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1

Designing Inhibitors of Anthrax Toxin  

PubMed Central

Introduction Present-day rational drug design approaches are based on exploiting unique features of the target biomolecules, small- or macromolecule drug candidates, and physical forces that govern their interactions. The 2013 Nobel Prize in chemistry awarded “for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems” once again demonstrated the importance of the tailored drug discovery that reduces the role of the trial and error approach to a minimum. The “rational drug design” term is rather comprehensive as it includes all contemporary methods of drug discovery where serendipity and screening are substituted by the information-guided search for new and existing compounds. Successful implementation of these innovative drug discovery approaches is inevitably preceded by learning the physics, chemistry, and physiology of functioning of biological structures under normal and pathological conditions. Areas covered This article provides an overview of the recent rational drug design approaches to discover inhibitors of anthrax toxin. Some of the examples include small-molecule and peptide-based post-exposure therapeutic agents as well as several polyvalent compounds. The review also directs the reader to the vast literature on the recognized advances and future possibilities in the field. Expert opinion Existing options to combat anthrax toxin lethality are limited. With the only anthrax toxin inhibiting therapy (PA-targeting with a monoclonal antibody, raxibacumab) approved to treat inhalational anthrax, in our view, the situation is still insecure. The FDA’s animal rule for drug approval, which clears compounds without validated efficacy studies on humans, creates a high level of uncertainty, especially when a well-characterized animal model does not exist. Besides, unlike PA, which is known to be unstable, LF remains active in cells and in animal tissues for days. Therefore, the effectiveness of the post-exposure treatment of the individuals with anti-PA therapeutics can be time-dependent, requiring coordinated use of membrane permeable small-molecule inhibitors, which block the LF and EF enzymatic activity intracellularly. The desperate search for an ideal anthrax antitoxin allowed researchers to gain important knowledge of the basic principles of small-molecule interactions with their protein targets that could be easily transferred to other systems. At the same time, better identification and validation of anthrax toxin therapeutic targets at the molecular level, which include understanding of the physical forces underlying the target/drug interaction, as well as elucidation of the parameters determining the corresponding therapeutic windows, require further examination. PMID:24447197

Nestorovich, Ekaterina M.; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

2014-01-01

2

Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm.

Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

2013-08-01

3

Ratcheting up protein translocation with anthrax toxin  

PubMed Central

Energy-consuming nanomachines catalyze the directed movement of biopolymers in the cell. They are found both dissolved in the aqueous cytosol as well as embedded in lipid bilayers. Inquiries into the molecular mechanism of nanomachine-catalyzed biopolymer transport have revealed that these machines are equipped with molecular parts, including adjustable clamps, levers, and adaptors, which interact favorably with substrate polypeptides. Biological nanomachines that catalyze protein transport, known as translocases, often require that their substrate proteins unfold before translocation. An unstructured protein chain is likely entropically challenging to bind, push, or pull in a directional manner, especially in a way that produces an unfolding force. A number of ingenious solutions to this problem are now evident in the anthrax toxin system, a model used to study protein translocation. Here we highlight molecular ratchets and current research on anthrax toxin translocation. A picture is emerging of proton-gradient-driven anthrax toxin translocation, and its associated ratchet mechanism likely applies broadly to other systems. We suggest a cyclical thermodynamic order-to-disorder mechanism (akin to a heat-engine cycle) is central to underlying protein translocation: peptide substrates nonspecifically bind to molecular clamps, which possess adjustable affinities; polypeptide substrates compress into helical structures; these clamps undergo proton-gated switching; and the substrate subsequently expands regaining its unfolded state conformational entropy upon translocation. PMID:22374876

Feld, Geoffrey K; Brown, Michael J; Krantz, Bryan A

2012-01-01

4

Induction of autophagy by anthrax lethal toxin.  

PubMed

Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved intracellular process whereby cells break down long-lived proteins and organelles. Accumulating evidences suggest increasing physiological significance of autophagy in pathogenesis of infectious diseases. Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) exerts its influence on numerous cells and herein, we report a novel effect of LT-induced autophagy on mammalian cells. Several autophagy biochemical markers including LC3-II conversion, increased punctuate distribution of GFP-LC3 and development of acidic vesicular organelles (AVO) were detected in cells treated with LT. Analysis of individual LT component revealed a moderate increase in LC3-II conversion for protective antigen-treated cells, whereas the LC3-II level in lethal factor-treated cells remained unchanged. In addition, our preliminary findings suggest a protective role of autophagy in LT intoxication as autophagy inhibition resulted in accelerated cell death. This study presents a hitherto undescribed effect of LT-induced autophagy on cells and provides the groundwork for future studies on the implication of autophagy in anthrax pathogenesis. PMID:19103170

Tan, Yian Kim; Kusuma, Caroline M; St John, Lena J; Vu, Hao A; Alibek, Kenneth; Wu, Aiguo

2009-02-01

5

Structure-based Design of a Heptavalent Anthrax Toxin Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

The design of polyvalent molecules, consisting of multiple copies of a biospecific ligand attached to a suitable scaffold, represents a promising approach to inhibit pathogens and oligomeric microbial toxins. Despite the increasing interest in structure-based drug design, few polyvalent inhibitors based on this approach have shown efficacy in vivo. Here we demonstrate the structure-based design of potent biospecific heptavalent inhibitors of anthrax lethal toxin. Specifically, we illustrate the ability to design potent polyvalent ligands by matching the pattern of binding sites on the biological target. We used a combination of experimental studies based on mutagenesis and computational docking studies to identify the binding site for an inhibitory peptide on the heptameric subunit of anthrax toxin. We developed an approach based on copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (click-chemistry) to facilitate the attachment of seven copies of the inhibitory peptide to a ?-cyclodextrin core via a polyethylene glycol linker of an appropriate length. The resulting heptavalent inhibitors neutralized anthrax lethal toxin both in vitro and in vivo and showed appreciable stability in serum. Given the inherent biocompatibility of cyclodextrin and polyethylene glycol, these potent well-defined heptavalent inhibitors show considerable promise as anthrax anti-toxins. PMID:21302959

Joshi, Amit; Kate, Sandesh; Poon, Vincent; Mondal, Dhananjoy; Boggara, Mohan B.; Saraph, Arundhati; Martin, Jacob T.; McAlpine, Ryan; Day, Ryan; Garcia, Angel E.; Mogridge, Jeremy; Kane, Ravi S.

2011-01-01

6

Identification of the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tripartite toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, helps the bacterium evade the immune system and can kill the host during a systemic infection. Two components of the toxin enzymatically modify substrates within the cytosol of mammalian cells: oedema factor (OF) is an adenylate cyclase that impairs host defences through a variety of mechanisms including inhibiting phagocytosis; lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent protease that cleaves mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and causes lysis of macrophages. Protective antigen (PA), the third component, binds to a cellular receptor and mediates delivery of the enzymatic components to the cytosol. Here we describe the cloning of the human PA receptor using a genetic complementation approach. The receptor, termed ATR (anthrax toxin receptor), is a type I membrane protein with an extracellular von Willebrand factor A domain that binds directly to PA. In addition, a soluble version of this domain can protect cells from the action of the toxin.

Bradley, Kenneth A.; Mogridge, Jeremy; Mourez, Michael; Collier, R. John; Young, John A. T.

2001-11-01

7

Calpain-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangement exploited for anthrax toxin endocytosis  

PubMed Central

The protective antigen component of Bacillus anthracis toxins can interact with at least three distinct proteins on the host cell surface, capillary morphogenesis gene 2 (CMG2), tumor endothelial marker 8, and ?1-integrin, and, with the assistance of other host proteins, enters targeted cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Using an antisense-based phenotypic screen, we discovered the role of calpains in this process. We show that functions of a ubiquitous Ca2+-dependent cysteine protease, calpain-2, and of the calpain substrate talin-1 are exploited for association of anthrax toxin and its principal receptor, CMG2, with higher-order actin filaments and consequently for toxin entry into host cells. Down-regulated expression of calpain-2 or talin-1, or pharmacological interference with calpain action, did not affect toxin binding but reduced endocytosis and increased the survival of cells exposed to anthrax lethal toxin. Adventitious expression of wild-type talin-1 promoted toxin endocytosis and lethality, whereas expression of a talin-1 mutant (L432G) that is insensitive to calpain cleavage did not. Disruption of talin-1, which links integrin-containing focal adhesion complexes to the actin cytoskeleton, facilitated association of toxin bound to its principal cell-surface receptor, CMG2, with higher-order actin filaments undergoing dynamic disassembly and reassembly during endocytosis. Our results reveal a mechanism by which a bacterial toxin uses constitutively occurring calpain-mediated cytoskeletal rearrangement for internalization. PMID:24085852

Jeong, Sun-Young; Martchenko, Mikhail; Cohen, Stanley N.

2013-01-01

8

Anthrax Lethal and Edema Toxins Fail to Directly Impair Human Platelet Function  

PubMed Central

Hemorrhage is a prominent clinical manifestation of systemic anthrax. Therefore, we have examined the effects of anthrax lethal and edema toxins on human platelets. We find that anthrax lethal toxin fails to cleave its target, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, and anthrax edema toxin fails to increase intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Surface expression of toxin receptors tumor endothelial marker 8 and capillary morphogenesis gene 2, as well as coreceptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), are markedly reduced, preventing toxin binding to platelets. Our studies suggest that the hemorrhagic clinical manifestations of systemic anthrax are unlikely to be caused by the direct binding and entry of anthrax toxins into human platelets. PMID:22158563

Chauncey, Kassidy M.; Szarowicz, Sarah E.; Sidhu, Gurjit S.; During, Russell L.

2012-01-01

9

Polyvalent Recognition of Biopolymers:The Design of Potent Inhibitors of Anthrax Toxin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyvalency -- the simultaneous binding of multiple ligands on one entity to multiple receptors on another -- is a phenomenon that is ubiquitous in nature. We are using a biomimetic approach, inspired by polyvalency, to design potent inhibitors of anthrax toxin. Since the major symptoms and death from anthrax are due primarily to the action of anthrax toxin, the toxin is a prime target for therapeutic intervention. We describe the design of potent polyvalent anthrax toxin inhibitors, and will discuss the role of pattern matching in polyvalent recognition. Pattern-matched polyvalent inhibitors can neutralize anthrax toxin in vivo, and may enable the successful treatment of anthrax during the later stages of the disease, when antibiotic treatment is ineffective.

Kane, Ravi

2007-03-01

10

Anthrax  

MedlinePLUS

Woolsorter's disease; Ragpicker's disease; Cutaneous anthrax; Gastrointestinal anthrax ... Anthrax commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep, cattle, and goats. Humans who come into contact with ...

11

Anthrax  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Anthrax Information for adults A A A In cutaneous anthrax, skin lesions quickly turn into blisters (vesicles) then form black ... Scientists studying B. anthracis Signs and Symptoms Cutaneous Anthrax Characteristic rash* *The characteristic rash of anthrax looks ...

12

Suppressive Effects of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on Megakaryopoiesis  

PubMed Central

Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is a major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis. LT challenge suppresses platelet counts and platelet function in mice, however, the mechanism responsible for thrombocytopenia remains unclear. LT inhibits cellular mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which are vital pathways responsible for cell survival, differentiation, and maturation. One of the MAPKs, the MEK1/2-extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway, is particularly important in megakaryopoiesis. This study evaluates the hypothesis that LT may suppress the progenitor cells of platelets, thereby inducing thrombocytopenic responses. Using cord blood-derived CD34+ cells and mouse bone marrow mononuclear cells to perform in vitro differentiation, this work shows that LT suppresses megakaryopoiesis by reducing the survival of megakaryocytes. Thrombopoietin treatments can reduce thrombocytopenia, megakaryocytic suppression, and the quick onset of lethality in LT-challenged mice. These results suggest that megakaryocytic suppression is one of the mechanisms by which LT induces thrombocytopenia. These findings may provide new insights for developing feasible approaches against anthrax. PMID:23555687

Lin, Guan-Ling; Wang, Tsung-Pao; Lai, Yi-Ling; Lin, Ting-Kai; Hsieh, Ming-Chun; Kau, Jyh-Hwa; Huang, Hsin-Hsien; Hsu, Hui-Ling; Liao, Chi-Yuan; Sun, Der-Shan

2013-01-01

13

Detection of Anthrax Toxin in the Serum of Animals Infected with Bacillus anthracis by Using Engineered Immunoassays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 15 December 2005\\/Returned for modification 6 March 2006\\/Accepted 17 April 2006 Several strategies that target anthrax toxin are being developed as therapies for infection by Bacillus anthracis. Although the action of the tripartite anthrax toxin has been extensively studied in vitro, relatively little is known about the presence of toxins during an infection in vivo. We developed a series

Robert Mabry; Kathleen Brasky; Robert Geiger; Ricardo Carrion; G. B. Hubbard; S. Leppla; J. L. Patterson; G. Georgiou; B. L. Iverson

2006-01-01

14

Anthrax  

MedlinePLUS

Anthrax is a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, a germ that lives in soil. Many people know ... bioterror attacks. In the attacks, someone purposely spread anthrax through the U.S. mail. This killed five people ...

15

Anthrax  

E-print Network

samples for laboratory analysis and advise you on carcass burning. L-5402 7-01 ANTHRAX Bruce Lawhorn Professor and Extension Swine Veterinarian The Texas A&M University System Anthrax can be treated with several antibiotics. Penicillin and oxytetracycline...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2001-08-09

16

[Anthrax revisited: Bacillus anthracis toxins as novel actors of immune escape?].  

PubMed

The recent bioterrorist attacks have stressed the need of a better knowledge of Bacillus anthracis infection pathophysiology. We present here the increasing interests of B. anthracis studies in term of bio-defense, the main pathogen characteristics, the main clinical features of inhalational anthrax (the pulmonary form of the disease), and recent aspects of its physiopathology. Next, we address the main results concerning the toxin effects on immune system through impairing the dendritic cell functions, and we analyze the singular role of anthrax toxins in immune evasion. PMID:16878452

Tournier, Jean-Nicolas; Quesnel-Hellmann, Anne; Cleret, Aurélie; Mathieu, Jacques; Goossens, Pierre L; Mock, Michèle; Vidal, Dominique R

2006-01-01

17

Certhrax Toxin, an Anthrax-related ADP-ribosyltransferase from Bacillus cereus*  

PubMed Central

We identified Certhrax, the first anthrax-like mART toxin from the pathogenic G9241 strain of Bacillus cereus. Certhrax shares 31% sequence identity with anthrax lethal factor from Bacillus anthracis; however, we have shown that the toxicity of Certhrax resides in the mART domain, whereas anthrax uses a metalloprotease mechanism. Like anthrax lethal factor, Certhrax was found to require protective antigen for host cell entry. This two-domain enzyme was shown to be 60-fold more toxic to mammalian cells than anthrax lethal factor. Certhrax localizes to distinct regions within mouse RAW264.7 cells by 10 min postinfection and is extranuclear in its cellular location. Substitution of catalytic residues shows that the mART function is responsible for the toxicity, and it binds NAD+ with high affinity (KD = 52.3 ± 12.2 ?m). We report the 2.2 ? Certhrax structure, highlighting its structural similarities and differences with anthrax lethal factor. We also determined the crystal structures of two good inhibitors (P6 (KD = 1.7 ± 0.2 ?m, Ki = 1.8 ± 0.4 ?m) and PJ34 (KD = 5.8 ± 2.6 ?m, Ki = 9.6 ± 0.3 ?m)) in complex with Certhrax. As with other toxins in this family, the phosphate-nicotinamide loop moves toward the NAD+ binding site with bound inhibitor. These results indicate that Certhrax may be important in the pathogenesis of B. cereus. PMID:22992735

Visschedyk, Danielle; Rochon, Amanda; Tempel, Wolfram; Dimov, Svetoslav; Park, Hee-Won; Merrill, A. Rod

2012-01-01

18

New developments in vaccines, inhibitors of anthrax toxins, and antibiotic therapeutics for Bacillus anthracis.  

PubMed

Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent responsible for anthrax infections, poses a significant biodefense threat. There is a high mortality rate associated with untreated anthrax infections; specifically, inhalation anthrax is a particularly virulent form of infection with mortality rates close to 100%, even with aggressive treatment. Currently, a vaccine is not available to the general public and few antibiotics have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of inhalation anthrax. With the threat of natural or engineered bacterial resistance to antibiotics and the limited population for whom the current drugs are approved, there is a clear need for more effective treatments against this deadly infection. A comprehensive review of current research in drug discovery is presented in this article, including efforts to improve the purity and stability of vaccines, design inhibitors targeting the anthrax toxins, and identify inhibitors of novel enzyme targets. High resolution structural information for the anthrax toxins and several essential metabolic enzymes has played a significant role in aiding the structure-based design of potent and selective antibiotics. PMID:22050756

Beierlein, J M; Anderson, A C

2011-01-01

19

Nasal immunization with a dual antigen anthrax vaccine induced strong mucosal and systemic immune responses against toxins and bacilli.  

PubMed

Anthrax-vaccine-adsorbed (AVA), the only anthrax vaccine licensed in the U.S., suffers from many major drawbacks. Therefore, there is a need to develop new generation anthrax vaccines that can be easily administered and induce strong immune responses not only against the anthrax toxins, but also against the toxin-producing vegetative anthrax bacilli. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of inducing strong mucosal and systemic immune responses against both anthrax toxins and bacilli after nasal immunization using a synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C) or pI:C), as the adjuvant. We have shown that the capsular poly-gamma-D-glutamic acid (PGA) from bacillus was immunogenic when conjugated to a carrier protein and dosed intranasally to mice. We further demonstrated that nasal immunization with the PGA-carrier protein conjugate in combination with the anthrax protective antigen (PA) protein induced both anti-PGA and anti-PA immune responses in mouse sera and lung mucosal secretions. The anti-PA antibody (Ab) response was shown to have anthrax lethal toxin neutralization activity; and the anti-PGA Abs induced were able to activate complement and kill PGA-producing bacteria. These findings demonstrated that it is feasible to develop a novel dual-action nasal anthrax vaccine. PMID:16828937

Sloat, Brian R; Cui, Zhengrong

2006-09-29

20

Anti-toxin antibodies in prophylaxis and treatment of inhalation anthrax  

PubMed Central

The CDC recommend 60 days of oral antibiotics combined with a three-dose series of the anthrax vaccine for prophylaxis after potential exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores. The anthrax vaccine is currently not licensed for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis and has to be made available under an Investigational New Drug protocol. Postexposure prophylaxis based on antibiotics can be problematic in cases where the use of antibiotics is contraindicated. Furthermore, there is a concern that an exposure could involve antibiotic-resistant strains of B. anthracis. Availability of alternate treatment modalities that are effective in prophylaxis of inhalation anthrax is therefore highly desirable. A major research focus toward this end has been on passive immunization using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against B. anthracis toxin components. Since 2001, significant progress has been made in isolation and commercial development of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies that function as potent neutralizers of anthrax lethal toxin in both a prophylactic and therapeutic setting. Several new products have completed Phase I clinical trials and are slated for addition to the National Strategic Stockpile. These rapid advances were possible because of major funding made available by the US government through programs such as Bioshield and the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority. Continued government funding is critical to support the development of a robust biodefense industry. PMID:19207098

Schneemann, Anette; Manchester, Marianne

2009-01-01

21

The Design of Potent Liposome-Based Inhibitors of Anthrax Toxin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several biological processes involve the recognition of a specific pattern of binding sites on a target surface. Theoreticians have predicted that endowing synthetic biomimetic structures with statistical pattern matching capabilities may impact the development of sensors and separation processes. We demonstrated for the first time that statistical pattern matching significantly enhances the potency of a polyvalent therapeutic -- an anthrax toxin inhibitor. We functionalized liposomes with an inhibitory peptide at different densities and observed a transition in potency at an inter-peptide separation that matches the distance between ligand-binding sites on the heptameric subunit of anthrax toxin. Pattern-matched polyvalent liposomes neutralized anthrax toxin in vitro at concentrations four orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding monovalent peptide. We also showed that polyvalent liposome-based inhibitors can neutralize a microbial toxin in vivo. Statistical pattern matching represents a facile strategy to enhance the potency of therapeutics targeting toxins or pathogens. Our results also illuminate other fundamental aspects of polyvalent recognition --specifically we found that the efficiency of polyvalent inhibition is influenced by the competition between the rates of ligand dissociation and diffusion.

Rai, Prakash; Padala, Chakradhar; Poon, Vincent; Saraph, Arundhati; Basha, Saleem; Kate, Sandesh; Tao, Kevin; Mogridge, Jeremy; Kane, Ravi

2006-03-01

22

Comparative toxicity and efficacy of engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants with broad anti-tumor activities.  

PubMed

We have previously designed and characterized versions of anthrax lethal toxin that are selectively cytotoxic in the tumor microenvironment and which display broad and potent anti-tumor activities in vivo. Here, we have performed the first direct comparison of the safety and efficacy of three engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants requiring activation by either matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or co-localized MMP/uPA activities. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with six doses of engineered toxins via intraperitoneal (I.P.) or intravenous (I.V.) dose routes to determine the maximum tolerated dose for six administrations (MTD6) and dose-limiting toxicities. Efficacy was evaluated using the B16-BL6 syngraft model of melanoma; mice bearing established tumors were treated with six I.P. doses of toxin and tumor measurements and immunohistochemistry, paired with terminal blood work, were used to elaborate upon the anti-tumor mechanism and relative efficacy of each variant. We found that MMP-, uPA- and dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxins exhibited the same dose-limiting toxicity; dose-dependent GI toxicity. In terms of efficacy, all three toxins significantly reduced primary B16-BL6 tumor burden, ranging from 32% to 87% reduction, and they also delayed disease progression as evidenced by dose-dependent normalization of blood work values. While target organ toxicity and effective doses were similar amongst the variants, the dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin exhibited the highest I.P. MTD6 and was 1.5-3-fold better tolerated than the single MMP- and uPA-activated toxins. Overall, we demonstrate that this dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin can be administered safely and is highly effective in a preclinical model of melanoma. This modified bacterial cytotoxin is thus a promising candidate for further clinical development and evaluation for use in treating human cancers. PMID:24971906

Peters, Diane E; Hoover, Benjamin; Cloud, Loretta Grey; Liu, Shihui; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Leppla, Stephen H; Bugge, Thomas H

2014-09-01

23

Cholera- and Anthrax-Like Toxins Are among Several New ADP-Ribosyltransferases  

PubMed Central

Chelt, a cholera-like toxin from Vibrio cholerae, and Certhrax, an anthrax-like toxin from Bacillus cereus, are among six new bacterial protein toxins we identified and characterized using in silico and cell-based techniques. We also uncovered medically relevant toxins from Mycobacterium avium and Enterococcus faecalis. We found agriculturally relevant toxins in Photorhabdus luminescens and Vibrio splendidus. These toxins belong to the ADP-ribosyltransferase family that has conserved structure despite low sequence identity. Therefore, our search for new toxins combined fold recognition with rules for filtering sequences – including a primary sequence pattern – to reduce reliance on sequence identity and identify toxins using structure. We used computers to build models and analyzed each new toxin to understand features including: structure, secretion, cell entry, activation, NAD+ substrate binding, intracellular target binding and the reaction mechanism. We confirmed activity using a yeast growth test. In this era where an expanding protein structure library complements abundant protein sequence data – and we need high-throughput validation – our approach provides insight into the newest toxin ADP-ribosyltransferases. PMID:21170356

Fieldhouse, Robert J.; Turgeon, Zachari; White, Dawn; Merrill, A. Rod

2010-01-01

24

A Phenylalanine Clamp Catalyzes Protein Translocation Through the Anthrax Toxin Pore  

PubMed Central

The protective antigen component of anthrax toxin forms a homoheptameric pore in the endosomal membrane, creating a narrow passageway for the enzymatic components of the toxin to enter the cytosol. We found that, during conversion of the heptameric precursor to the pore, the seven phenylalanine-427 residues converged within the lumen, generating a radially symmetric heptad of solvent-exposed aromatic rings. This “?-clamp” structure was required for protein translocation and comprised the major conductance-blocking site for hydrophobic drugs and model cations. We conclude that the ? clamp serves a chaperone-like function, interacting with hydrophobic sequences presented by the protein substrate as it unfolds during translocation. PMID:16051798

Krantz, Bryan A.; Melnyk, Roman A.; Zhang, Sen; Juris, Stephen J.; Lacy, D. Borden; Wu, Zhengyan; Finkelstein, Alan; Collier, R. John

2006-01-01

25

Resident CD11c+ lung cells are impaired by anthrax toxins after spore infection.  

PubMed

Bacillus anthracis secretes 2 toxins: lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET). We investigated their role in the physiopathologic mechanisms of inhalational anthrax by evaluating murine lung dendritic cell (LDC) functions after infection with B. anthracis strains secreting LT, ET, or both or with a nontoxinogenic strain. Three lung cell populations gated on CD11c/CD11b expression were obtained after lung digestion: (1) CD11c(high)/CD11b(low) (alveolar macrophages), (2) CD11c(intermediate (int))/CD11b(int) (LDCs), and (3) CD11c(low)/CD11b(high) (interstitial macrophages or monocytes). After infection with LT-secreting strains, a decrease in costimulatory molecule expression on LDCs was observed. All CD11c+ cells infected with a nontoxinogenic strain secreted tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- alpha , interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-6. LT-secreting strains inhibited overall cytokine secretion, whereas the ET-secreting strain inhibited only TNF- alpha secretion and increased IL-6 secretion. Similar results were obtained after preincubation with purified toxins. Our results suggest that anthrax toxins secreted during infection impair LDC function and suppress the innate immune response. PMID:16741886

Cleret, Aurelie; Quesnel-Hellmann, Anne; Mathieu, Jacques; Vidal, Dominique; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas

2006-07-01

26

Design of monodisperse and well-defined polypeptide-based polyvalent inhibitors of anthrax toxin.  

PubMed

The design of polyvalent molecules, presenting multiple copies of a specific ligand, represents a promising strategy to inhibit pathogens and toxins. The ability to control independently the valency and the spacing between ligands would be valuable for elucidating structure-activity relationships and for designing potent polyvalent molecules. To that end, we designed monodisperse polypeptide-based polyvalent inhibitors of anthrax toxin in which multiple copies of an inhibitory toxin-binding peptide were separated by flexible peptide linkers. By tuning the valency and linker length, we designed polyvalent inhibitors that were over four orders of magnitude more potent than the corresponding monovalent ligands. This strategy for the rational design of monodisperse polyvalent molecules may not only be broadly applicable for the inhibition of toxins and pathogens, but also for controlling the nanoscale organization of cellular receptors to regulate signaling and the fate of stem cells. PMID:24706570

Patke, Sanket; Boggara, Mohan; Maheshwari, Ronak; Srivastava, Sunit K; Arha, Manish; Douaisi, Marc; Martin, Jacob T; Harvey, Ian B; Brier, Matthew; Rosen, Tania; Mogridge, Jeremy; Kane, Ravi S

2014-07-28

27

A role for PACE4 in the proteolytic activation of anthrax toxin protective antigen.  

PubMed Central

Several bacterial protein toxins require activation by eukaryotic proteases. Previous studies have shown that anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA), Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE), and diphtheria toxin (DT) are cleaved by furin C-terminal to the sequences RKKR, RQPR, and RVRR, respectively. Because furin-deficient cells retain some sensitivity to PA and DT, it is evident that other cellular proteases can activate these toxins. Whereas furin has been shown to require arginine residues at positions -1 and -4 for substrate recognition, another protease with an activity which could substitute for furin in toxin activation, the furin-related protease PACE4, requires basic residues in the -1, -2, and -4 positions of the substrate sequence. To examine the relative roles of furin and PACE4 in toxin activation, we used furin-deficient CHO cells (FD11 cells) transfected with either the furin (FD11/furin cells) or PACE4 (FD11/PACE4 cells) gene. Mutant PA proteins containing the cleavage sequence RAAR or KR were cytotoxic toward cells expressing only PACE4. In vitro cleavage data demonstrated that PACE4 can recognize RAAR and, to a much lesser extent, KR and RR. When extracts from PACE4-transfected cells were used as a source of proteases, PACE4 had minimal activity, indicating that it had been partially inactivated or did not remain associated with the cell membranes. Cleavage of iodinated PA containing the sequence RKKR or RAAR was detected on the surface of all cell types tested, but cleavage of a dibasic sequence was detected only intracellularly and only in cells that expressed furin or PACE4. The data provide evidence that PACE4 is present at the exterior of cells, that it plays a role in the proteolytic activation of anthrax toxin PA, and that PACE4 can activate substrates at the sequence RAAR or KR. PMID:9234799

Gordon, V M; Rehemtulla, A; Leppla, S H

1997-01-01

28

Studies in Mice Reveal a Role for Anthrax Toxin Receptors in Matrix Metalloproteinase Function and Extracellular Matrix Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The genes encoding Anthrax Toxin Receptors (ANTXRs) were originally identified based on expression in endothelial cells suggesting a role in angiogenesis. The focus of this review is to discuss what has been learned about the physiological roles of these receptors through evaluation of the Antxr knockout mouse phenotypes. Mice mutant in Antxr genes have defects in extracellular matrix homeostasis. We discuss how knowledge of physiological ANTXR function relates to what is already known about anthrax intoxication. PMID:23389402

Reeves, Claire; Charles-Horvath, Pelisa; Kitajewski, Jan

2013-01-01

29

Combination of two candidate subunit vaccine antigens elicits protective immunity to ricin and anthrax toxin in mice.  

PubMed

In an effort to develop combination vaccines for biodefense, we evaluated a ricin subunit antigen, RiVax, given in conjunction with an anthrax protective antigen, DNI. The combination led to high endpoint titer antibody response, neutralizing antibodies, and protective immunity against ricin and anthrax lethal toxin. This is a natural combination vaccine, since both antigens are recombinant subunit proteins that would be given to the same target population. PMID:25475957

Vance, David J; Rong, Yinghui; Brey, Robert N; Mantis, Nicholas J

2015-01-01

30

T Cell Targeting by Anthrax Toxins: Two Faces of the Same Coin  

PubMed Central

Bacillus anthracis, similar to other bacterial pathogens, has evolved effective immune evasion strategies to prolong its survival in the host, thus ensuring the unchecked spread of the infection. This function is subserved by lethal (LT) and edema (ET) toxins, two exotoxins produced by vegetative anthrax bacilli following germination of the spores. The structure of these toxins and the mechanism of cell intoxication are topics covered by other reviews in this issue. Here we shall discuss how B. anthracis uses LT and ET to suppress the immune defenses of the host, focusing on T lymphocytes, the key players in adaptive immunity. We shall also summarize recent findings showing that, depending on its concentration, ET has the ability not only to suppress T cell activation but also to promote the polarization of CD4+ T cells to the Th2 and Th17 subsets, highlighting the potential use of this toxin as an immunomodulator. PMID:22069732

Paccani, Silvia Rossi; Baldari, Cosima T.

2011-01-01

31

A Receptor-based Switch that Regulates Anthrax Toxin Pore Formation  

PubMed Central

Cellular receptors can act as molecular switches, regulating the sensitivity of microbial proteins to conformational changes that promote cellular entry. The activities of these receptor-based switches are only partially understood. In this paper, we sought to understand the mechanism that underlies the activity of the ANTXR2 anthrax toxin receptor-based switch that binds to domains 2 and 4 of the protective antigen (PA) toxin subunit. Receptor-binding restricts structural changes within the heptameric PA prepore that are required for pore conversion to an acidic endosomal compartment. The transfer cross-saturation (TCS) NMR approach was used to monitor changes in the heptameric PA-receptor contacts at different steps during prepore-to-pore conversion. These studies demonstrated that receptor contact with PA domain 2 is weakened prior to pore conversion, defining a novel intermediate in this pathway. Importantly, ANTXR2 remained bound to PA domain 4 following pore conversion, suggesting that the bound receptor might influence the structure and/or function of the newly formed pore. These studies provide new insights into the function of a receptor-based molecular switch that controls anthrax toxin entry into cells. PMID:22174672

Pilpa, Rosemarie M.; Bayrhuber, Monika; Marlett, John M.; Riek, Roland; Young, John A. T.

2011-01-01

32

Designed Azolopyridinium Salts Block Protective Antigen Pores In Vitro and Protect Cells from Anthrax Toxin  

PubMed Central

Background Several intracellular acting bacterial protein toxins of the AB-type, which are known to enter cells by endocytosis, are shown to produce channels. This holds true for protective antigen (PA), the binding component of the tripartite anthrax-toxin of Bacillus anthracis. Evidence has been presented that translocation of the enzymatic components of anthrax-toxin across the endosomal membrane of target cells and channel formation by the heptameric/octameric PA63 binding/translocation component are related phenomena. Chloroquine and some 4-aminoquinolones, known as potent drugs against Plasmodium falciparium infection of humans, block efficiently the PA63-channel in a dose dependent way. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we demonstrate that related positively charged heterocyclic azolopyridinium salts block the PA63-channel in the µM range, when both, inhibitor and PA63 are added to the same side of the membrane, the cis-side, which corresponds to the lumen of acidified endosomal vesicles of target cells. Noise-analysis allowed the study of the kinetics of the plug formation by the heterocycles. In vivo experiments using J774A.1 macrophages demonstrated that the inhibitors of PA63-channel function also efficiently block intoxication of the cells by the combination lethal factor and PA63 in the same concentration range as they block the channels in vitro. Conclusions/Significance These results strongly argue in favor of a transport of lethal factor through the PA63-channel and suggest that the heterocycles used in this study could represent attractive candidates for development of novel therapeutic strategies against anthrax. PMID:23840407

Duscha, Kerstin; Riedl, Zsuzsanna; Huber-Lang, Markus; Benz, Roland; Hajós, György; Barth, Holger

2013-01-01

33

Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy  

PubMed Central

Background Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Methods Wild type (WT) and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged with lethal toxin (2 ?g/g, intraperotineally (i.p.)). Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ properties were assessed 18 h later using an IonOptix edge-detection system. Proteasome function was assessed using chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities. GFP-LC3 puncta and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate autophagy and protein ubiquitination. Results Lethal toxin exposure suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function (suppressed peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/re-lengthening, prolonged duration of shortening/re-lengthening, and impaired intracellular Ca2+ handling), the effects of which were alleviated by catalase. In addition, lethal toxin triggered autophagy, mitochondrial and ubiquitin-proteasome defects, the effects of which were mitigated by catalase. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes from catalase mice with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly attenuated or ablated catalase-offered protection against lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction. On the other hand, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA ablated or significantly attenuated lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Conclusions Our results suggest that catalase is protective against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ anomalies, possibly through regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial function. PMID:23134810

2012-01-01

34

Engineering Anthrax Toxin Variants That Exclusively Form Octamers and Their Application to Targeting Tumors*  

PubMed Central

Anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA) delivers its effector proteins into the host cell cytosol through formation of an oligomeric pore, which can assume heptameric or octameric states. By screening a highly directed library of PA mutants, we identified variants that complement each other to exclusively form octamers. These PA variants were individually nontoxic and demonstrated toxicity only when combined with their complementary partner. We then engineered requirements for activation by matrix metalloproteases and urokinase plasminogen activator into two of these variants. The resulting therapeutic toxin specifically targeted cells expressing both tumor associated proteases and completely stopped tumor growth in mice when used at a dose far below that which caused toxicity. This scheme for obtaining intercomplementing subunits can be employed with other oligomeric proteins and potentially has wide application. PMID:23393143

Phillips, Damilola D.; Fattah, Rasem J.; Crown, Devorah; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Shihui; Moayeri, Mahtab; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Hansen, Bryan T.; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M.; Wein, Alexander N.; Simons, Lacy; Leppla, Stephen H.; Leysath, Clinton E.

2013-01-01

35

Diffusion limitation in the block by symmetric tetraalkylammonium ions of anthrax toxin channels in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current flow through the channel formed in planar phospholipid hilayer membranes by the PA~ fragment of anthrax toxin is blocked, in a voltage-dependent manner, by tetraalkylammonium ions (at micromolar concentra- tions), which bind to a blocking site within the channel lumen. We have presented evidence that diffusion plays a significant role in the kinetics of blocking by tetrabutylammonium ion (Bu4N

ROBERT O. BLAUSTEIN; ALAN FINKELSTEIN

1990-01-01

36

Inactivation of Rho GTPases by Statins Attenuates Anthrax Lethal Toxin Activity ?  

PubMed Central

Anthrax lethal factor (LF), secreted by Bacillus anthracis, interacts with protective antigen to form a bipartite toxin (lethal toxin [LT]) that exerts pleiotropic biological effects resulting in subversion of the innate immune response. Although the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKKs) are the major intracellular protein targets of LF, the pathology induced by LT is not well understood. The statin family of HMG-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors have potent anti-inflammatory effects independent of their cholesterol-lowering properties, which have been attributed to modulation of Rho family GTPase activity. The Rho GTPases regulate vesicular trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics, and cell survival and proliferation. We hypothesized that disruption of Rho GTPase function by statins might alter LT action. We show here that statins delay LT-induced death and MKK cleavage in RAW macrophages and that statin-mediated effects on LT action are attributable to disruption of Rho GTPases. The Rho GTPase-inactivating toxin, toxin B, did not significantly affect LT binding or internalization, suggesting that the Rho GTPases regulate trafficking and/or localization of LT once internalized. The use of drugs capable of inhibiting Rho GTPase activity, such as statins, may provide a means to attenuate intoxication during B. anthracis infection. PMID:18936176

deCathelineau, Aimee M.; Bokoch, Gary M.

2009-01-01

37

Calcium is required for the expression of anthrax lethal toxin activity in the macrophagelike cell line J774A.1.  

PubMed Central

Anthrax lethal toxin, which consists of two separate proteins, protective antigen (Mr, 82,700) and lethal factor (Mr, approximately 83,000), is cytotoxic to the macrophagelike cell line J774A.1. Removal of calcium from the culture medium protected cells against the action of lethal toxin. Calcium depletion during the binding phase of intoxication afforded only partial protection. Further analysis showed that calcium removal caused some inhibition of protective antigen binding but that it had minimal effect on proteolytic conversion of protective antigen to the active 63-kilodalton fragment and that it had no effect on lethal factor binding. Cells to which lethal toxin had bound in the presence of calcium were protected when transferred to calcium-depleted culture medium, indicating a role for calcium at a postbinding stage. When ammonium chloride is present with lethal toxin, toxin accumulates in intracellular vesicles. Calcium-free medium protected these cells upon removal of the amine block, suggesting that calcium is also required at a step after internalization of lethal toxin. Calcium channel blockers inhibited 45Ca2+ uptake and protected cells against cytotoxicity. Calmodulin inhibitors also protected against the action of lethal toxin, suggesting involvement of calmodulin at a step during intoxication. We conclude that calcium is required at several steps in the intoxication of cells by anthrax lethal toxin. PMID:2499545

Bhatnagar, R; Singh, Y; Leppla, S H; Friedlander, A M

1989-01-01

38

Structure-based Inhibitor Discovery against Adenylyl Cyclase Toxins from Pathogenic Bacteria That Cause Anthrax and  

E-print Network

That Cause Anthrax and Whooping Cough* Received for publication, February 4, 2003, and in revised form, March bacteria that cause anthrax and whooping cough, respectively. Using the structure of the catalytic site pathogenesis and to fight against anthrax and whooping cough. The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States

Mrksich, Milan

39

Suppression of Dendritic Cell Activation by Anthrax Lethal Toxin and Edema Toxin Depends on Multiple Factors Including Cell Source, Stimulus Used, and Function Tested  

PubMed Central

Bacillus anthracis produces lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET), and they suppress the function of LPS-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs). Because DCs respond differently to various microbial stimuli, we compared toxin effects in bone marrow DCs stimulated with either LPS or Legionella pneumophila (Lp). LT, not ET, was more toxic for cells from BALB/c than from C57BL/6 (B6) as measured by 7-AAD uptake; however, ET suppressed CD11c expression. LT suppressed IL-12, IL-6, and TNF-? in cells from BALB/c and B6 mice but increased IL-1? in LPS-stimulated cultures. ET also suppressed IL-12 and TNF-?, but increased IL-6 and IL-1? in Lp-stimulated cells from B6. Regarding maturation marker expression, LT increased MHCII and CD86 while suppressing CD40 and CD80; ET generally decreased marker expression across all groups. We conclude that the suppression of cytokine production by anthrax toxins is dependent on variables, including the source of the DCs, the type of stimulus and cytokine measured, and the individual toxin tested. However, LT and ET enhancement or suppression of maturation marker expression is more related to the marker studied than the stimuli or cell source. Anthrax toxins are not uniformly suppressive of DC function but instead can increase function under defined conditions. PMID:18821847

Newton, Catherine A.; Perkins, Izabella; Friedman, Herman; Klein, Thomas W.

2008-01-01

40

Anthrax Infection  

PubMed Central

Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described with cutaneous anthrax, it appears much more common with gastrointestinal, inhalational (5 of 11 patients in the 2001 outbreak in the United States), and injectional anthrax. Based in part on case series, the estimated mortalities of cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalational, and injectional anthrax are 1%, 25 to 60%, 46%, and 33%, respectively. Nonspecific early symptomatology makes initial identification of anthrax cases difficult. Clues to anthrax infection include history of exposure to herbivore animal products, heroin use, or clustering of patients with similar respiratory symptoms concerning for a bioterrorist event. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with Gram stain and culture from blood or surgical specimens followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR or immunohistochemistry). Although antibiotic therapy (largely quinolone-based) is the mainstay of anthrax treatment, the use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists is a consideration. PMID:21852539

Sweeney, Daniel A.; Hicks, Caitlin W.; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan

2011-01-01

41

CCT chaperonin complex is required for efficient delivery of anthrax toxin into the cytosol of host cells  

PubMed Central

Bacterial toxins have evolved successful strategies for coopting host proteins to access the cytosol of host cells. Anthrax lethal factor (LF) enters the cytosol through pores in the endosomal membrane formed by anthrax protective antigen. Although in vitro models using planar lipid bilayers have shown that translocation can occur in the absence of cellular factors, recent studies using intact endosomes indicate that host factors are required for translocation in the cellular environment. In this study, we describe a high-throughput shRNA screen to identify host factors required for anthrax lethal toxin-induced cell death. The cytosolic chaperonin complex chaperonin containing t-complex protein 1 (CCT) was identified, and subsequent studies showed that CCT is required for efficient delivery of LF and related fusion proteins into the cytosol. We further show that knockdown of CCT inhibits the acid-induced delivery of LF and the fusion protein LFN-Bla (N terminal domain of LF fused to ?-lactamase) across the plasma membrane of intact cells. Together, these results suggest that CCT is required for efficient delivery of enzymatically active toxin to the cytosol and are consistent with a direct role for CCT in translocation of LF through the protective antigen pore. PMID:23716698

Slater, Louise H.; Hett, Erik C.; Clatworthy, Anne E.; Mark, Kevin G.; Hung, Deborah T.

2013-01-01

42

Constitutive MEK1 Activation Rescues Anthrax Lethal Toxin-Induced Vascular Effects In Vivo?  

