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Sample records for radioinduced skin burns

  1. [Importance of local skin treatments during radiotherapy for prevention and treatment of radio-induced epithelitis].

    PubMed

    Chargari, C; Fromantin, I; Kirova, Y M

    2009-07-01

    Radio-epithelitis represents a common problem, for which treatments are characterized by a great heterogeneity. The present review of literature focuses on data referenced in Pubmed((c))/Medline((c)) and published in French/English. Despite a real preclinical rationale, aloe vera and trolamine failed to demonstrate any benefit in the prophylactic settings. In a prospective assessment phase III assessment, Calendula Officinalis was shown to be superior to trolamine for the prevention of radio-epithelitis. In the curative settings, sucrafalte failed to demonstrate any benefit. The benefit of dermocorticoids was suggested in terms of erythema and itching. Promising clinical results are available with hyaluronic acid (MA S065D and Ialugen) and silver leaf may reduce the intensity of cutaneous radio-induced side effects. Data from the literature are conflicting, making real the difficulty to adopt from clinical trials any proof-of-principle strategy. Considering these uncertainties, several strategies are allowed. New topics are under investigation. Present data from the literature highlight the need for further trials, in order to propose evidence-based treatments and to harmonize clinical practice. PMID:19524470

  2. Radiofrequency Ablation Complicated by Skin Burn

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, S.D.; Huffman, N.P.; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Brown, Daniel B.

    2011-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has been increasingly utilized as a minimally invasive treatment for primary and metastatic liver tumors, as well as tumors in the kidneys, bones, and adrenal glands. The development of high-current RF ablation has subsequently led to an increased risk of thermal skin injuries at the grounding pad site. The incidence of skin burns in recent studies ranges from 0.1–3.2% for severe skin burns (second-/third-degree), and from 5–33% for first-degree burns.1–3 PMID:22654258

  3. Ultrasonic technique for characterizing skin burns

    DOEpatents

    Goans, Ronald E.; Cantrell, Jr., John H.; Meyers, F. Bradford; Stambaugh, Harry D.

    1978-01-01

    This invention, a method for ultrasonically determining the depth of a skin burn, is based on the finding that the acoustical impedance of burned tissue differs sufficiently from that of live tissue to permit ultrasonic detection of the interface between the burn and the underlying unburned tissue. The method is simple, rapid, and accurate. As compared with conventional practice, it provides the important advantage of permitting much earlier determination of whether a burn is of the first, second, or third degree. In the case of severe burns, the usual two - to three-week delay before surgery may be reduced to about 3 days or less.

  4. Method and apparatus to measure the depth of skin burns

    DOEpatents

    Dickey, Fred M.; Holswade, Scott C.

    2002-01-01

    A new device for measuring the depth of surface tissue burns based on the rate at which the skin temperature responds to a sudden differential temperature stimulus. This technique can be performed without physical contact with the burned tissue. In one implementation, time-dependent surface temperature data is taken from subsequent frames of a video signal from an infrared-sensitive video camera. When a thermal transient is created, e.g., by turning off a heat lamp directed at the skin surface, the following time-dependent surface temperature data can be used to determine the skin burn depth. Imaging and non-imaging versions of this device can be implemented, thereby enabling laboratory-quality skin burn depth imagers for hospitals as well as hand-held skin burn depth sensors the size of a small pocket flashlight for field use and triage.

  5. A rare complication of radiofrequency ablation: skin burn.

    PubMed

    Ertuğrul, İlker; Karagöz, Tevfik; Aykan, Hayrettin H

    2015-10-01

    Radiofrequency ablation is the first-line treatment for arrhythmias with high success and low complication rates. Skin burns have been reported rarely after electrophysiological procedures, especially procedures in which higher-power energy is used and multiple ablations are performed. Here, we report a case of skin burn that developed after radiofrequency ablation for ventricular tachycardia originating from the right ventricular outflow tract. PMID:25613639

  6. 'Getting under our skin': Introducing banked allograft skin to burn surgery in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Allorto, Nikki; Rogers, Alan David; Rode, Heinz

    2016-09-01

    Deceased donor skin possesses many of the properties of the ideal biological dressing, and a well-stocked skin bank has become a critically important asset for the modern burn surgeon. Without it, managing patients with extensive burns and wounds becomes far more challenging, and outcomes are significantly worse. With the recent establishment of such a bank in South Africa, the challenge facing the medical fraternity is to facilitate tissue donation so that allograft skin supply can match the enormous demand. PMID:27601105

  7. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome due to burn wound infection

    PubMed Central

    Farroha, A.; Frew, Q.; Jabir, S.; Dziewulski, P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction. The staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is an acute exfoliation of the skin caused by exfoliative toxins A and B. Although Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of burn wound infection, SSSS following burn wound infection is rare. Method. A retrospective review of all SSSS cases admitted to a regional burns service between January 2008 and January 2012 was undertaken. Results. Two cases of SSSS were reported during this time period as occurring following burns injury. The first case was a 17-month-old boy who had been hospitalized for a conservative treatment of 6% total body surface area (TBSA) mixed depth scald burns. On day four he developed exfoliation of 85% TBSA. The second case was a ten-month-old boy who sustained a 1% TBSA scald burn and was managed conservatively in the community by his general practitioner. On day five, he developed exfoliation of 80% TBSA. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the burn wounds in both cases. Conclusion: These two cases show that it is vital for burns surgeons and intensive care specialists to be aware of the possibility of SSSS occurring in patients with burn injuries with its potential devastating effects. PMID:23467312

  8. In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin P.; Bennett, David B.; Bajwa, Neha; Barnett, Kelli S.; Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

    2012-04-01

    A reflective, pulsed terahertz (THz) imaging system was used to acquire high-resolution (d10-90/ λ~1.925) images of deep, partial thickness burns in a live rat. The rat's abdomen was burned with a brass brand heated to ~220°C and pressed against the skin with contact pressure for ~10 sec. The burn injury was imaged beneath a Mylar window every 15 to 30 min for up to 7 h. Initial images display an increase in local water concentration of the burned skin as evidenced by a marked increase in THz reflectivity, and this likely correlates to the post-injury inflammatory response. After ~1 h the area of increased reflectivity consolidated to the region of skin that had direct contact with the brand. Additionally, a low reflecting ring of tissue could be observed surrounding the highly reflective burned tissue. We hypothesize that these regions of increased and decreased reflectivity correlate to the zones of coagulation and stasis that are the classic foundation of burn wound histopathology. While further investigations are necessary to confirm this hypothesis, if true, it likely represents the first in vivo THz images of these pathologic zones and may represent a significant step forward in clinical application of THz technology.

  9. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... are burns treated? In many cases, topical antibiotics (skin creams or ointments) are used to prevent infection. For third-degree burns and some second-degree ones, immediate blood transfusion and/or extra fluids ... is skin grafting? There are two types of skin grafts. ...

  10. The nitric acid burn trauma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Kolios, L; Striepling, E; Kolios, G; Rudolf, K-D; Dresing, K; Dörges, J; Stürmer, K M; Stürmer, E K

    2010-04-01

    Nitric acid burn traumata often occur in the chemical industry. A few publications addressing this topic can be found in the medical database, and there are no reports about these traumata in children. A total of 24 patients, average 16.6 years of age, suffering from nitric acid traumata were treated. Wound with I degrees burns received open therapy with panthenol-containing creams. Wound of II degrees and higher were initially treated by irrigation with sterile isotonic saline solution and then by covering with silver-sulphadiazine dressing. Treatment was changed on the second day to fluid-absorbent foam bandages for superficial wounds (up to IIa degrees depth) and occlusive, antiseptic moist bandages in combination with enzymatic substances for IIb degrees -III degrees burns. After the delayed demarcation, necrectomy and mesh-graft transplantation were performed. All wounds healed adequately. Chemical burn traumata with nitric acid lead to specific yellow- to brown-stained wounds with slower accumulation of eschar and slower demarcation compared with thermal burns. Remaining wound eschar induced no systemic inflammation reaction. After demarcation, skin transplantation can be performed on the wounds, as is commonly done. The distinguishing feature of nitric-acid-induced chemical burns is the difficulty in differentiation and classification of burn depth. An immediate lavage should be followed by silver sulphadiazine treatment. Thereafter, fluid-absorbent foam bandages or occlusive, antiseptic moist bandages should be used according to the burn depth. Slow demarcation caused a delay in performing surgical treatments. PMID:19875347

  11. [Plutonium-239 metabolism in chemical skin burns].

    PubMed

    Il'in, L A; Beliaev, I K

    1983-01-01

    Certain peculiarities of metabolism of plutonium-239 were revealed after skin applications there of in solutions of nitrogen acid, tributyl phosphate and hexychloro-butadiene. It was shown that the absorption of plutonium-239 in 0.1 NHO3 solution for 3 days made up 0.02% of the quantity applied. The increase in the acid concentration up to 0.5-10 N was accompanied by a 2.5-5-fold increase in the resorption. The application of the nuclide in organic solvents was characterized by a 4-5-fold increase in its accretion within the body. There was a 25-fold increase in the absorption of 239Pu after the combined effect of the acid and the organic solvents on the skin. PMID:6657939

  12. Thermal parametric imaging in the evaluation of skin burn depth.

    PubMed

    Rumiński, Jacek; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Renkielska, Alicja; Nowakowski, Antoni

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the extent to which infrared (IR) thermal imaging may be used for skin burn depth evaluation. The analysis can be made on the basis of the development of a thermal model of the burned skin. Different methods such as the traditional clinical visual approach and the IR imaging modalities of static IR thermal imaging, active IR thermal imaging and active-dynamic IR thermal imaging (ADT) are analyzed from the point of view of skin burn depth diagnostics. In ADT, a new approach is proposed on the basis of parametric image synthesis. Calculation software is implemented for single-node and distributed systems. The properties of all the methods are verified in experiments using phantoms and subsequently in vivo with animals with a reference histopathological examination. The results indicate that it is possible to distinguish objectively and quantitatively burns which will heal spontaneously within three weeks of infliction and which should be treated conservatively from those which need surgery because they will not heal within this period. PMID:17278587

  13. Skin burns after laser exposure: histological analysis and predictive simulation.

    PubMed

    Museux, Nathanaëlle; Perez, Laetitia; Autrique, Laurent; Agay, Diane

    2012-08-01

    Thermal effects of laser irradiation on skin are investigated in this paper. The main purpose is to determine the damage level induced by a laser exposure. Potential burns induced by two lasers (wavelength 808nm and 1940nm) are studied and animal experimentations are performed. Several exposure durations and laser powers are tested. Based on previous works, a mathematical model dedicated to temperature prediction is proposed and finite-element method is implemented. This numerical predictive tool based on the bioheat equation takes into account heat losses due to the convection on skin surface, blood circulatory and also evaporation. Thermal behavior of each skin layer is also described considering distinct thermal and optical properties. Since the mathematical model is able to estimate damage levels, histological analyses were also carried through. It is confirmed that the mathematical model is an efficient predictive tool for estimation of damage caused by lasers and that thermal effects sharply depend on laser wavelength. PMID:22237052

  14. Modeling thermal skin burns on a personal computer.

    PubMed

    Diller, K R

    1998-01-01

    Mathematic models have been used for several decades to predict the severity of burn injury that would result from application of a given thermal stress to the surface of the skin. Solution of the governing mathematic equations has been achieved either by analytic methods, with required simplifying assumptions that may compromise the rigor with which the results are applied, or by numeric methods, which require programming of finite element or finite difference codes in computer languages. In recent years microcomputer hardware and the associated software have become both powerful and relatively simple to use, and the price per unit of computing capability has dropped dramatically. Thus it is now possible to perform on a desktop machine with relative case calculations that previously might have been prohibitively complex or expensive. Modeling of burn injuries fits into this category. This article presents a straightforward method for implementing a finite difference solution to the burn process through the combination of a Macintosh personal computer and a widely used spreadsheet software program; this hardware and software combination has been used widely for a broad spectrum of general computing activities. This article presents a model for a surface thermal burn, as implemented for solution on a spreadsheet, with example runs to illustrate and verify the method. PMID:9789178

  15. Photoacoustic diagnosis of edema in rat burned skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Ken; Sato, Shunichi; Hatanaka, Kosuke; Saitoh, Daizoh; Ashida, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Obara, Minoru

    2010-02-01

    Diagnosis of edema, abnormal accumulation of water in tissue, is important for managing various traumatic injuries and diseases. However, there is no established method for real-time, noninvasive monitoring of edema. In severe extensive burn injuries, edema develops both topically and systemically due to the increased permeability of blood vessels. In this study, we examined photoacoustic (PA) monitoring of edema formed in rat burn models. Deep dermal burn with a 20% total body surface area was made in the dorsal skin of rats. Burn and its adjacent nonburn tissues were irradiated with 6-ns light pulses at 1430 nm, which is one of the absorption peak wavelengths of water in the near infrared. The PA signal amplitude increased until 12 - 24 hr postburn, and thereafter it gradually decreased to its initial level; the latter phase (after 24 hr postburn) coincided with a diuretic phase in the rats. There was a significant correlation between the PA signal amplitudes and water contents in the tissue measured by wet/dry weight method. These findings demonstrate the validity of PA measurement for real-time, noninvasive monitoring of edema.

  16. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your body's tissues caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, sunlight, or radiation. Scalds from hot liquids and ... to infections because they damage your skin's protective barrier. Treatment for burns depends on the cause of ...

  17. A novel dermal matrix generated from burned skin as a promising substitute for deep-degree burns therapy

    PubMed Central

    YU, GUANYING; YE, LAN; TAN, WEI; ZHU, XUGUO; LI, YAONAN; JIANG, DUYIN

    2016-01-01

    The extensive skin defects induced by severe burns are dangerous and can be fatal. Currently, the most common therapy is tangential excision to remove the necrotic or denatured areas of skin, followed by skin grafting. Xenogeneic dermal substitutes, such as porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM), are typically used to cover the burn wounds, and may accelerate wound healing. It is assumed that burned skin that still maintains partial biological activity may be recycled to construct an autologous acellular dermal matrix, termed 'deep-degree burned dermal matrix (DDBDM)'. In theory, DDBDM may avoid the histoincompatibility issues associated with foreign or xenogeneic dermal matrices, and reduce therapy costs by making full use of discarded skin. In the present study, the collagens within prepared DDBDM were thickened, disorganized and partially fractured, however, they still maintained their reticular structure and tensile strength (P<0.01). Through microarray analysis of the cytokines present in ADM and DDBDM, it was determined that the DDBDM did not produce excessive levels of harmful burn toxins. Following 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation, ADM and DDBDM were incompletely degraded and maintained good integrity. No significant inflammatory reaction or rejection were observed, which indicated that ADM and DDBDM have good histocompatibility. Therefore, DDBDM may be a useful material for the treatment of deep-degree burns. PMID:26846279

  18. A novel dermal matrix generated from burned skin as a promising substitute for deep-degree burns therapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guanying; Ye, Lan; Tan, Wei; Zhu, Xuguo; Li, Yaonan; Jiang, Duyin

    2016-03-01

    The extensive skin defects induced by severe burns are dangerous and can be fatal. Currently, the most common therapy is tangential excision to remove the necrotic or denatured areas of skin, followed by skin grafting. Xenogeneic dermal substitutes, such as porcine acellular dermal matrix (ADM), are typically used to cover the burn wounds, and may accelerate wound healing. It is assumed that burned skin that still maintains partial biological activity may be recycled to construct an autologous acellular dermal matrix, termed 'deep‑degree burned dermal matrix (DDBDM)'. In theory, DDBDM may avoid the histoincompatibility issues associated with foreign or xenogeneic dermal matrices, and reduce therapy costs by making full use of discarded skin. In the present study, the collagens within prepared DDBDM were thickened, disorganized and partially fractured, however, they still maintained their reticular structure and tensile strength (P<0.01). Through microarray analysis of the cytokines present in ADM and DDBDM, it was determined that the DDBDM did not produce excessive levels of harmful burn toxins. Following 4 weeks of subcutaneous implantation, ADM and DDBDM were incompletely degraded and maintained good integrity. No significant inflammatory reaction or rejection were observed, which indicated that ADM and DDBDM have good histocompatibility. Therefore, DDBDM may be a useful material for the treatment of deep‑degree burns. PMID:26846279

  19. [Burns].

    PubMed

    Arai, Takao

    2016-02-01

    Burns extending deep into the skin and those affecting a wide surface area trigger various responses in the body and pose a serious threat to life. Therefore, the degree of severity needs to be determined accurately, and appropriate transfusion and local management should be provided accordingly. Systematic and meticulous management that considers not just the risk of death but also functional prognosis is essential from the early stage of burn injuries. Such management requires comprehensive care by a medical team concerning infections, nutrition and rehabilitation. This article outlines the current status of intensive care for severe burns. PMID:26915244

  20. Effect of piracetam and nimodipine on full-thickness skin burns in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sari, Elif; Dincel, Gungor C

    2016-08-01

    The potential of several drugs for full-thickness skin burns has been investigated, but the treatment of such burns remains a challenge in plastic surgery. The present study was designed to determine the effect of systemic and topical administration of piracetam and nimodipine on full-thickness skin burn wound healing. A total of 36 New Zealand male rabbits were divided into six groups. Full-thickness skin burns were produced in all the groups, except the control group. Piracetam was administered systemically (piracetam-IV) and topically (piracetam-C) for 14 days, and nimodipine was administered systemically (nimodipine-IV) and topically (nimodipine-C) over the burn wounds for 14 days. The sham group underwent burn injury but was not administered any drug. After 21 days, gross examination and histopathological analysis were performed and the results were compared statistically. Nimodipine-C and nimodipine-IV had no effect on burn wound healing. However, both piracetam-IV and piracetam-C significantly enhanced the healing of the full-thickness skin burn wounds, although the latter was more effective, useful and practical in burn wound healing. The histopathological features of the wounds in the piracetam-C group were closer to those of the control group than those of the other groups. Piracetam-C rather than piracetam-IV may promote full-thickness burn wound healing in rabbits. PMID:26192365

  1. Skin tissue engineering advances in severe burns: review and therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Chua, Alvin Wen Choong; Khoo, Yik Cheong; Tan, Bien Keem; Tan, Kok Chai; Foo, Chee Liam; Chong, Si Jack

    2016-01-01

    Current advances in basic stem cell research and tissue engineering augur well for the development of improved cultured skin tissue substitutes: a class of products that is still fraught with limitations for clinical use. Although the ability to grow autologous keratinocytes in-vitro from a small skin biopsy into sheets of stratified epithelium (within 3 to 4 weeks) helped alleviate the problem of insufficient donor site for extensive burn, many burn units still have to grapple with insufficient skin allografts which are used as intermediate wound coverage after burn excision. Alternatives offered by tissue-engineered skin dermal replacements to meet emergency demand have been used fairly successfully. Despite the availability of these commercial products, they all suffer from the same problems of extremely high cost, sub-normal skin microstructure and inconsistent engraftment, especially in full thickness burns. Clinical practice for severe burn treatment has since evolved to incorporate these tissue-engineered skin substitutes, usually as an adjunct to speed up epithelization for wound closure and/or to improve quality of life by improving the functional and cosmetic results long-term. This review seeks to bring the reader through the beginnings of skin tissue engineering, the utilization of some of the key products developed for the treatment of severe burns and the hope of harnessing stem cells to improve on current practice. PMID:27574673

  2. Skin resurfacing in a circumferential full thickness burn to the penis: lessons learnt

    PubMed Central

    Jabir, Shehab; Frew, Quentin; Thompson, Richard; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A circumferential full-thickness burn to the penis is a rarely encountered injury. However, when it does occur, it proves a management challenge to the plastic and burns surgeon in terms of reconstruction. This is due to the need of not only regaining adequate function of the organ, but also because of the need for a pleasing aesthetic outcome. Split-skin grafts have been utilised successfully to resurface full thickness burns of the penis and have given good results. Yet the success of split-skin grafts, especially those applied to an anatomically challenging region of the body such as the penis, depends on a number of carefully thought-out steps. We discuss the case of a circumferential full-thickness burn to the penis which was treated with split-skin grafting and highlight important pitfalls that the plastic and burns surgeon need to be aware of to ensure a successful outcome. PMID:23946511

  3. Local Burn Injury Impairs Epithelial Permeability and Antimicrobial Peptide Barrier Function in Distal Unburned Skin*

    PubMed Central

    Plichta, Jennifer K.; Droho, Steve; Curtis, Brenda J.; Patel, Parita; Gamelli, Richard L.; Radek, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our objective was to characterize the mechanisms by which local burn injury compromises epithelial barrier function in burn margin, containing the elements necessary for healing of the burn site, and in distal unburned skin, which serves as potential donor tissue. Design Experimental mouse scald burn injury. Setting University Research Laboratory. Subjects C57/Bl6 Male mice, 8–12 weeks old. Interventions To confirm that dehydration was not contributing to our observed barrier defects, in some experiments mice received 1 mL of saline fluid immediately after burn, while a subgroup received an additional 0.5 mL at 4 hours and 1 mL at 24 hours following burn. We then assessed skin pH and transepidermal water loss every 12 hours on the burn wounds for 72 hours postburn. Measurements and Main Results Burn margin exhibited increased epidermal barrier permeability indicated by higher pH, greater transepidermal water loss, and reduced lipid synthesis enzyme expression and structural protein production up to 96 hours postburn. By contrast, antimicrobial peptide production and protease activity were elevated in burn margin. Skin extracts from burn margin did not exhibit changes in the ability to inhibit bacterial growth. However, distal unburned skin from burned mice also demonstrated an impaired response to barrier disruption, indicated by elevated transepidermal water loss and reduced lipid synthesis enzyme and structural protein expression up to 96 hours postburn. Furthermore, skin extracts from distal unburned skin exhibited greater protease activity and a reduced capacity to inhibit bacterial growth of several skin pathogens. Finally, we established that antimicrobial peptide levels were also altered in the lung and bladder, which are common sites of secondary infection in burn-injured patients. Conclusions These findings reveal several undefined deficiencies in epithelial barrier function at the burn margin, potential donor skin sites, and organs

  4. Burns from acetylene gas: more than skin deep

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hassani, Fawaz; Amin, Kavit; Lo, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Oxyacetylene welding torches are commonly used in industry, yet serious burns are fortunately rare. When dealing with the sequelae of these burn injuries, one must be aware of the high pressure component of these flame burns, which can penetrate and dissect the subcutaneous tissue. Appropriate initial assessment and preoperative planning are, therefore, essential to exclude and identify problems such as, compartment syndrome, subcutaneous emphysema and acute carpal tunnel syndrome. We present a case in which an innocuous palmar burn revealed a penetrating flame injury into the carpal tunnel. PMID:24842344

  5. Burns from acetylene gas: more than skin deep.

    PubMed

    Al-Hassani, Fawaz; Amin, Kavit; Lo, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Oxyacetylene welding torches are commonly used in industry, yet serious burns are fortunately rare. When dealing with the sequelae of these burn injuries, one must be aware of the high pressure component of these flame burns, which can penetrate and dissect the subcutaneous tissue. Appropriate initial assessment and preoperative planning are, therefore, essential to exclude and identify problems such as, compartment syndrome, subcutaneous emphysema and acute carpal tunnel syndrome. We present a case in which an innocuous palmar burn revealed a penetrating flame injury into the carpal tunnel. PMID:24842344

  6. Skin graft fixation in severe burns: use of topical negative pressure.

    PubMed

    Kamolz, L P; Lumenta, D B; Parvizi, D; Wiedner, M; Justich, I; Keck, M; Pfurtscheller, K; Schintler, M

    2014-09-30

    Over the last 50 years, the evolution of burn care has led to a significant decrease in mortality. The biggest impact on survival has been the change in the approach to burn surgery. Early excision and grafting has become a standard of care for the majority of patients with deep burns; the survival of a given patient suffering from major burns is invariably linked to the take rate and survival of skin grafts. The application of topical negative pressure (TNP) therapy devices has demonstrated improved graft take in comparison to conventional dressing methods alone. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of TNP therapy on skin graft fixation in large burns. In all patients, we applied TNP dressings covering a %TBSA of >25. The following parameters were recorded and documented using BurnCase 3D: age, gender, %TBSA, burn depth, hospital length-of-stay, Baux score, survival, as well as duration and incidence of TNP dressings. After a burn depth adapted wound debridement, coverage was simultaneously performed using split-thickness skin grafts, which were fixed with staples and covered with fatty gauzes and TNP foam. The TNP foam was again fixed with staples to prevent displacement and finally covered with the supplied transparent adhesive film. A continuous subatmospheric pressure between 75-120 mm Hg was applied (VAC®, KCI, Vienna, Austria). The first dressing change was performed on day 4. Thirty-six out of 37 patients, suffering from full thickness burns, were discharged with complete wound closure; only one patient succumbed to their injuries. The overall skin graft take rate was over 95%. In conclusion, we consider that split thickness skin graft fixation by TNP is an efficient method in major burns, notably in areas with irregular wound surfaces or subject to movement (e.g. joint proximity), and is worth considering for the treatment of aged patients. PMID:26170793

  7. Prediction methods of skin burn for performance evaluation of thermal protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Li-Na; Li, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Most test methods use skin burn prediction to evaluate the thermal protective performance of clothing. In this paper, we reviewed different burn prediction methods used in clothing evaluation. The empirical criterion and the mathematical model were analyzed in detail as well as their relationship and limitations. Using an empirical criterion, the onset of skin burn is determined by the accumulated skin surface energy in certain periods. On the other hand, the mathematical model, which indicates denatured collagen, is more complex, which involves a heat transfer model and a burn model. Further studies should be conducted to examine the situations where the prediction methods are derived. New technologies may be used in the future to explore precise or suitable prediction methods for both flash fire tests and increasingly lower-intensity tests. PMID:25816966

  8. Burn depth determination in human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Mark C.; Sheridan, Robert L.; Park, Boris H.; Cense, Barry; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2003-07-01

    Accurate evaluation of the depth of injury in burn victims is of considerable practical value to the surgeon, both for initial determination of resuscitation fluid requirements, and in deciding whether excision and closure of the wound is necessary. Currently, burn depth is most accurately evaluated by visual inspection, though decisions concerning treatment may not be possible for a number of days post-injury. As part of our ongoing efforts to provide an objective, quantitative method for burn depth determination, we present here the results of a study using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) to detect and measure thermally induced changes in collagen birefringence in skin excised from burn patients. We find that PS-OCT is capable of imaging and quantifying significantly reduced birefringence in burned human skin.

  9. Significant skin burns may occur with the use of a water balloon in HIFU treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Robert; Collin, Jamie; Wu, Feng; Coussios, Constantin; Leslie, Tom; Cranston, David

    2012-10-01

    HIFU is a minimally-invasive therapy suitable for treating selected intra-abdominal tumors. Treatment is safe although skin burns may occur due to pre-focal heating. HIFU treatment of a renal transplant tumor located in the left lower abdomen was undertaken in our centre. Treatment was performed prone, requiring displacement of the abdominal wall away from the treatment field using a water balloon, constructed of natural rubber latex and filled with degassed water. Intra-operatively, ultrasound imaging and physical examination of the skin directly over the focal region was normal. Immediately post-operative, a full-thickness skin burn was evident at the periphery of the balloon location, outside the expected HIFU path. Three possibilities may account for this complication. Firstly, the water balloon may have acted as a lens, focusing the HIFU to a neo-focus off axis. Secondly, air bubbles may have been entrapped between the balloon and the skin, causing heating at the interface. Finally, heating of the isolated water within the balloon may have been sufficient to cause burning. In this case, the placement of a water balloon caused a significant skin burn. Care should be taken in their use as burns, situated off axis, may occur even if the overlying skin appears normal.

  10. Use of preputial skin for coverage of post-burn contractures of fingers in children

    PubMed Central

    Zaroo, Mohammed I.; Sheikh, Bashir A.; Wani, Adil H.; Darzi, Mohammad A.; Mir, Mohsin; Dar, Hameedullah; Baba Peerzada, U. F.; Zargar, Haroon R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Hand burns are common injuries. Children frequently sustain burn injuries, especially to their hands. Contractures are a common sequel of severe burns around joints. The prepuce, or foreskin, has been used as a skin graft for a number of indications. We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of utilising the preputial skin for the management of post-burn contractures of fingers in uncircumcised male children. Materials and Methods: Preputial skin was used for the coverage of released contractures of fingers in 12 patients aged 2-6 years. The aetiology of burns was “Kangri” burn in eight patients and scalding in four patients. Six patients had contracture in two fingers, four patients in one finger, and two patients had contractures in three fingers. Results: None of the patients had graft loss, and all the wounds healed within 2 weeks. All patients had complete release of contractures without any recurrence. Hyperpigmentation of the grafts was observed over a period of time, which was well accepted by the parents. Conclusions: Preputial skin can be used successfully for male children with mild-to-moderate contractures of 2-3 fingers for restoration of the hand function, minimal donor site morbidity. PMID:21713163

  11. Iatrogenic surgical microscope skin burns: A systematic review of the literature and case report.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Joseph; Soni, Ashwin; Calva, Daniel; Susarla, Srinivas M; Jallo, George I; Redett, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Cutaneous burns associated with microscope-use are perceived to be uncommon adverse events in microsurgery. Currently, it is unknown what factors are associated with these iatrogenic events. In this report, we describe the case of a 1-year-old patient who suffered a full thickness skin burn from a surgical microscope after a L4-S1 laminectomy. Additionally, we present a systematic review of the literature that assessed the preoperative risk, outcome, and management of iatrogenic microscope skin burns. Lastly, a summary of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database of voluntary adverse events was reviewed and analyzed for clinical cases of microscope thermal injuries. The systematic literature review identified only seven articles related to microsurgery-related cutaneous burns. From these seven studies, 15 clinical cases of iatrogenic skin burns were extracted for analysis. The systematic review of the FDA MAUDE database revealed only 60 cases of cutaneous burns associated with surgical microscopes since 2004. Few cases of microscope burns have been described in the literature; this report is, to our knowledge, one of the first comprehensive reports of this iatrogenic event in the literature. PMID:26777456

  12. Dextran hydrogel scaffolds enhance angiogenic responses and promote complete skin regeneration during burn wound healing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoming; Zhang, Xianjie; Shen, Yu-I; Sebastian, Raul; Dickinson, Laura E; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Reinblatt, Maura; Steenbergen, Charles; Harmon, John W; Gerecht, Sharon

    2011-12-27

    Neovascularization is a critical determinant of wound-healing outcomes for deep burn injuries. We hypothesize that dextran-based hydrogels can serve as instructive scaffolds to promote neovascularization and skin regeneration in third-degree burn wounds. Dextran hydrogels are soft and pliable, offering opportunities to improve the management of burn wound treatment. We first developed a procedure to treat burn wounds on mice with dextran hydrogels. In this procedure, we followed clinical practice of wound excision to remove full-thickness burned skin, and then covered the wound with the dextran hydrogel and a dressing layer. Our procedure allows the hydrogel to remain intact and securely in place during the entire healing period, thus offering opportunities to simplify the management of burn wound treatment. A 3-week comparative study indicated that dextran hydrogel promoted dermal regeneration with complete skin appendages. The hydrogel scaffold facilitated early inflammatory cell infiltration that led to its rapid degradation, promoting the infiltration of angiogenic cells into the healing wounds. Endothelial cells homed into the hydrogel scaffolds to enable neovascularization by day 7, resulting in an increased blood flow significantly greater than treated and untreated controls. By day 21, burn wounds treated with hydrogel developed a mature epithelial structure with hair follicles and sebaceous glands. After 5 weeks of treatment, the hydrogel scaffolds promoted new hair growth and epidermal morphology and thickness similar to normal mouse skin. Collectively, our evidence shows that customized dextran-based hydrogel alone, with no additional growth factors, cytokines, or cells, promoted remarkable neovascularization and skin regeneration and may lead to novel treatments for dermal wounds. PMID:22171002

  13. Estimating the time and temperature relationship for causation of deep-partial thickness skin burns.

    PubMed

    Abraham, John P; Plourde, Brian; Vallez, Lauren; Stark, John; Diller, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and present a simple procedure for evaluating the temperature and exposure-time conditions that lead to causation of a deep-partial thickness burn and the effect that the immediate post-burn thermal environment can have on the process. A computational model has been designed and applied to predict the time required for skin burns to reach a deep-partial thickness level of injury. The model includes multiple tissue layers including the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, and subcutaneous tissue. Simulated exposure temperatures ranged from 62.8 to 87.8°C (145-190°F). Two scenarios were investigated. The first and worst case scenario was a direct exposure to water (characterized by a large convection coefficient) with the clothing left on the skin following the exposure. A second case consisted of a scald insult followed immediately by the skin being washed with cool water (20°C). For both cases, an Arrhenius injury model was applied whereby the extent and depth of injury were calculated and compared for the different post-burn treatments. In addition, injury values were compared with experiment data from the literature to assess verification of the numerical methodology. It was found that the clinical observations of injury extent agreed with the calculated values. Furthermore, inundation with cool water decreased skin temperatures more quickly than the clothing insulating case and led to a modest decrease in the burn extent. PMID:26188899

  14. 24-MHz scanner for optoacoustic imaging of skin and burn.

    PubMed

    Vionnet, Laetitia; Gateau, Jerome; Schwarz, Mathias; Buehler, Andreas; Ermolayev, Volodymir; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2014-02-01

    Optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging uniquely visualizes optical contrast in high resolution and comes with very attractive characteristics for clinical imaging applications. In this paper, we showcase the performance of a scanner based on a 24 MHz center-frequency 128 element array, developed for applications in dermatology. We perform system characterization to examine the imaging performance achieved. We then showcase its imaging ability on healthy tissue and cancer. Finally, we image burns and human lesions in vivo and gain insights on the benefits and challenges of this approach as it is considered for diagnostic and treatment follow-up applications in dermatology and beyond. PMID:24216682

  15. Tests of Flammability of Cotton Fabrics and Expected Skin Burns in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Jane M.; Torvi, David A.; Gabriel, Kamiel S.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    During a shuttle launch and other portions of space flight, astronauts wear specialized flame resistant clothing. However during most of their missions on board the Space Shuttle or International Space Station, astronauts wear ordinary clothing, such as cotton shirts and pants. As the behaviour of flames is considerably different in microgravity than under earth s gravity, fabrics are expected to burn in a different fashion in microgravity than when tested on earth. There is interest in determining how this change in burning behaviour may affect times to second and third degree burn of human skin, and how the results of standard fabric flammability tests conducted under earth s gravity correlate with the expected fire behaviour of textiles in microgravity. A new experimental apparatus was developed to fit into the Spacecraft Fire Safety Facility (SFSF), which is used on NASA s KC-135 low gravity aircraft. The new apparatus was designed to be similar to the apparatus used in standard vertical flammability tests of fabrics. However, rather than using a laboratory burner, the apparatus uses a hot wire system to ignite 200 mm high by 80 mm wide fabric specimens. Fabric temperatures are measured using thermocouples and/or an infrared imaging system, while flame spread rates are measured using real time observations or video. Heat flux gauges are placed between 7 and 13 mm away from the fabric specimen, so that heat fluxes from the burning fabric to the skin can be estimated, along with predicted times required to produce skin burns.

  16. THz Imaging of Skin Burn: Seeing the Unseen—An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Moumita; Bhalla, Amar S.; Guo, Ruyan

    2016-01-01

    Significance: This review article puts together all the studies performed so far in realizing terahertz (THz) spectra as a probing mechanism for burn evaluation, summarizing their experimental conditions, observations, outcomes, merits, and demerits, along with a comparative discussion of other currently used technologies to present the state of art in a condensed manner. The key features of this noncontact investigation technique like its precise burn depth analysis and the approaches it follows to convert the probed data into a quantitative measure have also been discussed in this article. Recent Advances: The current research developments in THz regime observed in device design technologies (like THz time domain spectrometer, quantum cascade THz lasers, THz single-photon detectors, etc.) and in understanding its unique properties (like nonionizing nature, penetrability through dry dielectrics, etc.) have motivated the research world to realize THz window as a potential candidate for burn detection. Critical Issues: Application of appropriate medical measure for burn injury is primarily subjective to proper estimation of burn depth. Tool modality distinguishing between partial and full-thickness burn contributing toward correct medical care is indeed awaited. Future Directions: The overview of THz imaging as a burn assessment tool as provided in this article will certainly help in further nurturing of this emerging diagnostic technique particularly in improving its detection and accompanied image processing methods so that the minute nuances captured by the THz beam can be correlated with the physiological–anatomical changes in skin structures, caused by burn, for better sensitivity, resolution, and quantitative analysis. PMID:27602253

  17. A porcine model of full-thickness burn, excision and skin autografting

    PubMed Central

    Branski, Ludwik K.; Mittermayr, Rainer; Herndon, David N.; Norbury, William B.; Masters, Oscar E.; Hofmann, Martina; Traber, Daniel L.; Redl, Heinz; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2008-01-01

    Acute burn wounds often require early excision and adequate coverage to prevent further hypothermia, protein and fluid losses, and the risk of infection. Meshed autologous skin grafts are generally regarded as the standard treatment for extensive full-thickness burns. Graft take and rate of wound healing, however, depend on several endogenous factors. This paper describes a standardized reproducible porcine model of burn and skin grafting which can be used to study the effects of topical treatments on graft take and re-epithelialization. Procedures provide a protocol for successful porcine burn wound experiments with special focus on pre-operative care, anesthesia, burn allocation, excision and grafting, postoperative treatment, dressing application, and specimen collection. Selected outcome measurements include percent area of wound closure by planimetry, wound assessment using a clinical assessment scale, and histological scoring. The use of this standardized model provides burn researchers with a valuable tool for the comparison of different topical drug treatments and dressing materials in a setting that closely mimics clinical reality. PMID:18617332

  18. Early burn wound excision and skin grafting postburn trauma restores in vivo neutrophil delivery to inflammatory lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Tchervenkov, J.I.; Epstein, M.D.; Silberstein, E.B.; Alexander, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of early vs delayed postburn wound excision and skin grafting on the in vivo neutrophil delivery to a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction and a bacterial skin lesion (BSL). Male Lewis rats were presensitized to keyhole-limpet hemocyanin. Group 1 comprised sham controls. Groups 2 through 4 were given a 30% 3 degrees scald burn, but the burn wounds were excised, and skin was grafted on days 1, 3, and 7, respectively, after the burn. Group 5 comprised burn controls. Twelve days after burn trauma, all rats were injected at different intervals (during a 24-hour period) with a trio of intradermal injections of keyhole-limpet hemocyanin, Staphylococcus aureus 502A, and saline at different sites. In vivo neutrophil delivery to these dermal lesions was determined by injecting indium in 111 oxyquinoline-labeled neutrophils isolated from similarly treated groups of rats. Neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL lesions was restored to normal by excision and skin grafting of the burn wound one day after burn trauma. Waiting three days after burn trauma to excise and skin graft the wound partially, but not completely, restored the in vivo neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL lesions. Waiting one week to excise and skin graft a burn wound resulted in no improvement in neutrophil delivery to DTH and BSL dermal lesions. It was concluded that burn wound excision and skin grafting immediately after burn trauma restored in vivo neutrophil delivery to a BSL and DTH dermal lesion. This may, in part, explain the beneficial effect of early aggressive burn wound debridement in patients with burn injuries.

  19. Light attenuation in rat skin following low level laser therapy on burn healing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira Silva, Daniela Fátima; Simões Ribeiro, Martha

    2010-04-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is commonly used to accelerate wound healing. Besides, the technique of imaging the light distribution inside biological tissues permits us to understand several effects about light-tissue interaction. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative attenuation coefficient of the light intensity in healthy and burned skin rats during cutaneous repair following LLLT or not. Two burns about 6mm in diameter were cryogenerated using liquid N2 on the back of 15 rats. Lesion L was irradiated by a He-Ne laser (λ= 632.8nm) and fluence 1.0J/cm2; Lesion C was control and received sham irradiation. A healthy skin area (H) was also analyzed. The lesions were irradiated at days 3, 7, 10 and 14 post-burning. The animals were euthanized at days 3, 10 and 31 and skin samples were carefully removed and placed between two microscope slides, spaced by z= 1mm. A laser beam irradiated the sandwiched tissue from epidermis to dermis. A CCD camera was placed orthogonal to the beam path and it photographed the distribution of the scattered light. The light decay occurred according to the Beer's Law. Significance was accepted at p <0.01 by using t-Student test. Our results show that the light decay along any direction was close to an exponential. Burned skin samples presented decay significantly faster than healthy skin samples. Besides, attenuation coefficient changed during burning healing comparing treated and control lesions. These findings suggest that the relative attenuation coefficient is a suitable parameter to optimize LLLT during wound healing.

  20. An Exploration of Molecular Correlates Relevant to Radiation Combined Skin-Burn Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Aminul; Ghimbovschi, Svetlana; Zhai, Min; Swift, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to high dose radiation in combination with physical injuries such as burn or wound trauma can produce a more harmful set of medical complications requiring specialist interventions. Currently these interventions are unavailable as are the precise biomarkers needed to help both accurately assess and treat such conditions. In the present study, we tried to identify and explore the possible role of serum exosome microRNA (miRNA) signatures as potential biomarkers for radiation combined burn injury (RCBI). Methodology Female B6D2F1/J mice were assigned to four experimental groups (n = 6): sham control (SHAM), burn injury (BURN), radiation injury (RI) and combined radiation skin burn injury (CI). We performed serum multiplex cytokine analysis and serum exosome miRNA expression profiling to determine novel miRNA signatures and important biological pathways associated with radiation combined skin-burn trauma. Principal Findings Serum cytokines, IL-5 and MCP-1, were significantly induced only in CI mice (p<0.05). From 890 differentially expressed miRNAs identified, microarray analysis showed 47 distinct miRNA seed sequences significantly associated with CI mice compared to SHAM control mice (fold change ≥ 1.2, p<0.05). Furthermore, only two major miRNA seed sequences (miR-690 and miR-223) were validated to be differentially expressed for CI mice specifically (fold change ≥ 1.5, p<0.05). Conclusions Serum exosome miRNA signature data of adult mice, following RCBI, provides new insights into the molecular and biochemical pathways associated with radiation combined skin-burn trauma in vivo. PMID:26247844

  1. Demographic characteristics and outcome of burn patients requiring skin grafts: a tertiary hospital experience

    PubMed Central

    Shlash, Saud Othman Al; Madani, Jamal Omran Al; Deib, Jamal Ismail El; Alsubhi, Fatemah Suliman; Saifi, Sara Saud Al; Helmi, Ayman Mohammed Adel; Al-Mutairi, Sultan Khalaf; Khurram, Javed Akhtar

    2016-01-01

    Split thickness skin graft (STSG) and full thickness skin graft (FTSG) are the integral part of burn wound management. However the impact of these graft types on the outcome still remain a matter of controversy. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics and outcome of graft surgery of the patients undergone STSG and FTSG at Plastic Surgery Department of Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This retrospective study included 85 burn patients who received STSG (56 cases) and FTSG (29 cases) at PSMMC during 2010-2015. Demographic characteristics (age, gender, etiology of burn, and area of burn) and outcome (graft loss, graft contraction, skin pigmentation, altered sensation, infection rate and duration of hospital stay) were recorded among the patients who received STSG or FTSG. Out of 85 patients 50 patients were male and 35 female with a ratio of 1.42:1. The patients under the age of 10 years comprised the largest burn group with 28 cases (32.9%) out of total 85 patients. The number of patients above the age of 30 years was relatively smaller. Flame (49.3%) and scald (27%) burns constituted the majority of burn cases. The incidence of contraction among STSG (12.5%) and in FTSG (17.2%) cases was similar. Altered sensation was observed in 7.05% of STSG patients and 13.7% of FTSG cases. Loss of graft was observed in 16% of STSG and 20.6% of FTSG patients. The pigmentation was quite similar in STSG (21.4%) and FTSG (24. 1%). The hospitalization time in FTSG (28 days) patients was also comparable with STSG (26.9 days) group. This study showed that majority of the skin graft cases at PSMMC were male under the age of 30 years mostly affected by flame or scald burns. The outcome following STSG and FTSG surgery was comparable with no significant advantage of one over the other. It may be deduced that both STSG and FTSG have relative merits and demerits and either of these grafting procedure may be

  2. The transfer of technology to measure skin burn depth in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed here is the use of ultrasonic techniques originally used to locate cracks in metal structues to measure burn wound depth in humans. Acoustic impedance, performance tests, and the theoretical model are discussed. Measurements of skin burns on anesthetized pigs made with the the ultrasonic instrumentation were in agreement with diagnoses made by a physician, and subsequently confirmed by the healing process. Researchers felt that the concept proved useful in a clinical setting and that the instrument and concept were ready to extend to the manufacturer.

  3. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... doing so puts you in danger as well. Chemical and Electrical Burns For chemical and electrical burns, call 911 or your local ... the power source has been turned off. For chemical burns: Dry chemicals should be brushed off the ...

  4. Incidence and Factors Predicting Skin Burns at the Site of Indifferent Electrode during Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Hussain; Finta, Bohuslav; Rind, Jubran

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) has become a mainstay for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Skin burns at the site of an indifferent electrode patch have been a rare, serious, and likely an underreported complication of RFA. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of skin burns in cardiac RFA procedures performed at one institution. Also, we wanted to determine the factors predicting skin burns after cardiac RFA procedures at the indifferent electrode skin pad site. Methods. A retrospective case control study was performed to compare the characteristics in patients who developed skin burns in a 2-year period. Results. Incidence of significant skin burns after RFA was 0.28% (6/2167). Four of the six patients were female and all were Caucasians. Four controls for every case were age and sex matched. Burn patients had significantly higher BMI, procedure time, and postprocedure pain, relative to control subjects (p < 0.05, one-tailed testing). No one in either group had evidence of dispersive pad malattachment. Conclusions. Our results indicate that burn patients had higher BMI and longer procedure times compared to control subjects. These findings warrant further larger studies on this topic. PMID:27213077

  5. Characterization of third-degree burned skin by nonlinear microscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Moisés O.; Pelegati, Vitor B.; Cesar, Carlos L.; Correa, Paulo R.; Zorn, Telma Maria T.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2011-03-01

    Nonlinear microscopy imaging technique enable take both images of collagen fibers in dermis through second harmonic generation (SHG) signal and elastic fibers by two-photon emission fluorescence microscopy (TPEFM). These techniques are the most commonly used technique for turbid and thick tissue imaging and also to image biological samples which presents highly ordered structural proteins without any exogenous label. The objective of this study is characterizing dermis of third-degree burned skin by TPEFM and SHG technique. The modelocked laser (Spectra Physics) source used in this study with pulse width of approximately 100 fs at 80 MHz was directed into a multiphoton microscope using a laser scanning unit (Olympus Fluoview 300), mounted on an inverted confocal system microscope (Olympus IX81), with focusing objective (40x, NA = 1.30). The samples were obtained from Wistar rats, male, adult. One dorsum area was submitted to burn caused by vapour exposure. The biopsies obtained were cryosectioned in slices of 20 μm width. Selected area of interface between the injured and healthy subdermal burned skin were imaged by TPEFM and SHG technique. Two different autofluorescence signals are observed as a function of excitation wavelength. The autofluorescence observed at 760 nm and 690 nm suggest components of extracellular matrix at differents depths. In SHG images, collagen fibers are visible. According to the images obtained, these methodologies can be used to characterize dermis of burned tissue as its healing process with reduced out-of-plane photobleaching and phototoxicity.

  6. Immunosuppression and temporary skin transplantation in the treatment of massive third degree burns.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, J F; Quinby, W C; Bondoc, C C; Cosimi, A B; Russell, P S; Szyfelbein, S K

    1975-01-01

    A method of burn treatment (immunosuppression and temporary skin transplantation) for patients suffering from massive third degree burns is evaluated. The method is based on the prompt excision of all dead tissue (burn eschar) and immediate closure of the wound by skin grafts. Total wound closure is achieved before bacterial infection or organ failure takes place by carrying out all initial excision and grafting procedures within the first ten days post burn and supplementing the limited amount of autograft with allograft. Continuous wound closure is maintained for up to 50 days through immunosuppression. Both azathioprine and ATG have been used but ATG is preferred. During the period of immunosuppression, allograft is stepwise excised and replaced with autograft donor sites regenerate for recropping. Bacterial complications are minimized by housing the patient in the protected environment of the Bacteria Controlled Nursing Unit. Intensive protein and calorie alimentation are provided, and 0.5% aqueous AgNO3 dressings are used. A swinging febrile illness has been associated with large areas of allograft rejection. Eleven children have been treated and seven have been returned to normal, productive schooling. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:809014

  7. Effects of Topical Emu Oil on Burn Wounds in the Skin of Balb/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Reza; Zardast, Mahmoud; Delshad, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of topical Emu oil on the healing of burn wounds and hair follicle restoration in superficial II-degree burns in the skin of Balb/c mice. Thirty-two male Balb/c mice with burns on the back of the neck were divided into two groups: The Emu oil group received topical Emu oil twice daily, whereas the control was left untreated. Skin biopsies were obtained on days 4, 7, 10, and 14 of the experiment. Then the specimens were viewed with Olympus SZX research microscope. The Emu oil treated burns were found to heal more slowly and inflammation lasted longer in this group. The number of hair follicles in the margins of the wounds increased through time in the Emu oil group compared to the control group. Also, the hair follicles in the Emu oil group were in several layers and seemed to be more active and mature. Moreover, Emu oil had a positive effect on fibrogenesis and synthesis of collagen. The findings indicate that although Emu oil delays the healing process, it has a positive effect on wound healing and it increases the number of hair follicles in the margins of the wound. PMID:27069472

  8. Expression of DNA repair genes in burned skin exposed to low-level red laser.

    PubMed

    Trajano, Eduardo Tavares Lima; Mencalha, Andre Luiz; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Pôrto, Luís Cristóvão; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2014-11-01

    Although red laser lights lie in the region of non-ionizing radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum, there are doubts whether absorption of these radiations causes lesions in the DNA molecule. Our aim was to investigate the expression of the genes involved with base excision and nucleotide excision repair pathways in skin tissue submitted to burn injury and exposed to low-level red laser. Wistar rats were divided as follows: control group-rats burned and not irradiated, laser group-rats burned and irradiated 1 day after injury for five consecutive days, and later laser group-rats injured and treated 4 days after injury for five consecutive days. Irradiation was performed according to a clinical protocol (20 J/cm(2), 100 mW, continuous wave emission mode). The animals were sacrificed on day 10, and scarred tissue samples were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, and evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Low-level red laser exposure (1) reduces the expression of APE1 messenger (mRNA), (2) increases the expression of OGG1 mRNA, (3) reduces the expression of XPC mRNA, and (4) increases the expression of XPA mRNA both in laser and later laser groups. Red laser exposure at therapeutic fluences alters the expression of genes related to base excision and nucleotide excision pathways of DNA repair during wound healing of burned skin. PMID:24930134

  9. Effects of Topical Emu Oil on Burn Wounds in the Skin of Balb/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Mohammad; Ghaderi, Reza; Zardast, Mahmoud; Delshad, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effect of topical Emu oil on the healing of burn wounds and hair follicle restoration in superficial II-degree burns in the skin of Balb/c mice. Thirty-two male Balb/c mice with burns on the back of the neck were divided into two groups: The Emu oil group received topical Emu oil twice daily, whereas the control was left untreated. Skin biopsies were obtained on days 4, 7, 10, and 14 of the experiment. Then the specimens were viewed with Olympus SZX research microscope. The Emu oil treated burns were found to heal more slowly and inflammation lasted longer in this group. The number of hair follicles in the margins of the wounds increased through time in the Emu oil group compared to the control group. Also, the hair follicles in the Emu oil group were in several layers and seemed to be more active and mature. Moreover, Emu oil had a positive effect on fibrogenesis and synthesis of collagen. The findings indicate that although Emu oil delays the healing process, it has a positive effect on wound healing and it increases the number of hair follicles in the margins of the wound. PMID:27069472

  10. Tests of Flammability of Cotton Fabrics and Expected Skin Burns in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Jane M.; Torvi, David A.; Gabriel, Kamiel S.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    During a shuttle launch and other portions of space flight, astronauts wear specialized flame resistant clothing. However during most of their missions on board the Space Shuttle or International Space Station, astronauts wear ordinary clothing, such as cotton shirts and pants. As the behaviour of flames is considerably different in microgravity than under earth's gravity, fabrics are expected to burn in a different fashion in microgravity than when tested on earth. There is interest in determining how this change in burning behaviour may affect times to second and third degree burn of human skin, and how the results of standard fabric flammability tests conducted under earth's gravity correlate with the expected fire behaviour of textiles in microgravity. A new experimental apparatus was developed to fit into the Spacecraft Fire Safety Facility (SFSF), which is used on NASA's KC-135 low gravity aircraft. The new apparatus was designed to be similar to the apparatus used in standard vertical flammability tests of fabrics. However, rather than using a laboratory burner, the apparatus uses a hot wire system to ignite 200 mm high by 80 mm wide fabric specimens. Fabric temperatures are measured using thermocouples and/or an infrared imaging system, while flame spread rates are measured using real time observations or video. Heat flux gauges are placed between 7 and 13 mm away from the fabric specimen, so that heat fluxes from the burning fabric to the skin can be estimated, along with predicted times required to produce skin burns. In November of 2003, this new apparatus was used on the KC-135 aircraft to test cotton and cotton/polyester blend fabric specimens in microgravity. These materials were also been tested using the same apparatus in 1-g, and using a standard vertical flammability test that utilizes a flame. In this presentation, the design of the test apparatus will be briefly described. Examples of results from the KC-135 tests will be provided, including

  11. Propolis induces chondroitin/dermatan sulphate and hyaluronic Acid accumulation in the skin of burned wound.

    PubMed

    Olczyk, Pawel; Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Winsz-Szczotka, Katarzyna; Stojko, Jerzy; Klimek, Katarzyna; Kozma, Ewa M

    2013-01-01

    Changes in extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans during the wound repair allowed us to apply the burn model in which therapeutic efficacy of propolis and silver sulfadiazine was compared. Burns were inflicted on four pigs. Glycosaminoglycans isolated from healthy and burned skin were quantified using a hexuronic acid assay, electrophoretic fractionation, and densitometric analyses. Using the reverse-phase HPLC the profile of sulfated disaccharides released by chondroitinase ABC from chondroitin/dermatan sulfates was estimated. Chondroitin/dermatan sulfates and hyaluronic acid were found in all samples. Propolis stimulated significant changes in the content of particular glycosaminoglycan types during burn healing. Glycosaminoglycans alterations after silver sulfadiazine application were less expressed. Propolis maintained high contribution of 4-O-sulfated disaccharides to chondroitin/dermatan sulfates structure and low level of 6-O-sulfated ones throughout the observed period of healing. Propolis led to preservation of significant contribution of disulfated disaccharides especially 2,4-O-disulfated ones to chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates structure throughout the observed period of healing. Our findings demonstrate that propolis accelerates the burned tissue repair by stimulation of the wound bed glycosaminoglycan accumulation needed for granulation, tissue growth, and wound closure. Moreover, propolis accelerates chondroitin/dermatan sulfates structure modification responsible for binding growth factors playing the crucial role in the tissue repair. PMID:23533471

  12. Propolis Induces Chondroitin/Dermatan Sulphate and Hyaluronic Acid Accumulation in the Skin of Burned Wound

    PubMed Central

    Olczyk, Pawel; Komosinska-Vassev, Katarzyna; Winsz-Szczotka, Katarzyna; Stojko, Jerzy; Klimek, Katarzyna; Kozma, Ewa M.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans during the wound repair allowed us to apply the burn model in which therapeutic efficacy of propolis and silver sulfadiazine was compared. Burns were inflicted on four pigs. Glycosaminoglycans isolated from healthy and burned skin were quantified using a hexuronic acid assay, electrophoretic fractionation, and densitometric analyses. Using the reverse-phase HPLC the profile of sulfated disaccharides released by chondroitinase ABC from chondroitin/dermatan sulfates was estimated. Chondroitin/dermatan sulfates and hyaluronic acid were found in all samples. Propolis stimulated significant changes in the content of particular glycosaminoglycan types during burn healing. Glycosaminoglycans alterations after silver sulfadiazine application were less expressed. Propolis maintained high contribution of 4-O-sulfated disaccharides to chondroitin/dermatan sulfates structure and low level of 6-O-sulfated ones throughout the observed period of healing. Propolis led to preservation of significant contribution of disulfated disaccharides especially 2,4-O-disulfated ones to chondroitin sulfates/dermatan sulfates structure throughout the observed period of healing. Our findings demonstrate that propolis accelerates the burned tissue repair by stimulation of the wound bed glycosaminoglycan accumulation needed for granulation, tissue growth, and wound closure. Moreover, propolis accelerates chondroitin/dermatan sulfates structure modification responsible for binding growth factors playing the crucial role in the tissue repair. PMID:23533471

  13. In vivo photodynamic inactivation of Psuedomonas aeruginosa in burned skin in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirao, Akihiro; Sato, Shunichi; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Saitoh, Daizoh; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2010-02-01

    Control of infection in wounds is critically important to avoid transition to sepsis; however, recent rise of drug-resistant bacteria makes it difficult. Thus, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has recently received considerable attention. In this study, we examined methylene blue (MB)-mediated photodynamic inactivation of Psuedomonas aeruginosa in rat burned skin. Two days after infection, the wound surface was contacted with a MB solution at different concentrations, and thereafter the wound was irradiated with cw 665-nm light at a constant power density of 250 mW/cm2 for different time durations. We obtained a two orders of magnitude decrease in the number of bacteria by PDT with a 2-h contact of 0.5-mM MB solution and a illumination of 480 J/cm2, demonstrating the efficacy of PDT against infection with Ps. aeruginosa in burns.

