided the best resolution and clearest images at the sacrifice of exposure time. Also, as previous researchers found, scintillator screens offered significantly shorter exposure times than activation foils.

  12. Imaging Brunelleschi's cupola wall using muon scattering radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Guardincerri, Elena

    2015-09-16

    This PowerPoint presentation describes the cupola's structure and current reinforcements, reasoning behind why muon radiography would be helpful. A demonstration project is described where a similar wall was constructed to illustrate the potential benefits to Italian authorities; Requirements and a potential plan were created and collaboration to make it happen was deemed to be possible among LANL, Toshiba, the Parma and Florence Universities and the Opera del Duomo,

  13. Dedicated phantom materials for spectral radiography and CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikhaliev, Polad M.

    2012-03-01

    As x-ray imaging technology moves from conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT) to spectral radiography and CT, dedicated phantom materials are needed for spectral imaging. The spectral phantom materials should accurately represent the energy-dependent mass-attenuation coefficients of different types of tissues. Although tissue-equivalent phantom materials were previously developed for CT and radiation therapy applications, these materials are suboptimal for spectral radiography and CT; they are not compatible with contrast agents, do not represent many of the tissue types and do not provide accurate values of attenuation characteristics of tissue. This work provides theoretical framework and a practical method for developing tissue-equivalent spectral phantom materials with a required set of parameters. The samples of the tissue-equivalent spectral phantom materials were developed, tested and characterized. The spectral phantom materials were mixed with iodine, gold and calcium contrast agents and evaluated. The materials were characterized by CT imaging and x-ray transmission experiments. The fabricated materials had nearly identical densities, mass attenuation coefficients, effective atomic numbers and electron densities as compared to corresponding tissue materials presented in the ICRU-44 report. The experimental results have shown good volume uniformity and inter-sample uniformity (repeatability of sample fabrication) of the fabricated materials. The spectral phantom materials were fabricated under laboratory conditions from readily available and inexpensive components. It was concluded that the presented theoretical framework and fabrication method of dedicated spectral phantom materials could be useful for researchers and developers working in the new area of spectral radiography and CT. Independently, the results could also be useful for other applications, such as radiation therapy.

  14. Multi-energy ZnSe-based radiography against terrorism: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenov, Sergey V.; Ryzhikov, Vladimir D.; Smith, Craig F.; Wood, Dennis; Kostioukevitych, Sergey; Lisetska, Elena

    2006-08-01

    Multi-energy radiography is a new direction in non-destructive testing. Its specific feature is separate detection of penetrating radiation in several energy channels. Multi-energy radiography allows quantitative determination of the atomic composition of objects. This is its principal advantage over conventional radiography. In particular, dual-energy radiography allows determination of the effective atomic number of a material with an accuracy of up to 80-90%. Development of three-energy radiography and radiography of higher multiplicity makes it possible to further improve the reconstruction of an object's chemical composition. This presents the possibility, for example, of detection of explosives and other illegal objects in luggage with a reliability approaching 95-98%. These developments can find application not only in anti-terrorist activities, but also in industrial testing and nuclear medicine.

  15. Radiation dose estimation of patients undergoing lumbar spine radiography

    PubMed Central

    Gyekye, Prince Kwabena; Simon, Adu; Geoffrey, Emi-Reynolds; Johnson, Yeboah; Stephen, Inkoom; Engmann, Cynthia Kaikor; Samuel, Wotorchi-Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Radiation dose to organs of 100 adult patients undergoing lumbar spine (LS) radiography at a University Hospital have been assessed. Free in air kerma measurement using an ionization chamber was used for the patient dosimetry. Organ and effective dose to the patients were estimated using PCXMC (version 1.5) software. The organs that recorded significant dose due to LS radiography were lungs, stomach, liver, adrenals, kidney, pancreas, spleen, galbladder, and the heart. It was observed that the stomach recorded the highest dose (48.2 ± 1.2 μGy) for LS anteroposterior (AP). The spleen also recorded the highest dose (41.2 ± 0.5 μGy) for LS lateral (LAT). The mean entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) of LS LAT (122.2 μGy) was approximately twice that of LS AP (76.3 μGy), but the effective dose for both examinations were approximately the same (LS LAT = 8.6 μSv and LS AP = 10.4 μSv). The overall stochastic health effect of radiation to patients due to LS radiography in the University Hospital is independent of the projection of the examination (AP or LAT). PMID:24672153

  16. A New Neutron Radiography / Tomography / Imaging Station DINGO at OPAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbe, U.; Randall, T.; Hughes, C.; Davidson, G.; Pangelis, S.; Kennedy, S. J.