PubMed Central

Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) increases vascular leakage in a number of mammalian models and in human anthrax disease. Using a zebrafish model, we determined that vascular delivery of LT increased permeability, which was phenocopied by treatment with a selective chemical inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2 (also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] kinase, MEK, or MKK). Here we investigate further the role of MEK1/phospho-ERK (pERK) in the action of LT. Overexpression of wild-type zebrafish MEK1 at high levels did not induce detrimental effects. However, a constitutively activated version, MEK1S219D,S223D (MEK1DD), induced early defects in embryonic development that correlated with increased ERK/MAPK phosphorylation. To bypass these early developmental defects and to provide a genetic tool for examining the action of lethal factor (LF), we generated inducible transgenic zebrafish lines expressing either wild-type or activated MEK1 under the control of a heat shock promoter. Remarkably, induction of MEK1DD transgene expression prior to LT delivery prevented vascular damage, while the wild-type MEK1 line did not. In the presence of both LT and MEK1DD transgene expression, cardiovascular development and function proceeded normally in most embryos. The resistance to microsphere leakage in transgenic animals demonstrated a protective role against LT-induced vascular permeability. A consistent increase in ERK phosphorylation among LT-resistant MEK1DD transgenic animals provided additional confirmation of transgene activation. These findings provide a novel genetic approach to examine mechanism of action of LT in vivo through one of its known targets. This approach may be generally applied to investigate additional pathogen-host interactions and to provide mechanistic insights into host signaling pathways affected by pathogen entry. PMID:20855511

Bolcome, Robert E.; Chan, Joanne

2010-01-01

43

Polylysine-mediated translocation of the diphtheria toxin catalytic domain through the anthrax protective antigen pore.  

PubMed

The protective antigen (PA) moiety of anthrax toxin forms oligomeric pores in the endosomal membrane, which translocate the effector proteins of the toxin to the cytosol. Effector proteins bind to oligomeric PA via their respective N-terminal domains and undergo N- to C-terminal translocation through the pore. Earlier we reported that a tract of basic amino acids fused to the N-terminus of an unrelated effector protein (the catalytic domain diphtheria toxin, DTA) potentiated that protein to undergo weak PA-dependent translocation. In this study, we varied the location of the tract (N-terminal or C-terminal) and the length of a poly-Lys tract fused to DTA and examined the effects of these variations on PA-dependent translocation into cells and across planar bilayers in vitro. Entry into cells was most efficient with ?12 Lys residues (K12) fused to the N-terminus but also occurred, albeit 10-100-fold less efficiently, with a C-terminal tract of the same length. Similarly, K12 tracts at either terminus occluded PA pores in planar bilayers, and occlusion was more efficient with the N-terminal tag. We used biotin-labeled K12 constructs in conjunction with streptavidin to show that a biotinyl-K12 tag at either terminus is transiently exposed to the trans compartment of planar bilayers at 20 mV; this partial translocation in vitro was more efficient with an N-terminal tag than a C-terminal tag. Significantly, our studies with polycationic tracts fused to the N- and C-termini of DTA suggest that PA-mediated translocation can occur not only in the N to C direction but also in the C to N direction. PMID:25317832

Sharma, Onkar; Collier, R John

2014-11-11

44

Protein- and DNA-based anthrax toxin vaccines confer protection in guinea pigs against inhalational challenge with Bacillus cereus G9241.  

PubMed

In the past decade, several Bacillus cereus strains have been isolated from otherwise healthy individuals who succumbed to bacterial pneumonia presenting symptoms resembling inhalational anthrax. One strain was indistinguishable from B. cereus G9241, previously cultured from an individual who survived a similar pneumonia-like illness and which was shown to possess a complete set of plasmid-borne anthrax toxin-encoding homologs. The finding that B. cereus G9241 pathogenesis in mice is dependent on pagA1-derived protective antigen (PA) synthesis suggests that an anthrax toxin-based vaccine may be effective against this toxin-encoding B. cereus strain. Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs were immunized with protein- and DNA-based anthrax toxin-based vaccines, immune responses were evaluated and survival rates were calculated after lethal aerosol exposure with B. cereus G9241 spores. Each vaccine induced seroconversion with the protein immunization regimen eliciting significantly higher serum levels of antigen-specific antibodies at the prechallenge time-point compared with the DNA-protein prime-boost immunization schedule. Complete protection against lethal challenge was observed in all groups with a detectable prechallenge serum titer of toxin neutralizing antibodies. For the first time, we demonstrated that the efficacy of fully defined anthrax toxin-based vaccines was protective against lethal B. cereus G9241 aerosol challenge in the guinea pig animal model. PMID:25044336

Palmer, John; Bell, Matt; Darko, Christian; Barnewall, Roy; Keane-Myers, Andrea

2014-11-01

45

Solubilization and characterization of the anthrax toxin pore in detergent micelles  

PubMed Central

Proteolytically activated Protective Antigen (PA) moiety of anthrax toxin self-associates to form a heptameric ring-shaped oligomer (the prepore). Acidic pH within the endosome converts the prepore to a pore that serves as a passageway for the toxin's enzymatic moieties to cross the endosomal membrane. Prepore is stable in solution under mildly basic conditions, and lowering the pH promotes a conformational transition to an insoluble pore-like state. N-tetradecylphosphocholine (FOS14) was the only detergent among 110 tested that prevented aggregation without dissociating the multimer into its constituent subunits. FOS14 maintained the heptamers as monodisperse, insertion-competent 440-kDa particles, which formed channels in planar phospholipid bilayers with the same unitary conductance and ability to translocate a model substrate protein as channels formed in the absence of detergent. Electron paramagnetic resonance analysis detected pore-like conformational changes within PA on solubilization with FOS14, and electron micrograph images of FOS14-solubilized pore showed an extended, mushroom-shaped structure. Circular dichroïsm measurements revealed an increase in ? helix and a decrease in ? structure in pore formation. Spectral changes caused by a deletion mutation support the hypothesis that the 2?2-2?3 loop transforms into the transmembrane segment of the ?-barrel stem of the pore. Changes caused by selected point mutations indicate that the transition to ? structure is dependent on residues of the luminal 2?11-2?12 loop that are known to affect pore formation. Stabilizing the PA pore in solution with FOS14 may facilitate further structural analysis and a more detailed understanding of the folding pathway by which the pore is formed. PMID:19609933

Vernier, Gregory; Wang, Jie; Jennings, Laura D; Sun, Jianjun; Fischer, Audrey; Song, Likai; Collier, R John

2009-01-01

46

Maturation Modulates Caspase-1 Independent Responses of Dendritic Cells to Anthrax Lethal Toxin  

PubMed Central

Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) contributes to the immune evasion strategy of B. anthracis by impairing the function of cells of the immune system, such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Macrophages from certain inbred mice strains undergo rapid death upon LT treatment mediated by caspase-1 activation dependent on Nalp1b, an inflammasome component. Rapid LT-induced death is however not observed in macrophages from human and many mouse strains. Here, we focused on the responses of various murine DCs to LT. Using a variety of knock-out mice, we found that depending on the mouse strain, death of bone marrow derived DCs and macrophages was mediated either by a fast Nalp1b and caspase-1 dependent, or by a slow caspase-1 independent pathway that was triggered by the impairment of MEK1/2 pathways. Caspase-1 independent death was observed in cells of different genetic backgrounds and interestingly occurred only in immature DCs. Maturation, triggered by different types of stimuli, led to full protection of DCs. These studies illustrate that the cellular damage inflicted by LT depends not only on the innate responses but also on the maturation stage of the cell, which modulates the more general caspase-1 independent responses. PMID:18194483

Reig, Núria; Jiang, Aimin; Couture, Rachael; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.; Ogura, Yasunori; Flavell, Richard A.; Mellman, Ira; van der Goot, F. Gisou

2010-01-01

47

Anthrax toxin lethal factor domain 3 is highly mobile and responsive to ligand binding.  

PubMed

The secreted anthrax toxin consists of three components: the protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF). LF, a zinc metalloproteinase, compromises the host immune system primarily by targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases in macrophages. Peptide substrates and small-molecule inhibitors bind LF in the space between domains 3 and 4 of the hydrolase. Domain 3 is attached on a hinge to domain 2 via residues Ile300 and Pro385, and can move through an angular arc of greater than 35° in response to the binding of different ligands. Here, multiple LF structures including five new complexes with co-crystallized inhibitors are compared and three frequently populated LF conformational states termed `bioactive', `open' and `tight' are identified. The bioactive position is observed with large substrate peptides and leaves all peptide-recognition subsites open and accessible. The tight state is seen in unliganded and small-molecule complex structures. In this state, domain 3 is clamped over certain substrate subsites, blocking access. The open position appears to be an intermediate state between these extremes and is observed owing to steric constraints imposed by specific bound ligands. The tight conformation may be the lowest-energy conformation among the reported structures, as it is the position observed with no bound ligand, while the open and bioactive conformations are likely to be ligand-induced. PMID:25372673

Maize, Kimberly M; Kurbanov, Elbek K; De La Mora-Rey, Teresa; Geders, Todd W; Hwang, Dong Jin; Walters, Michael A; Johnson, Rodney L; Amin, Elizabeth A; Finzel, Barry C

2014-11-01

48

Delivery of antibody mimics into mammalian cells via anthrax toxin protective antigen.  

PubMed

Antibody mimics have significant scientific and therapeutic utility for the disruption of protein-protein interactions inside cells; however, their delivery to the cell cytosol remains a major challenge. Here we show that protective antigen (PA), a component of anthrax toxin, efficiently transports commonly used antibody mimics to the cytosol of mammalian cells when conjugated to the N-terminal domain of LF (LFN). In contrast, a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) was not able to deliver any of these antibody mimics into the cell cytosol. The refolding and binding of a transported tandem monobody to Bcr-Abl (its protein target) in chronic myeloid leukemia cells were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. We also observed inhibition of Bcr-Abl kinase activity and induction of apoptosis caused by the monobody. In a separate case, we show disruption of key interactions in the MAPK signaling pathway after PA-mediated delivery of an affibody binder that targets hRaf-1. We show for the first time that PA can deliver bioactive antibody mimics to disrupt intracellular protein-protein interactions. This technology adds a useful tool to expand the applications of these modern agents to the intracellular milieu. PMID:25250705

Liao, Xiaoli; Rabideau, Amy E; Pentelute, Bradley L

2014-11-01

49

Electrical graphene aptasensor for ultra-sensitive detection of anthrax toxin with amplified signal transduction.  

PubMed

Detection of the anthrax toxin, the protective antigen (PA), at the attomolar (aM) level is demonstrated by an electrical aptamer sensor based on a chemically derived graphene field-effect transistor (FET) platform. Higher affinity of the aptamer probes to PA in the aptamer-immobilized FET enables significant improvements in the limit of detection (LOD), dynamic range, and sensitivity compared to the antibody-immobilized FET. Transduction signal enhancement in the aptamer FET due to an increase in captured PA molecules results in a larger 30 mV/decade shift in the charge neutrality point (Vg,min ) as a sensitivity parameter, with the dynamic range of the PA concentration between 12 aM (LOD) and 120 fM. An additional signal enhancement is obtained by the secondary aptamer-conjugated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs-aptamer), which have a sandwich structure of aptamer/PA/aptamer-AuNPs, induce an increase in charge-doping in the graphene channel, resulting in a reduction of the LOD to 1.2 aM with a three-fold increase in the Vg,min shift. PMID:23589198

Kim, Duck-Jin; Park, Hae-Chul; Sohn, Il Yung; Jung, Jin-Heak; Yoon, Ok Ja; Park, Joon-Shik; Yoon, Moon-Young; Lee, Nae-Eung

2013-10-11

50

Identification of Novel Host-Targeted Compounds That Protect From Anthrax Lethal Toxin-Induced Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Studying how pathogens subvert the host to cause disease has contributed to the understanding of fundamental cell biology. Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, produces the virulence factor lethal toxin to disarm host immunity and cause pathology. We conducted a phenotypic small molecule screen to identify inhibitors of lethal toxin-induced macrophage cell death and used an ordered series of secondary assays to characterize the hits and determine their effects on cellular function. We identified a structurally diverse set of small molecules that act at various points along the lethal toxin pathway, including inhibitors of endocytosis; natural product inhibitors of organelle acidification (e.g. the botulinum neurotoxin inhibitor, toosendanin); and a novel proteasome inhibitor, 4MNB (4-methoxy-2-[2-(5-methoxy-2-nitrosophenyl)ethyl]-1-nitrosobenzene). Many of the compounds, including three drugs approved for use in humans, also protected against the related Clostridium difficile toxin TcdB, further demonstrating their value as novel tools for perturbation and study of toxin biology and host cellular processes, and highlighting potential new strategies for intervening on toxin-mediated diseases. PMID:23343607

Slater, Louise H.; Hett, Erik C.; Mark, Kevin; Chumbler, Nicole M.; Patel, Deepa; Lacy, D. Borden; Collier, R. John; Hung, Deborah T.

2013-01-01

51

Anthrax Lethal Toxin Induces Acute Diastolic Dysfunction in Rats Through Disruption of the Phospholamban Signaling Network  

PubMed Central

Background Anthrax lethal toxin (LT), secreted by Bacillus anthracis, causes severe cardiac dysfunction by unknown mechanisms. LT specifically cleaves the docking domains of MAPKK (MEKs); thus, we hypothesized that LT directly impairs cardiac function through dysregulation of MAPK signaling mechanisms. Methods and Results In a time-course study of LT toxicity, echocardiography revealed acute diastolic heart failure accompanied by pulmonary regurgitation and left atrial dilation in adult Sprague-Dawley rats at time points corresponding to dysregulated JNK, phospholamban (PLB) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) myocardial signaling. Using isolated rat ventricular myocytes, we identified the MEK7-JNK1-PP2A-PLB signaling axis to be important for regulation of intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) handling, PP2A activation and targeting of PP2A-B56? to Ca2+i handling proteins, such as PLB. Through a combination of gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, we demonstrated that over-expression of MEK7 protects against LT-induced PP2A activation and Ca2+i dysregulation through activation of JNK1. Moreover, targeted phosphorylation of PLB-Thr17 by Akt improved sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+i release and reuptake during LT toxicity. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments further revealed the pivotal role of MEK7-JNK-Akt complex formation for phosphorylation of PLB-Thr17 during acute LT toxicity. Conclusions Our findings support a cardiogenic mechanism of LT-induced diastolic dysfunction, by which LT disrupts JNK1 signaling and results in Ca2+i dysregulation through diminished phosphorylation of PLB by Akt and increased dephosphorylation of PLB by PP2A. Integration of the MEK7-JNK1 signaling module with Akt represents an important stress-activated signalosome that may confer protection to sustain cardiac contractility and maintain normal levels of Ca2+i through PLB-T17 phosphorylation. PMID:23907041

Golden, Honey B.; Watson, Linley E.; Nizamutdinov, Damir; Feng, Hao; Gerilechaogetu, Fnu; Lal, Hind; Verma, Suresh K.; Mukhopadhyay, Swagoto; Foster, Donald M.; Dillmann, Wolfgang H.; Dostal, D.E.

2013-01-01

52

Quantitative anti-PA IgG ELISA; assessment and comparability with the anthrax toxin neutralization assay in goats  

PubMed Central

Background Presently, few data exist on the level and duration of anti-protective antigen (PA) IgG in vaccinated livestock. Various adaptation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been developed in studies to assess immune response following vaccination, albeit mostly in laboratory rodent models. The quantitative anti-anthrax IgG ELISA in this study describes a method of enumerating the concentration of anti-PA specific IgG present in sera of immunized goats, with the aid of an affinity-purified caprine polyclonal anti-anthrax PA-83 IgG standard. This was compared with the anthrax toxin neutralization assay (TNA) which measures a functional subset of toxin neutralizing anti-PA IgG. Results The measured concentrations obtained in the standard curve correlated with the known concentration at each dilution. Percentage recovery of the standard concentrations ranged from 89 to 98% (lower and upper asymptote respectively). Mean correlation coefficient (r2) of the standard curve was 0.998. Evaluation of the intra-assay coefficient of variation showed ranges of 0.23-16.90% and 0.40-12.46% for days 28 and 140 sera samples respectively, following vaccination. The mean inter-assay coefficient of variation for triplicate samples repeated on 5 different days was 18.53 and 12.17% for days 28 and 140 sera samples respectively. Spearman’s rank correlation of log-transformed IgG concentrations and TNA titres showed strong positive correlation (rs?=?0.942; p?=?0.01). Conclusion This study provides evidence that an indirect ELISA can be used for the quantification of anti-anthrax PA IgG in goats with the added advantage of using single dilutions to save time and resources. The use of such related immunoassays can serve as potential adjuncts to potency tests for Sterne and other vaccine types under development in ruminant species. This is the first report on the correlation of polyclonal anti-anthrax PA83 antibody with the TNA in goats. PMID:24373579

2013-01-01

53

Erythrocytic Mobilization Enhanced by the Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Is Associated with Reduced Anthrax-Lethal-Toxin-Induced Mortality in Mice  

PubMed Central

Anthrax lethal toxin (LT), one of the primary virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis, causes anthrax-like symptoms and death in animals. Experiments have indicated that levels of erythrocytopenia and hypoxic stress are associated with disease severity after administering LT. In this study, the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was used as a therapeutic agent to ameliorate anthrax-LT- and spore-induced mortality in C57BL/6J mice. We demonstrated that G-CSF promoted the mobilization of mature erythrocytes to peripheral blood, resulting in a significantly faster recovery from erythrocytopenia. In addition, combined treatment using G-CSF and erythropoietin tended to ameliorate B. anthracis-spore-elicited mortality in mice. Although specific treatments against LT-mediated pathogenesis remain elusive, these results may be useful in developing feasible strategies to treat anthrax. PMID:25384016

Chang, Hsin-Hou; Chiang, Ya-Wen; Lin, Ting-Kai; Lin, Guan-Ling; Lin, You-Yen; Kau, Jyh-Hwa; Huang, Hsin-Hsien; Hsu, Hui-Ling; Wang, Jen-Hung; Sun, Der-Shan

2014-01-01

54

Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens into the cytosol to induce T cell immunity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacillus anthrax lethal toxin can be engineered to deliver foreign proteins to the cytosol for antigen presentation to CD8 T cells. Vaccination with modified toxins carrying 8-9 amino acid peptide epitopes induces protective immunity in mice. To evaluate whether large protein antigens can be used with this system, recombinant constructs encoding several HIV antigens up to 500 amino acids were produced. These candidate HIV vaccines are safe in animals and induce CD8 T cells in mice. Constructs encoding gag p24 and nef stimulate gag-specific CD4 proliferation and a secondary cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in HIV-infected donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. These results lay the foundation for future clinical vaccine studies.

Lu, Yichen; Friedman, Rachel; Kushner, Nicholas; Doling, Amy; Thomas, Lawrence; Touzjian, Neal; Starnbach, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

2000-07-01

55

Fused polycationic peptide mediates delivery of diphtheria toxin A chain to the cytosol in the presence of anthrax protective antigen.  

PubMed Central

The lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF) of anthrax toxin bind by means of their amino-terminal domains to protective antigen (PA) on the surface of toxin-sensitive cells and are translocated to the cytosol, where they act on intracellular targets. Genetically fusing the amino-terminal domain of LF (LFN; residues 1-255) to certain heterologous proteins has been shown to potentiate these proteins for PA-dependent delivery to the cytosol. We report here that short tracts of lysine, arginine, or histidine residues can also potentiate a protein for such PA-dependent delivery. Fusion of these polycationic tracts to the amino terminus of the enzymic A chain of diphtheria toxin (DTA; residues 1-193) enabled it to be translocated to the cytosol by PA and inhibit protein synthesis. The efficiency of translocation was dependent on tract length: (LFN > Lys8 > Lys6 > Lys3). Lys6 was approximately 100-fold more active than Arg6 or His6, whereas Glu6 and (SerSerGly)2 were inactive. Arg6DTA was partially degraded in cell culture, which may explain its low activity relative to that of Lys6DTA. The polycationic tracts may bind to anionic sites at the cell surface (possibly on PA), allowing the fusion proteins to be coendocytosed with PA and delivered to the endosome, where translocation to the cytosol occurs. Excess free LFN blocked the action of LFNDTA, but not of Lys6DTA. This implies that binding to the LF/EF site is not an obligatory step in translocation and suggests that the polycationic tag binds to a different site. Besides elucidating the process of translocation in anthrax toxin, these findings may aid in developing systems to deliver heterologous proteins and peptides to the cytoplasm of mammalian cells. PMID:8710889

Blanke, S R; Milne, J C; Benson, E L; Collier, R J

1996-01-01

56

Statistical analysis, optimization, and prioritization of virtual screening parameters for zinc enzymes including the anthrax toxin lethal factor.  

PubMed

The anthrax toxin lethal factor (LF) and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3, stromelysin-1) are popular zinc metalloenzyme drug targets, with LF primarily responsible for anthrax-related toxicity and host death, while MMP-3 is involved in cancer- and rheumatic disease-related tissue remodeling. A number of in silico screening techniques, most notably docking and scoring, have proven useful for identifying new potential drug scaffolds targeting LF and MMP-3, as well as for optimizing lead compounds and investigating mechanisms of action. However, virtual screening outcomes can vary significantly depending on the specific docking parameters chosen, and systematic statistical significance analyses are needed to prioritize key parameters for screening small molecules against these zinc systems. In the current work, we present a series of chi-square statistical analyses of virtual screening outcomes for cocrystallized LF and MMP-3 inhibitors docked into their respective targets, evaluated by predicted enzyme-inhibitor dissociation constant and root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) between predicted and experimental bound configurations, and we present a series of preferred parameters for use with these systems in the industry-standard Surflex-Dock screening program, for use by researchers utilizing in silico techniques to discover and optimize new scaffolds. PMID:25373478

Maize, Kimberly M; Zhang, Xia; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose

2014-01-01

57

Tumor therapy with a urokinase plasminogen activator-activated anthrax lethal toxin alone and in combination with paclitaxel  

PubMed Central

PA-U2, an engineered anthrax protective antigen that is activated by urokinase was combined with wild-type lethal factor in the treatment of Colo205 colon adenocarcinoma in vitro and B16-BL6 mouse melanoma in vitro and in vivo. This therapy was also tested in combination with the small molecule paclitaxel, based on prior reports suggesting synergy between ERK1/2 inhibition and chemotherapeutics. Colo205 was sensitive to PA-U2/LF while B16-BL6 was not. For the combination treatment of B16-BL6, paclitaxel showed a dose response in vitro, but cells remained resistant to PA-U2/LF even in the presence of paclitaxel. In vivo, each therapy slowed tumor progression, and an additive effect between the two was observed. Since LF targets tumor vasculature while paclitaxel is an anti-mitotic, it is possible the agents were acting against different cells in the stroma, precluding a synergistic effect. The engineered anthrax toxin PA-U2/LF warrants further development and testing, possibly in combination with an anti-angiogenesis therapy such as sunitinib or sorafinib. PMID:22843210

Wein, Alexander N.; Liu, Shihui; Zhang, Yi; McKenzie, Andrew T.; Leppla, Stephen H.

2013-01-01

58

Distinct regions of NLRP1B are required to respond to anthrax lethal toxin and metabolic inhibition.  

PubMed

Pattern recognition receptors monitor for signs of infection or cellular dysfunction and respond to these events by initiating an immune response. NLRP1B is a receptor that upon activation recruits multiple copies of procaspase-1, which promotes cytokine processing and a proinflammatory form of cell death termed pyroptosis. NLRP1B detects anthrax lethal toxin when the toxin cleaves an amino-terminal fragment from the protein. In addition, NLRP1B is activated when cells are deprived of glucose or treated with metabolic inhibitors, but the mechanism by which the resulting reduction in cytosolic ATP is sensed by NLRP1B is unknown. Here, we addressed whether these two activating signals of NLRP1B converge on a common sensing system. We show that an NLRP1B mutant lacking the amino-terminal region exhibits some spontaneous activity and fails to be further activated by lethal toxin. This mutant was still activated in cells depleted of ATP, however, indicating that the amino-terminal region is not the sole sensing domain of NLRP1B. Mutagenesis of the leucine-rich repeat domain of NLRP1B provided evidence that this domain is involved in autoinhibition of the receptor, but none of the mutants tested was specifically defective at sensing activating signals. Comparison of two alleles of NLRP1B that differed in their response to metabolic inhibitors, but not to lethal toxin, led to the finding that a repeated sequence in the function to find domain (FIIND) that arose from exon duplication facilitated detection of ATP depletion. These results suggest that distinct regions of NLRP1B detect activating signals. PMID:24935976

Neiman-Zenevich, Jana; Liao, Kuo-Chieh; Mogridge, Jeremy

2014-09-01

59

Assembly of anthrax toxin pore: lethal-factor complexes into lipid nanodiscs.  

PubMed

We have devised a procedure to incorporate the anthrax protective antigen (PA) pore complexed with the N-terminal domain of anthrax lethal factor (LFN ) into lipid nanodiscs and analyzed the resulting complexes by negative-stain electron microscopy. Insertion into nanodiscs was performed without relying on primary and secondary detergent screens. The preparations were relatively pure, and the percentage of PA pore inserted into nanodiscs on EM grids was high (?43%). Three-dimensional analysis of negatively stained single particles revealed the LFN -PA nanodisc complex mirroring the previous unliganded PA pore nanodisc structure, but with additional protein density consistent with multiple bound LFN molecules on the PA cap region. The assembly procedure will facilitate collection of higher resolution cryo-EM LFN -PA nanodisc structures and use of advanced automated particle selection methods. PMID:23389868

Akkaladevi, N; Hinton-Chollet, L; Katayama, H; Mitchell, J; Szerszen, L; Mukherjee, S; Gogol, E P; Pentelute, B L; Collier, R J; Fisher, M T

2013-04-01

60

Detection of Anthrax Toxin by an Ultrasensitive Immunoassay Using Europium Nanoparticles?  

PubMed Central

We developed a europium nanoparticle-based immunoassay (ENIA) for the sensitive detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA). The ENIA exhibited a linear dose-dependent pattern within the detection range of 0.01 to 100 ng/ml and was approximately 100-fold more sensitive than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). False-positive results were not observed with serum samples from healthy adults, mouse plasma without PA, or plasma samples collected from mice injected with anthrax lethal factor or edema factor alone. For the detection of plasma samples spiked with PA, the detection sensitivities for ENIA and ELISA were 100% (11/11 samples) and 36.4% (4/11 samples), respectively. The assay exhibited a linear but qualitative correlation between the PA injected and the PA detected in murine blood (r = 0.97731; P < 0.0001). Anthrax PA was also detected in the circulation of mice infected with spores from a toxigenic Sterne-like strain of Bacillus anthracis, but only in the later stages of infection. These results indicate that the universal labeling technology based on europium nanoparticles and its application may provide a rapid and sensitive testing platform for clinical diagnosis and laboratory research. PMID:19129473

Tang, Shixing; Moayeri, Mahtab; Chen, Zhaochun; Harma, Harri; Zhao, Jiangqin; Hu, Haijing; Purcell, Robert H.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Hewlett, Indira K.

2009-01-01

61

Anthrax toxin receptor 1/tumor endothelial marker 8: mutation of conserved inserted domain residues overrides cytosolic control of protective antigen binding.  

PubMed

Anthrax toxin receptor 1 (ANTXR1)/tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) is one of two known proteinaceous cell surface anthrax toxin receptors. A metal ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) present in the integrin-like inserted (I) domain of ANTXR1 mediates the binding of the anthrax toxin subunit, protective antigen (PA). Here we provide evidence that single point mutations in the I domain can override regulation of ANTXR1 ligand-binding activity mediated by intracellular signals. A previously reported MIDAS mutant of ANTXR1 (T118A) was found to retain normal metal ion binding and secondary structure but failed to bind PA, consistent with a locked inactive state. Conversely, mutation of a conserved I domain phenylalanine residue to a tryptophan (F205W) increased the proportion of cell-surface ANTXR1 that bound PA, consistent with a locked active state. Interestingly, the K(D) and total amount of PA bound by the isolated ANTXR1 I domain were not affected by the F205W mutation, indicating that ANTXR1 is preferentially found in the active state in the absence of inside-out signaling. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that structural changes between T118A, F205W, and WT I domains were minor despite a greater than 10(3)-fold difference in their abilities to bind toxin. Regulation of toxin binding has important implications for the design of toxin inhibitors and for the targeting of ANTXR1 for antitumor therapies. PMID:20690680

Ramey, Jordan D; Villareal, Valerie A; Ng, Charles; Ward, Sabrina C; Xiong, Jian-Ping; Clubb, Robert T; Bradley, Kenneth A

2010-08-31

62

Biophysical characterization and immunization studies of dominant negative inhibitor (DNI), a candidate anthrax toxin subunit vaccine.  

PubMed

Dominant Negative Inhibitor (DNI) is a translocation-deficient homolog of recombinant protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis that is a candidate for a next generation anthrax vaccine. This study demonstrates that the biophysical characteristics of the DNI protein stored in lyophilized form at 4°C for 8 y were similar to recombinant Protective Antigen (rPA). To provide information on the accelerated stability of DNI, samples in the lyophilized form were subjected to thermal stress (40°C and 70°C for up to 4 weeks) and thoroughly evaluated using various biophysical and chemical characterization techniques. Results demonstrate preserved structural stability of the DNI protein under extreme conditions, suggesting long-term stability can be achieved for a vaccine that employs DNI, as desired for a biodefense countermeasure. Furthermore, the biological activity of the stressed DNI bound to the adjuvant Alhydrogel (®) was evaluated in mice and it was found that the immunogenicity DNI was not affected by thermal stress. PMID:23925275

Iyer, Vidyashankara; Hu, Lei; Schanté, Carole E; Vance, David; Chadwick, Chrystal; Jain, Nishant Kumar; Brey, Robert N; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Volkin, David B; Andra, Kiran K; Bann, James G; Mantis, Nicholas J; Middaugh, C Russell

2013-11-01

63

Biophysical characterization and immunization studies of dominant negative inhibitor (DNI), a candidate anthrax toxin subunit vaccine  

PubMed Central

Dominant negative inhibitor (DNI) is a translocation-deficient homolog of recombinant protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis that is a candidate for a next generation anthrax vaccine. This study demonstrates that the biophysical characteristics of the DNI protein stored in lyophilized form at 4 °C for 8 y were similar to recombinant protective antigen (rPA). To provide information on the accelerated stability of DNI, samples in the lyophilized form were subjected to thermal stress (40 and 70 °C for up to 4 weeks) and thoroughly evaluated using various biophysical and chemical characterization techniques. Results demonstrate preserved structural stability of the DNI protein under extreme conditions, suggesting long-term stability can be achieved for a vaccine that employs DNI, as desired for a biodefense countermeasure. Furthermore, the biological activity of the stressed DNI bound to the adjuvant Alhydrogel® was evaluated in mice and it was found that the immunogenicity DNI was not affected by thermal stress. PMID:23925275

Iyer, Vidyashankara; Hu, Lei; Schanté, Carole E; Vance, David; Chadwick, Chrystal; Jain, Nishant Kumar; Brey, Robert N; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Volkin, David B; Andra, Kiran K; Bann, James G; Mantis, Nicholas J; Middaugh, C. Russell

2013-01-01

64

HDAC8-mediated epigenetic reprogramming plays a key role in resistance to anthrax lethal toxin-induced pyroptosis in macrophages.  

PubMed

Macrophages pre-exposed to a sublethal dose of anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) are refractory to subsequent high cytolytic doses of LeTx, termed toxin-induced resistance (TIR). A small population of TIR cells (2-4%) retains TIR characteristics for up to 5-6 wk. Through studying these long-term TIR cells, we found that a high level of histone deacetylase (HDAC)8 expression was crucial for TIR. Knocking down or inhibition of HDAC8 by small interfering RNAs or the HDAC8-specific inhibitor PCI-34051, respectively, induced expression of the mitochondrial death genes Bcl2 adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3), BNIP3-like and metastatic lymph node 64, and resensitized TIR cells to LeTx. Among multiple histone acetylations, histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) acetylation was most significantly decreased in TIR cells in an HDAC8-dependent manner, and the association of H3K27 acetylation with the genomic regions of BNIP3 and metastatic lymph node 64, where HDAC8 was recruited to, was diminished in TIR cells. Furthermore, overexpression of HDAC8 or knocking down the histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein/p300, known to target H3K27, rendered wild-type cells resistant to LeTx. As in RAW264.7 cells, primary bone marrow-derived macrophages exposed to a sublethal dose of LeTx were resistant to LeTx in an HDAC8-dependent manner. Collectively, this study demonstrates that epigenetic reprogramming mediated by HDAC8 plays a key role in determining the susceptibility of LeTx-induced pyroptosis in macrophages. PMID:24973453

Ha, Soon-Duck; Han, Chae Young; Reid, Chantelle; Kim, Sung Ouk

2014-08-01

65

Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome inducing mutations in the ectodomain of anthrax toxin receptor 2 can be rescued by proteasome inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Hyaline Fibromatosis Syndrome (HFS) is a human genetic disease caused by mutations in the anthrax toxin receptor 2 (or cmg2) gene, which encodes a membrane protein thought to be involved in the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix. Little is known about the structure and function of the protein or the genotype–phenotype relationship of the disease. Through the analysis of four patients, we identify three novel mutants and determine their effects at the cellular level. Altogether, we show that missense mutations that map to the extracellular von Willebrand domain or the here characterized Ig-like domain of CMG2 lead to folding defects and thereby to retention of the mutated protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Mutations in the Ig-like domain prevent proper disulphide bond formation and are more efficiently targeted to ER-associated degradation. Finally, we show that mutant CMG2 can be rescued in fibroblasts of some patients by treatment with proteasome inhibitors and that CMG2 is then properly transported to the plasma membrane and signalling competent, identifying the ER folding and degradation pathway components as promising drug targets for HFS. PMID:21328543

Deuquet, Julie; Lausch, Ekkehart; Guex, Nicolas; Abrami, Laurence; Salvi, Suzanne; Lakkaraju, Asvin; Ramirez, Maria Celeste M; Martignetti, John A; Rokicki, Dariusz; Bonafe, Luisa; Superti-Furga, Andrea; van der Goot, Françoise G

2011-01-01

66

Antiplatelet activities of anthrax lethal toxin are associated with suppressed p42/44 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in the platelets.  

PubMed

Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is the major virulence factor produced by Bacillus anthracis, but the mechanism by which it induces high mortality remains unclear. We found that LT treatment could induce severe hemorrhage in mice and significantly suppress human whole-blood clotting and platelet aggregation in vitro. In addition, LT could inhibit agonist-induced platelet surface P-selectin expression, resulting in the inhibition of platelet-endothelial cell engagements. Data from Western blot analysis indicated that LT treatment resulted in the suppression of p42/44 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in platelets. Combined treatments with LT and antiplatelet agents such as aspirin and the RGD-containing disintegrin rhodostomin significantly increased mortality in mice. Our data suggest that platelets are a pathogenic target for anthrax LT. PMID:16170766

Kau, Jyh-Hwa; Sun, Der-Shan; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Shyu, Huey-Fen; Huang, Hsin-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Chi; Chang, Hsin-Hou

2005-10-15

67

LETTER doi:10.1038/nature09446 Anthrax toxins cooperatively inhibit endocytic  

E-print Network

during the final stage of infection. Here we use Drosophila melanogaster to identify the Rab11/Sec15- actions between the two toxins remain poorly understood. We chose D. melanogaster as a model system in the larval wing primordium also produces new, unexpected phenotypes. These phenotypes, including wing

Nizet, Victor

68

Development of an in Vitro Potency Assay for Anti-anthrax Lethal Toxin Neutralizing Antibodies  

PubMed Central

Lethal toxin (LT) of Bacillus anthracis reduces the production of a number of inflammatory mediators, including transcription factors, chemokines and cytokines in various human cell lines, leading to down-regulation of the host inflammatory response. Previously we showed that the reduction of interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a sensitive marker of LT-mediated intoxication in human neutrophil-like NB-4 cells and that IL-8 levels are restored to normality when therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with toxin-neutralising (TN) activity are added. We used this information to develop cell-based assays that examine the effects of TN therapeutic mAbs designed to treat LT intoxication and here we extend these findings. We present an in vitro assay based on human endothelial cell line HUVEC jr2, which measures the TN activity of therapeutic anti-LT mAbs using IL-8 as a marker for intoxication. HUVEC jr2 cells have the advantage over NB-4 cells that they are adherent, do not require a differentiation step and can be used in a microtitre plate format and therefore can facilitate high throughput analysis. This human cell-based assay provides a valid alternative to the mouse macrophage assay as it is a more biologically relevant model of the effects of toxin-neutralising antibodies in human infection. PMID:22347621

Whiting, Gail; Baker, Michael; Rijpkema, Sjoerd

2012-01-01

69

Anthrax Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

What is anthrax?Anthrax is a serious disease that can affect both animals and humans. It is caused by bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. People can get anthrax from contact with infected animals, wool, meat, or ...

70

MICROBIOLOGY: A Binding Contract for Anthrax  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. As the anthrax bioterrorism attacks demonstrated last year, individuals infected with the causative organism, Bacillus anthracis, may still die even after successful antibiotic treatment because of the production of large amounts of the anthrax toxin. In their Perspective, Bull and Parrish discuss new work published elsewhere that identifies an antitoxin antibody that could be used to passively immunize infected individuals and neutralize the anthrax toxin.

James J. Bull (University of Texas;Section of Integrative Biology and Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology); Colin R. Parrish (Cornell University;James A. Baker Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine)

2002-07-12

71

Sublethal Doses of Anthrax Lethal Toxin on the Suppression of Macrophage Phagocytosis  

PubMed Central

Background Lethal toxin (LT), the major virulence factor produced by Bacillus anthracis, has been shown to suppress the immune system, which is beneficial to the establishment of B. anthracis infections. It has been suggested that the suppression of MEK/MAPK signaling pathways of leukocytes contributes to LT-mediated immunosuppressive effects. However, the involvement of MAPK independent pathways has not been clearly elucidated; nor has the crucial role played by LT in the early stages of infection. Determining whether LT exerts any pathological effects before being enriched to an MEK inhibitory level is an important next step in the furtherance of this field. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a cell culture model, we determined that low doses of LT inhibited phagocytosis of macrophages, without influencing MAPK pathways. Consistent low doses of LT significantly suppressed bacterial clearance and enhanced the mortality of mice with bacteremia, without suppressing the MEK1 of splenic and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion/Significance These results suggest that LT suppresses the phagocytes in a dose range lower than that required to suppress MEK1 in the early stages of infection. PMID:21170330

Huang, Hsuan-Shun; Lien, Te-Sheng; Huang, Hsin-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Chi; Chang, Hsin-Hou

2010-01-01

72

Effect of Anthrax Immune Globulin on Response to BioThrax (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) in New Zealand White Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Development of anthrax countermeasures that may be used concomitantly in a postexposure setting requires an understanding of the interaction between these products. Anthrax immune globulin intravenous (AIGIV) is a candidate immunotherapeutic that contains neutralizing antibodies against protective antigen (PA), a component of anthrax toxins. We evaluated the interaction between AIGIV and BioThrax (anthrax vaccine adsorbed) in rabbits. While pharmacokinetics of AIGIV were not altered by vaccination, the vaccine-induced immune response was abrogated in AIGIV-treated animals. PMID:23979740

Malkevich, Nina V.; Basu, Subhendu; Rudge, Thomas L.; Clement, Kristin H.; Chakrabarti, Ajoy C.; Aimes, Ronald T.; Nabors, Gary S.; Skiadopoulos, Mario H.

2013-01-01

73

Anthrax lethal toxin-induced inflammasome formation and caspase-1 activation are late events dependent on ion fluxes and the proteasome  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is cytotoxic to macrophages from certain inbred mouse strains. The gene controlling macrophage susceptibility to LT is Nalp1b. Nalp1b forms part of the inflammasome, a multi-protein complex involved in caspase-1 activation and release of interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18. We confirm the role of caspase-1 in LT-mediated death by showing that caspase inhibitors differentially protected cells against LT, with the degree of protection corresponding to each compound's ability to inhibit caspase-1. Caspase-1 activation and cytokine processing and release were late events inhibited by elevated levels of KCl and sucrose, by potassium channel blockers, and by proteasome inhibitors, suggesting that inflammasome formation requires a protein degradation event and occurs downstream of LT-mediated potassium efflux. In addition, IL-18 and IL-1? release was dependent on cell death, indicating that caspase-1-mediated cytotoxicity is independent of these cytokines. Finally, inducing Nalp3-inflammasome formation in LT-resistant macrophages did not sensitize cells to LT, suggesting that general caspase-1 activation cannot account for sensitivity to LT and that a Nalp1b-mediated event is specifically required for death. Our data indicate that inflammasome formation is a contributing, but not initiating, event in LT-mediated cytotoxicity and that earlier LT-mediated events leading to ion fluxes are required for death. PMID:17850338

Wickliffe, Katherine E.; Leppla, Stephen H.; Moayeri, Mahtab

2008-01-01

74

Anthrax Attacks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson focuses on the bacterial disease known as Anthrax. Anthrax has always been identified as a disease that infects cattle, but there are known cases of people contracting this disease directly from handling infected cattle. In this online lesson the students will research the disease and its impact on human health.

Science Netlinks;

2002-05-05

75

Cutaneous anthrax (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Anthrax is caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis . While anthrax commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats, humans may get sick from anthrax, too. The most common type of anthrax infection ...

76

Anthrax: Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Confirming Anthrax Through the Laboratory Response Network Laboratory Testing - FAQs Collecting Specimens Recommended Specimens Information for Specific Groups Laboratory Professionals People Who Work with Animal Products Exposure to Hides/Drums Treatment of Products ...

77

Inhalation Anthrax  

MedlinePLUS

... Confirming Anthrax Through the Laboratory Response Network Laboratory Testing - FAQs Collecting Specimens Recommended Specimens Information for Specific Groups Laboratory Professionals People Who Work with Animal Products Exposure to Hides/Drums Treatment of Products ...

78

Anthrax: Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... Confirming Anthrax Through the Laboratory Response Network Laboratory Testing - FAQs Collecting Specimens Recommended Specimens Information for Specific Groups Laboratory Professionals People Who Work with Animal Products Exposure to Hides/Drums Treatment of Products ...

79

Anthrax: Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... Confirming Anthrax Through the Laboratory Response Network Laboratory Testing - FAQs Collecting Specimens Recommended Specimens Information for Specific Groups Laboratory Professionals People Who Work with Animal Products Exposure to Hides/Drums Treatment of Products ...

80

Injection Anthrax  

MedlinePLUS

... Confirming Anthrax Through the Laboratory Response Network Laboratory Testing - FAQs Collecting Specimens Recommended Specimens Information for Specific Groups Laboratory Professionals People Who Work with Animal Products Exposure to Hides/Drums Treatment of Products ...

81

Cutaneous Anthrax  

MedlinePLUS

... Confirming Anthrax Through the Laboratory Response Network Laboratory Testing - FAQs Collecting Specimens Recommended Specimens Information for Specific Groups Laboratory Professionals People Who Work with Animal Products Exposure to Hides/Drums Treatment of Products ...

82

Gastrointestinal Anthrax  

MedlinePLUS

... Confirming Anthrax Through the Laboratory Response Network Laboratory Testing - FAQs Collecting Specimens Recommended Specimens Information for Specific Groups Laboratory Professionals People Who Work with Animal Products Exposure to Hides/Drums Treatment of Products ...

83

Anthrax: Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Confirming Anthrax Through the Laboratory Response Network Laboratory Testing - FAQs Collecting Specimens Recommended Specimens Information for Specific Groups Laboratory Professionals People Who Work with Animal Products Exposure to Hides/Drums Treatment of Products ...