  14. Fatality due to acute systemic fluoride poisoning following a hydrofluoric acid skin burn.

    PubMed

    Tepperman, P B

    1980-10-01

    Reports indicate that death due to hydrofluoric acid exposure is usually the result of inhalation of vapor causing pulmonary edema and fluoride poisoning. Absorption via the skin route of fluoride ion sufficient to cause serious systemic problems and even death has rarely been reported. A fatality resulting from a severe facial burn, which produced acute systemic fluoride poisoning with profound hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, is presented. The importance of proper personal protective equipment as well as the immediate initiation of first aid and appropriate medical measures, including the monitoring and replacement of serum calcium and magnesium, are emphasized. PMID:7431138

  15. Systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome following skin burn wound and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Hu, Xiaolong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yaojun; Wang, Yunchuan; Liu, Jiaqi; Cai, Weixia; Bai, Xiaozhi; Zhu, Xiongxiang; Han, Juntao; Hu, Dahai

    2013-08-01

    Burn wound-related sepsis is associated with the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). This study is aimed at investigating the development and progression of SIS and MODS in a mouse model of skin burn sepsis. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into the sham, burn, Pseudomonas, and burn/Pseudomonas groups. The back skin of the sham, burn, and burn/Pseudomonas groups was burned about 10% of total area with using 37°C or 98°C water for 8 s, respectively, followed by inoculating with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The Pseudomonas group was infected with P. aeruginosa without burn injury. Their body weights, mortality, organ histology, and function as well as systemic inflammation were measured longitudinally. The burn/Pseudomonas mice lost more body weights than did mice from the other groups and had a significantly higher mortality rate (P < 0.05). The burn/Pseudomonas mice exhibited significantly higher levels of bacterial loads in different organs and serum endotoxin, interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, and C-reactive protein than those in mice from the other groups (P < 0.05). The burn/Pseudomonas mice also displayed more severe liver, lung, and kidney tissue damage and impaired organ functions, particularly at 72 h after inoculation than did the burn and Pseudomonas groups of mice. Our data indicate that burn and P. aeruginosa infection induced severe sepsis and rapidly progressed into systemic inflammatory response syndrome and MODS in mice. PMID:23707977

  16. Forty-Year Follow-up of Full-Thickness Skin Graft After Thermal Burn Injury to the Volar Hand

    PubMed Central

    Kasdan, Morton L.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The hands are commonly affected in severe thermal burn injuries. Resulting contractures lead to significant loss of function. Burn contracture release and skin grafting are necessary to restore hand function. We report a case in which surgical reconstruction of a volar hand burn was performed with full-thickness skin grafting. The patient had a 40-year follow-up to assess the function and cosmesis of the repaired hand. Methods: We report a case in which a 15-month-old boy presented after receiving third-degree burns to the left volar hand, including the flexural aspects of the index, long, and ring fingers by placing it on a hot kitchen stove burner. The patient subsequently underwent scar contracture release and full-thickness skin grafting. Results: Eleven years after reconstruction, further contractures developed associated with the patient's growth, which were reconstructed with repeat full-thickness skin graft from the inguinal region. No recurrence was witnessed afterward and 40 years after initial injury, the patient maintains full activities of daily living and use of his hand in his occupation. Conclusions: There is debate regarding the superiority of split-thickness versus full-thickness grafts during reconstruction. Our case strengthens the argument for durability of a full-thickness skin graft following thermal burn injury. PMID:27555888

  17. Effectiveness of composition based on oxidized dextran in the treatment of grade IIIB skin burns.

    PubMed

    Shkurupy, V A; Karpov, M A; Troitskii, A V; Arkhipov, S A; Neshchadim, D V

    2015-03-01

    Grade IIIB skin burns were treated with a composition based on oxidized dextran with a molecular weight of 40 kDa (oxidation of 7% glucose residues). On day 32 after burn infliction and from the start of the treatment, the area of skin defect in rats was 30% less than in the group without treatment and by 2.3 times less than in rats treated with panthenol. In rats treated with dextran-based composition or panthenol, the eschar was absent on day 21 after the start of the treatment; by day 32, we found cells of surface epithelium, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands above the scar tissue that were absent in untreated animals; in rats treated with the composition, their number was higher by 2.5 times than in animals treated with panthenol. Treatment with the composition increased volume density (by 2.5 times) and numerical density (by more than 3 times) of blood vessels in the wound and reduced signs of inflammation and fibroplastic activity of fibroblasts in comparison with the corresponding parameters in untreated animals or animals treated with panthenol. PMID:25778648

  18. Paracrine Factors from Irradiated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Improve Skin Regeneration and Angiogenesis in a Porcine Burn Model

    PubMed Central

    Hacker, Stefan; Mittermayr, Rainer; Nickl, Stefanie; Haider, Thomas; Lebherz-Eichinger, Diana; Beer, Lucian; Mitterbauer, Andreas; Leiss, Harald; Zimmermann, Matthias; Schweiger, Thomas; Keibl, Claudia; Hofbauer, Helmut; Gabriel, Christian; Pavone-Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Redl, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin; Mildner, Michael; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2016-01-01

    Burn wounds pose a serious threat to patients and often require surgical treatment. Skin grafting aims to achieve wound closure but requires a well-vascularized wound bed. The secretome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been shown to improve wound healing and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that topical application of the PBMC secretome would improve the quality of regenerating skin, increase angiogenesis, and reduce scar formation after burn injury and skin grafting in a porcine model. Full-thickness burn injuries were created on the back of female pigs. Necrotic areas were excised and the wounds were covered with split-thickness mesh skin grafts. Wounds were treated repeatedly with either the secretome of cultured PBMCs (SecPBMC), apoptotic PBMCs (Apo-SecPBMC), or controls. The wounds treated with Apo-SecPBMC had an increased epidermal thickness, higher number of rete ridges, and more advanced epidermal differentiation than controls. The samples treated with Apo-SecPBMC had a two-fold increase in CD31+ cells, indicating more angiogenesis. These data suggest that the repeated application of Apo-SecPBMC significantly improves epidermal thickness, angiogenesis, and skin quality in a porcine model of burn injury and skin grafting. PMID:27125302

  19. Paracrine Factors from Irradiated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Improve Skin Regeneration and Angiogenesis in a Porcine Burn Model.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stefan; Mittermayr, Rainer; Nickl, Stefanie; Haider, Thomas; Lebherz-Eichinger, Diana; Beer, Lucian; Mitterbauer, Andreas; Leiss, Harald; Zimmermann, Matthias; Schweiger, Thomas; Keibl, Claudia; Hofbauer, Helmut; Gabriel, Christian; Pavone-Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Redl, Heinz; Tschachler, Erwin; Mildner, Michael; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2016-01-01

    Burn wounds pose a serious threat to patients and often require surgical treatment. Skin grafting aims to achieve wound closure but requires a well-vascularized wound bed. The secretome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been shown to improve wound healing and angiogenesis. We hypothesized that topical application of the PBMC secretome would improve the quality of regenerating skin, increase angiogenesis, and reduce scar formation after burn injury and skin grafting in a porcine model. Full-thickness burn injuries were created on the back of female pigs. Necrotic areas were excised and the wounds were covered with split-thickness mesh skin grafts. Wounds were treated repeatedly with either the secretome of cultured PBMCs (Sec(PBMC)), apoptotic PBMCs (Apo-Sec(PBMC)), or controls. The wounds treated with Apo-Sec(PBMC) had an increased epidermal thickness, higher number of rete ridges, and more advanced epidermal differentiation than controls. The samples treated with Apo-Sec(PBMC) had a two-fold increase in CD31+ cells, indicating more angiogenesis. These data suggest that the repeated application of Apo-Sec(PBMC) significantly improves epidermal thickness, angiogenesis, and skin quality in a porcine model of burn injury and skin grafting. PMID:27125302

  20. First experience of the use bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of a patient with deep skin burns.

    PubMed

    Rasulov, M F; Vasilchenkov, A V; Onishchenko, N A; Krasheninnikov, M E; Kravchenko, V I; Gorshenin, T L; Pidtsan, R E; Potapov, I V

    2005-01-01

    Female patient with extensive skin burn (I-II-IIIAB skin burn, total area 40%, area of IIIB degree 30%) was treated using transplantation of allogenic fibroblast-like bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells onto the surface of deep thermal burn. The study of wound healing dynamics after transplantation of allogenic fibroblast-like mesenchymal stem cells confirmed high tempo of wound regeneration in the presence of active neoangiogenesis. Due to this, autodermoplasty of burn wounds could be carried out with good results as early as on day 4 after transplantation of fibroblast-like mesenchymal stem cells; this led to more rapid healing of donor zones and accelerated rehabilitation of the patient. PMID:16142297

  1. Enhanced efficacy and anti-biofilm activity of novel nanoemulsions against skin burn wound multi-drug resistant MRSA infections.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhen; Sun, Hongwu; Yang, Yun; Jing, Haiming; Yang, Liuyang; Tong, Yanan; Wei, Chao; Wang, Zelin; Zou, Quanming; Zeng, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Multi-drug resistant MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a global problem for human health, especially skin burn wound patients. Therefore, we estimated the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of a chlorhexidine acetate nanoemulsion (CNE) by previously ourselves designed against skin burn wound MRSA infections. Compared with its water solution (CHX), CNE showed a better and faster action against MRSA both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, CNE was more effective at inhibiting biofilm formation and clearing the biofilm. We also found that the cell walls and membranes of MRSA were severely disrupted after treatment with CNE. Moreover, the relative electrical conductivity and the leakage of alkaline phosphates, K(+), Mg(2+), DNA and protein obviously increased because the cell wall and membrane were damaged. These data show that novel CNE is a promising potential antimicrobial candidate, especially for skin burn wound MRSA infections. PMID:26961464

  2. In situ visualization of dermal collagen dynamics during skin burn healing using second-harmonic-generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Takeshi; Hase, Eiji; Tanaka, Ryosuke; Fukushima, Shu-ichiro; Araki, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    Burn healing is a process to repair thermally damaged tissues. Although burn healing has many aspects, it is common for dynamics of collagen fiber, such as decomposition, production, or growth, to be closely related with burn healing. If such healing process can be visualized from the viewpoint of the collagen dynamics, one may obtain new findings regarding biological repairing mechanisms in the healing process. To this end, second-harmonic-generation (SHG) light will be an effective optical probe because of high selectivity and good image contrast to collagen molecules as well as high spatial resolution, optical three-dimensional (3D) sectioning, minimal invasiveness, deep penetration, the absence of interference from background light, and in situ measurement without additional staining. Furthermore, since SHG light arises from a non-centrosymmetric triple helix of three polypeptide chains in the collagen molecule, its intensity decreases and finally disappears when thermal denaturation caused by the skin burn changes the structure of this molecule to a centrosymmetric random coil. Therefore, optical assessment of skin burn has been investigated by SHG microscopy. In this paper, we applied SHG microscopy for in situ imaging of the healing process in animal skin burn and successfully visualized the decomposition, production, and growth of renewal collagen fibers as a series of time-lapse images in the same subject.

  3. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Surgery . 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 22. Holmes JH, Heimbach DM. Burns. In: Brunicardi FC, Andersen DK, Billiar TR, et al, eds. Schwartz's Principles of Surgery . 9th ed. New ...

  4. Infantile multiple large pyogenic granuloma on burned skin. Case report and review of literature*

    PubMed Central

    Dastgheib, Ladan; Maghami, Zohreh; Aslani, Fatemeh Sari

    2016-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a benign vascular lesion of the skin and mucous membranes, presenting as a solitary, red, pedunculated papule that bleeds easily and which appears to be a reactive vascular proliferation to minor injury. These lesions are more common in children and are mostly seen in exposed sites. Multiple disseminated PG is a rare condition. This report describes an infant with multiple, disseminated, pyogenic granulomas following burns from boiling milk. We reviewed literature published in English and found 9 cases. Six cases were provoked by hot milk, 2 by hot water, while the cause of the other case is unknown. Angiogiogenetic activity in milk may explain PG development in these patients. PMID:27192522

  5. Cytotoxicity testing of silver-containing burn treatments using primary and immortal skin cells.

    PubMed

    Boonkaew, Benjawan; Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila

    2014-12-01

    A novel burn wound hydrogel dressing has been previously developed which is composed of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid sodium salt with silver nanoparticles (silver AMPS). This study compared the cytotoxicity of this dressing to the commercially available silver products; Acticoat™, PolyMem Silver(®) and Flamazine™ cream. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT and primary HEK) and normal human fibroblasts (NHF) were exposed to dressings incubated on Nunc™ polycarbonate inserts for 24, 48 and 72h. Four different cytotoxicity assays were performed including; Trypan Blue cell count, MTT, Celltiter-Blue™ and Toluidine Blue surface area assays. The results were expressed as relative cell viability compared to an untreated control. The cytotoxic effects of Acticoat™ and Flamazine™ cream were dependent on exposure time and cell type. After 24h exposure, Acticoat™ and Flamazine™ cream were toxic to all tested cell lines. Surprisingly, HaCaTs treated with Acticoat™ and Flamazine™ had an improved ability to survive at 48 and 72h while HEKs and NHFs had no improvement in survival with any treatment. The novel silver hydrogel and PolyMem Silver(®) showed low cytotoxicity to all tested cell lines at every time interval and these results support the possibility of using the novel silver hydrogel as a burn wound dressing. Researchers who rely on HaCaT cells as an accurate keratinocyte model should be aware that they can respond differently to primary skin cells. PMID:24767717

  6. Skin banking in the treatment of burns. A practical approach to the processing and storing of allografts.

    PubMed

    Traaholt, L; Eskeland, G

    1980-01-01

    The good resuts achieved by treating extensive thermal burns with skin allografts have led to the development of effective long time preservation methods. Human skin can be frozen and kept viable at low temperatures by using cryoprotective media containing glycerol or dimethylsulfoxide. The biological properties of skin grafts thus treated have been investigated and their clinical success is well documented. Many burn centres have organized frozen skin banks based on liquid nitrogen (--196 degrees C) as the refrigerating medium. Such systems are expensive and require careful handling, regular control, and afterfilling. This is a report of a skin bank organized in an electric freezer, equipped with a recorder for continuous temperature registration, and with an alarm system. The storage temperature is --86 degrees C and the theoretical capacity approximately 3 m2 of skin. This bank has proved to be inexpensive, dependable and easy to use. Maintenance problems are minimal, and the running cost is very low. Skin allografts have been found viable after up to 2 years of storage. PMID:7008684

  7. An in vivo comparison of commonly used topical antimicrobials on skin graft healing after full-thickness burn injury.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ozan L; Borman, Huseyin; Bahar, Taner; Ertaş, Nilgün M; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Topical antimicrobials are frequently used for local control of infections in burn patients. It has been postulated that these agents retard wound healing. There are limited data about the effects of topical antimicrobial agents on skin graft healing. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of nitrofurazone, 1% silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine on skin graft healing. Forty male rats were used in this study. A meshed skin graft, placed on an excised burn wound, was used as a model to compare topical agents with a control group. Skin graft survival rates, closure of meshed graft interstices (based on physical parameters, namely epithelialization and wound contraction), and histological changes were analyzed. Graft take was more than 85% in all groups. There was no difference between the mean values of the percent graft survival for each group (P > .05). Epithelialization occurred significantly earlier in animals in the nitrofurazone group (P < .05). There was no significant difference between groups in wound contraction rates (P >.05). There was no histological difference between the biopsy specimens of skin grafts. In specimens obtained from the interstices of the meshed graft, no significant differences were found among the groups regarding the wound healing parameters (P > .05). We found that nitrofurazone, silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine had no negative effect on graft healing and take in noncontaminated burn wounds. PMID:24823344

  8. Pharmacological and haematological results of rat skin burn injury treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4.

    PubMed

    Malakyan, Margarita H; Bajinyan, Sergey A; Abrahamyan, Armenuhi K; Petrosyan, Zhasmena H; Harutyunyan, Nektar K; Badiryan, Vardush A; Sorenson, John R J

    2004-01-01

    This research was performed to determine whether or not treatment of burn-injured rats with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4(Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4) facilitated recovery from burn-injury. Four groups of adult male rats received a standard skin burn 1 h before an initial subcutaneous treatment which was continued daily for three days with either 0, 5, 10 or 20micromol Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4/kg body mass. A fifth group was given no treatment. A sixth group served as a non-burn-injured non-treated normal control group. At 3 h and on days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 post-burn-injury blood samples were obtained from rats in all groups for the determination of leukocyte, platelet and erythrocyte counts, clotting times, hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Total protein and middle mass peptides in plasma, as well as plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane peroxidation products were determined on days 7 and 14. Burn wound healing and body mass were determined daily from day 0 to 6 with a notation of crust rejection by day 14. Treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 produced effects consistent with a facilitation of Cu-dependent immune-mediated physiological inflammatory responses to burn injury. It is concluded that treatment of burn injury with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 supports Cu-dependent physiological responses involved in overcoming burn injury, which may have been further optimized by continued treatment beyond day 2, the last day of treatment. PMID:15901413

  9. Topical acidification promotes healing of experimental deep partial thickness skin burns: a randomized double-blind preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, T; Eichenlaub, E H; Angel, M F; Levin, M; Futrell, J W

    1985-12-01

    The effects of three buffered solutions with pH values of 3.5, 7.42 and 8.5, respectively, on the healing rate of deep partial skin thickness burns, was followed for 21 days in 16 guinea-pigs. Two symmetrical burns were inflicted on the back of each animal and then each individual wound was dressed with an irrigation disc dressing; solutions were coded (no. 1 to no. 3) and the animals were randomly divided and blindly treated as follows: Group A, solution no. 1 v. solution no. 2 (n = 4); Group B, solution no. 2 v. solution no. 3(n = 4); Group C, solution no. 1 v. solution no. 3(n = 4); Group D, non-irrigated disc dressings (n = 4). The solutions were applied to the surface of the burn wounds at a rate of 0.15 ml/cm2. Dressings were changed every 7 days to assess contraction and epithelialization by a sonic digitizer. On post-burn day 21 the newly formed scar tissue was measured in all wounds. After computation of the healing rate at the end of the study, the data were then related to the coded treating agent. Contraction did not differ in all test groups during the study. Epithelialization was significantly faster in the pH 3.5-treated burns than in the other treated wounds (P less than 0.001). The present study indicates that topical acidification of experimental deep partial skin thickness burns promoted healing. The precise mechanism should be elucidated. PMID:4092157

  10. Effect of topical local anesthetic application to skin harvest sites for pain management in burn patients undergoing skin-grafting procedures.

    PubMed Central

    Jellish, W S; Gamelli, R L; Furry, P A; McGill, V L; Fluder, E M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if topical administration of local anesthesia, applied to fresh skin-harvest sites, reduces pain and analgesic requirements after surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Nonopioid treatments for pain after therapeutic procedures on patients with burns have become popular because of the side effects associated with narcotics. The topical administration of local anesthesia originally offered little advantage because of poor epidermal penetration. METHODS: This study compares 2% lidocaine with 0.5% bupivacaine or saline, topically applied after skin harvest, to determine what effect this may have on pain and narcotic use. Sixty patients with partial- or full-thickness burns to approximately 10% to 15% of their body were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 received normal saline, group 2 had 0.5% bupivacaine, and group 3 had 2% lidocaine sprayed onto areas immediately after skin harvest. Blood samples were subsequently obtained to measure concentrations of the local anesthetic. Hemodynamic variables after surgery, wake-up times, emetic symptoms, pain, and narcotic use were compared. RESULTS: Higher heart rates were noted in the placebo group than in those receiving lidocaine or bupivacaine. No differences were noted in recovery from anesthesia or emetic symptoms. Pain scores were lower and 24-hour narcotic use was less in patients who received lidocaine. Plasma lidocaine levels were greater than bupivacaine at all time points measured. CONCLUSIONS: Topical lidocaine applied to skin-harvest sites produced an analgesic effect that reduced narcotic requirements compared with patients who received bupivacaine or placebo. Local anesthetic solutions aerosolized onto skin-harvest sites did not affect healing or produce toxic blood concentrations. PMID:9923808

  11. Fumarate-loaded electrospun nanofibers with anti-inflammatory activity for fast recovery of mild skin burns.

    PubMed

    Romano, I; Summa, M; Heredia-Guerrero, J A; Spanò, R; Ceseracciu, L; Pignatelli, C; Bertorelli, R; Mele, E; Athanassiou, A

    2016-01-01

    In the biomedical sector the availability of engineered scaffolds and dressings that control and reduce inflammatory states is highly desired, particularly for the management of burn wounds. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that electrospun fibrous dressings of poly(octyl cyanoacrylate) (POCA) combined with polypropylene fumarate (PPF) possess anti-inflammatory activity and promote the fast and effective healing of mild skin burns in an animal model. The fibers produced had an average diameter of (0.8  ±  0.1) µm and they were able to provide a conformal coverage of the injured tissue. The application of the fibrous mats on the burned tissue effectively reduced around 80% of the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the first 48 h in comparison with un-treated animals, and enhanced skin epithelialization. From histological analysis, the skin thickness of the animals treated with POCA : PPF dressings appeared similar to that of one of the naïve animals: (13.7  ±  1.4) µm and (14.3  ±  2.5) µm for naïve and treated animals, respectively. The density of dermal cells was comparable as well: (1100  ±  112) cells mm(-2) and (1358  ±  255) cells mm(-2) for naïve and treated mice, respectively. The results demonstrate the suitability of the electrospun dressings in accelerating and effectively promoting the burn healing process. PMID:27481333

  12. [Prevention of radio-induced cancers].

    PubMed

    Cosset, J-M; Chargari, C; Demoor, C; Giraud, P; Helfre, S; Mornex, F; Mazal, A

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with the prevention of cancers only directly related to therapeutic radiation which are distinguished from "secondary cancer". The consideration of the risk of radiation-induced cancers after radiation therapy, although it is fortunately rare events, has become indispensable today. With a review of the literature, are detailed the various involved parameters. The age of the irradiated patient is one of the main parameters. The impact of the dose is also discussed based on the model used, and based on clinical data. Other parameters defining a radiation treatment are discussed one after the other: field with the example of Hodgkin's disease, the type of radiation and the participation of secondary neutrons, spreading and splitting. All these parameters are discussed according to each organ whose sensitivity is different. The article concludes with a list of recommendations to reduce the risk of radio-induced cancers. Even with the advent of conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulation, the modulated volume arctherapy, and the development of specific machinery for the extra-cranial stereotactic, the radiation therapist must consider this risk and use of reasonable and justified control imaging. Although they constitute a small percentage of cancers that occur secondarily after a first malignant tumor, radiation-induced cancers, can not and must not be concealed or ignored and justify regular monitoring over the long term, precisely adapted on the described parameters. PMID:27523416

  13. In vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging of the distribution of serum albumin in rat burned skin.

    PubMed

    Tsunoi, Yasuyuki; Sato, Shunichi; Kawauchi, Satoko; Ashida, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2013-11-01

    Information on the state of edema is important for treating severe burn injuries, but a method for noninvasive real-time quantitative diagnosis of edema is not available. Thus, in vivo spatiotemporal characteristics of serum albumin, which would behave differently from water in burned tissue, are not fully understood. In this study, we used a photoacoustic (PA) imaging method to visualize depth distribution of albumin in a rat deep burn model, for which Evans blue was used as a nontoxic molecular probe. Water content in the tissue and urine volume were also measured for reference. We performed PA imaging of albumin in three regions in the rats, burn and nonburn regions and their boundary, and the imaging showed that albumin started to leak out of the vessels in the boundary and diffused within the burned tissue. Diffusion of albumin into the nonburn region, where water content was increased, was limited. In the burn and boundary regions, albumin-originating PA signal increased in two phases: immediately after making burns and from 24 to 72 h after burn. The second increase is attributable to the selective return of water to the vessels, resulting in increased concentration of albumin in extravascular tissue. PMID:23597848

  14. Successful placement of an adult sternal intraosseous line through burned skin.

    PubMed

    Frascone, Ralph; Kaye, Koren; Dries, David; Solem, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining vascular access can be difficult in the critical adult patient. This can be especially true in a severely burned patient, where the usual insertion site may be involved in the burn injury. We present a case in which a sternal intraosseous line was placed through a full-thickness injury, in a patient in full arrest, who subsequently underwent a successful cardiac resuscitation. PMID:14501399

  15. Tattoo-induced skin "burn" during magnetic resonance imaging in a professional football player: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ross, James R; Matava, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    The authors present the case of a professional football player with an immediate and sustained cutaneous reaction ("burn") at the site of lower extremity tattoos that occurred during magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis. The burn was attributed to an electromagnetic reaction due to the ferromagnetic metallic compounds found in tattoo pigments, especially iron oxide-a reaction that has the potential to distort the field of image. These compounds can theoretically create an electric current that increases the local skin temperature, enough to cause a cutaneous burn. "At risk" tattoos are those with black pigment or any other pigments containing iron oxide, as well as those with a design that displays loops, large circular objects, or multiple adjacent points. Patients who develop this reaction may be treated prophylactically or symptomatically with a cold compress to assist with completion of the examination. Alternatively, a towel or cloth may be placed between the cutaneous body parts in those patients who experience the typical reaction resulting from an electrical arc between 2 separate cutaneous tattoos. This is likely an underreported issue that merits mention in the sports medicine literature given the frequent occurrence of cosmetic tattoos in athletes requiring magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose a musculoskeletal injury. As in the present patient, no permanent sequelae have been noted in the literature. Therefore, patients who develop this reaction should be reassured that the reaction is only temporary. PMID:23016039

  16. Skin Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin is your body's largest organ. It covers and protects your body. Your skin Holds body fluids in, preventing dehydration Keeps harmful ... it Anything that irritates, clogs, or inflames your skin can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, burning, ...

  17. Evaluation of a highly skin permeable low-molecular-weight protamine conjugated epidermal growth factor for novel burn wound healing therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hae; Bae, Il-Hong; Choi, Jin Kyu; Park, Jin Woo

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated the laser induced burn wound healing efficacy of a recombinant low-molecular-weight protamine conjugated epidermal growth factor (rLMWP-EGF). rLMWP-EGF was prepared by genetically combining LMWP with the N-terminal sequence of EGF; we obtained a homogeneous modified EGF without reduced biological activity. Because of the protein transduction domain of LMWP, rLMWP-EGF showed enhanced drug penetration across artificial skin constructs and excised mouse skin layers versus EGF and showed significantly improved burn wound healing efficacy, with accelerated wound closure and minimized eschar and scar formation, compared with EGF or no treatment. Histological examination also revealed that rLMWP-EGF permeated through the intact skin around the wound and facilitated residual epithelial cell proliferation in an integrated manner to reform an intact epidermis. Radiofrequency microwound formation was effective for reducing large hypertrophic scars formed after severe laser burning by collagen remodeling but rLMWP-EGF did not show a meaningful synergistic effect in burn scar reduction. However, rLMWP-EGF was helpful for forming skin with a more normal appearance and texture. Thus, rLMWP-EGF demonstrated therapeutic potential as a novel topical burn wound healing drug with no obvious toxic effect. PMID:24018779

  18. Nacre-driven water-soluble factors promote wound healing of the deep burn porcine skin by recovering angiogenesis and fibroblast function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyunghee; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Jin Man; Chung, Yeoun Ho; Lee, Tae Yoon; Lim, Hyun-Sook; Lim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Taewoon; Bae, Jin Seung; Woo, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Jeong, Daewon

    2012-03-01

    To assess the recovery effect of water-soluble components of nacre on wound healing of burns, water-soluble nacre (WSN) was obtained from powdered nacre. Alterations to WSN-mediated wound healing characteristics were examined in porcine skin with deep second-degree burns; porcine skin was used as a proxy for human. When WSN was applied to a burned area, the burn-induced granulation sites were rapidly filled with collagen, and the damaged dermis and epidermis were restored to the appearance of normal skin. WSN enhanced wound healing recovery properties for burn-induced apoptotic and necrotic cellular damage and spurred angiogenesis. Additionally, WSN-treated murine fibroblast NIH3T3 cells showed increased proliferation and collagen synthesis. Collectively, the findings indicate that WSN improves the process of wound healing in burns by expeditiously restoring angiogenesis and fibroblast activity. WSN may be useful as a therapeutic agent, with superior biocompatibility to powdered nacre, and evoking less discomfort when applied to a wounded area. PMID:21688145

  19. [A Case of a Severely Burned Patient with Suspected Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Who Underwent Immediate Excision and Skin Grafting under General Anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Mika; Oota, Takako; Kato, Takeshi; Imanishi, Toshihiro

    2015-04-01

    An 88-year-old woman was severely burned on her thigh, leg, arm, buttocks, chest and abdomen in the bathroom and was emergently admitted to our hospital. The burn index was 10.8 and the prognostic burn index (PBI) was 99. The reports of echocardiography, cardiac biomarkers and electrocardiogram showed left ventricular dysfunction with apical akinesis, which was suspected as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. To avoid poor prognosis because of severe PBI, immediate excision and skin grafting were performed under general anesthesia 23 hours after the burn onset. More infusion and transfusion than the expected amounts were needed during anesthesia and the postoperative 4 days because of cardiac failure and septic shock, which were overcome 14 days after the surgery. The complete early excision was impossible due to cardiac failure, and that the unexcised burn scar exacerbated infection and prevented her from survival. PMID:26419106

  20. Local skin burn causes systemic (lung and kidney) endothelial cell injury reflected by increased circulating and decreased tissue factor VIII-related antigen.

    PubMed

    Gross, M A; Viders, D E; Brown, J M; Mulvin, D W; Miles, R H; Brentlinger, E R; Velasco, S E; Crawford, T S; Burton, L K; Repine, J E

    1989-08-01

    Inasmuch as xanthine oxidase (XO)-derived O2* metabolites may contribute to vascular endothelial injury and Factor VIII antigen (F8Ag) is a component of endothelial cells, we hypothesized that XO-derived O2* might damage and cause distant organ endothelial cells to release F8Ag in rats subjected to skin burn. We found that serum F8Ag (ELISA) increased in the blood of rats subjected to skin burn (70 degrees C water to shaved dorsal skin for 30 seconds) but not in sham control rats (30 degrees C water). Coincidentally, F8Ag levels also decreased in lung and kidney tissue sections (immunofluorescent staining) of burned rats but not sham rats. Increases in circulating F8Ag levels and decreases in tissue F8Ag levels appeared to result from XO-derived O2* metabolites: F8Ag levels did not increase in the blood and did not decrease in the tissues of rats pretreated with allopurinol (a specific XO inhibitor, 50 mg/kg) or dimethylthiourea (DMTU) (a permeable O2* metabolite scavenger, 250 mg/kg). Lung injury as assessed by permeability studies (I125-albumin leak) paralleled changes in blood F8Ag levels in sham, burn, allopurinol-, and DMTU-treated groups. We conclude that skin burn causes a systemic vascular injury that can be inhibited by allopurinol or DMTU and is reflected by increased circulating and tissue decreased Factor VIII antigen levels. Release of Factor VIII antigen may serve as a valuable marker of distant organ injury in patients with skin burn. PMID:2503901

  1. Should dermal scald burns in children be covered with autologous skin grafts or with allogeneic cultivated keratinocytes?--"The Viennese concept".

    PubMed

    Rab, Matthias; Koller, Rupert; Ruzicka, Margot; Burda, Gudrun; Kamolz, Lars Peter; Bierochs, Bettina; Meissl, Guenther; Frey, Manfred

    2005-08-01

    The treatment of scald burns in children is still under discussion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate an optimised treatment regime for scald burns in children. Between 1997 and 2002, 124 children underwent surgical intervention due to burn injuries. Thirty-six out of these 124 children were enrolled into the evaluation of our recent treatment protocol. Twenty-two children with scald burns covering an average body surface area (TBSA) of 18.5% were treated by early excision and coverage with allogeneic keratinocytes in case of partial thickness lesions (keratinocyte group). Fourteen children with a TBSA of 17.2% were treated with autologous skin grafts alone (skin graft group). Both groups were comparable according to age, burn depth and affected TBSA. The complete clinical follow-up examination of at least 17 months was performed in 12 out of 22 children of the keratinocyte group and in 9 out of 14 patients of the comparative group. Visible scar formations were classified according to the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) in each patient. The use of allogeneic keratinocytes led to complete epithelialisation within 12 days in 20 of the 22 cases. No secondary skin grafting procedures had to be done. Skin take rate at the sixth postoperative day was 100% in the skin graft group. Blood transfusions were administered intraoperatively according to the clinical need of the patients by the responsible anaesthesiologist. The mean volume of blood, which had to be transfused was 63.9 ml in the keratinocyte group and significantly lower than the volume of 151.4 ml, which was administered in the skin graft group (p=0.04). At follow up the VSS observed in areas covered by keratinocytes was 2.33 on the average and therefore, significantly lower than the VSS of 5.22 in skin grafted areas of the comparative group (p=0.04). In children the use of cultivated keratinocytes in partial thickness scald burns is a procedure, which renders constantly reliable results. It minimizes the

  2. Correlation between changes in polyphenol composition of peels and incidence of CO₂ skin burning of 'Cameo' apples as influenced by controlled atmosphere storage.

    PubMed

    Harb, Jamil; Kittemann, Dominikus; Neuwald, Daniel Alexandre; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schwab, Wilfried

    2013-04-17

    'Cameo' apples stored under high CO₂ levels suffer from "skin burning". Accordingly, this study is aimed to correlate the incidence of skin burning with different polyphenols. After harvest, apples were sorted into bad- and good-colored fruit and further stored under either high (3%) or low (0.7%) CO₂ level. At frequent intervals, fruit were assessed for incidence of skin burning and relative concentrations of various polyphenols. Results clearly show that bad-colored apples stored under high CO₂ level had the highest incidence percentage. Concerning the polyphenol profile, good-colored and healthy apples had significantly higher concentrations of certain polyphenols, including cyanidin-3-galactoside and rutin. However, bad-colored and injured apples had significantly higher concentrations of another set of polyphenols, including phloridzin, epicatechin, and (epi)catechin→(epi)catechin isomers. Taking into account that quercetins and cyanidins account for more than 80% of antioxidants, it is logical to assume that these polyphenols might give protection to good-colored apples against skin burning. PMID:23517081

  3. Restoration of the shape, location and skin of the severe burn-damaged breast.

    PubMed

    Grishkevich, Viktor M

    2009-11-01

    Thermal injuries to the anterior chest in pre-pubescent girls result in breast contracture. During puberty, the breast parenchyma develops and grows underneath the scars, resulting in being flattened and disfigured. The breast mound, as well as the nipple-areolar complex, is partially or completely levelled out and displaced. The contours are unclear and the inframammary fold is effaced. This feature of the most severe breast contracture still poses a challenge for most surgeons. This type of breast contracture can be successfully eliminated with the author-suggested, improved free-skin grafting technique. The scars are excised and the shifted area of parenchyma is mobilised symmetrically to the border of the undamaged breast. Then, the shape and positioning of the breast as well as the nipple-areolar complex are reconstructed with the help of circular suturing through the fat layer on two to three breast levels. The suture ends are led beyond the wound area and are affixed with certain tension contralateral to the breast displacement. The suture ends, being in state of tension, are tied into untied knots around bolsters and are retained in place for about 3 months. During this time, the form and the positioning of the breast can be corrected using the traction of the untied sutures; the skin transplants are stabilised, under which the scar tissue is formed. Skin transplant and the scar tissue hold the shape and positioning of the breast and the sutures can be removed at this stage. In this series, 11 patients were operated upon and 13 breasts were reconstructed. Good results were achieved in all cases: the breast's shape and skin was restored and the positioning was corrected. PMID:19409709

  4. A case of multiple, eruptive pyogenic granuloma developed on a region of the burned skin: can erythromycin be a treatment option?

    PubMed

    Ceyhan, Ali Murat; Basak, Pinar Yuksel; Akkaya, Vahide Baysal; Yildirim, Mehmet; Kapucuoglu, Nilgun

    2007-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a common, acquired, benign angiomatous proliferation of the skin and mucous membranes that develops spontaneously or traumatically. PG usually occurs in children and young adults and predominantly located on neck, hands, and extremities. There are numerous theories about the pathogenesis of PG, but the etiology is not clear. Although the occurrence of PG after trauma to the skin is very common, multiple lesions of PG secondary to burn are rare in the literature. In this report, we present a case of multiple, eruptive PG that developed on the burned skin of a 17-month-old boy. After oral erythromycin treatment for 8 weeks, the lesions clearly improved. PMID:17667838

  5. Captopril Increases Survival after Whole-Body Ionizing Irradiation but Decreases Survival when Combined with Skin-Burn Trauma in Mice.

    PubMed

    Islam, Aminul; Bolduc, David L; Zhai, Min; Kiang, Juliann G; Swift, Joshua M

    2015-09-01

    Past and recent radiation events have involved a high incidence of radiation combined injury where victims often succumb to serious infections as a consequence of bacterial translocation and subsequent sepsis. The risk of infection is exacerbated in radiation combined skin-burn injury (RCI), which increase vulnerability. Furthermore, no suitable countermeasures for radiation combined skin-burn injury have been established. In this study, we evaluated captopril as a potential countermeasure to radiation combined skin-burn injury. Captopril is an FDA-approved angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that was previously reported to stimulate hematopoietic recovery after exposure to ionizing radiation. Female B6D2F1/J mice were whole-body bilateral (60)Co gamma-photon irradiated (dose rate of 0.4 Gy/min) with 9.5 Gy (LD70/30 for RCI), followed by nonlethal dorsal skin-burn injury under anesthesia (approximately 15% total-body surface-area burn). Mice were provided with acidified drinking water with or without dissolved captopril (0.55 g/l) for 30 days immediately after injury and were administered topical gentamicin (0.1% cream; day 1-10) and oral levofloxacin (90-100 mg/kg; day 3-16). Surviving mice were euthanized on day 30 after analyses of water consumption, body weight and survival. Our data demonstrate that, while treatment with captopril did mitigate mortality induced by radiation injury (RI) alone (55% captopril vs. 80% vehicle; n = 20, P < 0.05), it also resulted in decreased survival after radiation combined skin-burn injury (22% captopril vs. 41% vehicle; n = 22, P < 0.05). Moreover, captopril administration via drinking water produced an uneven dosage pattern among the different injury groups ranging from 74 ± 5.4 to 115 ± 2.2 mg/kg/day. Captopril treatment also did not counteract the negative alterations in hematology, splenocytes or bone marrow cellularity after either radiation injury or radiation combined skin-burn injury. These data suggest that

  6. The Immune Response to Skin Trauma Is Dependent on the Etiology of Injury in a Mouse Model of Burn and Excision.

    PubMed

    Valvis, Samantha M; Waithman, Jason; Wood, Fiona M; Fear, Mark W; Fear, Vanessa S

    2015-08-01

    Skin trauma has many different causes including incision, blunt force, and burn. All of these traumas trigger an immune response. However, it is currently unclear whether the immune response is specific to the etiology of the injury. This study was established to determine whether the immune response to excision and burn injury of equivalent extent was the same. Using a mouse model of a full-thickness 19 mm diameter excision or 19 mm diameter full-thickness burn injury, we examined the innate immune response at the level of serum cytokine induction, whole-blood lymphocyte populations, dendritic cell function/phenotype, and the ensuing adaptive immune responses of CD4 and CD8 T-cell populations. Strikingly, both the innate and adaptive immune system responses differed between the burn and excision injuries. Acute cytokine induction was faster and different in profile to that of excision injury, leading to changes in systemic monocyte and neutrophil levels. Differences in the immune profile between burn and excision were also noted up to day 84 post injury, suggesting that the etiology of injury leads to sustained changes in the response. This may in part underlie clinical observations of differences in patient morbidity and mortality in response to different skin injury types. PMID:25826422

  7. Morphofunctional evaluation of the effect of collagen-1-based dressing on skin regeneration after burn trauma in mice of two genetic strains.

    PubMed

    Kolokolchikova, E G; Zhirkova, E A; Golovatenko-Abramov, P K; Platonov, E S; Botcharova, V S; Khvatov, V B

    2010-07-01

    Morphofunctional evaluation of the effect of biological dressing with collagen-1 on healing of 3A degree burn wound in outbred and mutant Hr(hr)/Hr(hr)(hairless) mice was carried out by the histological method and optic radioautography. A pronounced stimulatory effect of the dressing on skin regeneration in mice was demonstrated. According to radioautography data, early dressing of the burn wounds in Hr(hr)/Hr(hr)mice led to active proliferation of epithelial cells in dermal cyst and vascular endotheliocytes. The possible mechanisms of the stimulatory effect of collagen-based dressing on wound healing are discussed. PMID:21113480

  8. Part 2. Comparison of emergency washing solutions in 70% hydrofluoric acid-burned human skin in an established ex vivo explants model

    PubMed Central

    Burgher, François; Mathieu, Laurence; Lati, Elian; Gasser, Philippe; Peno-Mazzarino, Laurent; Blomet, Joël; Hall, Alan H; Maibach, Howard I

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a small and partially dissociated acid (pKa 3.2), able to deeply penetrate into human skin in addition to the corrosiveness of the hydrogen ion (H+) and the toxicity of the fluoride ion (F-). However, there has been a lack of experimental studies to objectively characterize the results of human HF skin exposure decontamination. Methodology/principal findings: A previously established experimental method using a human skin explants ex vivo model (Part 1. Experimental 70% hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns: Histological observations in an established human skin explants ex vivo model) described the lesions that appeared following 70% HF penetration. Within 5min, 70% HF penetrates to the dermis. Using the same experimental conditions, a comparison study of two different washing protocols was performed: water + topical calcium gluconate (CaG) versus Hexafluorine®. In these conditions, washing for 15min with running tap water followed by topical CaG ointment only delayed burn onset, while severe tissue damage appeared later. In contrast, after washing with Hexafluorine® over 10 min, no histological lesions developed. These results are in accordance with the results of accidental human industrial case reports. Conclusion/significance: Amphoteric and hypertonic Hexafluorine® can deactivate H+ and chelate F- ions. Based on these results, it should be considered as a promising first-aid decontamination solution to prevent or minimize significant local and systemic consequences of concentrated HF skin exposures. PMID:21083510

  9. Adult burn patients with more than 60% TBSA involved-Meek and other techniques to overcome restricted skin harvest availability--the Viennese Concept.

    PubMed

    Lumenta, David B; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Frey, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Despite the fact that early excision and grafting has significantly improved outcome over the last decades, the management of severely burned adult patients with >/=60% total body surface area (% TBSA) burned still represents a challenging task for burn care specialists all over the world. In this article, we present our current treatment concept for this entity of severely burned patients and analyze its effect in a comparative cohort study. Surgical strategy comprised the use of split-thickness skin grafts (Meek, mesh) for permanent coverage, fluidized microsphere bead-beds for wound conditioning, temporary coverage (polyurethane sheets, Epigard; nanocrystalline silver dressings, Acticoat; synthetic copolymer sheets based on lactic acid, Suprathel; acellular bovine derived collagen matrices, Matriderm; allogeneic cultured keratinocyte sheets; and allogeneic split-thickness skin grafts), and negative-pressure wound therapy (vacuum-assisted closure). The autologous split-thickness skin graft expansion using the Meek technique for full-thickness burns and the delayed approach for treating dorsal burn wounds is discussed in detail. To demonstrate differences before and after the introduction of the Meek technique, we have compared patients of 2007 with >/=60% TBSA (n = 10) to those in a matched observation period (n = 7). In the first part of the comparative analysis, all patients of the two samples were analyzed with regard to age, abbreviated burn severity index, Baux, different entities of % TBSA, and survival. In the second step, only the survivors of both years were separated in two groups as follows: patients receiving skin grafts, using the Meek technique (n = 6), were compared with those without Meek grafting (n = 4). When comparing the severely burned patients of 2007 with a cohort of 2006, there were no differences for age (2007: 46.4 +/- 13.4 vs. 2006: 39.1 +/- 14.8 years), abbreviated burn severity index score (2007: 12.2 +/- 1.0 vs. 2006: 12.1 +/- 1

  10. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... You can get burned by heat, fire, radiation, sunlight, electricity, chemicals or hot or boiling water. There ... skin. The burned area will be sensitive to sunlight for up to one year, so you should ...

  11. Effects of low level laser therapy on the prognosis of split-thickness skin graft in type 3 burn of diabetic patients: a case series.

    PubMed

    Dahmardehei, Mostafa; Kazemikhoo, Nooshafarin; Vaghardoost, Reza; Mokmeli, Soheila; Momeni, Mahnoush; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Ansari, Fereshteh; Amirkhani, Amir

    2016-04-01

    Significant populations in burn centers are diabetic burn patients. Healing process in these patients is more difficult due to diabetes complications. The gold standard treatment for patients with grade 3 burn ulcer is split-thickness skin grafting (STSG), but in the diabetic patients, the rate of graft failure and amputation is high due to impaired tissue perfusion. The technique of low level laser therapy (LLLT) improves tissue perfusion and fibroblast proliferation, increases collagen synthesis, and accelerates wound healing. The purpose of this case report is introducing a new therapeutic method for accelerating healing with better prognosis in these patients. The protocols and informed consent were reviewed according to the Medical Ethics, Board of Shahid Beheshti Medical Sciences (IR.SBMU.RAM.REC.13940.363). Diabetic type 2 patients with 13 grade 3 burn ulcers, candidate for amputation, were enrolled in the study. We used a 650-nm red laser light, 2 J/Cm for the bed of the ulcer and an 810-nm infrared laser light 6 J/Cm(2) for the margins along with intravenous laser therapy with a 660-nm red light, before and after STSG for treating grade 3 burn ulcers in 13 diabetic ulcers. The results of this study showed complete healing in the last 8 weeks for all patients who were candidates for amputation. In this case series, we present 13 cases of diabetic ulcer with type 3 burn wound, candidate for amputation, who healed completely using LLLT and STSG. This is the first time that these two techniques are combined for treatment of burn ulcer in diabetic patients. Using LLLT with STSG might be a promising treatment for burn victims especially diabetic patients. PMID:26868033

  12. Dorsal skin necrosis secondary to a solar-induced thermal burn in a brown-coated dachshund

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Julia P.; Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M.; Fowlkes, Natalie; Merchant, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    A 5-year-old neutered male brown dachshund dog was presented for a large dorsal cutaneous burn that occurred following direct sunlight exposure outdoors in high ambient temperatures. Although burns are quite common in dogs, full-thickness solar-induced radiation burns are less common and have not been previously reported in animals without a black hair coat. PMID:26933270

  13. Dorsal skin necrosis secondary to a solar-induced thermal burn in a brown-coated dachshund.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Julia P; Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Fowlkes, Natalie; Merchant, Sandra

    2016-03-01

    A 5-year-old neutered male brown dachshund dog was presented for a large dorsal cutaneous burn that occurred following direct sunlight exposure outdoors in high ambient temperatures. Although burns are quite common in dogs, full-thickness solar-induced radiation burns are less common and have not been previously reported in animals without a black hair coat. PMID:26933270

  14. Development of a long-term ovine model of cutaneous burn and smoke inhalation injury and the effects of early excision and skin autografting

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yusuke; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Rehberg, Sebastian; Asmussen, Sven; Ito, Hiroshi; Sousse, Linda E.; Cox, Robert A.; Deyo, Donald J.; Traber, Lillian D.; Traber, Maret G.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury frequently increases the risk of pneumonia and mortality in burn patients. The pathophysiology of acute lung injury secondary to burn and smoke inhalation is well studied, but long-term pulmonary function, especially the process of lung tissue healing following burn and smoke inhalation, has not been fully investigated. By contrast, early burn excision has become the standard of care in the management of major burn injury. While many clinical studies and small-animal experiments support the concept of early burn wound excision, and show improved survival and infectious outcomes, we have developed a new chronic ovine model of burn and smoke inhalation injury with early excision and skin grafting that can be used to investigate lung pathophysiology over a period of 3 weeks. Materials and methods Eighteen female sheep were surgically prepared for this study under isoflurane anesthesia. The animals were divided into three groups: an Early Excision group (20% TBSA, third-degree cutaneous burn and 36 breaths of cotton smoke followed by early excision and skin autografting at 24 h after injury, n = 6), a Control group (20% TBSA, third-degree cutaneous burn and 36 breaths of cotton smoke without early excision, n = 6) and a Sham group (no injury, no early excision, n = 6). After induced injury, all sheep were placed on a ventilator and fluid-resuscitated with Lactated Ringers solution (4 mL/% TBS/kg). At 24 h post-injury, early excision was carried out to fascia, and skin grafting with meshed autografts (20/1000 in., 1:4 ratio) was performed under isoflurane anesthesia. At 48 h post-injury, weaning from ventilator was begun if PaO2/FiO2 was above 250 and sheep were monitored for 3 weeks. Results At 96 h post-injury, all animals were weaned from ventilator. There are no significant differences in PaO2/FiO2 between Early Excision and Control groups at any points. All animals were survived for 3 weeks without infectious complication in Early Excision

  15. TIMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, and PIIINP as serum markers for skin fibrosis in patients following severe burn trauma.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Dietmar; Noah, Ernst-Magnus; von Heimburg, Dennis; Pallua, Norbert

    2003-04-01

    The wound-healing process of patients with severe burns often leads to the formation of extensive fibrotic scars. In this study, serum concentrations of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and amino-terminal propeptide of procollagen type III (PIIINP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as markers for excessive cicatrization in 22 patients with acute burn injuries. All patients were followed up for 6 months to determine a fibrotic reaction during the wound-healing process after operative treatment using the Burn Scar Index. Blood samples were drawn immediately before the operation; at postoperative days 1, 3, 7, and 14; and 1, 3, and 6 months after the operation. Twenty patients who underwent elective plastic surgical operations served as the control group. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) of TIMP-1 in the burned patients by the third postoperative day. Later in the follow-up period, the serum concentrations remained at a significantly elevated level (p < 0.05) compared with preoperative values. In comparison with the control group, the postoperative serum concentrations of TIMP-1 of the burned patients were significantly higher (p < 0.05) at any time and correlated with the total body surface area burned at the third and seventh postoperative days (p < 0.05; r2 = 0.46 versus r2 = 0.53) and the Burn Scar Index after 6 months (p < 0.05; r2 = 0.65). Serum levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 showed a significant elevation (p < 0.05) only between postoperative days 3 and 14 in patients with burn wounds. PIIINP increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the sera of the burned patients at postoperative day 3 and remained significantly elevated up to 6 months after injury. At any time after trauma, PIIINP serum levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the burned patients than in the control group and correlated with the total body surface area burned at postoperative

  16. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused a large amount of skin loss Burns Cosmetic reasons or reconstructive surgeries where there has been skin damage or skin ... anesthesia are: Reactions to medicines Problems with breathing Risks for this surgery are: Bleeding Chronic pain (rarely) Infection Loss of ...