    A new neutron radiography / tomography / imaging instrument DINGO was built to support the area of neutron imaging research (neutron radiography/tomography) at ANSTO. The instrument is designed for an international user community and for routine quality control for defense, industrial, cultural heritage and archaeology applications. In the industrial field it provides a useful tool for studying cracking and defects in steel or other metals. The instrument construction was completed at the end of June 2013 and it is currently in the hot commissioning stage. The usable neutron flux is mainly determined by the neutron source, but it depends on the instrument position and the resolution. The instrument position for DINGO is the thermal neutron beam port HB-2 in the reactor hall. The measured flux (using gold foil) for an L/D of approximately 500 at HB-2 is 5.3*107 [n/cm2s], which is in a similar range to other facilities. A special feature of DINGO is the in-pile collimator position in front of the main shutter at HB-2. The collimator offers two pinholes with a possible L/D of 500 and 1000. A secondary collimator separates the two beams by blocking one and positions another aperture for the other beam. The whole instrument operates in two different positions, one for high resolution and one for high speed. In the current configuration DINGO measured first radiography and tomography data sets on friendly user test samples.

  17. Proton radiography based on near-threshold Cerenkov radiation

    DOEpatents

    van Bibber, Karl A.; Dietrich, Frank S.

    2003-01-01

    A Cerenkov imaging system for charged particle radiography that determines the energy loss of the charged particle beam passing through an object. This energy loss information provides additional detail on target densities when used with traditional radiographic techniques like photon or x-ray radiography. In this invention a probe beam of 800 MeV to 50 GeV/c charged particles is passed through an object to be imaged, an imaging magnetic spectrometer, to a silicon aerogel Cerenkov radiator where the charged particles emitted Cerenkov light proportional to their velocity. At the same beam focal plane, a particle scintillator produces a light output proportional to the incident beam flux. Optical imaging systems relay the Cerenkov and scintillator information to CCD's or other measurement equipment. A ratio between the Cerenkov and scintillator is formed, which is directly proportional to the line density of the object for each pixel measured. By rotating the object, tomographic radiography may be performed. By applying pulses of beam, discrete time-step movies of dynamic objects may be made.

  18. The use of a radiopaque contrast medium in endodontic radiography.

    PubMed

    Shearer, A C; Wasti, F; Wilson, N H

    1996-03-01

    A series of in vitro studies were carried out to investigate the use and application of a radiopaque contrast medium in conventional periapical dental radiography for the diagnosis and evaluation of root canal systems. The water-soluble radiopaque contrast medium was introduced into the root canals of 30 first permanent maxillary and 30 first permanent mandibular molar teeth. The radiographic images of these teeth with and without radiopaque contrast medium in the root canal systems were compared and contrasted. Further comparisons were made with the same teeth rendered transparent. The results indicate that by standardizing the diagnostic criteria the inter-examiner reliability was in good agreement; it was independent of the radiographic technique used. The validity of the radiographs was enhanced by the use of the radiopaque contrast medium. The results confirm that, with the use of a radiopaque contrast medium, images of root canal systems are easier to read and interpret than plain radiographic images of root canal systems. The use of radiopaque contrast medium in endodontic radiography may be a valuable aid in the diagnosis and evaluation of root canal systems. This system would complement rather than replace plain radiography. PMID:9206431

  19. The implementation of digital sensors in maxillofacial radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Stelt, Paul F.

    2001-03-01

    Systems for intra-oral digital radiography in dentistry can be divided into two main groups: direct sensor systems and semi-direct or indirect sensor systems. Direct imaging is performed by a two-dimensional array of sensor elements. The size of a typical intra-oral CCD-sensor is approximately from 18 mm×24 mm to 30 mm×40 mm; the active area is somewhat smaller, because of the thickness of the packaging of the sensor. CCD-based imaging is now also available for panoramic and cephalometric radiography. Indirect (semi-direct) imaging is based on storage phosphor plates (SPP) imaging. The plate is positioned in the mouth of the patient behind the teeth, and exposed to radiation. The positioning of the sensor plate resembles very much the way conventional radiographic films are handled. SPP technology is also available for panoramic and cephalometric imaging. The purpose of radiography is to provide information to solve a particular diagnostic task. It is therefore very likely that the role of dedicated diagnostic software will become essential in the near future. The importance of dedicated software for diagnostic imaging will increase. As a result of worldwide research, more procedures will become available, for research as well as for use in general practice.

  20. Neutron fan beam source for neutron radiography purpose

    SciTech Connect

    Le Tourneur, P.; Bach, P.; Dance, W. E.

    1999-06-10

    The development of the DIANE neutron radiography system included a sealed-tube neutron generator for this purpose and the optimization of the system's neutron beam quality in terms of divergence and useful thermal neutron yield for each 14-MeV neutron produced. Following this development, the concept of a DIANE fan beam source is herewith introduced. The goal which drives this design is one of economy: by simply increasing the aperture dimension of a conventional DIANE beam in one plane of its collimator axis to a small-angle, fan-shaped output, the useful beam area for neutron radiography would be substantially increased. Thus with the same source, the throughput, or number of objects under examination at any given time, would be augmented significantly. Presented here are the design of this thermal neutron source and the initial Monte Carlo calculations. Taking into account the experience with the conventional DIANE neutron radiography system, these result are discussed and the potential of and interest in such a fan-beam source are explored.