84

Voltage-dependent block of anthrax toxin channels in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes by symmetric tetraalkylammonium ions. Effects on macroscopic conductance  

PubMed Central

In a recent paper (Blaustein, R. O., T. M. Koehler, R. J. Collier, and A. Finkelstein, 1989. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 86:2209-2213) we described the general channel-forming properties of the PA65 fragment of anthrax toxin in planar phospholipid bilayer membranes. In the present paper we extend our previous studies of the permeability properties of this channel, using a series of symmetric tetraalkylammonium (TAA) ions. Our main finding is that at micromolar concentrations on either the cis (toxin-containing) or trans side of a membrane containing many (greater than 1,000) channels, these ions, ranging in size from tetramethylammonium to tetrahexylammonium, induce a voltage-dependent reduction of membrane conductance. (We attribute a similar voltage-dependent reduction of membrane conductance by millimolar concentrations of HEPES to a cationic form of this buffer present at micromolar concentrations.) In going from large negative to large positive voltages (on the TAA side) one sees that the conductance first decreases from its value in the absence of TAA, reaches a minimum, and then rises back at larger positive voltages toward the level in the absence of TAA. Our interpretation of this behavior is that these symmetric TAA ions block the cation-selective PA65 channel in a voltage-dependent manner. We postulate that there is a single site within the channel to which TAA ions can bind and thereby block the passage of the major current-carrying ion (potassium). A blocking ion is driven into the site by modest positive voltages, but is driven off the site and through the channel by larger positive voltages, thus explaining the relief of block. (In the accompanying paper [Blaustein, R. O., E. J. A. Lea, and A. Finkelstein. 1990. J. Gen. Physiol. 96:921- 942] we confirm this interpretation of the data by analysis at the single-channel level.) This means that these blocking ions can pass through the channel; the permeability to tetrahexylammonium, the largest ion studied, implies that the narrowest part of the channel has a diameter of at least 11 A. PMID:1704045

1990-01-01

85

Raxibacumab: potential role in the treatment of inhalational anthrax  

PubMed Central

Anthrax is a highly contagious and potentially fatal human disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, an aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium with worldwide distribution as a zoonotic infection in herbivore animals. Bioterrorist attacks with inhalational anthrax have prompted the development of more effective treatments. Antibodies against anthrax toxin have been shown to decrease mortality in animal studies. Raxibacumab is a recombinant human monoclonal antibody developed against inhalational anthrax. The drug received approval after human studies showed its safety and animal studies demonstrated its efficacy for treatment as well as prophylaxis against inhalational anthrax. It works by preventing binding of the protective antigen component of the anthrax toxin to its receptors in host cells, thereby blocking the toxin’s deleterious effects. Recently updated therapy guidelines for Bacillus anthracis recommend the use of antitoxin treatment. Raxibacumab is the first monoclonal antitoxin antibody made available that can be used with the antibiotics recommended for treatment of the disease. When exposure is suspected, raxibacumab should be given with anthrax vaccination to augment immunity. Raxibacumab provides additional protection against inhalational anthrax via a mechanism different from that of either antibiotics or active immunization. In combination with currently available and recommended therapies, raxibacumab should reduce the morbidity and mortality of inhalational anthrax. PMID:24812521

Kummerfeldt, Carlos E

2014-01-01

86

Anthrax: pre-publication and special issue  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This special topics Webpage from Nature contains two pre-publication research papers and a collection of articles, news stories, and commentary from Nature's archive. The two pre-pubs, Bradley et al.'s "Identification of the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin" and "Crystal structure of the anthrax lethal factor" by Pannifer et al., should be useful to researchers and scientists working on treatments for anthrax. The two other feature articles here, "Designing a polyvalent inhibitor of anthrax toxin" by Mourez et al. and "Genomics and future biological weapons: the need for preventive action by the biomedical community," by Fraser et al., come from October issues of Nature Biotechnology and Nature Genetics respectively. Interested members of the general public should find the collection of Nature news stories, which cover a range of issues related to bioweapons and defense, a worthwhile read. All material is available in HTML or .pdf formats.

2001-01-01

87

STRUCTURE BASED DESIGN OF PROTEIN LIGANDS: A STUDY OF ANTIBODY-LIKE SCAFFOLDS TARGETED AGAINST THE ANTHRAX TOXIN  

SciTech Connect

We have adopted structure-based approaches to enhance the affinities of two single chain antibodies, scFv1 and scFv4, that bind to two different epitopes on the Protective Antigen (PA), a toxin from Bacillus anthracis. In one approach, we have modified scFv4 and re-engineered a novel antibody-like scaffold in which we have placed V{sub L} on the N terminus and V{sub H} on the C-terminus and joined them by a 10 amino-acid-long linker. This scaffold preserves the native V{sub L}-V{sub H} contact interface and the dispositions of the CDR loops. It binds to PA with 10 fold higher affinity than scFv4. In a second approach, we have created a bispecific ligand by covalently joining scFv1 and scFv4 by a flexible linker that supports simultaneous and synergistic binding of the two scFvs to PA. This bispecific scFv1-linker-scFv4 binds to PA with 10 fold higher affinity than the individual scFvs. The newly re-engineered antibody-like scaffold of scFv4 and scFv1-linker-scFv4 are expected to be potent inhibitors of PA binding to the host cells.

P. SHIFLETT; E. HONG-GELLER; ET AL

2000-12-01

88

Pathophysiology of anthrax  

PubMed Central

Infection by Bacillus anthracis in animals and humans results from accidental or intentional exposure, by oral, cutaneous or pulmonary routes, to spores, which are normally present in the soil. Treatment includes administration of antibiotics, vaccination or treatment with antibody to the toxin. A better understanding of the molecular basis of the processes involved in the pathogenesis of anthrax namely, spore germination in macrophages and biological effects of the secreted toxins on heart and blood vessels will lead to improved management of infected animals and patients. Controlling germination will be feasible by inhibiting macrophage paralysis and cell death. On the other hand, the control of terminal hypotension might be achieved by inhibition of cardiomyocyte mitogen-activated protein kinase and stimulation of vessel cAMP. PMID:19273366

Frankel, Arthur E.; Kuo, Shu-Ru; Dostal, David; Watson, Linley; Duesbery, Nicholas S.; Cheng, Che-Ping; Cheng, Heng Jie; Tang, Wei-Jen; Leppla, Stephen H.

2014-01-01

89

Neutron-based sterilization of anthrax contamination.  

PubMed

With the anthrax threat becoming a reality, it is very important to have an effective way to sterilize areas contaminated by anthrax. Anthrax spores are the dormant form of the anthrax bacteria. They can germinate in tissues, producing new bacteria that release lethal toxins. Neutrons can be a powerful tool in our defense against anthrax contamination. Neutrons are elementary particles that have no charge, which allows them to be very penetrating, killing the anthrax spores on the surface and inside the containers. So neutrons have an advantage over other forms of radiation if deep penetration is required to kill biological organisms. A Cf neutron source allows for a low cost method of decontamination. It emits most neutrons in the 100 keV to 2 MeV energy regions, and a neutron in this energy region is 20 times more deadly than electrons or gamma rays in killing anthrax spores. If we just consider the first neutron collision with anthrax spores and that all the anthrax spores will not survive at the dose level above 2.0 x 10 Gy, our calculations show that a 0.5-g Cf neutron source within 20 min can generate 1.11 x 10 m fluence neutrons, which is good enough to kill the anthrax spores on the sample. An experimental confirmation of the above results may prove that to achieve 1.11 x 10 m fluence neutrons on the anthrax spore sample, the neutron irradiation time may be reduced dramatically or the Cf neutron source reduced to 0.1 g level or even less. The aim of this paper is to evaluate a feasible way to sterilize the anthrax contamination by using a Cf neutron source. Presently, we are mainly concentrating on the theoretical estimation of neutron fluence to see if the Cf neutron source can deliver enough neutron irradiation dose to kill the anthrax spores. Our future work will focus on experimental confirmation and Monte Carlo simulation by using Geant4 or MCNP codes. At that time, we will consider the effects of the real experimental setup, the shielding materials, the exact chemical components, and the biological structures of anthrax spores. We also need to consider the ways of carrying the anthrax spores, and this includes surface contamination, inside an envelope, or hidden in sealed metal containers and luggage. PMID:16607173

Liu, Bin; Wang, Qingfei

2006-05-01

90

Bioterrorism Preparedness--Anthrax  

E-print Network

This publication explains how people can prepare for a terrorist attack that uses anthrax. It discusses the reasons anthrax might be used in a bioterrorist attack and lists symptoms of anthrax infection in people and signs in animals....

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2002-04-24

91

Anthrax Antibodies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Update, from Science NetLinks, features an interview with George Georgiou about efforts to make a better vaccine against anthrax. Science Updates are audio interviews with scientists and are accompanied by a set of questions as well as links to related Science NetLink lessons and other related resources.

Science Update;

2002-10-27

92

Scientists Report New Lead in How Anthrax Kills Cells  

Cancer.gov

For years scientists have known that anthrax bacillus produces a toxin containing a deadly protein called lethal factor. However, researchers have never been able to identify how lethal factor kills cells.

93

Recent Developments in Anti-dotes Against Anthrax.  

PubMed

The etiologic agent of disease anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, causes recurrent outbreaks among the livestock and intermittent infections in humans across the world. Controlling animal infections by vaccination can minimize the incidence of disease in humans. Prevention of anthrax in occupationally exposed personnel is achieved through vaccination with either live spores or precipitates of culture supernatants from attenuated strains of B. anthracis. However, anthrax vaccination of the large human population is impractical as well as inappropriate. Broad-range antibiotics like amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, streptomycin, and penicillin G are recommended for the treatment of human anthrax infections, but the threat of antibiotic resistant strains always remains. Moreover, in absence of any specific symptom (s) during early infection, the diagnosis of anthrax is delayed causing elevated levels of anthrax toxin component which could be fatal. For these reasons, there is a need to develop new antimicrobial agents against virulent B. anthracis to effectively combat this fatal pathogen. Over the last two decade, extensive studies have been carried out to develop specific inhibitors against virulence factors of B. anthracis such as capsule, protective antigen, lethal factor and edema factor. Research has also been focused in developing inhibitors of anthrax toxin receptors (including the use of receptor decoys) and host furin endoproteases which are required for activation of toxin. This review highlights the recent progress made in developing the diverse countermeasures for anthrax infections targeting B. anthracis virulence factors and their counterparts in host. PMID:25174439

Dhasmana, Neha; Singh, Lalit K; Bhaduri, Asani; Misra, Richa; Singh, Yogendra

2014-08-30

94

ANTHRAX TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE DOCUMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Anthrax TAD was developed as an Interim Draft Final technical resource in November 2003. It is specifically for response to an actual or suspected terrorist release of anthrax (i.e., it is not intended for response to anthrax in agricultural settings.). The TAD was provided ...

95

An overview of anthrax infection including the recently identified form of disease in injection drug users  

PubMed Central

Purpose Bacillus anthracis infection (anthrax) can be highly lethal. Two recent outbreaks related to contaminated mail in the USA and heroin in the UK and Europe and its potential as a bioterrorist weapon have greatly increased concerns over anthrax in the developed world. Methods This review summarizes the microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of anthrax. Results and conclusions Anthrax, a gram-positive bacterium, has typically been associated with three forms of infection: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalational. However, the anthrax outbreak among injection drug users has emphasized the importance of what is now considered a fourth disease form (i.e., injectional anthrax) that is characterized by severe soft tissue infection. While cutaneous anthrax is most common, its early stages are distinct and prompt appropriate treatment commonly produces a good outcome. However, early symptoms with the other three disease forms can be nonspecific and mistaken for less lethal conditions. As a result, patients with gastrointestinal, inhalational, or injectional anthrax may have advanced infection at presentation that can be highly lethal. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with gram stain and culture from blood or tissue followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR). While antibiotics are the mainstay of anthrax treatment, use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists are a consideration. Prompt surgical therapy appears to be important for successful management of injectional anthrax. PMID:22527064

Hicks, Caitlin W.; Sweeney, Daniel A.; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan

2012-01-01

96

Biological Terrorism The Anthrax Scare of 2001  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the weeks following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, anthrax-laced envelopes were mailed to individuals in government and the news media. Thousands were treated for exposure, and five people were killed. At the same time, scientists solved the last remaining pieces of the anthrax puzzle and the mechanism of infection of the anthrax toxin is now well understood. Developed for a second-semester biochemistry course, this case presents students with a wealth of biochemical, microbiological, and immunological material to analyze. It also explores important societal issues related to national preparedness against bioterrorist attacks, funding for biodefense research, and the use and misuse of antibiotic therapy.

Cornely, Kathleen A.

2005-01-01

97

Serology and anthrax in humans, livestock and Etosha National Park wildlife.  

PubMed Central

Results are presented from a number of epidemiological studies using enzyme immunoassays (EIA) based on the purified anthrax toxin antigens, protective antigen, lethal factor and oedema factor. Studies on sera from a group of 62 human anthrax patients in Turkey and from cattle in Britain following two unrelated outbreaks of anthrax show that EIA using protective antigen can be a useful diagnostic aid and will detect subclinical infections in appropriate circumstances. A serological survey on wildlife in the Etosha National Park, Namibia, where anthrax is endemic, showed that naturally acquired anthrax-specific antibodies are rare in herbivores but common in carnivores; in carnivores, titres appear to reflect the prevalence of anthrax in their ranges. Problems, as yet unresolved, were encountered in studies on sera from pigs following an outbreak of anthrax on a farm in Wales. Clinical details, including treatment, of the human and one of the bovine outbreaks are summarized and discussed in relation to the serological findings. PMID:1582472

Turnbull, P. C.; Doganay, M.; Lindeque, P. M.; Aygen, B.; McLaughlin, J.

1992-01-01

98

The Role of NF-?B and H3K27me3 Demethylase, Jmjd3, on the Anthrax Lethal Toxin Tolerance of RAW 264.7 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn Bacillus anthracis, lethal toxin (LeTx) is a critical virulence factor that causes immune suppression and toxic shock in the infected host. NF-?B is a key mediator of the inflammatory response and is crucial for the plasticity of first level immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils. In macrophages, this inflammatory response, mediated by NF-?B, can regulate host defense

Nando Dulal Das; Kyoung Hwa Jung; Young Gyu Chai

2010-01-01

99

Development of a simple method for the rapid identification of organisms causing anthrax by coagglutination test.  

PubMed

A protective antigen (PA) based coagglutination test was optimized in the present study for the specific and sensitive identification of bacteria causing anthrax in a cost effective and less risky manner. The test showed 100% specificity and sensitivity up to 9 × 10(3) formalinized vegetative cells or 11 ng of PA. The optimized test also detected anthrax toxin directly from the serum as well as blood of anthrax infected animals indicating the potential application for direct diagnosis of anthrax under field conditions. PMID:25151655

Sumithra, T G; Chaturvedi, V K; Gupta, P K; Siju, S J; Susan, C; Bincy, J; Laxmi, U; Sunita, S C; Rai, A K

2014-11-01

100

Lethal factor, but not edema factor, is required to cause fatal anthrax in cynomolgus macaques after pulmonary spore challenge.  

PubMed

Inhalational anthrax is caused by inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. The ability of B. anthracis to cause anthrax is attributed to the plasmid-encoded A/B-type toxins, edema toxin (edema factor and protective antigen) and lethal toxin (lethal factor and protective antigen), and a poly-d-glutamic acid capsule. To better understand the contribution of these toxins to the disease pathophysiology in vivo, we used B. anthracis Ames strain and isogenic toxin deletion mutants derived from the Ames strain to examine the role of lethal toxin and edema toxin after pulmonary spore challenge of cynomolgus macaques. Lethal toxin, but not edema toxin, was required to induce sustained bacteremia and death after pulmonary challenge with spores delivered via bronchoscopy. After intravenous challenge with bacilli to model the systemic phase of infection, lethal toxin contributed to bacterial proliferation and subsequent host death to a greater extent than edema toxin. Deletion of protective antigen resulted in greater loss of virulence after intravenous challenge with bacilli than deletion of lethal toxin or edema toxin alone. These findings are consistent with the ability of anti-protective antigen antibodies to prevent anthrax and suggest that lethal factor is the dominant toxin that contributes to the escape of significant numbers of bacilli from the thoracic cavity to cause anthrax after inhalation challenge with spores. PMID:25285720

Hutt, Julie A; Lovchik, Julie A; Drysdale, Melissa; Sherwood, Robert L; Brasel, Trevor; Lipscomb, Mary F; Lyons, C Rick

2014-12-01

101

Antibodies Against Anthrax: Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Applications  

PubMed Central

B. anthracis is a bioweapon of primary importance and its pathogenicity depends on its lethal and edema toxins, which belong to the A-B model of bacterial toxins, and on its capsule. These toxins are secreted early in the course of the anthrax disease and for this reason antibiotics must be administered early, in addition to other limitations. Antibodies (Abs) may however neutralize those toxins and target this capsule to improve anthrax treatment, and many Abs have been developed in that perspective. These Abs act at various steps of the cell intoxication and their mechanisms of action are detailed in the present review, presented in correlation with structural and functional data. The potential for clinical application is discussed for Abs targeting each step of entry, with four of these molecules already advancing to clinical trials. Paradoxically, certain Abs may also enhance the lethal toxin activity and this aspect will also be presented. The unique paradigm of Abs neutralizing anthrax toxins thus exemplifies how they may act to neutralize A-B toxins and, more generally, be active against infectious diseases. PMID:22174979

Froude, Jeffrey W.; Thullier, Philippe; Pelat, Thibaut

2011-01-01

102

Antibodies against anthrax: mechanisms of action and clinical applications.  

PubMed

B. anthracis is a bioweapon of primary importance and its pathogenicity depends on its lethal and edema toxins, which belong to the A-B model of bacterial toxins, and on its capsule. These toxins are secreted early in the course of the anthrax disease and for this reason antibiotics must be administered early, in addition to other limitations. Antibodies (Abs) may however neutralize those toxins and target this capsule to improve anthrax treatment, and many Abs have been developed in that perspective. These Abs act at various steps of the cell intoxication and their mechanisms of action are detailed in the present review, presented in correlation with structural and functional data. The potential for clinical application is discussed for Abs targeting each step of entry, with four of these molecules already advancing to clinical trials. Paradoxically, certain Abs may also enhance the lethal toxin activity and this aspect will also be presented. The unique paradigm of Abs neutralizing anthrax toxins thus exemplifies how they may act to neutralize A-B toxins and, more generally, be active against infectious diseases. PMID:22174979

Froude, Jeffrey W; Thullier, Philippe; Pelat, Thibaut

2011-11-01

103

A comparison of non-toxin vaccine adjuvants for their ability to enhance the immunogenicity of nasally-administered anthrax recombinant protective antigen.  

PubMed

Development of nasal immunization for human use is hindered by the lack of acceptable adjuvants. Although CT is an effective adjuvant, its toxicity will likely prevent its use in nasal vaccines. This study compared non-toxin adjuvants to CT for their ability to induce protective antibody responses with nasal immunization. C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice were immunized with rPA formulated with the following adjuvants: CT, IL-1?, LPS, CpG, Pam3CSK4, 3M-019, resiquimod/R848 or c48/80. Serum and nasal wash cytokine concentrations were monitored 6h post-vaccination as biomarkers for acute activation of the innate immune system. Not all of the adjuvants induced significant changes in innate serum or nasal wash cytokines, but when changes were observed, the cytokine signatures were unique for each adjuvant. All adjuvants except Pam3CSK4 induced significantly increased anti-rPA serum IgG titers in both strains of mice, while only IL-1?, c48/80 and CpG enhanced mucosal anti-rPA IgA. Pam3CSK4 was the only adjuvant unable to enhance the induction of serum LeTx-neutralizing antibodies in C3H/HeN mice while c48/80 was the only adjuvant to induce increased serum LeTx-neutralizing antibodies in C57BL/6 mice. Only CT enhanced total serum IgE in C3H/HeN mice while IL-1? enhanced total serum IgE in C57BL/6 mice. The adjuvant influenced antigen-specific serum IgG subclass and T cell cytokine profiles, but these responses did not correlate with the induction of LeTx-neutralizing activity. Our results demonstrate the induction of diverse innate and adaptive immune responses by non-toxin nasal vaccine adjuvants that lead to protective humoral immunity comparable to CT and that these responses may be influenced by the host strain. PMID:23352329

Gwinn, William M; Johnson, Brandi T; Kirwan, Shaun M; Sobel, Ashley E; Abraham, Soman N; Gunn, Michael D; Staats, Herman F

2013-03-01

104

Anthrax Lethal Toxin Induced Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization and Cytosolic Cathepsin Release Is Nlrp1b/Nalp1b-Dependent  

PubMed Central

NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are a group of cytoplasmic molecules that recognize microbial invasion or ‘danger signals’. Activation of NLRs can induce rapid caspase-1 dependent cell death termed pyroptosis, or a caspase-1 independent cell death termed pyronecrosis. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT), is recognized by a subset of alleles of the NLR protein Nlrp1b, resulting in pyroptotic cell death of macrophages and dendritic cells. Here we show that LT induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). The presentation of LMP requires expression of an LT-responsive allele of Nlrp1b, and is blocked by proteasome inhibitors and heat shock, both of which prevent LT-mediated pyroptosis. Further the lysosomal protease cathepsin B is released into the cell cytosol and cathepsin inhibitors block LT-mediated cell death. These data reveal a role for lysosomal membrane permeabilization in the cellular response to bacterial pathogens and demonstrate a shared requirement for cytosolic relocalization of cathepsins in pyroptosis and pyronecrosis. PMID:19924255

Averette, Kathleen M.; Pratt, Matthew R.; Yang, Yanan; Bassilian, Sara; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Loo, Joseph A.; Muir, Tom W.; Bradley, Kenneth A.

2009-01-01

105

Anthrax lethal toxin induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cytosolic cathepsin release is Nlrp1b/Nalp1b-dependent.  

PubMed

NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are a group of cytoplasmic molecules that recognize microbial invasion or 'danger signals'. Activation of NLRs can induce rapid caspase-1 dependent cell death termed pyroptosis, or a caspase-1 independent cell death termed pyronecrosis. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT), is recognized by a subset of alleles of the NLR protein Nlrp1b, resulting in pyroptotic cell death of macrophages and dendritic cells. Here we show that LT induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). The presentation of LMP requires expression of an LT-responsive allele of Nlrp1b, and is blocked by proteasome inhibitors and heat shock, both of which prevent LT-mediated pyroptosis. Further the lysosomal protease cathepsin B is released into the cell cytosol and cathepsin inhibitors block LT-mediated cell death. These data reveal a role for lysosomal membrane permeabilization in the cellular response to bacterial pathogens and demonstrate a shared requirement for cytosolic relocalization of cathepsins in pyroptosis and pyronecrosis. PMID:19924255

Averette, Kathleen M; Pratt, Matthew R; Yang, Yanan; Bassilian, Sara; Whitelegge, Julian P; Loo, Joseph A; Muir, Tom W; Bradley, Kenneth A

2009-01-01

106

Molecular motions as a drug target: mechanistic simulations of anthrax toxin edema factor function led to the discovery of novel allosteric inhibitors.  

PubMed

Edema Factor (EF) is a component of Bacillus anthracis toxin essential for virulence. Its adenylyl cyclase activity is induced by complexation with the ubiquitous eukaryotic cellular protein, calmodulin (CaM). EF and its complexes with CaM, nucleotides and/or ions, have been extensively characterized by X-ray crystallography. Those structural data allowed molecular simulations analysis of various aspects of EF action mechanism, including the delineation of EF and CaM domains through their association energetics, the impact of calcium binding on CaM, and the role of catalytic site ions. Furthermore, a transition path connecting the free inactive form to the CaM-complexed active form of EF was built to model the activation mechanism in an attempt to define an inhibition strategy. The cavities at the surface of EF were determined for each path intermediate to identify potential sites where the binding of a ligand could block activation. A non-catalytic cavity (allosteric) was found to shrink rapidly at early stages of the path and was chosen to perform virtual screening. Amongst 18 compounds selected in silico and tested in an enzymatic assay, 6 thiophen ureidoacid derivatives formed a new family of EF allosteric inhibitors with IC50 as low as 2 micromolars. PMID:23012649

Laine, Elodie; Martínez, Leandro; Ladant, Daniel; Malliavin, Thérèse; Blondel, Arnaud

2012-08-01

107

What Is Anthrax?  

MedlinePLUS

... The spores can live for years in the soil, and they cause anthrax when they enter the ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

108

ANTHRAX REMEDIATION RESEARCH NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency has initiated a research program to respond to the immediate needs arising from the recent Bacillus anthracis bioterrorism events. Although the program has a strong emphasis on anthrax, other pathogens and chemical agents, including toxic indu...

109

Anthrax vaccination strategies  

PubMed Central

The biological attack conducted through the U.S. postal system in 2001 broadened the threat posed by anthrax from one pertinent mainly to soldiers on the battlefield to one understood to exist throughout our society. The expansion of the threatened population placed greater emphasis on the reexamination of how we vaccinate against Bacillus anthracis. The currently-licensed Anthrax Vaccine, Adsorbed (AVA) and Anthrax Vaccine, Precipitated (AVP) are capable of generating a protective immune response but are hampered by shortcomings that make their widespread use undesirable or infeasible. Efforts to gain U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for licensure of a second generation recombinant protective antigen (rPA)-based anthrax vaccine are ongoing. However, this vaccine's reliance on the generation of a humoral immune response against a single virulence factor has led a number of scientists to conclude that the vaccine is likely not the final solution to optimal anthrax vaccine design. Other vaccine approaches, which seek a more comprehensive immune response targeted at multiple components of the B. anthracis organism, are under active investigation. This review seeks to summarize work that has been done to build on the current PA-based vaccine methodology and to evaluate the search for future anthrax prophylaxis strategies. PMID:19729034

Cybulski, Robert J.; Sanz, Patrick; O'Brien, Alison D.

2009-01-01

110

Radiolabeled Phenethylguanidines  

PubMed Central

The norepinephrine transporter (NET) substrates [123I]meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and [11C]meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED) are used as markers of cardiac sympathetic neurons and adrenergic tumors (pheochromocytoma, neuroblastoma). However, their rapid NET transport rates limit their ability to provide accurate measurements of cardiac nerve density. [11C]Phenethylguanidine ([11C]1a) and 12 analogs ([11C]1b-m) were synthesized and evaluated as radiotracers with improved kinetics for quantifying cardiac nerve density. In isolated rat hearts, neuronal uptake rates of [11C]1a-m ranged from 0.24 to 1.96 mL/min/g wet, and six compounds had extremely long neuronal retention times (clearance T1/2 > 20 hr) due to efficient vesicular storage. PET studies in nonhuman primates with [11C]1e, N-[11C]guanyl-meta-octopamine, which has a slow NET transport rate, showed improved myocardial kinetics compared to HED. Compound [11C]1c, [11C]para-hydroxyphenethylguandine, which has a rapid NET transport rate, avidly accumulated into rat pheochromocytoma xenograft tumors in mice. These encouraging findings demonstrate that radiolabeled phenethylguanidines deserve further investigation as radiotracers of cardiac sympathetic innervation and adrenergic tumors. PMID:17419605

Raffel, David M.; Jung, Yong-Woon; Gildersleeve, David L.; Sherman, Phillip S.; Moskwa, James J.; Tluczek, Louis J.; Chen, Wei

2008-01-01

111

Methods for neutralizing anthrax or anthrax spores  

DOEpatents

The present invention concerns methods, compositions and apparatus for neutralizing bioagents, wherein bioagents comprise biowarfare agents, biohazardous agents, biological agents and/or infectious agents. The methods comprise exposing the bioagent to an organic semiconductor and exposing the bioagent and organic semiconductor to a source of energy. Although any source of energy is contemplated, in some embodiments the energy comprises visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, laser radiation, pulsed corona discharge or electron beam radiation. Exemplary organic semiconductors include DAT and DALM. In certain embodiments, the organic semiconductor may be attached to one or more binding moieties, such as an antibody, antibody fragment, or nucleic acid ligand. Preferably, the binding moiety has a binding affinity for one or more bioagents to be neutralized. Other embodiments concern an apparatus comprising an organic semiconductor and an energy source. In preferred embodiments, the methods, compositions and apparatus are used for neutralizing anthrax spores.

Sloan, Mark A; Vivekandanda, Jeevalatha; Holwitt, Eric A; Kiel, Johnathan L

2013-02-26

112

Anthrax Spores under a microscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anthrax spores are inactive forms of Bacillus anthracis. They can survive for decades inside a spore's tough protective coating; they become active when inhaled by humans. A result of NASA- and industry-sponsored research to develop small greenhouses for space research is the unique AiroCide TiO2 system that kills anthrax spores and other pathogens.

2003-01-01

113

Three eyelid localized cutaneous anthrax cases.  

PubMed

Anthrax is primarily seen in the developing countries, but it can be a worldwide medical concern due to bioterrorism threats. Palpebral anthrax is a rare form of cutaneous anthrax. Untreated cutaneous anthrax can be lethal. Patients with palpebral anthrax can develop complications including cicatrisation and ectropion. Thus, anthrax should be considered in differential diagnosis for patients presenting with preseptal cellulitis in high-risk regions. Herein, we report three anthrax cases (with different age) involving eyelids that were cured without any complications due to early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24641116

Esmer, Oktay; Karadag, Remzi; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Gultepe, Bilge; Bayramlar, Huseyin; Karadag, Ayse Serap

2014-12-01

114

Detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA) using europium labeled anti-PA monoclonal antibody and time-resolved fluorescence.  

PubMed

Inhalation anthrax is a rare but acute infectious disease following adsorption of Bacillus anthracis spores through the lungs. The disease has a high fatality rate if untreated, but early and correct diagnosis has a significant impact on case patient recovery. The early symptoms of inhalation anthrax are, however, non-specific and current anthrax diagnostics are primarily dependent upon culture and confirmatory real-time PCR. Consequently, there may be a significant delay in diagnosis and targeted treatment. Rapid, culture-independent diagnostic tests are therefore needed, particularly in the context of a large scale emergency response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of monoclonal antibodies to detect anthrax toxin proteins that are secreted early in the course of B. anthracis infection using a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) immunoassay. We selected monoclonal antibodies that could detect protective antigen (PA), as PA83 and also PA63 and LF in the lethal toxin complex. The assay reliable detection limit (RDL) was 6.63×10(-6)?M (0.551ng/ml) for PA83 and 2.51×10(-5)?M (1.58ng/ml) for PA63. Despite variable precision and accuracy of the assay, PA was detected in 9 out of 10 sera samples from anthrax confirmed case patients with cutaneous (n=7), inhalation (n=2), and gastrointestinal (n=1) disease. Anthrax Immune Globulin (AIG), which has been used in treatment of clinical anthrax, interfered with detection of PA. This study demonstrates a culture-independent method of diagnosing anthrax through the use of monoclonal antibodies to detect PA and LF in the lethal toxin complex. PMID:24857756

Stoddard, Robyn A; Quinn, Conrad P; Schiffer, Jarad M; Boyer, Anne E; Goldstein, Jason; Bagarozzi, Dennis A; Soroka, Stephen D; Dauphin, Leslie A; Hoffmaster, Alex R

2014-06-01

115

Added Benefit of Raxibacumab to Antibiotic Treatment of Inhalational Anthrax.  

PubMed

Although antibiotics treat bacteremia in inhalational anthrax, pathogenesis is mainly driven by bacterial exotoxins. Raxibacumab, an IgG1 monoclonal antibody, binds the protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis, thus blocking toxin effects and leading to improved survival in the rabbit and monkey models of inhalational anthrax. To assess raxibacumab's added benefit over levofloxacin (LVX) alone, rabbits surviving to 84 h after a 200 x LD50 B. anthracis spore challenge were randomized to receive 3 daily 50 mg/kg intragastric LVX doses, with the first LVX dose administered just prior to a single intravenous dose of placebo or 40 mg/kg raxibacumab. The percent of animals alive at 28 days following the last LVX dose was compared between the 2 treatment groups, using a 2-sided likelihood ratio chi-squared test. The 82% survival rate for the LVX/raxibacumab combination was higher than the 65% survival rate for LVX alone (p = 0.0874). There were nearly 2-fold fewer deaths for the combination (7 deaths; n = 39) versus LVX alone (13 deaths; n = 37), and survival time was prolonged for the combination (p = 0.1016). TNA titers were similar for both treatment groups, suggesting that survivors in both groups were able to mount a toxin-neutralizing immune response. Microscopic findings considered consistent with anthrax were present in animals that died or became moribund on study in both treatment groups, and there were no anthrax-related findings in animals that survived. Overall, raxibacumab provided a meaningful benefit over antibiotic alone when administered late in the disease course. PMID:25487792

Migone, Thi-Sau; Bolmer, Sally; Zhong, John; Corey, Al; Vasconcelos, Daphne; Buccellato, Matthew; Meister, Gabriel

2014-12-01

116

Anthrax: Who Is at Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... Confirming Anthrax Through the Laboratory Response Network Laboratory Testing - FAQs Collecting Specimens Recommended Specimens Information for Specific Groups Laboratory Professionals People Who Work with Animal Products Exposure to Hides/Drums Treatment of Products ...

117

Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States.  

PubMed

Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States. PMID:24447835

Griffith, Jayne; Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

2014-02-01

118

Investigation of Inhalation Anthrax Case, United States  

PubMed Central

Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States. PMID:24447835

Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

2014-01-01

119

Anthrax: A Guide for Biology Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents facts about anthrax so that biology teachers can communicate them to others. Defines anthrax and the nature of bacterial spores. Discusses transmission and clinical presentation as well as prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Explores the use of anthrax as a biological warfare agent. (Contains 27 references.) (DDR)

Simon, Eric J.

2002-01-01

120

Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies directed against defined linear epitopes on domain 4 of anthrax protective antigen.  

PubMed

The anthrax protective antigen (PA) is the receptor-binding subunit common to lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET), which are responsible for the high mortality rates associated with inhalational Bacillus anthracis infection. Although recombinant PA (rPA) is likely to be an important constituent of any future anthrax vaccine, evaluation of the efficacies of the various candidate rPA vaccines is currently difficult, because the specific B-cell epitopes involved in toxin neutralization have not been completely defined. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of two murine monoclonal immunoglobulin G1 antibodies (MAbs), 1-F1 and 2-B12, which recognize distinct linear neutralizing epitopes on domain 4 of PA. 1-F1 recognized a 12-mer peptide corresponding to residues 692 to 703; this epitope maps to a region of domain 4 known to interact with the anthrax toxin receptor CMG-2 and within a conformation-dependent epitope recognized by the well-characterized neutralizing MAb 14B7. As expected, 1-F1 blocked PA's ability to associate with CMG-2 in an in vitro solid-phase binding assay, and it protected murine macrophage cells from intoxication with LT. 2-B12 recognized a 12-mer peptide corresponding to residues 716 to 727, an epitope located immediately adjacent to the core 14B7 binding site and a stretch of amino acids not previously identified as a target of neutralizing antibodies. 2-B12 was as effective as 1-F1 in neutralizing LT in vitro, although it only partially inhibited PA binding to its receptor. Mice passively administered 1-F1 or 2-B12 were partially protected against a lethal challenge with LT. These results advance our fundamental understanding of the mechanisms by which antibodies neutralize anthrax toxin and may have future application in the evaluation of candidate rPA vaccines. PMID:19703971

Kelly-Cirino, Cassandra D; Mantis, Nicholas J

2009-11-01

121

Airing Out Anthrax  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The AiroCide TiO2 is an air-purifier that kills 93.3 percent of airborne pathogens that pass through it, including Bacillus anthraci, more commonly known as anthrax. It is essentially a spinoff of KES Science & Technology, Inc.'s Bio-KES system, a highly effective device used by the produce industry for ethylene gas removal to aid in preserving the freshness of fruits, vegetables, and flowers. The TiO2-based ethylene removal technology that is incorporated into the company's AiroCide TiO2 and Bio-KES products was first integrated into a pair of plant-growth chambers known as ASTROCULTURE(TM) and ADVANCED ASTROCULTURE(TM). Both chambers have housed commercial plant growth experiments in space on either the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The AiroCide TiO2 also has a proven record of destroying 98 percent of other airborne pathogens, such as microscopic dust mites, molds, and fungi. Moreover, the device is a verified killer of Influenza A (flu), E. coli, Staphylococcus aureas, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, among many other harmful viruses.

2002-01-01

122

Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin reduces human alveolar epithelial barrier function.  

PubMed

The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness. PMID:23027535

Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin; Metcalf, Jordan Patrick

2012-12-01

123

Bacillus anthracis Lethal Toxin Reduces Human Alveolar Epithelial Barrier Function  

PubMed Central

The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness. PMID:23027535

Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M.; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin

2012-01-01

124

Microneedle-Based Intradermal Delivery of the Anthrax Recombinant Protective Antigen Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of Bacillus anthracis is a promising anthrax vaccine. We compared serum immunoglobulin G levels and toxin-neutralizing antibody titers in rabbits following delivery of various doses of vaccine by microneedle-based intradermal (i.d.) delivery or intramuscular (i.m.) injection using conventional needles. Intradermal delivery required less antigen to induce levels of antibody similar to those produced via i.m.

John A. Mikszta; John P. Dekker; Noel G. Harvey; Cheryl H. Dean; John M. Brittingham; Joanne Huang; Vincent J. Sullivan; Beverly Dyas; Chad J. Roy; Robert G. Ulrich

2006-01-01

125

Biological and Biochemical Characterization of Anthrax Lethal Factor, a Proteolytic Inhibitor of MEK Signaling Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The secretion of factors that block critical intracellular signaling pathways is a common strategy used by pathogenic bacteria for disabling host defenses and causing disease. Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) has been shown to cleave and inactivate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases (MKKs or MEKs) and to inhibit MKK signaling. Cleavage of MKKs by LeTx prevents activation of their downstream substrates,

Jennifer L. Bromberg-White; Nicholas S. Duesbery

2008-01-01

126

Hepatic subcellular distribution of (tritium)T-2 toxin  

SciTech Connect

Hepatic subcellular distribution of ({sup 3}H)T-2 toxin. The subcellular distribution of T-2 mycotoxin and its metabolites was studied in isolated rat livers perfused with ({sup 3}H)T-2 toxin. After a 120-min perfusion, the distribution of radiolabel was to bile 53%, perfusate 38% and liver 7%. Livers were fractionated into mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (smooth and rough), plasma membrane and nuclei. Plasma membrane fractions contained 38% of the radiolabel within 5 min, decreasing to <1% at the end of the 120-min perfusion. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum contained 27% of the radiolabel by 5 min and increased to 43% over the 120-min perfusion. The mitochondrial fraction contained 3% of the radiolabel by 30 min and increased to 10% after 120-min perfusion. Label in the nuclear fraction remained constant at 7% from 30 to 120 min. By 15 min, only the parent toxin was detected in the mitochondrial fraction. In the other fractions, radiolabel was associated with HT-2, 4-deacetylneosolaniol, T-2 tetraol, and glucuronide conjugates. Glucuronide conjugates accounted for radiolabel eliminated via the bile. The time course for distribution of radiolabel in liver suggested an immediate association of ({sup 3}H)T-2 with plasma membranes and a subsequent association of toxin and metabolites with endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and nuclei, the known sites of action of this toxin.

Pace, J.G.; Watts, M.R.

1989-01-01

127

A case of septicaemic anthrax in an intravenous drug user  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 2000, Ringertz et al described the first case of systemic anthrax caused by injecting heroin contaminated with anthrax. In 2008, there were 574 drug related deaths in Scotland, of which 336 were associated with heroin and or morphine. We report a rare case of septicaemic anthrax caused by injecting heroin contaminated with anthrax in Scotland. CASE PRESENTATION: A

Arfon GMT Powell; Joseph EM Crozier; Heather Hodgson; David J Galloway

2011-01-01

128

Anthrax as a Potential Biological Warfare Agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

nthrax is a zoonotic illness recognized since antiquity. Today, human anthrax has been all but eradicated from the industrialized world, with the vast majority of practition- ers in the United States unlikely to have seen a case. Unfortunately, the disease re- mains endemic in many areas of the world, and anthrax poses a threat as a mass casualty- producing weapon

James C. Pile; John D. Malone; Edward M. Eitzen; Arthur M. Friedlander

129

Role of Visible Light-Activated Photocatalyst on the Reduction of Anthrax Spore-Induced Mortality in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Photocatalysis of titanium dioxide (TiO2) substrates is primarily induced by ultraviolet light irradiation. Anion-doped TiO2 substrates were shown to exhibit photocatalytic activities under visible-light illumination, relative environmentally-friendly materials. Their anti-spore activity against Bacillus anthracis, however, remains to be investigated. We evaluated these visible-light activated photocatalysts on the reduction of anthrax spore-induced pathogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Standard plating method was used to determine the inactivation of anthrax spore by visible light-induced photocatalysis. Mouse models were further employed to investigate the suppressive effects of the photocatalysis on anthrax toxin- and spore-mediated mortality. We found that anti-spore activities of visible light illuminated nitrogen- or carbon-doped titania thin films significantly reduced viability of anthrax spores. Even though the spore-killing efficiency is only approximately 25%, our data indicate that spores from photocatalyzed groups but not untreated groups have a less survival rate after macrophage clearance. In addition, the photocatalysis could directly inactivate lethal toxin, the major virulence factor of B. anthracis. In agreement with these results, we found that the photocatalyzed spores have tenfold less potency to induce mortality in mice. These data suggest that the photocatalysis might injury the spores through inactivating spore components. Conclusion/Significance Photocatalysis induced injuries of the spores might be more important than direct killing of spores to reduce pathogenicity in the host. PMID:19132100

Huang, Hsin-Hsien; Wong, Ming-Show; Lin, Hung-Chi; Chang, Hsin-Hou

2009-01-01

130

Comprehensive analysis and selection of anthrax vaccine adsorbed immune correlates of protection in rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

Humoral and cell-mediated immune correlates of protection (COP) for inhalation anthrax in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) model were determined. The immunological and survival data were from 114 vaccinated and 23 control animals exposed to Bacillus anthracis spores at 12, 30, or 52 months after the first vaccination. The vaccinated animals received a 3-dose intramuscular priming series (3-i.m.) of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) (BioThrax) at 0, 1, and 6 months. The immune responses were modulated by administering a range of vaccine dilutions. Together with the vaccine dilution dose and interval between the first vaccination and challenge, each of 80 immune response variables to anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA) at every available study time point was analyzed as a potential COP by logistic regression penalized by least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) or elastic net. The anti-PA IgG level at the last available time point before challenge (last) and lymphocyte stimulation index (SI) at months 2 and 6 were identified consistently as a COP. Anti-PA IgG levels and lethal toxin neutralization activity (TNA) at months 6 and 7 (peak) and the frequency of gamma interferon (IFN-?)-secreting cells at month 6 also had statistically significant positive correlations with survival. The ratio of interleukin 4 (IL-4) mRNA to IFN-? mRNA at month 6 also had a statistically significant negative correlation with survival. TNA had lower accuracy as a COP than did anti-PA IgG response. Following the 3-i.m. priming with AVA, the anti-PA IgG responses at the time of exposure or at month 7 were practicable and accurate metrics for correlating vaccine-induced immunity with protection against inhalation anthrax. PMID:25185577

Chen, Ligong; Schiffer, Jarad M; Dalton, Shannon; Sabourin, Carol L; Niemuth, Nancy A; Plikaytis, Brian D; Quinn, Conrad P

2014-11-01

131

Small Molecule Inhibitors of Anthrax Lethal Factor Toxin  

PubMed Central

This manuscript describes the preparation of new small molecule inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor. Our starting point was the symmetrical, bis-quinolinyl compound 1 (NSC 12155). Optimization of one half of this molecule led to new LF inhibitors that were desymmetrized to afford more drug-like compounds. PMID:24290062

Williams, John D.; Khan, Atiyya R.; Cardinale, Steven C.; Butler, Michelle M.; Bowlin, Terry L.; Peet, Norton P.

2014-01-01

132

Anthrax - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Anthrax - Multiple Languages Amharic (amarunya) Hmong (Hmoob) Spanish (español) Thai (???????) ... Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

133

Laboratory Testing for Anthrax: Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Confirming Anthrax Through the Laboratory Response Network Laboratory Testing - FAQs Collecting Specimens Recommended Specimens Information for Specific Groups Laboratory Professionals People Who Work with Animal Products Exposure to Hides/Drums Treatment of Products ...

134

Anthrax vaccines: present status and future prospects.  