  17. Myofibroblastic differentiation in atypical fibroxanthomas occurring on sun-exposed skin and in a burn scar: an ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ayako; Yamada, Nanako; Yoshida, Yuichi; Morino, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Osamu

    2011-08-01

    Herein, we report the investigation of two cases of atypical fibroxanthoma (AFX). One AFX developed within actinically damaged skin, as is typical, while the other developed within a burn scar within non-sun-exposed skin. The two tumors showed almost identical histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features. The tumors were composed of pleomorphic spindled, epithelioid, multinucleated and bizarre cells with enlarged atypical nuclei. Most tumor cells expressed vimentin and about 50% expressed CD10. Some tumor cells also expressed α-smooth muscle actin and CD68. However, there was no expression of cytokeratins, p63, S-100 protein, melan-A, HMB 45, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen or CD34. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells contained myofilaments with dense patches but lacked plasmalemmal caveolae and basal lamina. The most prominent finding was the identification of fibronexus junctions. In addition, there were tumor cells containing numerous lysosomal granules. In conclusion, we clearly showed myofibroblastic differentiation in AFX by electron microscopy. We report also a case of AFX directly developing within a burn scar in the absence of actinic damage. PMID:21623865

  18. Differential response of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, dermal fibroblasts, and keratinocytes to burn wound exudates: potential role of skin-specific chemokine CCL27.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Lenie J; Kroeze, Kim L; Waaijman, Taco; Breetveld, Melanie; Sampat-Sardjoepersad, Shakun C; Niessen, Frank B; Middelkoop, Esther; Scheper, Rik J; Gibbs, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Many cell-based regenerative medicine strategies toward tissue-engineered constructs are currently being explored. Cell-cell interactions and interactions with different biomaterials are extensively investigated, whereas very few studies address how cultured cells will interact with soluble wound-healing mediators that are present within the wound bed after transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine how adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASC), dermal fibroblasts, and keratinocytes will react when they come in contact with the deep cutaneous burn wound bed. Burn wound exudates isolated from deep burn wounds were found to contain many cytokines, including chemokines and growth factors related to inflammation and wound healing. Seventeen mediators were identified by ELISA (concentration range 0.0006-9 ng/mg total protein), including the skin-specific chemokine CCL27. Burn wound exudates activated both ASC and dermal fibroblasts, but not keratinocytes, to increase secretion of CXCL1, CXCL8, CCL2, and CCL20. Notably, ASC but not fibroblasts or keratinocytes showed significant increased secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (5-fold) and interleukin-6 (253-fold), although when the cells were incorporated in bi-layered skin substitute (SS) these differences were less pronounced. A similar discrepancy between ASC and dermal fibroblast mono-cultures was observed when recombinant human-CCL27 was used instead of burn wound exudates. Although CCL27 did not stimulate the secretion of any of the wound-healing mediators by keratinocytes, these cells, in contrast to ASC or dermal fibroblasts, showed increased proliferation and migration. Taken together, these results indicate that on transplantation, keratinocytes are primarily activated to promote wound closure. In contrast, dermal fibroblasts and, in particular, ASC respond vigorously to factors present in the wound bed, leading to increased secretion of angiogenesis/granulation tissue formation

  19. Sterilization of silver acidum pipemedicum skin for the treatment of burns by radioactive cobalt-60-γray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Defeng; Cao, Fengsheng; Chen, Qinglong; Li, Guohui; Su, Ziyi; Cao, Yong; Wu, Wenqing; Qiu, Zeyi; Chen, Zhanxian

    1995-02-01

    The radiated silver acidum pipemedicum skin (RSAPS) was made of 0.4-0.8 mm laminal skin from healthy white pig, which was infiltrated in norfloxacin and silver nitrate, packed with the film bag of alummium poil and radiated by cobalt-60γ-ray for sterilization at the dosage of 27.92-35.31GY/min for a total dose of 25KGY. RSAPS was very effective in sterilization and had no bad effect on elasticity, adhesion, water permeability, and structure of pig skin. So it is highly appreciated by the patients and medical personnel for its convenience of usage and has gained good social and economic beneficial results.

  20. Using Radio-Induced Aurora to Observe Ionospheric Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P.; Gondarenko, N.; Guzdar, P.; Huba, J.; Ossakow, S.; Djuth, F.; Tepley, C.; Sulzer, M.; Kagan, L.; Kelley, M.

    Two-dimensional images of F- and E- layers have been obtained using the technique called radio-induced aurora (RIA). This technique makes the plasma layers glow in the ionosphere glow when being stimulated by high power radio waves. Normally the irregularities in the ionosphere do not radiate strong enough visible emissions to be observed from the ground. Experiments at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico and the SURA facility in Russia have shown that the plasma structures can be made to glow at 630.0 nm, 557.7 nm and other wavelengths by illuminating them by HF radio waves with effective radiated powers of 80 megawatts. The regions of the sporadic-E layers that have electron densities greater than the critical density for reflection of the radio waves emit electrons that collide with and excite atmospheric atomic oxygen and molecular nitrogen. A charge-coupled-device (CCD) imager located on the ground is used to capture images of the glowing E and F-region structures. The camera exposure- times were in the range of 15 to 45 seconds. The images obtained using this technique show a wide variety of both field-aligned and wind-aligned irregularities. Some layers cover the antenna pattern cone illuminated by the radio wave beam. Other layers show strong modulations by both plasma and neutral instabilities. Two-dimensional computer simulations of the coupling between neutral winds, electric fields and the ion layers simulate the structure in the images.

  1. Medical diagnosis system and method with multispectral imaging. [depth of burns and optical density of the skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.; Reilly, T. H. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A skin diagnosis system includes a scanning and optical arrangement whereby light reflected from each incremental area (pixel) of the skin is directed simultaneously to three separate light filters, e.g., IR, red, and green. As a result, the three devices simultaneously produce three signals which are directly related to the reflectance of light of different wavelengths from the corresponding pixel. These three signals for each pixel after processing are used as inputs to one or more output devices to produce a visual color display and/or a hard copy color print, for one usable as a diagnostic aid by a physician.

  2. The wound/burn guidelines - 4: Guidelines for the management of skin ulcers associated with connective tissue disease/vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Manabu; Asano, Yoshihide; Ishii, Takayuki; Ogawa, Fumihide; Kawakami, Tamihiro; Kodera, Masanari; Abe, Masatoshi; Isei, Taiki; Ito, Takaaki; Inoue, Yuji; Imafuku, Shinichi; Irisawa, Ryokichi; Ohtsuka, Masaki; Ohtsuka, Mikio; Kadono, Takafumi; Kawaguchi, Masakazu; Kukino, Ryuichi; Kono, Takeshi; Sakai, Keisuke; Takahara, Masakazu; Tanioka, Miki; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Hashimoto, Akira; Hasegawa, Minoru; Hayashi, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Takeo; Matsuo, Koma; Madokoro, Naoki; Yamasaki, Osamu; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Le Pavoux, Andres; Tachibana, Takao; Ihn, Hironobu

    2016-07-01

    The Japanese Dermatological Association prepared guidelines focused on the treatment of skin ulcers associated with connective tissue disease/vasculitis practical in clinical settings of dermatological care. Skin ulcers associated with connective tissue diseases or vasculitis occur on the background of a wide variety of diseases including, typically, systemic sclerosis but also systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), various vasculitides and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS). Therefore, in preparing the present guidelines, we considered diagnostic/therapeutic approaches appropriate for each of these disorders to be necessary and developed algorithms and clinical questions for systemic sclerosis, SLE, dermatomyositis, RA, vasculitis and APS. PMID:26972733

  3. [Radiosurgery and brain radio-induced carcinogenesis: update].

    PubMed

    Muracciole, X; Cowen, D; Régis, J

    2004-06-01

    The use of radiosurgery Gamma-knife for many benign tumors and diseases has increased significantly over the last two decades. The long-term potential carcinogenic risk has not been evaluated until recently. The definition of radio-induced tumors was based on Cahan's criteria: it must occur in the previously irradiated field, with a sufficiently long interval from irradiation, it must be pathologically different from the primary tumor, not be present at time of irradiation and no genetic predisposition for second tumor. The brain is one of most sensitive tIssues and no minimal dose has been established. Even doses as low as 1 Gy have been associated with second tumor formation and relative risk between 1.57 and 8.75. This relative risk increases to 18.4 for an interval time between 20 and 25 Years. Many publications emphaze the risks after larger-field, fractionated radiotherapy with low non-cell-killing dose delivered to central nervous system. Furthermore, therapeutic radiation doses for benign tumors associated with a long life (parasellar tumors, meningioma) were implicated in carcinogenesis. Incidence of radiation-associated tumors is linked to different factors such as age and individual genetic susceptibility. At this time and to our knowledge, 3 radiation-associated gliomas and 5 malignant acoustic neurinomas have been reported in the literature. Moreover, these second tumors met some but not all Cahan criteria. We also report 2 cases from our radiosurgical experience and discuss these points. Long time follow-up is needed to observe the crude incidence of radiation-induced tumors at 5 to 30 Years. The relative risk is estimated less than 1 and must be announced to each patient before the radiosurgical procedure and counterbalanced wit the 1% annual risk of mortality from bleeding of untreated MAV or the 1% mortality rate of benign tumors after surgery alone. PMID:15179297

  4. Pediatric cutaneous bleach burns.

    PubMed

    Lang, Cathleen; Cox, Matthew

    2013-07-01

    Bleach is a common household product which can cause caustic injuries. Its effects on mucosal tissues and the eye have been well-described in the literature. However, there is little information published regarding the appearance and effect of bleach on a child's skin. We report three children who sustained chemical burns after contact with bleach. All three children sustained accidental bleach burns while at home, and each child had a distinct brown discoloration to the skin from the injury. All three children had treatment and follow-up for their burns. Two of the children sustained more severe burns, which were extensive and required more time to heal. There was also long-term scarring associated with the severe burns. Like most burns, pain control is required until the injury heals. PMID:23545350

  5. Chemical burn or reaction

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000059.htm Chemical burn or reaction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chemicals that touch skin can lead to a reaction on the skin, throughout the body, or both. ...

  6. Economics of pediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G

    2008-07-01

    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures. PMID:18650705

  7. Sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Misery, L; Loser, K; Ständer, S

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive skin is a clinical condition defined by the self-reported facial presence of different sensory perceptions, including tightness, stinging, burning, tingling, pain and pruritus. Sensitive skin may occur in individuals with normal skin, with skin barrier disturbance, or as a part of the symptoms associated with facial dermatoses such as rosacea, atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Although experimental studies are still pending, the symptoms of sensitive skin suggest the involvement of cutaneous nerve fibres and neuronal, as well as epidermal, thermochannels. Many individuals with sensitive skin report worsening symptoms due to environmental factors. It is thought that this might be attributed to the thermochannel TRPV1, as it typically responds to exogenous, endogenous, physical and chemical stimuli. Barrier disruptions and immune mechanisms may also be involved. This review summarizes current knowledge on the epidemiology, potential mechanisms, clinics and therapy of sensitive skin. PMID:26805416

  8. Burning Issue: Handling Household Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... hot objects or liquid, fire, friction, the sun, electricity, or certain chemicals. Each year, about a half- ... infant or elderly. the burn was caused by electricity, which can lead to “invisible” burns. Burns Burns ...

  9. Burns and military clothing.

    PubMed

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  10. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the companyused technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  11. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications

  12. Burn Depth Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Supra Medical Systems is successfully marketing a device that detects the depth of burn wounds in human skin. To develop the product, the company used technology developed by NASA Langley physicists looking for better ultrasonic detection of small air bubbles and cracks in metal. The device is being marketed to burn wound analysis and treatment centers. Through a Space Act agreement, NASA and the company are also working to further develop ultrasonic instruments for new medical applications.

  13. Skin Burns (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... UpToDate, Inc. ("UpToDate"), in consideration of the subscription fee and acceptance of this Agreement, grants you a ... or your Institution have agreed to pay subscription fees. At the end of this period, your license ...

  14. Management of acute burns and burn shock resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Faldmo, L; Kravitz, M

    1993-05-01

    Initial management of minor and moderate, uncomplicated burn injury focuses on wound management and patient comfort. Initial management of patients with major burn injury requires airway support, fluid resuscitation for burn shock, treatment for associated trauma and preexisting medical conditions, management of adynamic ileus, and initial wound treatment. Fluid resuscitation, based on assessment of the extent and depth of burn injury, requires administration of intravenous fluids using resuscitation formula guidelines for the initial 24 hours after injury. Inhalation injury complicates flame burns and increases morbidity and mortality. Electrical injury places patients at risk for cardiac arrest, metabolic acidosis, and myoglobinuria. Circumferential full-thickness burns to extremities compromise circulation and require escharotomy or fasciotomy. Circumferential torso burns compromise air exchange and cardiac return. Loss of skin function places patients at risk for hypothermia, fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and systemic sepsis. The first 24 hours after burn injury require aggressive medical management to assure survival and minimize complications. PMID:8489882

  15. Pediatric facial burns.

    PubMed

    Kung, Theodore A; Gosain, Arun K

    2008-07-01

    Despite major advances in the area of burn management, burn injury continues to be a leading cause of pediatric mortality and morbidity. Facial burns in particular are devastating to the affected child and result in numerous physical and psychosocial sequelae. Although many of the principles of adult burn management can be applied to a pediatric patient with facial burns, the surgeon must be cognizant of several important differences. Facial burns and subsequent scar formation can drastically affect the growth potential of a child's face. Structures such as the nose and teeth may become deformed due to abnormal external forces caused by contractures. Serious complications such as occlusion amblyopia and microstomia must be anticipated and urgently addressed to avert permanent consequences, whereas other reconstructive procedures can be delayed until scar maturation occurs. Furthermore, because young children are actively developing the concept of self, severe facial burns can alter a child's sense of identity and place the child at high risk for future emotional and psychologic disturbances. Surgical reconstruction of burn wounds should proceed only after thorough planning and may involve a variety of skin graft, flap, and tissue expansion techniques. The most favorable outcome is achieved when facial resurfacing is performed with respect to the aesthetic units of the face. Children with facial burns remain a considerable challenge to their caregivers, and these patients require long-term care by a multidisciplinary team of physicians and therapists to optimize functional, cosmetic, and psychosocial outcomes. PMID:18650717

  16. Gunpowder-related burns.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Monzonis, A; Benito-Ruiz, J; Baena-Montilla, P; Mena-Yago, A; de la Cruz-Ferrer, L I

    1992-04-01

    Gunpowder misuse is a frequent cause of burn injury in our area. The injuries are mostly minor lesions which may be treated on an outpatient basis, the more serious injuries need surgical treatment. Experience of the management of these burns is reported by reviewing 123 clinical charts of patients admitted between 1983 and 1990. The most frequent victims are teenage males who are involved mainly in accidents in the street. The most serious burns followed work-related accidents, with a fatal outcome in 47 per cent of the patients. The serious burns are usually deep dermal or full skin thickness. A common pattern affects groins, genitalia, hypogastrium and hands, and are produced when fireworks ignite in the pockets of the patient's trousers. The management of these lesions does not differ from burns caused by other agents, although attention should be paid to the presence of associated lesions, chiefly to eyes, ears and hands, due to the shockwave and shrapnel. PMID:1590935

  17. Biomass Burning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-07-27

    Projects:  Biomass Burning Definition/Description:  Biomass Burning: This data set represents the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ...

  18. Burn Incidence and Treatment in the U.S.

    MedlinePlus

    ... burn centers Over 60% of the estimated U.S. acute hospitalizations related to burn injury were admitted to 128 burn centers. Such centers now average over 200 annual admissions for burn injury and skin disorders ... other 4,500 U.S. acute care hospitals average less than 3 burn admissions ...

  19. Accumulative eschar after burn.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fushun

    2016-02-01

    Eschar formation is a potential sequela of burn injuries. Definitive management may include escharectomy and eschar debridement. After eschar removal, the wound can be covered with a skin graft or reepithelialization. For prolonged refractory eschar on the fingertips, topical use of rb-bFGF after debridement can achieve an optimal outcome. PMID:26862412

  20. A quantitative histochemical study of the microvasculature of irradiated skin

    SciTech Connect

    Schwint, A.E.; Itoiz, M.E.; Cabrini, R.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Short-term X-ray damage to the microvasculature of the skin of newborn rats has been quantitated using Horseradish Peroxidase as a tracer. Image analysis of thick sections on which peroxidase was demonstrated histochemically revealed a radioinduced increase in vascular volume coupled with a decrease in vascular length and an altered frequency distribution of blood vessel calibers which resulted in early telangiectasia. The results afforded by direct counting of peroxidase positive macrophagic cells and microphotometric evaluation of peroxidase present in the connective tissue indicate a progressive increase in capillary permeability as a function of dose and time post-irradiation. The accuracy with which the affected region of blood vessels coincided with the area exposed to the beam favours the hypothesis of direct damage to the vessel wall as a major cause of radioinduced lesion.

  1. Acute assessment and management of burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Purdue, Gary F; Arnoldo, Brett D; Hunt, John L

    2011-05-01

    Burns are ubiquitous injuries in modern society, with virtually all adults having sustained a burn at some point in their lives. The skin is the largest organ of the body, basically functioning to protect self from non-self. Burn injury to the skin is painful, resource-intensive, and often associated with scarring, contracture formation, and long-term disability. Larger burns are associated with morbidity and mortality disproportionate to their initial appearance. Electrical and chemical burns are less common injuries but are often associated with significant morbidity. PMID:21624716

  2. Hydrofluoric acid burns of the eye.

    PubMed

    McCulley, J P; Whiting, D W; Petitt, M G; Lauber, S E

    1983-06-01

    A case of hydrofluoric acid (HF) burns of the eye is reported and a review is presented of our investigation into the mechanism of HF toxicity in ocular tissues. A number of therapeutic procedures that have been successful in the treatment of HF skin burns were studied in the rabbit for use in the eye. Immediate single irrigation with water, normal saline or isotonic magnesium chloride solution is the most effective therapy for ocular HF burns. Extrapolation of other skin burn treatments to use in the eye is unacceptable due to the toxicity of these agents in normal eyes and the additive damage caused in burned eyes. PMID:6886845

  3. Lepromin skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin up. The lump indicates that the antigen has been injected at the correct depth. The ... When the antigen is injected, there may be a slight stinging or burning. There may also be mild itching at the ...

  4. [Prospective methods of combat burn injury treatment].

    PubMed

    Ivchenko, E V; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B; Sechin, A A

    2014-11-01

    The current article briefly reviews the projects of development of combat burn injury treatment as they have been presented in the US Armed Forces Institute of Regenerative Medicine 2013 annual report. Eleven projects have been reviewed, in particular: P12 polypeptide for limiting burn injury progression, gamma keratose gelfor enhancement skin cell survival, starch-polyurethane iodophor dressing effective against the most common burn infection, microorganisms, autologous stem and progenitor cells for single cell cytotransplantation by "skin gun" spray device or 3D skin bioprinting, a bioreactor for skin autotransplant expansion. PMID:25816683

  5. Skin Problems: How to Protect Yourself from Job-Related Skin Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin irritation. Contact with acids, alkalis or heavy metals can cause painful burns. Skin Allergies. Contact with even small amounts of some substances can cause skin allergies. Common causes of work- ...

  6. Longitudinal burn scar quantification.

    PubMed

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; de Oliveira, Ana; LaSalle, Leo; Perrault, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative studies of the clinical recovery of burn scars are currently lacking. Previous reports validate the objective, precise, diagnostic capabilities of high-frequency ultrasound to measure thickness, the Cutometer(®) to measure pliability and the Mexameter(®) to measure erythema and pigmentation of scars. Thus, we prospectively quantified clinical characteristics of patient-matched, after burn hypertrophic scar (HSc), donor site scar (D) and normal skin (N) using these instruments. One investigator measured 3 sites (HSc, D, N) in 46 burn survivors at 3, 6, and 12 months after-burn. A mixed model regression analysis, adjusting p-values for multiplicity of testing, was used to compare means among sites and time points. Participants were 41.2±13.5 years old, 87% males, predominantly Caucasian, with an average of 19.5% body surface area burned. HSc thickness decreased significantly between 3 and 6, 6 and 12, and 3 and 12 months (all p<0.0001), but remained thicker than D and N skin (all p<0.0001). Pliability differed significantly between HSc, D and N sites at all time points (all p<0.0001), with HSc and D increasing between 3 and 12 months (p<0.05) but not reaching normal. HSc and D sites were significantly more erythematous than normal skin (p<0.05) at 3 and 6 months but D sites approached normal by 12 months. The only time points at which pigmentation significantly differed were the HSc and D sites at 6 months. Thickness, pliability, erythema and pigmentation of N skin remained similar over the 12 months. We found that post-burn HSc thickness, pliability and erythema differed significantly from D and N skin at 3, 6, and 12 months and does not return to normal by 12 months after-injury; however, significant improvements towards normal can be expected. Donor sites are redder than normal skin at 3 and 6 months but can be expected to return to normal by 12 months. Although the color of HSc and D sites change markedly with time these color changes are

  7. Powdered Wound Dressing Materials Made from wild Silkworm Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin on Full-skin Thickness Burn Wounds on Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Keun; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Kwon, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Seong-Gon; Park, Young-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Gill; Jo, You-Young; Kweon, Hae-Yong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated powdered burn wound dressing materials from wild silkworm fibroin in an animal model. Methods: Fifteen rats were used in this experiment. Full-thickness 2×2 cm burn wounds were created on the back of rats under anesthesia. In the two experimental groups, the wounds were treated with two different dressing materials made from silkworm fibroin. In the Control Group, natural healing without any dressing material was set as control. The wound surface area was measured at five days, seven days and 14 days. Wound healing was evaluated by histologic analysis. Results: By gross observation, there were no infections or severe inflammations through 14 days post-injury. The differences among groups were statistically significant at seven days and 14 days, postoperatively (P <0.037 and 0.001, respectively). By post hoc test, the defect size was significantly smaller in experimental Group 1 compared with the Control Group and experimental Group 2 at seven days postoperatively (P =0.022 and 0.029, respectively). The difference between Group 1 and Group 2 was statistically significant at 14 days postoperatively (P <0.001). Group 1 and control also differed significantly (P =0.002). Group 1 showed a smaller residual scar than the Control Group and Group 2 at 14 days post-injury. Histologic analysis showed more re-epithelization in Groups 1 and 2 than in the Control Groups. Conclusion: Burn wound healing was accelerated with silk fibroin spun by wild silkworm Antheraea pernyi. There was no atypical inflammation with silk dressing materials. In conclusion, silk dressing materials can be used for treatment of burn wound. PMID:27489820

  8. [Chemical and electrical burns].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Raymond

    2002-12-15

    Chemical burns are less frequent in routine practice, but could be very serious owing to the complexity and severity of their actions. Influx of casualty after a civil disaster (industrial explosion) or military (war or terrorism) is possible. The action of these agents could be prolonged and deep. In addition to the skin, respiratory lesions and general intoxication could be observed. The urgent local treatment rely essentially on prolonged washing. Prevention and adequate emergency care could limit the serious consequences of these accidents. Accidents (thermal burns or electrisations) due to high or low voltage electricity are frequent. The severity is linked with the affected skin but especially with internal lesions, muscular, neurological or cardiac lesions. All cases of electrisation need hospital care. Locally, the lesions are often deep with difficult surgical repairs and often require amputation. Aesthetic and functional sequela are therefore frequent. Secondary complications could appear several months after the accident: cataract, dysesthesia and hypotonia. PMID:12621941

  9. [Burns care following a nuclear incident].

    PubMed

    Bargues, L; Donat, N; Jault, P; Leclerc, T

    2010-09-30

    Radiation injuries are usually caused by radioactive isotopes in industry. Detonations of nuclear reactors, the use of military nuclear weapons, and terrorist attacks represent a risk of mass burn casualties. Ionizing radiation creates thermal burns, acute radiation syndrome with pancytopenia, and a delayed cutaneous syndrome. After a latency period, skin symptoms appear and the depth of tissue damages increase with dose exposure. The usual burn resuscitation protocols have to be applied. Care of these victims also requires assessment of the level of radiation, plus decontamination by an experienced team. In nuclear disasters, the priority is to optimize the available resources and reserve treatment to patients with the highest probability of survival. After localized nuclear injury, assessment of burn depth and surgical techniques of skin coverage are the main difficulties in a burn centre. Training in medical facilities and burn centres is necessary in the preparation for management of the different types of burn injuries. PMID:21991218

  10. Keep Your Skin Healthy: Protecting Your Outer Self

    MedlinePlus

    ... A yellow tint might indicate liver disease. And dark or unusual moles might be a warning sign ... Household Burns Your Microbes and You Healthy Skin Matters Skin Care and Aging Skin Cancer (Including Melanoma) ...

  11. Efficacy of topical phenol decontamination strategies on severity of acute phenol chemical burns and dermal absorption: in vitro and in vivo studies in pig skin.

    PubMed

    Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Inman, A O; Jackson, H; Dunn, B; Dimond, S

    2001-05-01

    Pure phenol is colorless and used in the manufacture of phenolic resins, plastics, explosives, fertilizers, paints, rubber, textiles, adhesives, pharmaceuticals, paper, soap, and wood preservatives. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of several phenol decontamination strategies following dermal exposure using the pig as a model for human exposure, and then assess the effect of the two best treatments on phenol absorption in the isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF). Six anesthetized Yorkshire pigs were exposed to 89% aqueous phenol for 1 min using Hilltop chambers (10 skin sites/pig; 400 microl/site). Exposure to phenol was followed by one of 10 different decontamination procedures: 1-, 5-, 15-, and 30-min water wash; Ivory soap solution; polyethylene glycol (PEG 400); PEG 400/industrial methylated spirits (IMS); PEG 400/ethanol (EtOH); polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP)/70% isopropanol (IPA); and 70% IPA. For each of the last five strategies, 1-min treatment washes were repeatedly alternated with 1-min water washes for a total of 15 min. Evaluation was based on scoring of erythema, edema, and histological parameters such as intracellular and intercellular epidermal edema, papillary dermal edema, perivascular infiltrates, pyknotic stratum basale cells, and epidermal-dermal separation. It was concluded that PEG 400 and 70% IPA were superior to the other treatments investigated and equally efficacious in the reduction of phenol-induced skin damage. In addition, phenol absorption was assessed utilizing the two most effective in vivo treatments in the IPPSF. The assessment of percutaneous absorption of phenol found the PEG 400, 70% IPA, and 15-min water treatments significantly (P < 0.05) reduced phenol absorption relative to no treatment. PMID:12479505

  12. Skin turgor

    MedlinePlus

    Doughy skin; Poor skin turgor; Good skin turgor; Decreased skin turgor ... Call your health care provider if: Poor skin turgor occurs with vomiting, diarrhea, or fever. The skin is very slow to return to normal, or the skin "tents" up ...

  13. Characterization of burn injuries using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Mourad, Pierre D.

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy rates of the clinical assessment techniques used in grading burn injuries remain significantly low for partial thickness burns. In this paper, we present experimental results from terahertz characterization of 2nd and 3rd degree burn wounds induced on a rat model. Reflection measurements were obtained from the surface of both burned and normal skin using pulsed terahertz spectroscopy. Signal processing techniques are described for interpretation of the acquired terahertz waveform and differentiation of burn wounds. Furthermore, the progression of burn injuries is shown by comparison between acute characterization and 72-hours survival studies. While the water content of healthy and desiccated skin has been considered as a source of terahertz signal contrast, it is demonstrated that other biological effects such as formation of post-burn interstitial edema as well as the density of the discrete scattering structures in the skin (such as hair follicles, sweat glands, etc.) play a significant role in the terahertz response of the burn wounds.

  14. Chemical Debridement of Burns

    PubMed Central

    Levenson, Stanley M.; Kan, Dorinne; Gruber, Charles; Crowley, Leo V.; Lent, Richard; Watford, Alvin; Seifter, Eli

    1974-01-01

    The development of effective, non-toxic (local and systemic) methods for the rapid chemical (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) debridement of third degree burns would dramatically reduce the morbidity and mortality of severely burned patients. Sepsis is still the major cause of death of patients with extensive deep burns. The removal of the devitalized tissue, without damage to unburned skin or skin only partially injured by burning, and in ways which would permit immediate (or very prompt) skin grafting, would lessen substantially the problems of sepsis, speed convalescence and the return of these individuals to society as effective human beings, and would decrease deaths. The usefulness and limitations of surgical excision for patients with extensive third degree burns are discussed. Chemical debridement lends itself to complementary use with surgical excision and has the potential advantage over surgical excision in not requiring anesthesia or a formal surgical operation. The authors' work with the chemical debridement of burns, in particular the use of Bromelain, indicates that this approach will likely achieve clinical usefulness. The experimental studies indicate that rapid controlled debridement, with minimal local and systemic toxicity, is possible, and that effective chemotherapeutic agents may be combined with the Bromelain without either interfering with the actions of the other. The authors believe that rapid (hours) debridement accomplished by the combined use of chemical debriding and chemotherapeutic agents will obviate the possibility of any increase in infection, caused by the use of chemical agents for debridement, as reported for Paraenzyme21 and Travase.39,48 It is possible that the short term use of systemic antibiotics begun just before and continued during, and for a short time after, the rapid chemical debridement may prove useful for the prevention of infection, as appears to be the case for abdominal operations of the clean-contaminated and

  15. Animal models in burn research.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, A; Amini-Nik, S; Jeschke, M G

    2014-09-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than 2 million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury, to elucidate the pathophysiology, and to explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  16. Animal Models in Burn Research

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, A.; Amini-Nik, S.; Jeschke, M.G

    2014-01-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than two million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury; to elucidate the pathophysiology and explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review paper aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  17. Biomass Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pinto, Joseph P.

    1993-01-01

    Biomass burning may be the overwhelming regional or continental-scale source of methane (CH4) as in tropical Africa and a significant global source of CH4. Our best estimate of present methane emissions from biomass burning is about 51.9 Tg/yr, or 10% of the annual methane emissions to the atmosphere. Increased frequency of fires that may result as the Earth warms up may result in increases in this source of atmospheric methane.

  18. Skin Dictionary

    MedlinePlus

    ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ...

  19. Skin graft

    MedlinePlus

    Skin transplant; Skin autografting; FTSG; STSG; Split thickness skin graft; Full thickness skin graft ... site. Most people who are having a skin graft have a split-thickness skin graft. This takes ...

  20. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for radioinduced osteosarcoma of the extremity: The Rizzoli experience in 20 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Bacci, Gaetano . E-mail: gaetano.bacci@ior.it; Longhi, Alessandra; Forni, Cristiana R.N.; Fabbri, Nicola; Briccoli, Antonio; Barbieri, Enza; Mercuri, Mario; Balladelli, Alba B.A.; Ferrari, Stefano; Picci, Piero

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: Evaluate treatment and outcome of 20 patients with radioinduced osteosarcoma (RIO). Because of previous primary tumor treatment, RIO protocols were different from others we used for non-RIO. Patients and Methods: Between 1983 and 1998, we treated 20 RIO patients, ages 4-36 years (mean 16 years), with chemotherapy (two cycles before surgery, three postoperatively). The first preoperative cycle consisted of high-dose Methotrexate (HDMTX)/Cisplatinum (CDP)/Adriamycin (ADM) and the second of HDMTX/CDP/Ifosfamide (IFO). The three postoperative treatments were performed with cycles of MTX/CDP; IFO was used as single agent per cycle repeated three times. Results: Two patients received palliative treatment because their osteosarcoma remained unresectable after preoperative chemotherapy. The remaining 18 patients had surgery (7 amputations, 11 resections); histologic response to preoperative chemotherapy was good in 8 patients, poor in 10. At a mean follow-up of 11 years (range, 7-22 years), 9 patients remained continuously disease-free, 10 died from osteosarcoma and 1 died from a third neoplasm (myeloid acute leukemia). These results are not significantly different from those achieved in 754 patients with conventional osteosarcoma treated in the same period with protocols used for conventional treatment. However, this later group had an 18% 3-year event-free survival after treatment of relapse vs. 0% in the RIO group. Conclusion: Treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy RIO seem to have an outcome that is not significantly different from that of comparable patients with conventional primary high grade osteosarcoma (5-year event-free survival: 40% vs. 60%, p = NS; 5-year overall survival 40% vs. 67%, p < 0.00008.

  1. Burn injuries in children and the use of biological dressings.

    PubMed

    Hartstein, Bonnie; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2013-08-01

    Burns represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children. In this article, a case discussion will serve as a platform for discussing the evaluation and treatment of burns in children. Use of various burn dressings such as hydrocolloids, polyurethane films, hydrogels, biosynthetic skin dressing, and biological dressings will be discussed. PMID:23925256

  2. Rehabilitation of the burn patient

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Rehabilitation is an essential and integral part of burn treatment. It is not something which takes place following healing of skin grafts or discharge from hospital; instead it is a process that starts from day one of admission and continues for months and sometimes years after the initial event. Burns rehabilitation is not something which is completed by one or two individuals but should be a team approach, incorporating the patient and when appropriate, their family. The term ‘Burns Rehabilitation’ incorporates the physical, psychological and social aspects of care and it is common for burn patients to experience difficulties in one or all of these areas following a burn injury. Burns can leave a patient with severely debilitating and deforming contractures, which can lead to significant disability when left untreated. The aims of burn rehabilitation are to minimise the adverse effects caused by the injury in terms of maintaining range of movement, minimising contracture development and impact of scarring, maximising functional ability, maximising psychological wellbeing, maximising social integration PMID:21321643

  3. Burning rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Mario Andretti, look out You are about to be surpassed in the burning rubber category by a joint venture between Oxford Energy Company and General Electric. The two companies are building the first whole tire-to-energy facility in the US in Modesto, California. This $41 million facility does not require tires to be shredded prior to incineration; it has the capacity to burn 700 tires per minute. The electricity generated will be provided to a utility company. Oxford says there are two billion waste tires on the ground and this number is increasing by 220 million a year. Of that amount, only 18 million a year are recycled.

  4. Electrical burns of the abdomen.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Ritesh

    2013-09-01

    A 35-year-old male farmer came in contact with 11,000 volts high tension electric wire and sustained full thickness burn wounds over scapula, upper limb and anterior abdominal wall along with perforation of the intestine. Patient was initially managed conservatively in general surgery ward and was referred to us after 3 days with necrosis of the burned skin and muscles over the shoulder and abdomen. Patient was initially managed conservatively and then thorough debridement of the necrotic skin over the left shoulder and upper arm was done and the area was split skin grafted. Patient developed enterocutaneous fistula, which healed over a period of 8 weeks. The granulating wound over the abdomen was also skin grafted and patient was discharged after 18 days. About 4 months, after the discharge patient presented with ventral hernia. Repair of ventral hernia by synthetic mesh application and reconstruction of the abdominal wall with a free tensor fascia lata flap was done over the mesh, but the flap failed. Then after debridement two random pattern transposition skin flaps, one from the right upper and another from the left lower abdomen were transposed over the abdominal wound and donor area was skin grafted. Patient was discharged after 17 days. PMID:24459356

  5. Burning Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2006-01-01

    Former Baltimore cop and teacher Ed Burns isn't a masochist. The writer-producer for "The Wire," a critically applauded HBO series about life and death on the streets of Baltimore, is just feverishly trying to save public schools. He thinks American education is hopelessly screwed up, but that it's also the country's only hope. So it makes sense…

  6. Sagging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  7. Skin Diseases: Skin Health and Skin Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sun. Photo: PhotoDisc Care for conditions from acne to wrinkles Did you know that your skin ... other skin conditions. Many skin problems, such as acne, also affect your appearance. Your skin can also ...

  8. Radio-induced alteration in cordierite - Implications for petrology, gemmology and materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krickl, R.; Nasdala, L.; Grambole, D.; Kaindl, R.

    2009-04-01

    Cordierite is a common metamorphic and magmatic mineral, which is used as petrologic tool for reconstructing the history of its host rock. Further applications include cordierite gemstones and the use of synthetic analogs in ceramics. Cordierite is stable over a wide temperature and pressure range and relatively resistant to chemical alteration; however, its properties can be significantly changed upon the impact of external irradiation. In the course of a comprehensive study, natural radiohaloes in cordierite (a widespread feature caused by the impact of alpha-particles originating from radioactive inclusions) as well as artificial analogs produced by implantation of 8.8 MeV He2+ ions were investigated using modern micro-techniques. Additional irradiation experiments were performed using O6+ ions, electrons and gamma-rays. Ion irradiation causes yellow colouration that is strongly pleochroic, and fades at higher doses. The possibility of radiation-treatment for enhancing the quality of gem-cordierite is discussed. While samples remain crystalline up to doses of 1016 He2+/cm2, the same material is fully amorphised when irradiated with the same dose of 30 MeV O6+ ions. These different observations may help to estimate the performance assessment of cordierite-ceramics in radiated environments. A very important result concerning the petrological use of cordierite is the radio-induced transformation of channel constituents: Inside the irradiated areas the vibrational bands of CO2 decrease in intensity, whereas two new bands appear at 2135 cm-1 (both IR- and Raman-active; cf. Nasdala et al., 2006) and 1550 cm-1 (only Raman-activ). They are assigned to stretching vibrations of carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen, respectively, thus indicating a radio-chemical transformation 2CO2 → 2CO + O2 in alpha-irradiated cordierite. This study yields the first spectroscopic evidence for the irradiation-induced formation of molecular oxygen in cordierite. Polarised vibrational

  9. [Prevention and treatment strategy for burn wound sepsis in children].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xihua; Li, Xiaoling

    2016-02-01

    Wound sepsis is one of the main causes of death in patients with severe burn and trauma. The high incidence of burn wound sepsis in children is attributed to their imperfect immune system function, poor resistance against infection, and the weakened skin barrier function after burn. The key to reduce the mortality of pediatric patients with burn wound sepsis is to enhance the understanding of its etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and diagnostic criteria, in order to improve its early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26902271

  10. Immunosuppression of the burned patient.

    PubMed

    Robins, E V

    1989-12-01

    The burn patient is highly susceptible to infection due to the loss of the skin as a barrier to microorganisms. Immune defenses are activated in response to the burn injury; however, some of these defenses are altered. Neutrophil chemotaxis is compromised by decreased perfusion caused by hypovolemia and the formation of microthrombi. Chemotaxis and phagocytosis are dependent on complement components that are reduced in a large burn wound. Neutrophil intracellular killing power is reduced as oxygen delivery to the wound is decreased. Humoral immunity is altered with the drop in IgG levels. Cell-mediated immunity is depressed and T cell lymphocyte counts are deceased. Suppressor T cells are generated. Specific sources of infection for the burn patient include the patient's own bacterial flora; hospital personnel; respiratory equipment; and catheters, both urinary and intravascular. The best control for burn wound infection is the closure of the wound by early excision and grafting. When lack of donor sites prohibits this surgical therapy, control centers on the environment and wound care techniques. The selection of wound topical antibiotics on the basis of visual inspection and surface culturing assists in the prevention of burn wound sepsis. When wound sepsis does occur, systemic antibiotics are instituted. Although burn wound sepsis is an obvious cause of death for the burn patient, it is not the primary cause. Increasing sophistication in fluid resuscitation and in intensive care therapy has resulted in patients living beyond the initial insult and the following few days. Burn patient mortality is now associated with a syndrome presenting clinically as sepsis but without any identifiable septic source.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2697225

  11. Healing the Burn: Advances in Burn Treatment Technology Aim to Save Lives, Lessen Pain and Scarring.

    PubMed

    Allen, Summer E

    2016-01-01

    When brothers Jamie and Glen Selby, aged 5 and 7, arrived at the Shriners Burns Institute in Denver, Colorado, in July 1983, more than 97% of their skin had been destroyed by a fire they had accidentally started while playing in an abandoned house. The boys were so badly burned that their outlook was grim-a 6-year-old friend who was also in the fire died from his injuries?but Jamie and Glen were lucky. Not only did they survive, but they were also some of the first patients to benefit from a new burn treatment nicknamed test-tube skin. PMID:27414631

  12. Skin nitric oxide and its metabolites are increased in nonburned skin after thermal injuries.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gisele V; Shimoda, Katsumi; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Jodoin, Jeff; Burke, A S; Chinkes, D L; Hawkins, Hal K; Herndon, David N; Traber, Lillian; Traber, Daniel; Murakami, Kazunori

    2004-09-01

    Local and systemic inflammation can lead to progression of burn wounds, converting second- to third-degree wounds or extending the burn to adjacent areas. Previous studies have suggested that the skin is an important site of production of nitric oxide (NO), synthesized by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activation after injury. NO increases in burned wounds, but its formation in noninjured skin has not been investigated. We hypothesized that after severe burns, NO and cytotoxic peroxynitrite would increase in noninjured skin. We also tested the hypothesis that BBS-2, a specific inhibitor of iNOS, would impair NO formation after burn. Thirteen female sheep were randomized into burn injury and smoke inhalation (n = 5, group 1), burn and smoke treated with BBS-2 (n = 3, group 2), and sham (saline treatment, no injury) (n = 5, group 3). All the animals, including the sham-injury group, were mechanically ventilated for 48 h. Samples of nonburned skin and plasma were collected from each animal, and levels of NO and its metabolites were evaluated using a NO chemiluminescent detector. Nitrotyrosine and iNOS expression were determined in the skin by Immunoperoxidase staining, and scoring of masked slides (epidermis, hair follicles, vessels, glands, and stroma) was performed. Skin NO and metabolites significantly increased in the burn and smoke injury group, and this was inhibited by BBS-2. Nitrotyrosine expression also increased significantly in the skin of burned animals. BBS-2 prevented the increase of NOx but not the increase of nitrotyrosine expression in skin. Plasma levels of NO increased in burned animals when compared with sham, but this increase was not significant. The increase of NO and its metabolites after burn in noninjured skin is followed by a significant increase in peroxynitrite, a potent cytotoxic mediator. PMID:15316399

  13. Burning vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Priyanka; Hobday, Dorian; Fitzgerald O'Connor, Edmund; D'Cruz, David

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 69-year-old man who was found collapsed close to a heat source and admitted to hospital for severe sepsis. He was also found to have widespread blistering and ulceration of his right leg; however, a history was unobtainable due to reduced consciousness levels. The leg lesions had the initial appearance of mixed depth burns and a management plan was made to transfer the patient to a burns unit for debridement. It was subsequently noted that the patient had a previous diagnosis of seropositive erosive rheumatoid arthritis. A biopsy of the leg lesion was performed and a diagnosis of rheumatoid vasculitis confirmed. Treatment with systemic steroids, intravenous antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for severe hypogammaglobulinaemia was started, and the patient was not transferred for surgical debridement. Rheumatoid vasculitis is a rare and extremely serious complication of rheumatoid arthritis that can manifest in a number of ways, occasionally mimicking other conditions. This case is essential to raise awareness of rare, severe rheumatoid vasculitis and of the potential for its misdiagnosis as a mixed depth burn. PMID:27118745

  14. Topical antimicrobials for burn wound infections.

    PubMed

    Dai, T; Huang, Y Y; Sharma, S K; Hashmi, J T; Kurup, D B; Hamblin, M R

    2010-06-01

    Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multidrug resistance. PMID:20429870

  15. Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Tianhong; Huang, Ying-Ying; Sharma, Sulbha K.; Hashmi, Javad T.; Kurup, Divya B.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout most of history, serious burns occupying a large percentage of body surface area were an almost certain death sentence because of subsequent infection. A number of factors such as disruption of the skin barrier, ready availability of bacterial nutrients in the burn milieu, destruction of the vascular supply to the burned skin, and systemic disturbances lead to immunosuppression combined together to make burns particularly susceptible to infection. In the 20th century the introduction of antibiotic and antifungal drugs, the use of topical antimicrobials that could be applied to burns, and widespread adoption of early excision and grafting all helped to dramatically increase survival. However the relentless increase in microbial resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials has led to a renewed search for alternative approaches to prevent and combat burn infections. This review will cover patented strategies that have been issued or filed with regard to new topical agents, preparations, and methods of combating burn infections. Animal models that are used in preclinical studies are discussed. Various silver preparations (nanocrystalline and slow release) are the mainstay of many approaches but antimicrobial peptides, topical photodynamic therapy, chitosan preparations, new iodine delivery formulations, phage therapy and natural products such as honey and essential oils have all been tested. This active area of research will continue to provide new topical antimicrobials for burns that will battle against growing multi-drug resistance. PMID:20429870

  16. Mortality rates among 5321 patients with burns admitted to a burn unit in China: 1980-1998.

    PubMed

    Jie, Xiao; Baoren, Cai

    2003-05-01

    A retrospective study was conducted on 5321 burn patients hospitalized in a burn center in Jinzhou, China during the period 1980-1998. Of the 5321 patients, 57.8% were between 15 and 44 years old and 3.4% were > or =60 years old. Ninety-six percent had burns covering less than half of body surface area and 31.7% had only full thickness skin burn. The number of patients in the 1990s was three times that of the 1980s. Overall mortality rate was 0.86%. LA(50) for total body burn area (TBSA) and only full thickness skin burn (FTSB) was 94 and 87%, respectively. The high survival rate, may relate primarily to the low percentages of older patients and of patients with severe burns. Inhalation injuries, infection and MOD are the main causes of deaths in our patients and would be key targets to improve clinical care and in future study. PMID:12706617

  17. Hyperspectral Imaging for Burn Depth Assessment in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Michael S.; Babchenko, Oksana; Lujan-Hernandez, Jorge; Nobel, Lisa; Ignotz, Ronald; Lalikos, Janice F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Differentiating between superficial and deep-dermal (DD) burns remains challenging. Superficial-dermal burns heal with conservative treatment; DD burns often require excision and skin grafting. Decision of surgical treatment is often delayed until burn depth is definitively identified. This study’s aim is to assess the ability of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to differentiate burn depth. Methods: Thermal injury of graded severity was generated on the dorsum of hairless mice with a heated brass rod. Perfusion and oxygenation parameters of injured skin were measured with HSI, a noninvasive method of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, at 2 minutes, 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours after wounding. Burn depth was measured histologically in 12 mice from each burn group (n = 72) at 72 hours. Results: Three levels of burn depth were verified histologically: intermediate-dermal (ID), DD, and full-thickness. At 24 hours post injury, total hemoglobin (tHb) increased by 67% and 16% in ID and DD burns, respectively. In contrast, tHb decreased to 36% of its original levels in full-thickness burns. Differences in deoxygenated and tHb among all groups were significant (P < 0.001) at 24 hours post injury. Conclusions: HSI was able to differentiate among 3 discrete levels of burn injury. This is likely because of its correlation with skin perfusion: superficial burn injury causes an inflammatory response and increased perfusion to the burn site, whereas deeper burns destroy the dermal microvasculature and a decrease in perfusion follows. This study supports further investigation of HSI in early burn depth assessment. PMID:26894016

  18. Electrothermal ring burn from a car battery.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Paul A; Godwin, Kenneth A

    2013-08-01

    Despite prevention efforts, burn injuries among auto mechanics are described in the literature. Electrothermal ring burns from car batteries occur by short-circuiting through the ring when it touches the open terminal or metal housing. This article describes a 34-year-old male auto mechanic who was holding a wrench when his gold ring touched the positive terminal of a 12-volt car battery and the wrench touched both his ring and the negative terminal. He felt instant pain and had a deep partial-thickness circumferential burn at the base of his ring finger. No other soft tissues were injured. He was initially managed conservatively, but after minimal healing at 3 weeks, he underwent a full-thickness skin graft. The graft incorporated well and healed by 4 weeks postoperatively. He had full range of motion. The cause of ring burns has been controversial, but based on reports similar to the current patient's mechanism, they are most likely electrothermal burns. Gold, a metal with high thermal conductivity, can heat up to its melting point in a matter of seconds. Many treatments have been described, including local wound care to split- and full-thickness skin grafts. Because most burns are preventable, staff should be warned and trained about the potential risks of contact burns. All jewelry should be removed, and the live battery terminal should be covered while working in the vicinity of the battery. PMID:23937760

  19. Reconstruction following head and neck burns.

    PubMed

    Neale, H W; Billmire, D A; Carey, J P

    1986-01-01

    Burn reconstruction of the head and neck must first start with special care to this anatomic area in the early acute phase, with appropriate early débridement and coverage with sheet grafts of medium thickness into unit facial orientation. Postoperative garment and mask splinting, will help lessen the hypertrophic scar formation that frequently follows facial burns and skin coverage. Carefully planned reconstruction of these areas is indicated, with priority given first to the neck, then to the periorbital area, and then to perioral areas. Principles of scalp, ear, nasal, and cheek reconstruction following burns of the face are carefully outlined. The unit concept of burn scar resurfacing of the face has been the mainstay of our treatment. We have emphasized skin coverage of the face from similar donor site areas. The emotional and psychological effects of facial scarring secondary to severe burns are crippling to patients. Although numerous reconstructive surgical procedures may lessen the deformity, ultimately burn patients realize that their burn scars are permanent and no surgeon can give them back their original facial appearance. These patients need strong and continued support and reassurance from their physicians and nursing professional staff to maintain their self-identity and confidence. PMID:3514059

  20. Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

  1. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:27209717

  2. Occupational skin disease.

    PubMed

    Peate, W E

    2002-09-15

    Contact dermatitis, the most common occupational skin disease, is characterized by clearly demarcated areas of rash at sites of exposure. The rash improves on removal of the offending agent. In allergic contact dermatitis, even minute exposures to antigenic substances can lead to a skin rash. Common sensitizing agents include nickel and members of the Rhus genus (e.g., poison ivy, poison oak). Severe skin irritants tend to cause immediate red blisters or burns, whereas weaker irritants produce eczematous skin changes over time. An occupational cause should be suspected when rash occurs in areas that are in contact with oil, grease, or other substances. Direct skin testing (patch or scratch) or radioallergosorbent testing may help to identify a specific trigger. Skin cancer can have an occupational link in workers with prolonged exposure to sunlight and certain chemicals, although it can take decades for lesions to develop. In workers with occupational skin disease, workplace changes and protective measures are important to prevent future exposure. PMID:12358214

  3. Prediction of clinical toxicity in localized cervical carcinoma by radio-induced apoptosis study in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is treated mainly by surgery and radiotherapy. Toxicity due to radiation is a limiting factor for treatment success. Determination of lymphocyte radiosensitivity by radio-induced apoptosis arises as a possible method for predictive test development. The aim of this study was to analyze radio-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods Ninety four consecutive patients suffering from cervical carcinoma, diagnosed and treated in our institution, and four healthy controls were included in the study. Toxicity was evaluated using the Lent-Soma scale. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated and irradiated at 0, 1, 2 and 8 Gy during 24, 48 and 72 hours. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide to determine early and late apoptosis. Lymphocytes were marked with CD45 APC-conjugated monoclonal antibody. Results Radiation-induced apoptosis (RIA) increased with radiation dose and time of incubation. Data strongly fitted to a semi logarithmic model as follows: RIA = βln(Gy) + α. This mathematical model was defined by two constants: α, is the origin of the curve in the Y axis and determines the percentage of spontaneous cell death and β, is the slope of the curve and determines the percentage of cell death induced at a determined radiation dose (β = ΔRIA/Δln(Gy)). Higher β values (increased rate of RIA at given radiation doses) were observed in patients with low sexual toxicity (Exp(B) = 0.83, C.I. 95% (0.73-0.95), p = 0.007; Exp(B) = 0.88, C.I. 95% (0.82-0.94), p = 0.001; Exp(B) = 0.93, C.I. 95% (0.88-0.99), p = 0.026 for 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively). This relation was also found with rectal (Exp(B) = 0.89, C.I. 95% (0.81-0.98), p = 0.026; Exp(B) = 0.95, C.I. 95% (0.91-0.98), p = 0.013 for 48 and 72 hours respectively) and urinary (Exp(B) = 0.83, C.I. 95% (0.71-0.97), p = 0.021 for 24 hours) toxicity. Conclusion Radiation induced apoptosis at different time points and radiation doses

  4. Burns in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser; Khalili, Nasim

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT AND AIMS: Diabetic burn patients comprise a significant population in burn centers. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic characteristics of diabetic burn patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective data were collected on 94 diabetic burn patients between March 20, 2000 and March 20, 2006. Of 3062 burns patients, 94 (3.1%) had diabetes; these patients were compared with 2968 nondiabetic patients with burns. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical analysis software SPSS 10.05. Differences between the two groups were evaluated using Student's t-test and the chi square test. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: The major mechanism of injury for the diabetic patients was scalding and flame burns, as was also the case in the nondiabetic burn patients. The diabetic burn patients were significantly older, with a lower percentage of total burn surface area (TBSA) than the nondiabetic burn population. There was significant difference between the diabetic and nondiabetic patients in terms of frequency of infection. No difference in mortality rate between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was observed. The most common organism in diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients was methicillin-resistant staphylococcus. Increasing %TBSA burn and the presence of inhalation injury are significantly associated with increased mortality following burn injury. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetics have a higher propensity for infection. Education for diabetic patients must include caution about potential burn mishaps and the complications that may ensue from burns. PMID:19902035

  5. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are specialized skin cells that produce pigment called melanin. The melanin pigment produced by melanocytes gives skin its color. ... absorbing and scattering the energy. People with more melanin have darker skin and better protection from UV ...