PubMed

The management of anthrax remains a top priority among the biowarfare/bioterror agents. It was the Bacillus anthracis spore attack through the US mail system after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the USA that highlighted the potential of B. anthracis as a bioterrorism agent and the threat posed by its deliberate dissemination. These attacks invigorated the efforts toward understanding the anthrax pathogenesis and development of more comprehensive medical intervention strategies for its containment in case of both natural disease and manmade, accidental or deliberate infection of a non-suspecting population. Currently, efforts are directed toward the development of safe and efficacious vaccines as well as intervention tools for controlling the disease in the advanced fulminant stage when toxemia has already developed. This work presents an overview of the current understanding of anthrax pathogenesis and recent advances made, particularly after 2001, for the successful management of anthrax and outlines future perspectives. PMID:23984963

Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Samer; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

2013-08-01

135

Inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis block the entry of Bacillus anthracis adenylate cyclase toxin but not that of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin.  

PubMed Central

Bordetella pertussis and Bacillus anthracis produce extracytoplasmic adenylate cyclase toxins (AC toxins) with shared features including activation by calmodulin and the ability to enter target cells and catalyze intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) production from host ATP. The two AC toxins were evaluated for sensitivities to a series of inhibitors of known uptake mechanisms. Cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of microfilament function, abrogated the cAMP response to B. anthracis AC toxin (93%) but not the cAMP response elicited by B. pertussis AC toxin. B. anthracis-mediated intoxication of CHO cells was completely inhibited by ammonium chloride (30 mM) and chloroquine (0.1 mM), whereas the cAMP accumulation produced by B. pertussis AC toxin remained unchanged. The block of target cell intoxication by cytochalasin D could be bypassed when cells were first treated with anthrax AC toxin and then exposed to an acidic medium. These data indicate that despite enzymatic similarities, these two AC toxins intoxicate target cells by different mechanisms, with anthrax AC toxin entering by means of receptor-mediated endocytosis into acidic compartments and B. pertussis AC toxin using a separate, and as yet undefined, mechanism. PMID:2895741

Gordon, V M; Leppla, S H; Hewlett, E L

1988-01-01

136

Anthrax: memorandum from a WHO meeting.  

PubMed Central

The risk of anthrax can be reduced through international collaboration in health education and training, promotion of research, and provision of scientific and technical advice. These issues were discussed by a WHO Working Group on Anthrax in September 1995, and this Memorandum presents their priority concerns and recommendations in several areas: surveillance, epidemiology, diagnosis in humans and in animals, prevention and control, and international cooperation. PMID:9002326

1996-01-01

137

Laboratories Face Crackdown in Wake of Anthrax Scare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the after-effects on college laboratories of the anthrax mail scare; scientists say the anthrax scare justifies tougher rules on biological agents, but some fear that Congress may go too far. (EV)

Southwick, Ron

2001-01-01

138

Anthrax eTool: Protecting the Worksite against Terrorism  

MedlinePLUS

... contact with anthrax-infected animals or anthrax-contaminated animal products. Anthrax has received heightened attention recently because of its use as a biological warfare agent. How do I find out about employer responsibilities and worker rights? Workers have a right to a safe workplace. ...

139

Anthrax  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com id370106 Last ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com id370106 Last ...

140

Anthrax  

MedlinePLUS

... who handle potentially infected animal products, and U.S. military personnel. The vaccine is not given routinely to people ... you're worried about it, talk to a science teacher or medical professional — someone who can help ...

141

Toxin-Independent Virulence of Bacillus anthracis in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

The accepted paradigm states that anthrax is both an invasive and toxinogenic disease and that the toxins play a major role in pathogenicity. In the guinea pig (GP) model we have previously shown that deletion of all three toxin components results in a relatively moderate attenuation in virulence, indicating that B. anthracis possesses an additional toxin-independent virulence mechanism. To characterize this toxin-independent mechanism in anthrax disease, we developed a new rabbit model by intravenous injection (IV) of B. anthracis encapsulated vegetative cells, artificially creating bacteremia. Using this model we were able to demonstrate that also in rabbits, B. anthracis mutants lacking the toxins are capable of killing the host within 24 hours. This virulent trait depends on the activity of AtxA in the presence of pXO2, as, in the absence of the toxin genes, deletion of either component abolishes virulence. Furthermore, this IV virulence depends mainly on AtxA rather than the whole pXO1. A similar pattern was shown in the GP model using subcutaneous (SC) administration of spores of the mutant strains, demonstrating the generality of the phenomenon. The virulent strains showed higher bacteremia levels and more efficient tissue dissemination; however our interpretation is that tissue dissemination per se is not the main determinant of virulence whose exact nature requires further elucidation. PMID:24416317

Levy, Haim; Glinert, Itai; Weiss, Shay; Sittner, Assa; Schlomovitz, Josef; Altboum, Zeev; Kobiler, David

2014-01-01

142

Cholera toxin can catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins  

SciTech Connect

Cholera toxin catalyzes transfer of radiolabel from (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ to several peptides in particulate preparations of human foreskin fibroblasts. Resolution of these peptides by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis allowed identification of two peptides of M/sub r/ = 42,000 and 52,000 as peptide subunits of a regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. The radiolabeling of another group of peptides (M/sub r/ = 50,000 to 65,000) suggested that cholera toxin could catalyze ADP-ribosylation of cytoskeletal proteins. This suggestion was confirmed by showing that incubation with cholera toxin and (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ caused radiolabeling of purified microtubule and intermediate filament proteins.

Kaslow, H.R.; Groppi, V.E.; Abood, M.E.; Bourne, H.R.

1981-11-01

143

Edema Toxin Impairs Anthracidal Phospholipase A2 Expression by Alveolar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is a spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium. Infection with this pathogen results in multisystem dysfunction and death. The pathogenicity of B. anthracis is due to the production of virulence factors, including edema toxin (ET). Recently, we established the protective role of type-IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) against B. anthracis. A component of innate immunity produced

Macrophages Benoit Raymond; Dominique Leduc; Lucas Ravaux; Ronan Le Goffic; Thomas Candela; Michel Raymondjean; Pierre Louis Goossens; Lhousseine Touqui

144

Serological anthrax surveillance in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Ukraine.  

PubMed

Anthrax, caused by Bacillus anthracis, is an acute disease affecting wildlife, livestock, and humans worldwide, although its impact on these populations is underappreciated. In Ukraine, surveillance is passive, and anthrax is often detected in livestock. However, wildlife is not subject to surveillance, although anthrax deaths (such as in wild boar, Sus scrofa) have been documented. The wild boar is a plentiful and widespread species in Ukraine and is frequently hunted. We initiated a screening study testing Ukrainian wild boar blood samples for antibodies to B. anthracis. We mapped results relative to known livestock anthrax hotspots. We discovered evidence of exposure in wild boar up to 35 km from livestock anthrax hotspots and over 400 km from previous anthrax reports in boars. We make recommendations about using wildlife species as biosentinels for anthrax in Ukraine. PMID:25072994

Bagamian, Karoun H; Skrypnyk, Artem; Rodina, Yana; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Nevolko, Oleg; Skrypnyk, Valeriy; Blackburn, Jason K

2014-08-01

145

A single immunization with a dry powder anthrax vaccine protects rabbits against lethal aerosol challenge  

PubMed Central

Here we confirm that intranasal (IN) dry powder anthrax vaccine formulations are able to protect rabbits against aerosol challenge 9 weeks after a single immunization. The optimum dose of rPA in our dry powder anthrax vaccine formulation in rabbits was experimentally determined to be 150 ?g and therefore was chosen as the target dose for all subsequent experiments. Rabbits received a single dose of either 150 ?g rPA, 150 ?g rPA + 150 ?g of a conjugated 10-mer peptide representing the B. anthracis capsule (conj), or 150 ?g of conj alone. All dry powder formulations contained MPL and chitosan (ChiSys®). Significant anti-rPA titers and anthrax lethal toxin neutralizing antibody (TNA) levels were seen with both rPA containing vaccines, although rPA-specific IgG and TNA levels were reduced in rabbits immunized with rPA plus conj. Nine weeks after immunization, rabbits were exposed to a mean aerosol challenge dose of 278 LD50 of Ames spores. Groups immunized with rPA or with rPA + conj had significant increases in survivor proportions compared to the negative control group by Logrank test (p = 0.0001 and 0.003, respectively), and survival was not statistically different for the rPA and rPA + conj immunized groups (p = 0.63). These data demonstrate that a single immunization with our dry powder anthrax vaccine can protect against a lethal aerosol spore challenge 9 weeks later. PMID:18703110

Klas, S.D.; Petrie, C.R.; Warwood, S.J.; Williams, M.S.; Olds, C.L.; Stenz, J.P.; Cheff, A.M.; Hinchcliffe, M.; Richardson, C.; Wimer, S.

2009-01-01

146

Acceleration of epithelial cell syndecan-1 shedding by anthrax hemolytic virulence factors  

PubMed Central

Background It has been recently reported that major pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa accelerate a normal process of cell surface syndecan-1 (Synd1) ectodomain shedding as a mechanism of host damage due to the production of shedding-inducing virulence factors. We tested if acceleration of Synd1 shedding takes place in vitro upon treatment of epithelial cells with B. anthracis hemolysins, as well as in vivo during anthrax infection in mice. Results The isolated anthrax hemolytic proteins AnlB (sphingomyelinase) and AnlO (cholesterol-binding pore-forming factor), as well as ClnA (B. cereus homolog of B. anthracis phosphatidyl choline-preferring phospholipase C) cause accelerated shedding of Synd1 and E-cadherin from epithelial cells and compromise epithelial barrier integrity within a few hours. In comparison with hemolysins in a similar range of concentrations, anthrax lethal toxin (LT) also accelerates shedding albeit at slower rate. Individual components of LT, lethal factor and protective antigen are inactive with regard to shedding. Inhibition experiments favor a hypothesis that activities of tested bacterial shedding inducers converge on the stimulation of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases of the Syk family, ultimately leading to activation of cellular sheddase. Both LT and AnlO modulate ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways, while JNK pathway seems to be irrelevant to accelerated shedding. Accelerated shedding of Synd1 also takes place in DBA/2 mice challenged with Bacillus anthracis (Sterne) spores. Elevated levels of shed ectodomain are readily detectable in circulation after 24 h. Conclusion The concerted acceleration of shedding by several virulence factors could represent a new pathogenic mechanism contributing to disruption of epithelial or endothelial integrity, hemorrhage, edema and abnormal cell signaling during anthrax infection. PMID:16464252

Popova, Taissia G; Millis, Bryan; Bradburne, Chris; Nazarenko, Svetlana; Bailey, Charles; Chandhoke, Vikas; Popov, Serguei G

2006-01-01

147

Improving the Anti-Toxin Abilities of the CMG2-Fc Fusion Protein with the Aid of Computational Design  

PubMed Central

CMG2-Fc is a fusion protein composed of the extracellular domain of capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2) and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G; CMG2-Fc neutralizes anthrax toxin and offers protection against Bacillus anthracis challenge. To enhance the efficacy of CMG2-Fc against anthrax toxin, we attempted to engineer a CMG2-Fc with an improved affinity for PA. Using the automatic design algorithm FoldX and visual inspection, we devised two CMG2-Fc variants that introduce mutations in the CMG2 binding interface and improve the computationally assessed binding affinity for PA. An experimental affinity assay revealed that the two variants showed increased binding affinity, and in vitro and in vivo toxin neutralization testing indicated that one of these mutants (CMG2-Fc(E117Q)) has superior activity against anthrax toxin and was suitable for further development as a therapeutic agent for anthrax infections. This study shows that the computational design of the PA binding interface of CMG2 to obtain CMG2-Fc variants with improving anti-toxin abilities is viable. Our results demonstrate that computational design can be further applied to generate other CMG2-Fc mutants with greatly improved therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25101992

Peng, Hui; Chen, Hongxing; Chen, Huipeng; Hu, Xianwen; Yue, Junjie

2014-01-01

148

76 FR 34994 - Vaccine To Protect Children From Anthrax-Public Engagement Workshop  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SERVICES Vaccine To Protect Children From Anthrax--Public Engagement Workshop AGENCY...Biodefense Science Board's (NBSB) Anthrax Vaccine (AV) Working Group (WG) will...discuss vaccine to protect children from anthrax. This meeting is open to the public...

2011-06-15

149

Anthrax Attack! A Case on Bioterrorism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case study presents a fictitious bio-terrorist plan to release anthrax in the United States. Students are assigned character roles and, through research, role-playing, and teamwork, develop a plan to minimize or avert the attack. The case is appropriate for courses designed for health professionals, general biology courses, and social science courses.

Kari A. Mergenhagen

2003-01-01

150

Histopathological effects of anthrax lethal factor on rat liver.  

PubMed

Abstract Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, has become an increasingly important scientific topic due to its potential role in bioterrorism. The lethal toxin (LT) of B. anthracis consists of lethal factor (LF) and a protective antigen (PA). This study investigated whether only lethal factor was efficient as a hepatotoxin in the absence of the PA. To achieve this aim, LF (100?µg/kg body weight, dissolved in sterile distilled water) or distilled water vehicle were intraperitoneally injected once into adult rats. At 24?h post-injection, the hosts were euthanized and their livers removed and tissue samples examined under light and electron microscopes. As a result of LF application, hepatic injury - including cytoplasmic and nuclear damage in hepatocytes, sinusoidal dilatation, and hepatocellular lysis - became apparent. Further, light microscopic analyses of liver sections from the LF-injected rats revealed ballooning degeneration and cytoplasmic loss within hepatocytes, as well as peri-sinusoidal inflammation. Additionally, an increase in the numbers of Kupffer cells was evident. Common vascular injuries were also found in the liver samples; these injuries caused hypoxia and pathological changes. In addition, some cytoplasmic and nuclear changes were detected within the liver ultrastructure. The results of these studies allow one to suggest that LF could be an effective toxicant alone and that PA might act in situ to modify the effect of this agent (or the reverse situation wherein LF modifies effects of PA) such that lethality results. PMID:24344743

Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Ozbek, Elvan

2015-01-01

151

Media exposure to bioterrorism: stress and the anthrax attacks.  

PubMed

This study examined media exposure and adjustment to anthrax bioterrorism attacks and the terrorist attacks on 9/11 in a sample of 300 people who lived distant from the attacks. Measures of direct and indirect exposure to terrorism, perceived risk of anthrax exposure, psychological distress, and outlook were assessed at 2 to 3 months and at 8 months after the first reported anthrax attack. Initial anthrax media exposure was a powerful predictor of distress, whereas subsequent anthrax media exposure only predicted negative changes in outlook over time. Perceived risk of anthrax exposure predicted distress and outlook but did not appear to mediate the effects of media exposure. Determining the nature and consequences of media exposure to threatening and frightening events like terrorism will help predict and manage response to future bioterrorism. PMID:15899708

Dougall, Angela Liegey; Hayward, Michele C; Baum, Andrew

2005-01-01

152

Both lethal and edema toxins of Bacillus anthracis disrupt the human dendritic cell chemokine network.  

PubMed

Bacillus anthracis, the agent of anthrax, produces two main virulence factors: a capsule and two toxins. Both lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET) paralyze the immune defense system. Here, we analyze the effects of LT and ET on the capacity of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDC) to produce proinflammatory chemokines. We show that both toxins disrupt proinflammatory chemokine production. LT has more pronounced effects than ET on CXCL8 production, which is correlated with impaired recruitment of neutrophils in vitro. Finally, we show that both toxins also differentially disrupt IL-12p70, IL-10, and TNF-? production. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both B. anthracis toxins alter MoDC functions and the activation of the innate immune system. PMID:22937027

Cleret-Buhot, Aurélie; Mathieu, Jacques; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas; Quesnel-Hellmann, Anne

2012-01-01

153

Update: Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, 2001.  

PubMed

This report updates the investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax and the provision of antimicrobial prophylaxis to exposed persons and highlights CDC assistance to other countries investigating cases of bioterrorism-related anthrax. Since November 7, 2001, CDC and state and local public health agencies have identified no new cases of bioterrorism-related anthrax. As of November 14, a total of 22 cases of anthrax has met the CDC case definition; 10 were confirmed inhalational anthrax, and 12 (seven confirmed and five suspected) were cutaneous anthrax. Investigation of a case of inhalational anthrax in a hospital stock room worker aged 61 years in New York City (NYC) found no evidence of anthrax contamination at the work site or home; the source of exposure is unknown. Environmental clean-up of contaminated facilities continues, and surveillance for newcases of bioterrorism-related anthrax is ongoing in Delaware (DE), District of Columbia (DC), Florida (FL), Maryland (MD), New Jersey (NJ), NYC, Pennsylvania (PA), Virginia (VA), and other states. PMID:11724158

2001-11-16

154

Marine toxins.  

PubMed

Seafood products are important both nutritionally and economically. Within Europe, some 12 billion Pounds of fishery products are consumed annually and an enormous variety of species are available. Although seafood is rarely implicated in food poisoning, compared to other food sources, it does provide some specific human health hazards unique to this particular resource. Generally, these are toxins from toxic microscopic algae which accumulate through the food-chain. The toxins can cause various neurological and gastrointestinal illnesses and, potentially, consumers are exposed from seafood produced within Europe, from imported products, or from seafood eaten while travelling abroad. The symptoms of illness which may be encountered, the source and mode of action of the toxins, and some emerging problems are described. European legislation aims to ensure the quality and safety of seafood products by prohibiting sale of some toxic species, setting toxin limits, requiring monitoring and controlling imports. PMID:10885118

Whittle, K; Gallacher, S

2000-01-01

155

Challenges in Disposing of Anthrax Waste  

SciTech Connect

Disasters often create large amounts of waste that must be managed as part of both immediate response and long-term recovery. While many federal, state, and local agencies have debris management plans, these plans often do not address chemical, biological, and radiological contamination. The Interagency Biological Restoration Demonstration’s (IBRD) purpose was to holistically assess all aspects of an anthrax incident and assist the development of a plan for long-term recovery. In the case of wide-area anthrax contamination and the follow-on response and recovery activities, a significant amount of material will require decontamination and disposal. Accordingly, IBRD facilitated the development of debris management plans to address contaminated waste through a series of interviews and workshops with local, state, and federal representatives. The outcome of these discussion was the identification of three primary topical areas that must be addressed: 1) Planning; 2) Unresolved research questions, and resolving regulatory issues.

Lesperance, Ann M.; Stein, Steven L.; Upton, Jaki F.; Toomey, Christopher

2011-09-01

156

Intranasal administration of dry powder anthrax vaccine provides protection against lethal aerosol spore challenge.  

PubMed

The use of an aerosolizable form of anthrax as a biological weapon is considered to be among the most serious bioterror threats. Intranasal (IN) delivery of a dry powder anthrax vaccine could provide an effective and non-invasive administration alternative to traditional intramuscular (IM) or subcutaneous (SC) injection. We evaluated a dry powder vaccine based on the recombinant Protective Antigen (rPA) of Bacillus anthracis for vaccination against anthrax via IN immunization in a rabbit model. rPA powders were formulated and administered IN using a prototype powder delivery device. We compared serum IgG and toxin neutralizing antibody (TNA) titers of rabbits immunized IN with 10 microg rPA of a powder formulation with those immunized with the same dose of liquid rPA vaccine, delivered either IN or by IM injection. In addition, each group was tested for survival after aerosol spore challenge. Our results showed that IN vaccination with rPA powders elicited serum PA-specific IgG and TNA titers that were equivalent to those raised by liquid rPA administered IN. Serum PA-specific IgG and TNA titers after IN delivery were lower than for IM injection, however, after aerosol spore challenge, rabbits immunized IN with powders displayed 100% protection versus 63% for the group immunized IN with the liquid vaccine and 86% for the group immunized by IM injection. The results suggest that an IN powder vaccine based on rPA is at least as protective as a liquid delivered by IM injection. PMID:17375001

Huang, Joanne; Mikszta, John A; Ferriter, Matthew S; Jiang, Ge; Harvey, Noel G; Dyas, Beverly; Roy, Chad J; Ulrich, Robert G; Sullivan, Vincent J

2007-01-01

157

Identification of small molecules that inhibit the interaction of TEM8 with anthrax protective antigen using a FRET assay  

PubMed Central

Tumor marker endothelial 8 (TEM8) is a receptor for the Protective Antigen (PA) component of anthrax toxin. TEM8 is upregulated on endothelial cells lining the blood vessels within tumors, compared to normal blood vessels. A number of studies have demonstrated a pivotal role for TEM8 in developmental and tumor angiogenesis. We have also shown that targeting the anthrax receptors with a mutated form of PA inhibits angiogenesis and tumor formation in vivo. Here we describe the development and testing of a high-throughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay to identify molecules that strongly inhibit the interaction of PA and TEM8. The assay we describe is sensitive and robust, with a Z-prime value of 0.8. A preliminary screen of 2310 known bioactive library compounds identified ebselen and thimerosal as inhibitors of the TEM8-PA interaction. These molecules each contain a cysteine-reactive transition metal, and complimentary studies indicate that their inhibition of interaction is due to modification of a cysteine residue in the TEM8 extracellular domain. This is the first demonstration of a high-throughput screening assay that identifies inhibitors of TEM8, with potential application for anti-anthrax and anti-angiogenic diseases. PMID:23479355

Cryan, Lorna M.; Habeshian, Kaiane A.; Caldwell, Thomas P.; Morris, Meredith T.; Ackroyd, P. Christine; Christensen, Kenneth A.; Rogers, Michael S.

2013-01-01

158

Bacillus cereus G9241 S-layer assembly contributes to the pathogenesis of anthrax-like disease in mice.  

PubMed

Bacillus cereus G9241, the causative agent of anthrax-like disease, harbors virulence plasmids encoding anthrax toxins as well as hyaluronic acid (HA) and B. cereus exopolysaccharide (BPS) capsules. B. cereus G9241 also harbors S-layer genes, including homologs of Bacillus anthracis surface array protein (Sap), extractable antigen 1 (EA1), and the S-layer-associated proteins (BSLs). In B. anthracis, S-layer proteins and BSLs attach via their S-layer homology domains (SLH) to the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) in a manner requiring csaB, a predicted ketalpyruvate transferase. Here we used a genetic approach to analyze B. cereus G9241 S-layer assembly and function. Variants lacking the csaB gene synthesized SCWP but failed to retain Sap, EA1, and BSLs in the bacterial envelope. The B. cereus G9241 csaB mutant assembled capsular polysaccharides but displayed an increase in chain length relative to the wild-type strain. This phenotype is likely due to its inability to deposit BslO murein hydrolase at divisional septa. During growth under capsule-inducing conditions, B. cereus G9241 assembled BSLs (BslA and BslO) and the Sap S-layer protein, but not EA1, in the envelope. Finally, csaB-mediated assembly of S-layer proteins and BSLs in B. cereus G9241 contributes to the pathogenesis of anthrax-like disease in mice. PMID:23204457

Wang, Ya-Ting; Oh, So-Young; Hendrickx, Antoni P A; Lunderberg, J M; Schneewind, Olaf

2013-02-01

159

The adenylyl cyclase activity of anthrax edema factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent for anthrax, secretes edema factor (EF) to disrupt intracellular signaling pathways. Upon translocation into host cells and association with a calcium sensor, calmodulin (CaM), EF becomes a highly active adenylyl cyclase (AC) that raises the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP (cAMP). Growing evidence shows that EF plays a key role in anthrax pathogenesis by affecting

Wei-Jen Tang; Qing Guo

2009-01-01

160

Intramuscular Delivery of Adenovirus Serotype 5 Vector Expressing Humanized Protective Antigen Induces Rapid Protection against Anthrax That May Bypass Intranasally Originated Preexisting Adenovirus Immunity  

PubMed Central

Developing an effective anthrax vaccine that can induce a rapid and sustained immune response is a priority for the prevention of bioterrorism-associated anthrax infection. Here, we developed a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5-based vaccine expressing the humanized protective antigen (Ad5-PAopt). A single intramuscular injection of Ad5-PAopt resulted in rapid and robust humoral and cellular immune responses in Fisher 344 rats. Animals intramuscularly inoculated with a single dose of 108 infectious units of Ad5-PAopt achieved 100% protection from challenge with 10 times the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of anthrax lethal toxin 7 days after vaccination. Although preexisting intranasally induced immunity to Ad5 slightly weakened the humoral and cellular immune responses to Ad5-PAopt via intramuscular inoculation, 100% protection was achieved 15 days after vaccination in Fisher 344 rats. The protective efficacy conferred by intramuscular vaccination in the presence of preexisting intranasally induced immunity was significantly better than that of intranasal delivery of Ad5-PAopt and intramuscular injection with recombinant PA and aluminum adjuvant without preexisting immunity. As natural Ad5 infection often occurs via the mucosal route, the work here largely illuminates that intramuscular inoculation with Ad5-PAopt can overcome the negative effects of immunity induced by prior adenovirus infection and represents an efficient approach for protecting against emerging anthrax. PMID:24307239

Wu, Shipo; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ying; Song, Xiaohong; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Ju; Chen, Jianqin; Yin, Ying; Xu, Junjie

2014-01-01

161

Intramuscular delivery of adenovirus serotype 5 vector expressing humanized protective antigen induces rapid protection against anthrax that may bypass intranasally originated preexisting adenovirus immunity.  

PubMed

Developing an effective anthrax vaccine that can induce a rapid and sustained immune response is a priority for the prevention of bioterrorism-associated anthrax infection. Here, we developed a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5-based vaccine expressing the humanized protective antigen (Ad5-PAopt). A single intramuscular injection of Ad5-PAopt resulted in rapid and robust humoral and cellular immune responses in Fisher 344 rats. Animals intramuscularly inoculated with a single dose of 10? infectious units of Ad5-PAopt achieved 100% protection from challenge with 10 times the 50% lethal dose (LD??) of anthrax lethal toxin 7 days after vaccination. Although preexisting intranasally induced immunity to Ad5 slightly weakened the humoral and cellular immune responses to Ad5-PAopt via intramuscular inoculation, 100% protection was achieved 15 days after vaccination in Fisher 344 rats. The protective efficacy conferred by intramuscular vaccination in the presence of preexisting intranasally induced immunity was significantly better than that of intranasal delivery of Ad5-PAopt and intramuscular injection with recombinant PA and aluminum adjuvant without preexisting immunity. As natural Ad5 infection often occurs via the mucosal route, the work here largely illuminates that intramuscular inoculation with Ad5-PAopt can overcome the negative effects of immunity induced by prior adenovirus infection and represents an efficient approach for protecting against emerging anthrax. PMID:24307239

Wu, Shipo; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Rui; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ying; Song, Xiaohong; Yi, Shaoqiong; Liu, Ju; Chen, Jianqin; Yin, Ying; Xu, Junjie; Hou, Lihua; Chen, Wei

2014-02-01

162

Anthrax Protective Antigen Delivered by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Ty21a Protects Mice from a Lethal Anthrax Spore Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax disease, is a proven weapon of bioterrorism. Currently, the only licensed vaccine against anthrax in the United States is AVA Biothrax, which, although efficacious, suffers from several limitations. This vaccine requires six injectable doses over 18 months to stimulate protective immunity, requires a cold chain for storage, and in many cases has been

Manuel Osorio; Yanping Wu; Sunil Singh; Tod J. Merkel; Siba Bhattacharyya; Milan S. Blake; Dennis J. Kopecko

2009-01-01

163

Radiolabeling antibodies with holmium-166.  

PubMed

We report the preliminary results from radiolabeling of a chelate-conjugated antibody with 166Ho produced from the beta(-)-decay of 166Dy. Ho-166 was separated from mg quantities of Dy target by reverse phase ion-exchange chromatography employing a cation exchange HPLC column and 0.085 M alpha-HIBA at pH = 4.3 as eluent. Evaporation to dryness of 166Ho fraction (up to 25 mL) and thermal decomposition of alpha-HIBA yielded 166Ho in a dry state which was then solubilized in 0.5 mL of 0.1 M HCl. Subsequent radiolabeling of CHX-B-DTPA conjugated 135-14 monoclonal antibodies with purified 166 Ho was readily achieved with approximately 80% efficiency and with a specific activity of 3-4 mCi of 166Ho per mg of protein. 166Ho-antibody conjugates are stable with regards to transferrin challenge for a period of 50 h. Further, it was shown that any Fe3+ ions present in alpha-HIBA as an impurity interfere with the labeling. PMID:9106989

Dadachova, E; Mirzadeh, S; Smith, S V; Knapp, F F; Hetherington, E L

1997-04-01

164

Further insights into brevetoxin metabolism by de novo radiolabeling.  

PubMed

The toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, responsible for early harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico, produces many secondary metabolites, including potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins (PbTx). These compounds have been identified as toxic agents for humans, and they are also responsible for the deaths of several marine organisms. The overall biosynthesis of these highly complex metabolites has not been fully ascertained, even if there is little doubt on a polyketide origin. In addition to gaining some insights into the metabolic events involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds, feeding studies with labeled precursors helps to discriminate between the de novo biosynthesis of toxins and conversion of stored intermediates into final toxic products in the response to environmental stresses. In this context, the use of radiolabeled precursors is well suited as it allows working with the highest sensitive techniques and consequently with a minor amount of cultured dinoflagellates. We were then able to incorporate [U-¹?C]-acetate, the renowned precursor of the polyketide pathway, in several PbTx produced by K. brevis. The specific activities of PbTx-1, -2, -3, and -7, identified by High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometer (HRESIMS), were assessed by HPLC-UV and highly sensitive Radio-TLC counting. We demonstrated that working at close to natural concentrations of acetate is a requirement for biosynthetic studies, highlighting the importance of highly sensitive radiolabeling feeding experiments. Quantification of the specific activity of the four, targeted toxins led us to propose that PbTx-1 and PbTx-2 aldehydes originate from oxidation of the primary alcohols of PbTx-7 and PbTx-3, respectively. This approach will open the way for a better comprehension of the metabolic pathways leading to PbTx but also to a better understanding of their regulation by environmental factors. PMID:24918358

Calabro, Kevin; Guigonis, Jean-Marie; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Oberhänsli, François; Goudour, Jean-Pierre; Warnau, Michel; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui; Thomas, Olivier P

2014-06-01

165

Further Insights into Brevetoxin Metabolism by de Novo Radiolabeling  

PubMed Central

The toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, responsible for early harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico, produces many secondary metabolites, including potent neurotoxins called brevetoxins (PbTx). These compounds have been identified as toxic agents for humans, and they are also responsible for the deaths of several marine organisms. The overall biosynthesis of these highly complex metabolites has not been fully ascertained, even if there is little doubt on a polyketide origin. In addition to gaining some insights into the metabolic events involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds, feeding studies with labeled precursors helps to discriminate between the de novo biosynthesis of toxins and conversion of stored intermediates into final toxic products in the response to environmental stresses. In this context, the use of radiolabeled precursors is well suited as it allows working with the highest sensitive techniques and consequently with a minor amount of cultured dinoflagellates. We were then able to incorporate [U-14C]-acetate, the renowned precursor of the polyketide pathway, in several PbTx produced by K. brevis. The specific activities of PbTx-1, -2, -3, and -7, identified by High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometer (HRESIMS), were assessed by HPLC-UV and highly sensitive Radio-TLC counting. We demonstrated that working at close to natural concentrations of acetate is a requirement for biosynthetic studies, highlighting the importance of highly sensitive radiolabeling feeding experiments. Quantification of the specific activity of the four, targeted toxins led us to propose that PbTx-1 and PbTx-2 aldehydes originate from oxidation of the primary alcohols of PbTx-7 and PbTx-3, respectively. This approach will open the way for a better comprehension of the metabolic pathways leading to PbTx but also to a better understanding of their regulation by environmental factors. PMID:24918358

Calabro, Kevin; Guigonis, Jean-Marie; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Oberhänsli, François; Goudour, Jean-Pierre; Warnau, Michel; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Thomas, Olivier P.

2014-01-01

166

DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF ADSORPTION OF RADIOLABELED COMPOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new apparatus and technique permit direct and continuous measurement ; of radiolabeled compounds adsorbed from solution onto clean solid surfaces. Thin ; films of metals are deposited under high vacuum onto the surface of a mica window ; and contacted with the solution containing the radiolabeled compound; adsorption ; is measured by a counter tube below the window. Clean

D. C. Walker; H. E. Jr. Ries

1962-01-01

167

Injectional anthrax - new presentation of an old disease.  

PubMed

Bacillus anthracis infection (anthrax) has three distinct clinical presentations depending on the route of exposure: cutaneous, gastrointestinal and inhalational anthrax. Each of these can lead to secondary bacteraemia and anthrax meningitis. Since 2009,anthrax has emerged among heroin users in Europe,presenting a novel clinical manifestation, 'injectional anthrax', which has been attributed to contaminated heroin distributed throughout Europe; before 2009 only one case was reported. During 2012 and 2013,new cases of injectional anthrax were diagnosed in Denmark, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom.Here we present a comprehensive review of the literature and information derived from different reporting systems until 31 December 2013. Overall 70 confirmed cases were reported, with 26 fatalities (37% case fatality rate).The latest two confirmed cases occurred in March 2013. Thirteen case reports have been published,describing 18 confirmed cases. Sixteen of these presented as a severe soft tissue infection that differed clinically from cutaneous anthrax, lacked the characteristic epidemiological history of animal contact and ten cases required complimentary surgical debridement. These unfamiliar characteristics have led to delays of three to 12 days in diagnosis, inadequate treatment and a high fatality rate. Clinicians' awareness of this recently described clinical entity is key for early 'and successful management of patients. PMID:25139073

Berger, T; Kassirer, M; Aran, A A

2014-01-01

168

Characterization of a multi-component anthrax vaccine designed to target the initial stages of infection as well as toxaemia  

PubMed Central

Current vaccine approaches to combat anthrax are effective; however, they target only a single protein [the protective antigen (PA) toxin component] that is produced after spore germination. PA production is subsequently increased during later vegetative cell proliferation. Accordingly, several aspects of the vaccine strategy could be improved. The inclusion of spore-specific antigens with PA could potentially induce protection to initial stages of the disease. Moreover, adding other epitopes to the current vaccine strategy will decrease the likelihood of encountering a strain of Bacillus anthracis (emerging or engineered) that is refractory to the vaccine. Adding recombinant spore-surface antigens (e.g. BclA, ExsFA/BxpB and p5303) to PA has been shown to augment protection afforded by the latter using a challenge model employing immunosuppressed mice challenged with spores derived from the attenuated Sterne strain of B. anthracis. This report demonstrated similar augmentation utilizing guinea pigs or mice challenged with spores of the fully virulent Ames strain or a non-toxigenic but encapsulated ?Ames strain of B. anthracis, respectively. Additionally, it was shown that immune interference did not occur if optimal amounts of antigen were administered. By administering the toxin and spore-based immunogens simultaneously, a significant adjuvant effect was also observed in some cases. Thus, these data further support the inclusion of recombinant spore antigens in next-generation anthrax vaccine strategies. PMID:22767539

Cote, C. K.; Kaatz, L.; Reinhardt, J.; Bozue, J.; Tobery, S. A.; Bassett, A. D.; Sanz, P.; Darnell, S. C.; Alem, F.; O’Brien, A. D.

2012-01-01

169

Vaccination of rhesus macaques with the anthrax vaccine adsorbed vaccine produces a serum antibody response that effectively neutralizes receptor-bound protective antigen in vitro.  

PubMed

Anthrax toxin (ATx) is composed of the binary exotoxins lethal toxin (LTx) and edema toxin (ETx). They have separate effector proteins (edema factor and lethal factor) but have the same binding protein, protective antigen (PA). PA is the primary immunogen in the current licensed vaccine anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA [BioThrax]). AVA confers protective immunity by stimulating production of ATx-neutralizing antibodies, which could block the intoxication process at several steps (binding of PA to the target cell surface, furin cleavage, toxin complex formation, and binding/translocation of ATx into the cell). To evaluate ATx neutralization by anti-AVA antibodies, we developed two low-temperature LTx neutralization activity (TNA) assays that distinguish antibody blocking before and after binding of PA to target cells (noncomplexed [NC] and receptor-bound [RB] TNA assays). These assays were used to investigate anti-PA antibody responses in AVA-vaccinated rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that survived an aerosol challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores. Results showed that macaque anti-AVA sera neutralized LTx in vitro, even when PA was prebound to cells. Neutralization titers in surviving versus nonsurviving animals and between prechallenge and postchallenge activities were highly correlated. These data demonstrate that AVA stimulates a myriad of antibodies that recognize multiple neutralizing epitopes and confirm that change, loss, or occlusion of epitopes after PA is processed from PA83 to PA63 at the cell surface does not significantly affect in vitro neutralizing efficacy. Furthermore, these data support the idea that the full-length PA83 monomer is an appropriate immunogen for inclusion in next-generation anthrax vaccines. PMID:20739500

Clement, Kristin H; Rudge, Thomas L; Mayfield, Heather J; Carlton, Lena A; Hester, Arelis; Niemuth, Nancy A; Sabourin, Carol L; Brys, April M; Quinn, Conrad P

2010-11-01

170

Vaccination of Rhesus Macaques with the Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Vaccine Produces a Serum Antibody Response That Effectively Neutralizes Receptor-Bound Protective Antigen In Vitro ?  

PubMed Central

Anthrax toxin (ATx) is composed of the binary exotoxins lethal toxin (LTx) and edema toxin (ETx). They have separate effector proteins (edema factor and lethal factor) but have the same binding protein, protective antigen (PA). PA is the primary immunogen in the current licensed vaccine anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA [BioThrax]). AVA confers protective immunity by stimulating production of ATx-neutralizing antibodies, which could block the intoxication process at several steps (binding of PA to the target cell surface, furin cleavage, toxin complex formation, and binding/translocation of ATx into the cell). To evaluate ATx neutralization by anti-AVA antibodies, we developed two low-temperature LTx neutralization activity (TNA) assays that distinguish antibody blocking before and after binding of PA to target cells (noncomplexed [NC] and receptor-bound [RB] TNA assays). These assays were used to investigate anti-PA antibody responses in AVA-vaccinated rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) that survived an aerosol challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores. Results showed that macaque anti-AVA sera neutralized LTx in vitro, even when PA was prebound to cells. Neutralization titers in surviving versus nonsurviving animals and between prechallenge and postchallenge activities were highly correlated. These data demonstrate that AVA stimulates a myriad of antibodies that recognize multiple neutralizing epitopes and confirm that change, loss, or occlusion of epitopes after PA is processed from PA83 to PA63 at the cell surface does not significantly affect in vitro neutralizing efficacy. Furthermore, these data support the idea that the full-length PA83 monomer is an appropriate immunogen for inclusion in next-generation anthrax vaccines. PMID:20739500

Clement, Kristin H.; Rudge, Thomas L.; Mayfield, Heather J.; Carlton, Lena A.; Hester, Arelis; Niemuth, Nancy A.; Sabourin, Carol L.; Brys, April M.; Quinn, Conrad P.

2010-01-01

171

Uptake and accumulation of dissolved, radiolabeled nodularin in Baltic Sea zooplankton.  

PubMed

The mass occurrence of toxic cyanobacteria is a recurrent phenomenon in the Baltic Sea. Grazers may obtain toxins either through ingestion or by direct exposure to dissolved toxins. Despite this, there is little knowledge about the accumulation of cyanobacterial toxins in planktonic organisms present during these blooms. Toxin analyses of tissue samples are complicated to carry out and, because of the small size of microscopic planktonic organisms, often difficult to execute. Therefore, we wanted to use a precise and sensitive method to study toxin uptake and accumulation in zooplankton. We used chemically tritiated nodularin, (3)H-dihydronodularin, to study the uptake of dissolved nodularin, a cyanobacterial hepatotoxin produced by Nodularia spumigena. Cultures of the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa and Eurytemora affinis, and an oligotrich ciliate Strombidium sulcatum were exposed to (3)H-dihydronodularin in filtered seawater, using naturally occurring concentrations of dissolved nodularin (5 microg L(-1)). All three species took up measurable amounts of radiolabeled nodularin. After 48 h we detected 0.37 +/- 0.22 microg toxin g C(-1) (mean +/- sd) in A. tonsa and 0.60 +/- 0.15 microg toxin g C(-1) in E. affinis, whereas 1.55 +/- 0.50 microg toxin g C(-1) was detected in S. sulcatum after 24 h. The minimum bioconcentration factor (BCF) of (3)H-dihydronodularin was 12 for A. tonsa and 18 for E. affinis. For S. sulcatum our results indicate a maximum BCF of 22. However, because the uptake studies for this species were done in the presence of bacteria, possible particulate transfer cannot be excluded. Nevertheless, our results indicate that dissolved nodularin can be taken up by planktonic organisms. Therefore, the vectorial transport of dissolved toxins to higher trophic levels seems possible, even if some planktonic grazers would avoid feeding on toxic cyanobacteria filaments. PMID:12539144

Karjalainen, M; Reinikainen, M; Lindvall, F; Spoof, L; Meriluoto, J A O

2003-02-01

172

Anti-idiotypic antibodies that protect cells against the action of diphtheria toxin  

SciTech Connect

An anti-idiotypic serum prepared against the combining site (idiotype) of specific anti-diphtheria toxoid antibodies was characterized with respect to its interaction with highly diphtheria toxin-sensitive Vero cells. Although the anti-idiotypic serum protected Vero cells against the cytotoxic action of diphtheria toxin, it did not prevent the binding of /sup 125/I-labeled diphtheria toxin to the cells but did inhibit the internalization and degradation of /sup 125/I-labeled toxin. This anti-idiotypic serum immunoprecipitated a cell-surface protein from radiolabeled Vero cells with an apparent Mr of approximately 15,000. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the anti-idiotypic serum contains antibodies that carry an internal image of an internalization site on the toxin and that a cell-surface protein involved in toxin internalization possesses a complementary site recognized by both the toxin and the anti-idiotypic antibodies.

Rolf, J.M.; Gaudin, H.M.; Tirrell, S.M.; MacDonald, A.B.; Eidels, L.

1989-03-01

173

[Anthrax meningoencephalitis: a case following a cutaneous lesion in Morocco].  

PubMed

Anthrax meningoencephalitis is very rare especially following skin location. We report a case of meningoencephalitis secondary to skin lesion. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and confirmed by microbiological tests. Its evolution remains fatal despite aggressive resuscitation. PMID:24784916

Ziadi, A; Hachimi, A; Soraa, N; Tassi, N; Nejmi, H; Elkhayari, M; Samkaoui, M A

2014-05-01

174

Detecting anthrax in the mail by coherent Raman microspectroscopy.  

PubMed

In this report, we show the collection of spatial information through a turbid medium by coherent Raman microspectroscopic imaging. In particular, the technique is capable of identifying anthrax endospores inside a sealed paper envelope. PMID:22215594

Arora, Rajan; Petrov, Georgi I; Yakovlev, Vladislav V; Scully, Marlan O

2012-01-24

175

Recent developments in monoclonal antibody radiolabeling techniques  

SciTech Connect

Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have shown the potential to serve as selective carriers of radionuclides to specific in vivo antigens. Accordingly, there has been an intense surge of research activity in an effort to develop and evaluate MAb-based radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging (radioimmunoscintigraphy) and therapy (radioimmunotherapy), as well as for diagnosing nonmalignant diseases. A number of problems have recently been identified, related to the MAbs themselves and to radiolabeling techniques, that comprise both the selectivity and the specificity of the in vivo distribution of radiolabeled MAbs. This paper will address some of these issues and primarily discuss recent developments in the techniques for radiolabeling monoclonal antibodies that may help resolve problems related to the poor in vivo stability of the radiolabel and may thus produce improved biodistribution. Even though many issues are identical with therapeutic radionuclides, the discussion will focus mainly on radioimmunoscintigraphic labels. 78 refs., 6 tabs.

Srivastava, S.C.; Mease, R.C.

1989-01-01

176

Anthrax: A disease of biowarfare and public health importance.  

PubMed

Bioterrorism has received a lot of attention in the first decade of this century. Biological agents are considered attractive weapons for bioterrorism as these are easy to obtain, comparatively inexpensive to produce and exhibit widespread fear and panic than the actual potential of physical damage. Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), the etiologic agent of anthrax is a Gram positive, spore forming, non-motile bacterium. This is supposed to be one of the most potent BW agents because its spores are extremely resistant to natural conditions and can survive for several decades in the environment. B. anthracis spores enter the body through skin lesion (cutaneous anthrax), lungs (pulmonary anthrax), or gastrointestinal route (gastrointestinal anthrax) and germinate, giving rise to the vegetative form. Anthrax is a concern of public health also in many countries where agriculture is the main source of income including India. Anthrax has been associated with human history for a very long time and regained its popularity after Sept 2001 incidence in United States. The present review article describes the history, biology, life cycle, pathogenicity, virulence, epidemiology and potential of B. anthracis as biological weapon. PMID:25610847

Goel, Ajay Kumar

2015-01-16

177

Anthrax: A disease of biowarfare and public health importance  

PubMed Central

Bioterrorism has received a lot of attention in the first decade of this century. Biological agents are considered attractive weapons for bioterrorism as these are easy to obtain, comparatively inexpensive to produce and exhibit widespread fear and panic than the actual potential of physical damage. Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), the etiologic agent of anthrax is a Gram positive, spore forming, non-motile bacterium. This is supposed to be one of the most potent BW agents because its spores are extremely resistant to natural conditions and can survive for several decades in the environment. B. anthracis spores enter the body through skin lesion (cutaneous anthrax), lungs (pulmonary anthrax), or gastrointestinal route (gastrointestinal anthrax) and germinate, giving rise to the vegetative form. Anthrax is a concern of public health also in many countries where agriculture is the main source of income including India. Anthrax has been associated with human history for a very long time and regained its popularity after Sept 2001 incidence in United States. The present review article describes the history, biology, life cycle, pathogenicity, virulence, epidemiology and potential of B. anthracis as biological weapon. PMID:25610847

Goel, Ajay Kumar

2015-01-01

178

Metabolism of the cyclic peptide HC-toxin, a host-specific toxin, by resistant (R) and susceptible (S) maize  

SciTech Connect

Cochliobolus carbonum (race 1) and the toxin it produces, HC-toxin, affect only maize that is homozygous recessive at the nuclear locus, Hm. Radiolabeled HC-toxin was purified after controlled feeding of D,L-({sup 3}H)-alanine to the fungus and used to study metabolism as a basis for its host-selectivity. A single HC-toxin metabolite was recovered from maize leaves exposed to ({sup 3}H)-HC-toxin. The 8-keto group of the epoxy-containing amino acid, AOE, was reduced to the corresponding alcohol. the identity of this compound was determined by FAB-MS, and by co-elution on HPLC and TLC with synthetically reduced HC-toxin. This synthetic derivative was previously proven to be biologically inactive. Metabolism of the epoxide group was not detected. Reduction of the 8-keto group was also catalyzed enzymatically by cell-free maize extracts. The reaction required NADPH and was inhibited by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Cell-free extracts from R (Hm/hm) and S (hm/hm) maize catalyzed the reduction of HC-toxin equally well, and the process was also found to occur in spinach and barley leaf segments. Thus, detoxification of HC-toxin occurs in maize, but appears to have no relationship to host-selectivity.

Meeley, R.; Walton, J.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-05-01

179

ATR/TEM8 is highly expressed in epithelial cells lining Bacillus anthracis' three sites of entry: implications for the pathogenesis of anthrax infection.  

PubMed

Anthrax is a disease caused by infection with spores from the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. These spores enter the body, where they germinate into bacteria and secrete a tripartite toxin that causes local edema and, in systemic infections, death. Recent studies identified the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin (ATR), a type I membrane protein. ATR is one of the splice variants of the tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) gene. ATR and TEM8 are identical throughout their extracellular and transmembrane sequence, and both proteins function as receptors for the toxin. ATR/TEM8 function and expression have been associated with development of the vascular system and with tumor angiogenesis. TEM8 is selectively upregulated in endothelial cells during blood vessel formation and tumorigenesis. However, selective expression of TEM8 in endothelial cells contradicts the presumably ubiquitous expression of the receptor. To resolve this controversial issue, we evaluated the distribution of ATR/TEM8 in a variety of tissues. For this purpose, we generated and characterized a novel anti-ATR/TEM8 polyclonal antibody. Here, we show that this novel antibody recognizes all three ATR/TEM8 isoforms, which are widely and differentially expressed in various tissue types. We found that ATR/TEM8 expression is not only associated with tumor endothelial cells, as previously described. Indeed, ATR/TEM8 is highly and selectively expressed in the epithelial cells lining those organs that constitute the anthrax toxin's sites of entry, i.e., the lung, the skin, and the intestine. In fact, we show that ATR/TEM8 is highly expressed in the respiratory epithelium of the bronchi of the lung and is particularly abundant in the ciliated epithelial cells coating the bronchi. Furthermore, immunostaining of skin biopsies revealed that ATR/TEM8 is highly expressed in the keratinocytes of the epidermis. Finally, we show that the epithelial cells lining the small intestine strongly express ATR/TEM8 isoforms. This is the first demonstration that the ATR/TEM8 protein is highly expressed in epithelial cells, which represent the primary location for bacterial invasion. These results suggest that the ATR/TEM8 expression pattern that we describe here is highly relevant for understanding the pathogenesis of anthrax infection. PMID:15689409

Bonuccelli, Gloria; Sotgia, Federica; Frank, Philippe G; Williams, Terence M; de Almeida, Cecilia J; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Scherer, Philipp E; Hotchkiss, Kylie A; Terman, Bruce I; Rollman, Brent; Alileche, Abdelkrim; Brojatsch, Jürgen; Lisanti, Michael P

2005-06-01

180

Investigation and control of anthrax outbreak at the human-animal interface, Bhutan, 2010.  

PubMed

In 2010, we investigated anthrax outbreak in Bhutan. A total of 43 domestic animals died, and cutaneous anthrax developed in 9 persons, and 1 died. All affected persons had contact with the carcasses of infected animals. Comprehensive preparedness and response guidelines are needed to increase public awareness of anthrax in Bhutan. PMID:25147965

Thapa, Nirmal K; Tenzin; Wangdi, Karma; Dorji, Tshering; Migma; Dorjee, Jambay; Marston, Chung K; Hoffmaster, Alex R

2014-09-01

181

Predictability of anthrax infection in the Serengeti, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Anthrax is endemic throughout Africa, causing considerable livestock and wildlife losses and severe, sometimes fatal, infection in humans. Predicting the risk of infection is therefore important for public health, wildlife conservation and livestock economies. However, because of the intermittent and variable nature of anthrax outbreaks, associated environmental and climatic conditions, and diversity of species affected, the ecology of this multihost pathogen is poorly understood.We explored records of anthrax from the Serengeti ecosystem in north-west Tanzania where the disease has been documented in humans, domestic animals and a range of wildlife. Using spatial and temporal case-detection and seroprevalence data from wild and domestic animals, we investigated spatial, environmental, climatic and species-specific associations in exposure and disease.Anthrax was detected annually in numerous species, but large outbreaks were spatially localized, mostly affecting a few focal herbivores.Soil alkalinity and cumulative weather extremes were identified as useful spatial and temporal predictors of exposure and infection risk, and for triggering the onset of large outbreaks.Interacting ecological and behavioural factors, specifically functional groups and spatiotemporal overlap, helped to explain the variable patterns of infection and exposure among species.Synthesis and applications. Our results shed light on ecological drivers of anthrax infection and suggest that soil alkalinity and prolonged droughts or rains are useful predictors of disease occurrence that could guide risk-based surveillance. These insights should inform strategies for managing anthrax including prophylactic livestock vaccination, timing of public health warnings and antibiotic provision in high-risk areas. However, this research highlights the need for greater surveillance (environmental, serological and case-detection-orientated) to determine the mechanisms underlying anthrax dynamics. PMID:22318563

Hampson, Katie; Lembo, Tiziana; Bessell, Paul; Auty, Harriet; Packer, Craig; Halliday, Jo; Beesley, Cari A; Fyumagwa, Robert; Hoare, Richard; Ernest, Eblate; Mentzel, Christine; Metzger, Kristine L; Mlengeya, Titus; Stamey, Karen; Roberts, Keith; Wilkins, Patricia P; Cleaveland, Sarah

2011-06-10

182

The ecology of anthrax spores: tough but not invincible.  

PubMed Central

Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a serious and often fatal disease of wild and domestic animals. Central to the persistence of anthrax in an area is the ability of B. anthracis to form long-lasting, highly resistant spores. Understanding the ecology of anthrax spores is essential if one hopes to control epidemics. Studies on the ecology of anthrax have found a correlation between the disease and specific soil factors, such as alkaline pH, high moisture, and high organic content. Researchers initially suggested that these factors influenced vegetative anthrax bacilli. However, subsequent research has shown that vegetative cells of B. anthracis have very specific nutrient and physiological requirements and are unlikely to survive outside a host. Review of the properties of spores of B. anthracis and other Bacillus species suggests that the specific soil factors linked to epidemic areas reflect important environmental conditions that aid the anthrax spores in causing epidemics. Specifically, high levels of calcium in the soil may help to maintain spore vitality for prolonged periods, thereby increasing the chance of spores encountering and infecting a new host. Cycles of runoff and evaporation may collect spores dispersed from previous epidemics into storage areas, thereby concentrating them. Uptake of large doses of viable spores from storage areas by susceptible animals, via altered feeding or breeding behavior, may then allow the bacterium to establish infection and cause a new epidemic. Literature search for this review was done by scanning the Life Sciences Collection 1982-1994 using the keywords "anthrax" and "calcium and spore." Images Figure 1. PMID:7773917

Dragon, D C; Rennie, R P

1995-01-01

183

Predictability of anthrax infection in the Serengeti, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Summary Anthrax is endemic throughout Africa, causing considerable livestock and wildlife losses and severe, sometimes fatal, infection in humans. Predicting the risk of infection is therefore important for public health, wildlife conservation and livestock economies. However, because of the intermittent and variable nature of anthrax outbreaks, associated environmental and climatic conditions, and diversity of species affected, the ecology of this multihost pathogen is poorly understood. We explored records of anthrax from the Serengeti ecosystem in north-west Tanzania where the disease has been documented in humans, domestic animals and a range of wildlife. Using spatial and temporal case-detection and seroprevalence data from wild and domestic animals, we investigated spatial, environmental, climatic and species-specific associations in exposure and disease. Anthrax was detected annually in numerous species, but large outbreaks were spatially localized, mostly affecting a few focal herbivores. Soil alkalinity and cumulative weather extremes were identified as useful spatial and temporal predictors of exposure and infection risk, and for triggering the onset of large outbreaks. Interacting ecological and behavioural factors, specifically functional groups and spatiotemporal overlap, helped to explain the variable patterns of infection and exposure among species. Synthesis and applications. Our results shed light on ecological drivers of anthrax infection and suggest that soil alkalinity and prolonged droughts or rains are useful predictors of disease occurrence that could guide risk-based surveillance. These insights should inform strategies for managing anthrax including prophylactic livestock vaccination, timing of public health warnings and antibiotic provision in high-risk areas. However, this research highlights the need for greater surveillance (environmental, serological and case-detection-orientated) to determine the mechanisms underlying anthrax dynamics. PMID:22318563

Hampson, Katie; Lembo, Tiziana; Bessell, Paul; Auty, Harriet; Packer, Craig; Halliday, Jo; Beesley, Cari A.; Fyumagwa, Robert; Hoare, Richard; Ernest, Eblate; Mentzel, Christine; Metzger, Kristine L.; Mlengeya, Titus; Stamey, Karen; Roberts, Keith; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Cleaveland, Sarah

2012-01-01

184

Reduced Expression of CD45 Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase Provides Protection against Anthrax Pathogenesis*S?  

PubMed Central

The modulation of cellular processes by small molecule inhibitors, gene inactivation, or targeted knockdown strategies combined with phenotypic screens are powerful approaches to delineate complex cellular pathways and to identify key players involved in disease pathogenesis. Using chemical genetic screening, we tested a library of known phosphatase inhibitors and identified several compounds that protected Bacillus anthracis infected macrophages from cell death. The most potent compound was assayed against a panel of sixteen different phosphatases of which CD45 was found to be most sensitive to inhibition. Testing of a known CD45 inhibitor and antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers targeting CD45 also protected B. anthracis-infected macrophages from cell death. However, reduced CD45 expression did not protect anthrax lethal toxin (LT) treated macrophages, suggesting that the pathogen and independently added LT may signal through distinct pathways. Subsequent, in vivo studies with both gene-targeted knockdown of CD45 and genetically engineered mice expressing reduced levels of CD45 resulted in protection of mice after infection with the virulent Ames B. anthracis. Intermediate levels of CD45 expression were critical for the protection, as mice expressing normal levels of CD45 or disrupted CD45 phosphatase activity or no CD45 all succumbed to this pathogen. Mechanism-based studies suggest that the protection provided by reduced CD45 levels results from regulated immune cell homeostasis that may diminish the impact of apoptosis during the infection. To date, this is the first report demonstrating that reduced levels of host phosphatase CD45 modulate anthrax pathogenesis. PMID:19269962

Panchal, Rekha G.; Ulrich, Ricky L.; Bradfute, Steven B.; Lane, Douglas; Ruthel, Gordon; Kenny, Tara A.; Iversen, Patrick L.; Anderson, Arthur O.; Gussio, Rick; Raschke, William C.; Bavari, Sina

2009-01-01

185

Radiolabeled Nanoparticles for Multimodality Tumor Imaging  

PubMed Central

Each imaging modality has its own unique strengths. Multimodality imaging, taking advantages of strengths from two or more imaging modalities, can provide overall structural, functional, and molecular information, offering the prospect of improved diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring abilities. The devices of molecular imaging with multimodality and multifunction are of great value for cancer diagnosis and treatment, and greatly accelerate the development of radionuclide-based multimodal molecular imaging. Radiolabeled nanoparticles bearing intrinsic properties have gained great interest in multimodality tumor imaging over the past decade. Significant breakthrough has been made toward the development of various radiolabeled nanoparticles, which can be used as novel cancer diagnostic tools in multimodality imaging systems. It is expected that quantitative multimodality imaging with multifunctional radiolabeled nanoparticles will afford accurate and precise assessment of biological signatures in cancer in a real-time manner and thus, pave the path towards personalized cancer medicine. This review addresses advantages and challenges in developing multimodality imaging probes by using different types of nanoparticles, and summarizes the recent advances in the applications of radiolabeled nanoparticles for multimodal imaging of tumor. The key issues involved in the translation of radiolabeled nanoparticles to the clinic are also discussed. PMID:24505237

Xing, Yan; Zhao, Jinhua; Conti, Peter S.; Chen, Kai

2014-01-01

186

Anthrax vaccine adsorbed: further evidence supporting continuing the vaccination series rather than restarting the series when doses are delayed.  

PubMed

Whether to restart or continue the series when anthrax vaccine doses are missed is a frequent medical management problem. We applied the noninferiority analysis model to this prospective study comparing the Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) IgG antibody response and lethal toxin neutralization activity at day 28 to the anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) (Biothrax®) administered on schedule or delayed. A total of 600 volunteers were enrolled: 354 in the on-schedule cohort; 246 in the delayed cohort. Differences were noted in immune responses between cohorts (p<0.0001) and among the racial categories (p<0.0001). Controlling for covariates, the delayed cohort was non-inferior to the on-schedule cohort for the rate of 4-fold rise in both anti-PA IgG concentration (p<0.0001) and TNA ED50 titers (p<0.0001); as well as the mean log10-transformed anti-PA IgG concentration (p<0.0001) and the mean log10-transformed TNA ED50 titers (p<0.0001). Providing a missed AVA dose after a delay as long as 5-7 years, elicits anti-PA IgG antibody and TNA ED50 responses that are robust and non-inferior to the responses observed when the 6-month dose is given on-schedule. These important data suggest it is not necessary to restart the series when doses of the anthrax vaccine are delayed as long as 5 or more years. PMID:24837771

Pittman, Phillip R; Cavicchia, M A; Kingsbury, J L; Johnson, N A; Barrera-Oro, J G; Schmader, T; Korman, L; Quinn, X; Ranadive, M

2014-09-01

187

Crystal Structure of the Engineered Neutralizing Antibody M18 Complexed to Domain 4 of the Anthrax Protective Antigen  

PubMed Central

Summary The virulence of Bacillus anthracis is critically dependent on the cytotoxic components of the anthrax toxin, lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF). LF and EF gain entry into host cells through interactions with the protective antigen (PA), which binds to host cellular receptors such as CMG2. Antibodies that neutralize PA have been shown to confer protection in animal models and are undergoing intense clinical development. A murine monoclonal antibody, 14B7, has been reported to interact with domain 4 of PA (PAD4) and block its binding to CMG2. More recently, the 14B7 antibody was used as the platform for the selection of very high affinity single chain antibodies that have tremendous potential as a combination anthrax prophylactic and treatment. Here we report the high resolution X-ray structures of three high affinity single chain antibodies in the 14B7 family; 14B7 and two high affinity variants 1H and M18. In addition, we present the first neutralizing antibody-PA structure, M18 in complex with PAD4 at 3.8 Å resolution. These structures provide insights into the mechanism of neutralization and on the effect of various mutations on antibody affinity and enable a comparison between the binding of the M18 antibody and CMG2 with PAD4. PMID:19361425

Leysath, Clinton E.; Monzingo, Arthur F.; Maynard, Jennifer A.; Barnett, Jason; Georgiou, George; Iverson, Brent L.

2009-01-01

188

An anthrax subunit vaccine candidate based on protective regions of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen and lethal factor.  

PubMed

Studies have confirmed the key role of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) in the US and UK human anthrax vaccines. However, given the tripartite nature of the toxin, other components, including lethal factor (LF), are also likely to contribute to protection. We examined the antibody and T cell responses to PA and LF in human volunteers immunized with the UK anthrax vaccine (AVP). Individual LF domains were assessed for immunogenicity in mice when given alone or with PA. Based on the results obtained, a novel fusion protein comprising D1 of LF and the host cell-binding domain of PA (D4) was assessed for protective efficacy. Murine protection studies demonstrated that both full-length LF and D1 of LF conferred complete protection against a lethal intraperitoneal challenge with B. anthracis STI spores. Subsequent studies with the LFD1-PAD4 fusion protein showed a similar level of protection. LF is immunogenic in humans and is likely to contribute to the protection stimulated by AVP. A single vaccine comprising protective regions from LF and PA would simplify production and confer a broader spectrum of protection than that seen with PA alone. PMID:20691267

Baillie, Les W; Huwar, Theresa B; Moore, Stephen; Mellado-Sanchez, Gabriela; Rodriguez, Liliana; Neeson, Brendan N; Flick-Smith, Helen C; Jenner, Dominic C; Atkins, Helen S; Ingram, Rebecca J; Altmann, Danny M; Nataro, James P; Pasetti, Marcela F

2010-09-24

189

Epidemiologic response to anthrax outbreaks: field investigations, 1950-2001.  

PubMed

We used unpublished reports, published manuscripts, and communication with investigators to identify and summarize 49 anthrax-related epidemiologic field investigations conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1950 to August 2001. Of 41 investigations in which Bacillus anthracis caused human or animal disease, 24 were in agricultural settings, 11 in textile mills, and 6 in other settings. Among the other investigations, two focused on building decontamination, one was a response to bioterrorism threats, and five involved other causes. Knowledge gained in these investigations helped guide the public health response to the October 2001 intentional release of B. anthracis, especially by addressing the management of anthrax threats, prevention of occupational anthrax, use of antibiotic prophylaxis in exposed persons, use of vaccination, spread of B. anthracis spores in aerosols, clinical diagnostic and laboratory confirmation methods, techniques for environmental sampling of exposed surfaces, and methods for decontaminating buildings. PMID:12396934

Bales, Michael E; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Brachman, Philip S; Kaufmann, Arnold F; Klatsky, Peter C; Ashford, David A

2002-10-01

190

Micromotors to capture and destroy anthrax simulant spores.  

PubMed

Towards addressing the need for detecting and eliminating biothreats, we describe a micromotor-based approach for screening, capturing, isolating and destroying anthrax simulant spores in a simple and rapid manner with minimal sample processing. The B. globilli antibody-functionalized micromotors can recognize, capture and transport B. globigii spores in environmental matrices, while showing non-interactions with excess of non-target bacteria. Efficient destruction of the anthrax simulant spores is demonstrated via the micromotor-induced mixing of a mild oxidizing solution. The new micromotor-based approach paves a way to dynamic multifunctional systems that rapidly recognize, isolate, capture and destroy biological threats. PMID:25622851

Orozco, Jahir; Pan, Guoqing; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Galarnyk, Michael; Wang, Joseph

2015-03-01

191

Two rare presentations of fatal anthrax: meningeal and intestinal.  

PubMed

Anthrax is an ancient disease of animals and men, caused by Bacillus anthracis. The diagnosis of cutaneous infection is relatively easy, but other clinical forms might escape recognition. We present two rare and fatal forms of anthrax: meningeal in a 33-year-old male shepherd and intestinal in a 4-year-old boy. The former was admitted to the hospital with complaints of headache, vomiting, fever, and decreased level of consciousness. The latter presented with abdominal pain and distension, vomiting, and fever. Both cases were proven by animal inoculation. PMID:20804313

Khoddami, Maliheh; Shirvani, Fariba; Esmaeili, Jaleh; Beladimogaddam, Nahid

2010-09-01

192

Transient Co-Expression of Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing Suppressors for Increased in Planta Expression of a Recombinant Anthrax Receptor Fusion Protein  

PubMed Central

Potential epidemics of infectious diseases and the constant threat of bioterrorism demand rapid, scalable, and cost-efficient manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming of tobacco plants provides an alternative for the recombinant production of therapeutics. We have developed a transient production platform that uses Agrobacterium infiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants to express a novel anthrax receptor decoy protein (immunoadhesin), CMG2-Fc. This chimeric fusion protein, designed to protect against the deadly anthrax toxins, is composed of the von Willebrand factor A (VWA) domain of human capillary morphogenesis 2 (CMG2), an effective anthrax toxin receptor, and the Fc region of human immunoglobulin G (IgG). We evaluated, in N. benthamiana intact plants and detached leaves, the expression of CMG2-Fc under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter, and the co-expression of CMG2-Fc with nine different viral suppressors of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS): p1, p10, p19, p21, p24, p25, p38, 2b, and HCPro. Overall, transient CMG2-Fc expression was higher on intact plants than detached leaves. Maximum expression was observed with p1 co-expression at 3.5 days post-infiltration (DPI), with a level of 0.56 g CMG2-Fc per kg of leaf fresh weight and 1.5% of the total soluble protein, a ten-fold increase in expression when compared to absence of suppression. Co-expression with the p25 PTGS suppressor also significantly increased the CMG2-Fc expression level after just 3.5 DPI. PMID:21954339

Arzola, Lucas; Chen, Junxing; Rattanaporn, Kittipong; Maclean, James M.; McDonald, Karen A.

2011-01-01

193

Shared Binding Sites in Lepidoptera for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ja and Cry1A Toxins  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis toxins act by binding to specific target sites in the insect midgut epithelial membrane. The best-known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is reduced binding to target sites. Because alteration of a binding site shared by several toxins may cause resistance to all of them, knowledge of which toxins share binding sites is useful for predicting cross-resistance. Conversely, cross-resistance among toxins suggests that the toxins share a binding site. At least two strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with resistance to Cry1A toxins and reduced binding of Cry1A toxins have strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ja. Thus, we hypothesized that Cry1Ja shares binding sites with Cry1A toxins. We tested this hypothesis in six moth and butterfly species, each from a different family: Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae), Lobesia botrana (Tortricidae), Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae), P. xylostella (Plutellidae), and Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae). Although the extent of competition varied among species, experiments with biotinylated Cry1Ja and radiolabeled Cry1Ac showed that Cry1Ja and Cry1Ac competed for binding sites in all six species. A recent report also indicates shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins in Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). Thus, shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A occur in all lepidopteran species tested so far. PMID:11722929

Herrero, Salvador; González-Cabrera, Joel; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Ferré, Juan

2001-01-01

194

Shared binding sites in Lepidoptera for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins.  

PubMed

Bacillus thuringiensis toxins act by binding to specific target sites in the insect midgut epithelial membrane. The best-known mechanism of resistance to B. thuringiensis toxins is reduced binding to target sites. Because alteration of a binding site shared by several toxins may cause resistance to all of them, knowledge of which toxins share binding sites is useful for predicting cross-resistance. Conversely, cross-resistance among toxins suggests that the toxins share a binding site. At least two strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) with resistance to Cry1A toxins and reduced binding of Cry1A toxins have strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ja. Thus, we hypothesized that Cry1Ja shares binding sites with Cry1A toxins. We tested this hypothesis in six moth and butterfly species, each from a different family: Cacyreus marshalli (Lycaenidae), Lobesia botrana (Tortricidae), Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), Pectinophora gossypiella (Gelechiidae), P. xylostella (Plutellidae), and Spodoptera exigua (Noctuidae). Although the extent of competition varied among species, experiments with biotinylated Cry1Ja and radiolabeled Cry1Ac showed that Cry1Ja and Cry1Ac competed for binding sites in all six species. A recent report also indicates shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A toxins in Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae). Thus, shared binding sites for Cry1Ja and Cry1A occur in all lepidopteran species tested so far. PMID:11722929

Herrero, S; González-Cabrera, J; Tabashnik, B E; Ferré, J

2001-12-01

195

Microfluidic radiolabeling of biomolecules with PET radiometals  

PubMed Central

Introduction A robust, versatile and compact microreactor has been designed, fabricated and tested for the labeling of bifunctional chelate conjugated biomolecules (BFC-BM) with PET radiometals. Methods The developed microreactor was used to radiolabel a chelate, either 1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) or 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA) that had been conjugated to cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-DPhe-Lys) peptide, with both 64Cu and 68Ga respectively. The microreactor radiolabeling conditions were optimized by varying temperature, concentration and residence time. Results Direct comparisons between the microreactor approach and conventional methods showed improved labeling yields and increased reproducibility with the microreactor under identical labeling conditions, due to enhanced mass and heat transfer at the microscale. More importantly, over 90% radiolabeling yields (incorporation of radiometal) were achieved with a 1:1 stoichiometry of bifunctional chelate biomolecule conjugate (BFC-BM) to radiometal in the microreactor, which potentially obviates extensive chromatographic purification that is typically required to remove the large excess of unlabeled biomolecule in radioligands prepared using conventional methods. Moreover, higher yields for radiolabeling of DOTA-functionalized BSA protein (Bovine Serum Albumin) were observed with 64Cu/68Ga using the microreactor, which demonstrates the ability to label both small and large molecules. Conclusions A robust, reliable, compact microreactor capable of chelating radiometals with common chelates has been developed and validated. Based on our radiolabeling results, the reported microfluidic approach overall outperforms conventional radiosynthetic methods, and is a promising technology for the radiometal labeling of commonly utilized BFC-BM in aqueous solutions. PMID:23078875

Zeng, Dexing; Desai, Amit V.; Ranganathan, David; Wheeler, Tobias D.; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Reichert, David E.

2012-01-01

196

*CYANOBACTERIA AND THEIR TOXINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Cyanobacteria, or blue-green algae, are naturally-occurring contaminants of surface waters worldwide. These photosynthesizing prokaryotes thrive in warm, shallow, nutrient-rich waters. Many produce potent toxins as secondary metabolites. Cyanobacteria toxins have been document...

197

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Expert Panel Meetings on Prevention and Treatment of Anthrax in Adults  

PubMed Central

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened panels of anthrax experts to review and update guidelines for anthrax postexposure prophylaxis and treatment. The panels included civilian and military anthrax experts and clinicians with experience treating anthrax patients. Specialties represented included internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, infectious disease, emergency medicine, critical care, pulmonology, hematology, and nephrology. Panelists discussed recent patients with systemic anthrax; reviews of published, unpublished, and proprietary data regarding antimicrobial drugs and anthrax antitoxins; and critical care measures of potential benefit to patients with anthrax. This article updates antimicrobial postexposure prophylaxis and antimicrobial and antitoxin treatment options and describes potentially beneficial critical care measures for persons with anthrax, including clinical procedures for infected nonpregnant adults. Changes from previous guidelines include an expanded discussion of critical care and clinical procedures and additional antimicrobial choices, including preferred antimicrobial drug treatment for possible anthrax meningitis. PMID:24447897

Hendricks, Katherine A.; Wright, Mary E.; Shadomy, Sean V.; Bradley, John S.; Morrow, Meredith G.; Pavia, Andy T.; Rubinstein, Ethan; Holty, Jon-Erik C.; Messonnier, Nancy E.; Smith, Theresa L.; Pesik, Nicki; Treadwell, Tracee A.

2014-01-01

198

Space Technology to Device that Destroys Pathogens Such As Anthrax  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a photo of a technician at KES Science and Technology Inc., in Kernesaw, Georgia, assembling the AiroCide Ti02, an anthrax-killing device about the size of a small coffee table. The anthrax-killing air scrubber, AiroCide Ti02, is a tabletop-size metal box that bolts to office ceilings or walls. Its fans draw in airborne spores and airflow forces them through a maze of tubes. Inside, hydroxyl radicals (OH-) attack and kill pathogens. Most remaining spores are destroyed by high-energy ultraviolet photons. Building miniature greenhouses for experiments on the International Space Station has led to the invention of this device that annihilates anthrax, a bacteria that can be deadly when inhaled. The research enabling the invention started at the University of Wisconsin's (Madison) Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), one of 17 NASA Commercial Space Centers. A special coating technology used in this anthrax-killing invention is also being used inside WCSAR-built plant growth units on the International Space Station. This commercial research is managed by the Space Product Development Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

2002-01-01

199

Pathology of inhalational anthrax infection in the african green monkey.  

PubMed

There is a critical need for an alternative nonhuman primate model for inhalational anthrax infection because of the increasingly limited supply and cost of the current model. This report describes the pathology in 12 African green monkeys (AGMs) that succumbed to inhalational anthrax after exposure to a low dose (presented dose 200-2 x 10(4)colony-forming units [cfu]) or a high dose (presented dose 2 x 10(4)-1 x 10(7) cfu) of Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain) spores. Frequent gross lesions noted in the AGM were hemorrhage and edema in the lung, mediastinum, and mediastinal lymph nodes; pleural and pericardial effusions; meningitis; and gastrointestinal congestion and hemorrhage. Histopathologic findings included necrohemorrhagic lymphadenitis of mediastinal, axillary, inguinal, and mesenteric lymph nodes; mediastinal edema; necrotizing splenitis; meningitis; and congestion, hemorrhage, and edema of the lung, mesentery, mesenteric lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, and gonads. Pathologic changes in AGMs were remarkably similar to what has been reported in rhesus macaques and humans that succumbed to inhalational anthrax; thus, AGMs could serve as useful models for inhalation anthrax studies. PMID:17846250

Twenhafel, N A; Leffel, E; Pitt, M L M

2007-09-01

200

Growth medium for the rapid isolation and identification of anthrax  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthrax has been recognized as a highly likely biological warfare or terrorist agent. The purpose of this work was to design a culture technique to rapidly isolate and identify `live' anthrax. In liquid or solid media form, 3AT medium (3-amino-L-tyrosine, the main ingredient) accelerated germination and growth of anthrax spores in 5 to 6 hours to a point expected at 18 to 24 hours with ordinary medium. During accelerated growth, standard definitive diagnostic tests such as sensitivity to lysis by penicillin or bacteriophage can be run. During this time, the bacteria synthesized a fluorescent and thermochemiluminescent polymer. Bacteria captured by specific antibody are, therefore, already labeled. Because living bacteria are required to generate the polymer, the test converts immunoassays for anthrax into viability assays. Furthermore, the polymer formation leads to the death of the vegetative form and non-viability of the spores produced in the medium. By altering the formulation of the medium, other microbes and even animal and human cells can be grown in it and labeled (including viruses grown in the animal or human cells).

Kiel, Johnathan L.; Parker, Jill E.; Grubbs, Teri R.; Alls, John L.

2000-07-01

201

A case of septicaemic anthrax in an intravenous drug user  

PubMed Central

Background In 2000, Ringertz et al described the first case of systemic anthrax caused by injecting heroin contaminated with anthrax. In 2008, there were 574 drug related deaths in Scotland, of which 336 were associated with heroin and or morphine. We report a rare case of septicaemic anthrax caused by injecting heroin contaminated with anthrax in Scotland. Case Presentation A 32 year old intravenous drug user (IVDU), presented with a 12 hour history of increasing purulent discharge from a chronic sinus in his left groin. He had a tachycardia, pyrexia, leukocytosis and an elevated C-reactive protein (CRP). He was treated with Vancomycin, Clindamycin, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamicin and Metronidazole. Blood cultures grew Bacillus anthracis within 24 hours of presentation. He had a computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) of his abdomen, pelvis and thighs performed. These showed inflammatory change relating to the iliopsoas and an area of necrosis in the adductor magnus. He underwent an exploration of his left thigh. This revealed chronically indurated subcutaneous tissues with no evidence of a collection or necrotic muscle. Treatment with Vancomycin, Ciprofloxacin and Clindamycin continued for 14 days. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT) device was applied utilising the Venturi™ wound sealing kit. Following 4 weeks of treatment, the wound dimensions had reduced by 77%. Conclusions Although systemic anthrax infection is rare, it should be considered when faced with severe cutaneous infection in IVDU patients. This case shows that patients with significant bacteraemia may present with no signs of haemodynamic compromise. Prompt recognition and treatment with high dose IV antimicrobial therapy increases the likelihood of survival. The use of simple wound therapy adjuncts such as NPWT can give excellent wound healing results. PMID:21251266

2011-01-01

202

Microneedle-Based Intradermal Delivery of the Anthrax Recombinant Protective Antigen Vaccine?  

PubMed Central

The recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of Bacillus anthracis is a promising anthrax vaccine. We compared serum immunoglobulin G levels and toxin-neutralizing antibody titers in rabbits following delivery of various doses of vaccine by microneedle-based intradermal (i.d.) delivery or intramuscular (i.m.) injection using conventional needles. Intradermal delivery required less antigen to induce levels of antibody similar to those produced via i.m. injection during the first 2 weeks following primary and booster inoculation. This dose-sparing effect was less evident at the later stages of the immune response. Rabbits immunized i.d. with 10 ?g of rPA displayed 100% protection from aerosol spore challenge, while i.m. injection of the same dose provided slightly lower protection (71%). Groups immunized with lower antigen doses were partially protected (13 to 29%) regardless of the mode of administration. Overall, our results suggest rPA formulated with aluminum adjuvant and administered to the skin by a microneedle-based device is as efficacious as i.m. vaccination. PMID:17030580

Mikszta, John A.; Dekker, John P.; Harvey, Noel G.; Dean, Cheryl H.; Brittingham, John M.; Huang, Joanne; Sullivan, Vincent J.; Dyas, Beverly; Roy, Chad J.; Ulrich, Robert G.

2006-01-01

203

Microneedle-based intradermal delivery of the anthrax recombinant protective antigen vaccine.  

PubMed

The recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of Bacillus anthracis is a promising anthrax vaccine. We compared serum immunoglobulin G levels and toxin-neutralizing antibody titers in rabbits following delivery of various doses of vaccine by microneedle-based intradermal (i.d.) delivery or intramuscular (i.m.) injection using conventional needles. Intradermal delivery required less antigen to induce levels of antibody similar to those produced via i.m. injection during the first 2 weeks following primary and booster inoculation. This dose-sparing effect was less evident at the later stages of the immune response. Rabbits immunized i.d. with 10 mug of rPA displayed 100% protection from aerosol spore challenge, while i.m. injection of the same dose provided slightly lower protection (71%). Groups immunized with lower antigen doses were partially protected (13 to 29%) regardless of the mode of administration. Overall, our results suggest rPA formulated with aluminum adjuvant and administered to the skin by a microneedle-based device is as efficacious as i.m. vaccination. PMID:17030580

Mikszta, John A; Dekker, John P; Harvey, Noel G; Dean, Cheryl H; Brittingham, John M; Huang, Joanne; Sullivan, Vincent J; Dyas, Beverly; Roy, Chad J; Ulrich, Robert G

2006-12-01

204

Radiolabeled antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases  

PubMed Central

Novel approaches to treatment of infectious diseases are urgently needed. This need has resulted in renewing the interest in antibodies for therapy of infectious diseases. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a cancer treatment modality, which utilizes radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). During the last decade we have translated RIT into the field of experimental fungal, bacterial and HIV infections. In addition, successful proof of principle experiments with radiolabeled pan-antibodies that bind to antigens shared by major pathogenic fungi were performed in vitro. The armamentarium of pan-antibodies would result in reducing the dependence on microorganism-specific antibodies and thus would speed up the development of RIT of infections. We believe that the time is ripe for deploying RIT into the clinic to combat infectious diseases. PMID:25599011

Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

2014-01-01

205

SPECT assay of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies  

SciTech Connect

The accurate determination of the biodistribution of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) is important for calculation of dosimetry and evaluation of pharmacokinetic variables such as antibody dose and route of administration. The hypothesis of this application is that the biodistribution of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) can be quantitatively determined using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The major thrusts during the third year include the continued development and evaluation of improved 3D SPECT acquisition and reconstruction approaches to improve quantitative imaging of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), and the implementation and evaluation of algorithms to register serial SPECT image data sets, or to register 3D SPECT images with 3D image data sets acquired from positron emission tomography (PEI) and magnetic resonance images (MRI). The research has involved the investigation of statistical models and iterative reconstruction algorithms that accurately account for the physical characteristics of the SPECT acquisition system. It is our belief that SPECT quantification can be improved by accurately modeling the physical processes such as attenuation, scatter, geometric collimator response, and other factors that affect the measured projection data.

Jaszczak, R.J.

1992-02-01

206

Evaluation of the House Fly Musca domestica as a Mechanical Vector for an Anthrax  

PubMed Central

Anthrax is a disease of human beings and animals caused by the encapsulated, spore-forming, Bacillus anthracis. The potential role of insects in the spread of B. anthracis to humans and domestic animals during an anthrax outbreak has been confirmed by many studies. Among insect vectors, the house fly Musca domestica is considered a potential agent for disease transmission. In this study, laboratory-bred specimens of Musca domestica were infected by feeding on anthrax-infected rabbit carcass or anthrax contaminated blood, and the presence of anthrax spores in their spots (faeces and vomitus) was microbiologically monitored. It was also evaluated if the anthrax spores were able to germinate and replicate in the gut content of insects. These results confirmed the role of insects in spreading anthrax infection. This role, although not major, given the huge size of fly populations often associated with anthrax epidemics in domestic animals, cannot be neglected from an epidemiological point of view and suggest that fly control should be considered as part of anthrax control programs. PMID:20808920

Fasanella, Antonio; Scasciamacchia, Silvia; Garofolo, Giuliano; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Tarsitano, Elvira; Adone, Rosanna

2010-01-01

207

Impedance spectroscopy for the detection and identification of unknown toxins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advancements in biological and chemical warfare has allowed for the creation of novel toxins necessitating a universal, real-time sensor. We have used a function-based biosensor employing impedance spectroscopy using a low current density AC signal over a range of frequencies (62.5 Hz-64 kHz) to measure the electrical impedance of a confluent epithelial cell monolayer at 120 sec intervals. Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells were grown to confluence on thin film interdigitated gold electrodes. A stable impedance measurement of 2200 ? was found after 24 hrs of growth. After exposure to cytotoxins anthrax lethal toxin and etoposide, the impedance decreased in a linear fashion resulting in a 50% drop in impedance over 50hrs showing significant difference from the control sample (~20% decrease). Immunofluorescent imaging showed that apoptosis was induced through the addition of toxins. Similarities of the impedance signal shows that the mechanism of cellular death was the same between ALT and etoposide. A revised equivalent circuit model was employed in order to quantify morphological changes in the cell monolayer such as tight junction integrity and cell surface area coverage. This model showed a faster response to cytotoxin (2 hrs) compared to raw measurements (20 hrs). We demonstrate that herein that impedance spectroscopy of epithelial monolayers serves as a real-time non-destructive sensor for unknown pathogens.

Riggs, B. C.; Plopper, G. E.; Paluh, J. L.; Phamduy, T. B.; Corr, D. T.; Chrisey, D. B.

2012-06-01

208

Identification and Validation of a Linear Protective Neutralizing Epitope in the ?-Pore Domain of Alpha Toxin  

PubMed Central

The plethora of virulence factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus make this bacterium an attractive candidate for a molecularly-designed epitope-focused vaccine. This approach, which necessitates the identification of neutralizing epitopes for incorporation into a vaccine construct, is being evaluated for pathogens where conventional approaches have failed to elicit protective humoral responses, like HIV-1 and malaria, but may also hold promise for pathogens like S. aureus, where the elicitation of humoral immunity against multiple virulence factors may be required for development of an effective vaccine. Among the virulence factors employed by S. aureus, animal model and epidemiological data suggest that alpha toxin, a multimeric ?-pore forming toxin like protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis, is particularly critical, yet no candidate neutralizing epitopes have been delineated in alpha toxin to date. We have previously shown that a linear determinant in the 2?2-2?3 loop of the pore forming domain of B. anthracis protective antigen is a linear neutralizing epitope. Antibody against this site is highly potent for neutralizing anthrax lethal toxin in vitro and for protection of rabbits in vivo from virulent B. anthracis. We hypothesized that sequences in the ?-pore of S. aureus alpha toxin that share structural and functional homology to ?-pore sequences in protective antigen would contain a similarly critical neutralizing epitope. Using an in vivo mapping strategy employing peptide immunogens, an optimized in vitro toxin neutralization assay, and an in vivo dermonecrosis model, we have now confirmed the presence of this epitope in alpha toxin, termed the pore neutralizing determinant. Antibody specific for this determinant neutralizes alpha toxin in vitro, and is highly effective for mitigating dermonecrosis and bacterial growth in a mouse model of S. aureus USA300 skin infection. The delineation of this linear neutralizing determinant in alpha toxin could facilitate the development of an epitope-focused vaccine against S. aureus. PMID:25635901

Oscherwitz, Jon; Cease, Kemp B.

2015-01-01

209

Toxin–antitoxin systems  

PubMed Central

Toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements composed of a toxin gene and its cognate antitoxin. The toxins of all known TA systems are proteins while the antitoxins are either proteins or non-coding RNAs. Based on the molecular nature of the antitoxin and its mode of interaction with the toxin the TA modules are currently grouped into five classes. In general, the toxin is more stable than the antitoxin but the latter is expressed to a higher level. If supply of the antitoxin stops, for instance under special growth conditions or by plasmid loss in case of plasmid encoded TA systems, the antitoxin is rapidly degraded and can no longer counteract the toxin. Consequently, the toxin becomes activated and can act on its cellular targets. Typically, TA toxins act on crucial cellular processes including translation, replication, cytoskeleton formation, membrane integrity, and cell wall biosynthesis. TA systems and their components are also versatile tools for a multitude of purposes in basic research and biotechnology. Currently, TA systems are frequently used for selection in cloning and for single protein expression in living bacterial cells. Since several TA toxins exhibit activity in yeast and mammalian cells they may be useful for applications in eukaryotic systems. TA modules are also considered as promising targets for the development of antibacterial drugs and their potential to combat viral infection may aid in controlling infectious diseases. PMID:24251069

Unterholzner, Simon J; Poppenberger, Brigitte; Rozhon, Wilfried

2013-01-01

210

Botulinum toxin injection - larynx  

MedlinePLUS

Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy- ...