  6. Gas fireplace contact burns in young children.

    PubMed

    Zettel, Julie C; Khambalia, Amina; Barden, Wendy; Murthy, Trisha; Macarthur, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Contact burns from domestic appliances are common in young children. Recently, gas fireplaces have been recognized as a potential cause of contact burns in young children. We sought to quantify the frequency of gas fireplace contact burns in young children, to identify the etiology of contact, to describe the clinical presentation, and to describe clinical outcomes. Children with gas fireplace contact burn injuries presenting to The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto (1999-2002) were identified using three data sources: the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program Database, the Burn Unit Registry, and the Rehabilitation Services Database. Demographic, clinical, and outcomes data were collected on all children. During the 4-year study period, 27 children presented to the hospital because of a gas fireplace contact burn (approximately 9% of all contact burns). The median age of the children was 14 months (range, 8-36 months), with 16 boys (59%). Most children were burned in their own home. With regard to etiology, 10 children (37%) lost their balance near the fireplace, 2 (7%) walked too close to the glass front, and 8 (30%) touched the glass front out of curiosity. Almost half (44%) of the children burned the palms and digits of both hands. The median total burn surface area was 1% (range, 0.2-2.5%). In total, 30% of children were admitted to hospital, and 11% required skin grafts. All children had full wound closure after 4 to 43 days. Given the etiology of these burns (loss of balance or curiosity), passive prevention, such as barriers or changes in the composition of glass panels, may be the most effective approach to combat them. PMID:15534461

  7. Assessment of the Effectiveness of Silver-Coated Dressing, Chlorhexidine Acetate (0.5%), Citric Acid (3%), and Silver Sulfadiazine (1%) for Topical Antibacterial Effects Against the Multi-Drug Resistant Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infecting Full-Skin Thickness Burn Wounds on Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yabanoglu, Hakan; Basaran, Ozgur; Aydogan, Cem; Azap, Ozlem Kurt; Karakayali, Feza; Moray, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four different topical antimicrobial dressings on a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa contaminated full-thickness burn wound rat model. A total of 40 adult male Wistar albino rats were used. The control group (group 1), silver sulfadiazine (1%) group 2, chlorhexidine acetate (0.5%) group 3, citric acid (3%) group 4, and silver-coated dressing group 5 were compared to assess the antibacterial effects of a daily application to a 30% full-skin thickness burn wound seeded 10 minutes earlier with 108 CFU (colony forming unit)/0.5 mL of a multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain. Five groups (1 control group and 4 treatment groups) were compared. The administration of third-degree burns to all rats was confirmed based on histopathologic data. The tissue cultures from groups 2 and 5 exhibited significant differences compared to those of the other 3 groups, whereas no significant differences were observed between groups 1, 3, and 4. The effectiveness of the treatments was as follows: 1% silver sulfadiazine > silver-coated dressing > 3% citric acid > 0.5% chlorhexidine acetate > control group. Our results supported the efficacy of topical therapy by silver sulfadiazine and silver-coated dressing on infections caused by multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas spp. PMID:24229034

  8. Anabolic Effects of Oxandrolone After Severe Burn

    PubMed Central

    Hart, David W.; Wolf, Steven E.; Ramzy, Peter I.; Chinkes, David L.; Beauford, Robert B.; Ferrando, Arny A.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Herndon, David N.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To explore the hypothesis that oxandrolone may reverse muscle catabolism in cachectic, critically ill pediatric burn patients. Summary Background Data Severe burn causes exaggerated muscle protein catabolism, contributing to weakness and delayed healing. Oxandrolone is an anabolic steroid that has been used in cachectic hepatitis and AIDS patients. Methods Fourteen severely burned children were enrolled during a 5-month period in a prospective cohort analytic study. There was a prolonged delay in the arrival of these patients to the burn unit for definitive care. This neglect of skin grafting and nutritional support resulted in critically ill children with significant malnutrition. On arrival, all patients underwent excision and skin grafting and received similar clinical care. Subjects were studied 5 to 7 days after admission, and again after 1 week of oxandrolone treatment at 0.1 mg/kg by mouth twice daily or no pharmacologic treatment. Muscle protein kinetics were derived from femoral arterial and venous blood samples and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies during a stable isotope infusion. Results Control and oxandrolone subjects were similar in age, weight, and percentage of body surface area burned. Muscle protein net balance decreased in controls and improved in the oxandrolone group. The improvement in the oxandrolone group was associated with increased protein synthesis efficiency. Muscle protein breakdown was unchanged. Conclusions In burn victims, oxandrolone improves muscle protein metabolism through enhanced protein synthesis efficiency. These findings suggest the efficacy of oxandrolone in impeding muscle protein catabolism in cachectic, critically injured children. PMID:11303139

  9. Cryotherapy - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Cryosurgery - skin; Warts - freezing; Warts - cryotherapy ... Cryotherapy or cryosurgery may be used to: Remove warts Destroy precancerous skin lesions (actinic keratoses or solar keratoses) In rare cases, ...

  10. Burns related to sunbed use.

    PubMed

    Hemington-Gorse, S J; Slattery, M A; Drew, P J

    2010-09-01

    The quest for a year round tan has led to an increase in the use of artificial tanning devices, namely sunbeds. There has been much debate in the press recently regarding the dangers of sunbed use and calls for tighter regulation of the industry, particularly the licensing of unmanned tanning salons. The dangers of sunbed use have long been recognised and the body of evidence linking sunbed use to skin malignancy is growing, in fact this month the Lancet published a review from the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying UV emitting tanning devices as carcinogenic to humans. At the Welsh Centre for Burns and Plastic Surgery we noticed a rise in the number of patients presenting with burns related to sunbed use and present our data surrounding this injury over the last 6 years. PMID:20171016

  11. Pathophysiology of burns.

    PubMed

    Keck, Maike; Herndon, David H; Kamolz, Lars P; Frey, Manfred; Jeschke, Marc G

    2009-01-01

    Burn injury represents a significant problem worldwide. Advances in therapy strategies, based on better understanding of the pathophysiologic responses after burn injury have improved the clinical outcome of patients with burn injuries over the past years. This article describes the present understanding of the pathophysiology of a burn injury including both the local and systemic responses, focusing on the many facets of organ and systemic effects directly resulting from hypovolemia and circulating mediators following burn trauma. PMID:19652939

  12. Dual-imaging system for burn depth diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Priya; Tamminedi, Tejaswi; Qin, Yi; Nanney, Lillian; Cardwell, Nancy; Pollins, Alonda; Sexton, Kevin; Yadegar, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    Currently, determination of burn depth and healing outcomes has been limited to subjective assessment or a single modality, e.g., laser Doppler imaging. Such measures have proven less than ideal. Recent developments in other non-contact technologies such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and pulse speckle imaging (PSI) offer the promise that an intelligent fusion of information across these modalities can improve visualization of burn regions thereby increasing the sensitivity of the diagnosis. In this work, we combined OCT and PSI images to classify the degree of burn (superficial, partial-thickness and full-thickness burns). Algorithms were developed to integrate and visualize skin structure (with and without burns) from the two modalities. We have completed the proposed initiatives by employing a porcine burn model and compiled results that attest to the utility of our proposed dual-modal fusion approach. Computer-derived data indicating the varying burn depths were validated through immunohistochemical analysis performed on burned skin tissue. The combined performance of OCT and PSI modalities provided an overall ROC-AUC=0.87 (significant at p<0.001) in classifying different burn types measured after 1-h of creating the burn wounds. Porcine model studies to assess feasibility of this dual-imaging system for wound tracking are underway. PMID:23790396

  13. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Khoo, Teng Lye; Mohd. Yussof, Shah Jumaat

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing. PMID:21321652

  14. Circumferential burns to the fingers associated with gold and platinum rings.

    PubMed

    Regan, M W; Moss, A L

    1986-06-01

    Two patients sustained circumferential burns to the fingers associated with metal rings. The first case was caused by molten zinc and was treated by early burn excision and split skin grafting, while the second case was an electrical burn caused by a car battery and was treated conservatively. PMID:3730915

  15. Initial evaluation and management of the critical burn patient.

    PubMed

    Vivó, C; Galeiras, R; del Caz, Ma D P

    2016-01-01

    The major improvement in burn therapy is likely to focus on the early management of hemodynamic and respiratory failures in combination with an aggressive and early surgical excision and skin grafting for full-thickness burns. Immediate burn care by first care providers is important and can vastly alter outcomes, and it can significantly limit burn progression and depth. The goal of prehospital care should be to cease the burning process as well as prevent future complications and secondary injuries for burn shock. Identifying burn patients appropriate for immediate or subacute transfer is an important step in reducing morbidity and mortality. Delays in transport to Burn Unit should be minimized. The emergency management follows the principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support Guidelines for assessment and stabilization of airway, breathing, circulation, disability, exposure and environment control. All patients with suspected inhalation injury must be removed from the enclosure as soon as possible, and immediately administer high-flow oxygen. Any patient with stridor, shortness of breath, facial burns, singed nasal hairs, cough, soot in the oral cavity, and history of being in a fire in an enclosed space should be strongly considered for early intubation. Fibroscopy may also be useful if airway damage is suspected and to assess known lung damage. Secondary evaluation following admission to the Burn Unit of a burned patient suffering a severe thermal injury includes continuation of respiratory support and management and treatment of inhalation injury, fluid resuscitation and cardiovascular stabilization, pain control and management of burn wound. PMID:26724246

  16. Burn Depth Estimation Using Thermal Excitation and Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Yee, M.L.

    1998-12-17

    Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5{degrees} Celsius for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

  17. Skin Biomes.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, N; Salava, A; Auvinen, P; Lauerma, A

    2016-05-01

    The cutaneous microbiome has been investigated broadly in recent years and some traditional perspectives are beginning to change. A diverse microbiome exists on human skin and has a potential to influence pathogenic microbes and modulate the course of skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis. In addition to the known dysfunctions in barrier function of the skin and immunologic disturbances, evidence is rising that frequent skin disorders, e.g. atopic dermatitis, might be connected to a dysbiosis of the microbial community and changes in the skin microbiome. As a future perspective, examining the skin microbiome could be seen as a potential new diagnostic and therapeutic target in inflammatory skin disorders. PMID:27056560

  18. Clinical forensic evidence in burns: rescuer burns.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Gopal, Kirun; Ramnani, Sunil

    2006-12-01

    In the literature no systematic study is available on rescuer burn for victims of burn injury. This is a retrospective study of nine patients (five admitted and four outpatients) were treated in this hospital as rescuer burns in 3.5 years. All nine patients were males. Average age of the patient treated on outpatient basis was 47 years (ranging between 44 and 52) and total burn area ranged for 1-4%. Average age of the five patients treated on inpatient basis was 32.6 years (ranging between 30 and 34). The total burn area ranged from 14.5 to 38%. During the period of study, in addition to nine rescuer burns, one patient sustained burn before the rescue attempt due to the victim hugging the rescuer. Based on the study of patterns of burn, these patients were found to have three grades of burn injury: Grade 1--upper extremity involvement only. (A) only one upper extremity involvement, (B) both upper extremities involvement, Grade 2--upper extremity/extremities and face involvement, Grade 3--upper extremity/extremities, face-neck, adjacent chest and lower extremity involvement. PMID:17011132

  19. Pediatric burn wound impetigo after grafting.

    PubMed

    Aikins, Kimberly; Prasad, Narayan; Menon, Seema; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Modern burn care techniques have reduced the risk of infection of the acute burn wound, resulting in more rapid healing and a lower incidence of graft loss. Secondary breakdown may still occur. The loss of epithelium in association with multifocal superficial abscesses and ulceration has been termed burns impetigo. This may result in considerable morbidity and require prolonged treatment. The events preceding development, the impact on the patient, and the ideal treatment appear unclear and poorly reported. In 5 years, between 2006 and 2011, 406 pediatric burns were treated with skin grafts, with 7% developing burns impetigo. Time to resolution ranged from 5 to 241 days: the mean time to complete healing was greatest with conservative management (96 days), followed by antibacterial dressings (37 days), oral antibiotics (36 days), topical steroids (16 days), and oral antibiotics in combination with topical steroids (13.5 days). Burns impetigo resulted in significant morbidity, requiring multiple visits to the treatment center and prolonged symptoms. Delay in diagnosis and treatment resulted in worse outcomes. Prompt consideration of burns impetigo should occur when postgraft patients present with suggestive clinical signs and treatment with oral antibiotics plus topical steroids should be considered. PMID:24823337

  20. [Burns, new challenges to take on].

    PubMed

    Galí-Llàcer, Rosa; Sena-Fernández, Beatriz; Leyva-Moral, Juan Manuel

    2009-04-01

    This article concerns a transversal descriptive study which shows the characteristics of burns treated in a Primary Health Care Center in an urban environment in Barcelona from 19 July 2005 unti 11 August 2007 (N=93). Patients younger than 15 were excluded from this study. 88% (82; CI of 95% 81,47-94,59) of the burns treated were caused by a thermal agent. Kitchen cooking oil ranks first as the cause of burns (24; 27%, CI of 95% 17,99-36,01). 70% of the burns studied had signs of superficial skin damage (65, CI of 95% 60,70-79,30). 61% (57; CI of 95% 51,70-70,30) of these burns were located on upper extremities The average recorded body surface burned was 0.0076% (median = 0,005%, range = 0,0001-0,5000%). The greatest number of wounds were observed among men aged 31 to 45 (17%; 16; CI of 95% 9,38-24,62). Educational health programs which focus on prevention of, and first aid care for, burns are needed. Studies like this one may prove useful when starting preventive or educational strategies. PMID:19554895

  1. Ionizing radiations and collagen metabolism: from oxygen free radicals to radio-induced late fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tan Dat; Maquart, François-Xavier; Monboisse, Jean-Claude

    2005-02-01

    Skin fibrosis is one of the most common late adverse effects observed after radiation therapy for cancer. As a dose-limiting factor and hence a major hindrance to increase the amount of radiation delivered to the tumor, this problem can be addressed according to the very early steps of the fibrotic process: the oxygen free radical production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during radiotherapy result from both inflammatory response and water radiolysis. Many studies have demonstrated that the extracellular matrix molecules are potential targets for ROS, and that collagen metabolism and properties are deeply and permanently modified after irradiation, both in vitro and in vivo. It is therefore possible to design different therapeutic approaches such as the clinical use of liposomal superoxide dismutase able to reverse the imbalance between collagen matrix synthesis and degradation. Finally, the so-called oxidative stress induced by radiation represents a significant parameter leading to fibrosis and will undoubtedly serve to design further experimental and clinical studies.

  2. [Functional reconstruction of multiple severe deformities after extensive deep burn].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi; Jia, Chi-yu; Hu, Da-hai; Zhu, Xiong-xiang; Han, Jun-tao; Yao, Qing-jun; Xu, Ming-da

    2008-10-01

    To explore new measures for functional reconstruction of multiple severe deformities as a result of extensive deep burn (total burn surface area > or = 90% TBSA, including deep burn > or = 70%TBSA) in late stage. Twelve severe burn patients with above-mentioned deformities were hospitalized in our ward during 1960--2005, the scars resulted from burns were distributed from head to foot with 173 deformities, including 27 scar ulcers. All patients lacked of self-care ability, among them some could not stand. Due to inadequate skin source, deformities were corrected by skin from matured scars expanded with subcutaneous balloon at late postburn stage. Following our former clinical experience, anatomic investigation and experimental research, we chose the following methods to correct deformities and restore functions: application of split-thickness scar skin after expansion (88 wounds); use of scar skin flap/scar-Achilles tendon flaps (59 wounds); combination of thin split-thickness skin grafts from scar and allogeneic acellular dermal matrix (composite skin, 40 wounds). All grafts survived, the appearance and function were improved obviously without complications. Follow-up 1-40 years, all patients could take care themselves with satisfactory function and appearance, and among them 8 patients returned to work (one had worked for 40 years), 2 patients married and had children. The above-mentioned measures are safe, reliable and effective for functional reconstruction of deformities. PMID:19103016

  3. In vivo imaging of human burn injuries with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki Hean; Pierce, Mark C.; Maguluri, Gopi; Park, B. Hyle; Yoon, Sang June; Lydon, Martha; Sheridan, Robert; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2012-06-01

    The accurate determination of burn depth is critical in the clinical management of burn wounds. Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been proposed as a potentially non-invasive method for determining burn depth by measuring thermally induced changes in the structure and birefringence of skin, and has been investigated in pre-clinical burn studies with animal models and ex vivo human skin. In this study, we applied PS-OCT to the in-vivo imaging of two pediatric burn patients. Deep and superficial burned skins along with contralateral controls were imaged in 3D. The imaging size was 8 mm×6 mm×2 mm in width, length, and depth in the air respectively, and the imaging time was approximately 6 s per volume. Superficially burned skins exhibited the same layered structure as the contralateral controls, but more visible vasculature and reduced birefringence compared to the contralateral controls. In contrast, a deeply burned skin showed loss of the layered structure, almost absent vasculature, and smaller birefringence compared to superficial burns. This study suggested the vasculature and birefringence as parameters for characterizing burn wounds.

  4. 14 CFR 25.1193 - Cowling and nacelle skin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cowling and nacelle skin. 25.1193 Section... and nacelle skin. (a) Each cowling must be constructed and supported so that it can resist any... openings or by burning through external skin, any other zone or region where it would create...

  5. 14 CFR 25.1193 - Cowling and nacelle skin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cowling and nacelle skin. 25.1193 Section... and nacelle skin. (a) Each cowling must be constructed and supported so that it can resist any... openings or by burning through external skin, any other zone or region where it would create...

  6. 14 CFR 25.1193 - Cowling and nacelle skin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cowling and nacelle skin. 25.1193 Section... and nacelle skin. (a) Each cowling must be constructed and supported so that it can resist any... openings or by burning through external skin, any other zone or region where it would create...

  7. 14 CFR 25.1193 - Cowling and nacelle skin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cowling and nacelle skin. 25.1193 Section... and nacelle skin. (a) Each cowling must be constructed and supported so that it can resist any... openings or by burning through external skin, any other zone or region where it would create...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1193 - Cowling and nacelle skin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cowling and nacelle skin. 25.1193 Section... and nacelle skin. (a) Each cowling must be constructed and supported so that it can resist any... openings or by burning through external skin, any other zone or region where it would create...

  9. Burning and Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Jane

    1981-01-01

    Examines the extended metaphor of "burnout" as it applies to the teaching profession. Examines three ancient Celtic invocations for the better tending of fires, which reveal ways that teachers can burn with enthusiasm without burning out from apathy. (RL)

  10. Burning Rate Emulator

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Burning Rate Emulator is a gas fuel investigation attempting to emulate the burning of solids to improve our understanding of materials''flammability over a wide range of conditions. The approa...

  11. Burns and Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... common among older children. 5 6 7 8 • Tap water burns most often occur in the bathroom and ... Feldman KW, Schaller RT, Feldman JA, McMillon M. Tap water scald burns in children. Pediatrics. 1978; 62(1): ...

  12. Filigree burn of lightning: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra

    2007-04-01

    Lightning is a powerful natural electrostatic discharge produced during a thunderstorm. The electric current passing through the discharge channels is direct with a potential of 1000 million volts or more. Lightning can kill or injure a person by a direct strike, a side-flash, or conduction through another object. Lightning can cause a variety of injuries in the skin and the cardiovascular, neurological and ophthalmic systems. Filigree burn of lightning is a superficial burn and very rare. Two cases of death from lightning which have this rare finding are reported and discussed. PMID:17520964

  13. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  14. California Burn Scars

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Burn Scars Across Southern California     ... California between October 21 and November 18, 2003. Burn scars and vegetation changes wrought by the fires are illustrated in these ... Nov 18, 2003 Images:  California Burn Scars location:  United States region:  ...

  15. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  16. Skin Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs that can help clear up this condition. Day-to-Day Skin Care See our tips for daily skin ... Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your ...

  17. Skin lumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... and contains fluid or semisolid material Benign skin growths such as seborrheic keratoses or neurofibromas Boils , painful, red bumps usually involving an infected hair follicle Corn or callus, caused by skin thickening in response ...

  18. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  19. Feet sunk in molten aluminium: The burn and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Peña, David; Arnáiz-García, María Elena; Valero-Gasalla, Javier Luis; Arnáiz-García, Ana María; Campillo-Campaña, Ramón; Alonso-Peña, Javier; González-Santos, Jose María; Fernández-Díaz, Alaska Leonor; Arnáiz, Javier

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays, despite improvements in safety rules and inspections in the metal industry, foundry workers are not free from burn accidents. Injuries caused by molten metals include burns secondary to molten iron, aluminium, zinc, copper, brass, bronze, manganese, lead and steel. Molten aluminium is one of the most common causative agents of burns (60%); however, only a few publications exist concerning injuries from molten aluminium. The main mechanisms of lesion from molten aluminium include direct contact of the molten metal with the skin or through safety apparel, or when the metal splash burns through the pants and rolls downward along the leg. Herein, we report three cases of deep dermal burns after 'soaking' the foot in liquid aluminium and its evolutive features. This paper aims to show our experience in the management of burns due to molten aluminium. We describe the current management principles and the key features of injury prevention. PMID:25687835

  20. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  1. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  2. [Invasive yeast infections in severely burned patients].

    PubMed

    Renau, Ana Isabel; García-Vidal, Carolina; Salavert, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are few studies on candidaemia in the severely burned patient. These patients share the same risk factors for invasive fungal infections as other critically ill patients, but have certain characteristics that make them particularly susceptible. These include the loss of skin barrier due to extensive burns, fungal colonisation of the latter, and the use of hydrotherapy or other topical therapies (occasionally with antimicrobials). In addition, the increased survival rate achieved in recent decades in critically burned patients due to the advances in treatment has led to the increase of invasive Candida infections. This explains the growing interest in making an earlier and more accurate diagnosis, as well as more effective treatments to reduce morbidity and mortality of candidaemia in severe burned patients. A review is presented on all aspects of the burned patient, including the predisposition and risk factors for invasive candidiasis, pathogenesis of candidaemia, underlying immunodeficiency, local epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility, evolution and prognostic factors, as well as other non-Candida yeast infections. Finally, we include specific data on our local experience in the management of candidaemia in severe burned patients, which may serve to quantify the problem, place it in context, and offer a realistic perspective. PMID:27395025

  3. Alkalis and Skin.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, John E; Tan, Jin Lin; Ming, Justin Choong Tzen; Abell, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this editorial is to provide an overview of the chemical interactions occurring in the skin of our patients on contact with alkaline agents. Strongly basic alkali is highly aggressive and will readily hydrolyze (or cleave) key biological molecules such as lipids and proteins. This phenomenon is known as saponification in the case of lipids and liquefactive denaturation for peptides and proteins. A short section on current first-aid concepts is included. A better understanding of the basic science behind alkali burns will make us better teachers and provide an insight into the urgency needed in treating these common and dangerous chemical injuries. PMID:26182072

  4. Burn injuries in eastern Zambia: impact of multidisciplinary teaching teams.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Dianna; Heard, Jason; Latenser, Barbara A; Quinn, Keely Y; van Bruggen, Jaap; Jovic, Goran

    2011-01-01

    The American Burn Association/Children's Burn Foundation (ABA/CBF) sponsors teams who offer burn education to healthcare providers in Zambia, a sub-Saharan country. The goals of this study are 1) to acquire burn-patient demographics for the Eastern Province, Zambia and 2) to assess the early impact of the ABA/CBF-sponsored burn teams. This is a retrospective chart review of burn patients admitted in one mission hospital in Katete, Zambia, July 2002 to June 2009. July 2002 to December 2006 = data before ABA/CBF burn teams and January 2007 to June 2009 = burn care data during/after burn outreach. There were 510 burn patients hospitalized, male:female ratio 1.2:1. Average age = 15.6 years, with 44% younger than 5 years. Average TBSA burned = 11% and mean fatal TBSA = 25%. Average hospital length of stay = 16.9 days survivors and 11.6 days nonsurvivors. Most common mechanisms of burn injuries: flame (52%) and scald (41%). Ninety-two patients (18%) died and 23 (4.5%) left against medical advice. There were 191 (37.4%) patients who underwent 410 surgical procedures (range 1-13/patient). There were 138 (33.7%) sloughectomies, 118 (28.7%) skin grafts, 39 (9.5%) amputations, and 115 (28.1%) other procedures. Changes noted in the 2007 to 2009 time period: more patients had burn diagrams (48.6 vs 27.6%, P < .001), received analgesics (91 vs 84%, P = .05), resuscitation fluid (56 vs 49%, P = not significant [NS]), topical antimicrobials (40 vs 37%, P = NS), underwent skin grafting (35.5 vs 25.1%, P = NS), and underwent any operative intervention (40.6 vs 35.2%, P = NS), compared with patients treated between 2002 and 2006. This study represents the largest, most comprehensive burn data set for a sub-Saharan region in Africa. There has been a statistically significant improvement in documentation of burn size as well as administration of analgesics, validating the efficacy of the ABA/CBF-sponsored burn teams. Continued contact with burn teams may lead to increased use of

  5. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    PubMed

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. PMID:26931414

  6. Hot soup! Correlating the severity of liquid scald burns to fluid and biomedical properties.

    PubMed

    Loller, Cameron; Buxton, Gavin A; Kerzmann, Tony L

    2016-05-01

    Burns caused by hot drinks and soups can be both debilitating and costly, especially to pediatric and geriatric patients. This research is aimed at better understanding the fluid properties that can influence the severity of skin burns. We use a standard model which combines heat transfer and biomedical equations to predict burn severity. In particular, experimental data from a physical model serves as the input to our numerical model to determine the severity of scald burns as a consequence of actual fluid flows. This technique enables us to numerically predict the heat transfer from the hot soup into the skin, without the need to numerically estimate the complex fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the potentially highly viscous and heterogeneous soup. While the temperature of the soup is obviously is the most important fact in determining the degree of burn, we also find that more viscous fluids result in more severe burns, as the slower flowing thicker fluids remain in contact with the skin for longer. Furthermore, other factors can also increase the severity of burn such as a higher initial fluid temperature, a greater fluid thermal conductivity, or a higher thermal capacity of the fluid. Our combined experimental and numerical investigation finds that for average skin properties a very viscous fluid at 100°C, the fluid must be in contact with the skin for around 15-20s to cause second degree burns, and more than 80s to cause a third degree burn. PMID:26796241

  7. Tissue engineering of cultured skin substitutes.

    PubMed

    Horch, Raymund E; Kopp, Jürgen; Kneser, Ulrich; Beier, Justus; Bach, Alexander D

    2005-01-01

    Skin replacement has been a challenging task for surgeons ever since the introduction of skin grafts by Reverdin in 1871. Recently, skin grafting has evolved from the initial autograft and allograft preparations to biosynthetic and tissue-engineered living skin replacements. This has been fostered by the dramatically improved survival rates of major burns where the availability of autologous normal skin for grafting has become one of the limiting factors. The ideal properties of a temporary and a permanent skin substitute have been well defined. Tissue-engineered skin replacements: cultured autologous keratinocyte grafts, cultured allogeneic keratinocyte grafts, autologous/allogeneic composites, acellular biological matrices, and cellular matrices including such biological substances as fibrin sealant and various types of collagen, hyaluronic acid etc. have opened new horizons to deal with such massive skin loss. In extensive burns it has been shown that skin substitution with cultured grafts can be a life-saving measure where few alternatives exist. Future research will aim to create skin substitutes with cultured epidermis that under appropriate circumstances may provide a wound cover that could be just as durable and esthetically acceptable as conventional split-thickness skin grafts. Genetic manipulation may in addition enhance the performance of such cultured skin substitutes. If cell science, molecular biology, genetic engineering, material science and clinical expertise join their efforts to develop optimized cell culture techniques and synthetic or biological matrices then further technical advances might well lead to the production of almost skin like new tissue-engineered human skin products resembling natural human skin. PMID:16202208

  8. Inflammatory pain in experimental burns in man.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, J L

    2000-06-01

    Human experimental pain models are important tools in pain research. The primary aims of pain research in normal man is 1) to provide insight in pain mechanisms, 2) to provide a rational basis for clinical trials of pain relieving interventions, and 3) to confirm the anti-nociceptive effects demonstrated in animal models. Most often clinical pain is due to tissue damage leading to acute inflammation and hyperalgesia, but only few human pain models have examined pain responses in injured tissues. Therefore, models with controlled and reversible tissue trauma are needed. The human burn model is an example of such a model, and several groups have performed studies of analgesics and pain mechanisms based on the model. The thesis aims to provide a critical review of the human burn model as a tool in pain research, and to give suggestions for development of the model and future research. The pain and inflammatory responses to superficial thermal burns in skin have been studied in healthy volunteers. Burns have the potential for releasing most of the inflammatory and chemical mediators that produce sensitisation and excitation of nociceptors, and the intense nociceptive input during injury produces sensitisation of central neurones in the nociceptive pathway. Pain and hyperalgesia have been evaluated in the model by thermal, various mechanical, and electrical stimuli. The different methods of pain assessments are discussed to clarify the underlying neural mechanisms, the questions that can be addressed by the measurements, and the discrepancies in results between studies. Inflammation has been evaluated in the model by skin erythema intensity, area of flare, and blister formation. The major determinant of skin erythema intensity is the amount of blood in the most superficial part of the dermis, and burn-induced erythema may be primarily due to congestion of capillary loops and postcapillary venules. The area of flare may be used to evaluate the efferent function of heat

  9. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly☆

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p < 0.05. Interestingly, we could not find a higher incidence of infection or sepsis in elderly, p > 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly. PMID:26629550

  10. Pathophysiologic Response to Burns in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marc G; Patsouris, David; Stanojcic, Mile; Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Rehou, Sarah; Pinto, Ruxandra; Chen, Peter; Burnett, Marjorie; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2015-10-01

    Over the last decades advancements have improved survival and outcomes of severely burned patients except one population, elderly. The Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) burn size in elderly has remained the same over the past three decades, and so has morbidity and mortality, despite the increased demand for elderly burn care. The objective of this study is to gain insights on why elderly burn patients have had such a poor outcome when compared to adult burn patients. The significance of this project is that to this date, burn care providers recognize the extreme poor outcome of elderly, but the reason remains unclear. In this prospective translational trial, we have determined clinical, metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and skin healing aspects. We found that elderly have a profound increased mortality, more premorbid conditions, and stay at the hospital for longer, p < 0.05. Interestingly, we could not find a higher incidence of infection or sepsis in elderly, p > 0.05, but a significant increased incidence of multi organ failure, p < 0.05. These clinical outcomes were associated with a delayed hypermetabolic response, increased hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic responses, inversed inflammatory response, immune-compromisation and substantial delay in wound healing predominantly due to alteration in characteristics of progenitor cells, p < 0.05. In summary, elderly have substantially different responses to burns when compared to adults associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study indicates that these responses are complex and not linear, requiring a multi-modal approach to improve the outcome of severely burned elderly. PMID:26629550

  11. Traumatic injuries with deep abrasion: "a burn".

    PubMed

    Castana, O; Dagdelenis, J; Rempelos, G; Paneris, P; Anagiotos, G; Diplas, D; Alexakis, D

    2009-03-31

    This epidemiological study deals with 34 patients with friction burns sustained between January 2007 and January 2008. The age group most affected was that between 21 and 30 yr, with a male predominance. Road traffic accidents were the commonest cause of friction burns (31 patients) and the lower limb was body part most commonly affected. The therapy was mostly conservative (no. 18): 14 patients were treated with a split-thickness skin graft, and just two with flap cover. Friction burns are overlooked in the emergency department because of their association with more critical mechanical injuries. They can be prevented by observing standard safety measures such as special clothing or appropriate equipment, especially as regards motorcycle riders. PMID:21991151

  12. Emergent burn care.

    PubMed

    Harvey, J S; Watkins, G M; Sherman, R T

    1984-02-01

    The estimated 32,600,000 fires that occur annually in the United States produce over 300,000 injuries and 7,500 deaths. Ten percent of hospitalized burn victims die as a direct result of the burn. Initial evaluation and management of the burn patient are critical. The history should include the burn source, time of injury, burn environment, and combustible products. The burn size is best estimated by the Lund and Browder chart, and the burn depth is determined by clinical criteria. Pulmonary involvement and circumferential thoracic or extremity burns require detection and aggressive treatment to maintain organ viability. Hospitalization is usually necessary for adults with burns larger than 10% of the total body surface area (TBSA) or children with burns larger than 5% of TBSA. Major burns, those of 25% or more of TBSA or of 10% or more of full thickness, should be considered for treatment at a burn center, as well as children or elderly victims with burns of greater than 10% TBSA. Lactated Ringer's solution, infused at 4 ml/kg/% TBSA, is generally advocated for initial fluid restoration. After the acute phase (48 hours), replacement of evaporative and hypermetabolic fluid loss is necessary. These losses may constitute 3 to 5 liters per day for a 40% to 70% TBSA burn. Blood transfusion is often required because of persistent loss of red blood cells (8% per day for about ten days). Many electrolyte abnormalities may occur in the first two weeks. Pulmonary injury commonly is lethal. Circumoral burns, oropharyngeal burns, and carbonaceous sputum are indicative of inhalation injury, but arterial blood gas determinations, fiberoptic bronchoscopy, and xenon lung scans are useful for confirming the diagnosis. Humidified oxygen, intubation, positive-pressure ventilation, and pulmonary toilet are the mainstays of therapy for inhalation injury. Wound care is initially directed at preservation of vital function by escharotomy, if restrictive eschar impairs ventilatory or

  13. [Freon gas frostbite: an unusual burn evolving in two stages].

    PubMed

    Chaput, B; Eburdery, H; Courtade-Saïdi, M; De Bonnecaze, G; Grolleau, J-L; Garrido, I

    2012-06-01

    Freon gas is a halogenated derivative widely used in refrigeration and air conditioning. It is maintained at a temperature below -41°C and its contact with skin may cause very serious burns. This is usually an accident at work and the burns affect the hands of patients first. Unfortunately, early clinical presentation is often reassuring and does not reflect the actual depth of the injury. Few cases of this injury are reported and no treatment protocol is established at this time. We present two cases of frostbite by freon gas, initially evaluated at a stage of superficial burns and evolved spontaneously in a few days to full thickness burns necessitating surgical treatment by excision and skin grafting. This evolution in two phases has never been described and could help to better understand the pathophysiology of this frostbite and the possibilities of management. PMID:22658586

  14. Skin aging and dry skin.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hideo

    2004-08-01

    Skin aging appears to be the result of both scheduled and continuous "wear and tear" processes that damage cellular DNA and proteins. Two types of aging, chronological skin aging and photoaging, have distinct clinical and histological features. Chronological skin aging is a universal and inevitable process characterized primarily by physiologic alterations in skin function. In this case, keratinocytes are unable to properly terminally differentiate to form a functional stratum corneum, and the rate of formation of neutral lipids that contribute to the barrier function slows, causing dry, pale skin with fine wrinkles. In contrast, photoaging results from the UVR of sunlight and the damage thus becomes apparent in sun-exposed skin. Characteristics of this aging type are dry and sallow skin displaying fine wrinkles as well as deep furrows, resulting from the disorganization of epidermal and dermal components associated with elastosis and heliodermatitis. Understanding of the functions of the skin and the basic principles of moisturizer use and application is important for the prevention of skin aging. Successful treatment of dry skin with appropriate skin care products gives the impression of eternal youth. PMID:15492432

  15. Bioengineered Self-assembled Skin as an Alternative to Skin Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Climov, Mihail; Medeiros, Erika; Farkash, Evan A.; Qiao, Jizeng; Rousseau, Cecile F.; Dong, Shumin; Zawadzka, Agatha; Racki, Waldemar J.; Al-Musa, Ahmad; Sachs, David H.; Randolph, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    For patients with extensive burns or donor site scarring, the limited availability of autologous and the inevitable rejection of allogeneic skin drive the need for new alternatives. Existing engineered biologic and synthetic skin analogs serve as temporary coverage until sufficient autologous skin is available. Here we report successful engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered skin construct derived from autologous skin punch biopsies in a porcine model. Dermal fibroblasts were stimulated to produce an extracellular matrix and were then seeded with epidermal progenitor cells to generate an epidermis. Autologous constructs were grafted onto partial- and full-thickness wounds. By gross examination and histology, skin construct vascularization and healing were comparable to autologous skin grafts and were superior to an autologous bilayered living cellular construct fabricated with fibroblasts cast in bovine collagen. This is the first demonstration of spontaneous vascularization and permanent engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered bioengineered skin that could supplement existing methods of reconstruction. PMID:27482479

  16. Bioengineered Self-assembled Skin as an Alternative to Skin Grafts.

    PubMed

    Climov, Mihail; Medeiros, Erika; Farkash, Evan A; Qiao, Jizeng; Rousseau, Cecile F; Dong, Shumin; Zawadzka, Agatha; Racki, Waldemar J; Al-Musa, Ahmad; Sachs, David H; Randolph, Mark A; Huang, Christene A; Bollenbach, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    For patients with extensive burns or donor site scarring, the limited availability of autologous and the inevitable rejection of allogeneic skin drive the need for new alternatives. Existing engineered biologic and synthetic skin analogs serve as temporary coverage until sufficient autologous skin is available. Here we report successful engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered skin construct derived from autologous skin punch biopsies in a porcine model. Dermal fibroblasts were stimulated to produce an extracellular matrix and were then seeded with epidermal progenitor cells to generate an epidermis. Autologous constructs were grafted onto partial- and full-thickness wounds. By gross examination and histology, skin construct vascularization and healing were comparable to autologous skin grafts and were superior to an autologous bilayered living cellular construct fabricated with fibroblasts cast in bovine collagen. This is the first demonstration of spontaneous vascularization and permanent engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered bioengineered skin that could supplement existing methods of reconstruction. PMID:27482479

  17. Burns associated with fondues.

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, D; Beaucage, C; Watts, N

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the causes of burns associated with fondues. DESIGN: Descriptive case series. PATIENTS: All 17 patients admitted to a burn centre between Apr. 1, 1985, and Mar. 31, 1990, whose burns were associated with fondue. Eleven agreed to complete a telephone interview. RESULTS: The age of the 17 patients varied from 2 to 56 (mean 27) years. Two causes were identified: spilling of the contents of the fondue pot and explosion of the fondue fuel when added to the burner during a meal. The telephone interview revealed that eight people other than the respondents were burned during the same accidents. CONCLUSION: Although we identified only badly burned patients the problem may be more extensive. The knowledge of specific causes of burns from handling fondue equipment indicates that preventive action should be undertaken. More epidemiologic information is needed to obtain a precise estimate of the magnitude of this public health problem. PMID:1393897

  18. Burns and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group. PMID:9212488

  19. Outpatient burn management.

    PubMed

    Warner, Petra M; Coffee, Tammy L; Yowler, Charles J

    2014-08-01

    Most burn patients have injuries that may be treated on an outpatient basis. Newer silver-based dressings and improved medications for the treatment of pain and pruritus have led to further growth of outpatient care. The final barrier of distance from the burn center will decrease with the growth of telemedicine. It is incumbent for burn centers to develop outpatient guidelines to facilitate this growth of outpatient care. PMID:25085094

  20. Burns in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Virich, G.; Lavy, C.B.D.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Objective: To describe burns seen at the largest hospital in Malawi. Methods: In a prospective study conducted at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, a series of twelve accidental burns was analysed over a four-week period. Results: Hot water was the commonest source of burns (6 out of 12). Open-fire and petroleum lamp accidents were the commonest cause of burns among epileptic patients. Males were affected more than females (male:female ratio = 8:4). Most burns were superficial (11 out of 12). One patient had deep burns requiring grafting. All patients were treated with topical silver sulphadiazine and a combination antibiotic regime. Children aged six yr or under were a major subgroup at risk of suffering burns (7 out of 12) and only one patient was aged over 30 yr. Lack of anti-epileptic medication resulted in potentially avoidable burns in four epileptic patients. Conclusions: There is a need for cheap preventive health promotion measures as well as the provision of simple resources as most burns encountered can be managed effectively by simple measures. PMID:21991045

  1. American Burn Association

    MedlinePlus

    About ABA Governance History Committees & SIGs Awards Membership Past Presidents International Outreach Legislative Agenda Health Policy News and Activities Educational Resources Prevention Posters Awards FAQs Burn Awareness ...

  2. Skin optics

    SciTech Connect

    van Gemert, M.J.; Jacques, S.L.; Sterenborg, H.J.; Star, W.M.

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative dosimetry in the treatment of skin disorders with (laser) light requires information on propagation of light in the skin related to the optical properties of the individual skin layers. This involves the solution of the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer in a model representing skin geometry, as well as experimental methods to determine the optical properties of each skin layer. These activities are unified under the name skin optics. This paper first reviews the current status of tissue optics, distinguishing between the cases of: dominant absorption, dominant scattering, and scattering about equal to absorption. Then, previously published data as well as some current unpublished data on (human) stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis, have been collected and/or (re)analyzed in terms of absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and anisotropy factor of scattering. The results are that the individual skin layers show strongly forward scattering (anisotropy factors between 0.7 and 0.9). The absorption and scattering data show that for all wavelengths considered scattering is much more important than absorption. Under such circumstances, solutions to the transport equation for a multilayer skin model and finite beam laser irradiation are currently not yet available. Hence, any quantitative dosimetry for skin treated with (laser) light is currently lacking.

  3. Alkali burns from wet cement.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    When water is added to the dry materials of Portland cement calcium hydroxide is formed; the wet cement is caustic (with a pH as high as 12.9) and can produce third-degree alkali burns after 2 hours of contact. Unlike professional cement workers, amateurs are usually not aware of any danger and may stand or kneel in the cement for long periods. As illustrated in a case report, general physicians may recognize neither the seriousness of the injury in its early stages nor the significance of a history of prolonged contact with wet cement. All people working with cement should be warned about its dangers and advised to immediately wash and dry the skin if contact does occur. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6561052

  4. Saturday night burns: an increasing problem?

    PubMed

    Bollero, D; Malvasio, V; Gangemi, E N; Giunta, G; Collard, B; Stella, M

    2015-03-31

    In Italy the economic crisis has caused changes in behavior in daily as well as leisure activities. For instance, night clubs have changed both their scenography and what they can offer. From simply providing a place to dance, they can now offer more complex scenography with spectacular fireworks and lit cocktails. While this can be amazing for all of us it can also be another cause of burn injuries. We conducted a retrospective study of all burns patients admitted to the Accident and Emergency Department at CTO Hospital in Turin from 2009 to 2013, after a night clubbing. A total of five patients were identified with an average age of 20 years old: four were burned by flaming cocktails and one was burned by a firework. Two received outpatient treatment, while orotracheal intubation and admission were needed for three, and two required surgical debridement and resurfacing with split skin graft. All patients had permanent sequelae caused by pathologic scarring and/or dyschromia. Our findings show that the risk of burn injuries is higher at weekends, mainly in summer, if all correct safety procedures are not followed. Meanwhile it is important to highlight that the promotion of inappropriate behavior at night clubs during firework displays and the passing of flaming cocktails should be avoided. PMID:26668565

  5. Saturday night burns: an increasing problem?

    PubMed Central

    Bollero, D.; Malvasio, V.; Gangemi, E.N.; Giunta, G.; Collard, B.; Stella, M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In Italy the economic crisis has caused changes in behavior in daily as well as leisure activities. For instance, night clubs have changed both their scenography and what they can offer. From simply providing a place to dance, they can now offer more complex scenography with spectacular fireworks and lit cocktails. While this can be amazing for all of us it can also be another cause of burn injuries. We conducted a retrospective study of all burns patients admitted to the Accident and Emergency Department at CTO Hospital in Turin from 2009 to 2013, after a night clubbing. A total of five patients were identified with an average age of 20 years old: four were burned by flaming cocktails and one was burned by a firework. Two received outpatient treatment, while orotracheal intubation and admission were needed for three, and two required surgical debridement and resurfacing with split skin graft. All patients had permanent sequelae caused by pathologic scarring and/or dyschromia. Our findings show that the risk of burn injuries is higher at weekends, mainly in summer, if all correct safety procedures are not followed. Meanwhile it is important to highlight that the promotion of inappropriate behavior at night clubs during firework displays and the passing of flaming cocktails should be avoided. PMID:26668565

  6. Pediatric burns with snap-cap fireworks.

    PubMed

    Karamanoukian, Raffy L; Kilani, Marwa; Lozano, Daniel; Sundine, Michael; Karamanoukian, Hratch L; Delarosa, Jacob; Behnam, Shahdad; Evans, Gregory R D

    2006-01-01

    Snap-caps are marketed as a relatively safe pyrotechnic (explosive) device for children 8 years and older. Individually, the snap-caps pose very little threat because the amount of explosive compounds contained in each is limited to 1 mg. However, the accidental explosion of numerous snap-caps may cause significant burns. This study highlights a series of pediatric patients who presented with severe second- and third-degree burns as a result of accidental explosion of snap-caps. Seven patients with snap-caps-related injuries were treated at the University of California, San Diego Regional Burn Center from January 1996 to April 1999. Study foci included 1) mode and extent of injury, 2) management, 3) associated morbidity, and 4) functional outcome. Six patients (84%) required hospital admission. Four patients (57%) underwent split-thickness skin grafting to repair mean TBSA burns of 4.1% (range, 2-8%). Three patients (43%) received aggressive management of burns with topical medications and dressing changes. The nature and extent of snap-cap injuries support the contention that snap-caps have the potential to harm children to whom they are marketed. PMID:16566570

  7. Progress and opportunities for tissue-engineered skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeil, Sheila

    2007-02-01

    Tissue-engineered skin is now a reality. For patients with extensive full-thickness burns, laboratory expansion of skin cells to achieve barrier function can make the difference between life and death, and it was this acute need that drove the initiation of tissue engineering in the 1980s. A much larger group of patients have ulcers resistant to conventional healing, and treatments using cultured skin cells have been devised to restart the wound-healing process. In the laboratory, the use of tissue-engineered skin provides insight into the behaviour of skin cells in healthy skin and in diseases such as vitiligo, melanoma, psoriasis and blistering disorders.

  8. Hot bitumen burns: 92 hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Baruchin, A M; Schraf, S; Rosenberg, L; Sagi, A A

    1997-08-01

    Bitumen burns while comprising a small percentage of all types of burns are troublesome. They affect persons engaged in gainful employment which the burns then curtail, as well as requiring special attention because the substance adheres to the skin and is therefore difficult to remove. Ninety-two consecutive patients with such burns who were admitted as in-patients over a 10-year period (1985-1995) have been reviewed. Most of the burns occurred on a worksite and involved active young persons (mean age 29.6 years) the mean size of the burn was 3.87 per cent TBSA, mainly affecting the upper extremities and hands. Mean hospitalization time was 10.6 days. Bitumen burns are fully predictable and can easily be prevented by avoiding unsafe practice and/or equipment. Bitumen is a general term for petroleum-derived substances ranging from true petroleum through so-called mineral tars, to asphalt. Asphalt (Asphaltum) is a semi-solid mixture of several hydrocarbons probably formed by the evaporation of the lighter or more volatile constituents. It is amorphous of low specific gravity, 1-2, with a black or brownish black colour and pitchy lustre. At room temperature it is solid becoming molten and spreadable when heated to 93 degrees C and over. Roofing tars and asphalts are usually heated to temperatures of 232 degrees C to achieve desirable viscosities (e.g. for spraying), whereas lower temperatures are required for the manageable form to pave roads. Notable localities for asphaltum are the island of Trinidad and the Dead Sea region where lake asphaltums were long known to the ancient. Ironically, none of the 92 patients who were treated for bitumen injuries in the 'Soroka' (Beer-Sheba, Israel) and 'Barzilai' (Ashkelon, Israel) Medical Centres (80 and 150 km from the lake respectively) had anything to do with the Dead Sea area. PMID:9426915

  9. Propolis and amnion reepithelialise second-degree burns in rats.

    PubMed

    Pessolato, Alicia Greyce Turatti; Martins, Daniele dos Santos; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Mançanares, Celina Almeida Furlanetto; de Carvalho, Ana Flávia

    2011-11-01

    Burns are serious consequences of trauma in terms of both imminent mortality and prolonged periods of morbidity. They are often accompanied by unsatisfactory cosmetic as well as functional and psychological outcomes. These complications emphasise the need for stronger efforts in achieving greater diversity and effectiveness in the treatment of skin burns. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of gross and microscopic epidermal and dermal responses in the process of regenerative repair or healing of burns in rats that were treated either daily with 5% propolis ointment or by autologous amnion graft. Second-degree burns were inflicted in the neck region of female rats by contact with a hot metal (at 130 °C) for 5 s. Propolis treatment accelerated the process of tissue repair and led to decreased local inflammation, which indicates that treatment with propolis was successful in the initial period (7 days) and stimulated the production of collagen fibre (assessed by morphometry) in all the periods evaluated (14 and 21 days). Amnion treatment inhibited local inflammation (assessed macroscopically), stimulated local epithelial regeneration (assessed microscopically) and stimulated the production of collagen fibre (assessed by morphometry) in the days following burn. These treatments offer new therapeutic strategies for treating severe skin burns; these strategies may allow the minimisation of scar formation, a more rapid return of function and, ultimately, a better quality of life for burn patients. PMID:21741176

  10. Skin Substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Nicole; Cohen, George

    2014-01-01

    In a relatively short timespan, a wealth of new skin substitutes made of synthetic and biologically derived materials have arisen for the purpose of wound healing of various etiologies. This review article focuses on providing an overview of skin substitutes including their indications, contraindications, benefits, and limitations. The result of this overview was an appreciation of the vast array of options available for clinicians, many of which did not exist a short time ago. Yet, despite the rapid expansion this field has undergone, no ideal skin substitute is currently available. More research in the field of skin substitutes and wound healing is required not only for the development of new products made of increasingly complex biomolecular material, but also to compare the existing skin substitutes. PMID:25371771

  11. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamala, K A; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, S G; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS. PMID:26962284

  12. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kamala, KA; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, SG; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS. PMID:26962284

  13. Coal burning process

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, F.C.; Cowan, T.L.