211

Economic Impacts of a Wide Area Release of Anthrax  

SciTech Connect

This analysis explores economic impacts that might result from a wide-area release of anthrax. The intent is not to provide a quantitative analysis of such a disaster, but to: 1. Define the general categories of economic impacts that the region should be concerned about; and, 2. Explore what types of private sector businesses or industries, if any, may have the greatest impact on speeding the economic recovery of the region.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

2009-05-29

212

Adverse medical events in British service personnel following anthrax vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of the UK anthrax vaccine in British service personnel was evaluated by a retrospective cohort study of randomly selected personnel from five Royal Air Force bases by investigating adverse medical events and consultation rates for a period before and after vaccination. Vaccination acceptance rate varied from 27 to 89% (P=0.0001). In the vaccinated cohort 11.1% (n=368) reported side-effects.

Joanne E Enstone; Martin C. J Wale; Jonathan S Nguyen-Van-Tam; James C. G Pearson

2003-01-01

213

9 CFR 309.7 - Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected livestock pens and driveways.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected... § 309.7 Livestock affected with anthrax; cleaning and disinfection of infected...ante-mortem inspection to be affected with anthrax shall be identified as U.S....

2010-01-01

214

A three-dose intramuscular injection schedule of anthrax vaccine adsorbed generates sustained humoral and cellular immune responses to protective antigen and provides long-term protection against inhalation anthrax in rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

A 3-dose (0, 1, and 6 months) intramuscular (3-IM) priming series of a human dose (HuAVA) and dilutions of up to 1:10 of anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) provided statistically significant levels of protection (60 to 100%) against inhalation anthrax for up to 4 years in rhesus macaques. Serum anti-protective antigen (anti-PA) IgG and lethal toxin neutralization activity (TNA) were detectable following a single injection of HuAVA or 1:5 AVA or following two injections of diluted vaccine (1:10, 1:20, or 1:40 AVA). Anti-PA and TNA were highly correlated (overall r(2) = 0.89 for log(10)-transformed data). Peak responses were seen at 6.5 months. In general, with the exception of animals receiving 1:40 AVA, serum anti-PA and TNA responses remained significantly above control levels at 28.5 months (the last time point measured for 1:20 AVA), and through 50.5 months for the HuAVA and 1:5 and 1:10 AVA groups (P < 0.05). PA-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) CD4(+) cell frequencies and T cell stimulation indices were sustained through 50.5 months (the last time point measured). PA-specific memory B cell frequencies were highly variable but, in general, were detectable in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by 2 months, were significantly above control levels by 7 months, and remained detectable in the HuAVA and 1:5 and 1:20 AVA groups through 42 months (the last time point measured). HuAVA and diluted AVA elicited a combined Th1/Th2 response and robust immunological priming, with sustained production of high-avidity PA-specific functional antibody, long-term immune cell competence, and immunological memory (30 months for 1:20 AVA and 52 months for 1:10 AVA). Vaccinated animals surviving inhalation anthrax developed high-magnitude anamnestic anti-PA IgG and TNA responses. PMID:22933399

Quinn, Conrad P; Sabourin, Carol L; Niemuth, Nancy A; Li, Han; Semenova, Vera A; Rudge, Thomas L; Mayfield, Heather J; Schiffer, Jarad; Mittler, Robert S; Ibegbu, Chris C; Wrammert, Jens; Ahmed, Rafi; Brys, April M; Hunt, Robert E; Levesque, Denyse; Estep, James E; Barnewall, Roy E; Robinson, David M; Plikaytis, Brian D; Marano, Nina

2012-11-01

215

Injectional anthrax at a Scottish district general hospital.  

PubMed

SUMMARY This retrospective, descriptive case-series reviews the clinical presentations and significant laboratory findings of patients diagnosed with and treated for injectional anthrax (IA) since December 2009 at Monklands Hospital in Central Scotland and represents the largest series of IA cases to be described from a single location. Twenty-one patients who fulfilled National Anthrax Control Team standardized case definitions of confirmed, probable or possible IA are reported. All cases survived and none required limb amputation in contrast to an overall mortality of 28% being experienced for this condition in Scotland. We document the spectrum of presentations of soft tissue infection ranging from mild cases which were managed predominantly with oral antibiotics to severe cases with significant oedema, organ failure and coagulopathy. We describe the surgical management, intensive care management and antibiotic management including the first description of daptomycin being used to treat human anthrax. It is noted that some people who had injected heroin infected with Bacillus anthracis did not develop evidence of IA. Also highlighted are biochemical and haematological parameters which proved useful in identifying deteriorating patients who required greater levels of support and surgical debridement. PMID:25078285

Inverarity, D J; Forrester, V M; Cumming, J G R; Paterson, P J; Campbell, R J; Brooks, T J G; Carson, G L; Ruddy, J P

2014-07-31

216

Space Technology to Device That Destroys Pathogens Such as Anthrax  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AiroCide Ti02, an anthrax-killing air scrubber manufactured by KES Science and Technology Inc., in Kernesaw, Georgia, looks like a square metal box when it is installed on an office wall. Its fans draw in airborne spores and airflow forces them through a maze of tubes. Inside, hydroxyl radicals (OH-) attack and kill pathogens. Most remaining spores are destroyed by high-energy ultraviolet photons. Building miniature greenhouses for experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) has led to the invention of this device that annihilates anthrax-a bacteria that can be deadly when inhaled. The research enabling the invention started at the University of Wisconsin (Madison) Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), one of 17 NASA Commercial Space Centers. A special coating technology used in the anthrax-killing invention is also being used inside WCSAR-built plant growth units on the ISS. This commercial research is managed by the Space Product Development Program at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

2002-01-01

217

Improvement of a Potential Anthrax Therapeutic by Computational Protein Design*  

PubMed Central

Past anthrax attacks in the United States have highlighted the need for improved measures against bioweapons. The virulence of anthrax stems from the shielding properties of the Bacillus anthracis poly-?-d-glutamic acid capsule. In the presence of excess CapD, a B. anthracis ?-glutamyl transpeptidase, the protective capsule is degraded, and the immune system can successfully combat infection. Although CapD shows promise as a next generation protein therapeutic against anthrax, improvements in production, stability, and therapeutic formulation are needed. In this study, we addressed several of these problems through computational protein engineering techniques. We show that circular permutation of CapD improved production properties and dramatically increased kinetic thermostability. At 45 °C, CapD was completely inactive after 5 min, but circularly permuted CapD remained almost entirely active after 30 min. In addition, we identify an amino acid substitution that dramatically decreased transpeptidation activity but not hydrolysis. Subsequently, we show that this mutant had a diminished capsule degradation activity, suggesting that CapD catalyzes capsule degradation through a transpeptidation reaction with endogenous amino acids and peptides in serum rather than hydrolysis. PMID:21768086

Wu, Sean J.; Eiben, Christopher B.; Carra, John H.; Huang, Ivan; Zong, David; Liu, Peixian; Wu, Cindy T.; Nivala, Jeff; Dunbar, Josef; Huber, Tomas; Senft, Jeffrey; Schokman, Rowena; Smith, Matthew D.; Mills, Jeremy H.; Friedlander, Arthur M.; Baker, David; Siegel, Justin B.

2011-01-01

218

Appropriation and commercialization of the Pasteur anthrax vaccine.  

PubMed

Whereas Pasteur patented the biotechnological processes that he invented between 1857 and 1873 in the agro-food domain, he did not file any patents on the artificial vaccine preparation processes that he subsequently developed. This absence of patents can probably be explained by the 1844 patent law in France that established the non-patentable status of pharmaceutical preparations and remedies, including those for use in veterinary medicine. Despite the absence of patents, the commercial exploitation of the anthrax vaccine in the 1880s and 1890s led to a technical and commercial monopoly by Pasteur's laboratory as well as the founding of a commercial company to diffuse the vaccine abroad. Pasteur repeatedly refused to transfer his know-how and anthrax vaccine production methods to foreign laboratories, on the grounds that he wished to control the quality of the vaccines produced. Indeed, it was relatively difficult to transfer a method that was not yet perfectly stabilized in the early 1880s. Pasteur also wanted to maintain the monopoly of his commercial company and to increase the profits from vaccine sales so that the Institut Pasteur could be financially independent. The 'Pasteur anthrax vaccine' operating licences are described and analysed in detail in this article. PMID:16337558

Cassier, Maurice

2005-12-01

219

Pathology and pathogenesis of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax.  

PubMed

During October and November 2001, public health authorities investigated 11 patients with inhalational anthrax related to a bioterrorism attack in the United States. Formalin-fixed samples from 8 patients were available for pathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) study using monoclonal antibodies against the Bacillus anthracis cell wall and capsule. Prominent serosanguinous pleural effusions and hemorrhagic mediastinitis were found in 5 patients who died. Pulmonary infiltrates seen on chest radiographs corresponded to intraalveolar edema and hyaline membranes. IHC assays demonstrated abundant intra- and extracellular bacilli, bacillary fragments, and granular antigen-staining in mediastinal lymph nodes, surrounding soft tissues, and pleura. IHC staining in lung, liver, spleen, and intestine was present primarily inside blood vessels and sinusoids. Gram's staining of tissues was not consistently positive. In 3 surviving patients, IHC of pleural samples demonstrated abundant granular antigen-staining and rare bacilli while transbronchial biopsies showed granular antigen-staining in interstitial cells. In surviving patients, bacilli were not observed with gram's stains. Pathological and IHC studies of patients who died of bioterrorism-related inhalational anthrax confirmed the route of infection. IHC was indispensable for diagnosis of surviving anthrax cases. The presence of B. anthracis antigens in the pleurae could explain the prominent and persistent hemorrhagic pleural effusions. PMID:12875989

Guarner, Jeannette; Jernigan, John A; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Tatti, Kathleen; Flannagan, Lisa M; Stephens, David S; Popovic, Tanja; Ashford, David A; Perkins, Bradley A; Zaki, Sherif R

2003-08-01

220

Kinetics of Lethal Factor and Poly-d-Glutamic Acid Antigenemia during Inhalation Anthrax in Rhesus Macaques ?  

PubMed Central

Systemic anthrax manifests as toxemia, rapidly disseminating septicemia, immune collapse, and death. Virulence factors include the anti-phagocytic ?-linked poly-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule and two binary toxins, complexes of protective antigen (PA) with lethal factor (LF) and edema factor. We report the characterization of LF, PA, and PGA levels during the course of inhalation anthrax in five rhesus macaques. We describe bacteremia, blood differentials, and detection of the PA gene (pagA) by PCR analysis of the blood as confirmation of infection. For four of five animals tested, LF exhibited a triphasic kinetic profile. LF levels (mean ± standard error [SE] between animals) were low at 24 h postchallenge (0.03 ± 1.82 ng/ml), increased at 48 h to 39.53 ± 0.12 ng/ml (phase 1), declined at 72 h to 13.31 ± 0.24 ng/ml (phase 2), and increased at 96 h (82.78 ± 2.01 ng/ml) and 120 h (185.12 ± 5.68 ng/ml; phase 3). The fifth animal had an extended phase 2. PGA levels were triphasic; they were nondetectable at 24 h, increased at 48 h (2,037 ± 2 ng/ml), declined at 72 h (14 ± 0.2 ng/ml), and then increased at 96 h (3,401 ± 8 ng/ml) and 120 h (6,004 ± 187 ng/ml). Bacteremia was also triphasic: positive at 48 h, negative at 72 h, and positive at euthanasia. Blood neutrophils increased from preexposure (34.4% ± 0.13%) to 48 h (75.6% ± 0.08%) and declined at 72 h (62.4% ± 0.05%). The 72-h declines may establish a “go/no go” turning point in infection, after which systemic bacteremia ensues and the host's condition deteriorates. This study emphasizes the value of LF detection as a tool for early diagnosis of inhalation anthrax before the onset of fulminant systemic infection. PMID:19506008

Boyer, Anne E.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Kozel, Thomas R.; Saile, Elke; Marston, Chung K.; Percival, Ann; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Woolfitt, Adrian R.; Gallegos, Maribel; Sabourin, Patrick; McWilliams, Lisa G.; Pirkle, James L.; Barr, John R.

2009-01-01

221

Toxins from Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Bacterial toxins damage the host at the site of bacterial infection or distanced from the site of infections. Bacterial toxins can be single proteins or organized as oligomeric protein complexes and are organized with distinct AB structure-function properties. The A domain encodes a catalytic activity; ADP-ribosylation of host proteins is the earliest post-translational modification determine to be performed by bacterial toxin, and now include glucosylation and proteolysis among other s. Bacterial toxins also catalyze the non-covalent modification of host protein function or can modify host cell properties through direct protein-protein interactions. The B domain includes two functional domains: a receptor-binding domain, which defines the tropism of a toxin for a cell and a translocation domain that delivers A domain across a lipid bilayer, either on the plasma membrane or the endosome. Bacterial toxins are often characterized based upon the section mechanism that delivers the toxin out of the bacterium, termed type I–VII. This review will overview the major families of bacterial toxins and will also describe the specific structure-function properties of the botulinum neurotoxins. PMID:20358680

Henkel, James S.; Baldwin, Michael R.; Barbieri, Joseph T.

2010-01-01

222

Bacillus anthracis genomic DNA enhances lethal toxin¿induced cytotoxicity through TNF-¿ production.  

PubMed

Background Bacillus anthracis is the etiological agent of anthrax. Lethal toxin (LT) produced by B. anthracis is a well-known key virulence factor for anthrax because of its strong cytotoxic activity. However, little is known about the role of B. anthracis genomic DNA (BAG) in anthrax pathogenesis.ResultsWe examined the effect of BAG on TNF-¿ production and LT-mediated cytotoxicity during B. anthracis spore infection in mouse macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 cells and J774A.1) and BALB/c mice. Infection of RAW264.7 cells with B. anthracis spores induced TNF-¿ expression in a multiplicity of infection (MOI)-dependent manner, and this enhancement was attenuated by the toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 inhibitor oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN)2088. BAG led to TNF-¿ expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner when applied to RAW264.7 cells. TNF-¿ expression induced by BAG was reduced by either pretreatment with TLR9 inhibitors (ODN2088 and chloroquine (CQ)) or transfection with TLR9 siRNA. Furthermore, BAG-induced TNF-¿ production in TLR9+/+ macrophages was completely abrogated in TLR9¿/¿ macrophages. BAG enhanced the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and BAG-induced TNF-¿ expression was attenuated by pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors. A reporter gene assay and confocal microscopy demonstrated that BAG increased NF-¿B activation, which is responsible for TNF-¿ expression. Treatment with BAG alone showed no cytotoxic activity on the macrophage cell line J774A.1, whereas LT-mediated cytotoxicity was enhanced by treatment with BAG or TNF-¿. Enhanced LT-induced lethality was also confirmed by BAG administration in mice. Furthermore, LT plus BAG-mediated lethality was significantly recovered by administration of Infliximab, an anti-TNF-¿ monoclonal antibody.ConclusionsOur results suggest that B. anthracis DNA may contribute to anthrax pathogenesis by enhancing LT activity via TLR9-mediated TNF-¿ production. PMID:25472474

Jeon, Jun; Kim, Yeon; Choi, Min; Kim, Kyung; Lee, Hae-Ri; Jang, Jeyoun; Kim, Yu-Ri; Chun, Jeong-Hoon; Eo, Seong; Kim, Tae; Rhie, Gi-Eun

2014-12-01

223

Radiolabeled dimethyl branched long chain fatty acid for heart imaging  

DOEpatents

A radiolabeled long chain fatty acid for heart imaging that has dimethyl branching at one of the carbons of the chain which inhibits the extent to which oxidation can occur. The closer to the carboxyl the branching is positioned, the more limited the oxidation, thereby resulting in prolonged retention of the radiolabeled compound in the heart.

Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Kirsch, Gilbert (Woippy, FR)

1988-08-16

224

Enzymatic method for radiolabelling vertebrate vitellogenin  

SciTech Connect

Phosphoprotein kinases from Xenopus and chicken liver have been purified and these enzymes have been used to label Xenopus vitellogenin, a phosphoprotein, to high specific activity with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP. The enzymes were isolated by (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ fractionation followed by chromatography on DE-52 cellulose and phosphocellulose. This procedure resulted in greater than 20,000-fold enrichment for the enzymes. Both enzyme preparations were used to selectively label vitellogenin in the serum of estrogen-treated animals. Thus, isolation of the vitellogenin prior to radiolabeling was not necessary. The (/sup 32/P)vitellogenin labeled in situ was incorporated by oocytes at a rate similar to (/sup 32/P)vitellogenin labeled in vivo, was translocated to the yolk platelets, and was correctly processed into the yolk proteins.

Opresko, L.; Wiley, H.S.

1984-08-01

225

19F Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Crystallographic Studies of 5-Fluorotryptophan-Labeled Anthrax Protective Antigen and Effects of the Receptor on Stability  

PubMed Central

The anthrax protective antigen (PA) is an 83 kDa protein that is one of three protein components of the anthrax toxin, an AB toxin secreted by Bacillus anthracis. PA is capable of undergoing several structural changes, including oligomerization to either a heptameric or octameric structure called the prepore, and at acidic pH a major conformational change to form a membrane-spanning pore. To follow these structural changes at a residue-specific level, we have conducted initial studies in which we have biosynthetically incorporated 5-fluorotryptophan (5-FTrp) into PA, and we have studied the influence of 5-FTrp labeling on the structural stability of PA and on binding to the host receptor capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2) using 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). There are seven tryptophans in PA, but of the four domains in PA, only two contain tryptophans: domain 1 (Trp65, -90, -136, -206, and -226) and domain 2 (Trp346 and -477). Trp346 is of particular interest because of its proximity to the CMG2 binding interface, and because it forms part of the membrane-spanning pore. We show that the 19F resonance of Trp346 is sensitive to changes in pH, consistent with crystallographic studies, and that receptor binding significantly stabilizes Trp346 to both pH and temperature. In addition, we provide evidence that suggests that resonances from tryptophans distant from the binding interface are also stabilized by the receptor. Our studies highlight the positive impact of receptor binding on protein stability and the use of 19F NMR in gaining insight into structural changes in a high-molecular weight protein. PMID:24387629

2015-01-01

226

Swab protocol for rapid laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax.  

PubMed

The clinical laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax is generally established by conventional microbiological methods, such as culture and directly straining smears of clinical specimens. However, these methods rely on recovery of viable Bacillus anthracis cells from swabs of cutaneous lesions and often yield negative results. This study developed a rapid protocol for detection of B. anthracis on clinical swabs. Three types of swabs, flocked-nylon, rayon, and polyester, were evaluated by 3 extraction methods, the swab extraction tube system (SETS), sonication, and vortex. Swabs were spiked with virulent B. anthracis cells, and the methods were compared for their efficiency over time by culture and real-time PCR. Viability testing indicated that the SETS yielded greater recovery of B. anthracis from 1-day-old swabs; however, reduced viability was consistent for the 3 extraction methods after 7 days and nonviability was consistent by 28 days. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the PCR amplification was not impacted by time for any swab extraction method and that the SETS method provided the lowest limit of detection. When evaluated using lesion swabs from cutaneous anthrax outbreaks, the SETS yielded culture-negative, PCR-positive results. This study demonstrated that swab extraction methods differ in their efficiency of recovery of viable B. anthracis cells. Furthermore, the results indicated that culture is not reliable for isolation of B. anthracis from swabs at ? 7 days. Thus, we recommend the use of the SETS method with subsequent testing by culture and real-time PCR for diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax from clinical swabs of cutaneous lesions. PMID:23035192

Dauphin, Leslie A; Marston, Chung K; Bhullar, Vinod; Baker, Daniel; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M Jahangir; Chakraborty, Apurba; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hoffmaster, Alex R

2012-12-01

227

Swab Protocol for Rapid Laboratory Diagnosis of Cutaneous Anthrax  

PubMed Central

The clinical laboratory diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax is generally established by conventional microbiological methods, such as culture and directly straining smears of clinical specimens. However, these methods rely on recovery of viable Bacillus anthracis cells from swabs of cutaneous lesions and often yield negative results. This study developed a rapid protocol for detection of B. anthracis on clinical swabs. Three types of swabs, flocked-nylon, rayon, and polyester, were evaluated by 3 extraction methods, the swab extraction tube system (SETS), sonication, and vortex. Swabs were spiked with virulent B. anthracis cells, and the methods were compared for their efficiency over time by culture and real-time PCR. Viability testing indicated that the SETS yielded greater recovery of B. anthracis from 1-day-old swabs; however, reduced viability was consistent for the 3 extraction methods after 7 days and nonviability was consistent by 28 days. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the PCR amplification was not impacted by time for any swab extraction method and that the SETS method provided the lowest limit of detection. When evaluated using lesion swabs from cutaneous anthrax outbreaks, the SETS yielded culture-negative, PCR-positive results. This study demonstrated that swab extraction methods differ in their efficiency of recovery of viable B. anthracis cells. Furthermore, the results indicated that culture is not reliable for isolation of B. anthracis from swabs at ?7 days. Thus, we recommend the use of the SETS method with subsequent testing by culture and real-time PCR for diagnosis of cutaneous anthrax from clinical swabs of cutaneous lesions. PMID:23035192

Marston, Chung K.; Bhullar, Vinod; Baker, Daniel; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Chakraborty, Apurba; Khan, Salah Uddin; Hoffmaster, Alex R.

2012-01-01

228

Anthrax in a backyard domestic dog in Ukraine: a case report.  

PubMed

Anthrax has been reported in domestic and wild dogs throughout much of the world. Generally, canids are considered resistant to anthrax, although there are several reports of anthrax deaths in both wild and domestic canid populations. Prior to 2012, anthrax had not been reported in dogs in Ukraine, despite a long history in livestock and wildlife. An outbreak involving at least one cow and one dog was reported from a backyard setting in southern Ukraine in August of 2012. Laboratory results and epizootic data were compiled from official investigation reports of regional and state veterinary services involved in the case response. A single dog died after being fed meat and bones from an illegally slaughtered heifer that died of anthrax 5 days earlier. On the evening of the dog's death, the dog refused food or water; however, there were no other clinical signs. Laboratory tests of dog tissue included traditional bacteriology for Bacillus anthracis, a small rodent bioassay for virulence, and immunoprecipitation tests (IPT). IPT was positive, viable B. anthracis colonies were cultured, and a bioassay confirmed virulence. This was the first confirmed case of canid anthrax in Ukraine. This case report serves to remind veterinary officials that anthrax can affect a wide number of species. We advise surveillance systems remain flexible and include animals that might not otherwise be tested. PMID:25072993

Blackburn, Jason K; Skrypnyk, Artem; Bagamian, Karoun H; Nikolich, Mikeljon P; Bezymennyi, Maksym; Skrypnyk, Valeriy

2014-08-01

229

Keeping the Air Clean and Safe: An Anthrax Smoke Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists at work in the Planetary Protection division at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) sterilize everything before blasting it to the Red Planet. They take great pains to ensure that all spacecraft are void of bacterial life, especially the microscopic bacteria that can live hundreds of years in their spore states. No one is quite sure what Earthly germs would do on Mars, but scientists agree that it is safest to keep the Martian terrain as undisturbed as possible. Errant Earth germs would also render useless the instruments placed on exploration rovers to look for signs of life, as the life that they registered would be life that came with them from Earth. A team at JPL, headed by Dr. Adrian Ponce, developed a bacterial spore-detection system that uses a simple and robust chemical reaction that visually alerts Planetary Protection crews. It is a simple air filter that traps micron-sized bacterial spores and then submits them to the chemical reaction. When the solution is then viewed under an ultraviolet light, the mixture will glow green if it is contaminated by bacteria. Scientists can then return to the scrubbing and cleaning stages of the sterilization process to remove these harmful bacteria. The detection system is the space-bound equivalent of having your hands checked for cleanliness before being allowed to the table; and although intended to keep terrestrial germs from space, this technology has awesome applications here on Mother Earth. The bacterial spore-detection unit can recognize anthrax and other harmful, spore-forming bacteria and alert people of the impending danger. As evidenced in the anthrax mailings of fall 2001 in the United States, the first sign of anthrax exposure was when people experienced flu-like symptoms, which unfortunately, can take as much as a week to develop after contamination. Anthrax cost 5 people their lives and infected 19 others; and the threat of bioterrorism became a routine concern, with new threats popping up nearly everyday. The attacks threatened the safety that so many Americans took for granted, as the very air that people breathed became suspect. Any building with a circulation system, where large groups congregate, was now a potential target.

2005-01-01

230

Preparation and biodistribution of radiolabeled fullerene C60 nanocrystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study describes for the first time a procedure for the radiolabeling of fullerene (C60) nanocrystals (nanoC60) with Na 125I, as well as the biodistribution of radiolabeled nanoC60 (125I-nanoC60). The solvent exchange method with tetrahydrofuran was used to make colloidal water suspensions of radiolabeled nanoC60 particles. The radiolabeling procedure with the addition of Na 125I to tetrahydrofuran during dissolution of C60 gave a higher radiochemical yield of radiolabeled nanoC60 particles in comparison to the second option, in which Na 125I was added after C60 was dissolved. Using photon correlation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, 125I-nanoC60 particles were found to have a crystalline structure and a mean diameter of 200-250 nm. The 125I-nanoC60 had a particularly high affinity for human serum albumin, displaying 95% binding efficiency after 1 h. Biodistribution studies of 125I-nanoC60 in rats indicated significant differences in tissue accumulation of 125I-nanoC60 and the radioactive tracer Na 125I. The higher accumulation of radiolabeled nanoC60 was observed in liver and spleen, while accumulation in thyroid, stomach, lungs and intestines was significantly lower in comparison to Na 125I. In addition to being useful for testing the biological distribution of nanoC60, the described radiolabeling procedure might have possible applications in cancer radiotherapy.

Nikoli?, Nadežda; Vranješ-Ðuri?, Sanja; Jankovi?, Drina; Ðoki?, Divna; Mirkovi?, Marija; Bibi?, Nataša; Trajkovi?, Vladimir

2009-09-01

231

Proteolytic activation of bacterial toxins by eukaryotic cells is performed by furin and by additional cellular proteases.  

PubMed Central

Before intoxication can occur, anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA), Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE), and diphtheria toxin (DT) must be activated by proteolytic cleavage at specific amino acid sequences. Previously, it was shown that PA and DT can be activated by furin. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, wild-type (RKKR) and cleavage site mutants of PA, each administered with a modified form of anthrax toxin lethal factor (the N terminus of lethal factor fused to PE domain III), had the following potencies: RKKR (wild type) (concentration causing 50% cell death [EC50] = 12 ng/ml) > or = RAAR (EC50 = 18 ng/ml) > FTKR (EC50 = 24 ng/ml) > STRR (EC50 = 49 ng/ml). In vitro cleavage of PA and cleavage site mutants of PA by furin demonstrated that native PA (RKKR) and PA with the cleavage sequence RAAR are substrates for furin. To characterize eukaryotic proteases that play a role in activating bacterial toxins, furin-deficient CHO cells were selected after chemical mutagenesis. Furin-deficient cells were resistant to PE, whose cleavage site, RQPR, constitutes a furin recognition site and to all PA cleavage site mutants, but were sensitive to DT (EC50 = 2.9 ng/ml) and PA (EC50 = 23 ng/ml), whose respective cleavage sites, RKKR and RVRR, contain additional basic residues. Furin-deficient cells that were transfected with the furin gene regained sensitivity to PE and PA cleavage site mutants. These studies provide evidence that furin can activate the three toxins and that one or more additional proteases contribute to the activation of DT and PA. PMID:7806387

Gordon, V M; Klimpel, K R; Arora, N; Henderson, M A; Leppla, S H

1995-01-01

232

Imaging and dosimetry determinations using radiolabeled antibodies.  

PubMed

Numerous studies using radiolabeled antibodies for imaging and therapy of lymphoma have been reported (Table 4). The targeting of lymphoma associated antigens with MoAb appears to be more favorable than the targeting of antigens on epithelial tumor. Antigen abundance may not be the overriding factor in this favorable targeting, since the number of antigenic sites per cell are often in the same range or lower than those targeted in epithelial tumors. This improved targeting is likely related to the greater access of antibody to the target antigen in lymph nodes, bone marrow, circulation, and other sites. With certain antibodies, trafficking of the cells targeted with the radiolabeled antibody may also result in favorable localization [19]. While the most frequently used isotope for imaging and therapy has been 131I, certain limitations have been observed, including its high-energy gamma rays and resulting lower resolution, and the frequent occurrence of dehalogenation [21,25,98]. Many of the antigens expressed by lymphomas undergo antigenic modulation. Antigens that undergo modulation may be targeted successfully, but once modulation occurs the antibody is broken down and the iodine is rapidly excreted from the cells. While this rapid release from normal organs is an advantage, it is an undesirable event at the tumor site. In contrast to the case of 131I MoAb, modulation may be an advantage for targeting with 111In labeled antibodies, since the radioactive metals are retained for longer periods at the tumor sites; even if the antibody is broken down, the 111In is not easily excreted from the cells [52]. Among the most consistent and favorable targeting observed to date is that seen with 111In T101 in CTCL. These studies have shown concentration of 111In in tumor of 10-100 times that seen in other tumor systems using iodinated antibodies. Unfortunately no studies have followed this lead and performed the necessary comparisons between 111In and 131I MoAb to determine if this is a consistent finding. The use of 99mTc labeled MoAb for imaging lymphomas is in its infancy, although preliminary reports appear promising [71]. While in epithelial tumors preferential tumor targeting may take more than 48 hours in lymphomas, targeting is usually seen within the first 24 hours, which is within the window of imaging time for 99mTc. Therefore, further evaluation of 99mTc antibodies should be performed. Determination of the optimum dose of antibody for imaging has been attempted. Studies using various anti-lymphoma directed antibodies have shown widely varying biodistribution and variable dose-response curves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8105853

Carrasquillo, J

1993-01-01

233

Pre-Columbian Origins for North American Anthrax  

PubMed Central

Disease introduction into the New World during colonial expansion is well documented and had a major impact on indigenous populations; however, few diseases have been associated with early human migrations into North America. During the late Pleistocene epoch, Asia and North America were joined by the Beringian Steppe ecosystem which allowed animals and humans to freely cross what would become a water barrier in the Holocene. Anthrax has clearly been shown to be dispersed by human commerce and trade in animal products contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores. Humans appear to have brought B. anthracis to this area from Asia and then moved it further south as an ice-free corridor opened in central Canada ?13,000 ybp. In this study, we have defined the evolutionary history of Western North American (WNA) anthrax using 2,850 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 285 geographically diverse B. anthracis isolates. Phylogeography of the major WNA B. anthracis clone reveals ancestral populations in northern Canada with progressively derived populations to the south; the most recent ancestor of this clonal lineage is in Eurasia. Our phylogeographic patterns are consistent with B. anthracis arriving with humans via the Bering Land Bridge. This northern-origin hypothesis is highly consistent with our phylogeographic patterns and rates of SNP accumulation observed in current day B. anthracis isolates. Continent-wide dispersal of WNA B. anthracis likely required movement by later European colonizers, but the continent's first inhabitants may have seeded the initial North American populations. PMID:19283072

Okinaka, Richard T.; Schupp, James M.; Wagner, David M.; Ravel, Jacques; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Trim, Carla P.; Chung, Wai-Kwan; Beaudry, Jodi A.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Mead, James I.; Keim, Paul

2009-01-01

234

A New Murine Model for Gastrointestinal Anthrax Infection  

PubMed Central

The scientific community has been restricted by the lack of a practical and informative animal model of gastrointestinal infection with vegetative Bacillus anthracis. We herein report the development of a murine model of gastrointestinal anthrax infection by gavage of vegetative Sterne strain of Bacillus anthracis into the complement-deficient A/J mouse strain. Mice infected in this manner developed lethal infections in a dose-dependent manner and died 30 h-5 d following gavage. Histological findings were consistent with penetration and growth of the bacilli within the intestinal villi, with subsequent dissemination into major organs including the spleen, liver, kidney and lung. Blood cultures confirmed anthrax bacteremia in all moribund animals, with approximately 1/3 showing co-infection with commensal enteric organisms. However, no evidence of immune activation was observed during infection. Time-course experiments revealed early compromise of the intestinal epithelium, characterized by villus blunting and ulceration in the ileum and jejunum. A decrease in body temperature was most predictive of near-term lethality. Antibiotic treatment of infected animals 24 h following high-dose bacterial gavage protected all animals, demonstrating the utility of this animal model in evaluating potential therapeutics. PMID:23825096

Xie, Tao; Sun, Chen; Uslu, Kadriye; Auth, Roger D.; Fang, Hui; Ouyang, Weiming; Frucht, David M.

2013-01-01

235

Deterministic Models of Inhalational Anthrax in New Zealand White Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Computational models describing bacterial kinetics were developed for inhalational anthrax in New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits following inhalation of Ames strain B. anthracis. The data used to parameterize the models included bacterial numbers in the airways, lung tissue, draining lymph nodes, and blood. Initial bacterial numbers were deposited spore dose. The first model was a single exponential ordinary differential equation (ODE) with 3 rate parameters that described mucociliated (physical) clearance, immune clearance (bacterial killing), and bacterial growth. At 36 hours postexposure, the ODE model predicted 1.7×107 bacteria in the rabbit, which agreed well with data from actual experiments (4.0×107 bacteria at 36 hours). Next, building on the single ODE model, a physiological-based biokinetic (PBBK) compartmentalized model was developed in which 1 physiological compartment was the lumen of the airways and the other was the rabbit body (lung tissue, lymph nodes, blood). The 2 compartments were connected with a parameter describing transport of bacteria from the airways into the body. The PBBK model predicted 4.9×107 bacteria in the body at 36 hours, and by 45 hours the model showed all clearance mechanisms were saturated, suggesting the rabbit would quickly succumb to the infection. As with the ODE model, the PBBK model results agreed well with laboratory observations. These data are discussed along with the need for and potential application of the models in risk assessment, drug development, and as a general aid to the experimentalist studying inhalational anthrax. PMID:24527843

2014-01-01

236

Protective antigen-specific memory B cells persist years after anthrax vaccination and correlate with humoral immunity.  

PubMed

Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) generates short-lived protective antigen (PA) specific IgG that correlates with in vitro toxin neutralization and protection from Bacillus anthracis challenge. Animal studies suggest that when PA-specific IgG has waned, survival after spore challenge correlates with an activation of PA-specific memory B cells. Here, we characterize the quantity and the longevity of AVA-induced memory B cell responses in humans. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals vaccinated ?3 times with AVA (n = 50) were collected early (3-6 months, n = 27) or late after their last vaccination (2-5 years, n = 23), pan-stimulated, and assayed by ELISPOT for total and PA-specific memory B cells differentiated into antibody secreting cells (ASCs). PA-specific ASC percentages ranged from 0.02% to 6.25% (median: 1.57%) and did not differ between early and late post-vaccination individuals. PA-specific ASC percentages correlated with plasma PA-specific IgG (r = 0.42, p = 0.03) and toxin neutralization (r = 0.52, p = 0.003) early post vaccination. PA-specific ASC percentages correlated with supernatant anti-PA both early (r = 0.60, p = 0.001) and late post vaccination (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001). These data suggest PA-specific memory B cell responses are long-lived and can be estimated after recent vaccination by the magnitude and neutralization capacity of the humoral response. PMID:25123559

Garman, Lori; Smith, Kenneth; Farris, A Darise; Nelson, Michael R; Engler, Renata J M; James, Judith A

2014-08-01

237

Selective inhibitor of endosomal trafficking pathways exploited by multiple toxins and viruses.  

PubMed

Pathogenic microorganisms and toxins have evolved a variety of mechanisms to gain access to the host-cell cytosol and thereby exert virulent effects upon the host. One common mechanism of cellular entry requires trafficking to an acidified endosome, which promotes translocation across the host membrane. To identify small-molecule inhibitors that block this process, a library of 30,000 small molecules was screened for inhibitors of anthrax lethal toxin. Here we report that 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)semicarbazone, the most active compound identified in the screen, inhibits intoxication by lethal toxin and blocks the entry of multiple other acid-dependent bacterial toxins and viruses into mammalian cells. This compound, which we named EGA, also delays lysosomal targeting and degradation of the EGF receptor, indicating that it targets host-membrane trafficking. In contrast, EGA does not block endosomal recycling of transferrin, retrograde trafficking of ricin, phagolysosomal trafficking, or phagosome permeabilization by Franciscella tularensis. Furthermore, EGA does not neutralize acidic organelles, demonstrating that its mechanism of action is distinct from pH-raising agents such as ammonium chloride and bafilomycin A1. EGA is a powerful tool for the study of membrane trafficking and represents a class of host-targeted compounds for therapeutic development to treat infectious disease. PMID:24191014

Gillespie, Eugene J; Ho, Chi-Lee C; Balaji, Kavitha; Clemens, Daniel L; Deng, Gang; Wang, Yao E; Elsaesser, Heidi J; Tamilselvam, Batcha; Gargi, Amandeep; Dixon, Shandee D; France, Bryan; Chamberlain, Brian T; Blanke, Steven R; Cheng, Genhong; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Brooks, David G; Jung, Michael E; Colicelli, John; Damoiseaux, Robert; Bradley, Kenneth A

2013-12-10

238

Selective inhibitor of endosomal trafficking pathways exploited by multiple toxins and viruses  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic microorganisms and toxins have evolved a variety of mechanisms to gain access to the host-cell cytosol and thereby exert virulent effects upon the host. One common mechanism of cellular entry requires trafficking to an acidified endosome, which promotes translocation across the host membrane. To identify small-molecule inhibitors that block this process, a library of 30,000 small molecules was screened for inhibitors of anthrax lethal toxin. Here we report that 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)semicarbazone, the most active compound identified in the screen, inhibits intoxication by lethal toxin and blocks the entry of multiple other acid-dependent bacterial toxins and viruses into mammalian cells. This compound, which we named EGA, also delays lysosomal targeting and degradation of the EGF receptor, indicating that it targets host-membrane trafficking. In contrast, EGA does not block endosomal recycling of transferrin, retrograde trafficking of ricin, phagolysosomal trafficking, or phagosome permeabilization by Franciscella tularensis. Furthermore, EGA does not neutralize acidic organelles, demonstrating that its mechanism of action is distinct from pH-raising agents such as ammonium chloride and bafilomycin A1. EGA is a powerful tool for the study of membrane trafficking and represents a class of host-targeted compounds for therapeutic development to treat infectious disease. PMID:24191014

Gillespie, Eugene J.; Ho, Chi-Lee C.; Balaji, Kavitha; Clemens, Daniel L.; Deng, Gang; Wang, Yao E.; Elsaesser, Heidi J.; Tamilselvam, Batcha; Gargi, Amandeep; Dixon, Shandee D.; France, Bryan; Chamberlain, Brian T.; Blanke, Steven R.; Cheng, Genhong; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Brooks, David G.; Jung, Michael E.; Colicelli, John; Damoiseaux, Robert; Bradley, Kenneth A.

2013-01-01

239

Antimicrobial Peptides as Infection Imaging Agents: Better Than Radiolabeled Antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Nuclear medicine imaging techniques offer whole body imaging for localization of number and site of infective foci inspite of limitation of spatial resolution. The innate human immune system contains a large member of important elements including antimicrobial peptides to combat any form of infection. However, development of antibiotics against bacteria progressed rapidly and gained popularity over antimicrobial peptides but even powerful antimicrobials failed to reduce morbidity and mortality due to emergence of mutant strains of bacteria resulting in antimicrobial resistance. Differentiation between infection and inflammation using radiolabeled compounds with nuclear medicine techniques has always been a dilemma which is still to be resolved. Starting from nonspecific tracers to specific radiolabeled tracers, the question is still unanswered. Specific radiolabeled tracers included antibiotics and antimicrobial peptides which bind directly to the bacteria for efficient localization with advanced nuclear medicine equipments. However, there are merits and demerits attributed to each. In the current paper, radiolabeled antibiotics and radiolabeled peptides for infection localization have been discussed starting with the background of primitive nonspecific tracers. Radiolabeled antimicrobial peptides have certain merits compared with labeled antibiotics which make them superior agents for localization of infective focus. PMID:22675369

Akhtar, Muammad Saeed; Imran, Muhammad Babar; Nadeem, Muhammad Afzal; Shahid, Abubaker

2012-01-01

240

Characterizing a “New” Disease: Epizootic and Epidemic Anthrax, 1769–1780  

PubMed Central

In 1876, Robert Koch established anthrax as the first disease linked to a microbial agent. But Koch’s efforts had followed more than 150 years of scientific progress in characterizing anthrax as a specific human and veterinary disease. Focusing on France and the period between 1769 and 1780, this brief review examines noteworthy early events in the characterization of anthrax. It suggests that some “new” diseases like anthrax might be “discovered” not only by luck, brilliance, or new technologies, but by clinical/epidemiological “puzzle-fitting,” which can assemble a cohesive picture of a seemingly specific disease entity. If such processes have operated over 2 or more centuries, studying them may yield clues about desirable interactions between epidemiology/public health and experimental science in the characterization of new diseases. PMID:12773345

Morens, David M.

2003-01-01

241

Lessons for Control of Heroin-Associated Anthrax in Europe from 2009–2010 Outbreak Case Studies, London, UK  

PubMed Central

Outbreaks of serious infections associated with heroin use in persons who inject drugs (PWIDs) occur intermittently and require vigilance and rapid reporting of individual cases. Here, we give a firsthand account of the cases in London during an outbreak of heroin-associated anthrax during 2009–2010 in the United Kingdom. This new manifestation of anthrax has resulted in a clinical manifestation distinct from already recognized forms. During 2012–13, additional cases of heroin-associated anthrax among PWIDs in England and other European countries were reported, suggesting that anthrax-contaminated heroin remains in circulation. Antibacterial drugs used for serious soft tissue infection are effective against anthrax, which may lead to substantial underrecognition of this novel illness. The outbreak in London provides a strong case for ongoing vigilance and the use of serologic testing in diagnosis and serologic surveillance schemes to determine and monitor the prevalence of anthrax exposure in the PWID community. PMID:24959910

Abbara, Aula; Brooks, Tim; Taylor, Graham P.; Nolan, Marianne; Donaldson, Hugo; Manikon, Maribel

2014-01-01

242

Anthrax control and research, with special reference to national programme development in Africa: memorandum from a WHO meeting.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of anthrax in both animal and human populations has been increasing in Africa. It was therefore appropriate for this WHO meeting to be convened in an endemic area of the Western Province of Zambia in 1992. The participants reviewed anthrax epidemiology and control in some African countries, elaborated national anthrax control and research programmes in Africa, discussed international cooperation and work plans, and elaborated recommendations for anthrax control in Africa. The discussions centred on anthrax surveillance and reporting systems, diagnosis, vaccine production and immunization, disinfection and decontamination, carcass disposal, treatment of human cases, health systems, as well as intersectorial cooperation between public health services, veterinary services and other services such as wildlife conservation, so that national control programmes could take full account of the conditions prevailing in epidemic situations in Africa. The recommendations are applicable in other regions where anthrax poses similar problems in public, animal and environmental health. PMID:8131249

1994-01-01

243

Anthrax-Protective Effects of Yeast Beta 1,3 Glucans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The recent events increasing the threat of bioterrorism have prompted a widespread search for defenses against this peril. Objective: To evaluate the anthrax-protective effect of beta1,3-glucan immune modulators (PGG-glucan and WGP beta glucan) in an experimental animal model. Design: Beta1,3-glucan immune modulators were administered by subcutaneous injection to Balb\\/c mice 2 days prior to anthrax challenge. WGP beta glucan

Bill Kournikakis; Rosemonde Mandeville; Pauline Brousseau; Gary Ostroff

244

Evaluation of the compatibility of a second generation recombinant anthrax vaccine with aluminum-containing adjuvants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant protective antigen (rPA) is the active pharmaceutical ingredient in a second generation anthrax vaccine undergoing pre-clinical evaluation. This rPA vaccine differs from the currently licensed vaccine, anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA), in that the sole component is a recombinant form of protective antigen (PA). Unlike AVA the rPA vaccine contains no lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF), components of

Scott Jendrek; Stephen F. Little; Stanley Hem; Gautam Mitra; Steven Giardina

2003-01-01

245

Marine and freshwater toxins.  

PubMed

In a very busy and exciting year, 2005 included First Action approval of a much needed official method for paralytic shellfish toxins and multiple international toxin symposia highlighted by groundbreaking research. These are the first-year milestones and activities of the Marine and Freshwater Toxins Task Force and Analytical Community. Inaugurated in 2004 and described in detail in last year's General Referee Report (1) this international toxins group has grown to 150 members from many regions and countries. Perhaps most important they are now making important and global contributions to food safety and to providing alternatives to animal-based assays. Official Method 2005.06 was first approved in late 2004 by the Task Force and subsequently Official First Action in 2005 (2) by the Methods Committee on Natural Toxins and Food Allergens and the Official Methods Board. This nonproprietary method (3) is a precolumn oxidation, liquid chromatographic method that makes good use of fluorescence detection to provide high sensitivity detection of the saxitoxins. It has also proven to be rugged enough for regulatory use and the highest level of validation. As pointed out in the report of method principle investigator and Study Director James Lawrence, approval of 2005.06 now provides the first official alternative to the mouse bioassay after many decades of shellfish monitoring. This past year in April 2005 the group also held their first international conference, "Marine and Freshwater Toxins Analysis: Ist Joint Symposium and AOAC Task Force Meeting," in Baiona, Spain. The 4-day conference consisted of research and stakeholder presentations and symposium-integrated subgroup sessions on ciguatoxins, saxitoxin assays and liquid chromatography (LC) methods for saxitoxins and domoic acids, okadaiates and azaspiracids, and yessotoxins. Many of these subgroups were recently formed in 2005 and are working towards their goals of producing officially validated analytical methods. (Abstracts from the Baiona 2005 meeting cited in this report can be found in the online version of the conference abstract book in the Files and Folders section of the Marine and Freshwater Toxins online community at www.aoac.org.) An active topic for discussion in Baiona and subsequent Task Force activities was the expert consultation for Codex which met in Oslo, Norway in 2004 (previously described and cited in last year's GR report, ref 1). The consultation group's executive summary report (http://www.fao.org/es/ESN/food/risk_biotoxin en.stm) describes suggested changes in action levels as well as methods, method validation, and other issues. September 2005 saw the AOAC Task Force efforts further supported by another symposium, "Marine and Freshwater Toxins: Quality Methods for Food Safety and International Trade," at the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Annual Conference in Orlando, Florida. The multidisciplinary talks at this full day symposium ranged from ciguatoxins to cyanobacterial toxins, and spanned toxicology, biochemistry, molecular biology and analytical chemistry. Again, the symposium preceded Task Force meetings. Toxin subgroups, including a new group on cyanobacterial toxins, met for engaging and productive subgroup discussions. All of these activities were preceded by a Wiley Award symposium for Task Force member Mike Quilliam of NRC Canada. These talks, presented at a half-day symposium on the first day of the Annual Meeting, focused on Quilliam's work with LC tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and certified reference standards and materials, and included related presentations by some of his many research collaborators. To maintain flow and continuity between symposia and between Task Force meetings, the group now uses new electronic discussion forums. Individual subgroup areas, under the Marine and Freshwater Toxins Task Force, comprise this online community. First introduced by AOAC INTERNATIONAL in early 2005, these new resources are being used to distribute information and to supplement the in-person subgroup meetings and electroni

Hungerford, James M

2006-01-01

246

Marine Toxins: An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceans provide enormous and diverse space for marine life. Invertebrates are conspicuous inhabitants in certain zones such as the intertidal; many are soft-bodied, relatively immobile and lack obvious physical defenses. These animals frequently have evolved chemical defenses against predators and overgrowth by fouling organisms. Marine animals may accumulate and use a variety of toxins from prey organisms and from symbiotic microorganisms for their own purposes. Thus, toxic animals are particularly abundant in the oceans. The toxins vary from small molecules to high molecular weight proteins and display unique chemical and biological features of scientific interest. Many of these substances can serve as useful research tools or molecular models for the design of new drugs and pesticides. This chapter provides an initial survey of these toxins and their salient properties.

Fusetani, Nobuhiro

247

Ciguatera Toxin Information Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the marine toxin disease Ciguatera, which is caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated ciguatoxin in their tissues. The toxin is produced by a microscopic dinoflagellate (Gambierdiscus toxicus) that lives on the surfaces of macroalgae in coral reef ecosystems. The dinoflagellates are inadvertently consumed by herbivorous fish during grazing and the toxins bioaccumulate in the food chain, attaining highest levels in carnivores. The site includes an introduction to ciguatera, information about the symptoms with links to reported cases and medical treatments, non-medical solutions, an education section, list of retailers, news releases, related links, and more. The site is published by ToxiTech, suppliers of Cigua-CheckÂ, which is a commercially available test kit for screening fish for ciguatoxin prior to consumption.

ToxiTech

248

Animal models of human anthrax: the Quest for the Holy Grail.  

PubMed

Anthrax is rare among humans, few data can be collected from infected individuals and they provide a fragmentary view of the dynamics of infection and human host-pathogen interactions. Therefore, the development of animal models is necessary. Anthrax has the particularity of being a toxi-infection, a combination of infection and toxemia. The ideal animal model would explore these two different facets and mimic human disease as much as possible. In the past decades, the main effort has been focused on modelling of inhalational anthrax and the perception of specific aspects of the infection has evolved in recent years. In this review, we consider criteria which can lead to the most appropriate choice of a given animal species for modelling human anthrax. We will highlight the positive input and limitations of different models and show that they are not mutually exclusive. On the contrary, their contribution to anthrax research can be more rewarding when taken in synergy. We will also present a reappraisal of inhalational anthrax and propose reflections on key points, such as portal of entry, connections between mediastinal lymph nodes, pleura and lymphatic drainage. PMID:19665473

Goossens, Pierre L

2009-12-01

249

Toxin Plasmids of Clostridium perfringens  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In both humans and animals, Clostridium perfringens is an important cause of histotoxic infections and diseases originating in the intestines, such as enteritis and enterotoxemia. The virulence of this Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium is heavily dependent upon its prolific toxin-producing ability. Many of the ?16 toxins produced by C. perfringens are encoded by large plasmids that range in size from ?45 kb to ?140 kb. These plasmid-encoded toxins are often closely associated with mobile elements. A C. perfringens strain can carry up to three different toxin plasmids, with a single plasmid carrying up to three distinct toxin genes. Molecular Koch's postulate analyses have established the importance of several plasmid-encoded toxins when C. perfringens disease strains cause enteritis or enterotoxemias. Many toxin plasmids are closely related, suggesting a common evolutionary origin. In particular, most toxin plasmids and some antibiotic resistance plasmids of C. perfringens share an ?35-kb region containing a Tn916-related conjugation locus named tcp (transfer of clostridial plasmids). This tcp locus can mediate highly efficient conjugative transfer of these toxin or resistance plasmids. For example, conjugative transfer of a toxin plasmid from an infecting strain to C. perfringens normal intestinal flora strains may help to amplify and prolong an infection. Therefore, the presence of toxin genes on conjugative plasmids, particularly in association with insertion sequences that may mobilize these toxin genes, likely provides C. perfringens with considerable virulence plasticity and adaptability when it causes diseases originating in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23699255

Li, Jihong; Adams, Vicki; Bannam, Trudi L.; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Garcia, Jorge P.; Uzal, Francisco A.; Rood, Julian I.

2013-01-01

250

The HC fragment of tetanus toxin forms stable, concentration-dependent dimers via an intermolecular disulphide bond.  

PubMed

Protein oligomerisation is a prerequisite for the toxicity of a number of bacterial toxins. Examples include the pore-forming cytotoxin streptolysin O, which oligomerises to form large pores in the membrane and the protective antigen of anthrax toxin, where a heptameric complex is essential for the delivery of lethal factor and edema factor to the cell cytosol. Binding of the clostridial neurotoxins to receptors on neuronal cells is well characterised, but little is known regarding the quaternary structure of these toxins and the role of oligomerisation in the intoxication process. We have investigated the oligomerisation of the receptor binding domain (H(C)) of tetanus toxin, which retains the binding and trafficking properties of the full-length toxin. Electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to demonstrate that H(C) undergoes concentration-dependent oligomerisation in solution. Reducing agents were found to affect H(C) oligomerisation and, using mutagenesis, Cys869 was shown to be essential for this process. Furthermore, the oligomeric state and quaternary structure of H(C) in solution was assessed using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering. Ab initio shape analysis and rigid body modelling coupled with mutagenesis data allowed the construction of an unequivocal model of dimeric H(C) in solution. We propose a possible mechanism for H(C) oligomerisation and discuss how this may relate to toxicity. PMID:17056064

Qazi, Omar; Bolgiano, Barbara; Crane, Dennis; Svergun, Dmitri I; Konarev, Petr V; Yao, Zhong-Ping; Robinson, Carol V; Brown, Katherine A; Fairweather, Neil

2007-01-01

251

In silico design of smart binders to anthrax PA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of smart peptide binders requires an understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of recognition which has remained an elusive grail of the research community for decades. Recent advances in automated discovery and synthetic library science provide a wealth of information to probe fundamental details of binding and facilitate the development of improved models for a priori prediction of affinity and specificity. Here we present the modeling portion of an iterative experimental/computational study to produce high affinity peptide binders to the Protective Antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis. The result is a general usage, HPC-oriented, python-based toolkit based upon powerful third-party freeware, which is designed to provide a better understanding of peptide-protein interactions and ultimately predict and measure new smart peptide binder candidates. We present an improved simulation protocol with flexible peptide docking to the Anthrax Protective Antigen, reported within the context of experimental data presented in a companion work.

Sellers, Michael; Hurley, Margaret M.

2012-06-01

252

Identifying bacterial spores and anthrax hoax materials by Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distribution of Bacillus anthracis spores through the US postal system in the autumn of 2001, initiated a secondary form of terror, the mailing of hoax materials. In the past three years nearly 20,000 letters containing harmless powders have been mailed, creating additional anxiety. Thus, there is a need for analyzers that can not only identify anthrax-causing spores to save lives, but also identify hoax materials to eliminate time-consuming and costly shutdowns. Recently, we established that Raman spectroscopy has the ability to identify both Bacilli endospores and hoax materials. Here we present Raman spectra of several Bacilli spores along with the dipicolinate salts, to further define the abilities of this technology to not only identify hoax materials, but also identify spores at the genus and species level.

Farquharson, Stuart; Brouillette, Carl R.; Smith, Wayne

2004-12-01

253

Monitoring Method of Cow Anthrax Based on Gis and Spatial Statistical Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic information system (GIS) is a computer application system, which possesses the ability of manipulating spatial information and has been used in many fields related with the spatial information management. Many methods and models have been established for analyzing animal diseases distribution models and temporal-spatial transmission models. Great benefits have been gained from the application of GIS in animal disease epidemiology. GIS is now a very important tool in animal disease epidemiological research. Spatial analysis function of GIS can be widened and strengthened by using spatial statistical analysis, allowing for the deeper exploration, analysis, manipulation and interpretation of spatial pattern and spatial correlation of the animal disease. In this paper, we analyzed the cow anthrax spatial distribution characteristics in the target district A (due to the secret of epidemic data we call it district A) based on the established GIS of the cow anthrax in this district in combination of spatial statistical analysis and GIS. The Cow anthrax is biogeochemical disease, and its geographical distribution is related closely to the environmental factors of habitats and has some spatial characteristics, and therefore the correct analysis of the spatial distribution of anthrax cow for monitoring and the prevention and control of anthrax has a very important role. However, the application of classic statistical methods in some areas is very difficult because of the pastoral nomadic context. The high mobility of livestock and the lack of enough suitable sampling for the some of the difficulties in monitoring currently make it nearly impossible to apply rigorous random sampling methods. It is thus necessary to develop an alternative sampling method, which could overcome the lack of sampling and meet the requirements for randomness. The GIS computer application software ArcGIS9.1 was used to overcome the lack of data of sampling sites.Using ArcGIS 9.1 and GEODA to analyze the cow anthrax spatial distribution of district A. we gained some conclusions about cow anthrax' density: (1) there is a spatial clustering model. (2) there is an intensely spatial autocorrelation. We established a prediction model to estimate the anthrax distribution based on the spatial characteristic of the density of cow anthrax. Comparing with the true distribution, the prediction model has a well coincidence and is feasible to the application. The method using a GIS tool facilitates can be implemented significantly in the cow anthrax monitoring and investigation, and the space statistics - related prediction model provides a fundamental use for other study on space-related animal diseases.

Li, Lin; Yang, Yong; Wang, Hongbin; Dong, Jing; Zhao, Yujun; He, Jianbin; Fan, Honggang

254

CYANOBACTERIA AND THEIR TOXINS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Science Questions Harmful algal blooms (HAB) of cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, have recently become more spatially and temporally prevalent in the US and worldwide. Cyanobacteria and their highly potent toxins are a significant hazard for human health and ...

255

CYANOBACTERIA AND THEIR TOXINS  

EPA Science Inventory

Science Questions Harmful algal blooms (HAB) of cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, have recently become more spatially and temporally prevalent in the US and worldwide. Cyanobacteria and their highly potent toxins are a significant hazard for human health and ...

256

Synthesis and radiolabeling of a somatostatin analog for multimodal imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new multimodal imaging agent for imaging the somatostatin receptor has been synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. A somatostatin analog, conjugated to both 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraaceticacid (DOTA) and cypate (BS-296), was synthesized entirely on the solid phase (Fmoc) and purified by RP-HPLC. DOTA was added as a ligand for radiometals such as 64Cu or 177Lu for either radio-imaging or radiotherapy respectively. Cytate, a cypatesomatostatin analog conjugate, has previously demonstrated the ability to visualize somatostatin receptor rich tumor xenografts and natural organs by optical imaging techniques. BS-296 exhibited low nanomolar inhibitory capacity toward the binding of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs in cell membranes enriched in the somatostatin receptor, demonstrating the high affinity of this multimodal imaging peptide and indicating its potential as a molecular imaging agent. 64Cu, an isotope for diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy, was selected as the isotope for radiolabeling BS-296. BS-296 was radiolabeled with 64Cu in high specific activity (200 ?Ci/?g) in 90% radiochemical yield. Addition of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid) prevented radiolysis of the sample, allowing for study of the 64Cu -BS-296 the day following radiolabeling. Furthermore, inclusion of DMSO at a level of 20% was found not to interfere with radiolabeling yields and prevented the adherence of 64Cu -BS-296 to the walls of the reaction vessel.

Edwards, W. Barry; Liang, Kexian; Xu, Baogang; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Achilefu, Samuel

2006-02-01

257

Autoproteolytic Activation of Bacterial Toxins  

PubMed Central

Protease domains within toxins typically act as the primary effector domain within target cells. By contrast, the primary function of the cysteine protease domain (CPD) in Multifunctional Autoprocessing RTX-like (MARTX) and Clostridium sp. glucosylating toxin families is to proteolytically cleave the toxin and release its cognate effector domains. The CPD becomes activated upon binding to the eukaryotic-specific small molecule, inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6), which is found abundantly in the eukaryotic cytosol. This property allows the CPD to spatially and temporally regulate toxin activation, making it a prime candidate for developing anti-toxin therapeutics. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to defining the regulation of toxin function by the CPD and the development of inhibitors to prevent CPD-mediated activation of bacterial toxins. PMID:22069620

Shen, Aimee

2010-01-01

258

A One Health, participatory epidemiology assessment of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) management in Western Uganda.  

PubMed

Sporadic anthrax outbreaks have occurred in and around Uganda's Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP) for years, affecting wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Reported outbreaks (2004-2005 and 2010) in QENP collectively killed over 500 wild animals and over 400 domestic animals. A 2011 outbreak in Sheema district temporarily froze local markets while killing two humans and seven bovines. One Health is multidisciplinary at its core, yet studies sometimes focus on the effects of animals on human health to the detriment of investigating the surrounding ecological and cultural contexts. Participatory methods connect problems - such as disease - to their context. A multidisciplinary team used participatory epidemiology and conventional structured questionnaires to investigate the impacts of anthrax on human livelihoods and the related perceptions of conservation, public health, and veterinary health efforts in the QENP area. Proximities to previous anthrax outbreaks and to QENP were treated as risk factors in the collection and evaluation of data. Participants' feedback indicates that anthrax prevalence may be greater than officially reported. Community member perceptions about anthrax and other diseases appear to be more closely related to their proximity to QENP than their proximity to anthrax outbreaks. Neither risk factor had a strong effect on knowledge of disease, nor any effect on behaviors associated with disease response or control. Instead, participants reported that social pressures, the economics of poverty, and the lack of health and veterinary infrastructure highly influenced responses to disease. The complex connections between the social needs and the economic context of these communities seem to be undermining current anthrax control and education measures. This livelihood-based decision-making may be unlikely to respond to educational intervention alone. This study provides a strong base for further research and for improvements in effective disease control. PMID:25066946

Coffin, Jeanne L; Monje, Fred; Asiimwe-Karimu, Grace; Amuguni, Hellen Janetrix; Odoch, Terence

2014-07-17

259

Monte Carlo N-particle simulation of neutron-based sterilisation of anthrax contamination  

PubMed Central

Objective To simulate the neutron-based sterilisation of anthrax contamination by Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) 4C code. Methods Neutrons are elementary particles that have no charge. They are 20 times more effective than electrons or ?-rays in killing anthrax spores on surfaces and inside closed containers. Neutrons emitted from a 252Cf neutron source are in the 100 keV to 2 MeV energy range. A 2.5 MeV D–D neutron generator can create neutrons at up to 1013 n s?1 with current technology. All these enable an effective and low-cost method of killing anthrax spores. Results There is no effect on neutron energy deposition on the anthrax sample when using a reflector that is thicker than its saturation thickness. Among all three reflecting materials tested in the MCNP simulation, paraffin is the best because it has the thinnest saturation thickness and is easy to machine. The MCNP radiation dose and fluence simulation calculation also showed that the MCNP-simulated neutron fluence that is needed to kill the anthrax spores agrees with previous analytical estimations very well. Conclusion The MCNP simulation indicates that a 10 min neutron irradiation from a 0.5 g 252Cf neutron source or a 1 min neutron irradiation from a 2.5 MeV D–D neutron generator may kill all anthrax spores in a sample. This is a promising result because a 2.5 MeV D–D neutron generator output >1013 n s?1 should be attainable in the near future. This indicates that we could use a D–D neutron generator to sterilise anthrax contamination within several seconds. PMID:22573293

Liu, B; Xu, J; Liu, T; Ouyang, X

2012-01-01

260

Leucine auxotrophy specifically alters the pattern of trichothecene production in a T-2 toxin-producing strain of Fusarium sporotrichioides.  

PubMed Central

The biosynthetic pathway for trichothecenes in the filamentous fungus Fusarium sporotrichioides NRRL 3299 has been further characterized. Experiments using the techniques of mutational analysis and the incorporation of radiolabeled precursors indicated that leucine is a direct precursor to the isovalerate moiety present in the trichothecene, T-2 toxin. Analysis of trichothecene production in a UV-induced leucine auxotroph also revealed the existence of a branched biosynthetic pathway which results in the coproduction of T-2 toxin and the T-2 toxin analogs neosolaniol, 8-isobutyryl-neosolaniol, and 8-propionyl-neosolaniol. Leucine limitation imposed by the leucine auxotroph simultaneously led to underproduction of T-2 toxin and overproduction of these T-2 toxin analogs, which are produced in small amounts by the wild-type parent. Furthermore, it was shown that the ratio of T-2 toxin to T-2 toxin analogs produced by the leucine auxotroph can be modulated by the concentration of leucine in the medium. These results suggest that the four trichothecenes mentioned above are derived from a common intermediate and that there is competition for this intermediate among the branched pathways leading to these four cometabolites. PMID:3214156

Beremand, M N; Van Middlesworth, F; Taylor, S; Plattner, R D; Weisleder, D

1988-01-01

261

Leucine auxotrophy specifically alters the pattern of trichothecene production in a T-2 toxin-producing strain of Fusarium sporotrichioides.  

PubMed

The biosynthetic pathway for trichothecenes in the filamentous fungus Fusarium sporotrichioides NRRL 3299 has been further characterized. Experiments using the techniques of mutational analysis and the incorporation of radiolabeled precursors indicated that leucine is a direct precursor to the isovalerate moiety present in the trichothecene, T-2 toxin. Analysis of trichothecene production in a UV-induced leucine auxotroph also revealed the existence of a branched biosynthetic pathway which results in the coproduction of T-2 toxin and the T-2 toxin analogs neosolaniol, 8-isobutyryl-neosolaniol, and 8-propionyl-neosolaniol. Leucine limitation imposed by the leucine auxotroph simultaneously led to underproduction of T-2 toxin and overproduction of these T-2 toxin analogs, which are produced in small amounts by the wild-type parent. Furthermore, it was shown that the ratio of T-2 toxin to T-2 toxin analogs produced by the leucine auxotroph can be modulated by the concentration of leucine in the medium. These results suggest that the four trichothecenes mentioned above are derived from a common intermediate and that there is competition for this intermediate among the branched pathways leading to these four cometabolites. PMID:3214156

Beremand, M N; Van Middlesworth, F; Taylor, S; Plattner, R D; Weisleder, D

1988-11-01

262

Emerging role of radiolabeled nanoparticles as an effective diagnostic technique  

PubMed Central

Nanomedicine is emerging as a promising approach for diagnostic applications. Nanoparticles are structures in the nanometer size range, which can present different shapes, compositions, charges, surface modifications, in vitro and in vivo stabilities, and in vivo performances. Nanoparticles can be made of materials of diverse chemical nature, the most common being metals, metal oxides, silicates, polymers, carbon, lipids, and biomolecules. Nanoparticles exist in various morphologies, such as spheres, cylinders, platelets, and tubes. Radiolabeled nanoparticles represent a new class of agent with great potential for clinical applications. This is partly due to their long blood circulation time and plasma stability. In addition, because of the high sensitivity of imaging with radiolabeled compounds, their use has promise of achieving accurate and early diagnosis. This review article focuses on the application of radiolabeled nanoparticles in detecting diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases and also presents an overview about the formulation, stability, and biological properties of the nanoparticles used for diagnostic purposes. PMID:22809406

2012-01-01

263

Rapid generation of an anthrax immunotherapeutic from goats using a novel non-toxic muramyl dipeptide adjuvant  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is a clear need for vaccines and therapeutics for potential biological weapons of mass destruction and emerging diseases. Anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, has been used as both a biological warfare agent and bioterrorist weapon previously. Although antibiotic therapy is effective in the early stages of anthrax infection, it does not have any effect once exposed

Cassandra D Kelly; Chris O'Loughlin; Frank B Gelder; Johnny W Peterson; Laurie E Sower; Nick M Cirino

2007-01-01

264

Lethal Factor and Anti-Protective Antigen IgG Levels Associated with Inhalation Anthrax, Minnesota, USA  

PubMed Central

Bacillus anthracis was identified in a 61-year-old man hospitalized in Minnesota, USA. Cooperation between the hospital and the state health agency enhanced prompt identification of the pathogen. Treatment comprising antimicrobial drugs, anthrax immune globulin, and pleural drainage led to full recovery; however, the role of passive immunization in anthrax treatment requires further evaluation. PMID:24447456

Griffith, Jayne; Marinelli, William; Boyer, Anne E.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Pesik, Nicki T.; Hoffmaster, Alex; Keenan, Joseph; Juni, Billie A.; Blaney, David D.

2014-01-01

265

Toxins and drug discovery.  

PubMed

Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process. PMID:25448391

Harvey, Alan L

2014-12-15

266

Marine neurotoxins: Ingestible toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Fish and shellfish account for a significant portion of food-borne illnesses throughout the world. In general, three classes\\u000a of diseases result from seafood consumption—intoxication, allergies, and infections. In this review, the authors discuss several\\u000a seafood-borne toxins, including domoic acid, which acts on the central nervous system. In addition, the authors discuss ciguatoxin-,\\u000a brevetoxin-, saxitoxin-, tetrodotoxin-, and scombroid-related histamine toxicity,

Elijah W. Stommel; Michael R. Watters

2004-01-01

267

Children and environmental toxins.  

PubMed

Environmental toxins have been shown to produce harmful effects in children, who may be exposed in the home, in public spaces, and by passive contact with adults. This review discusses common toxic substances, including lead, radon, tobacco smoke, asbestos, pesticides, mercury, carbon monoxide, and electric/magnetic fields. The focus is on identification, environmental abatement, and parent education. Practical suggestions for the primary care clinician in a community setting are emphasized. PMID:7777638

Little, D N

1995-03-01

268

In vitro binding of anthrax protective antigen on bacteriophage T4 capsid surface through Hoc-capsid interactions: A strategy for efficient display of large full-length proteins  

SciTech Connect

An in vitro binding system is described to display large full-length proteins on bacteriophage T4 capsid surface at high density. The phage T4 icosahedral capsid features 155 copies of a nonessential highly antigenic outer capsid protein, Hoc, at the center of each major capsid protein hexon. Gene fusions were engineered to express the 83-kDa protective antigen (PA) from Bacillus anthracis fused to the N-terminus of Hoc and the 130-kDa PA-Hoc protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The purified PA-Hoc was assembled in vitro on hoc {sup -} phage particles. Binding was specific, stable, and of high affinity. This defined in vitro system allowed manipulation of the copy number of displayed PA and imposed no significant limitation on the size of the displayed antigen. In contrast to in vivo display systems, the in vitro approach allows all the capsid binding sites to be occupied by the 130-kDa PA-Hoc fusion protein. The PA-T4 particles were immunogenic in mice in the absence of an adjuvant, eliciting strong PA-specific antibodies and anthrax lethal toxin neutralizing antibodies. The in vitro display on phage T4 offers a novel platform for potential construction of customized vaccines against anthrax and other infectious diseases.

Shivachandra, Sathish B. [Department of Biology, 103 McCort Ward Hall, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Ave., NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Rao, Mangala [Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Janosi, Laszlo [Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Sathaliyawala, Taheri [Department of Biology, 103 McCort Ward Hall, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Ave., NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Matyas, Gary R. [Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Alving, Carl R. [Division of Retrovirology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910 (United States); Leppla, Stephen H. [Bacterial Toxins and Therapeutics Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, 30 Convent Dr., Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Rao, Venigalla B. [Department of Biology, 103 McCort Ward Hall, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Ave., NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States)]. E-mail: rao@cua.edu

2006-02-05

269

Radiolabeling of Cramoll 1,4: Evaluation of the Biodistribution  

PubMed Central

The cramoll 1,4 is a well-studied lectin. However, few studies about its biodistribution have been done before. In this study, we radiolabeled the cramol 1,4 with Tc-99m and analyzed the biodistribution. The results showed that the cramol has an abnormal uptake by the bowel with reflections on its clearance mechanism. PMID:21760823

Ferreira de Carvalho Patricio, Beatriz; Lima-Ribeiro, Maria Helena Madruga; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza; dos Anjos Carneiro-Leão, Ana Maria; de Souza Albernaz, Marta; Barboza, Thiago; de Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph

2011-01-01

270

Radiation safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies. [Contains glossary  

SciTech Connect

Techniques related to the use of radiolabeled antibodies in humans are reviewed and evaluated in this report. It is intended as an informational resource for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and NRC licensees. Descriptions of techniques and health and safety issues are provided. Principal methods for labeling antibodies are summarized to help identify related radiation safety problems in the preparation of dosages for administration to patients. The descriptions are derived from an extensive literature review and consultations with experts in the field. A glossary of terms and acronyms is also included. An assessment was made of the extent of the involvement of organizations (other than the NRC) with safety issues related to radiolabeled antibodies, in order to identify regulatory issues which require attention. Federal regulations and guides were also reviewed for their relevance. A few (but significant) differences between the use of common radiopharmaceuticals and radiolabeled antibodies were observed. The clearance rate of whole, radiolabeled immunoglobulin is somewhat slower than common radiopharmaceuticals, and new methods of administration are being used. New nuclides are being used or considered (e.g., Re-186 and At-211) for labeling antibodies. Some of these nuclides present new dosimetry, instrument calibration, and patient management problems. Subjects related to radiation safety that require additional research are identified. 149 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.

Barber, D.E.; Baum, J.W.; Meinhold, C. B. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

1991-03-01

271

Chemical and radiochemical considerations in radiolabeling with ?-emitting radionuclides.  

PubMed

A review of chemical and radiochemical factors that must be considered when radiolabeling targeting agents with radionuclides is presented. The review discusses factors that are important in choice of radionuclide and choice of chelation or bonding reagents to use in the development of an ?-emitting radiopharmaceutical. Chemical parameters, such as physical properties and pendant groups for radiolabeling, are reviewed. A major portion of the review outlines the development of chelates and labeling conditions for radiometals, and application of these reagents/conditions to radiometals. Acyclic and macrocyclic chelates containing amine and carboxylic acid coordination groups are highlighted, with examples of bifunctional chelates for biomolecule conjugation. Information is presented on over 60 radiometal-binding chelates. 211At radiolabeling is separated from that of radiometals, and the various reagents used for radiolabeling have been reviewed. Although not all 211At-labeling reagents are reviewed (due to another recent review), nearly 50 reagents studied in the development of pendant groups for labeling with 211At are described. The review also discusses how therapeutic doses of ?-emitting radiopharmaceuticals can be affected by the radionuclide used and how radiation damage to the radiopharmaceutical can be minimized. PMID:22201710

Wilbur, D Scott

2011-07-01

272

Pathogenic ecology: Where have all the pathogens gone? Anthrax: a classic case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pathogenic ecology is the natural relationship to animate and inanimate components of the environment that support the sustainment of a pathogen in the environment or prohibit its sustainment, or their interactions with an introduced pathogen that allow for the establishment of disease in a new environment. The anthrax bacterium in the spore form has been recognized as a highly likely biological warfare or terrorist agent. The purpose of this work was to determine the environmental reservoir of Bacillus anthracis between outbreaks of anthrax and to examine the potential factors influencing the conversion of the Bacillus anthracis from a quiescent state to the disease causing state. Here we provide environmental and laboratory data for the cycling of Bacillus anthracis in plants to reconcile observations that contradict the soil borne hypothesis of anthrax maintenance in the environment.

Kiel, Johnathan; Walker, Wes W.; Andrews, Carrie J.; De Los Santos, Amy; Adams, Roy N.; Bucholz, Matthew W.; McBurnett, Shelly D.; Fuentes, Vladimir; Rizner, Karon E.; Blount, Keith W.

2009-05-01

273

Risk of disability for US army personnel vaccinated against anthrax, 1998-2005.  

PubMed

To evaluate the potential for long-term or delayed onset health effects, we extended a previous cohort study of disability separation from the army associated with vaccination against anthrax. Analyses included stratified Cox proportional hazards and multiple logistic regression models. Forty-one percent of 1,001,546 soldiers received at least one anthrax vaccination; 5.21% were evaluated for disability. No consistent patterns or statistically significant differences in risk of disability evaluation, disability determination, or reason for disability were associated with anthrax vaccination. There was a dose-related trend in risk of disability for soldiers with 2 years' service, limited to those entering service in 2000 or later. Divergent patterns in risk suggest confounding by temporal or occupational risks of disability. PMID:21704102

Sulsky, Sandra I; Luippold, Rose S; Garman, Patrick; Hughes, Hayley; Amoroso, Paul J

2011-08-11

274

Adherence to antimicrobial inhalational anthrax prophylaxis among postal workers, Washington, D.C., 2001.  

PubMed

In October 2001, two envelopes containing Bacillus anthracis spores were processed at the Washington, D.C., Processing and Distribution Center of the U.S. Postal Service; inhalational anthrax developed in four workers at this facility. More than 2,000 workers were advised to complete 60 days of postexposure prophylaxis to prevent inhalational anthrax. Interventions to promote adherence were carried out to support workers, and qualitative information was collected to evaluate our interventions. A quantitative survey was administered to a convenience sample of workers to assess factors influencing adherence. No anthrax infections developed in any workers involved in the interventions or interviews. Of 245 workers, 98 (40%) reported full adherence to prophylaxis, and 45 (18%) had completely discontinued it. Anxiety and experiencing adverse effects to prophylaxis, as well as being <45 years old were risk factors for discontinuing prophylaxis. Interventions, especially frequent visits by public health staff, proved effective in supporting adherence. PMID:12396929

Jefferds, Mariaelena D; Laserson, Kayla; Fry, Alicia M; Roy, Sharon; Hayslett, James; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Kettel-Khan, Laura; Schuchat, Anne

2002-10-01

275

Anthrax and the geochemistry of soils in the contiguous United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soil geochemical data from sample sites in counties that reported occurrences of anthrax in wildlife and livestock since 2000 were evaluated against counties within the same states (MN, MT, ND, NV, OR, SD and TX) that did not report occurrences. These data identified the elements, calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P) and strontium (Sr), as having statistically significant differences in concentrations between county type (anthrax occurrence versus no occurrence). Tentative threshold values of the lowest concentrations of each of these elements (Ca = 0.43 wt %, Mn = 142 mg/kg, P = 180 mg/kg and Sr = 51 mg/kg) and average concentrations (Ca = 1.3 wt %, Mn = 463 mg/kg, P = 580 mg/kg and Sr = 170 mg/kg) were identified from anthrax-positive counties as prospective investigative tools in determining whether an outbreak had “potential” or was “likely” at any given geographic location in the contiguous United States.

Griffin, Dale W.; Silvestri, Erin E.; Bowling, Charlena Y.; Boe, Timothy; Smith, David B.; Nichols, Tonya L.

2014-01-01

276

Naturally acquired anthrax antibodies in a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in Botswana.  

PubMed

An outbreak of anthrax in the Jwana Game Reserve in Jwaneng, Botswana, was first observed when three cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) died of the disease in November 2004. In the aftermath of this event, banked serum samples collected from 23 wild-caught cheetahs were examined, by the inhibition enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), for antibodies to the protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis. Of the 23 cheetahs, 16 regularly accessed the reserve. Antibodies to PA were detected in one cheetah collected in May 2004, indicating the disease was occurring well before it was first noticed. This appears to be the first demonstration of naturally acquired anthrax antibodies in cheetahs. The finding of one antibody-positive animal amongst at least 16 potentially exposed individuals is consistent with existing reports that it is uncommon for cheetahs to develop natural immunity to anthrax. PMID:18689661

Good, Kyle M; Houser, Annmarie; Arntzen, Lorraine; Turnbull, Peter C B

2008-07-01

277

Whole Proteome Analysis of Mouse Lymph Nodes in Cutaneous Anthrax  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to characterize a soluble proteome of popliteal lymph nodes during lymphadenitis induced by intradermal injection of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores in mice using tandem LC-MS/MS and reverse-phase protein microarray with antibodies specific to epitopes of phosphorylated proteins. More than 380 proteins were detected in the normal intra-nodal lymph, while the infectious process resulted in the profound changes in the protein abundances and appearance of 297 unique proteins. These proteins belong to an array of processes reflecting response to wounding, inflammation and perturbations of hemostasis, innate immune response, coagulation and fibrinolysis, regulation of body fluid levels and vascular disturbance among others. Comparison of lymph and serum revealed 83 common proteins. Also, using 71 antibodies specific to total and phosphorylated forms of proteins we carried initial characterization of circulating lymph phosphoproteome which brought additional information regarding signaling pathways operating in the lymphatics. The results demonstrate that the proteome of intra-nodal lymph serves as a sensitive sentinel of the processes occurring within the lymph nodes during infection. The acute innate response of the lymph nodes to anthrax is accompanied by cellular damage and inflammation with a large number of up- and down-regulated proteins many of which are distinct from those detected in serum. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001342. PMID:25329596

Zhou, Weidong; Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance; Popov, Serguei G.

2014-01-01

278

[An anthrax epidemic in Switzerland. Clinical, diagnostic and epidemiological aspects of a mostly forgotten disease].  

PubMed

On average in Switzerland there is only one case of human anthrax every two years, and this is almost exclusively caused through contact with sick animals in agriculture. However, within less than 3 years, 25 workers in one textile factory have contracted this anthropo-zoonosis. 24 cases had cutaneous and one inhalation anthrax. The infection was imported in goat's hair from Pakistan. This almost unique industrial epidemic was due to various circumstances. In particular, the rarity of the illness contributed to a general lack of experience and therefore hindered recognition of the clinical symptoms. In addition, repeated attempts failed to identify the pathogenic agent conclusively. In most cases, the diagnosis was only confirmed retrospectively using the Russian allergen "Anthraxin"--an intracutaneous test unknown up to that time in human medicine in the West--and later also by EIA. All the patients recovered. The clinical picture, diagnosis and epidemiology of cutaneous anthrax are described in detail. The typical features are, in the beginning, a pruritic insect-bite-like pimple, then a painless ulcer surrounded by serous-hemorrhagic, often rapidly confluent vesicles and non-pitting edema. On the ground of the ulcer a black necrosis develops which is never colliquative but is transformed into the typical pitch-black firmly adherent eschar. Lymphadenitis and lymphangitis are concomitant manifestations. The bacteriological findings and occupational history are decisive for the diagnosis. Anthrax spores can survive many decades. The vegetative organisms are highly susceptible to almost all antibiotics. The latter prevent the invasion of the anthrax bacilli and the toxinemia if administered in time, but they do not influence the development of the local lesions. For the detection of anthrax bacillus, sterile swabs should be soaked in the fluid of the vesicles. It must be done before beginning of any antibiotic treatment. For the examination of animal products, preparatory procedures are necessary to destroy contaminants that may be antagonistic to or overgrow Bacillus anthracis. PMID:1905837

Pfisterer, R M

1991-06-01

279

The threat of bioterrorism: a reason to learn more about anthrax and smallpox.  

PubMed

Threats of domestic terrorism and international news about germ warfare research have forced us to recognize the potential menace of biological weapons. Both smallpox and anthrax could be used as biological weapons. It is important for physicians to reacquaint themselves with these diseases, because if a domestic attack were to occur, it might first be recognized when patients with unusual symptoms began presenting to hospitals and primary care physicians. In this article, we discuss symptoms and treatments for smallpox and anthrax, and suggest resources for physicians who wish to learn more about the subject. PMID:10598363

Gordon, S M

1999-01-01

280

Mechanisms of NK Cell-Macrophage Bacillus anthracis Crosstalk: A Balance between Stimulation by Spores and Differential Disruption by Toxins  

PubMed Central

NK cells are important immune effectors for preventing microbial invasion and dissemination, through natural cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion. Bacillus anthracis spores can efficiently drive IFN-? production by NK cells. The present study provides insights into the mechanisms of cytokine and cellular signaling that underlie the process of NK-cell activation by B. anthracis and the bacterial strategies to subvert and evade this response. Infection with non-toxigenic encapsulated B. anthracis induced recruitment of NK cells and macrophages into the mouse draining lymph node. Production of edema (ET) or lethal (LT) toxin during infection impaired this cellular recruitment. NK cell depletion led to accelerated systemic bacterial dissemination. IFN-? production by NK cells in response to B. anthracis spores was: i) contact-dependent through RAE-1-NKG2D interaction with macrophages; ii) IL-12, IL-18, and IL-15-dependent, where IL-12 played a key role and regulated both NK cell and macrophage activation; and iii) required IL-18 for only an initial short time window. B. anthracis toxins subverted both NK cell essential functions. ET and LT disrupted IFN-? production through different mechanisms. LT acted both on macrophages and NK cells, whereas ET mainly affected macrophages and did not alter NK cell capacity of IFN-? secretion. In contrast, ET and LT inhibited the natural cytotoxicity function of NK cells, both in vitro and in vivo. The subverting action of ET thus led to dissociation in NK cell function and blocked natural cytotoxicity without affecting IFN-? secretion. The high efficiency of this process stresses the impact that this toxin may exert in anthrax pathogenesis, and highlights a potential usefulness for controlling excessive cytotoxic responses in immunopathological diseases. Our findings therefore exemplify the delicate balance between bacterial stimulation and evasion strategies. This highlights the potential implication of the crosstalk between host innate defences and B. anthracis in initial anthrax control mechanisms. PMID:22253596

Klezovich-Bénard, Maria; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Jusforgues-Saklani, Hélène; Fiole, Daniel; Burjek, Nick; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas; Goossens, Pierre L.

2012-01-01

281

Botulinum toxin in ophthalmology.  

PubMed

Alan B. Scott selected, researched and developed Type A Botulinum toxin for clinical use in ophthalmology. This unique drug has proved invaluable for treatment of a number of conditions which are difficult to treat in ophthalmology and in a variety of other disciplines. The indications, methods and problems of its use are described and the results of treatment of 133 patients are discussed. Up to December 1986 over 13,000 patients have been treated in a multicentre international trial without significant complications. PMID:3401395

Dunlop, D; Pittar, G; Dunlop, C

1988-02-01

282

Transcytosis of Staphylococcal Superantigen Toxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Staphylococcus aureus produces a set of proteins (e.g., staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), SEB, toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1)) which act both as superantigens (SAgs) and toxins. Although their mode of action as SAgs is well understood, little is known about how they enter the body via the intestine and cause food poisoning. To examine this problem we used

Rahim A. Hamad; Philippa Marrack; John W. Kappler

2010-01-01

283

TOXINS FROM CYANOBACTERIA IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is part of a larger U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) effort, which includes the Office of Water, to investigate algal toxins in surface water supplies and drinking water. Toxins produced by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are among the most potent known ...

284

Toxin production by Campylobacter spp.  

PubMed Central

Of all the virulence factors that were proposed for Campylobacter jejuni and related species to cause disease in humans, the discovery of toxin production was the most promising but led to a rather confusing and even disappointing stream of data. The discussion of whether proteinaceous exotoxins are relevant in disease remains open. One important reason for this lack of consensus is the anecdotal nature of the literature reports. To provide a basis for an unbiased opinion, this review compiles all described exotoxins, compares their reported properties, and provides a summary of animal model studies and clinical data. The toxins are divided into enterotoxins and cytotoxins and are sorted according to their biochemical properties. Since many Campylobacter toxins have been compared with toxins of other species, some key examples of the latter are also discussed. Future directions of toxin research that appear promising are defined. PMID:9227862

Wassenaar, T M

1997-01-01

285

Toxin-Based Therapeutic Approaches  

PubMed Central

Protein toxins confer a defense against predation/grazing or a superior pathogenic competence upon the producing organism. Such toxins have been perfected through evolution in poisonous animals/plants and pathogenic bacteria. Over the past five decades, a lot of effort has been invested in studying their mechanism of action, the way they contribute to pathogenicity and in the development of antidotes that neutralize their action. In parallel, many research groups turned to explore the pharmaceutical potential of such toxins when they are used to efficiently impair essential cellular processes and/or damage the integrity of their target cells. The following review summarizes major advances in the field of toxin based therapeutics and offers a comprehensive description of the mode of action of each applied toxin. PMID:22069564

Shapira, Assaf; Benhar, Itai

2010-01-01

286

Pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein mediates the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor inhibition of melatonin release in photoreceptive chick pineal cell cultures  

SciTech Connect

The avian pineal gland is a photoreceptive organ that has been shown to contain postjunctional alpha 2-adrenoceptors that inhibit melatonin synthesis and/or release upon receptor activation. Physiological response and (32P)ADP ribosylation experiments were performed to investigate whether pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G-proteins) were involved in the transduction of the alpha 2-adrenergic signal. For physiological response studies, the effects of pertussis toxin on melatonin release in dissociated cell cultures exposed to norepinephrine were assessed. Pertussis toxin blocked alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-mediated inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. Pertussis toxin-induced blockade appeared to be noncompetitive. One and 10 ng/ml doses of pertussis toxin partially blocked and a 100 ng/ml dose completely blocked norepinephrine-induced inhibition. Pertussis toxin-catalyzed (32P)ADP ribosylation of G-proteins in chick pineal cell membranes was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Membranes were prepared from cells that had been pretreated with 0, 1, 10, or 100 ng/ml pertussis toxin. In the absence of pertussis toxin pretreatment, two major proteins of 40K and 41K mol wt (Mr) were labeled by (32P)NAD. Pertussis toxin pretreatment of pineal cells abolished (32P) radiolabeling of the 40K Mr G-protein in a dose-dependent manner. The norepinephrine-induced inhibition of both cAMP efflux and melatonin release, as assessed by RIA of medium samples collected before membrane preparation, was also blocked in a dose-dependent manner by pertussis toxin. Collectively, these results suggest that a pertussis toxin-sensitive 40K Mr G-protein labeled by (32P)NAD may be functionally associated with alpha 2-adrenergic signal transduction in chick pineal cells.