    1980-02-05

    This process is for devolatilizing coal to produce a volatile hydrocarbon gas leaving a residue of unburned coal. The volatile hydrocarbon gas and other coal or said residual coal are thereafter burned together in a common furnace. The volatilization of the coal may be carried out substantially endothermically, and preferably on the plant site where the burning of the volatilized hydrocarbon takes place together with other coal or the residue coal. The volatile matter is removed from the coal in a volatile state before the residue coal exits from the burner nozzle and then enters the combustion chamber where the volatilized hydrocarbon gas and residue coal are burned together. The removed volatilized hydrocarbon gas can be placed within the same coal burning plant to join with the unburned residual coal, passing to the burner to burn therewith.

  14. Surgical Treatment of a Burns Case of 40% TBSA

    PubMed Central

    Buja, Z.; Shabani, A.; Zatriqi, V.; Terziqi, H.; Bukoshi, Z.; Berisha, A.; Arifi, H.

    2005-01-01

    Summary We describe the case of a two-year-old boy with massive burns. After the period of shock and sepsis, very successful four-phase operative treatment was performed, with combined skin grafting homograft plus autograft. With regard to the four surgical interventions, in the first two we used the above combined method, while in the other two we used grafting only with skin autograft. We also used the donor region of the epicranial scalp. PMID:21990989

  15. Serious occupational burn injuries treated at a regional burn center.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Allison J; McGwin, Gerald; Cross, James M; Smith, Donald R; Birmingham, Barbara R; Rue, Loring W

    2002-01-01

    This article will present the epidemiology of occupational burn injuries among patients admitted to a regional burn center. Patients admitted to University of Alabama at Birmingham University Hospital Burn Center between November 1994 and December 1999 for occupational burn injuries were studied. Descriptive statistics were generated for demographic, clinical, and outcome characteristics. Approximately one-quarter of all burn center admissions had sustained occupational burn injuries. The most common burns were flame, electrical, and scald burns. The most heavily represented occupations were "manufacturing" (19.1%), "electrician" (16.2%), and "laborer" (16.2%). Burn type varied with occupation. Over $16 million in hospital charges was accrued by patients sustaining occupational burn injuries. Understanding the epidemiology of serious burn injuries in the workplace is crucial to directing prevention efforts toward worker groups at highest risk. PMID:12142576

  16. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Porcia T.

    2009-01-01

    Skin cancers in skin of color often present atypically or with advanced stage in comparison to Caucasian patients. Health care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion when examining skin lesions in skin of color. PMID:19691228

  17. [Integration of burn treatment and rehabilitation for a child with extremely severe burn].

    PubMed

    Li, Hongming; Zhang, Jiaping; Chen, Jian; Song, Huapei; Liu, Qiushi; Fan, Xin; Peng, Yizhi; Wu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    This article reports the successful experience of integration of burn treatment and rehabilitation for a child suffering from 91% TBSA flame burn injury (with 60% TBSA full-thickness injury, 30% TBSA deep partial-thickness injury, and 1% TBSA superficial partial-thickness injury), severe inhalation injury, severe burn shock, stress ulcer, gastrointestinal bleeding and atelectasis of the right upper lung. The patient was given effective fluid infusion against shock, treatment for gastrointestinal bleeding, and other effective supportive treatment for functions of various organs after being admitted to our burn ward. When vital signs became stable at 30 hours post injury, bedside rehabilitation was begun. On post injury day (PID) 4, escharectomy was performed for both lower limbs, followed by microskin grafting and allogeneic skin covering. On PID 10, invasive infection of multi-drug resistant bacteria was found with accompanied high fever, and at the same time allograft began to disintegrate, with dissolution of large area of eschar, leading to a raw surface reaching 86% TBSA. Following debridement, dressing, application of compound polymyxin B ointment, temporary covering of wounds with porcine acellular dermal matrix, adjustment of antibiotics, patient's condition was finally stabilized. From PID 28 on, split-thickness skin grafting was conducted 7 times, and the raw surface of 75% TBSA involving the upper and lower limbs and trunk was successfully covered. At the same time, our rehabilitation team launched comprehensive rehabilitation measures comprising active exercise, occupational therapy, prevention of scar formation, organ function training and psychological intervention. Finally, the patient was able to walk unaided and fed herself when the wounds were almost entirely healed in 3 months after injury. Oriented forwards functional rehabilitation, strong cooperation between team members, and synchronous effective implementation of burn treatment and

  18. Burn injury in children.

    PubMed

    Zámecníková, I; Stĕtinský, J; Tymonová, J; Kadlcík, M

    2005-01-01

    The authors have analyzed the data files of 580 child patients up to 15 years of age who were hospitalized at the Burn Center of the FNsP Hospital in Ostrava in the years 1999 - 2003. The authors focused on mechanisms of burn injury in relation to the age of a child as well as extent, depth, localization, and local treatment of the injury. The data file was divided to four age groups: up to two years of age, 2 - 5 years of age, 5 - 10 years of age, and 10 - 15 years of age. As regards the mechanisms of injury, the authors have analyzed scalding by hot liquids, burns due to contact with a hot object, burns due to electric current, explosion, and injury caused by burning clothing. Injury by scalding prevails to a very significant degree in the youngest children. In the second age group the incidence of burn following contact with hot objects increases, as does the percentage of children injured by burning of clothing in children aged 5 - 10. The older children have increased prevalence of injuries caused by explosions. The greatest average extent of an injury is from burning of clothing. Most of the areas are burned deeply, localized in more areas of the body, and almost half of the cases required surgical intervention. Scalding comes second in terms of average extent of an injury. More than half of the injured areas are superficial, and areas of injury are different in the individual age groups. We addressed about a fifth of the cases surgically. The explosion of combustible materials caused a smaller extent of injury, on average, taking third place. The injuries were predominantly superficial, most commonly involving the head, trunk, and upper extremities. In none of the cases it was necessary for us to operate. Burn injuries caused by contact with hot objects are of a smaller extent. More than half of the burned areas are deep, localized most commonly in the upper extremities. Surgical intervention was necessary in more than half the cases. In terms of average

  19. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present?

  20. Your Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Butterflies? Read This Chloe & Nurb Meet The Brain (Movie) Quiz: Do You Need a Flu Shot? Got ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Movie: Skin Acne Myths Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Fungal ...

  1. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review. 17 Wu S, Han J, Laden F, Qureshi AA. Long-term ultraviolet flux, other potential risk factors, ... MR, Shive ML, Chren MM, Han J, Qureshi AA, Linos E. Indoor tanning and non-melanoma skin ...

  2. Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... nearby What to Do Teach kids not to pop, pick at, or scratch pimples, pus-filled infections, ... Your Skin Abscess Impetigo Ringworm Cellulitis Should I Pop My Pimple? Tips for Taking Care of Your ...

  3. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposure to ultraviolet light, which is found in sunlight and in lights used in tanning salons. What ... the safe-sun guidelines. 1. Avoid the sun. Sunlight damages your skin. The sun is strongest during ...

  4. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ... and a type of laser light to kill cancer cells. Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to ...

  5. Hyperelastic skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is most often seen in people who have Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. People with this disorder have very elastic skin. ... any member of your family been diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome? What other symptoms are present? Alternative Names India ...

  6. Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, ... If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. Treatments ...

  7. Epidermal Healing in Burns: Autologous Keratinocyte Transplantation as a Standard Procedure: Update and Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Barrault, Christine; Levard, Guillaume; Morel, Franck; Bernard, François-Xavier; Lecron, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of burned patients is a tricky clinical problem not only because of the extent of the physiologic abnormalities but also because of the limited area of normal skin available. Methods: Literature indexed in the National Center (PubMed) has been reviewed using combinations of key words (burns, children, skin graft, tissue engineering, and keratinocyte grafts). Articles investigating the association between burns and graft therapeutic modalities have been considered. Further literature has been obtained by analysis of references listed in reviewed articles. Results: Severe burns are conventionally treated with split-thickness skin autografts. However, there are usually not enough skin donor sites. For years, the question of how covering the wound surface became one of the major challenges in clinical research area and several procedures were proposed. The microskin graft is one of the oldest methods to cover extensive burns. This technique of skin expansion is efficient, but results remain inconsistent. An alternative is to graft cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. However, because of several complications and labor-intensive process of preparing grafts, the initial optimism for cultured epithelial autograft has gradually declined. In an effort to solve these drawbacks, isolated epithelial cells from selecting donor site were introduced in skin transplantation. Conclusions: Cell suspensions transplanted directly to the wound is an attractive process, removing the need for attachment to a membrane before transfer and avoiding one potential source of inefficiency. Choosing an optimal donor site containing cells with high proliferative capacity is essential for graft success in burns. PMID:25426401

  8. Senescent Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kushniruk, William

    1974-01-01

    The cutaneous surface is continually influenced by aging and environmental factors. A longer life span is accompanied by an increase in the frequency of problems associated with aging skin. Although most of these changes and lesions are not life threatening, the premalignant lesions must be recognized and treated. The common aging and actinic skin changes are discussed and appropriate management is described. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:20469067

  9. Explosive burns during abusive inhalation of butane gas.

    PubMed

    Oh, S J; Lee, S E; Burm, J S; Chung, C H; Lee, J W; Chang, Y C; Kim, D C

    1999-06-01

    Explosion burns during abusive inhalation of butane gas rarely occurred in the past, but recently it has become a social problem among groups of teenagers. This cause constitutes 1.6% of admissions due to flame burn at the burn unit of Hallym Medical Center. A retrospective review during a five-year period identified 48 patients. The male to female ratio was 3:1. The mean age of patients was 16 years and 8 months. The places where the accidents occurred were commonly bedrooms or motel rooms. There were nine group settings of 27 patients at the time of the accident. Inhalation injury (n = 12) was noted on admission. The average burn size was 28.5 percent of the total body surface area. All patients sustained burn injury on the face, arms and hands and 24 patients among them had extended burn areas on the trunk and/or lower extremity. 22 patients (mean hospital stay; 51.6 d) required skin grafting and 12 patients (mean hospital stay; 22.3 d) were treated with conservative management. The mortality rate was 10.4 percent. Explosion burns during abusive inhalation of butane gas can result in mortality as well as major burn injuries. PMID:10431983

  10. Neuromodulators for Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ... Non-ablative Laser Rejuvenation Non-invasive Body Contouring Treatments Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Information Free Skin Cancer Screenings Skin ...

  11. Temperature Responses during Exercise in a Hot Environment in Severely Burned Children

    PubMed Central

    McEntire, Serina J.; Chinkes, David L.; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We have previously described thermoregulatory responses of severely burned children during submaximal exercise in a thermoneutral environment. However, the thermoregulatory response of burned children to exercise in the heat is not well understood and could have important safety implications for rehabilitation. Study design Children (n=10) with >40% total body surface area burns and non-burned children (n=10) performed a 30 minute bout of treadmill exercise at 75% of their peak aerobic power in a heated environment. Intestinal temperature, burned and unburned skin temperature, and heart rate were recorded pre-exercise, every 2 minutes during exercise, and during recovery. Results Three of the 10 burned children completed the exercise bout in the heat; however, all of the non-burned children completed the 30 minute bout. One burned child reached a core body temperature > 39°C at minute 23. Burned children had a significantly higher core body temperature thru the first 12 minutes of exercise compared to non-burned children. However, 9 of 10 (90%) burned children did not become hyperthermic during exercise in the heat. Conclusion Specific to this study, hyperthermia did not typically occur in burned children, relative to non-burned children. Whether this is due to an intolerance to exercise in the heat or to an inability to generate sufficient heat during exercise needs to be explored further. PMID:20616652

  12. Effects of cimetidine on fluid requirement during resuscitation of third-degree burns.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Wada, T; Simazaki, S; Hanumadass, M; Reyes, H M; Matsuda, T

    1991-01-01

    Seventy percent body surface area third-degree burns were produced in four groups of six guinea pigs each, after which all were resuscitated with Ringer's lactate solution. Group 1 received 4 ml/kg/%burn. Group 2 received 1 ml/kg/%burn with cimetidine, which was begun at 0.5 hours after burn injury. Group 3 received 1 ml/kg/%burn with cimetidine, which was begun at 1 hour after burn injury. Group 4 received 1 ml/kg/%burn without cimetidine. There were no significant differences among any of the groups in blood pressures or heart rates during the study period. Group 4 showed significantly higher hematocrit values than group 2 at 4 hours after burn injury and thereafter. The cardiac outputs of group 2 were the same statistically as those of group 1. The cardiac outputs of group 3 were significantly lower than those that received cimetidine early (group 2), though still higher than those of the 1 ml control group (group 4) at 4 hours after burn injury and thereafter. At 24 hours after burn injury, the water content of the burned skin of group 2 was significantly lower than that of the other groups. We conclude that in third-degree burns, cimetidine therapy can effectively reduce burn edema and the amount of required resuscitation fluid. Early administration is better than late administration of cimetidine. PMID:1752876

  13. Vinylpyridine: an unusual cause of a chemical burn.

    PubMed

    Stone, C A; Dunn, K

    1996-03-01

    A case of a chemical burn following cutaneous exposure to vinylpyridine is presented. This unusual injury was distinguished by the delay in onset of pain and erythema, followed by gradual resolution leaving patchy skin discolouration. The properties of vinylpyridine are outlined. This case illustrates the dangers of long-term chemical storage and the importance of proper disposal. PMID:8634125

  14. Minor burns - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    ... put a thin layer of ointment, such as petroleum jelly or aloe vera, on the burn. The ... is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation ...

  15. New Fashioned Book Burning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Reports on results of a teacher's experiment in book burning as a lesson accompanying the teaching of Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451." Discusses student reactions and the purpose of or justification for the experimental lesson. (TB)

  16. Burns (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... you drowsy, or in bed. Don't use fireworks or sparklers. Bathroom Set the thermostat on your ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Fireworks Safety First Aid: Burns First Aid: Sunburn Sun ...

  17. Skin care and incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    Incontinence - skin care ... in a wheelchair, regular chair, or bed TAKING CARE OF THE SKIN Using diapers and other products ... skin. Over time, the skin breaks down. Special care must be taken to keep the skin clean ...

  18. Skin characteristics in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn skin characteristics; Infant skin characteristics ... the first few weeks of the baby's life. Newborn skin will vary, depending on the length of the pregnancy. Premature infants have thin, transparent skin. The skin of a ...

  19. Ball lightning burn.

    PubMed

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Monstrey, Stan; von Heimburg, Dennis; Hamdi, Mustapha; Van Landuyt, Koen; Blondeel, Phillip

    2003-05-01

    Ball lightning is a rare physical phenomenon, which is not yet completely explained. It is similar to lightning but with different, peculiar characteristics. It can be considered a mix of fire and electricity, concentrated in a fireball with a diameter of 20-cm that most commonly appears suddenly, even in indoor conditions, during a thunderstorm. It moves quickly for several meters, can change direction, and ultimately disappears. During a great storm, a 28-year-old man and his 5-year-old daughter sustained burn wounds after ball lightning came from the outdoors through a chimney. These two patients demonstrated signs of fire and electrical injuries. The father, who lost consciousness, sustained superficial second-degree burn wounds bilaterally on the zygomatic area and deep second-degree burn wounds on his right hand (total body surface area, 4%). His daughter demonstrated superficial second-degree burn wounds on the left part of the face and deep second-degree and third-degree burn wounds (total body surface area, 30%) on the left neck, both upper arms, and the back. In this article, the authors report the first two cases of burn injuries resulting from ball lightning contact indoors. The literature on this rare phenomenon is reviewed to elucidate the nature of ball lightning. Emphasis is placed on the nature of injuries after ball lightning contact, the therapy used, and the long-term complications. PMID:12792547

  20. The Sensitive Skin Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Tov, Hadar; Maibach, Howard I

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive skin syndrome (SSS) is a common and challenging condition, yet little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. Patients with SSS often present with subjective complaints of severe facial irritation, burning, and/or stinging after application of cosmetic products. These complaints are out of proportion to the objective clinical findings. Defined as a self-diagnosed condition lacking any specific objective findings, SSS is by definition difficult to quantify and, therefore, the scientific community has yet to identify an acceptable objective screening test. In this overview we review recent epidemiological studies, present current thinking on the pathophysiology leading to SSS, discuss the challenges SSS presents, and recommend a commonsense approach to management. PMID:23248357

  1. Excellent Aesthetic and Functional Outcome After Fractionated Carbon Dioxide Laser Skin Graft Revision Surgery: Case Report and Review of Laser Skin Graft Revision Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ho, Derek; Jagdeo, Jared

    2015-11-01

    Skin grafts are utilized in dermatology to reconstruct a defect secondary to surgery or trauma of the skin. Common indications for skin grafts include surgical removal of cutaneous malignancies, replacement of tissue after burns or lacerations, and hair transplantation in alopecia. Skin grafts may be cosmetically displeasing, functionally limiting, and significantly impact patient's quality-of-life. There is limited published data regarding skin graft revision to enhance aesthetics and function. Here, we present a case demonstrating excellent aesthetic and functional outcome after fractionated carbon dioxide (CO2) laser skin graft revision surgery and review of the medical literature on laser skin graft revision techniques. PMID:26580878

  2. PBXN-110 Burn Rate Estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, E

    2008-08-11

    It is estimated that PBXN-110 will burn laminarly with a burn function of B = (0.6-1.3)*P{sup 1.0} (B is the burn rate in mm/s and P is pressure in MPa). This paper provides a brief discussion of how this burn behavior was estimated.

  3. Bacterial infections of the skin. I: primary and secondary infections.

    PubMed

    Chan, H L

    1983-01-01

    Bacterial skin infections are important to recognize because we have the means to eradicate almost all of them. Primary skin infections are mainly caused by staphylococci or streptococci. Staphylococci infections present as furuncles and carbuncles, superficial folliculitis, impetigo or rarely the Scalded Skin Syndrome. Streptococcal infections present as impetigo, ecthyma, erysipelas or cellulitis. Corynebacteria causes erythrasma, trichomycosis or pitted keratolysis. Gram-negative primary skin infections, although uncommon, may occur; bacterial cultures are generally necessary for diagnosis. Secondary bacterial infections of pre-existing wounds, burns, dermatitic skin, or retention cysts are common events. PMID:6859802

  4. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns. PMID:12792237

  5. [BODY SUPPORT ROLE NUTRITIONAL VICTIMS WITH BURN INJURIES IN THE STAGE SEPTICOTOXEMIA].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, A M

    2015-06-01

    The analysis of the treatment results of burn victims septicotoxemia of 120 injured persons in the area of thermal lesions 40-70% of the body surface. The dynamics of the clinical course of burn disease influenced by nutritional support with solutions of amino acids (AA) Aminosol and Aminosol-neo. Patients performed enteral, parenteral and mixed food. Parenteral nutrition improves the quality and results of treatment in stage burn septicotoxemia, contributes to an earlier elimination syndrome hipermetabolizm-hiperkatabolizm and readiness wounds to the plastic skin renewal and better engraftment of transplanted grafts of skin, reducing the frequency of complications and duration of hospitalization. PMID:26521470

  6. Novel living skin replacement biotherapy approach for wounded skin tissues.

    PubMed

    LaFrance, M L; Armstrong, D W

    1999-04-01

    A novel living skin replacement (LSR) biotherapy concept, addressing the challenging problems related to tissue regeneration and wound healing, is presented for the treatment of skin burns, traumatic injuries and ulcerations. LSR combines elements of cell therapy along with those of tissue engineering to allow for the regeneration of wounded skin. It takes advantage of biodegradable microspheres onto which donor skin epidermal and dermal cells can be attached and expanded in vitro for subsequent direct application down to the deepest recesses of the wound bed. The key element of the biotherapy is the ability of the skin cells to migrate freely from the microspheres into the wound for regeneration of the tissues. The large surface to volume ratio of the microspheres allows for the delivery of appropriate cell numbers while minimizing the amount of biomaterial to be resorbed. This novel approach presents a number of advantages over existing therapies including facilitated cell manipulations, ease of storage and transportation, rapid clinical intervention due to the elimination of any surgical suturing or stapling, and a more natural three-dimensional tissue remodeling and anatomical compliance. Preliminary in vitro and in vivo evidence of the LSR functionality and its potential benefits is presented. PMID:10358222

  7. Impaired skin integrity related to radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratliff, C.

    1990-09-01

    Skin reactions associated with radiation therapy require frequent nursing assessment and intervention. Preventive interventions and early management can minimize the severity of the skin reaction. With the understanding of the pathogenesis of radiation skin reactions, the ET nurse can determine who is at risk and then implement preventive measures. Because radiation treatment is fractionated, skin reactions do not usually occur until midway through the course of therapy and will subside within a few weeks after completion of radiation. Many patients and their families still fear that radiation causes severe burns. Teaching and anticipatory guidance by the ET nurse is needed to assist patients and their families to overcome this fear, and to educate them on preventive skin care regimens.

  8. Progress in a Moscow children's burn unit: a joint Russian-American collaboration.

    PubMed

    Remensnyder, J P; Astrozjnikova, S; Bell, L; Budkevich, L; Buletova, A A; DiCarlo, J; Featherston, D; Johnson, L; Kolotukin, A; Krassovsky, V

    1995-08-01

    A joint Russian-American paediatric burn programme involving Childrens Hospital No. 9 in Moscow and Project HOPE in Millwood, Virginia emerged from the efforts of burn professionals from both countries in caring for a group of children seriously burned as a result of the train-pipeline catastrophe that occurred in June 1989 in the Ural Mountains. This paper describes the burn unit and its activities during the years 1985-93 and includes: (1) a general description of the physical and administrative structure of the unit; (2) the demography of burn admissions; (3) clinical activities; (4) a comparison of the clinical results of the years before the institution of the combined programme (1985-89) with those achieved during the first 4 years of the combined collaboration (1990-93). Among the important changes that have occurred since the onset of the combined programme are: (1) overall reduction in the crude burn mortality rate; (2) decrease in burn deaths in all burn size groups; (3) dramatic reduction in the length of stay of children with the deepest burns; (4) marked improvement in the take of skin grafts applied to burn wounds and an almost total elimination of complete skin graft failures. PMID:7546252

  9. Patient experiences living with split thickness skin grafts.

    PubMed

    Burnett, L N; Carr, E; Tapp, D; Raffin Bouchal, S; Horch, J D; Biernaskie, J; Gabriel, V

    2014-09-01

    The standard of care for deep burns is autologous split thickness skin grafting. Although adequate to resurface a deep wound, the resulting skin is chronically abnormal. The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of patients with split thickness skin grafts to help guide future investigations related to skin regeneration. In this study, an interpretive description qualitative methodology was employed. Subjects participated in a two-part single patient interview that was recorded and transcribed. A nurse with experience in clinical burn care coded and interpreted the data. Participants were recruited through presentation to a university based outpatient burn clinic for follow up from autologous split thickness skin grafting. Eight male patients and four female patients 20-62 years old ranging 2-29 months post-skin grafting were enrolled in the study. The most significant concerns voiced by patients were identified and organized into five themes: (1) a new normal, (2) split thickness skin graft symptoms, (3) appearance of new skin, (4) coping, and (5) participation in future clinical trials. Participants reported that the abnormalities related to their split thickness skin grafts were significant enough that they would be willing to participate in a future clinical trial investigating new cell-based therapies. PMID:24794227

  10. The Use of Dermal Substitutes in Burn Surgery: Acute Phase

    PubMed Central

    Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Anna, Arno; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    Dermal substitutes are increasingly becoming an essential part of the burn care strategy. During the acute phase of burn treatment, dermal substitutes improve functional and cosmetic results long-term and thus increase quality of life. In the chronic wound setting, dermal substitutes are used to reconstruct and improve burn scars and other defects. Despite some successes in the use of dermal substitutes there are more needs and requirements to further improve outcomes and hence further research is required not only to strengthen scientific evidence regarding their effects but also to develop new technology and products. Dermal substitutes also emerge as pivotal research strategies to develop adequate scaffolds for stem cells, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications to obtain long-lasting and scarless artificial skin. This review discusses status-quo of dermal substitutes and novel strategies in the use of dermal substitutes with a focus on burn care. PMID:24393152

  11. Acute concentrated phenol dermal burns: Complications and management.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Tapan Jayantilal

    2015-05-01

    Phenol burns can result in multiple organ failure. This is a case report of acute severe phenol dermal burn after accidental splash of 94% phenol on 35-year-old patient's body who was brought to hospital after 90 min of exposure. Decontamination was done with high-density water and glycerol. Early complications in form of metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure required hemodialysis. Extensive protein denaturation was managed with IV albumin and high protein diet. Patient also developed pleural effusion and acute respiratory distress syndrome, but these were successfully managed by intercostal drain tube insertion and noninvasive ventilation. The patient survived after multiple organ failures and widespread burns despite the fact that it has been observed that outcome of phenol burns with >60(2) inches of skin affected or two or more organs failure involving renal system is nearly fatal. PMID:25983436

  12. Palm oil thorn-induced squamous cell carcinoma with underlying burns scar.

    PubMed

    Qi Qi, Choo; Ajit Singh, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Marjolin's ulcers are malignancies that arise from previously traumatised, chronically inflamed or scarred skin. We present a case with childhood burns, who had repeated irritation of his forearm skin with palm oil thorns that eventually led to malignant change. PMID:22865804

  13. Prediction of clinical toxicity in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients by radio-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is treated mainly by surgery and radiotherapy. Normal tissue toxicity due to x-ray exposure is a limiting factor for treatment success. Many efforts have been employed to develop predictive tests applied to clinical practice. Determination of lymphocyte radio-sensitivity by radio-induced apoptosis arises as a possible method to predict tissue toxicity due to radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to analyze radio-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes in head and neck cancer patients and to explore their role in predicting radiation induced toxicity. Seventy nine consecutive patients suffering from head and neck cancer, diagnosed and treated in our institution, were included in the study. Toxicity was evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated and irradiated at 0, 1, 2 and 8 Gy during 24 hours. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide. Lymphocytes were marked with CD45 APC-conjugated monoclonal antibody. Radiation-induced apoptosis increased in order to radiation dose and fitted to a semi logarithmic model defined by two constants: α and β. α, as the origin of the curve in the Y axis determining the percentage of spontaneous cell death, and β, as the slope of the curve determining the percentage of cell death induced at a determined radiation dose, were obtained. β value was statistically associated to normal tissue toxicity in terms of severe xerostomia, as higher levels of apoptosis were observed in patients with low toxicity (p = 0.035; Exp(B) 0.224, I.C.95% (0.060-0.904)). These data agree with our previous results and suggest that it is possible to estimate the radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients determining the radiation induced apoptosis with annexin V/propidium iodide staining. β values observed define an individual radiosensitivity profile that could predict late toxicity due to radiotherapy

  14. Skin problems in sugar artists.

    PubMed

    Bangha, E; Elsner, P

    1996-11-01

    Sugar artistry is a growing profession amongst bakers and confectioners and an increasingly common hobby in amateur cooks. The main work consists of manual manipulation of sugar which is formed into figures and objects for table and food decoration. The sugar must be warmed up to 50 degrees C in order to be liquid and malleable and so the artists suffer from diverse thermally induced skin problems on their hands. Such changes have not to date been reported in the dermatological literature. In this study we report our experience in 50 Swiss sugar artists who have suffered from skin problems. The study took the form of a questionnaire survey. The response rate was 30 out of 50. Twenty-six reported no chronic skin disorder. Four suffered from a palmar vesicular relapsing type of chronic eczema. The main skin problems on the hands during work with hot sugar were increased sweating, seen in 20 out of 30 (67%), and burning with erythema and blistering, seen in 12 out of 30 (40%). Most participants (83%) were highly irritated by the skin problems during their work, and applied a protective cream before working with sugar, or wore rubber gloves. Topical therapy with a preparation containing 10% aluminium chloride hexahydrate, used once daily for 3 weeks, evaluated in 14 participants, decreased sweating in 10 (71%) and reduced the thermally induced erythema in one (7%). PMID:8977679

  15. Burn Depth Estimation Based on Infrared Imaging of Thermally Excited Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Dickey, F.M.; Hoswade, S.C.; Yee, M.L.

    1999-03-05

    Accurate estimation of the depth of partial-thickness burns and the early prediction of a need for surgical intervention are difficult. A non-invasive technique utilizing the difference in thermal relaxation time between burned and normal skin may be useful in this regard. In practice, a thermal camera would record the skin's response to heating or cooling by a small amount-roughly 5 C for a short duration. The thermal stimulus would be provided by a heat lamp, hot or cold air, or other means. Processing of the thermal transients would reveal areas that returned to equilibrium at different rates, which should correspond to different burn depths. In deeper thickness burns, the outside layer of skin is further removed from the constant-temperature region maintained through blood flow. Deeper thickness areas should thus return to equilibrium more slowly than other areas. Since the technique only records changes in the skin's temperature, it is not sensitive to room temperature, the burn's location, or the state of the patient. Preliminary results are presented for analysis of a simulated burn, formed by applying a patch of biosynthetic wound dressing on top of normal skin tissue.

  16. Skin cancer and photoaging in ethnic skin.

    PubMed

    Halder, Rebat M; Ara, Collette J

    2003-10-01

    Skin cancer prevalence in ethnic skin is low. Squamous cell carcinoma, hypopigmented mycosis fungoides, and acral lentiginous melanoma are the most serious types of skin cancer noted in the darker-skinned population. Photoaging occurs less frequently and is less severe in ethnic skin. PMID:14717413

  17. Burning trees and bridges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1990-01-01

    Most burning of biomass is the result of human activity, and on a global scale it is increasing. Tropospheric concentrations of CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and ozone are all increasing with time; global biomass burning may make an important contribution to this increase and thus to potential global climate change. The nitrogen cycle also can have important climatic effects. Nitrous oxide put into the atmosphere by biomass burning is a greenhouse gas 250 times more powerful (molecule for molecule) than carbon dioxide. Nitric oxide, as well as being a photochemical precursor of ozone, a major pollutant in the troposphere, produces nitric acid, the fastest-growing component of acid rain. Hence, the new bridge in the nitrogen cycle is of more than mere technical interest.

  18. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E; Krupaa, R Jayasri; Kasthuri, M

    2015-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms. PMID:26015707

  19. Fast burning propellants

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Roos, G.E.

    1987-07-21

    A solid or semisolid propellant is described comprising grains of propellant or propellant components bonded together to create voids within the propellant volume. The grains are of near-uniform size and have less than about a 20% size variation between the largest and smallest grains, the voids comprising from about 10% to about 50% of the propellant volume. The grains are bonded together with sufficient strength to substantially delay the fluidization of the propellant by the onset of Taylor unstable burning. The propellant has a rapid burn rate of from about 10 cm sec/sup -1/ to about 10/sup 4/cm sec/sup -1/.

  20. Interaction between Macrophages and Fibroblasts during Wound Healing of Burn Injuries in Rats.

    PubMed

    Oka, Takeshi; Ohta, Keisuke; Kanazawa, Tomonoshin; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the structural changes and cell-to-cell interactions occurring during wound healing of burn injuries is essential to elucidate the morphological characteristics of the reconstitution of tissue architecture. However, conventional approaches do not provide sufficient information with respect to cell-to-cell interactions during wound healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interaction between bone marrow-derived cells and resident stromal cells throughout the wound healing of burn injuries, using immunohistochemistry and focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope tomography. We induced third-degree burn injuries on the backs of Wistar rats with a heated cylindrical aluminum block (2.0 cm in diameter). At 7 and 14 days after the burn injuries, the burned skin was immunostained with anti-Iba1 and anti-HSP47 antibodies for visualization of bone marrow-derived cells/macrophages and resident stromal cells/fibroblasts, respectively. Normal skin tissue was used as a control. Double-staining immunohistochemistry revealed frequent contacts between macrophages and fibroblasts and a higher contact ratio in the 3 normal skin compared with burned skin, particularly in the areas of granuloma. Three-dimensional ultrastructural analysis with focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope tomography revealed that macrophages and fibroblasts were located closer together in the normal skin than in the burned skin, confirming the analysis by light microscopic observations and ultrastructural analysis from single sections. These results highlight the importance of contact between macrophages and fibroblasts in the maintenance of skin tissue structure and during wound healing. PMID:27237937

  1. How to Check Your Skin for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Cancer Types Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Patient Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Screening Health Professional Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment Skin Cancer ...

  2. [Unusual and fatal type of burn injury: hot air sauna burn].

    PubMed

    García-Tutor, E; Koljonen, V

    2007-01-01

    Sauna bathing is a popular recreational activity in Finland and is generally considered safe even for pregnant women and patients suffering from heart problems; but mixing alcohol with sauna bathing can be hazardous. In the normal Finnish recreational sauna the temperature is usually between 80 and 90 degrees C. A wide variety of burn injuries, in all age groups, are related to sauna bathing; scalds and contact burns account for over 85% while hot air, steam and flame burns for only 15%. Dehydration in patients under the influence of alcohol heightens the risk of hypotension which impairs skin blood circulation. This increased warming of the skin is an effect that is more marked on the outer and upper parts of the body exposed to hot air. Such patients require intensive care on admission: fluid replacement according to the Parkland formula, forced diuresis and immediate correction of acidosis and myoglobinuria. These patients have significant rhabdomyolysis on admission. The best predictor of survival is the creatine kinase level on the second post-injury day. CT scans are necessary to diagnose the underlying conditions of unconsciousness. The necrotic area extends to subcutaneous fat tissue and even to the underlying muscles. The level of excision is typically fascial and, in some areas, layers of the muscle must be removed. Owing to the popularity of sauna bathing throughout the world, it is important to know the extent of damage in this type of injury, in order not to underestimate the severity of such lesions. PMID:17886710

  3. Marjolin's ulcers in the post-burned lesions and scars.

    PubMed

    Saaiq, Muhammad; Ashraf, Bushra

    2014-10-16

    Marjolin's ulcer (MU) represents malignant degeneration that typically ensues over a period of time in the post-burned lesions and scars or any other chronic wound. This review highlights various facets of the presentation and management of MUs that originate from post-burned lesions. The incidence of MUs in such lesions is reported to be 0.77%-2%. This malignancy characteristically develops in the areas of full thickness skin burns that had been allowed for weeks to months to heal spontaneously by secondary intention, or burn wounds which never healed completely over years and the unstable post-burned scars. In the majority of cases, the MU is a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The MUs contribute to an overall 2% of all SCCs and 0.03% of all basal cell carcinomas of the skin. Clinically MUs present in two major morphologic forms. The commoner form is the flat, indurated, ulcerative variety while the less common form is the exophytic papillary variety. Lower limbs represent the most frequently affected body parts. Surgical resection of the primary tumor with 2-4 cm horizontal clearance margin, nodal clearance and radiotherapy constitute the cornerstones of effective oncologic management. Despite best efforts, the overall mortality is reported to be 21%. PMID:25325060

  4. Acticoat dressings and major burns: systemic silver absorption.

    PubMed

    Moiemen, Naiem S; Shale, Elizabeth; Drysdale, Kate J; Smith, Gary; Wilson, Yvonne T; Papini, Remo

    2011-02-01

    Despite widespread use of wound dressings containing silver, few studies have investigated patients' serum silver levels. An earlier study of Acticoat use in small burns showed transient elevations of serum silver. The aim of this study was to examine the serum silver profile when Acticoat is used in major burns. A prospective study of 6 patients with burns greater than 20% total body surface area (TBSA). All burn wounds, including grafted and non-grafted areas and skin graft donor sites, were dressed with Acticoat or Acticoat Absorbent. Patients' serum silver levels, biochemistry and haematology were examined before, during and after the application of the silver dressings. The median total wound size (including donor sites) was 46.1% TBSA. The median maximum serum silver level recorded, 200.3 μg/L, reached at a median of 9.5 days following initial silver dressing application. This decreased to a median of 164.8 μg/L at the end of the treatment period and to a median of 8.2 μg/L at the end of follow-up. One adverse event, partial skin graft loss was thought to be dressing related. In this small study, serum silver levels were elevated but remained similar to that reported following the use of silver sulfadiazine. This study confirmed our view that Acticoat is safe to use on patients with burns, even when they are extensive. PMID:20961690

  5. The treatment of sulphur mustard burns with laser debridement.

    PubMed

    Evison, D; Brown, R F R; Rice, P

    2006-01-01

    The chemical warfare agent, sulphur mustard (SM), is a potent blistering agent in man. Skin exposure can produce partial-thickness burns which take up to three months to heal. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of early laser ablation as a means of accelerating this exceptionally slow rate of healing. Four circular partial-thickness SM burns were induced on the dorsum of nine large white pigs (under general anaesthesia). At 72 h post-exposure, three burns per animal were ablated with a single pass of an UltraPulse 5000C CO(2) laser, at a fluence of 5-6 J cm(-2). All the burns were dressed with silver sulphadiazine and a semi-occlusive dressing. At one, two and three weeks post-surgery three animals were culled and all lesions excised for histological analysis. Burn depth was confirmed and measurements of the radii of regenerative epithelium were performed allowing the area of the zone of re-epithelialisation in each lesion to be calculated. Laser-treated lesions showed a significant increase (350%) in healing rates compared to controls (p<0.005). At two weeks, the laser-treated sites were 95% healed in comparison with control sites (28% healed). These data suggest that laser ablation may be effective in the treatment of partial-thickness SM-induced skin injury. PMID:16996434

  6. TRIAL BURNS: METHODS PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    When conducting a trial burn, it is necessary to make a number of measurements in order to adequately define the performance of the incinerator. n addition to flue gas emissions for particulate matter, HCl, and selected organics, it is also necessary to measure selected organics ...

  7. The Burn Wound Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Lloyd F.; Chan, Rodney K.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: While the survival rate of the severely burned patient has improved significantly, relatively little progress has been made in treatment or prevention of burn-induced long-term sequelae, such as contraction and fibrosis. Recent Advances: Our knowledge of the molecular pathways involved in burn wounds has increased dramatically, and technological advances now allow large-scale genomic studies, providing a global view of wound healing processes. Critical Issues: Translating findings from a large number of in vitro and preclinical animal studies into clinical practice represents a gap in our understanding, and the failures of a number of clinical trials suggest that targeting single pathways or cytokines may not be the best approach. Significant opportunities for improvement exist. Future Directions: Study of the underlying molecular influences of burn wound healing progression will undoubtedly continue as an active research focus. Increasing our knowledge of these processes will identify additional therapeutic targets, supporting informed clinical studies that translate into clinical relevance and practice. PMID:26989577

  8. The Earth Could Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrow, Ruth

    1982-01-01

    Environmental educators are worried about the ultimate ecological threat--nuclear war, which could burn thousands of square miles, sterilize the soil, destroy 70 percent of the ozone layer letting in lethal ultraviolet rays, and cause severe radiation sickness. Educators must inform themselves, teach others, contact government representatives, and…

  9. TIRES, OPEN BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes available information on the health effects from open burning of rubber tires. It concentrates on the three known sources of detailed measurements: (1) a small-scale emissions characterization study performed by the U.S. EPA in a facility designed to simulat...

  10. PPD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    Purified protein derivative standard; TB skin test; Tuberculin skin test; Mantoux test ... Berger BJ. Mantoux skin test (PPD test, purified protein derivative test, Tb test, tuberculin skin test, TST, ...

  11. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  12. Allergy testing - skin

    MedlinePlus

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test ... There are three common methods of allergy skin testing. The skin prick test involves: Placing a small amount of substances that may be causing your symptoms on the skin, ...

  13. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 cream improves burn-wound healing and attenuates burn-gastric lesions in mice.

    PubMed

    Mikus, D; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Petricevic, A; Aralica, G; Druzijancic, N; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Pigac, B; Perovic, D; Kolombo, M; Kokic, N; Mikus, S; Duplancic, B; Fattorini, I; Turkovic, B; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Prkacin, I; Konjevoda, P; Stambuk, N; Anic, T

    2001-12-01

    The effects of the gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 were investigated when administered topically or systemically in burned mice. This agent is known to have a beneficial effect in a variety of models of gastrointestinal lesions, as well as on wound or fracture healing. Deep partial skin thickness burns (1.5x1.5 cm) covering 20% of total body area, were induced under anesthesia on the back of mice by controlled burning and gastric lesions were assessed 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days following injury. The first application of BPC 157 was immediately following burning, and thereafter, once daily, until 24 h before sacrifice. In the initial experiments, exposure to direct flame for 5 s, the BPC 157 was applied at 10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w. intraperitoneally (i.p.) by injection or alternatively, topically, at the burn, as a thin layer of cream (50 microg of BPC 157 dissolved in 2 ml of distilled water was mixed with 50 g of commercial neutral cream (also used as local vehicle-control)), while silver sulfadiazine 1% cream was a standard agent acting locally. Others received no local medication: they were treated i.p. by injection of distilled water (distilled water-control) or left without any medication (control). In subsequent experiments involving deeper burns (direct flame for 7 s), BPC 157 creams (50 microg, 5 microg, 500 ng, 50 ng or 5 ng of BPC 157 dissolved in 2 ml of distilled water was mixed with 50 g of commercial neutral cream), or vehicle as a thin layer of cream, were applied topically, at the burn. Compared with untreated controls, in both experiments, in the BPC 157 cream-treated mice all parameters of burn healing were improved throughout the experiment: less edema was observed and inflammatory cell numbers decreased. Less necrosis was seen with an increased number of capillaries along with an advanced formation of dermal reticulin and collagen fibers. An increased number of preserved follicles were observed. Two weeks after injury, BPC 157 cream

  14. [Treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns].

    PubMed

    Thiele, B; Winter, U J; Mahrle, G; Steigleder, G K

    1986-01-31

    A chemical-plant worker sustained hydrofluoric acid burns during cleaning procedures. Intra-arterial perfusion and intralesional injections of calcium gluconate solution prevented progression of the burns into deeper tissue layers. PMID:3943470

  15. Biomass Burning Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-04-21

    ... of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and in photochemical models of the ... Biomass Burning Discipline:  Tropospheric Chemistry Field Campaigns Aerosols Platform:  ...

  16. Cellularized Bilayer Pullulan-Gelatin Hydrogel for Skin Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Mathew N; Jeschke, Marc G; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-05-01

    Skin substitutes significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients with burn injuries and chronic wounds. However, current skin substitutes have disadvantages related to high costs and inadequate skin regeneration due to highly inflammatory wounds. Thus, new skin substitutes are needed. By combining two polymers, pullulan, an inexpensive polysaccharide with antioxidant properties, and gelatin, a derivative of collagen with high water absorbency, we created a novel inexpensive hydrogel-named PG-1 for "pullulan-gelatin first generation hydrogel"-suitable for skin substitutes. After incorporating human fibroblasts and keratinocytes onto PG-1 using centrifugation over 5 days, we created a cellularized bilayer skin substitute. Cellularized PG-1 was compared to acellular PG-1 and no hydrogel (control) in vivo in a mouse excisional skin biopsy model using newly developed dome inserts to house the skin substitutes and prevent mouse skin contraction during wound healing. PG-1 had an average pore size of 61.69 μm with an ideal elastic modulus, swelling behavior, and biodegradability for use as a hydrogel for skin substitutes. Excellent skin cell viability, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology were visualized through live/dead assays, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine proliferation assays, and confocal microscopy. Trichrome and immunohistochemical staining of excisional wounds treated with the cellularized skin substitute revealed thicker newly formed skin with a higher proportion of actively proliferating cells and incorporation of human cells compared to acellular PG-1 or control. Excisional wounds treated with acellular or cellularized hydrogels showed significantly less macrophage infiltration and increased angiogenesis 14 days post skin biopsy compared to control. These results show that PG-1 has ideal mechanical characteristics and allows ideal cellular characteristics. In vivo evidence suggests that cellularized PG-1 promotes skin regeneration and may

  17. Concepts in local treatment of extensive paediatric burns

    PubMed Central

    Ungureanu, M

    2014-01-01

    Abstract There is a wide variety of local therapeutical methods for extensive burns. This article aims to be a general overview of the most common methods used in the local treatment for extensive burns, both in our clinic and globally. Clinical examples are shown from our clinic; cases of the last 8 years. None of the less there is no such thing as the "perfect method of treatment" but a thin balance between the clinical experience of plastic surgeons, every case particularities and specified characteristics, meaning advantages, disadvantages and limited indications of local topics or methods of skin covering. PMID:25408723

  18. Ultrasonic determination of thermodynamic threshold parameters for irreversible cutaneous burns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, J. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo ultrasonic measurements of the depth of conductive cutaneous burns experimentally induced in anesthetized Yorkshire pigs are reported as a function of burn time for the case in which the skin surface temperature is maintained at 100 C. The data are used in the solution of the one-dimensional heat diffusion equation with time-dependent boundary conditions to obtain the threshold temperature and the energy of transformation per unit mass associated with the transition of the tissue from the state of viability to the state of necrosis. The simplicity of the mathematical model and the expediency of the ultrasonic measurements in studies of thermal injury are emphasized.

  19. Concepts in local treatment of extensive paediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Ungureanu, M

    2014-06-15

    There is a wide variety of local therapeutical methods for extensive burns. This article aims to be a general overview of the most common methods used in the local treatment for extensive burns, both in our clinic and globally. Clinical examples are shown from our clinic; cases of the last 8 years. None of the less there is no such thing as the "perfect method of treatment" but a thin balance between the clinical experience of plastic surgeons, every case particularities and specified characteristics, meaning advantages, disadvantages and limited indications of local topics or methods of skin covering. PMID:25408723

  20. Pediatric sink-bathing: a risk for scald burns.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Kaitlin; Rabbitts, Angela; Leahy, Nicole E; Bourke, Patrick; Yurt, Roger W

    2013-01-01

    Our burn center previously reported a significant incidence of scald burns from tap water among patients treated at the center. However, mechanism of these scalds was not investigated in detail. A recent series of pediatric patients who sustained scalds while bathing in the sink was noted. To evaluate the extent of these injuries and create an effective prevention program for this population, a retrospective study of bathing-related sink burns among pediatric patients was performed. Patients between the ages of 0 and 5.0 years who sustained scald burns while being bathed in the sink were included in this study. Sex, race, age, burn size, length of stay, and surgical procedures were reviewed. During the study period of January 2003 through August 2008, 56 patients who were scalded in the sink were admitted, accounting for 54% of all bathing-related scalds. Among these, 56% were boys and 45% were Hispanic. Mean age was 0.8 ± 0.1 years. Burn size and hospital length of stay averaged 5 ± 0.7% and 11 ± 1 days, respectively. Of this group, 10.7% required skin grafting. The overwhelming majority (94% of patients) were discharged home. The remaining patients were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation, foster care, and others. Pediatric scald burns sustained while bathing in a sink continue to be prevalent at our burn center. Because of limited space and the child's proximity to faucet handles and water flow, sinks are an unsafe location to bathe a child. While such practice may be necessary for some families, comprehensive burn prevention education must address this hazard. PMID:23412329

  1. Butane Hash Oil Burns Associated with Marijuana Liberalization in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Bell, Cameron; Slim, Jessica; Flaten, Hanna K; Lindberg, Gordon; Arek, Wiktor; Monte, Andrew A

    2015-12-01

    Butane hash oil (BHO), also known as "amber," "dab," "glass," "honey," "shatter," or "wax," is a potent marijuana concentrate, containing up to 90 % tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). BHO is easily manufactured using highly volatile butane as a solvent. Our objective was to characterize hydrocarbon burns associated with BHO manufacture in Colorado. This was a cross-sectional study utilizing the National Burn Repository to capture all hydrocarbon burns reported to the local burn center from January 1st, 2008, through August 31st, 2014. We abstracted demographic and clinical variables from medical records for patients admitted for hydrocarbon burns associated with butane hash oil extraction. Twenty-nine cases of BHO burns were admitted to the local burn center during the study period. Zero cases presented prior to medical liberalization, 19 (61.3 %) during medical liberalization (Oct 2009-Dec 2013), and 12 (38.7 %) in 2014 since legalization. The majority of cases were Caucasian (72.4 %) males (89.7 %). Median age was 26 (range 15-58). The median total-body-surface-area (TBSA) burn size was 10 % (TBSA range 1-90 %). Median length of hospital admission was 10 days. Six required intubation for airway protection (21 %). Nineteen required skin grafting, eight wound care only, one required surgical fracture repair, and one required surgical debridement. Hydrocarbon burns associated with hash oil production have increased since the liberalization of marijuana policy in Colorado. A combination of public health messaging, standardization of manufacturing processes, and worker safety regulations are needed to decrease the risks associated with BHO production. PMID:26289652

  2. Cutaneous skin tag

    MedlinePlus

    Skin tag; Acrochordon; Fibroepithelial polyp ... have diabetes. They are thought to occur from skin rubbing against skin. ... The tag sticks out of the skin and may have a short, narrow stalk connecting it to the surface of the skin. Some skin tags are as long as ...

  3. A case review of patients presenting to Royal North Shore Hospital, with hair removal wax burns between January and November 2006.

    PubMed

    Zoumaras, Jack; Kwei, Johnny Sheng-Sun; Vandervord, John

    2008-03-01

    To date there is no published literature on the dangers of hair removal wax burns. This case review illustrates the steady influx of patients presenting to Royal North Shore Hospital (RNSH) with hair removal wax burns. Between January and December 2006, 10 patients out of 395 with burns (2.5%) presented to our dressing clinic with hair removal wax burns. All sustained burns under 5% total body surface area (TBSA) and two required debriding and split skin grafting (SSG). The mechanism of the burns was re-heating the hair removal wax in the microwave for too long. PMID:17716822

  4. Validation of a vertical progression porcine burn model.

    PubMed

    Singer, Adam J; Hirth, Douglas; McClain, Steve A; Crawford, Laurie; Lin, Fubao; Clark, Richard A F

    2011-01-01

    A major potential goal of burn therapy is to limit progression of partial- to full-thickness burns. To better test therapies, the authors developed and validated a vertical progression porcine burn model in which partial-thickness burns treated with an occlusive dressing convert to full-thickness burns that heal with scarring and wound contraction. Forty contact burns were created on the backs and flanks of two young swine using a 150 g aluminum bar preheated to 70°C, 80°C, or 90°C for 20 or 30 seconds. The necrotic epidermis was removed and the burns were covered with a polyurethane occlusive dressing. Burns were photographed at 1, 24, and 48 hours as well as at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days postinjury. Full-thickness biopsies were obtained at 1, 4, 24, and 48 hours as well as at 7 and 28 days. The primary outcomes were presence of deep contracted scars and wound area 28 days after injury. Secondary outcomes were depth of injury, reepithelialization, and depth of scars. Data were compared across burn conditions using analysis of variance and χ(2) tests. Eight replicate burns were created with the aluminum bar using the following temperature/contact-time combinations: 70/20, 70/30, 80/20, 80/30, and 90/20. The percentage of burns healing with contracted scars were 70/20, 0%; 70/30, 25%; 80/20, 50%; 80/30, 75%; and 90/20, 100% (P = .05). Wound areas at 28 days by injury conditions were 70/20, 8.1 cm(2); 70/30, 7.8 cm(2); 80/20, 6.6 cm(2); 80/30, 4.9 cm(2); and 90/20, 4.8 cm(2) (P = .007). Depth of injury judged by depth of endothelial damage for the 80/20 and 80/30 burns at 1 hour was 36% and 60% of the dermal thickness, respectively. The depth of injury to the endothelial cells 1 hour after injury was inversely correlated with the degree of scar area (Pearson's correlation r = -.71, P < .001). Exposure of porcine skin to an aluminum bar preheated to 80°C for 20 or 30 seconds results initially in a partial-thickness burn that when treated with an occlusive dressing

  5. BURN DATA COORDINATING CENTER (BDCC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Burn Data Coordinating Center (BDCC) began collecting data in 1994 and is currently the largest burn database in the country. Pediatric burn data was added in 1998. The BMS database contains over 2,800 cases supporting clinical research and research on outcomes including empl...

  6. The overall patterns of burns

    PubMed Central

    Almoghrabi, A.; Abu Shaban, N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Burn patterns differ across the whole world and not only in relation to lack of education, overcrowding, and poverty. Cultures, habits, traditions, psychiatric illness, and epilepsy are strongly correlated to burn patterns. However, burns may also occur because of specific religious beliefs and activities, social events and festivals, traditional medical practices, occupational activities, and war. PMID:22639565

  7. PGN Prescribed Burn Research Summary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1997, we have been studying the effects of prescribed burns conducted during late winter on shortgrass steppe on the Pawnee National Grassland. During 1997 – 2002, we studied burns on the western (Crow Valley) portion of the Pawnee by comparing plant growth on burns conducted by the Forest Ser...

  8. Is proportion burned severely related to daily area burned?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, Donovan S.; Morgan, Penelope; Kolden, Crystal A.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M. S.

    2014-05-01

    The ecological effects of forest fires burning with high severity are long-lived and have the greatest impact on vegetation successional trajectories, as compared to low-to-moderate severity fires. The primary drivers of high severity fire are unclear, but it has been hypothesized that wind-driven, large fire-growth days play a significant role, particularly on large fires in forested ecosystems. Here, we examined the relative proportion of classified burn severity for individual daily areas burned that occurred during 42 large forest fires in central Idaho and western Montana from 2005 to 2007 and 2011. Using infrared perimeter data for wildfires with five or more consecutive days of mapped perimeters, we delineated 2697 individual daily areas burned from which we calculated the proportions of each of three burn severity classes (high, moderate, and low) using the differenced normalized burn ratio as mapped for large fires by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity project. We found that the proportion of high burn severity was weakly correlated (Kendall τ = 0.299) with size of daily area burned (DAB). Burn severity was highly variable, even for the largest (95th percentile) in DAB, suggesting that other variables than fire extent influence the ecological effects of fires. We suggest that these results do not support the prioritization of large runs during fire rehabilitation efforts, since the underlying assumption in this prioritization is a positive relationship between severity and area burned in a day.

  9. [Lichenoid sarcoidosis on skin tattoos produced by traditional herbal treatments].

    PubMed

    Soyinka, F; Badejo, O; Laja, A O

    1981-01-01

    An unusual case of generalised sarcoidosis of the skin on tattoo marks done two years for "medicinal" purposes on a 56 year old woman is presented. The lesions were lichenoid and scaly in appearance with closely grouped papules. The old tattoo marks on the skin were not involved and areas of skin between the new tattoo marks were also spared. In addition, the sarcoidosis lesion were pruritic and burning. The circumstantial evidence indicated the medical agent applied on the tattoo wounds as the provocative factor for the development of sarcoidosis of the skin. PMID:7026927

  10. Burn-wound healing effect of gelatin/polyurethane nanofiber scaffold containing silver-sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Heo, Dong Nyoung; Yang, Dae Hyeok; Lee, Jung Bok; Bae, Min Soo; Kim, Jung Ho; Moon, Seong Hwan; Chun, Heoung Jae; Kim, Chun Ho; Lim, Ho-Nam; Kwon, Il Keun

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that advances of burn treatment have led to reduction in the morbidity caused by burns, burn infection is still a serious problem. In this study, we designed blended synthetic and natural polymers nanofiber scaffolds using polyurethane (PU) and gelatin, which were prepared by an electrospinning method. Silver-sulfadiazine (SSD) was co-mixed to the blended polymer solution for being incorporated into the nanofibers after the electrospinning, followed by examination of burn-wound healing effect. The nanofiber scaffolds containing SSD should not only serve as a substrate for skin regeneration, but may also deliver suitable drugs, within a controlled manner during healing. The SSD release was able to prevent the growth of a wide array of bacteria and accelerate the wound healing by preventing infection. Therefore it could accelerate the burn-wound closure rate. We confirmed that PU/gelatin nanofiber scaffolds containing SSD lead to enhanced regeneration of burn-wounds. PMID:23621008

  11. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning... obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  12. Treatment of sandal burns of the feet in children in a moist environment.

    PubMed

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2014-05-01

    Burns to children's feet are often due to scalds, from hot tap water, as an infant's skin is thinner and hence more susceptible to a full-thickness injury. In Central Asia, and particularly in Uzbekistan, many episodes of burns take place at homes because of using sandal heaters. In the case of sandal burns of the foot, it usually is not only skin that is injured but also underlying tissues: subcutaneous fat, fasciae, muscles and even bones. Many controlled studies have confirmed that wounds heal more readily in a moist, physiological environment. After performing the toilet of burn wounds of the foot, we applied Dermazin cream on the affected areas and then the foot was placed onto a polyethylene packet of large size and fixed by a bandage. Measurement of wound water evaporation was performed every day post-burn. Surgery was usually performed 15-17 days after burn by applying a perforated skin graft or a 0.2-0.3-mm-thick non-perforated skin graft. The procedures helped to improve the general condition of patients, shortened their stay in hospital and also reduced expenses and lessened joint deformities and contracture deformities. PMID:24094987

  13. Acute mass burns caused by o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS) tear gas.

    PubMed

    Zekri, A M; King, W W; Yeung, R; Taylor, W R

    1995-12-01

    The use of tear gas in controlling riots has been an accepted practice in many countries for the past four decades. In a recent event, a large quantity of tear-gas canisters were used during a situation of unrest in a Hong Kong Refugees' Detention Centre. We report 96 cases of acute burn injury as an unpredicted side effect of o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS) tear gas. There were 47 females and 49 males with an age ranging between < 1 to 51 years. These burns were categorized as minor burns, with the total body surface area (TBSA) ranging from 1 to 8 per cent with mean percentage of 3. Most of the patients sustained superficial or partial-skin thickness injuries. Only two patients were admitted to the Prince of Wales Hospital Burns Centre because of deeper burns; debridement and skin grafting was required in one of them. The mechanism of burn injury was due to the flame generated from the grenade explosion, direct contact between the hot canister and the victim's skin, and the effect of the chemical powder inside the canisters when it splashed onto the victim's body. We suggest that the noxious transient effects of tear gas are underestimated, furthermore varying cutaneous effects and deep burns may result from its uncontrolled use during riots. There is a continuing need to reassess the potential toxic effects of CS tear gas as a riot control agent and to debate whether its future use can be condoned under any circumstances. PMID:8747730

  14. The devastating effects a fire burn in a child.

    PubMed

    Istek, Şeref

    2015-01-01

    Burn injuries are a serious global public health concern with significant worldwide mortality and morbidity rates. Burns are among the most devastating of all injuries, with outcomes ranging from physical impairment and disability to emotional and mental consequences. Paediatric burns requiring treatment often incur significant health and opportunity costs, and frequently result in death or long-term disability. A recent systemic review showed that almost 50% of patients hospitalised with severe burns in Europe were younger than 16 years of age, and nearly 60% were male. This report discusses the case of a 2-year-old boy with second and third-degree skin burns over almost 45% of his body, including his head and arms, who presented to the eye clinic at the State Hospital in Hakkari 1 month after a fire burn accident. Both eyes had been burnt and the bilateral anterior chambers had been injured so badly that the patient was left blind. PMID:26055581

  15. Burns from hot oil and grease: a public health hazard.

    PubMed

    Schubert, W; Ahrenholz, D H; Solem, L D

    1990-01-01

    We examined the incidence, etiology, and morbidity of burns due to hot oil and grease. Over a 10-year period from 1976 to 1985, of 1818 patients hospitalized for burns, 85 (4.7%) injuries were due to hot grease or oil. The mean age was 20 years; 34% of patients were less than 8 years old. The mean total body surface areas of second- and third-degree burns was 11.5% (range 0.5% to 40%), and the average length of hospital stay was 19.6 days. Fifty-eight percent of patients required split-thickness skin grafting (n = 49), three required intubation, and one required tracheostomy. Seventy-eight percent of oil burns occurred in the home. The most common circumstances consisted of children who grabbed the handle or electric cord of a frying pan and pulled the hot oil down onto themselves. (Nineteen of the 29 children were less than 8 years old (66%).) Burns due to cooking oil and grease are associated with considerable morbidity. The high boiling point, high viscosity, and potential combustibility of oil increase the potential soft-tissue damage when compared with typical scald injuries from hot water. The dangers of children pulling on the appliance, the dangers of transporting hot oil, the importance of supervision while children are cooking, and the importance of knowledge of the management of grease fires is stressed. Public education is needed to underline the potential seriousness of these burns. PMID:2286612

  16. Burns and beauty nails

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Richard E; Marcotte, Marie-Eve; Bégin, François

    2013-01-01

    A case involving a five-month-old girl brought to the emergency department with burns over her abdomen is described. The child was reported to have spilled two small bottles of beauty nail adhesive on her clothes while her mother was preparing dinner. After undressing the infant, the mother discovered several lesions on the child’s abdomen and quickly sought medical attention. Given the unusual circumstances of the presentation, the child was hospitalized for both treatment and supervision. The beauty nail adhesive contained cyanoacrylate. In addition to its well-appreciated adhesive capacity, cyanoacrylate, in the presence of cotton or other tissues, is known to produce an exothermic reaction that may cause burns. Cyanoacrylate-based products, due to their possible adverse effects, should be kept away from children as advised. Odd injuries should always raise concerns about the possibility of inflicted injury. PMID:24421671

  17. Nutrition in the severely burned child.

    PubMed

    Solomon, J R

    1981-01-01

    Adequate nutrition in the severely burned child often determines the morbidity and mortality and its supervision demands a high priority in the management of the burn injury. A disciplined, detailed programme is required, but this is often neglected. The hypermetabolism experienced in the severe burn may require a calorie intake up to 2 1/2 times normal, and in the growing child, with extra requirements, a negative balance can easily eventuate if careful management is not instituted. A daily metabolic plan provides firstly, the basic calories and protein per kilogram depending on age as for a normal child and, secondly additional requirements depending on the surface area of the burn. With such a programme the weakness of treating all children, whatever their age, on the same formula related only to surface area burn, is overcome. Parenteral nutrition is commenced as soon as the shock phase has been controlled and is continued until enteral intake by gastric tube is sufficient to cover the requirements. Such tube feeding requires the selection of an isotonic liquid diet so as so limit the possibility of diarrhoea. Isocal (Mead Johnson) has been found generally acceptable. Gradually as the patient recovers, oral intake is introduced and the child returns home on a normal nutritional diet, expectantly without weight loss and even with some weight gain, which befits any normal child under treatment for some months. Preburn nutrition, disease and infection, hyperthermia, hypothermia, evaporative water loss, active exercise, psychological well being, social state, early skin cover and limitation of stress are important aspects affecting metabolism and require careful supervision and management. The limitation of metabolism is as important as increasing the caloric intake and this is exemplified at the time of operation, which should be as nonstressful as possible. Every two weeks an adjusted assessment is made of the burned area still to be grafted and the caloric

  18. Coal burning arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Wormser, A.F.

    1981-03-03

    Pyrolyzing pulverized coal to form char and volatiles, separating the char from the volatiles, burning the char in heattransfer relationship with a stoichiometric excess of air, forming thereby ash and a mixture of gases, the excess of air being chosen to produce in the ash a temperature below the fusion temperature thereof, separating the mixture of gases from the ash , and thereafter burning the volatiles in the mixture of gases. Also, coal burning apparatus which comprises, in combination a spouted bed pyrolyzer, a fluidized bed combustor, a first cyclone , a second cyclone, and an afterburner, the pyrolyzer being connected to accept pulverized coal and to discharge char to the combustor and gaseous materials with entrained particulate material to the first cyclone, the first cyclone being connected to deliver gases to the afterburner, the combustor being connected to accept also a combustion supporting gas and to deliver to the second cyclone gaseous materials with entrained particulate material, and the second cyclone being connected to deliver gaseous material to the afterburner.

  19. Burns caused by carburetors.

    PubMed

    Still, Joseph; Law, Edward; Orlet, Hermann; Wilson, Joan

    2003-01-01

    During a 10-year period 4645 patients were admitted to the Joseph M. Still Burn Center with acute burns. Of these, 83 (1.79%) were caused by carburetor-related accidents. There were 79 males and 4 females. Ages ranged from 10 to 72 years. Burn size ranged from 1 to 97.5% (mean, 12.3%). There was one death in the group. Eighteen patients required only topical care; 65 patients required a total of 108 operations for debridement and grafting. Length of stay ranged from 1 to 63 days (mean, 11 days). The mechanism of injury was usually the same; in 81 cases the accident occurred while someone was pouring gasoline into a carburetor. In 63 cases the vehicle was an automobile or pickup truck. Explosions resulted in 12 instances; in 65 instances fires were started. These injuries are serious, expensive, fairly common, and may be life threatening. Proper handling of gasoline is stressed. Newer vehicles have fuel injector systems, which may gradually eliminate the problem over time, because pouring gasoline is not required. PMID:12543992

  20. [Surgical strategy for neck burns and their sequelae].

    PubMed

    Pradier, J-P; Duhamel, P; Brachet, M; Dantzer, E; Vourey, G; Bey, E

    2011-10-01

    Burns of the neck are common and expose them to functional and aesthetic complications which are sometimes very serious. Care in the acute stage and treatment of sequelae contribute to a common goal of restoration: Maintain or recreate a chin-neck angle and get a quality skin as close as possible to the original skin, in terms of flexibility, texture, thickness and color. The wide variety of cases encountered requires knowing the armamentarium available to us today, and the anatomical basis and clinical underlying indications. PMID:21899941

  1. Skin Keratins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fengrong; Zieman, Abigail; Coulombe, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    Keratins comprise the type I and type II intermediate filament-forming proteins and occur primarily in epithelial cells. They are encoded by 54 evolutionarily conserved genes (28 type I, 26 type II) and regulated in a pairwise and tissue type-, differentiation-, and context-dependent manner. Keratins serve multiple homeostatic and stress-enhanced mechanical and nonmechanical functions in epithelia, including the maintenance of cellular integrity, regulation of cell growth and migration, and protection from apoptosis. These functions are tightly regulated by posttranslational modifications as well as keratin-associated proteins. Genetically determined alterations in keratin-coding sequences underlie highly penetrant and rare disorders whose pathophysiology reflects cell fragility and/or altered tissue homeostasis. Moreover, keratin mutation or misregulation represents risk factors or genetic modifiers for several acute and chronic diseases. This chapter focuses on keratins that are expressed in skin epithelia, and details a number of basic protocols and assays that have proven useful for analyses being carried out in skin. PMID:26795476

  2. Oxidised regenerated cellulose: an effective emergency haemostatic in burns surgery.

    PubMed

    Hazarika, E Z

    1985-07-01

    A 26-year-old man with 40% full-thickness burns was treated by excision and split-skin grafting on the 7th post-burn day. He developed bleeding 1 hour post-operatively which persisted despite the use of pressure dressings, elevation of the limbs, the administration of fresh frozen plasma, platelet-rich plasma, calcium, whole blood and cryoprecipitate respectively over a period of 11 hours. The bleeding was finally controlled under general anaesthesia by clot removal, bipolar electro-coagulation of miniscule oozing points, replacement of the meshed skin graft and the application of a layer of oxidised regenerated cellulose over the grafted area. The properties and uses of oxidised regenerated cellulose are outlined. PMID:3893594

  3. Is It Time to Tailor the Prediction of Radio-Induced Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients? Building the First Set of Nomograms for Late Rectal Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Valdagni, Riccardo; Kattan, Michael W.; Rancati, Tiziana; Yu Changhong; Vavassori, Vittorio; Fellin, Giovanni; Cagna, Elena; Gabriele, Pietro; Mauro, Flora Anna; Baccolini, Micaela; Bianchi, Carla; Menegotti, Loris; Monti, Angelo F.; Stasi, Michele; Giganti, Maria Olga; and others

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Development of user-friendly tools for the prediction of single-patient probability of late rectal toxicity after conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This multicenter protocol was characterized by the prospective evaluation of rectal toxicity through self-assessed questionnaires (minimum follow-up, 36 months) by 718 adult men in the AIROPROS 0102 trial. Doses were between 70 and 80 Gy. Nomograms were created based on multivariable logistic regression analysis. Three endpoints were considered: G2 to G3 late rectal bleeding (52/718 events), G3 late rectal bleeding (24/718 events), and G2 to G3 late fecal incontinence (LINC, 19/718 events). Results: Inputs for the nomogram for G2 to G3 late rectal bleeding estimation were as follows: presence of abdominal surgery before RT, percentage volume of rectum receiving >75 Gy (V75Gy), and nomogram-based estimation of the probability of G2 to G3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity (continuous variable, which was estimated using a previously published nomogram). G3 late rectal bleeding estimation was based on abdominal surgery before RT, V75Gy, and NOMACU. Prediction of G2 to G3 late fecal incontinence was based on abdominal surgery before RT, presence of hemorrhoids, use of antihypertensive medications (protective factor), and percentage volume of rectum receiving >40 Gy. Conclusions: We developed and internally validated the first set of nomograms available in the literature for the prediction of radio-induced toxicity in prostate cancer patients. Calculations included dosimetric as well as clinical variables to help radiation oncologists predict late rectal morbidity, thus introducing the possibility of RT plan corrections to better tailor treatment to the patient's characteristics, to avoid unnecessary worsening of quality of life, and to provide support to the patient in selecting the best therapeutic approach.

  4. Treatment of hypergranulation tissue in burn wounds with topical steroid dressings: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Marie; Harats, Moti; Kornhaber, Rachel; Aviv, Uri; Zerach, Amir; Haik, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Hypergranulation tissue (or also known as overgranulation) may negatively influence burn wound healing time and contribute to recurrence of contractures in burn wounds and grafts. Subsequently, the treatment of hypergranulation tissue remains controversial and problematic. In this case series, we aimed to examine the feasibility and document the use of topical hydrocortisone in the treatment of hypergranulation tissue formation resulting from burn wounds. We report five cases where hypergranulation tissue developed following deep dermal/full-thickness burns. Initial burn wound treatment included necrotic tissue debridement, wound cleansing, and Flaminal®. All five cases underwent surgical debridement and split-skin grafting. Upon identification of hypergranulation tissue, hydrocortisone acetate 0.25% was applied topically as usual care for the treatment of hypergranulation tissue. All five patients had deep dermal/full-thickness burns with a total body surface area ranging from 22% to 61% and were aged from 3–41 years. All five cases developed hypergranulation tissue during their admission after debridement and split-thickness skin grafts. All patients showed an improvement in the treated areas with a complete regression of hypergranulation tissue and closure of the burn wounds. No clinically apparent local or systemic side effects of the treatment were observed. Topical hydrocortisone can be utilized as an effective, inexpensive, and noninvasive practical option in the treatment of hypergranulation tissue resulting from burn wounds. PMID:27570466

  5. Treatment of hypergranulation tissue in burn wounds with topical steroid dressings: a case series.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Marie; Harats, Moti; Kornhaber, Rachel; Aviv, Uri; Zerach, Amir; Haik, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Hypergranulation tissue (or also known as overgranulation) may negatively influence burn wound healing time and contribute to recurrence of contractures in burn wounds and grafts. Subsequently, the treatment of hypergranulation tissue remains controversial and problematic. In this case series, we aimed to examine the feasibility and document the use of topical hydrocortisone in the treatment of hypergranulation tissue formation resulting from burn wounds. We report five cases where hypergranulation tissue developed following deep dermal/full-thickness burns. Initial burn wound treatment included necrotic tissue debridement, wound cleansing, and Flaminal(®). All five cases underwent surgical debridement and split-skin grafting. Upon identification of hypergranulation tissue, hydrocortisone acetate 0.25% was applied topically as usual care for the treatment of hypergranulation tissue. All five patients had deep dermal/full-thickness burns with a total body surface area ranging from 22% to 61% and were aged from 3-41 years. All five cases developed hypergranulation tissue during their admission after debridement and split-thickness skin grafts. All patients showed an improvement in the treated areas with a complete regression of hypergranulation tissue and closure of the burn wounds. No clinically apparent local or systemic side effects of the treatment were observed. Topical hydrocortisone can be utilized as an effective, inexpensive, and noninvasive practical option in the treatment of hypergranulation tissue resulting from burn wounds. PMID:27570466

  6. Terahertz spectroscopy for the assessment of burn injuries in vivo.

    PubMed

    Arbab, M Hassan; Winebrenner, Dale P; Dickey, Trevor C; Chen, Antao; Klein, Matthew B; Mourad, Pierre D

    2013-07-01

    A diagnosis criterion is proposed for noninvasive grading of burn injuries using terahertz radiation. Experimental results are presented from in vivo terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of second- and third-degree wounds, which are obtained in a 72-hour animal study. During this period, the change in the spectroscopic response of the burned tissue is studied. It is shown that terahertz waves are sensitive not only to the postburn formation of interstitial edema, but also to the density of skin structures derived from image processing analysis of histological sections. Based on these preliminary results, it is suggested that the combination of these two effects, as probed by terahertz spectroscopy of the tissue, may ultimately be used to differentiate partial-thickness burns that will naturally heal from those that will require surgical intervention. PMID:23860943

  7. Thermal conduction effects in human skin.

    PubMed

    Stoll, A M; Chianta, M A; Piergallini, J R

    1979-08-01

    To determine the maximum permissible temperature any material may attain without causing pain or burn on contact with bare skin, over 2000 observations were made of pain threshold during contact with materials at elevated temperatures. Six materials were used representing the full range of thermal properties from good conductors to good insulators. Time to pain threshold was converted to time to threshold blister on the basis of the relationship between pain and burn established earlier for radiant and for convective heating. Calculated times to blister were used to predict the material temperatures causative of "touch-burn". Experimentally produced threshold blisters at the predicted temperature-times verified the predictions. Graphs and equations were generated for determining safe temperatures for any material in contact with bare skin for 1-5 s solely from a knowledge of its thermal properties. Conversely, the thermal inertia (k rho c) of the optimal material for a specific use and skin contact can be predicted from a knowledge of the maximum material temperature and length of contact time anticipated. PMID:496745

  8. Acoustic emission strand burning technique for motor burning rate prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, W. N.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic emission (AE) method is being used to measure the burning rate of solid propellant strands. This method has a precision of 0.5% and excellent burning rate correlation with both subscale and large rocket motors. The AE procedure burns the sample under water and measures the burning rate from the acoustic output. The acoustic signal provides a continuous readout during testing, which allows complete data analysis rather than the start-stop clockwires used by the conventional method. The AE method helps eliminate such problems as inhibiting the sample, pressure increase and temperature rise, during testing.

  9. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  10. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klasser, Gary D; Grushka, Miriam; Su, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an enigmatic, misunderstood, and under-recognized painful condition. Symptoms associated with BMS can be varied, thereby providing a challenge for practitioners and having a negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for patients. Management also remains a challenge for practitioners because it is currently only targeted for symptom relief without a definitive cure. There is an urgent need for further investigations to determine the efficacy of different therapies because this is the only way viable therapeutic options can be established for patients with this chronic and painful syndrome. PMID:27475513

  11. Complicated Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Harrington, David T

    2016-10-01

    More than 4 decades after the creation of the Brooke and Parkland formulas, burn practitioners still argue about which formula is the best. So it is no surprise that there is no consensus about how to resuscitate a thermally injured patient with a significant comorbidity such as heart failure or cirrhosis or how to resuscitate a patient after an electrical or inhalation injury or a patient whose resuscitation is complicated by renal failure. All of these scenarios share a common theme in that the standard rule book does not apply. All will require highly individualized resuscitations. PMID:27600129

  12. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  13. SystemBurn

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-08-30

    SystemBurn is a tool for creating a synthetic computational load for the purpose of measuring how much power a computer will draw under that type of load. The loads include fundamental library function calls like matrix multiply, memory copies, fourier transforms, bit manipulation, I/O, network packet transfers, and some code contrived to cause the processor to dray more or less power. The code produces some diagnostic and progress output, but the actual measurements would bemore » recorded from the power panels within the computer room.« less

  14. Burn Wound Infections and Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Saaiq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shehzad; Zaib, Muhammad Salman

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROND Burn wound infections carry considerable mortality and morbidity amongst burn injury victims who have been successfully rescued through the initial resuscitation. This study assessed the prevalent microrganisms causing burn wound infections among hospitalized patients; their susceptibility pattern to commonly used antibiotics; and the frequency of infections with respect to the duration of the burn wounds. METHODS This study was carried out at Burn Care Centre, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad, Pakistan over a period of two years (i.e. from June 2010 to May 2012). The study included all wound-culture-positive patients of either gender and all ages, who had sustained deep burns and underwent definitive management with wound excisions and skin auto-grafting. Patients with negative cultures of the wounds were excluded. Tissue specimens for culture and sensitivity were collected from burn wounds using standard collection techniques and analyzed at microbiological laboratory. RESULTS Out of a total of 95 positive microbial growths, 36 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (35.29%) as the most frequent isolate found, followed by 21 Klebsiella pneumoniae (20.58%), 19 Staphylococcus aureaus (18.62%), 10 Proteus (9.80%), 7 E. coli (6.86%), 7 Acinetobacter (6.86%), and 4 Candida (3.92%). A variable antibiotic susceptibility pattern was observed among the grown microbes. Positive cultures were significantly more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. CONCLUSION P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus constituted the most common bacterial microbes of burn wounds in our in-patients cases. Positive cultures were more frequent among patients with over two weeks duration of burn wounds. Early excision and skin grafting of deep burns and adherence to infection control measures can help to effectively reduce the burden of these infections. PMID:25606471

  15. Mechanical evaluation of the resistance and elastance of post-burn scars after topical treatment with tretinoin

    PubMed Central

    Dematte, Maria Fernanda; Gemperli, Rolf; Salles, Alessandra Grassi; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Lanças, Tatiana; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: After burn injuries, scarred skin lacks elasticity, especially in hypertrophic scars. Topical treatment with tretinoin can improve the appearance and quality of the skin (i.e., texture, distensibility, color, and hydration). The objective of this prospective study was to examine the effects of treatment with 0.05% tretinoin for one year on the biomechanical behavior and histological changes undergone by facial skin with post-burn scarring. Setting: Tertiary, Institutional. METHOD: Fifteen female patients who had suffered partial thickness burns with more than two years of evolution were selected. Skin biopsies were obtained initially and after one year of treatment. The resistance and elastance of these skin biopsies were measured using a mechanical oscillation analysis system. The density of collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and versican were determined using immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: Tretinoin treatment significantly lowered skin resistance and elastance, which is a result that indicates higher distensibility of the skin. However, tretinoin treatment did not significantly affect the density of collagen fibers, elastic fibers, or versican. CONCLUSION: Topical tretinoin treatment alters the mechanical behavior of post-burn scarred skin by improving its distensibility and thus leads to improved quality of life for patients. PMID:22086527

  16. Analysis of the microcirculation after soft tissue reconstruction of the outer ear with burns in patients with severe burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Medved, Fabian; Medesan, Raluca; Rothenberger, Jens Martin; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Schoeller, Thomas; Manoli, Theodora; Weitgasser, Lennart; Naumann, Aline; Weitgasser, Laurenz

    2016-07-01

    Reconstruction of soft tissue defects of the ear with burns remains one of the most difficult tasks for the reconstructive surgeon. Although numerous reconstructive options are available, the results are often unpredictable and worse than expected. Besides full and split skin grafting, local random pattern flaps and pedicled flaps are frequently utilized to cover soft tissue defects of the outer auricle. Because of the difficulty and unpredictable nature of outer ear reconstruction after burn injury, a case-control study was conducted to determine the best reconstructive approach. The microcirculatory properties of different types of soft tissue reconstruction of the outer ear with burns in six severely burned Caucasian patients (three men and three women; mean age, 46 years (range, 22-70)) were compared to those in the healthy tissue of the outer ear using the O2C device (Oxygen to See; LEA Medizintechnik, Gießen, Germany). The results of this study revealed that the investigated microcirculation parameters such as the median values of blood flow (control group: 126 AU), relative amount of hemoglobin (control group: 59.5 AU), and tissue oxygen saturation (control group: 73%) are most similar to those of normal ear tissue when pedicled flaps based on the superficial temporal artery were used. These findings suggest that this type of reconstruction is superior for soft tissue reconstruction of the outer ear with burns in contrast to random pattern flaps and full skin grafts regarding the microcirculatory aspects. These findings may improve the knowledge on soft tissue viability and facilitate the exceptional and delicate process of planning the reconstruction of the auricle with burns. PMID:26997326

  17. Refinement of a thermal threshold probe to prevent burns.

    PubMed

    Dixon, M J; Taylor, P M; Slingsby, L C; Murrell, J C

    2016-02-01

    Thermal threshold testing is commonly used for pain research. The stimulus may cause burning and merits prevention. Thermal probe modifications hypothesized to reduce burning were evaluated for practicality and effect. Studies were conducted on two humans and eight cats. Unmodified probe 0 was tested on two humans and promising modifications were also evaluated on cats. Probe 1 incorporated rapid cooling after threshold was reached: probe 1a used a Peltier system and probe 1b used water cooling. Probe 2 released skin contact immediately after threshold. Probe 3 (developed in the light of evidence of 'hot spots' in probe 0) incorporated reduced thermal mass and even heating across the skin contact area. Human skin was heated to 48℃ (6℃ above threshold) and the resulting burn was evaluated using area of injury and a simple descriptive scale (SDS). Probe 1a cooled the skin but required further heat dissipation, excessive power, was not 'fail-safe' and was inappropriate for animal mounting. Probe 1b caused less damage than no cooling (27 ± 13 and 38 ± 11 mm(2) respectively, P = 0.0266; median SDS 1.5 and 4 respectively, P = 0.0317) but was cumbersome. Probe 2 was unwieldy and was not evaluated further. Probe 3 produced even heating without blistering in humans. With probe 3 in cats, after opioid treatment, thermal threshold reached cut-out (55℃) on 24 occasions, exceeded 50℃ in a further 32 tests and exceeded 48℃ in the remainder. No skin damage was evident immediately after testing and mild hyperaemia in three cats at 2-3 days resolved rapidly. Probe 3 appeared to be suitable for thermal threshold testing. PMID:25766976

  18. CDC Grand Rounds: Prevention and Control of Skin Cancer.

    PubMed

    Watson, Meg; Thomas, Cheryll C; Massetti, Greta M; McKenna, Sharon; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Laird, Susan; Iskander, John; Lushniak, Boris

    2015-12-01

    Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States, and most cases are preventable. Persons with certain genetic risk factors, including having a lighter natural skin color; blue or green eyes; red or blonde hair; dysplastic nevi or a large number of common moles; and skin that burns, freckles, or reddens easily or becomes painful after time in the sun, have increased risk for skin cancer. Persons with a family or personal history of skin cancer, especially melanoma, are also at increased risk. Although these genetic factors contribute to individual risk, most skin cancers are also strongly associated with ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure. Most UV exposure comes from the sun, although some persons use UV-emitting indoor tanning devices (e.g., beds, booths, and lamps). PMID:26633233

  19. Skin (Pressure) Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Skin dryness Next Topic Sleep problems Skin (pressure) sores A skin or pressure sore develops when the blood supply to an ... is bedridden or always in a wheelchair puts pressure on the same places much of the time. ...

  20. Layers of the Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce the skin coloring or pigment known as melanin, which gives skin its tan or brown color ... Sun exposure causes melanocytes to increase production of melanin in order to protect the skin from damaging ...

  1. Learning about Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... have red or blond hair and blue or light-colored eyes - although anyone can get skin cancer. Skin cancer is related to lifetime exposure to UV radiation, therefore most skin cancers appear after age ...

  2. Scalded skin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Ritter disease; Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSS) ... Scalded skin syndrome (SSS) is caused by infection with certain strains of Staphylococcus bacteria. The bacteria produce a toxin that causes the skin ...

  3. Basal cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. This type of skin ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  4. Dry Skin (Xerosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, which may bleed if severe. Chapped or cracked lips. When dry skin cracks, germs can get ... cause the skin to become dry, raw, and cracked. Swimming : Some pools have high levels of chlorine, ...

  5. Skin Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  6. Stages of Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skin Cancer Skin color and being exposed to sunlight can increase the risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer ... carcinoma include the following: Being exposed to natural sunlight or artificial sunlight (such as from tanning beds) ...

  7. Objective determination of Fitzpatrick skin type.

    PubMed

    Ravnbak, Mette Henriksen

    2010-08-01

    -sensitivity with regard to MED- and MMD test. Fitzpatrick skin type in epidemiological context (risk for skin cancer) stands for burns and ability to tan may represent "cumulative" dose. SED to MED is equivalent to burns. PPF may also indirectly represent cumulative dose--the less pigmented the skin the more UVR penetrates the epidermis and will be able to accumulate and induce skin cancer. Our results indicate that Fitzpatrick skin type predominantly is determined by the skin pigmentation and that the second most important objective parameter is SED to MED (and not SED to MMD). This explains why Fitzpatrick skin type, eventhough being an unreliable predictor of UV-sensitivity, still plays an important role in epidemiology with regard to estimation of risk of skin cancer. This study showed that PPF can predict the UV-sensitivity also with regard to the tanning ability (MMD), can be applied to multiple UV-exposures and to a broader pigmentation spectrum. PPF is preferred to predict the individual UV-sensitivity rather than the subjective Fitzpatrick skin type, confirmed for both nates and back, single as well as repetitive UV-exposures. It should therefore be considered to concentrate on skin reflectance measurements. PMID:20682135

  8. Vitamin C in Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Julie A; Rowan, Matthew P; Driscoll, Ian R; Chung, Kevin K; Friedman, Bruce C

    2016-10-01

    The inflammatory state after burn injury is characterized by an increase in capillary permeability that results in protein and fluid leakage into the interstitial space, increasing resuscitative requirements. Although the mechanisms underlying increased capillary permeability are complex, damage from reactive oxygen species plays a major role and has been successfully attenuated with antioxidant therapy in several disease processes. However, the utility of antioxidants in burn treatment remains unclear. Vitamin C is a promising antioxidant candidate that has been examined in burn resuscitation studies and shows efficacy in reducing the fluid requirements in the acute phase after burn injury. PMID:27600125

  9. [Burns caused by paint thinner].

    PubMed

    Benbrahim, A; Jerrah, H; Diouri, M; Bahechar, N; Boukind, E H

    2009-12-31

    Flame deriving from paint thinner is not a rare cause of burns in Morocco and we thus considered it useful to conduct an epidemiological survey of paint thinner flame burns (PTFB) in the National Burns Centre (NBC) in the Ibn-Rochd University Hospital Centre in Casablanca, Morocco. The research covered the 10-month period from September 2007 to June 2008.The aim of our work was to present the characteristic features of such burns in order to prevent them by increasing public knowledge regarding the risks involved in using paint thinner, i.e. burns in particular. During the period in question, we colligated 17 cases of PTFB out of a total number of 356 patients admitted to the NBC for acute burns of all aetiologies. The patients' average was 32 yr and they were nearly all male (16 men/1 woman), with past histories of drug addiction and/or delinquency. They were all of low-level socioeconomic class and lived mainly in shanty towns. The burn was often secondary to street violence (92% of the cases).The mean burn surface area was 23% and the burns were often deep and located mainly in the upper limbs and the trunk. PMID:21991179

  10. Burns: Treatment and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Burns can cause extensive and devastating injuries of the head and neck. Prevention of the initial injury must always be a priority, but once an injury has occurred, then prevention of progression of the damage together with survival of the patient must be the immediate goals. The acute care will have a major influence on the subsequent scarring, reconstructive need, and long-term outcome. In the majority of cases, the reconstruction will involve restoration of form and function to the soft tissues, and the methods used will depend very much on the extent of scarring locally and elsewhere in the body. In nearly all cases, a significant improvement in functional and aesthetic outcomes can be achieved, which, in conjunction with intensive psychosocial rehabilitation, can lead to high-quality patient outcomes. With the prospect of facial transplantation being a clinical reality, the reconstructive spectrum has opened up even further, and, with appropriate reconstruction and support, no patient should be left economically deprived or socially isolated after a burn injury. PMID:22550448

  11. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment. PMID:23429751

  12. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  13. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  14. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  15. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. (a) Beginning January 1, 2007, a person must apply for... under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and silvicultural burning permits....

  16. Flame burn protection: assessment of a new, air-cooled fireproof garment.

    PubMed

    Eldad, Arieh; Salmon, Ashi Y; Breiterman, Semion; Chaouat, Malka; BenBassat, Hannah

    2003-08-01

    A new, air-cooled fireproof garment for tank crewmen was assessed regarding its efficacy for burn protection. A pig model was developed with a flame infliction instrument specially designed for this experiment. This pneumatic tool can initiate eight simultaneous flame injuries where the distance of skin from burn source and exposure time are adjustable. In the study, 1,000 degrees C, 5-second exposure flame burns were inflicted upon anesthetized pigs. Full-thickness injuries were caused to exposed animals or to animals that were protected by the single layer of old type Nomex protective garments. On day 21, the original burn size diminished to 42.3% +/- 6.3% and 41.2% +/- 7.9%, respectively. When the animals were dressed with the new type of air-cooled Nomex, only small and superficial burns could be detected when the air compressor was operating, and moderate burns were demonstrated when the compressor was not working. On day 21, postburn original burn size was diminished to 1.9% +/- 1.9% and to 17% +/- 6.5%, respectively. Quantitative burn wound histology followed the same trends with almost normal skin architecture after 7 days in the air-inflated new garments, moderate pathology, and an advanced wound healing process in the affected area when the compressor was not working and severe damage with only initial wound healing in the exposed skin or the areas that were protected by old type, single-layered fireproof garments. This new type of air-cooled fireproof garment was significantly better than the old garment under the experiment condition and seems to be very promising in burn prevention among tank crewmen. PMID:12943032

  17. Povidone iodine skin absorption: an ex-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Nesvadbova, Martina; Crosera, Matteo; Maina, Giovanni; Larese Filon, Francesca

    2015-06-15

    Povidone iodine is a water-soluble complex used to disinfect the skin surface and it exerts prolonged germicidal action against a broad spectrum of germs. Indeed, it is often applied on burned skin, large wounds, deep tissues or mucosa. Notably some surgical hand-scrub solutions, which are considered safe antiseptics, contain large amounts of iodine that can be absorbed by skin. The aim of present study was to study the skin absorption of iodine after the application on the skin of povidone-iodine solution, used by health care workers during surgical procedure. We use Franz diffusion static cells with human skin. After 24h from the beginning of our measurement the iodine concentration in the receiving compartment was 11.59±6.3μg/cm(2). The medium flux calculated was 0.73±0.33μg/cm(2)/h with a lag time of 8.9±1.5h. These in vitro results confirmed that povidone iodine could pass through the skin in a relevant amount that can explain the clinical findings in burned or surgically treated patients. In professional use the repetitive contact with povidone iodine, also as soap, can cause iodine skin permeation that must be considered when the washing procedures are repeated more than 20 times a day. PMID:25858112

  18. [Acute upper limb embolism in a severely burned patient].

    PubMed

    Wiebringhaus, P; Pierson, T; Menke, H

    2014-12-01

    Thrombosis and pulmonary embolisms are the most common complications in the hospital. The need for anticoagulation during hospital stay is obligatory. Arterial embolisms are rare. They often take place in patients with a pre-existing peripheral artery occlusive disease or in patients with atrial fibrillation. The most common complications in burn patients are wound infection, pneumonia, catheter-associated infections and paralytic ileus. There are almost no data available regarding arterial embolism in burn patients. Therefore we would like to present the case of a 60-year-old woman who was injured by a fire at home and was transported to our special burn unit. She sustained partial thickness burns of both legs and buttocks. The TBSA was 15%. During the first days of clinical stay the patient suffered from a pain induced movement reduction of the left hand. There were no peripheral pulses palpable or by pulsed-wave Doppler detectable. An urgent selected angiography of the left arm was performed and a arterial embolism of the proximal part of the a. brachialis was detected. The patient was operated immediately. After debridement and split-skin graft of the burn wounds the patient was taken to rehabiliation after 35 days. PMID:25564950

  19. Burn injuries resulting from hot water bottle use: a retrospective review of cases presenting to a regional burns unit in the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Jabir, Shehab; Frew, Quentin; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Hot water bottles are commonly used to relieve pain and for warmth during the colder months of the year. However, they pose a risk of serious burn injuries. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review all burn injuries caused by hot water bottles presenting to our regional burns unit. Methods. Patients with burns injuries resulting from hot water bottle use were identified from our burns database between the periods of January 2004 and March 2013 and their cases notes reviewed retrospectively. Results. Identified cases involved 39 children (aged 17 years or younger) and 46 adults (aged 18 years or older). The majority of burns were scald injuries. The mean %TBSA was 3.07% (SD ± 3.40). Seven patients (8.24%) required debridement and skin grafting while 3 (3.60%) required debridement and application of Biobrane. One patient (1.18%) required local flap reconstruction. Spontaneous rupture accounted for 48.20% of injuries while accidental spilling and contact accounted for 33% and 18.80% of injuries, respectively. The mean time to heal was 28.87 days (SD ± 21.60). Conclusions. This study highlights the typical distribution of hot water bottle burns and the high rate of spontaneous rupture of hot water bottles, which have the potential for significant burn injuries. PMID:24455234

  20. Burn Injuries Resulting from Hot Water Bottle Use: A Retrospective Review of Cases Presenting to a Regional Burns Unit in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Quentin; El-Muttardi, Naguib; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Hot water bottles are commonly used to relieve pain and for warmth during the colder months of the year. However, they pose a risk of serious burn injuries. The aim of this study is to retrospectively review all burn injuries caused by hot water bottles presenting to our regional burns unit. Methods. Patients with burns injuries resulting from hot water bottle use were identified from our burns database between the periods of January 2004 and March 2013 and their cases notes reviewed retrospectively. Results. Identified cases involved 39 children (aged 17 years or younger) and 46 adults (aged 18 years or older). The majority of burns were scald injuries. The mean %TBSA was 3.07% (SD ± 3.40). Seven patients (8.24%) required debridement and skin grafting while 3 (3.60%) required debridement and application of Biobrane. One patient (1.18%) required local flap reconstruction. Spontaneous rupture accounted for 48.20% of injuries while accidental spilling and contact accounted for 33% and 18.80% of injuries, respectively. The mean time to heal was 28.87 days (SD ± 21.60). Conclusions. This study highlights the typical distribution of hot water bottle burns and the high rate of spontaneous rupture of hot water bottles, which have the potential for significant burn injuries. PMID:24455234

  1. Global burned area and biomass burning emissions from small fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; van der Werf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  2. Global Burned Area and Biomass Burning Emissions from Small Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; vanderWerf, G. R.; Rogers, B. M.; Morton, D. C.

    2012-01-01

    In several biomes, including croplands, wooded savannas, and tropical forests, many small fires occur each year that are well below the detection limit of the current generation of global burned area products derived from moderate resolution surface reflectance imagery. Although these fires often generate thermal anomalies that can be detected by satellites, their contributions to burned area and carbon fluxes have not been systematically quantified across different regions and continents. Here we developed a preliminary method for combining 1-km thermal anomalies (active fires) and 500 m burned area observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to estimate the influence of these fires. In our approach, we calculated the number of active fires inside and outside of 500 m burn scars derived from reflectance data. We estimated small fire burned area by computing the difference normalized burn ratio (dNBR) for these two sets of active fires and then combining these observations with other information. In a final step, we used the Global Fire Emissions Database version 3 (GFED3) biogeochemical model to estimate the impact of these fires on biomass burning emissions. We found that the spatial distribution of active fires and 500 m burned areas were in close agreement in ecosystems that experience large fires, including savannas across southern Africa and Australia and boreal forests in North America and Eurasia. In other areas, however, we observed many active fires outside of burned area perimeters. Fire radiative power was lower for this class of active fires. Small fires substantially increased burned area in several continental-scale regions, including Equatorial Asia (157%), Central America (143%), and Southeast Asia (90%) during 2001-2010. Globally, accounting for small fires increased total burned area by approximately by 35%, from 345 Mha/yr to 464 Mha/yr. A formal quantification of uncertainties was not possible, but sensitivity

  3. Lipid Rescue in a Pediatric Burn Patient.

    PubMed

    Musielak, Matthew; McCall, John

    2016-01-01

    Pain control is a major concern for patients suffering burns. The addition of bupivacaine to the donor site infiltration solution containing epinephrine could offer a safe and effective means to treat postanesthesia pain. Despite the addition of epinephrine to localize the effects, systemic absorption occurs, and there exists the possibility of inadvertent intravascular injection, with potential CNS and cardiac toxicity. The patient is a 6-year-old boy who sustained flame burns to bilateral lower extremities and buttocks. A Pitkin's solution containing 2 mg epinephrine/L of normosol and a 0.5% bupivacaine at 3 mg/kg was injected. Shortly after the patient became bradycardic with decreasing end tidal CO2. Pediatric advanced life support protocol was begun. He underwent 30 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At this time, intralipid therapy was initiated with a 1.5 mg/kg bolus. Shortly after therapy, a pulse was regained. It had been previously demonstrated that the addition of bupivacaine to a subcutaneous infiltrating solution for donor site harvesting was a safe and effective treatment of pain for skin graft harvesting. Care must be taken to stay within the therapeutic allotted dose. Inadvertent intravascular injection is a rare complication. Early recognition of clinical signs of local anesthetic toxicity is a key to the management and treatment. A lipid protocol should be in place, given the many positive case reports of local anesthetic toxicity. Surgeon judgment must be used when weighing the risks and benefits of pain control during skin harvesting vs the potential cardiac effects with local anesthetics. PMID:26035145

  4. Management of hot tar burn using vitamin e ointment containing petroleum and polyoxyethylene sorbitan.

    PubMed

    Ng, Karen; Dalen, Dawn; Rhine, David

    2013-09-01

    Tar burns are primarily an occupational hazard associated with the road paving or roofing industry. Management of tar burns requires safe and effective removal of solidified tar from the skin using a dissolution or emulsifying agent to prevent inflicting further injury and pain. We report a case of a patient with tar burns on 10% of his body surface area involving the lower arms bilaterally and splashes to the facial area. The tar was efficiently removed with Webber Vitamin E Ointment without toxicity, irritation, or other complications. PMID:23972137

  5. Creation of Consistent Burn Wounds: A Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Elijah Zhengyang; Ang, Chuan Han; Raju, Ashvin; Tan, Kong Bing; Hing, Eileen Chor Hoong; Loo, Yihua; Wong, Yong Chiat; Lee, Hanjing; Lim, Jane; Moochhala, Shabbir M; Hauser, Charlotte AE

    2014-01-01

    Background Burn infliction techniques are poorly described in rat models. An accurate study can only be achieved with wounds that are uniform in size and depth. We describe a simple reproducible method for creating consistent burn wounds in rats. Methods Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and dorsum shaved. A 100 g cylindrical stainless-steel rod (1 cm diameter) was heated to 100℃ in boiling water. Temperature was monitored using a thermocouple. We performed two consecutive toe-pinch tests on different limbs to assess the depth of sedation. Burn infliction was limited to the loin. The skin was pulled upwards, away from the underlying viscera, creating a flat surface. The rod rested on its own weight for 5, 10, and 20 seconds at three different sites on each rat. Wounds were evaluated for size, morphology and depth. Results Average wound size was 0.9957 cm2 (standard deviation [SD] 0.1845) (n=30). Wounds created with duration of 5 seconds were pale, with an indistinct margin of erythema. Wounds of 10 and 20 seconds were well-defined, uniformly brown with a rim of erythema. Average depths of tissue damage were 1.30 mm (SD 0.424), 2.35 mm (SD 0.071), and 2.60 mm (SD 0.283) for duration of 5, 10, 20 seconds respectively. Burn duration of 5 seconds resulted in full-thickness damage. Burn duration of 10 seconds and 20 seconds resulted in full-thickness damage, involving subjacent skeletal muscle. Conclusions This is a simple reproducible method for creating burn wounds consistent in size and depth in a rat burn model. PMID:25075351

  6. Oral Rehydration Therapy in Burn Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-24

    Burn Any Degree Involving 20-29 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 30-39 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 40-49 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 50-59 Percent of Body Surface; Burn Any Degree Involving 60-65 Percent of Body Surface

  7. Interactive effects of acupuncture on pain and distress in major burns: An experiment with rats.

    PubMed

    Abali, Ayse Ebru; Cabioglu, Tugrul; Ozdemir, Handan; Haberal, Mehmet

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to investigate the interactive effects of acupuncture on pain and distress and the local progress in the burn wound in an experimental major burn model. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: S group (sham/observation during 7 days after injury); SA group (sham/acupuncture/observation during 7 days after injury); B1 group (burns/observation during 1h after injury); BA1 group (burns/acupuncture/observation during 1 h after injury); B7 group (burns/observation during 7 days after injury); and BA7 group (burns/acupuncture/observation during 7 days after injury). Pain and distress scores were evaluated throughout the study. The amounts of neutrophils and mononuclear cells were evaluated semiquantitatively, and the number of microvessels was evaluated quantitatively. Our data indicated that the average pain score of BA7 group was significantly lower than the other study groups. Histopathologic investigations indicate that the amounts of neutrophil and mononuclear cell and numbers of microvessels in the unburned skin were higher in acupuncture-applied groups. The number of microvessels in burn wounds of BA7 group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. Our data suggest that acupuncture provides low pain and distress scores in experimental rat model, and it contributes to wound healing with an enhanced angiogenesis during the acute phase of burns. Future clinical and experimental studies should be conducted to discern the benefits from acupuncture in pain management of burn patients. PMID:25433758

  8. Noninvasive determination of burn depth in children by digital infrared thermal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Preciado, Jose David; Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar Samuel; Velez-Gomez, Ezequiel; Miranda-Altamirano, Ariel; González, Francisco Javier

    2013-06-01

    Digital infrared thermal imaging is used to assess noninvasively the severity of burn wounds in 13 pediatric patients. A delta-T (ΔT) parameter obtained by subtracting the temperature of a healthy contralateral region from the temperature of the burn wound is compared with the burn depth measured histopathologically. Thermal imaging results show that superficial dermal burns (IIa) show increased temperature compared with their contralateral healthy region, while deep dermal burns (IIb) show a lower temperature than their contralateral healthy region. This difference in temperature is statistically significant (p<0.0001) and provides a way of distinguishing deep dermal from superficial dermal burns. These results show that digital infrared thermal imaging could be used as a noninvasive procedure to assess burn wounds. An additional advantage of using thermal imaging, which can image a large skin surface area, is that it can be used to identify regions with different burn depths and estimate the size of the grafts needed for deep dermal burns.

  9. Burn Teams and Burn Centers: The Importance of a Comprehensive Team Approach to Burn Care

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Mecott-Rivera, Gabriel A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Advances in burn care have been colossal, but while extra work is needed, it is clear that the organized effort of burn teams can continue making improvements in survival rates and quality of life possible for patients. Burn patients are unique, representing the most severe model of trauma,33 and hence this necessitates treatment in the best facilities available for that endeavor. Burn centers have developed to meet these intricate needs but can only function productively and most efficiently through well organized, multifaceted, patient-centered teams in areas of clinical care and research. PMID:19793550

  10. Treatment of burns casualties after fire at Bradford City football ground.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, D T; Roberts, A H; Barclay, T L; Dickson, W A; Settle, J A; Crockett, D J; Mossad, M G

    1985-01-01

    On 11 May 1985 the main stand of Bradford City Football Club caught fire. Within four minutes the stand was alight from end to end. Fifty three people were burnt to death and about 250 injured; 83 required admission to hospital, and 55 of these were treated by primary excision of their burns and skin grafting. In such disasters the help of staff from other hospitals and areas is essential. Patients should be assessed to see whether they have burns that will ultimately be fatal; if they have they should not be sent to regional burns units, where they would take up beds that could be used for patients with treatable burns. All districts should ensure that their plans for accidents in which burns injuries predominate are adequate. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:3929974

  11. The menace of post-burn contractures: a developing country’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    Saaiq, M.; Zaib, S.; Ahmad, S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A study was carried out regarding 213 patients of either gender and all ages who presented with post-burn contractures. The commonest site of contracture was the neck. 92 patients (43.19%) had received their initial burn injury management in general surgery units in tertiary care hospitals compared to 43 patients (20.18%) in district headquarter hospitals. Only 26 patients (12.20%) were managed in plastic surgery/burn wards, and 52 patients (24.41%) received no regular treatment from any hospital. The majority of patients (n=197) had a history of conservative management, with only 16 patients (7.51%) having a split thickness skin graft for part of their initial burns. None of the patients had the appropriate anti-deformity splintage in the affected parts or any physiotherapy during the acute phase of their burns. PMID:23466805

  12. The Attack on Psychosomatic Integrity: a Study of the Psychological Sequelae of Burn Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cavaleri, V.; Epifanio, M.S.; Benigno, A.; Conte, F.; Di Pasquale, A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Burns pathology is characterized not only by insidious damage to the patients' outward appearance but also by the equally painful emotional difficulties they encounter as they reorganize their identity and their personal history. This exploratory survey, combining research work with medical action, considers the cases of 41 outpatients who were hospitalized and subjected to skin grafting. The patients were recruited through the database of the Palermo Civic Hospital Plastic Surgery and Burns Therapy Operative Unit. The questionnaires were compiled 6 and 12 months post-burn (12 months' observation). The main objective of the research was to investigate the quality of life of burn patients in relation to the way they handled their condition on the emotional level, in order to cope with the stress caused by the burn. PMID:21991160

  13. Topical treatments for hydrofluoric acid dermal burns. Further assessment of efficacy using an experimental piq model.

    PubMed

    Dunn, B J; MacKinnon, M A; Knowlden, N F; Billmaier, D J; Derelanko, M J; Rusch, G M; Naas, D J; Dahlgren, R R

    1996-05-01

    Several topical treatments for hydrofluoric acid dermal burns (Zephiran, calcium acetate and magnesium hydroxide antacid soaks, and calcium gluconate gel) were assessed for efficacy in a pig model. Gross appearance and histopathology of treated and untreated burn sites were evaluated. For superficial burns, Zephiran was most effective; calcium acetate, magnesium hydroxide antacid, and calcium gluconate gel were less effective. For deep burns, gross observations showed that calcium acetate and Zephiran were most efficacious, whereas histopathology indicated comparable efficacy of Zephiran, calcium acetate, and calcium gluconate gel for all skin layers. Magnesium hydroxide antacid demonstrated efficacy only for the subdermis. The clinically beneficial effects of both Zephiran and calcium gluconate gel were affirmed. Although results suggest that calcium acetate and magnesium-containing antacids may be beneficial for human hydrofluoric acid dermal burns, these are not established clinical treatments. PMID:8733642

  14. [Lay emphasis on the basic research in the field of burn surgery in China].

    PubMed

    Hu, D H; Tao, K

    2016-07-20

    The therapeutic methods and effects have been improved greatly in burn care and management with several important advancements in the past few decades, resulting in more effective patient stabilization and significantly decreased mortality in China. However, the challenging clinical problems still exist, such as a lack of ideally efficient scheme and drugs to protect damaged tissue and internal organs after severe burn, the limited functional cosmetic outcomes of current treatment techniques and synthetic skin substitutes for deep burn wound repair and reconstruction, the high mortality of severe sepsis accompanying with burn injury patients, and the uncontrolled scar formation and modification or potential regeneration in burn wound healing, a further exploration into both underling mechanisms and curable therapies. This article emphasizes the important roles of the basic study in exploration of above clinical issues in the viewpoint of the advanced development of modern life sciences and relevant techniques. PMID:27464627

  15. [Tissue engineered skin and regenerative wound repair].

    PubMed

    Han, Chun-mao; Wang, Xin-gang

    2013-04-01

    Various skin defects resulting from mechanical injury, burns, chronic ulcers, and resection of tumor etc. are very common in clinic. The traditional treatment measure, such as grafting of autologous split-thickness skin remains the gold standard. However, its limitations are obvious, such as shortage of donor sites, creation of new injury, and scar formation. To realize regenerative or scarless repair of tissue defects has always been the dream of human being. The advent of tissue engineered skin (TES) provides an ideal access to tissue regeneration. After decades of development, several kinds of TES products have been developed and used in clinic, with promising effects. However, a large number of basic scientific problems regarding TES, as well as difficulties in translation of basic research to bedside should be taken into serious consideration. This article presents a comprehensive overview of strategies of construction of TES, the role of TES in regenerative wound repair, and its opportunities and challenges. PMID:23985197

  16. Skin cell proliferation stimulated by microneedles.

    PubMed

    Liebl, Horst; Kloth, Luther C

    2012-03-01

    A classical wound may be defined as a disruption of tissue integrity. Wounds, caused by trauma from accidents or surgery, that close via secondary intention rely on the biological phases of healing, i.e., hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling (HIPR). Depending on the wound type and severity, the inflammation phase begins immediately after injury and may last for an average of 7-14 days. Concurrent with the inflammation phase or slightly delayed, cell proliferation is stimulated followed by the activation of the remodeling (maturation) phase. The latter phase can last as long as 1 year or more, and the final healed state is represented by a scar tissue, a cross-linked collagen formation that usually aligns collagen fibers in a single direction. One may assume that skin microneedling that involves the use of dozens or as many as 200 needles that limit penetration to 1.5 mm over 1 cm(2) of skin would cause trauma and bleeding followed by the classical HIPR. However, this is not the case or at least the HIPR phases are significantly curtailed and healing never ends in a scar formation. Conversely dermabrasion used in aesthetic medicine for improving skin quality is based on "ablation" (destruction or wounding of superficial skin layers), which requires several weeks for healing that involves formation of new skin layers. Such procedures provoke an acute inflammatory response. We believe that a less intense inflammatory response occurs following microneedle perforation of the skin. However, the mechanism of action of microneedling appears to be different. Here we review the potential mechanisms by which microneedling of the skin facilitates skin repair without scarring after the treatment of superficial burns, acne, hyperpigmentation, and the non-advancing periwound skin surrounding the chronic ulcerations of the integument. PMID:24527373

  17. Skin Cell Proliferation Stimulated by Microneedles

    PubMed Central

    Liebl, Horst; Kloth, Luther C.

    2012-01-01

    A classical wound may be defined as a disruption of tissue integrity. Wounds, caused by trauma from accidents or surgery, that close via secondary intention rely on the biological phases of healing, i.e., hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling (HIPR). Depending on the wound type and severity, the inflammation phase begins immediately after injury and may last for an average of 7–14 days. Concurrent with the inflammation phase or slightly delayed, cell proliferation is stimulated followed by the activation of the remodeling (maturation) phase. The latter phase can last as long as 1 year or more, and the final healed state is represented by a scar tissue, a cross-linked collagen formation that usually aligns collagen fibers in a single direction. One may assume that skin microneedling that involves the use of dozens or as many as 200 needles that limit penetration to 1.5 mm over 1 cm2 of skin would cause trauma and bleeding followed by the classical HIPR. However, this is not the case or at least the HIPR phases are significantly curtailed and healing never ends in a scar formation. Conversely dermabrasion used in aesthetic medicine for improving skin quality is based on “ablation” (destruction or wounding of superficial skin layers), which requires several weeks for healing that involves formation of new skin layers. Such procedures provoke an acute inflammatory response. We believe that a less intense inflammatory response occurs following microneedle perforation of the skin. However, the mechanism of action of microneedling appears to be different. Here we review the potential mechanisms by which microneedling of the skin facilitates skin repair without scarring after the treatment of superficial burns, acne, hyperpigmentation, and the non-advancing periwound skin surrounding the chronic ulcerations of the integument. PMID:24527373

  18. Blumea balsamifera Oil for the Acceleration of Healing of Burn Injuries.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zuo-Wang; Pang, Yu-Xin; Wang, Kai; Yu, Fu-Lai; Wang, Dan; Yang, Quan; Ma, Qing-Song; Li, Xiao-Ting; Zou, Jin; Zhang, Wen-Qing; Wu, Li-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Blumea balsamifera oil (BBO) is a main extract obtained from Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC (Ainaxiang) leaves, which are widely used as a traditional medicine by the Miao and Li Nations to promote skin trauma or burn injury healing. This study was initiated to investigate the healing efficacy in deep second-degree burn model in rats. The rats were treated by BBO for 21 consecutive days. The rate of healing, scabs dropped time and re-epithelialization time were observed every three days for 21 days after burn injury. The samples were collected from different treated rats by sacrificing the animals on the 1st, 2nd, 5th, 9th, 14th, and 21st day post-burn creation. Then, the water content of burn tissue was measured. Plasma interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were evaluated, and the tissue expressions of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) were determined along with skin histopathology. The results showed that the water content of tissue was significantly reduced, the scabs dropped time shortened, and healing accelerated after treatment with BBO in the burn injury rats. Furthermore, the expressions of growth factors were significantly increased in the tissue; however, the levels of inflammatory factors on plasma decreased. This study confirms the efficacy of BBO consumption on burn injuries. PMID:26393555

  19. Reflective THz and MR imaging of burn wounds: a potential clinical validation of THz contrast mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Neha; Nowroozi, Bryan; Sung, Shijun; Garritano, James; Maccabi, Ashkan; Tewari, Priyamvada; Culjat, Martin; Singh, Rahul; Alger, Jeffry; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

    2012-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging is an expanding area of research in the field of medical imaging due to its high sensitivity to changes in tissue water content. Previously reported in vivo rat studies demonstrate that spatially resolved hydration mapping with THz illumination can be used to rapidly and accurately detect fluid shifts following induction of burns and provide highly resolved spatial and temporal characterization of edematous tissue. THz imagery of partial and full thickness burn wounds acquired by our group correlate well with burn severity and suggest that hydration gradients are responsible for the observed contrast. This research aims to confirm the dominant contrast mechanism of THz burn imaging using a clinically accepted diagnostic method that relies on tissue water content for contrast generation to support the translation of this technology to clinical application. The hydration contrast sensing capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically T2 relaxation times and proton density values N(H), are well established and provide measures of mobile water content, lending MRI as a suitable method to validate hydration states of skin burns. This paper presents correlational studies performed with MR imaging of ex vivo porcine skin that confirm tissue hydration as the principal sensing mechanism in THz burn imaging. Insights from this preliminary research will be used to lay the groundwork for future, parallel MRI and THz imaging of in vivo rat models to further substantiate the clinical efficacy of reflective THz imaging in burn wound care.

  20. Burning crude oil without pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil can be burned at drilling sites by two-stage combustion process without producing pollution. Process allows easier conformance to strict federal or state clean air standards without installation of costly pollution removal equipment. Secondary oil recovery can be accomplished with injection of steam heating by burning oil.

  1. Aztreonam pharmacokinetics in burn patients.

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, L V; White, R L; Kays, M B; Brundage, D M; Yarbrough, D

    1991-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of aztreonam in eight adult patients with severe burn injuries (total body surface area burn, 49% +/- 21% [mean +/- standard deviation]) were studied. The time of initiation of study following burn injury was 7.0 +/- 1.4 days. Four patients at first dose and at steady state were studied. Aztreonam concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and a two-compartment model was used to fit the data. No significant differences in any pharmacokinetic parameters between first dose and steady state were observed. Volume of distribution of the central compartment after first dose (0.14 liters/kg) and volume of distribution at steady state (0.31 liters/kg) were approximately 30% higher than those reported for other patient populations. Total drug clearance and renal drug clearance when normalized to creatinine clearance (CLCR) were similar to those previously reported for other critically ill patients. CLCR was strongly correlated with renal drug clearance (r = 0.94) and total drug clearance (r = 0.95). The extent and degree of burn (percent second or third degree burn) were poorly correlated with all pharmacokinetic parameters with the exception of the volume of distribution at steady state, which was correlated with both total body surface area burn (r = 0.95) and percent second degree burn (r = 0.83). Aztreonam pharmacokinetics are altered as a result of thermal injury; however, CLCR can be used to assess the clearance of aztreonam in burn patients. PMID:2014982

  2. Severe case of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in a 5-year-old child - case report.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Dogu; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2016-04-01

    Benign impetigo can progress into a potential fatal staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) if prompt diagnosis and correct therapy is not established rapidly. Local and systematic antibiotics as well as Lactulose are crucial in order to stop SSSS from progressing. Burns units should be involved when skin lesions are extensive. PMID:27099742

  3. Sun Protection Motivational Stages and Behavior: Skin Cancer Risk Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagoto, Sherry L.; McChargue, Dennis E.; Schneider, Kristin; Cook, Jessica Werth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To create skin cancer risk profiles that could be used to predict sun protection among Midwest beachgoers. Method: Cluster analysis was used with study participants (N=239), who provided information about sun protection motivation and behavior, perceived risk, burn potential, and tan importance. Participants were clustered according to…

  4. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  5. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  6. 30 CFR 816.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or burned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  7. Smartphones and burn size estimation: "Rapid Burn Assessor".

    PubMed

    Kamolz, L P; Lumenta, D B; Parvizi, D; Dirnberger, J; Owen, R; Höller, J; Giretzlehner, M

    2014-06-30

    Estimation of the total body surface area burned (%TBSA) following a burn injury is used in determining whether to transfer the patient to a burn center and the required fluid resuscitation volumes. Unfortunately, the commonly applied methods of estimation have revealed inaccuracies, which are mostly related to human error. To calculate the %TBSA (quotient), it is necessary to divide the burned surface area (Burned BSA) (numerator in cm2) by the total body surface area (Total BSA) (denominator in cm2). By using everyday objects (eg. credit cards, smartphones) with well-defined surface areas as reference for estimations of Burned BSA on the one hand and established formulas for Total BSA calculation on the other (eg. Mosteller), we propose an approximation method to assess %TBSA more accurately than the established methods. To facilitate distribution, and respective user feedback, we have developed a smartphone app integrating all of the above parameters, available on popular mobile device platforms. This method represents a simple and ready-to-use clinical decision support system which addresses common errors associated with estimations of Burned BSA (=numerator). Following validation and respective user feedback, it could be deployed for testing in future clinical trials. This study has a level of evidence of IV and is a brief report based on clinical observation, which points to further study. PMID:26170784

  8. Skin lesion biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... This may include deep layers of skin and fat. The area is closed with stitches to place the skin back together. If a large area is biopsied, the surgeon may use a skin graft or flap to replace the skin that was ...

  9. Stiff skin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geng, S; Lei, X; Toyohara, J P; Zhan, P; Wang, J; Tan, S

    2006-07-01

    Stiff skin syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by pronounced skin induration, mild hypertrichosis and limited joint mobility, predominantly on the buttocks and thighs. Many heterogeneous cases have been reported under the name of stiff skin syndrome. We present a case of stiff skin syndrome from China, the diagnosis based on the patient's typical clinical and histopathological features. PMID:16836505

  10. Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen

    MedlinePlus

    ... nfpa.org Fires and Burns Involving Home Medical Oxygen The air is normally 21% oxygen. Oxygen is not flammable, but fire needs it to burn. ¾ When more oxygen is present, any fire that starts will burn ...

  11. Inpatient peer support for adult burn survivors-a valuable resource: a phenomenological analysis of the Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Kornhaber, R; Wilson, A; Abu-Qamar, M; McLean, L; Vandervord, J

    2015-02-01

    Peer support has long been recognised as an essential component of a supportive network for people facing adversity. In particular, burn survivor peer support is a valuable and credible resource available to those rehabilitating from a severe burn. The aim of this study was to explore burn survivors' experiences of providing and receiving inpatient peer support to develop an in-depth understanding of the influence during the rehabilitation journey. In 2011, twenty-one burn survivors were recruited from four severe burn units across Australia. A qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to construct themes depicting survivors' experiences. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collected through in-depth individual semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method of data analysis. Central to burn rehabilitation was the notion of peer support having a significant impact on burn survivors' psychosocial rehabilitation. The emergent theme 'Burn Survivor Peer Support' identified five cluster themes: (1) Encouragement, inspiration and hope (2) Reassurance (3) The Importance of Timing (4) The Same Skin (5) Appropriate Matching. These findings demonstrate that peer support assists with fostering reassurance, hope and motivation in burn rehabilitation. A national network based on a clinician led inpatient burn survivor peer support programme could provide burn survivors across Australia, and in particular remote access locations, with the benefits of peer support necessary to endure the rehabilitation journey. PMID:24927991

  12. In-vivo cutaneous burn characterization and scar assay with multi-functional optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bumju; Yoon, Yeorum; Le, Viet-Hoan; Yoon, Calvin J.; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-03-01

    Research about the cutaneous burn was separated by assessment of burn depth and development of wound healing therapy. Various in vivo optical techniques were used to determined burn depth and observe the wound healing process. In this paper, we report the usage of multimodal optical coherence tomography system, which containing angiographic and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) with conventional OCT system, at burn studies. Burn was induced at 4 different degrees by control the attachment time of 75 Celsius degree heated brass rod at dorsal skin of the rat. For the burn depth assessment, we imaged the different burn degrees area. Changes of polarization sensitive signal were providing burn depth information. To see the wound healing process, each wound area imaged at long period. Conventional OCT shows the structural information about the tissue, like layer and hair follicle. Angiographic OCT provides vascular distribution and diameter of blood vessel information and PS-OCT shows birefringence tissue information. Based on the multimodal OCT data, burn depth assessment were well matched with burn induced time and wound healing process was consistent with previous wound healing report. Therefore, the multimodal OCT holds potential for burn study.

  13. Skin cancer in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Porcia T

    2009-01-01

    In general, skin cancer is uncommon in people of color when compared to Caucasians. When it does occur, it is often associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Differences in survival rates may be attributed to skin cancers being diagnosed at a more advanced stage, and socioeconomic factors such as lack of adequate insurance coverage and lack of transportation can function as barriers to timely diagnosis and early treatment. In addition to advanced stage at presentation, malignant skin lesions in skin of color often present in an atypical fashion. Because skin cancer prevention and screening practices historically have been lower among Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians, and given the changing demographics in the United States, interventions that are tailored to each of these groups will be needed. Public educational campaigns should be expanded to educate people of all skin types with emphasis on skin cancers occurring in areas not exposed to the sun (Byrd-Miles et al., 2007), since sunlight is not as important an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of skin cancer in people of color. Dermatologists and primary care physicians should instruct their darker-skinned patients on how to perform routine skin self-examinations. Physicians should also encourage patients to ask their specialists such as their gynecologist, dentist, and ophthalmologist to look for abnormal pigmentation during routine exams. To reduce the burden of skin cancer, several prevention methods for all people have been strongly encouraged, including monthly self-examinations, daily use of SPF 30 or greater sunscreen, sunglasses with UV-absorbing lenses, and avoiding tanning booths (American Cancer Society, 2008) (see Table 7). In addition, recommendations for clinicians to promote the prevention of skin cancer in skin of color have also been made, including closely monitoring changing pigmented lesions on the palms and soles and hyperkeratotic or poorly healing ulcers in immunosuppressed patients

  14. Correlation between polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and second harmonic generation microscopy in skin.

    PubMed

    Le, Viet-Hoan; Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Bumju; Yoon, Yeoreum; Yoon, Calvin J; Chung, Wan Kyun; Kim, Ki Hean

    2015-07-01

    Both polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy are 3D optical imaging methods providing information related to collagen in the skin. PS-OCT provides birefringence information which is due to the collagen composition of the skin. SHG microscopy visualizes collagen fibers in the skin based on their SHG property. These two modalities have been applied to the same skin pathologies associated with collagen changes, but their relationship has not been examined. In this study, we tried to find the relationship by imaging the same skin samples with both modalities. Various parts of the normal rat skin and burn damaged skin were imaged ex vivo, and their images were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. PS-OCT images were analyzed to obtain tissue birefringence. SHG images were analyzed to obtain collagen orientation indices by applying 2D Fourier transform. The skin samples having higher birefringence values had higher collagen orientation indices, and a linear correlation was found between them. Burn damaged skin showed decreases in both parameters compared to the control skins. This relationship between the bulk and microscopic properties of skin may be useful for further skin studies. PMID:26203380

  15. Correlation between polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography and second harmonic generation microscopy in skin

    PubMed Central

    Le, Viet-Hoan; Lee, Seunghun; Kim, Bumju; Yoon, Yeoreum; Yoon, Calvin J.; Chung, Wan Kyun; Kim, Ki Hean

    2015-01-01

    Both polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy are 3D optical imaging methods providing information related to collagen in the skin. PS-OCT provides birefringence information which is due to the collagen composition of the skin. SHG microscopy visualizes collagen fibers in the skin based on their SHG property. These two modalities have been applied to the same skin pathologies associated with collagen changes, but their relationship has not been examined. In this study, we tried to find the relationship by imaging the same skin samples with both modalities. Various parts of the normal rat skin and burn damaged skin were imaged ex vivo, and their images were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. PS-OCT images were analyzed to obtain tissue birefringence. SHG images were analyzed to obtain collagen orientation indices by applying 2D Fourier transform. The skin samples having higher birefringence values had higher collagen orientation indices, and a linear correlation was found between them. Burn damaged skin showed decreases in both parameters compared to the control skins. This relationship between the bulk and microscopic properties of skin may be useful for further skin studies. PMID:26203380

  16. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    PubMed

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  17. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... realize is that today’s newer materials, such as plastics and rubbers, also have the potential to become ... child receiving serious second‐degree burns from a plastic slide. I only have to worry about metal ...

  18. Epidemiology and Outcome of Chemical Burn Patients Admitted in Burn Unit of JNMC Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India: A 5-year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Md Sohaib; Ahmad, Imran; Khurram, M. Fahud; Kanungo, Srikanta

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical variable of chemical burns, and their outcomes to prevent or reduce the frequency and morbidity of such injuries. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on all the patients with chemical burns admitted at author's center between November 2008 and December 2013. All the patients were evaluated in terms of age, sex, total body surface area, etiology, treatment given, morbidity, mortality, final outcome, and then educated regarding specific preventive measures. Results: A total of 96 patients (2.4% of total burn admissions) (42 males and 54 females) were admitted to our hospital with chemical burn injuries. Most of the patients were in the age group of 16–30 years. Incidence in females was slightly higher than in males. Acid was found to be the most common cause of injury. We found 55% patients admitted had <10% total body surface area (TBSA) involvement, 35% had burns involving between 11 and 20% TBSA, and 4% had burns involving 21–30% TBSA, and 6% had burns in >30% TBSA. Morbidity was noticed in the form of skin defect in 80% of cases, soft tissue defect with exposed tendon, bone, or vessels in 16% of cases, and 4% of patients developed contracture and hypertrophic scar. Eighty-six percent of patients required operative intervention. A total of three deaths (3%) were recorded. Conclusion: It was found that chemical burns, though not very common, are deeper burns and can be accidental or non-accidental, and the high-risk age group is 16–25 years. Chemical burns are largely preventable and if properly managed have a good outcome. PMID:25810999

  19. Protocolized Resuscitation of Burn Patients.

    PubMed

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Kramer, George C

    2016-10-01

    Fluid resuscitation of burn patients is commonly initiated using modified Brooke or Parkland formula. The fluid infusion rate is titrated up or down hourly to maintain adequate urine output and other endpoints. Over-resuscitation leads to morbid complications. Adherence to paper-based protocols, flow sheets, and clinical practice guidelines is associated with decreased fluid resuscitation volumes and complications. Computerized tools assist providers. Although completely autonomous closed-loop control of resuscitation has been demonstrated in animal models of burn shock, the major advantages of open-loop and decision-support systems are identifying trends, enhancing situational awareness, and encouraging burn team communication. PMID:27600131

  20. Colloids in Acute Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Cartotto, Robert; Greenhalgh, David

    2016-10-01

    Colloids have been used in varying capacities throughout the history of formula-based burn resuscitation. There is sound experimental evidence that demonstrates colloids' ability to improve intravascular colloid osmotic pressure, expand intravascular volume, reduce resuscitation requirements, and limit edema in unburned tissue following a major burn. Fresh frozen plasma appears to be a useful and effective immediate burn resuscitation fluid but its benefits must be weighed against its costs, and risks of viral transmission and acute lung injury. Albumin, in contrast, is less expensive and safer and has demonstrated ability to reduce resuscitation requirements and possibly limit edema-related morbidity. PMID:27600123

  1. [Reconstructions after periorbital burn injuries].

    PubMed

    Klett, A; Rebane, R

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays burn patients who also have periocular symptoms are usually treated by reconstructive surgeons and the role of the ophthalmic surgeon has decreased.Although periocular complications occur in a minority of burned patients, they pose a greater challenge in surgical and non-surgical treatment. Chemical, electrical and thermal burns can lead to disfiguring scar formations and delayed treatment can lead to devastating ocular complications. Achieving a successful reconstruction requires a comprehensive approach, entailing many advanced techniques with an emphasis on preserving function and balancing intricate aesthetic requirements. The theory is illustrated in this article with clinical examples. PMID:23345146

  2. Body protective compound-157 enhances alkali-burn wound healing in vivo and promotes proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tonglie; Zhang, Kuo; Sun, Lijuan; Xue, Xiaochang; Zhang, Cun; Shu, Zhen; Mu, Nan; Gu, Jintao; Zhang, Wangqian; Wang, Yukun; Zhang, Yingqi; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical burns take up a high proportion of burns admissions and can penetrate deep into tissues. Various reagents have been applied in the treatment of skin chemical burns; however, no optimal reagent for skin chemical burns currently exists. The present study investigated the effect of topical body protective compound (BPC)-157 treatment on skin wound healing, using an alkali burn rat model. Topical treatment with BPC-157 was shown to accelerate wound closure following an alkali burn. Histological examination of skin sections with hematoxylin–eosin and Masson staining showed better granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and a higher extent of collagen deposition when compared to the model control group on the 18th day postwounding. BPC-157 could promote vascular endothelial growth factor expression in wounded skin tissues. Furthermore, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that BPC-157 enhanced the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transwell assay and wound healing assay showed that BPC-157 significantly promoted migration of HUVECs. We also observed that BPC-157 upregulated the expression of VEGF-a and accelerated vascular tube formation in vitro. Moreover, further studies suggested that BPC-157 regulated the phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) as well as its downstream targets, including c-Fos, c-Jun, and Egr-1, which are key molecules involved in cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis. Altogether, our results indicated that BPC-157 treatment may accelerate wound healing in a model of alkali burn-induced skin injury. The therapeutic mechanism may be associated with accelerated granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and collagen deposition through ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:25995620

  3. Body protective compound-157 enhances alkali-burn wound healing in vivo and promotes proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tonglie; Zhang, Kuo; Sun, Lijuan; Xue, Xiaochang; Zhang, Cun; Shu, Zhen; Mu, Nan; Gu, Jintao; Zhang, Wangqian; Wang, Yukun; Zhang, Yingqi; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Chemical burns take up a high proportion of burns admissions and can penetrate deep into tissues. Various reagents have been applied in the treatment of skin chemical burns; however, no optimal reagent for skin chemical burns currently exists. The present study investigated the effect of topical body protective compound (BPC)-157 treatment on skin wound healing, using an alkali burn rat model. Topical treatment with BPC-157 was shown to accelerate wound closure following an alkali burn. Histological examination of skin sections with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson staining showed better granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and a higher extent of collagen deposition when compared to the model control group on the 18th day postwounding. BPC-157 could promote vascular endothelial growth factor expression in wounded skin tissues. Furthermore, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that BPC-157 enhanced the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transwell assay and wound healing assay showed that BPC-157 significantly promoted migration of HUVECs. We also observed that BPC-157 upregulated the expression of VEGF-a and accelerated vascular tube formation in vitro. Moreover, further studies suggested that BPC-157 regulated the phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) as well as its downstream targets, including c-Fos, c-Jun, and Egr-1, which are key molecules involved in cell growth, migration, and angiogenesis. Altogether, our results indicated that BPC-157 treatment may accelerate wound healing in a model of alkali burn-induced skin injury. The therapeutic mechanism may be associated with accelerated granulation tissue formation, reepithelialization, dermal remodeling, and collagen deposition through ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:25995620

  4. Anti-HLA sensitization in extensively burned patients: extent, associated factors, and reduction in potential access to vascularized composite allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Duhamel, Patrick; Suberbielle, Caroline; Grimbert, Philippe; Leclerc, Thomas; Jacquelinet, Christian; Audry, Benoit; Bargues, Laurent; Charron, Dominique; Bey, Eric; Lantieri, Laurent; Hivelin, Mikael

    2015-05-01

    Extensively burned patients receive iterative blood transfusions and skin allografts that often lead to HLA sensitization, and potentially impede access to vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA). In this retrospective, single-center study, anti-HLA sensitization was measured by single-antigen-flow bead analysis in patients with deep, second- and third-degree burns over ≥40% total body surface area (TBSA). Association of HLA sensitization with blood transfusions, skin allografts, and pregnancies was analyzed by bivariate analysis. The eligibility for transplantation was assessed using calculated panel reactive antibodies (cPRA). Twenty-nine patients aged 32 ± 14 years, including 11 women, presented with a mean burned TBSA of 54 ± 11%. Fifteen patients received skin allografts, comprising those who received cryopreserved (n = 3) or glycerol-preserved (n = 7) allografts, or both (n = 5). An average 36 ± 13 packed red blood cell (PRBC) units were transfused per patient. In sera samples collected 38 ± 13 months after the burns, all patients except one presented with anti-HLA antibodies, of which 13 patients (45%) had complement-fixing antibodies. Eighteen patients (62%) were considered highly sensitized (cPRA≥85%). Cryopreserved, but not glycerol-preserved skin allografts, history of pregnancy, and number of PRBC units were associated with HLA sensitization. Extensively burned patients may become highly HLA sensitized during acute care and hence not qualify for VCA. Alternatives to skin allografts might help preserve their later access to VCA. PMID:25683513

  5. Several Flame Balls Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Structure of Flameballs at Low Lewis Numbers (SOFBALL) experiments aboard the space shuttle in 1997 a series of sturningly successful burns. This sequence was taken during STS-94, July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:18 (approximate). It was thought these extremely dim flameballs (1/20 the power of a kitchen match) could last up to 200 seconds -- in fact, they can last for at least 500 seconds. This has ramifications in fuel-spray design in combustion engines, as well as fire safety in space. The SOFBALL principal investigator was Paul Ronney, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (925KB, 9-second MPEG spanning 10 minutes, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300186.html.

  6. Burning coal's waste

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J.M.; Duffy, T.J.

    1988-07-01

    In an old Pennsylvania coal valley, growing fresh produce and eliminating ancient waste piles both depend on a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant. The builders of a complex now nearing completion at Archbald, however, will soon begin to turn two of the waste piles, called culm banks, into economic assets. Culm will burn although it has a low, variable heat content. The project combines several recently developed technologies to use culm as fuel for a fluidized bed boiler cogeneration plant that will heat a hydroponic greenhouse. What makes the venture economically viable are the products that will be sold: 23 mw of electricity to the local utility and fresh produce to meet burgeoning demands in East Coast supermarkets. For instance, if the ''salad plant'' were completely devoted to growing lettuce, 3 million heads could be harvested in 11 hydroponic seasons a year. The owners, Archbald Power Corp., chose a 271 acre stie that had been mined for anthracite by both open pit and deep shaft methods.

  7. Acellular hydrogel for regenerative burn wound healing: translation from a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Papa, Arianne; Burke, Jacqueline; Volk, Susan W; Gerecht, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Currently available skin grafts and skin substitute for healing following third-degree burn injuries is fraught with complications, often resulting in long-term physical and psychological sequelae. Synthetic treatment that can promote wound healing in a regenerative fashion would provide an off-the-shelf, non-immunogenic strategy to improve clinical care of severe burn wounds. Here, we demonstrate vulnerary efficacy and accelerated healing mechanism of dextran-based hydrogel in third-degree porcine burn model. The model was optimized to allow examination of the hydrogel treatment for clinical translation and its regenerative response mechanisms. Hydrogel treatment accelerated third-degree burn wound healing by rapid wound closure, improved reepithelialization, enhanced extracellular matrix remodeling, and greater nerve reinnervation, compared to the dressing treated group. These effects appear to be mediated through the ability of the hydrogel to facilitate a rapid but brief initial inflammatory response that coherently stimulates neovascularization within the granulation tissue during the first week of treatment, followed by an efficient vascular regression to promote a regenerative healing process. Our results suggest that the dextran-based hydrogels may substantially improve healing quality and reduce skin grafting incidents and thus pave the way for clinical studies to improve the care of severe burn injury patients. PMID:26358387

  8. Post Burn Contracture Neck: Clinical Profile and Management

    PubMed Central

    Bankar, Sanket S.; Patil, Avinash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Morbidity related to hypertrophic scars and contractures which are well known sequel after burns remains high and in fact has increased as more severely burned patients are surviving. This study was undertaken in order to assess the varied clinical presentation, precipitating factors, preventive measures, treatment modalities of neck contractures and evaluate the results after surgical procedures. Materials and Methods: This hospital based study was conducted on patients admitted in our institution with proven cases of Post burn neck contracture from 1st August 2009 to 31st July 2011. Twenty two patients of post burn neck contracture who underwent operative treatment were included. Observation: 10 of 22 cases were in the middle age group i.e. between 21-30 years. There were 5 males and 17 females. Accidental flame burn was the commonest aetiology. Fourteen patients were treated within 1 year of burns for functional disability. Excisional release was performed in 13 and incisional release in 9 of our patients. Resurfacing with STSG (split thickness skin graft) was carried out in 19 cases and a local or regional flap with or without a graft in 3 patients. Hypertrophy and recontracture were the commonest late complications and occurred in 3 cases. Good to fair results were obtained in 19 patients Conclusion: Local flaps have many advantages and are to be used whenever possible. It is preferable to place the grafts if used in the area surrounding the neck (donor site of flap) or at least in the non-visible area of the neck (submental area). When a combination of flap & graft is used, it’s preferable to place the flap in a horizontal intersecting fashion in between the two patches of the graft. A follow up program for reasonable period is highly desired. PMID:25478392

  9. Mass spectrometry based data of the blister fluid proteome of paediatric burn patients.

    PubMed

    Zang, Tuo; Broszczak, Daniel A; Cuttle, Leila; Broadbent, James A; Tanzer, Catherine; Parker, Tony J

    2016-09-01

    The data presented here are associated with the article "The blister fluid proteome of paediatric burns" (Zang et al., 2016) [1]. Burn injury is a highly traumatic event for children. The degree of burn severity (superficial-, deep-, or full-thickness injury) often dictates the extent of later scar formation which may require long term surgical operation or skin grafting. The data were obtained by fractionating paediatric burn blister fluid samples, which were pooled according to burn depth and then analysed using data dependent acquisition LC-MS/MS. The data includes a table of all proteins identified, in which burn depth category they were found, the percentage sequence coverage for each protein and the number of high confidence peptide identifications for each protein. Further Gene Ontology enrichment analysis shows the significantly over-represented biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components of the burn blister fluid proteome. In addition, tables include the proteins associated with the biological processes of "wound healing" and "response to stress" as examples of highly relevant processes that occur in burn wounds. PMID:27536711

  10. Effect of incoherent LED radiation on third-degree burning wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Fiório, Franciane B; Silveira, Landulfo; Munin, Egberto; de Lima, Carlos José; Fernandes, Kristianne P S; Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel Agnelli; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso C; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão; Aimbire, Flávio; de Carvalho, Regiane Albertini

    2011-12-01

    The main physiological characteristics in a burn process are the increase of the capillary permeability and the occurrence of edema and exudation. Light-emitting diode (LED) has been proposed as treatment of burning. This study investigated the effects of LED on the repair process of rat skin submitted to a third-degree burning. The lesions were produced on the dorsal surface of male Wistar rats. Animals were divided into 4 groups (n = 6) as follows: L1 and L2 groups as LED-treated burned rats, and received LED therapy along 7 and 15 days with 48 hours intervals, respectively; C1 and C2 groups as control, non-treated burned rats. A red LED (640 nm, 30 mW) operating with a fluence of 4 J/cm(2) was used. The wound area was measured daily after irradiation. Animals were euthanized at the 8th and 16th days after burning, and the wound fragment was submitted to histology. The inflammatory cells as well as the damaged area at the 8th day after burns were significantly lower for the LED-treated group when compared to control. Furthermore, the LED phototherapy effect on cellular migration was even more pronounced at the 16th day. Our results indicated that the treatment with a LED system was clearly effective in reducing the number of inflammatory cells and improving the healing process in an experimental model of third-degree burnings. PMID:21981305

  11. The Use of Stem Cells in Burn Wound Healing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghieh, Fadi; Jurjus, Rosalyn; Ibrahim, Amir; Geagea, Alice Gerges; Daouk, Hisham; El Baba, Bassel; Chams, Sana; Matar, Michel; Zein, Wadih; Jurjus, Abdo

    2015-01-01

    Burn wound healing involves a series of complex processes which are subject to intensive investigations to improve the outcomes, in particular, the healing time and the quality of the scar. Burn injuries, especially severe ones, are proving to have devastating effects on the affected patients. Stem cells have been recently applied in the field to promote superior healing of the wounds. Not only have stem cells been shown to promote better and faster healing of the burn wounds, but also they have decreased the inflammation levels with less scar progression and fibrosis. This review aims to highlight the beneficial therapeutic effect of stem cells in burn wound healing and to discuss the involved pathways and signaling molecules. The review covers various types of burn wound healing like skin and corneal burns, along with the alternative recent therapies being studied in the field of burn wound healing. The current reflection of the attitudes of people regarding the use of stem cells in burn wound healing is also stated. PMID:26236731

  12. The Use of Stem Cells in Burn Wound Healing: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ghieh, Fadi; Jurjus, Rosalyn; Ibrahim, Amir; Geagea, Alice Gerges; Daouk, Hisham; El Baba, Bassel; Chams, Sana; Matar, Michel; Zein, Wadih; Jurjus, Abdo

    2015-01-01

    Burn wound healing involves a series of complex processes which are subject to intensive investigations to improve the outcomes, in particular, the healing time and the quality of the scar. Burn injuries, especially severe ones, are proving to have devastating effects on the affected patients. Stem cells have been recently applied in the field to promote superior healing of the wounds. Not only have stem cells been shown to promote better and faster healing of the burn wounds, but also they have decreased the inflammation levels with less scar progression and fibrosis. This review aims to highlight the beneficial therapeutic effect of stem cells in burn wound healing and to discuss the involved pathways and signaling molecules. The review covers various types of burn wound healing like skin and corneal burns, along with the alternative recent therapies being studied in the field of burn wound healing. The current reflection of the attitudes of people regarding the use of stem cells in burn wound healing is also stated. PMID:26236731

  13. Evaluation of intravenous magnesium sulfate for the treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns.

    PubMed

    Cox, R D; Osgood, K A

    1994-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid exposures to the skin can produce severe, progressive burns. Medical treatment of these burns is aimed at neutralizing the free fluoride ion, which is felt to be responsible for burn progression. Both calcium and magnesium will form complexes with free fluoride and have been used as topical or intradermal treatments in the past. This study evaluated the efficacy of intravenous magnesium sulfate for the treatment of hydrofluoric acid burns and compared this treatment to controls and burns treated with intradermal calcium gluconate in a rabbit model. Both treatments demonstrated a reduction in burn area over time, wound depth, healing time and final scar area compared to controls. The intravenous magnesium treatment showed trends toward improved outcome compared to the intradermal calcium treatment in all parameters evaluated, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. This investigation found intravenous magnesium to be an effective method for treating hydrofluoric acid burns. Intravenous magnesium may have significant utility for treating hydrofluoric acid burns that are not amenable to current therapies. PMID:8145352

  14. A novel device to create consistent deep dermal burns in a porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Seema; Chan, Queenie; Bertinetti, Monique; Harvey, John G; Hei, Erik R La; Holland, Andrew JA

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate a novel device to create a consistent and reproducible deep partial thickness burn in a porcine model. A thermostatically controlled, heated aluminium disc device was fashioned by the Biomedical Department of our institution. Contact burns were made on the flank of two Great White pigs by applying the device heated to 92°C at intervals of 5, 10, 15 and 20 seconds to four separate test areas area of skin. Biopsies for histological analysis of burn depth were taken on day 0 at 10 minutes post burn and on day 8. Biopsies taken at day 0 revealed superficial to mid-dermal burns, with minimal dermal edema and necrosis. Those from day 8 showed mid to deep dermal edema and necrosis in all four test areas following a 20 second contact duration burn. The new contact burn device was able to create a consistent deep dermal burn after 20 seconds of contact. We anticipate that this new device could be used to investigate the development of hypertrophic scarring in a porcine model. PMID:27335694

  15. Cost-Efficacy of Cultured Epidermal Autografts in Massive Pediatric Burns

    PubMed Central

    Barret, Juan P.; Wolf, Steven E.; Desai, Manubhai H.; Herndon, David N.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of cultured epidermal autografts (CEA) for closure of burn wounds in pediatric burn patients with full-thickness burns of more than 90% total body surface area. Summary Background Data Paucity of donor sites in massive burns makes the use of expanded skin of paramount importance. CEA techniques have been used in burned patients with differing and controversial results. The true impact and the efficacy of such techniques in massive burns remain uncertain. Methods Patients with full-thickness burns of more than 90% body surface area treated between May 1988 and May 1998 were studied. Patients grafted with CEA were compared with patients grafted with conventional meshed autografts. Rates of death and complications, length of hospital stay (LOS), hospital cost, acute readmissions for reconstruction, and quality of scars were studied as outcome measures. Results Patients treated with CEA had a better quality of burn scars but incurred a longer LOS and higher hospital costs. Both groups had comparable readmissions for open wounds, but patients treated with CEA required more reconstructive procedures during the first 2 years after the injury. The incidence of sepsis and pneumonia in both groups was comparable. Conclusions Conventional meshed autografts are superior to CEA for containing hospital cost, diminishing LOS, and decreasing the number of readmissions for reconstruction of contractures. However, the use of CEA provides better scar quality such that perhaps future research should focus on bioengineered dermal templates to promote take and diminish long-term fragility. PMID:10816630

  16. 40 CFR 49.11021 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.11021 Section 49.11021 Protection of... Reservation, Oregon § 49.11021 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and..., 2007, a person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry...

  17. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  18. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  19. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  20. 40 CFR 49.10411 - Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., agricultural burning, and forestry and silvicultural burning. 49.10411 Section 49.10411 Protection of... Tribe of Idaho § 49.10411 Permits for general open burning, agricultural burning, and forestry and... person must apply for and obtain approval of a permit under § 49.134 Rule for forestry and...

  1. Burn-healing effects of a composition containing chitosan gel and a blood serum bioregulator.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, M S; Rybakova, E Yu; Tikhonov, V E; Stretskii, G M; Avdeenko, O E; Shaikhaliev, A I; Yamskova, V P; Yamskov, I A

    2012-08-01

    We studied the effect of combined preparation on the basis of chitosan containing a bioregulator isolated from cattle serum in a concentration of 10(-10) mg/ml on healing of II-IIIa degree skin burns in mammals in vivo. PMID:22977868

  2. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Learn More For First Responders & Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery ... It can be a... Continue Reading The Phoenix Society, Inc. 1835 RW Berends Dr. SW Grand Rapids, ...

  3. Burns, hypertrophic scar and galactorrhea.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Hamid; Nourizad, Samad; Momeni, Mahnoush; Rahbar, Hosein; Momeni, Mazdak; Farhadi, Khosro

    2013-07-01

    An 18-year-old woman was admitted to Motahari Burn Center suffering from 30% burns. Treatment modalities were carried out for the patient and she was discharged after 20 days. Three to four months later she developed hypertrophic scar on her chest and upper limbs. At the same time she developed galactorrhea in both breasts and had a disturbed menstrual cycle four months post-burn. On investigation, we found hyperprolactinemia and no other reasons for the high level of prolactin were detected.She received treatment for both the hypertrophic scar and the severe itching she was experiencing. After seven months, her prolactin level had decreased but had not returned to the normal level. It seems that refractory hypertrophic scar is related to the high level of prolactin in burns patients. PMID:23456048

  4. Microblowing Technique Demonstrated to Reduce Skin Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Biesiadny, Tom J.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most challenging areas of research in aerodynamics is the reduction of skin friction, especially for turbulent flow. Reduced skin friction means less drag. For aircraft, less drag can lead to less fuel burned or to a greater flight range for a fixed amount of fuel. Many techniques and methods have been tried; however, none of them has significantly reduced skin friction in the flight environment. An innovative skin-friction reduction technique, the Microblowing Technique (MBT), was invented in 1993. This is a unique concept in which an extremely small amount of air is blown vertically at a surface through very small holes. It can be used for aircraft or marine vehicles, such as submarines (where water is blown through the holes instead of air). As shown in the figure, the outer layer, which controls vertical flow, is a plate with high-vertical holes. The inner layer, which produces evenly distributed flow, is a low-permeability porous plate. Microblowing reduces the surface roughness and changes the flow velocity profile on the surface, thereby reducing skin friction.

  5. The Healing Effect of Amniotic Membrane in Burn Patients

    PubMed Central

    Eskandarlou, Mahdi; Azimi, Mina; Rabiee, Soghra; Seif Rabiee, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Different methods for dressing of donor site of skin graft in burn patients have similarly pain, limitation of mobility of donor site and local complications such as infection and scar. Amniotic membrane has used for improvement of healing in some wounds. Accordingly in this study amnion was used as biologic dressing for donor site of skin graft to evaluate it’s efficacy in improvement of pain, move score and the risk of local infection. METHODS Study was done as clinical trial over 32 admitted patients in burn department of Beasat hospital. Amnion was prepared in elective caesarean section after rule out any placental site for risk of torch and viral infection. Skin graft was taken from two sites in every patient. One site dressed with amnion and another with routine dressing. Then two sites were compared about severity of pain, move score, infection and time of dressing sloughing. RESULTS Fourteen patients were women and 18 men. Mean score of pain and movement up to fourth and fifth post operative day respectively was less than control site. No difference is seen about infection and dressing slough in two sites. CONCLUSION It seems use of amnion for dressing of donor site probably cause rapid epithelialisation and wound healing and can improve pain and move score in early post operative days. Accordingly it is expected to need less analgesia and low rate of immobilization and following complications and earlier discharge of patients. PMID:27308239

  6. Stem Cell Therapy: A New Treatment for Burns?

    PubMed Central

    Arno, Anna; Smith, Alexandra H.; Blit, Patrick H.; Shehab, Mohammed Al; Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has emerged as a promising new approach in almost every medicine specialty. This vast, heterogeneous family of cells are now both naturally (embryonic and adult stem cells) or artificially obtained (induced pluripotent stem cells or iPSCs) and their fates have become increasingly controllable, thanks to ongoing research in this passionate new field. We are at the beginning of a new era in medicine, with multiple applications for stem cell therapy, not only as a monotherapy, but also as an adjunct to other strategies, such as organ transplantation or standard drug treatment. Regrettably, serious preclinical concerns remain and differentiation, cell fusion, senescence and signalling crosstalk with growth factors and biomaterials are still challenges for this promising multidisciplinary therapeutic modality. Severe burns have several indications for stem cell therapy, including enhancement of wound healing, replacement of damaged skin and perfect skin regeneration – incorporating skin appendages and reduced fibrosis –, as well as systemic effects, such as inflammation, hypermetabolism and immunosuppression. The aim of this review is to describe well established characteristics of stem cells and to delineate new advances in the stem cell field, in the context of burn injury and wound healing.

  7. Viral Skin Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramdass, Priya; Mullick, Sahil; Farber, Harold F

    2015-12-01

    In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID:26612372

  8. Skin substitutes and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Auger, F A; Lacroix, D; Germain, L

    2009-01-01

    Medical science has vastly improved on the means and methods available for the treatment of wounds in the clinic. The production and use of various types of skin substitutes has led to dramatic improvements in the odds of survival for severely burned patients, but they have also shown promise for many other applications, including cases involving chronic wounds that are not life threatening. Nowadays, more than 20 products are commercially available, more are undergoing clinical trials and a large number of new models are being investigated in various research laboratories worldwide. Many of the current products do not contain any living cells and vary in their capacity to harness the innate capacity of the body to heal itself. Others include living cells, of allogeneic or autologous origin, and are often referred to as 'cellular therapy' or 'tissue-engineered' products. Modifications and improvements are currently investigated that aim at improving the healing potential of those products through the use of recombinant growth factors and additional features such as microvascularization. Fundamental research into wound healing and scar-free regeneration raises the hope that we will eventually be able to restore almost completely the appearance and function of skin after the healing of wounds. PMID:19188757

  9. In vivo optical elastography: stress and strain imaging of human skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Es'haghian, Shaghayegh; Gong, Peijun; Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Wijesinghe, Philip; Sampson, David D.; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Kennedy, Brendan F.

    2015-03-01

    Probing the mechanical properties of skin at high resolution could aid in the assessment of skin pathologies by, for example, detecting the extent of cancerous skin lesions and assessing pathology in burn scars. Here, we present two elastography techniques based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) to probe the local mechanical properties of skin. The first technique, optical palpation, is a high-resolution tactile imaging technique, which uses a complaint silicone layer positioned on the tissue surface to measure spatially-resolved stress imparted by compressive loading. We assess the performance of optical palpation, using a handheld imaging probe on a skin-mimicking phantom, and demonstrate its use on human skin. The second technique is a strain imaging technique, phase-sensitive compression OCE that maps depth-resolved mechanical variations within skin. We show preliminary results of in vivo phase-sensitive compression OCE on a human skin lesion.

  10. Burning wastes in steam boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Feeley, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    A review of the advantages and precautions in the burning of a wide variety of industrial wastes is presented. The reasons for burning industrial wastes are economics and pollution control. The incineration of the following industrial wastes is discussed: pulp cooking liquors, wood wastes, coffee grounds and other biomass, pitch and tars, gases, and miscellaneous solid fuels. Boiler cycles and types are also discussed. (RCK)

  11. Epidemiology of domestic chemical burns in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Pitkanen, J; Al-Qattan, M M

    2001-06-01

    The authors reviewed the domestic chemical injury experience in two major government hospitals in Saudi Arabia to determine the most common causative agents and the circumstances of the injury in order to give recommendations for their prevention and reduction of their morbidity. A total of 59 cases were included. The mean age was 25 years and the male to female ratio was 3:1. Alkali drain cleaners were the major cause of chemical burns in the series and this was seen in 75% of the total study population. The remaining 25% of cases resulted from concentrated sulfuric acid, car battery acid and topical application of medical herbs by non-professionals. Unfortunately, immediate water lavage was not done in the majority of alkali and acid burns and hence skin grafting was required in most patients. It was concluded that efforts for prevention of chemical burns in Saudi Arabia should be directed towards education of the population regarding the proper use of alkali cleaners for clogged drains. These cleaners and battery acid containers should also be kept in a safe place away from the reach of children. Furthermore, a warning to the public regarding the non-professional use of medical herbs should be given. Finally, increased awareness among the Saudi population as to the need for prompt water irrigation of chemical burns should help reduce the morbidity from these injuries. PMID:11348747

  12. Treatment of nasal burns: analysis of 150 cases

    PubMed Central

    Prousskaia, E.; El-Muttardi, N.; Philp, B.; Dziewulski, P.; Shelley, O.P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nasal burns present a challenge for the plastic surgeon in terms of immediate management, choice of primary treatment and secondary reconstruction with the goals of good aesthetic and functional outcome. We present a retrospective analysis of the management of 150 patients with nasal burns treated in our center between July 2005 and July 2011. We rationalized our conservative and all surgical treatments of this subset of burns patients and organized them in a simple and structured way. The reconstructive options for most complex full thickness nasal injury is determined by the integrity of adjacent facial tissues which would always be preferred when available. Microsurgical free tissue transfer is dependent upon the fitness of the patient and the availability of unburned skin at the donor site. Secondary nasal reconstruction is based on an assessment of the residual functional and cosmetic problems. Airways narrowing from scar contracture or loss of support are managed using standard plastic surgical and rhinoplasty principles. Cosmetic refinements range from flap debulking to the importation of new tissue on to the nose. Our experience with this challenging group of patients has led us to develop a simple treatment algorithm for the management of nasal burns. PMID:27252610

  13. Regimes of Helium Burning

    SciTech Connect

    Timmes, F. X.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2000-07-10

    The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and Zeldovich von Neumann Doering [ZND] detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts that start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star and to the thin-shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial direction encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamelet regime at a density of {approx}108 g cm-3. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}106 g cm-3. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations traveling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarly, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}107 g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. In the thin helium shell case, turbulent deflagrations traveling in the lateral or radial direction encounter the distributed regime at densities below {approx}107 g cm-3 and the flamelet regime at larger densities. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}104 g cm-3, indicating that steady state laminar deflagrations cannot form below this density. The planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}5x10{sup 4} g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  14. Scald Burns From Hair Braiding.

    PubMed

    Meizoso, Jonathan P; Ramaley, Stephen R; Ray, Juliet J; Allen, Casey J; Guarch, Gerardo A; Varas, Robin; Teisch, Laura F; Pizano, Louis R; Schulman, Carl I; Namias, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Only one previous case report has described scald burns secondary to hair braiding in pediatric patients. The present case study is the largest to date of scald burns as a result of hair braiding in children and adults. Charts of all 1609 female patients seen at a single burn center from 2008 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with scald burns attributed to hair braiding. Demographics, injury severity, injury patterns, and complications were analyzed. Twenty-six patients (1.6%) had scald burns secondary to hair braiding with median TBSA 3%. Eighty-five percent of patients were pediatric with median age 8 years. Injury patterns were as follows: back (62%), shoulder (31%), chest (15%), buttocks (15%), abdomen (12%), arms (12%), neck (12%), and legs (4%). No patients required operative intervention. Three patients were admitted to the hospital. Two patients required time off from school for 6 and 10 days post burn for recovery. Complications included functional limitations (n = 2), hypertrophic scarring (n = 1), cellulitis requiring antibiotics (n = 1), and anxiety requiring medical/psychological therapy (n = 2). This peculiar mechanism of injury not only carries inherent morbidity that includes the risks of functional limitations, infection, and psychological repercussions but also increases usage of resources through hospital admissions and multiple clinic visits. Further work in the form of targeted outreach programs is necessary to educate the community regarding this preventable mechanism of injury. PMID:26594857

  15. Erosive burning of solid propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1993-01-01

    Presented here is a review of the experimental and modeling work concerning erosive burning of solid propellants (augmentation of burning rate by flow of product gases across a burning surface). A brief introduction describes the motor design problems caused by this phenomenon, particularly for low port/throat area ratio motors and nozzleless motors. Various experimental techniques for measuring crossflow sensitivity of solid propellant burning rates are described, with the conclusion that accurate simulation of the flow, including upstream flow development, in actual motors is important since the degree of erosive burning depends not only on local mean crossflow velocity and propellant nature, but also upon this upstream development. In the modeling area, a brief review of simplified models and correlating equations is presented, followed by a description of more complex numerical analysis models. Both composite and double-base propellant models are reviewed. A second generation composite model is shown to give good agreement with data obtained in a series of tests in which composite propellant composition and heterogeneity (particle size distribution) were systematically varied. Finally, the use of numerical models for the development of erosive burning correlations is described, and a brief discussion of scaling is presented.

  16. Treatment and Rehabilitation of Knee Joints Straight Stiffness After Burns.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinshu; Xu, Minghuo; Wu, Wenwen; Hu, Yuan; Shi, Xiuxiu; Hou, Shuxun

    2015-12-01

    The knee release surgery and postoperative rehabilitation of patients after burns and knee straight stiffness were investigated. Eleven patients were treated for 16 side burns and knee stiffness who consisted of nine males and two females, aged 19 to 54 years (mean = 33.2). The duration of the patients' knee stiffness ranged from 8 to 26 months, with an average of 12.6 months. Their preoperative flexion ranged from 5° to 50°, with an average of 26.2°. Their preoperative Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee scores ranged from 46 to 72 points, with an average of 55.8 points. All stiff knees were treated with release surgery, along with total release of intra-articular adhesion and excision of vastus intermedius. After the arthrolysis of the stiff knee joint, the tight skin was completely loose in the adhesions. The soft tissue contracture was not grafted, but the shade fascia was freed to increase skin ductility. All knee joints were released to more than 90° of flexion in the operation, and reversed fascia flaps were used to suture the loss of the deep fascia at the position of flexion of 90°. After the operation, the knee joint was fixed in flexion for 72 h while being actively cared for by early rehabilitation. Subsequently, the patient's skin coverage, joint motion, and joint function recovery were observed. Based on the follow-up of the patients for the following 16 to 36 months (mean = 25.7), the knee flexion of the patients ranged from 110° to 135°, with an average of 122.2° and 96° increase (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the patients had better skin ductility to meet the increase in joint flexion. HSS knee function scores at the end of follow-up ranged from 93 to 100 points, with an average of 97.5 points and an increase of 41.7 points (P < 0.01). The joint function improved significantly. The arthrolysis of straight stiff knee joints after burns can ease muscle contracture and free the shade fascia, thus avoiding the need to

  17. Nitramine propellants. [gun propellant burning rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, N. S.; Strand, L. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Nitramine propellants without a pressure exponent shift in the burning rate curves are prepared by matching the burning rate of a selected nitramine or combination of nitramines within 10% of burning rate of a plasticized active binder so as to smooth out the break point appearance in the burning rate curve.

  18. Scaly Skin (Ichthyosis Vulgaris)

    MedlinePlus

    ... should improve by restoring moisture (hydration) to the skin. Creams and ointments are better moisturizers than lotions, and ... Physician May Prescribe To treat the dry, scaly skin of ichthyosis ... cream or lotion containing the following: Prescription-strength alpha- ...

  19. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell; NMSC - squamous cell; Squamous cell skin cancer; Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin ... squamous cell cancer is called Bowen disease (or squamous cell carcinoma in situ). This type does not spread to ...

  20. CSD skin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003385.htm CSD skin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The cat scratch disease (CSD) skin test was once used to help ...

  1. Squamous cell skin cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... occur on skin that is regularly exposed to sunlight or other ultraviolet radiation. The earliest form of ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight . Always use sunscreen: Apply sunscreen with sun protection ...

  2. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of ...

  3. Fungal Skin Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fungal Skin Infections Overview of Fungal Skin Infections Candidiasis Overview of Dermatophytoses (Ringworm, Tinea) Athlete's Foot Jock ... are caused by yeasts (such as Candida —see Candidiasis ) or dermatophytes, such as Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton ( ...

  4. Skin color - patchy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injury Exposure to radiation (such as from the sun) Exposure to heavy metals Changes in hormone levels Exposure ... example, lighter-skinned people are more sensitive to sun exposure and damage, which raises the risk of skin ...

  5. Components of skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... skin layers from the outside environment and contains cells that make keratin, a substance that waterproofs and strengthens the skin. The epidermis also has cells that contain melanin, the dark pigment that gives ...

  6. An ultrasonic technique to measure the depth of burn wounds in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Hanna, Pamela D.

    1991-01-01

    Whenever ultrasound encounters discontinuity in its medium of propagation, some energy is reflected from the interface. Such reflections or echoes occur when incident energy encounters the front skin, viable/necrotic, and dermis/fat skin tissue interfaces. It was shown that the most probable cause of the viable/necrotic interface is the uncoiling of collagen in the necrotic tissue, which can cause a reflection at the viable/necrotic interface of approximately 10 percent of the wave amplitude, and is approximately the same as that from the other two interfaces noted. The instrument, still in the prototype stage, was designed to detect the various reflections from within the skin layer. It is shown that, by studying the timing between the various echoes, one can use ultrasound as an aid in diagnosing the depth of burned skin tissue in humans. The instrument is a 60-MHz A-scan unit, modified to more easily identify the echoes occurring within the short time interval during which the reflections are received from the skin layers. A high frequency unit was selected so that various transducers could be utilized to optimize the system. Signal conditioning circuits were modified and added to provide an adequate display of the principle reflections expected. The unit was successful in studying burned tissue in pigs and was recently used to study burn wounds in humans. Measurement techniques and preliminary results are presented.

  7. The Use of CO2 Fractional Photothermolysis for the Treatment of Burn Scars.

    PubMed

    Levi, Benjamin; Ibrahim, Amir; Mathews, Katie; Wojcik, Brandon; Gomez, Jason; Fagan, Shawn; Austen, William Gerald; Goverman, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    A recent advancement in the treatment of burn scars has been the use of the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser to perform fractional photothermolysis. In this analysis, we describe our results and patient-reported outcomes with the use of fractional CO2 laser for the treatment of burn-related scarring. We performed a retrospective study of all patients who underwent CO2 laser procedures for treatment of symptomatic burn scars and skin grafts at one accredited regional burn center. Burn injury and laser treatment demographics, as well as complications, are reported. A questionnaire was administered to all patients and included patient-reported outcome measures aimed at understanding the patient experience and their subjective response to treatment. A total of 387 CO2 laser procedures were performed on 131 patients for the treatment of symptomatic burn scars and skin grafts between October 1, 2011, and May 1, 2014 (average, 2.95 procedures/patient; range, 1-11). Average time between injury and first laser was 597.35 days (range, 60-13,475). Average time between laser treatments (when multiple) was 117.73 days (range, 22-514). There were no infections requiring treatment with oral antibiotics. Overall patient satisfaction with laser therapy was 96.7%. Patients reported reductions in neuropathic pain, tightness (contracture), and pruritus (54.0, 50.6, and 49.0%, respectively). Fractional photothermolysis utilizing the CO2 laser is a safe and effective modality for the treatment of symptomatic burn scars, donor sites, and skin grafts. Patient satisfaction with this procedure is high, and complications are low. Significant improvements in scar appearance, pliability, tightness, neuropathic pain, and pruritus were commonly reported. PMID:26536539

  8. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  9. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  10. 30 CFR 817.87 - Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste...-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.87 Coal mine waste: Burning and burned waste utilization. (a) Coal mine... extinguishing operations. (b) No burning or unburned coal mine waste shall be removed from a permitted...

  11. How to manage burns in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Waitzman, A. A.; Neligan, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    Burns are common injuries; more than 200,000 occur in Canada annually. Nearly all burn injuries can be managed on on outpatient basis. Appropriate treatment depends on burn depth, extent, and location. Special types of burns, such as chemical, tar, and electrical injuries, need specific management strategies. Prevention through education is important to reduce the incidence of burns. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8268745

  12. Review of Burn Research for Year 2014.

    PubMed

    Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2015-01-01

    Management of burn injuries requires treatments and interventions from many disciplines. Worldwide, burn patients suffer from physical and psychological challenges that impact their lives socially and economically. In this review, we will highlight a handful of the numerous articles published in multiple areas of burn care. The areas of burn care addressed in the article are: epidemiology; burn resuscitation, critical care, and infection; nutrition and metabolism; pain and rehabilitation; prevention and firefighter safety; psychology; and reconstruction and wounds. PMID:26204384

  13. K-wire assisted split-thickness skin graft harvesting from the anterior trunk.

    PubMed

    Yontar, Yalcin; Coruh, Atilla; Severcan, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Split thickness skin graft (STSG) harvesting from the anterior chest and abdominal wall skin is quite a difficult process. The main reason for the difficulty to perform this process is the unsuitable anatomic characteristics of the anterior trunk, such as irregular wavy-like surface over the ribs and lax abdominal wall skin resulting in collapse due to lack of adequate underneath supporting structures when a downward force is applied by the skin graft dermatome. Lower extremity and especially the thigh are generally chosen as the donor site where the STSGs are easily harvested from. However, extensive lower extremity burns, with or without other region burns, preclude harvesting auto STSGs from this invaluable anatomic site. We harvested K-wire assisted STSGs from the anterior chest and abdominal wall skin of 7 patients with lower extremity burns and also a patient that sustained motor vehicle collision. We encountered no problems in any of our patients both intra and postoperatively by using K-wire assisted STSG harvesting. All of the STSGs donor sites healed uneventfully without complications. In our opinion, K-wire assisted STSG harvesting must always be in the tool-box of any surgeon who deals with extensive burns with or without lower extremity burns and extensive traumas of lower extremities. PMID:26608017

  14. Friction induced skin tags.

    PubMed

    Allegue, Francisco; Fachal, Carmen; Pérez-Pérez, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    Skin tags are common benign neoplasm located predominantly in intertriginous skin. Generally of cosmetic concern, they can be easily treated with cryotherapy, electrodessication or snip-excision. Despite their high incidence data about their etiopathogenesis are scarce in the medical literature. We describe a patient who developed multiple skin tags arranged in a linear fashion suggesting an etiopathogenic role for friction. PMID:18627719

  15. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is no ...

  16. Psychoneuroimmunology and the Skin.

    PubMed

    Honeyman, Juan F

    2016-08-23

    The nervous, immune, endocrine and integumentary systems are closely related and interact in a number of normal and pathological conditions. Nervous system mediators may bring about direct changes to the skin or may induce the release of immunological or hormonal mediators that cause pathological changes to the skin. This article reviews the psychological mechanisms involved in the development of skin diseases. PMID:27282344

  17. Ultrasound skin imaging.

    PubMed

    Alfageme Roldán, F

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of high-frequency ultrasound waves with the skin provides the basis for noninvasive, fast, and accessible diagnostic imaging. This tool is increasingly used in skin cancer and inflammatory conditions as well as in cosmetic dermatology. This article reviews the basic principles of skin ultrasound and its applications in the different areas of dermatology. PMID:24838227

  18. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  19. Skin self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Skin cancer - self-exam; Melanoma - self-exam; Basal cell cancer - self-exam; Squamous cell - self-exam; Skin mole - self-exam ... Experts do not agree on whether or not skin self-exams should be performed. So there is ...

  20. Review of burn injuries secondary to home oxygen.

    PubMed

    Murabit, Amera; Tredget, Edward E

    2012-01-01

    The use of long-term home oxygen therapy (HOT) has become increasingly common for treatment of chronic pulmonary diseases. Although illegal to smoke while on HOT, there is an increasing incidence of burn injuries in those patients who smoke while on HOT. The importance of recognition of the prevalence of this injury, the obstacles faced when treating these patients, and understanding the proposed algorithmic approach to be taken with patients on HOT, including prescription, reassessment, and prevention of burn injury are outlined in this review. Retrospective epidemiological data including circumstances, admission, treatment, and disposition were collected and reviewed on the patients treated from 1999 to 2008 with burns secondary to smoking while on HOT. Seventeen patients sustained injuries secondary to smoking on HOT over the 9-year period; 9 patients were female and 8 were male. All the patients were on HOT for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Mean patient age was 69.1 ± 2.5 years and mean TBSA 2.8 ± 0.4%; 11.8% (2/17) sustained inhalation injury requiring intubation and 23.5% (4/17) required wound debridement and skin grafting. Mean hospital stay was 42.8 ± 12.5 days; 10.3 ± 5.4 days in the burn intensive care unit and 32.5 ± 11.0 days in the ward. Before the burn injury, 23.5% (4/17) lived in long-term care facilities. On discharge from hospital, 47.1% (8/17) were transferred to extended care facilities or other acute care hospitals, and 11.8% (2/17) died during their hospitalization. After recovery, there was a 35.3% reduction in patients able to return home and/or live independently. A significant number of burn injuries secondary to smoking while on HOT was observed. These patients differ from standard burn patients because they are older in age, have higher rates of inhalation injury, and have much longer lengths of hospitalization, despite smaller TBSA injuries. Prevention of this injury would improve the safety of the patient and those around

  1. ERK2 dependent signaling contributes to wound healing after a partial-thickness burn

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Yasushi Saitoh, Daizoh; Takeuchi, Atsuya; Ojima, Kenichiro; Kouzu, Keita; Kawakami, Saki; Ito, Masataka; Ishihara, Masayuki; Sato, Shunichi; Takishima, Kunio

    2009-03-27

    Burn healing is a complex physiological process involving multiple cell activities, such as cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Although extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) have a pivotal role in regulating a variety of cellular responses, little is known about the individual functions of ERK isoform for healing in vivo. This study investigated the role of ERK2 in burn healing. To assess this, Erk2{sup +/-} mice generated by gene targeting were used. The resultant mice exhibited significant delay in re-epithelization of partial-thickness burns in the skin in comparison to wild-type. An in vitro proliferation assay revealed that keratinocytes from Erk2{sup +/-} mice grew significantly slower than those prepared from wild-type. These results highlight the importance of ERK2 in the process of burn healing.

  2. A Change of Traditional Method of Treatment of Partial Thickness Burn with Hydrofibre Dressings.

    PubMed

    Mitura, Kryspin; Osłowska, Jolanta; Mitura, Alicja

    2015-02-01

    Nearly 1% of population is affected with burn trauma annually. Among patients seeking advanced medical care almost 8% require hospital stay. Most burns are superficial and do not cause full thickness damage to the skin. Standard topical treatment of burn wounds with creams and ointments requires frequent dressings' changes. The healing process is long and expensive. The technological revolution, as occurred in the last decade in the field of dressing care allows us to introduce the use of advanced material solutions. Modern materials allow to shorten the treatment time, reduce the expenses and diminish the patient discomfort leading to good outcome. The study presented a case of four patients treated due to the partial thickness burn wound. Hydrofiber dressing with silver ions were introduced in the treatment. We observed good short and long term results. PMID:26146101

  3. Urostomy - stoma and skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... it well before you attach the pouch. Avoid skin care products that contain alcohol. These can make your ... the pouch to your skin. Use fewer special skin care products. This will make problems with your skin ...

  4. Anyone Can Get Skin Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    No matter if your skin is light, dark, or somewhere in between, everyone is at risk for skin cancer. Learn what skin cancer looks like, how to find it early, and how to lower the chance of skin cancer.

  5. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

    PubMed

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients. PMID:26929531

  6. Developing a trial burn plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walter S.; Wong, Tony; Williams, Gary L.; Brintle, David G.

    1991-04-01

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) was designed to ensure that incineration facilities which treat hazardous wastes operate in an environmentally responsible manner. Under the requirements of RCRA, a trial burn must be conducted in order to obtain a fmalized operating permit. A trial burn is a test which determines whether an incinerator is capable of meeting or exceeding RCRA performance standards. If the standards are met, then the trial burn should identify the operating conditions necessary to ensure the incinerator's ability to meet or exceed the performance standards throughout the life of the permit. Development of the trial burn must incorporate interests of both the permit writer and the applicant. The permit writer wishes to obtain sufficient data necessary to establish the final permit conditions. The applicant wishes to obtain a final permit which allows the greatest flexibility of incinerator operating parameters. The areas of interest to be discussed, which allow the applicant and permit writer to achieve their goals, include understanding the problem, selecting a waste feed, choosing the principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs), determining operating conditions, choosing appropriate sampling methods, and obtaining representative samples (QAIQC). The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of what is required to develop a trial burn plan.

  7. Telemedicine and burns: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Atiyeh, B.; Dibo, S.A.; Janom, H.H..

    2014-01-01

    Summary Access to specialized burn care is becoming more difficult and is being restricted by the decreasing number of specialized burn centers. It is also limited by distance and resources for many patients, particularly those living in poverty or in rural medically underserved communities. Telemedicine is a rapidly evolving technology related to the practice of medicine at a distance through rapid access to remote medical expertise by telecommunication and information technologies. Feasibility of telemedicine in burn care has been demonstrated by various centers. Its use facilitates the delivery of care to patients with burn injuries of all sizes. It allows delivery of acute care and can be appropriately used for a substantial portion of the long-term management of patients after a burn by guiding less-experienced surgeons to treat and follow-up patients more appropriately. Most importantly, it allows better effective triage which reduces unnecessary time and resource demanding referrals that might overwhelm system capacities. However, there are still numerous barriers to the implementation of telemedicine, including technical difficulties, legal uncertainties, limited financial support, reimbursement issues, and an inadequate evidence base of its value and efficiency. PMID:26170782

  8. Release of insulin from PLGA-alginate dressing stimulates regenerative healing of burn wounds in rats.

    PubMed

    Dhall, Sandeep; Silva, João P; Liu, Yan; Hrynyk, Michael; Garcia, Monika; Chan, Alex; Lyubovitsky, Julia; Neufeld, Ronald J; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    Burn wound healing involves a complex set of overlapping processes in an environment conducive to ischaemia, inflammation and infection costing $7.5 billion/year in the U.S.A. alone, in addition to the morbidity and mortality that occur when the burns are extensive. We previously showed that insulin, when topically applied to skin excision wounds, accelerates re-epithelialization and stimulates angiogenesis. More recently, we developed an alginate sponge dressing (ASD) containing insulin encapsulated in PLGA [poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)] microparticles that provides a sustained release of bioactive insulin for >20 days in a moist and protective environment. We hypothesized that insulin-containing ASD accelerates burn healing and stimulates a more regenerative, less scarring healing. Using heat-induced burn injury in rats, we show that burns treated with dressings containing 0.04 mg insulin/cm(2) every 3 days for 9 days have faster closure, a higher rate of disintegration of dead tissue and decreased oxidative stress. In addition, in insulin-treated wounds, the pattern of neutrophil inflammatory response suggests faster clearing of the burned dead tissue. We also observe faster resolution of the pro-inflammatory macrophages. We also found that insulin stimulates collagen deposition and maturation with the fibres organized more like a basket weave (normal skin) than aligned and cross-linked (scar tissue). In summary, application of ASD-containing insulin-loaded PLGA particles on burns every 3 days stimulates faster and more regenerative healing. These results suggest insulin as a potential therapeutic agent in burn healing and, because of its long history of safe use in humans, insulin could become one of the treatments of choice when repair and regeneration are critical for proper tissue function. PMID:26310669

  9. Melanoma and other skin cancers in circumpolar areas.

    PubMed

    Oikarinen, A; Raitio, A

    2000-01-01

    During the recent decades, the thickness of the ozone layer over the northern hemisphere has declined by 10 to 40 percent during the winter and spring months. Since ozone is the major barrier protecting the earth from dangerous short wave UV-radiation (UVB), the depletion in the ozone layer consequently increases the amount of UV-radiation reaching the earth's surface. As a rule a 10 percent reduction in the ozone layer causes ca. 20% increase in UV-radiation and a 40% increase in skin cancers. Thus relatively minor changes in ozone layer thickness may a have marked impact on the health of humans. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in humans, i.e. in Finland about 4000 new basal cell carcinomas, 700 other skin cancers, mostly spinous cell carcinomas and 500 melanomas occur yearly. Up to recent years the incidence of skin cancers has steadily increased in northern countries. As an explanation, changes in sunbathing habits have been suggested to play a central role. Due to the high mortality rate in melanoma, and marked morbidity in other skin cancers, it is important to try to prevent skin cancers and inform the public about the risks of excessive sun exposure, and of the ways in which the skin can be protected. Proper clothing and use of sunscreens have been shown to reduce the incidence of both melanomas and other skin cancers. Furthermore, it is important to identify those at high risk for acquiring skin cancers, like individuals with type 1 skin character (fair skin which burns easily), or numerous dysplastic nevi, or a family history of skin cancers. PMID:10850007

  10. Pursuing prosthetic electronic skin.

    PubMed

    Chortos, Alex; Liu, Jia; Bao, Zhenan

    2016-09-01

    Skin plays an important role in mediating our interactions with the world. Recreating the properties of skin using electronic devices could have profound implications for prosthetics and medicine. The pursuit of artificial skin has inspired innovations in materials to imitate skin's unique characteristics, including mechanical durability and stretchability, biodegradability, and the ability to measure a diversity of complex sensations over large areas. New materials and fabrication strategies are being developed to make mechanically compliant and multifunctional skin-like electronics, and improve brain/machine interfaces that enable transmission of the skin's signals into the body. This Review will cover materials and devices designed for mimicking the skin's ability to sense and generate biomimetic signals. PMID:27376685

  11. Skin Exposure and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Redlich, Carrie A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous occupational and environmental exposures that increase asthma risk have been identified. Research and prevention have focused primarily on the respiratory tract. However, recent studies suggest that the skin may also be an important route of exposure and site of sensitization that contributes to asthma development. Factors that impair skin barrier function, such as filaggrin gene mutations or skin trauma, may facilitate allergen entry and promote Th2-like sensitization and subsequent asthma. Animal studies demonstrate that skin exposure to chemical and protein allergens is highly effective at inducing sensitization, with subsequent inhalation challenge eliciting asthmatic responses. A similar role for human skin exposure to certain sensitizing agents, such as isocyanates, is likely. Skin exposure methodologies are being developed to incorporate skin exposure assessment into epidemiology studies investigating asthma risk factors. PMID:20427586

  12. Droplet burning at zero G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Questions of the importance and feasibility of performing experiments on droplet burning at zero gravity in Spacelab were studied. Information on the physics and chemistry of droplet combustion, with attention directed specifically to the chemical kinetics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid mechanics of the phenomena involved, are presented. The work was divided into three phases, the justification, the feasibility, and the conceptual development of a preliminary design. Results from the experiments performed revealed a few new facts concerning droplet burning, notably burning rates in excess of theoretical prediction and a phenomenon of flash extinction, both likely traceable to accumulation of carbon produced by gas-phase pyrolysis in the fuel-rich zone enclosed by the reaction surface. These experiments also showed that they were primarily due to timing difficulties.

  13. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, M. A.; Stacey, W. M.

    2015-11-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamak reactors, in particular fusion-fission hybrid reactors, e.g. the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor. We are developing a burning plasma dynamics code to explore various aspects of burn control, with the intent to identify feedback mechanisms that would prevent power excursions. This code solves the coupled set of global density and temperature equations, using scaling relations from experimental fits. Predictions of densities and temperatures have been benchmarked against DIII-D data. We are examining several potential feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instability density limits, iii) MHD instability limits, iv) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement, v) modifications to the radial current profile, vi) ``divertor choking'' and vii) Type 1 ELMs. Work supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-00ER54538, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  14. Burn Control Mechanisms in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Maxwell; Stacey, Weston

    2013-10-01

    Burn control and passive safety in accident scenarios will be an important design consideration in future tokamaks, especially those used as a neutron source for fusion-fission hybrid reactors, such as the Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept. At Georgia Tech, we are developing a new burning plasma dynamics code to investigate passive safety mechanisms that could prevent power excursions in tokamak reactors. This code solves the coupled set of balance equations governing burning plasmas in conjunction with a two-point SOL-divertor model. Predictions have been benchmarked against data from DIII-D. We are examining several potential negative feedback mechanisms to limit power excursions: i) ion-orbit loss, ii) thermal instabilities, iii) the degradation of alpha-particle confinement resulting from ripples in the toroidal field, iv) modifications to the radial current profile, v) ``divertor choking'' and vi) Type 1 ELMs.

  15. Floor furnace burns to children.

    PubMed

    Berger, L R; Kalishman, S

    1983-01-01

    Three children with grid-like second-degree burns of their extremities from contact with floor furnace registers prompted an examination of this thermal hazard. Average temperature of the gratings was 294 degrees F (146 degrees C), with a range of 180 degrees to 375 degrees F (82.2 degrees to 191 degrees C). All of the furnaces tested were positioned at the entrance to bedrooms and had so little clearance that it was impossible to walk around them without contact with their surface. Infants and toddlers are at particular risk: 1 or 2 seconds of exposure would be expected to produce a serious burn. Suggestions for preventing burns from floor furnaces include turning them off when young children are at home; installing barrier gates to prevent children from coming in contact with the registers; and developing a surface coating or replacement grate with less hazardous thermal properties. PMID:6848984

  16. Nutrition in Burns: Galveston Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Noe A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Williams, Felicia N.; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria. PMID:21975669

  17. Optical tracking of local surface wave for skin viscoelasticity.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yubo; Lu, Mingzhu; Shen, Zhilong; Wan, Mingxi

    2014-06-01

    Rapid and effective determination of biomechanical properties is important in examining and diagnosing skin thermal injury. Among the methods used, viscoelasticity quantification is one of the most effective methods in determining such properties. This study aims to rapidly determine skin viscoelasticity by optically tracking the local surface wave. New elastic and viscous coefficients were proposed to indicate skin viscoelasticity based on a single impulse response of the skin. Experiments were performed using fresh porcine skin samples. Surface wave was generated in a single impulse using a vibrator with a ball-tipped device and was detected using a laser Doppler vibrometer. The motions along the depth direction were monitored using an ultrasound system. The ultrasound monitoring results indicated the multi-layered viscoelasticity of the epidermis and dermis. The viscoelastic coefficients from four healthy samples show a potential viscoelasticity variation of porcine skin. In one sample, the two coefficients were evidently higher than those in a healthy area if the skin was slightly burned. These results indicate that the proposed method is sensitive, effective, and quick in determining skin viscoelasticity. PMID:24674744

  18. Future Therapies in Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Hodgman, Erica I; Subramanian, Madhu; Arnoldo, Brett D; Phelan, Herb A; Wolf, Steven E

    2016-10-01

    Since the 1940s, the resuscitation of burn patients has evolved with dramatic improvements in mortality. The most significant achievement remains the creation and adoption of formulae to calculate estimated fluid requirements to guide resuscitation. Modalities to attenuate the hypermetabolic phase of injury include pharmacologic agents, early enteral nutrition, and the aggressive approach of early excision of large injuries. Recent investigations into the genomic response to severe burns and the application of computer-based decision support tools will likely guide future resuscitation, with the goal of further reducing mortality and morbidity, and improving functional and quality of life outcomes. PMID:27600132

  19. Tongue protrusion in burned bodies.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Michael; Hejna, Petr

    2016-09-01

    Protrusion of the tongue is a common, though often neglected finding in fire fatalities. According to a study recently published by Bernitz et al., it is an indicator of vital burning. This statement has been doubted repeatedly. Retrospective analysis of 61 fire fatalities from our own autopsy material did not show any statistically significant increased incidence of tongue protrusion in deaths with vital exposure to heat. Similarly, there was no correlation with the degree of destruction by the fire in general or the extent of cervical burning. Further prospective studies seem to be necessary also with regard to the pathophysiological processes. PMID:26987317

  20. Conducting a Prescribed Burn and Prescribed Burning Checklist

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasslands of the central Great Plains developed with periodic fire. Prescribed burning is an important tool for managing grasslands to maintain desirable species composition, increase grazing livestock performance, maintain productivity, and control invasive weeds. The safe and effective use of pre...

  1. Shiunko promotes epithelization of wounded skin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Feng; Hsu, Yao-Chin; Lin, Ching-Nan; Tzeng, Jann-Inn; Chen, Yu-Wen; Wang, Jhi-Joung

    2004-01-01

    Shiunko is a traditional botanic formula (ointment) which is used clinically for the treatment of wounded skin caused by cuts, abrasions, frost or burn. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Shiunko on epithelization of wounded skin. Experimental cutting wounds on the back skin of Sprague-Dawley rats were induced. Different bacterial inoculations (Pseudomonus aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) and treatment (Shiunko, Povidone-iodine and saline) were arranged herein. The incidences of infection and the speed of epithelization were evaluated. We observed that the incidences of wound infection following Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculation were lower on both the Shiunko-treated group (0%, p < 0.01) and Povidine-iodine-treated group (5%, p < 0.05), than the saline-treated group (40%). The Shiunko-treated group reported higher percentages of complete epithelization not only on the sterilized wounds (100%) but also on the contaminated wounds (90%) when compared to the saline-treated group (60% sterilized wounds, 40% and 50% contaminated wounds) on day 7 (p < 0.01). Povidone-iodine did not promote epithelization of wounded skin, whereas Shiunko did. PMID:15344422

  2. Multispectral and Photoplethysmography Optical Imaging Techniques Identify Important Tissue Characteristics in an Animal Model of Tangential Burn Excision.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Jeffrey E; Li, Weizhi; Rodriguez-Vaqueiro, Yolanda; Squiers, John J; Mo, Weirong; Lu, Yang; Plant, Kevin D; Sellke, Eric; King, Darlene R; Fan, Wensheng; Martinez-Lorenzo, Jose A; DiMaio, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    Burn excision, a difficult technique owing to the training required to identify the extent and depth of injury, will benefit from a tool that can cue the surgeon as to where and how much to resect. We explored two rapid and noninvasive optical imaging techniques in their ability to identify burn tissue from the viable wound bed using an animal model of tangential burn excision. Photoplethysmography (PPG) imaging and multispectral imaging (MSI) were used to image the initial, intermediate, and final stages of burn excision of a deep partial-thickness burn. PPG imaging maps blood flow in the skin's microcirculation, and MSI collects the tissue reflectance spectrum in visible and infrared wavelengths of light to classify tissue based on a reference library. A porcine deep partial-thickness burn model was generated and serial tangential excision accomplished with an electric dermatome set to 1.0 mm depth. Excised eschar was stained with hematoxylin and eosin to determine the extent of burn remaining at each excision depth. We confirmed that the PPG imaging device showed significantly less blood flow where burn tissue was present, and the MSI method could delineate burn tissue in the wound bed from the viable wound bed. These results were confirmed independently by a histological analysis. We found these devices can identify the proper depth of excision, and their images could cue a surgeon as to the preparedness of the wound bed for grafting. These image outputs are expected to facilitate clinical judgment in the operating room. PMID:26594863

  3. Reduced fluid volume requirement for resuscitation of third-degree burns with high-dose vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, T; Tanaka, H; Williams, S; Hanumadass, M; Abcarian, H; Reyes, H

    1991-01-01

    The effects of high-dose vitamin C therapy (170 mg, 340 mg, and 680 mg/kg/day) were evaluated in 70% body surface area third-degree burns in guinea pigs that were resuscitated with 1 ml/kg/%burn Ringer's lactate solution. The water content measurements of the burned skin at 24 hours after burn injury in the vitamin C-treated groups were significantly lower than those of the control group (1 ml/kg/%burn) and those of the standard resuscitation group (4 ml/kg/%burn). The cardiac outputs in the group that received 340 mg vitamin C were significantly higher than those of the control group but not significantly different than those of the standard therapy group at 2 hours after burn injury and thereafter. In comparison with the regimen of 340 mg vitamin C, the regimen of 680 mg vitamin C was no more beneficial, and the regimen of 170 mg was less effective. With administration of adjuvant high-dose vitamin C, we were able to reduce the total 24-hour resuscitation volume from 4 ml/kg/%burn to 1 ml/kg/%burn, while a comparable cardiac output was maintained. PMID:1779006

  4. Surgical excision of the burn wound.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Michael J; Gibran, Nicole S

    2009-10-01

    Early excision of the burn eschar has been one of the most significant advances in modern burn care. Historical advances in understanding of the pathophysiology of burn injury and the systemic inflammatory response fueled by the burn wound, and refinements in the techniques of tangential and fascial excision, have led to earlier excision and grafting of the burn wound with improvements in morbidity and mortality. Efforts to control blood loss, and good operative planning and attention to special areas, can lead to the safe excision and grafting of large burns. PMID:19793556

  5. Demographics of pediatric burns in Vellore, India.

    PubMed

    Light, Timothy D; Latenser, Barbara A; Heinle, Jackie A; Stolpen, Margaret S; Quinn, Keely A; Ravindran, Vinitha; Chacko, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The American Burn Association, Children's Burn Foundation, and Christian Medical College in Vellore, India have partnered together to improve pediatric burn care in Southern India. We report the demographics and outcomes of burns in this center, and create a benchmark to measure the effect of the partnership. A comparison to the National Burn Repository is made to allow for generalization and assessment to other burn centers, and to control for known confounders such as burn size, age, and mechanism. Charts from the pediatric burn center in Vellore, India were retrospectively reviewed and compared with data in the American Burn Association National Burn Registry (NBR) for patients younger than 16 years. One hundred nineteen pediatric patients with burns were admitted from January 2004 through April 2007. Average age was 3.8 years; average total body surface area burn was 24%: 64% scald, 30% flame, 6% electric. Annual death rate was 10%, with average fatal total body surface area burn was 40%. Average lengths of stay for survivors was 15 days. Delay of presentation was common (45% of all patients). Thirty-five of 119 patients received operations (29%). Flame burn patients were older (6.1 years vs 2.6 years), larger (30 vs 21%), had a higher fatality rate (19.4 vs 7.7%), and more of them were female (55 vs 47%) compared with scald burn patients. Electric burn patients were oldest (8.3 years) and all male. When compared with data in the NBR, average burn size was larger in Vellore (24 vs 9%). The mortality rate was higher in Vellore (10.1 vs 0.5%). The average mortal burn size in Vellore was smaller (40 vs 51%). Electric burns were more common in Vellore (6.0 vs 1.6%). Contact burns were almost nonexistent in Vellore (0.9 vs 13.1%). The differences in pediatric burn care from developing health care systems to burn centers in the US are manifold. Nonpresentation of smaller cases, and incomplete data in the NBR explain many of the differences. However, burns at this

  6. Understanding and managing burn pain: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Connor-Ballard, Patricia A

    2009-05-01

    Despite advances in treatment of burn injuries and their consequent pain, wound care is the main source of the pain associated with burn injury. This two-part article explores burn pain and its treatment from a nursing perspective. Last month, Part 1 provided an overview of burn injury and addressed the wound care-related causes of burn pain, as well as its assessment and treatment. Part 2, presented here, provides a more in-depth discussion of pain management; topical medications and the psychological aspects of burn pain are also discussed. PMID:19411907

  7. Rapid creation of skin substitutes from human skin cells and biomimetic nanofibers for acute full-thickness wound repair.

    PubMed

    Mahjour, Seyed Babak; Fu, Xiaoling; Yang, Xiaochuan; Fong, Jason; Sefat, Farshid; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-12-01

    Creation of functional skin substitutes within a clinically acceptable time window is essential for timely repair and management of large wounds such as extensive burns. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of fabricating skin substitutes via a bottom-up nanofiber-enabled cell assembly approach and using such substitutes for full-thickness wound repair in nude mice. Following a layer-by-layer (L-b-L) manner, human primary skin cells (fibroblasts and keratinocytes) were rapidly assembled together with electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/collagen (3:1, w/w; 8%, w/v) nanofibers into 3D constructs, in which fibroblasts and keratinocytes were located in the bottom and upper portion respectively. Following culture, the constructs developed into a skin-like structure with expression of basal keratinocyte markers and deposition of new matrix while exhibiting good mechanical strength (as high as 4.0 MPa by 14 days). Treatment of the full-thickness wounds created on the back of nude mice with various grafts (acellular nanofiber meshes, dermal substitutes, skin substitutes and autografts) revealed that 14-day-cultured skin substitutes facilitated a rapid wound closure with complete epithelialization comparable to autografts. Taken together, skin-like substitutes can be formed by L-b-L assembling human skin cells and biomimetic nanofibers and they are effective to heal acute full-thickness wounds in nude mice. PMID:26187057

  8. IL-15 Superagonist Expands mCD8+ T, NK and NKT Cells after Burn Injury but Fails to Improve Outcome during Burn Wound Infection

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Naeem K.; Luan, Liming; Bohannon, Julia K.; Guo, Yin; Hernandez, Antonio; Fensterheim, Benjamin; Sherwood, Edward R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Severely burned patients are highly susceptible to opportunistic infections and sepsis, owing to the loss of the protective skin barrier and immunological dysfunction. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) belongs to the IL-2 family of common gamma chain cytokines and stimulates the proliferation and activation of T (specifically memory CD8), NK and NKT cells. It has been shown to preserve T cell function and improve survival during cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis in mice. However, the therapeutic efficacy of IL-15 or IL-15 superagonist (SA) during infection after burn injury has not been evaluated. Moreover, very few, if any, studies have examined, in detail, the effect of burn injury and infection on the adaptive immune system. Thus, we examined the effect of burn and sepsis on adaptive immune cell populations and the effect of IL-15 SA treatment on the host response to infection. Methods Mice were subjected to a 35% total body surface area burn, followed by wound infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In some experiments, IL-15 SA was administered after burn injury, but before infection. Leukocytes in spleen, liver and peritoneal cavity were characterized using flow cytometry. Bacterial clearance, organ injury and survival were also assessed. Results Burn wound infection led to a significant decline in total white blood cell and lymphocyte counts and induced organ injury and sepsis. Burn injury caused decline in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the spleen, which was worsened by infection. IL-15 treatment inhibited this decline and significantly increased cell numbers and activation, as determined by CD69 expression, of CD4+, CD8+, B, NK and NKT cells in the spleen and liver after burn injury. However, IL-15 SA treatment failed to prevent burn wound sepsis-induced loss of CD4+, CD8+, B, NK and NKT cells and failed to improve bacterial clearance and survival. Conclusion Cutaneous burn injury and infection cause significant adaptive immune dysfunction. IL-15

  9. Clindamycin Phosphate Absorption from Nanoliposomal Formulations through Third-Degree Burn Eschar

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Azadeh; Manafi, Ali; Moghimi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND It has been shown that topical nanoliposomal formulations improve burn healing process. On the other hand, it has been shown that liposomal formulations increase drug deposition in the normal skin while decrease their systemic absorption; there is not such data available for burn eschar. Present investigation studies permeation of clindamycin phosphate (CP) through burn eschar from liposomal formulations to answer this question. In this investigation, permeation of CP through fully hydrated third-degree burn eschar was evaluated using solution, normal nanoliposomes and ultradeformable nanoliposomes. METHODS Liposomal CP were prepared by thin-film hydration and characterized in terms of size, size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and short-time stability. Then the effect of liposomal lipid concentration on CP absorption was investigated. RESULTS The permeability coefficient ratio (liposome/solution) and permeation lag-time ratio (liposome/solution) of CP through burn eschar at 20 Mm lipid concentration were 0.81±0.21 and 1.19±1.30 respectively, indicating the retardation effects of liposomes. Data also showed that increasing liposomal lipid concentration from 20 to 100 mM, clindamycin permeation decreased by about 2 times. There was no difference between normal liposome and ultradeformable liposome in terms of clindamycin absorption. CONCLUSION Nanoliposomes could decrease trans-eschar absorption of CP, in good agreement with normal skin data, and might indicate CP deposition in the eschar tissue. PMID:26284183

  10. The Use of Growth Factors and Other Humoral Agents to Accelerate and Enhance Burn Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Yiu-Hei; Sutton, Thomas L.; Pierpont, Yvonne N.; Robson, Martin C.; Payne, Wyatt G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Certain cytokines, especially those known as growth factors, have been demonstrated to mediate or modulate burn wound healing. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that there are therapeutic advantages to the wound healing process when these agents are utilized. Positive effects have been reported for 4 types of wounds seen in the burn patient: partial-thickness wounds, full-thickness wounds, interstices of meshed skin grafts, and skin graft donor sites. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using the MEDLINE, Ovid, and Web of Science databases to identify pertinent articles regarding growth factors and other cytokines in burns and wound healing. Results: The current knowledge about cytokine growth factors and their potential therapeutic applications in burn wound healing are discussed and reviewed. Conclusions: Platelet-derived growth factor, fibroblast growth factors, epidermal growth factors, transforming growth factor alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor I, nerve growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and amnion-derived cellular cytokine solution have all been suggested to enhance the rate and quality of healing in 1 or more of these wounds encountered in burn care. PMID:22084646

  11. Epidemiology of U.K. military burns.

    PubMed

    Foster, Mark Anthony; Moledina, Jamil; Jeffery, Steve L A

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the etiology of U.K. military burns in light of increasing hybrid warfare. Analysis of the nature of these injured personnel will provide commanders with the evidence to plan for on-going and future operations. Case notes of all U.K. Armed Forces burn injured patients who were evacuated to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine were reviewed. Demographics, burn severity, pattern, and mortality details were included. There were 134 U.K. military personnel with burns requiring return to the United Kingdom during 2001-2007. The median age was 27 (20-62) years. Overall, 60% of burns seen were "accidental." Burning waste, misuse or disrespect of fuel, and scalds were the most prevalent noncombat burns. Areas commonly burned were the face, legs, and hands. During 2006-2007 in the two major conflicts, more than 59% (n = 36) of the burned patients evacuated to the United Kingdom were injured during combat. Burns sustained in combat represent 5.8% of all combat casualties and were commonly associated with other injuries. Improvised explosive device, minestrike, and rocket-propelled grenade were common causes. The mean TBSA affected for both groups was 5% (1-70). The majority of combat burn injuries have been small in size. Greater provision of flame retardant equipment and clothing may reduce the extent and number of combat burns in the future. The numbers of noncombat burns are being reduced by good military discipline. PMID:21422938

  12. Pulsed electric fields for burn wound disinfection in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Golberg, Alexander; Broelsch, G Felix; Vecchio, Daniela; Khan, Saiqa; Hamblin, Michael R; Austen, William G; Sheridan, Robert L; Yarmush, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    Emerging bacterial resistance renders many antibiotics ineffective, making alternative strategies of wound disinfection important. Here the authors report on a new, physical burn wound disinfection method: pulsed electric fields (PEFs). High voltage, short PEFs create nonthermal, permanent damage to cell membranes, possibly by irreversible electroporation. In medicine, PEF technology has recently been used for nonthermal ablation of solid tumors. The authors have expanded the spectrum of PEF applications in medicine to burn wound disinfection. A third-degree burn was induced on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice. Immediately after the injury, the burn wound was infected with Acinetobacter baumannii expressing the luxCDABE operon. Thirty minutes after infection, the infected areas were treated with 80 pulses delivered at 500 V/mm, 70 μs, 1 Hz. The authors used bioluminescence to quantify bacteria on skin. Three animals were used for each experimental condition. PEFs were effective in the disinfection of infected burned murine skin. The bacterial load reduction correlated with the number of delivered pulses. Forty pulses of 500 V/mm led to a 2.04 ± 0.29 Log10 reduction in bacterial load; 80 pulses led to the immediate 5.53 ± 0.30 Log10 reduction. Three hours after PEF, the bacterial reduction of the skin treated with 500 V/mm, 80 pulses was 4.91 ± 0.71 Log10. The authors introduce a new method of wound disinfection using high voltage, short PEFs. They believe that PEF technology may represent an important alternative to antibiotics in addressing bacterial contamination of wounds, particularly those contaminated with multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:25167374

  13. Full-thickness burn to the hand from an automobile airbag.

    PubMed

    Vitello, W; Kim, M; Johnson, R M; Miller, S

    1999-01-01

    An 18-year-old male was involved in a single car motor vehicle accident in which the driver's side airbag was deployed. He presented to the trauma center with complex injuries to the left hand, lacerations to the scalp, and a full-thickness burn to the ulnar aspect of the right hand that included the hypothenar area and the fifth digit. The patient was admitted to the trauma center and received immediate consultation from the burn service. He underwent debridement and split-thickness skin grafting of 50 cm2 of the right hand on postburn day 3. The graft became necrotic and the patient underwent debridement of the skin and the abductor minimi muscle of the right hand on postburn day 32. Split-thickness skin grafting and release of flexion contracture were successfully completed 18 days later. The police and fire departments reported that the airbag showed signs of thermal destruction. Upon request, Honda motors submitted information from the TRW safety systems and material safety data sheet (Mesa, Ariz, issued 1989) that showed that airbag canisters contain the chemicals sodium azide and cupric oxide. Water may react with sodium azide to form highly toxic and explosive hyfrazoic acid. These chemicals are converted to sodium hydroxide, which can cause significant chemical burns. In addition, these chemicals may ignite when exposed to live electrical wires or temperatures greater than 300 degrees F. We conclude that burns associated with damaged deployed airbags in motor vehicle accidents may be the results of both chemical and thermal injury. The extent of the burn wound may be underestimated, as our case illustrates. Full-thickness burns resulting from airbag deployment may require more aggressive initial debridement and treatment. PMID:10342473

  14. Cost of providing inpatient burn care in a tertiary, teaching, hospital of North India.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Goswami, Prasenjit

    2013-06-01

    . There were 299 operations carried out in the dedicated burns theatre. The total expenditure for the study period was Indian Rupees (Rs) 46,488,067 or US$ 845,237. At 1 US$=Rs 55 it makes the cost per patient to be US$ 1060.5. Almost 70% of cost of burn management resulted from salaries, followed by investigations (11.56%) and dressings (8.24%). The mean cost of investigations per patient was Rs 6742.46 (US$ 122.59). Only 147/797 patients received 322 units of blood. Thus, the average cost of blood transfusion for all admissions was Rs 521.17 (US$ 9.47). Our study is evidence to direct costs of providing burn care in a tertiary centre of a low income country, and the large number of patients in our study while averaging the costs also validates the estimates. The 'reasonability' of care being delivered is defined by adequate resuscitation, daily topical dressings, appropriate surgery (escharotomy, debridement, and skin grafting), adequate nutrition and physical therapy. The 'reasonability' of outcomes can be measured by mortality figures. The bottom line of management is strict observation by burn staff. The low mean hospital stay also reflects our admission and discharge policy which is to benefit the maximum number of patients who require resuscitative/intensive care, and who have extensive and deep wounds, or injury of critical nature. We conclude that providing burn care based on our model can be emulated in other LICs as the costing is driven by 'necessity of expense' rather than 'ability to spend'. PMID:23523069

  15. Antibiotics and the burn patient.

    PubMed

    Ravat, François; Le-Floch, Ronan; Vinsonneau, Christophe; Ainaud, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Carsin, Hervé; Perro, Gérard

    2011-02-01

    Infection is a major problem in burn care and especially when it is due to bacteria with hospital-acquired multi-resistance to antibiotics. Moreover, when these bacteria are Gram-negative organisms, the most effective molecules are 20 years old and there is little hope of any new product available even in the distant future. Therefore, it is obvious that currently available antibiotics should not be misused. With this aim in mind, the following review was conducted by a group of experts from the French Society for Burn Injuries (SFETB). It examined key points addressing the management of antibiotics for burn patients: when to use or not, time of onset, bactericidia, combination, adaptation, de-escalation, treatment duration and regimen based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these compounds. The authors also considered antibioprophylaxis and some other key points such as: infection diagnosis criteria, bacterial inoculae and local treatment. French guidelines for the use of antibiotics in burn patients have been designed up from this work. PMID:20510518

  16. The Burn-Out Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Ruth Christ

    1979-01-01

    An article is presented on the "burn-out" of parents, particularly those of autistic children (i.e., the exhaustion of their psychological and/or physical resources as a result of long and intense caring for their children), along with the comments and responses of five parents and professionals. (DLS)

  17. Suicidal burn in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, R C; Burd, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of our study is to review our experience in the management of patients who sustained burns associated with suicidal attempts over a 10-year period. In particular, we look into the outcome and incidence of self-harm/suicide after discharge among the survivors. Thirty-one patients with median age 36 years, ranging from 10 to 74, were included. Twenty-three (74%) were males and eight (26%) were females. Nearly three quarters (74%) of our patients had a known history of psychiatric illness: 11 had known history of substance abuse; 3 of them had drug-induced psychosis; 6 had schizophrenia; 5 had depression; 4 had personality disorders; 1 had pathological gambling and another one had adjustment disorder. Relationship problems and work/financial difficulties were the commonest reason for the suicidal attempts. Self-inflicted flame burn was the most frequent (39%; 12 patients) method of burning. Six patients (19%) died. The remaining 25 patients healed and were discharged. Seventeen patients required ICU care. The median length of stay in ICU was 7 days. The overall median length of stay was 35 days. The median follow up time for those survived is 63 months. Only 4 of these patients had further suicidal/parasuicidal attempts. Despite the high mortality, once these patients survived the initial injury, they are unlikely to commit suicide again. Thus, we believe that aggressive resuscitation should therefore be advocated for all suicidal burn patients. PMID:22360959

  18. Skin Regeneration Symposium Cambridge, 12-13 April 2016.

    PubMed

    Hill, Rosalind

    2016-07-01

    The Annual Skin Regeneration Symposium, held in Cambridge, UK, 12-13 April 2016, explored the latest advancements in skin repair, regeneration and restoration, and the impact this has on patients. With over 140 delegates from the disciplines of burn and trauma care, chronic wounds and esthetic medicine, the symposium sparked lively debate and the sharing of results from interesting case studies, clinical trials and basic research to support the use of a Regenerative Epithelial Suspension produced using the ReCell(®) technology. Furthermore, it enabled delegates and speakers alike to share ideas and discuss how to improve the quality of care for patients. PMID:27357476

  19. Fractional CO2 laser treatment for a skin graft.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Farid E; Habre, Maya B; Helou, Josiane F; Tohme, Roland G; Tomb, Roland R

    2016-01-01

    Skin grafts are widely used in reconstructive and plastic surgery, leaving an inevitable scar appearance on the body, affecting the quality of life of the patients. Fractional ablative lasers have become a leading procedure for the treatment of acne and burn scars. We report a case of a skin graft showing excellent improvement in overall appearance after three sessions of fractional CO2 laser. The undamaged tissue left between the microthermal treatment zones is responsible of collagen formation and reepithelialization. Remodeling and collagen formation are observed even 6 months after a fractional CO2 laser session. PMID:26052811

  20. Scarring, stem cells, scaffolds and skin repair.

    PubMed

    Markeson, Daniel; Pleat, Jonathon M; Sharpe, Justin R; Harris, Adrian L; Seifalian, Alexander M; Watt, Suzanne M

    2015-06-01

    The treatment of full thickness skin loss, which can be extensive in the case of large burns, continues to represent a challenging clinical entity. This is due to an on-going inability to produce a suitable tissue engineered substrate that can satisfactorily replicate the epidermal and dermal in vivo niches to fulfil both aesthetic and functional demands. The current gold standard treatment of autologous skin grafting is inadequate because of poor textural durability, scarring and associated contracture, and because of a paucity of donor sites in larger burns. Tissue engineering has seen exponential growth in recent years with a number of 'off-the-shelf' dermal and epidermal substitutes now available. Each has its own limitations. In this review, we examine normal wound repair in relation to stem/progenitor cells that are intimately involved in this process within the dermal niche. Endothelial precursors, in particular, are examined closely and their phenotype, morphology and enrichment from multiple sources are described in an attempt to provide some clarity regarding the controversy surrounding their classification and role in vasculogenesis. We also review the role of the next generation of cellularized scaffolds and smart biomaterials that attempt to improve the revascularisation of artificial grafts, the rate of wound healing and the final cosmetic and functional outcome. PMID:24668923