Pratt, B.L.; Takahashi, J.S.

1988-07-01

287

Combination Therapy with Antibiotics and Anthrax Immune Globulin Intravenous (AIGIV) Is Potentially More Effective than Antibiotics Alone in Rabbit Model of Inhalational Anthrax  

PubMed Central

Background We have evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of AIGIV when given in combination with levofloxacin and the effective window of treatment to assess the added benefit provided by AIGIV over standard antibiotic treatment alone in a New Zealand white rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. Methods Rabbits were exposed to lethal dose of aerosolized spores of Bacillus anthracis (Ames strain) and treated intravenously with either placebo, (normal immune globulin intravenous, IGIV) or 15 U/kg of AIGIV, along with oral levofloxacin treatment at various time points (30–96 hours) after anthrax exposure. Results The majority of treated animals (>88%) survived in both treatment groups when treatment was initiated within 60 hours of post-exposure. However, reduced survival of 55%, 33% and 25% was observed for placebo + levofloxacin group when the treatment was initiated at 72, 84 and 96 hours post-exposure, respectively. Conversely, a survival rate of 65%, 40% and 71% was observed in the AIGIV + levofloxacin treated groups at these time points. Conclusions The combination of AIGIV with antibiotics provided an improvement in survival compared to levofloxacin treatment alone when treatment was delayed up to 96 hours post-anthrax exposure. Additionally, AIGIV treatment when given as an adjunct therapy at any of the time points tested did not interfere with the efficacy of levofloxacin. PMID:25226075

Kammanadiminti, Srinivas; Patnaikuni, Ravi Kumar; Comer, Jason; Meister, Gabriel; Sinclair, Chris; Kodihalli, Shantha

2014-01-01

288

Internal radiation dosimetry for clinical testing of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies  

SciTech Connect

In gauging the efficacy of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in cancer treatment, it is important to know the amount of radiation energy absorbed by tumors and normal tissue per unit administered activity. This paper describes methods for estimating absorbed doses to human tumors and normal tissues, including intraperitoneal tissue surfaces, red marrow, and the intestinal tract from incorporated radionuclides. These methods use the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) scheme; however, they also incorporate enhancements designed to solve specific dosimetry problems encountered during clinical studies, such as patient-specific organ masses obtained from computerized tomography (CT) volumetrics, estimates of the dose to tumor masses within normal organs, and multicellular dosimetry for studying dose inhomogeneities in solid tumors. Realistic estimates of absorbed dose are provided within the short time requirements of physicians so that decisions can be made with regard to patient treatment and procurement of radiolabeled antibodies. Some areas in which further research could improve dose assessment are also discussed. 16 refs., 3 figs.

Fisher, D.R.; Durham, J.S.; Hui, T.E.; Hill, R.L.

1990-11-01

289

Radio-labelled humic materials in migration studies  

SciTech Connect

Humic- and fulvic acids are able to complex polyvalent metal ions, e.g. radionuclides, leading to soluble complexes of significant strength, thereby decreasing the sorption of these compounds to soils and sediments. The interaction of humic materials with radionuclides may significantly influence the availability and transport of the latter in the environment. Typically, studies along these lines have focussed almost exclusively on the radionuclides, whereas the actual role of the humic material has been elucidated only indirectly. In order directly to study the behavior of the naturally occurring organic macro-molecules in relation to the environmental fate of radionuclides, radio-labelled humic- and fulvic acids can advantageously be applied. Radio-labels such as {sup 14}C and {sup 125}I have successfully been covalently incorporated in humic- and fulvic-acids. Labelling of humic substances as well as preliminary migration studies are discussed.

Carlsen, L.; Lassen, P. [National Environment Research Institute, Roskilde (Denmark); Warwick, P.; Randall, A. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom)

1993-12-31

290

Mediating the Anthrax Attacks: Media Accuracy and Agenda Setting During a Time of Moral Panic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines factors affecting individuals' attitudes toward the media and susceptibility to agenda setting at times of moral panic. Sixty-three percent of respondents in a survey conducted a few weeks after the 9\\/11 attacks perceived the media anthrax coverage as accurate. Results suggest geographic location and gender, in addition to attitudes toward media accuracy, are strong predictors of agenda

Shahira Fahmy; Thomas J. Johnson

2007-01-01

291

Potentiation of anthrax vaccines using protective antigen-expressing viral replicon vectors.  

PubMed

DNA vaccines require improvement for human use because they are generally weak stimulators of the immune system in humans. The efficacy of DNA vaccines can be improved using a viral replicon as vector to administer antigen of pathogen. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the conventional non-viral DNA, viral replicon DNA or viral replicon particles (VRP) vaccines encoding different forms of anthrax protective antigen (PA) for specific immunity and protective potency against anthrax. Our current results clearly suggested that these viral replicon DNA or VRP vaccines derived from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) induced stronger PA-specific immune responses than the conventional non-viral DNA vaccines when encoding the same antigen forms, which resulted in potent protection against challenge with the Bacillus anthracis strain A16R. Additionally, the naked PA-expressing SFV replicon DNA or VRP vaccines without the need for high doses or demanding particular delivery regimens elicited robust immune responses and afforded completely protective potencies, which indicated the potential of the SFV replicon as vector of anthrax vaccines for use in clinical application. Therefore, our results suggest that these PA-expressing SFV replicon DNA or VRP vaccines may be suitable as candidate vaccines against anthrax. PMID:25102364

Wang, Hai-Chao; An, Huai-Jie; Yu, Yun-Zhou; Xu, Qing

2014-08-01

292

Comprehensive systematic surveillance for adverse effects of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, US Armed Forces, 1998–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routine vaccinations of US military personnel with Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed began in 1998. To systematically identify clinical diagnoses reported more frequently after vaccination than before, all military personnel were retrospectively assigned to pre- or post-vaccination cohorts. Cohort assignments were based on vaccination statuses each day of the 3-year surveillance period. For each cohort, rates of hospitalizations and ambulatory visits for

Jeffrey L. Lange; Sandra E. Lesikar; Mark V. Rubertone; John F. Brundage

2003-01-01

293

The Anthrax Vaccine and Research: Reactions from Postal Workers and Public Health Professionals  

PubMed Central

During the 2001 anthrax attacks, public health agencies faced operational and communication decisions about the use of antibiotic prophylaxis and the anthrax vaccine with affected groups, including postal workers. This communication occurred within an evolving situation with incomplete and uncertain data. Guidelines for prophylactic antibiotics changed several times, contributing to confusion and mistrust. At the end of 60 days of taking antibiotics, people were offered an additional 40 days' supply of antibiotics, with or without the anthrax vaccine, the former constituting an investigational new drug protocol. Using data from interviews and focus groups with 65 postal workers in 3 sites and structured interviews with 16 public health professionals, this article examines the challenges for public health professionals who were responsible for communication with postal workers about the vaccine. Multiple factors affected the response, including a lack of trust, risk perception, disagreement about the recommendation, and the controversy over the military's use of the vaccine. Some postal workers reacted with suspicion to the vaccine offer, believing that they were the subjects of research, and some African American workers specifically drew an analogy to the Tuskegee syphilis study. The consent forms required for the protocol heightened mistrust. Postal workers also had complex and ambivalent responses to additional research on their health. The anthrax attacks present us with an opportunity to understand the challenges of communication in the context of uncertain science and suggest key strategies that may improve communications about vaccines and other drugs authorized for experimental use in future public health emergencies. PMID:19117431

Thomas, Tammy; Kumar, Supriya

2008-01-01

294

Guidelines for Pregnant Women Who Have Been Exposed to Anthrax but Do Not Have Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... be safe for you and your unborn baby (fetus). I'm pregnant. Which drug should I take to prevent anthrax? You should ... using ciprofloxacin may outweigh any risks to the fetus. I was started on ... that amoxicillin may be a safer drug for me to take while I am pregnant. ...

295

Binary Bacterial Toxins: Biochemistry, Biology, and Applications of Common Clostridium and Bacillus Proteins  

PubMed Central

Certain pathogenic species of Bacillus and Clostridium have developed unique methods for intoxicating cells that employ the classic enzymatic “A-B” paradigm for protein toxins. The binary toxins produced by B. anthracis, B. cereus, C. botulinum, C. difficile, C. perfringens, and C. spiroforme consist of components not physically associated in solution that are linked to various diseases in humans, animals, or insects. The “B” components are synthesized as precursors that are subsequently activated by serine-type proteases on the targeted cell surface and/or in solution. Following release of a 20-kDa N-terminal peptide, the activated “B” components form homoheptameric rings that subsequently dock with an “A” component(s) on the cell surface. By following an acidified endosomal route and translocation into the cytosol, “A” molecules disable a cell (and host organism) via disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, increasing intracellular levels of cyclic AMP, or inactivation of signaling pathways linked to mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases. Recently, B. anthracis has gleaned much notoriety as a biowarfare/bioterrorism agent, and of primary interest has been the edema and lethal toxins, their role in anthrax, as well as the development of efficacious vaccines and therapeutics targeting these virulence factors and ultimately B. anthracis. This review comprehensively surveys the literature and discusses the similarities, as well as distinct differences, between each Clostridium and Bacillus binary toxin in terms of their biochemistry, biology, genetics, structure, and applications in science and medicine. The information may foster future studies that aid novel vaccine and drug development, as well as a better understanding of a conserved intoxication process utilized by various gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria. PMID:15353562

Barth, Holger; Aktories, Klaus; Popoff, Michel R.; Stiles, Bradley G.

2004-01-01

296

Multistep Synthesis of a Radiolabeled Imaging Probe Using Integrated Microfluidics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microreactor technology has shown potential for optimizing synthetic efficiency, particularly in preparing sensitive compounds. We achieved the synthesis of an [18F]fluoride-radiolabeled molecular imaging probe, 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG), in an integrated microfluidic device. Five sequential processes-[18F]fluoride concentration, water evaporation, radiofluorination, solvent exchange, and hydrolytic deprotection-proceeded with high radiochemical yield and purity and with shorter synthesis time relative to conventional automated synthesis. Multiple

Chung-Cheng Lee; Guodong Sui; Arkadij Elizarov; Chengyi Jenny Shu; Young-Shik Shin; Alek N. Dooley; Jiang Huang; Antoine Daridon; Paul Wyatt; David Stout; Hartmuth C. Kolb; Owen N. Witte; Nagichettiar Satyamurthy; James R. Heath; Michael E. Phelps; Stephen R. Quake; Hsian-Rong Tseng

2005-01-01

297

Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

Thakur, Mathew L. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

1994-01-01

298

Method to directly radiolabel antibodies for diagnostic imaging and therapy  

DOEpatents

The invention is a novel method and kit for directly radiolabeling proteins such as antibodies or antibody fragments for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The method comprises incubating a protein-containing solution with a solution of sodium ascorbate; adding a required quantity of reduced radionuclide to the incubated protein. A kit is also provided wherein the protein and/or reducing agents may be in lyophilized form.

Thakur, Mathew L. (Cherry Hill, NJ)

1991-01-01

299

AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TESTING OF THREE IMMUNOASSAY TEST KITS FOR ANTHRAX, BOTULINUM TOXIN AND RICIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Immunoassay test kits are based on immunoassay methods, where specific antibodies are used to detect and measure the contaminants of interest. Immunoassay test kits rely on the reaction of a contaminant or antigen with a selective antibody to give a product that can be measures....

300

Food toxin detection with atomic force microscope  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Externally introduced toxins or internal spoilage correlated pathogens and their metabolites are all potential sources of food toxins. To prevent and protect unsafe food, many food toxin detection techniques have been developed to detect various toxins for quality control. Although several routine m...

301

Radioimmune assay of ganglioside GM/sub 1/ synthase using cholera toxin  

SciTech Connect

A radioimmune assay for uridine 5'-diphosphate-galactose (UDP-Gal):GM/sub 2/ galactosyltransferase, which synthesizes GM/sub 1/, has been developed utilizing cholera toxin. This assay is more sensitive and simpler than previously used assays. Radioactive nucleotide substrate and GM/sub 2/ were incubated with an enzyme sample, and a radiolabeled product, GM/sub 1/, was reacted with cholera toxin. The GM/sub 1/-cholera toxin complex was further reacted with anti-cholera toxin and Staphylococcus aureus cell suspension. The resulting complex was transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane and quantitated by liquid scintillation counting. This assay was found to be sensitive for the detection of 100 pmol of the reaction product, GM/sub 1/. With this assay method, some properties of the crude enzyme extracts from rat liver were studied. The enzyme had a pH optimum of 6.5-7.0 and required Mn/sup 2 +/. The K/sub m/ values for UDP-Gal and GM/sub 2/ were 0.12 mM and 6 ..mu..M, respectively.

Honke, K.; Taniguchi, N.; Makita, A.

1986-01-01

302

Bioactive toxins from stinging jellyfish.  

PubMed

Jellyfish blooms occur throughout the world. Human contact with a jellyfish induces a local reaction of the skin, which can be painful and leave scaring. Systemic symptoms are also observed and contact with some species is lethal. A number of studies have evaluated the in vitro biological activity of whole jellyfish venom or of purified fractions. Hemolytic, cytotoxic, neurotoxic or enzymatic activities are commonly observed. Some toxins have been purified and characterized. A family of pore forming toxins specific to Medusozoans has been identified. There remains a need for detailed characterization of jellyfish toxins to fully understand the symptoms observed in vivo. PMID:25286397

Badré, Sophie

2014-12-01

303

Cholera Toxin Mechanism of Action  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This single image file shows the steps of action of cholera toxin, beginning at protein synthesis in the bacteria and proceeding through all of the major known steps of interaction with the host cell.

American Society For Microbiology;

2002-08-29

304

Development and Application of Analytical Methods for Marine Toxins.  

E-print Network

??Shellfish accumulate marine toxins from their microalgal diet. The marine toxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) also accumulates in seafood, but via unknown mechanisms. Toxin determinations have traditionally… (more)

McNabb, Paul Simon

2014-01-01

305

Yeast Killer Toxins Technology Transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Among the different competitive mechanisms which microorganisms can use to multiply and survive in natural communities, the\\u000a production of antimicrobial toxins represents a common, efficient and specific ecological way to eliminate competitor strains\\/species\\u000a from the same habitat. By killing or severely reducing the fitness of sensitive strains, toxin-producing microorganisms which\\u000a are self-immune can be selected and so dominate in specific

Walter Magliani; Stefania Conti; Laura Giovati; Luciano Polonelli

306

Changing Patterns of Human Anthrax in Azerbaijan during the Post-Soviet and Preemptive Livestock Vaccination Eras  

PubMed Central

We assessed spatial and temporal changes in the occurrence of human anthrax in Azerbaijan during 1984 through 2010. Data on livestock outbreaks, vaccination efforts, and human anthrax incidence during Soviet governance, post-Soviet governance, preemptive livestock vaccination were analyzed. To evaluate changes in the spatio-temporal distribution of anthrax, we used a combination of spatial analysis, cluster detection, and weighted least squares segmented regression. Results indicated an annual percent change in incidence of +11.95% from 1984 to 1995 followed by declining rate of ?35.24% after the initiation of livestock vaccination in 1996. Our findings also revealed geographic variation in the spatial distribution of reporting; cases were primarily concentrated in the west early in the study period and shifted eastward as time progressed. Over twenty years after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the distribution of human anthrax in Azerbaijan has undergone marked changes. Despite decreases in the incidence of human anthrax, continued control measures in livestock are needed to mitigate its occurrence. The shifting patterns of human anthrax highlight the need for an integrated “One Health” approach that takes into account the changing geographic distribution of the disease. PMID:25032701

Kracalik, Ian; Abdullayev, Rakif; Asadov, Kliment; Ismayilova, Rita; Baghirova, Mehriban; Ustun, Narmin; Shikhiyev, Mazahir; Talibzade, Aydin; Blackburn, Jason K.

2014-01-01

307

Glucose-Dependent Activation of Bacillus anthracis Toxin Gene Expression and Virulence Requires the Carbon Catabolite Protein CcpA? †  

PubMed Central

Sensing environmental conditions is an essential aspect of bacterial physiology and virulence. In Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, transcription of the two major virulence factors, toxin and capsule, is triggered by bicarbonate, a major compound in the mammalian body. Here it is shown that glucose is an additional signaling molecule recognized by B. anthracis for toxin synthesis. The presence of glucose increased the expression of the protective antigen toxin component-encoding gene (pagA) by stimulating induction of transcription of the AtxA virulence transcription factor. Induction of atxA transcription by glucose required the carbon catabolite protein CcpA via an indirect mechanism. CcpA did not bind specifically to any region of the extended atxA promoter. The virulence of a B. anthracis strain from which the ccpA gene was deleted was significantly attenuated in a mouse model of infection. The data demonstrated that glucose is an important host environment-derived signaling molecule and that CcpA is a molecular link between environmental sensing and B. anthracis pathogenesis. PMID:20971911

Chiang, Christina; Bongiorni, Cristina; Perego, Marta

2011-01-01

308

Antibody-based biological toxin detection  

SciTech Connect

Fiber optic evanescent fluorosensors are under investigation in our laboratory for the study of drug-receptor interactions for detection of threat agents and antibody-antigen interactions for detection of biological toxins. In a direct competition assay, antibodies against Cholera toxin, Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B or ricin were noncovalently immobilized on quartz fibers and probed with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) - labeled toxins. In the indirect competition assay, Cholera toxin or Botulinum toxoid A was immobilized onto the fiber, followed by incubation in an antiserum or partially purified anti-toxin IgG. These were then probed with FITC-anti-IgG antibodies. Unlabeled toxins competed with labeled toxins or anti-toxin IgG in a dose dependent manner and the detection of the toxins was in the nanomolar range.

Menking, D.E.; Goode, M.T. [Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

1995-12-01

309

Residues involved in the pore-forming activity of the Clostridium perfringens iota toxin.  

PubMed

Clostridium perfringens iota toxin is a binary toxin that is organized into enzyme (Ia) and binding (Ib) components. Ib forms channels in lipid bilayers and mediates the transport of Ia into the target cells. Here we show that Ib residues 334-359 contain a conserved pattern of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues forming two amphipathic ?-strands involved in membrane insertion and channel formation. This stretch of amino acids shows remarkable structural and functional analogies with the ?-pore-forming domain of C.?perfringens epsilon toxin. Several mutations within the two amphipathic ?-strands affected pore formation, single-channel conductance and ion selectivity (S339E-S341E, Q345H N346E) confirming their involvement in channel formation. F454 of Ib corresponds to the ?-clamp F427 of anthrax protective antigen and F428 of C2II binary toxins. The mutation F454A resulted in a loss of cytotoxicity and strong increase in single-channel conductance (500?pS as compared with 85?pS in 1?M KCl) with a slight decrease in cation selectivity, indicating that the ?-clamp is highly conserved and crucial for binary toxin activity. In contrast, the mutants Q367D, N430D, L443E had no or only minor effects on Ib properties, while T360I, T360A and T360W caused a dramatic effect on ion selectivity and single-channel conductance, indicating gross disturbance of the oligomer structure. This suggests that, at least in the iota toxin family, T360 has a structural role in the pore organization. Moreover, introduction of charged residues within the channel (S339E-S341E) or in the vestibule (Q367D, N430D and L443E) had virtually no effect on chloroquine or Ia binding, whereas F454A, T360I, T360A and T360W strongly decreased the chloroquine and Ia affinity to Ib. These results support that distinct residues within the vestibule interact with chloroquine and Ia or are responsible for channel structure, while the channel lining amino acids play a less important role. PMID:25266274

Knapp, Oliver; Maier, Elke; Waltenberger, Eva; Mazuet, Christelle; Benz, Roland; Popoff, Michel R

2015-02-01

310

Inositol Hexakisphosphate-dependent Processing of Clostridium sordellii Lethal Toxin and Clostridium novyi ?-Toxin*  

PubMed Central

Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin and Clostridium novyi ?-toxin, which are virulence factors involved in the toxic shock and gas gangrene syndromes, are members of the family of clostridial glucosylating toxins. The toxins inactivate Rho/Ras proteins by glucosylation or attachment of GlcNAc (?-toxin). Here, we studied the activation of the autoproteolytic processing of the toxins by inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) and compared it with the processing of Clostridium difficile toxin B. In the presence of low concentrations of InsP6 (<1 ?m), toxin fragments consisting of the N-terminal glucosyltransferase (or GlcNAc-transferase) domains and the cysteine protease domains (CPDs) of C. sordellii lethal toxin, C. novyi ?-toxin, and C. difficile toxin B were autocatalytically processed. The cleavage sites of lethal toxin (Leu-543) and ?-toxin (Leu-548) and the catalytic cysteine residues (Cys-698 of lethal toxin and Cys-707 of ?-toxin) were identified. Affinity of the CPDs for binding InsP6 was determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. In contrast to full-length toxin B and ?-toxin, autocatalytic cleavage and InsP6 binding of full-length lethal toxin depended on low pH (pH 5) conditions. The data indicate that C. sordellii lethal toxin and C. novyi ?-toxin are InsP6-dependently processed. However, full-length lethal toxin, but not its short toxin fragments consisting of the glucosyltransferase domain and the CPD, requires a pH-sensitive conformational change to allow binding of InsP6 and subsequent processing of the toxin. PMID:21385871

Guttenberg, Gregor; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Genisyuerek, Selda; Lü, Wei; Jank, Thomas; Einsle, Oliver; Aktories, Klaus

2011-01-01

311

A Cell-Based Approach for the Biosynthesis/Screening of Cyclic Peptide Libraries against Bacterial Toxins  

SciTech Connect

Available methods for developing and screening small drug-like molecules able to knockout toxins or pathogenic microorganisms have some limitations. In order to be useful, these new methods must provide high-throughput analysis and identify specific binders in a short period of time. To meet this need, we are developing an approach that uses living cells to generate libraries of small biomolecules, which are then screened inside the cell for activity. Our group is using this new, combined approach to find highly specific ligands capable of disabling anthrax Lethal Factor (LF) as proof of principle. Key to our approach is the development of a method for the biosynthesis of libraries of cyclic peptides, and an efficient screening process that can be carried out inside the cell.

Camarero, J A; Kimura, R; Woo, Y; Cantor, J; Steenblock, E

2007-10-24

312

(7)Be-recoil radiolabelling of industrially manufactured silica nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Radiolabelling of industrially manufactured nanoparticles is useful for nanoparticle dosimetry in biodistribution or cellular uptake studies for hazard and risk assessment. Ideally for such purposes, any chemical processing post production should be avoided as it may change the physico-chemical characteristics of the industrially manufactured species. In many cases, proton irradiation of nanoparticles allows radiolabelling by transmutation of a tiny fraction of their constituent atoms into radionuclides. However, not all types of nanoparticles offer nuclear reactions leading to radionuclides with adequate radiotracer properties. We describe here a process whereby in such cases nanoparticles can be labelled with (7)Be, which exhibits a physical half-life of 53.29 days and emits ?-rays of 478 keV energy, and is suitable for most radiotracer studies. (7)Be is produced via the proton-induced nuclear reaction (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be in a fine-grained lithium compound with which the nanoparticles are mixed. The high recoil energy of (7)Be atoms gives them a range that allows the (7)Be-recoils to be transferred from the lithium compound into the nanoparticles by recoil implantation. The nanoparticles can be recovered from the mixture by dissolving the lithium compound and subsequent filtration or centrifugation. The method has been applied to radiolabel industrially manufactured SiO2 nanoparticles. The process can be controlled in such a way that no alterations of the (7)Be-labelled nanoparticles are detectable by dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Moreover, cyclotrons with maximum proton energies of 17-18 MeV that are available in most medical research centres could be used for this purpose. PMID:25285032

Holzwarth, Uwe; Bellido, Elena; Dalmiglio, Matteo; Kozempel, Jan; Cotogno, Giulio; Gibson, Neil

2014-01-01

313

Frequent and seasonally variable sublethal anthrax infections are accompanied by short-lived immunity in an endemic system.  

PubMed

1. Few studies have examined host-pathogen interactions in wildlife from an immunological perspective, particularly in the context of seasonal and longitudinal dynamics. In addition, though most ecological immunology studies employ serological antibody assays, endpoint titer determination is usually based on subjective criteria and needs to be made more objective. 2. Despite the fact that anthrax is an ancient and emerging zoonotic infectious disease found worldwide, its natural ecology is not well understood. In particular, little is known about the adaptive immune responses of wild herbivore hosts against Bacillus anthracis. 3. Working in the natural anthrax system of Etosha National Park, Namibia, we collected 154 serum samples from plains zebra (Equus quagga), 21 from springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), and 45 from African elephants (Loxodonta africana) over 2-3 years, resampling individuals when possible for seasonal and longitudinal comparisons. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure anti-anthrax antibody titers and developed three increasingly conservative models to determine endpoint titers with more rigorous, objective mensuration. 4. Between 52-87% of zebra, 0-15% of springbok, and 3-52% of elephants had measurable anti-anthrax antibody titers, depending on the model used. While the ability of elephants and springbok to mount anti-anthrax adaptive immune responses is still equivocal, our results indicate that zebra in ENP often survive sublethal anthrax infections, encounter most B. anthracis in the wet season, and can partially booster their immunity to B. anthracis. 5. Thus, rather than being solely a lethal disease, anthrax often occurs as a sublethal infection in some susceptible hosts. Though we found that adaptive immunity to anthrax wanes rapidly, subsequent and frequent sublethal B. anthracis infections cause maturation of anti-anthrax immunity. By triggering host immune responses, these common sublethal infections may act as immunomodulators and affect population dynamics through indirect immunological and co-infection effects. 6. In addition, with our three endpoint titer models, we introduce more mensuration rigor into serological antibody assays, even under the often-restrictive conditions that come with adapting laboratory immunology methods to wild systems. With these methods we identified significantly more zebras responding immunologically to anthrax than have previous studies using less comprehensive titer analyses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:24499424

Cizauskas, Carrie A; Bellan, Steven E; Turner, Wendy C; Vance, Russell E; Getz, Wayne M

2014-02-01

314

Bacillus anthracis Cell Wall Peptidoglycan but Not Lethal or Edema Toxins Produces Changes Consistent With Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Background.?Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) appears to be important in the pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis infection, but its causes are unclear. Although lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET) could contribute, B. anthracis cell wall peptidoglycan (PGN), not the toxins, stimulates inflammatory responses associated with DIC. Methods and Results.?To better understand the pathogenesis of DIC during anthrax, we compared the effects of 24-hour infusions of PGN, LT, ET, or diluent (control) on coagulation measures 6, 24, or 48 hours after infusion initiation in 135 rats. No control recipient died. Lethality rates (approximately 30%) did not differ among PGN, LT, and ET recipients (P = .78). Thirty-three of 35 deaths (94%) occurred between 6 and 24 hours after the start of challenge. Among challenge components, PGN most consistently altered coagulation measures. Compared with control at 6 hours, PGN decreased platelet and fibrinogen levels and increased prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times and tissue factor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, protein C, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), and thrombin-antithrombin complex levels, whereas LT and ET only decreased the fibrinogen level or increased the PAI level (P ? .05). Nearly all effects associated with PGN infusion significantly differed from changes associated with toxin infusion (P ? .05 for all comparisons except for PAI level). Conclusion.?DIC during B. anthracis infection may be related more to components such as PGN than to LT or ET. PMID:23737601

Qiu, Ping; Li, Yan; Shiloach, Joseph; Cui, Xizhong; Sun, Junfeng; Trinh, Loc; Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Mani, Haresh; Al-Hamad, Mariam; Fitz, Yvonne; Eichacker, Peter Q.

2013-01-01

315

The Poly-?-d-Glutamic Acid Capsule of Bacillus anthracis Enhances Lethal Toxin Activity ?  

PubMed Central

The poly-?-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule is one of the major virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis, which causes a highly lethal infectious disease. The PGA capsule disguises B. anthracis from immune surveillance and allows its unimpeded growth in the host. The PGA capsule recently was reported to be associated with lethal toxin (LT) in the blood of experimentally infected animals (M. H. Cho, et al., Infect. Immun. 78:387-392, 2010). The effect of PGA, either alone or in combination with LT, on macrophages, which play an important role in the progression of anthrax disease, has not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of PGA on LT cytotoxicity using the mouse macrophage cell line J774A.1. PGA produced a concentration-dependent enhancement of the cytotoxicity of LT on J774A.1 cells through an enhancement in the binding and accumulation of protective antigen to its receptors. The increase of LT activity was confirmed using Western blot analysis, which showed that the combination of PGA and LT produced a greater degree of degradation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases and an increased level of the activation of the proform of caspase-1 to its processed form compared to the effects of LT alone. In addition, mice that received a tail vein injection of both PGA and LT had a significantly increased rate of death compared to that of mice injected with LT alone. PGA had no effect when added to cultures or administered to mice in the absence of LT. These results emphasize the importance of PGA in the pathogenesis of anthrax infection. PMID:21690241

Jang, Jeyoun; Cho, Minhui; Chun, Jeong-Hoon; Cho, Min-Hee; Park, Jungchan; Oh, Hee-Bok; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon; Rhie, Gi-eun

2011-01-01

316

Thioamide Hydroxypyrothiones Supersede Amide Hydroxypyrothiones in Potency Against Anthrax Lethal Factor  

PubMed Central

Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a critical virulence factor in the pathogenesis of anthrax. A structure-activity relationship (SAR) of potential lethal factor inhibitors (LFi) is presented in which the zinc-binding group (ZBG), linker, and backbone moieties for a series of hydroxypyrone-based compounds were systematically varied. It was found that hydroxypyrothione ZBGs generate more potent inhibitors than hydroxypyrone ZBGs. Furthermore, coupling the hydroxypyrothione to a backbone group via a thioamide bond improves potency when compared to an amide linker. QM/MM studies show that the thioamide bond in these inhibitors allows for the formation of two additional hydrogen bonds with the protein active site. In both types of hydroxypyrothione compounds, ligand efficiencies of 0.29-0.54 kcal mol-1 per heavy atom were achieved. The results highlight the need for a better understanding to optimize the interplay between the ZBG, linker, and backbone to get improved LFi. PMID:19170530

Agrawal, Arpita; de Oliveira, César Augusto F.; Cheng, Yuhui; Jacobsen, Jennifer A.; McCammon, J. Andrew; Cohen, Seth M.

2009-01-01

317

The Anthrax Vaccine Program: An Analysis of the CDC's Recommendations for Vaccine Use  

PubMed Central

The anthrax vaccine was never proved to be safe and effective. It is one cause of Gulf War illnesses, and recent vaccinees report symptoms resembling Gulf War illnesses. The vaccine's production has been substandard. Without adequate evaluation, the Food and Drug Administration recently approved (retrospectively) significant changes made to the vaccine's composition since 1990. The vaccine's mandatory use for inhalation anthrax is “off-label.” A skewed review of the vaccine literature by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) led to remunerative collaborative research with the army, involving civilian volunteers. Despite acknowledging possible fetal harm, the CDC offered the vaccine to children and pregnant women. New trends could weaken prelicensure efficacy and safety review of medical products intended for biodefense and avoid manufacturer liability for their use. PMID:11988433

Nass, Meryl

2002-01-01

318

Special Considerations for Prophylaxis for and Treatment of Anthrax in Pregnant and Postpartum Women  

PubMed Central

In August 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in partnership with the Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs, convened a meeting of national subject matter experts to review key clinical elements of anthrax prevention and treatment for pregnant, postpartum, and lactating (P/PP/L) women. National experts in infectious disease, obstetrics, maternal fetal medicine, neonatology, pediatrics, and pharmacy attended the meeting, as did representatives from professional organizations and national, federal, state, and local agencies. The meeting addressed general principles of prevention and treatment for P/PP/L women, vaccines, antimicrobial prophylaxis and treatment, clinical considerations and critical care issues, antitoxin, delivery concerns, infection control measures, and communication. The purpose of this meeting summary is to provide updated clinical information to health care providers and public health professionals caring for P/PP/L women in the setting of a bioterrorist event involving anthrax. PMID:24457117

Zotti, Marianne E.; Creanga, Andreea A.; Misegades, Lara K.; Wako, Etobssie; Treadwell, Tracee A.; Messonnier, Nancy E.; Jamieson, Denise J.

2014-01-01

319

Biokinetics and dosimetry of several radiolabelled peptides in cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiolabelled peptides have been used as target-specific radiopharmaceuticals. The goal of this research was the in vitro assessment of the uptake, internalization, externalization, and efflux of five radiolabelled peptides in cancer cells to estimate radiation-absorbed doses from experimental biokinetic data. 177Lu-DOTA-octreotate, 188Re-lanreotide, and 99mTc-HYNIC-octreotide were studied in the AR42J cell line. The PC3 and NCIH69 cells were used for 99mTc-HYNIC-bombesin and 177Lu-DOTA-minigastrin, respectively. The cumulated activities in the membrane and cytoplasm were calculated by integration of the experimental time-activity curves and used for dosimetry calculations according to the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) cellular methodology. The mean absorbed dose to the cell nucleus were 0.69±0.09, 0.11±0.08, 0.55±0.09, 3.45±0.48, and 3.30±0.65 Gy/Bq for 99mTc-HYNIC-bombesin, 99mTc-HYNIC-octreotide, 177Lu-DOTA-minigastrin, 177Lu-DOTA-octreotate, and 188Re-lanreotide, respectively. If radiopharmaceutical cell kinetics were not used and only uptake data were considered, the calculated doses would be overestimated up to 25 times.

Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; Ferro-Flores, G.; de Murphy, C. Arteaga; Pedraza-López, M.; Ramírez-Iglesias, M. A. T.

320

Radiolabeling and in vivo distribution of nanobacteria in rabbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanobacteria are minute bacteria recently isolated from mammalian blood. They encapsulate themselves with apatite mineral. Cultured nanobacteria were radiolabeled with (superscript 99m)Tc, using a method which has been previously used for labeling red blood cells with (superscript 99m)Tc, and in vivo distribution of nanobacteria was followed with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging. The labeling yield was over 30%. Two rabbits were studied using dynamic planar imaging performed in the AP-position immediately after injection. Serial SPECT scans were acquired up to 24 h and one planar image was taken at 45 h. A control study was performed administering a similar dose of [(superscript 99m)Tc] labeled albumin nanocolloids. Regional nanobacteria-to- nanocolloid ratios were calculated along with time and tissues (45 h) were analyzed for radioactivity and for nanobacteria. The main finding was that radiolabeled nanobacteria remained intact and showed a tissue specific distribution with a high accumulation in the kidneys and also in urine. Spleen, stomach, heart and intestine also showed increased uptake. Excretion into urine started 10 - 15 min after injection. These were live nanobacteria in the urine, which had better capabilities to penetrate into cells in vitro. The nanobacteria accessed the urine via tubular cells since nanobacteria were found in their cytoplasm and tubular surfaces. The results suggest that nanobacteria utilize endocytic transport of tubular cells and may be involved in the pathogenesis of mineral formation in mammalian kidney stones.

Akerman, Kari K.; Kuikka, Jyrki T.; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Parkkinen, Jyrki; Bergstroem, Kim A.; Kuronen, Ilpo; Kajander, E. Olavi

1997-07-01

321

Mass Value Assignment of Total and Subclass Immunoglobulin G in a Human Standard Anthrax Reference Serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anti-Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (anti-AVA) standard human reference serum pool, AVR414, has been prepared, and the total and protective antigen (PA)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) were quantified. AVR414 was prepared by plasmapheresis of healthy adults who had received a minimum of four subcutaneous injections of AVA. Mass values (in milligrams per milliliter) for total IgG and IgG subclasses 1 to 4

V. A. Semenova; E. Steward-Clark; K. L. Stamey; T. H. Taylor; D. S. Schmidt; S. K. Martin; N. Marano; C. P. Quinn

2004-01-01

322

Modeling low-dose mortality and disease incubation period of inhalational anthrax in the rabbit.  

PubMed

There is a need to advance our ability to conduct credible human risk assessments for inhalational anthrax associated with exposure to a low number of bacteria. Combining animal data with computational models of disease will be central in the low-dose and cross-species extrapolations required in achieving this goal. The objective of the current work was to apply and advance the competing risks (CR) computational model of inhalational anthrax where data was collected from NZW rabbits exposed to aerosols of Ames strain Bacillus anthracis. An initial aim was to parameterize the CR model using high-dose rabbit data and then conduct a low-dose extrapolation. The CR low-dose attack rate was then compared against known low-dose rabbit data as well as the low-dose curve obtained when the entire rabbit dose-response data set was fitted to an exponential dose-response (EDR) model. The CR model predictions demonstrated excellent agreement with actual low-dose rabbit data. We next used a modified CR model (MCR) to examine disease incubation period (the time to reach a fever >40 °C). The MCR model predicted a germination period of 14.5h following exposure to a low spore dose, which was confirmed by monitoring spore germination in the rabbit lung using PCR, and predicted a low-dose disease incubation period in the rabbit between 14.7 and 16.8 days. Overall, the CR and MCR model appeared to describe rabbit inhalational anthrax well. These results are discussed in the context of conducting laboratory studies in other relevant animal models, combining the CR/MCR model with other computation models of inhalational anthrax, and using the resulting information towards extrapolating a low-dose response prediction for man. PMID:23567649

Gutting, Bradford W; Marchette, David; Sherwood, Robert; Andrews, George A; Director-Myska, Alison; Channel, Stephen R; Wolfe, Daniel; Berger, Alan E; Mackie, Ryan S; Watson, Brent J; Rukhin, Andrey

2013-07-21

323

The discovery of a potent and selective lethal factor inhibitor for adjunct therapy of anthrax infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potent and selective anthrax LF inhibitor 40, (2R)-2-[(4-fluoro-3-methylphenyl)sulfonylamino]-N-hydroxy-2-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-yl)acetamide, was identified through SAR study of a high throughput screen lead. It has an IC50 of 54nM in the enzyme assay and an IC50 of 210nM in the macrophage cytotoxicity assay. Compound 40 is also effective in vivo in several animal model studies.

Yusheng Xiong; Judyann Wiltsie; Andrea Woods; Jian Guo; James V. Pivnichny; Wei Tang; Alka Bansal; Richard T. Cummings; Barry R. Cunningham; Arthur M. Friedlander; Cameron M. Douglas; Scott P. Salowe; Dennis M. Zaller; Edward M. Scolnick; Dennis M. Schmatz; Kenneth Bartizal; Jeffrey D. Hermes; Malcolm MacCoss; Kevin T. Chapman

2006-01-01

324

Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd - 1st case in 27 years: Case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 27 years with no detected cases, an outbreak of anthrax occurred in a beef cattle herd in the south of Sweden. The outbreak was unusual as it occurred in winter, in animals not exposed to meat-and-bone meal, in a non-endemic country. The affected herd consisted of 90 animals, including calves and young stock. The animals were kept in a

Susanna Sternberg Lewerin; Marianne Elvander; Therese Westermark; Lisbeth Nisu Hartzell; Agneta Karlsson Norström; Sara Ehrs; Rickard Knutsson; Stina Englund; Ann-Christin Andersson; Malin Granberg; Stina Bäckman; Per Wikström; Karin Sandstedt

2010-01-01

325

Efficacy and Safety of AVP-21D9, an Anthrax Monoclonal Antibody, in Animal Models and Humans  

PubMed Central

Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Timely administration of antibiotics approved for the treatment of anthrax disease may prevent associated morbidity and mortality. However, any delay in initiating antimicrobial therapy may result in increased mortality, as inhalational anthrax progresses rapidly to the toxemic phase of disease. An anthrax antitoxin, AVP-21D9, also known as Thravixa (fully human anthrax monoclonal antibody), is being developed as a therapeutic agent against anthrax toxemia. The efficacy of AVP-21D9 in B. anthracis-infected New Zealand White rabbits and in cynomolgus macaques was evaluated, and its safety and pharmacokinetics were assessed in healthy human volunteers. The estimated mean elimination half-life values of AVP-21D9 in surviving anthrax-challenged rabbits and nonhuman primates (NHPs) ranged from approximately 2 to 4 days and 6 to 11 days, respectively. In healthy humans, the mean elimination half-life was in the range of 20 to 27 days. Dose proportionality was observed for the maximum serum concentration (Cmax) of AVP-21D9 and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). In therapeutic efficacy animal models, treatment with AVP-21D9 resulted in survival of up to 92% of the rabbits and up to 67% of the macaques. Single infusions of AVP-21D9 were well tolerated in healthy adult volunteers across all doses evaluated, and no serious adverse events were reported. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01202695.) PMID:24733473

Malkevich, Nina V.; Hopkins, Robert J.; Bernton, Edward; Meister, Gabriel T.; Vela, Eric M.; Atiee, George; Johnson, Virginia; Nabors, Gary S.; Aimes, Ronald T.; Ionin, Boris

2014-01-01

326

Cutaneous absorption and decontamination of ( sup 3 H)T-2 toxin in the rat model  

SciTech Connect

Cutaneous absorption and decontamination of ({sup 3}H)T-2 mycotoxin using various treatment modalities incorporating water, detergent, sprays, and scrubbing of application sites were examined in the rat model at 5, 30, 60, and 1440 min (24 h) postexposure. Rats were killed immediately after treatment and radiolabeled T-2 remaining in full-thickness skin samples was determined. Absorption and decontamination were followed over time, and decontaminating treatment modalities were evaluated for efficacy. Less than 1% of the applied dose was absorbed in 5 min, and 50% was absorbed in 24 h. At 5 min, 99.5 {plus minus} 0.05% of nonabsorbed (residual) ({sup 3}H)T-2 was removed, and 58 {plus minus} 5.2% of residual toxin was removed at 24 h with a 2.5% detergent/water spray. When treatment modalities were evaluated at 60 min, a 2.5% detergent/water scrub followed by a detergent/water spray produced optimal decontamination by removing 81 {plus minus} 2.2% of residual toxin. All treatment modalities using detergent and/or water removed significant amounts of toxin, a dry scrub was not efficacious. Treatment should be initiated as soon as possible after exposure for best results. However, the stratum corneum acts as a reservoir for the toxin, and decontamination should be carried out even if delayed several hours or days after exposure. Dermal absorption pharmacokinetics found in these studies are similar to those described for other low-molecular-weight compounds, and the decontamination results from T-2 toxin should be applicable to other, similar toxic substances.

Bunner, B.L.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.; Dinterman, R.E.; Broski, F.H. (Army Biomedical Research and Development Laboratory, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD (USA))

1989-01-01

327

Source tracking of an anthrax outbreak in northeastern China using complete genome analysis and MLVA genotyping.  

PubMed

Anthrax is caused by Bacillus anthracis, an etiological agent behind zoonotic diseases worldwide. B. anthracis is also one of the most dangerous bioterrorism agents. An anthrax outbreak took place in Liaoning Province in northeastern China in August 2012. It resulted in seven human infections and dozens of dead cows. One B. anthracis strain, named Han, was isolated from a dead cow. This strain showed minor pathogenicity in mice and was suspected to be derived from the locally administered vaccine strain, Vac. In order to determine if the Han isolate was derived from the vaccine strain Vac and to track the source of the anthrax outbreak and, so, exclude the possibility of terrorism attack, a complete genome sequencing of these two B. anthracis strains was conducted. With the genome sequencing data, canonical single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and whole-genome SNP screening were performed. The results indicate that the Han strain was markedly different from the Vac strain. Further analysis by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) showed that Han clustered with previously reported Chinese strains. The result of MLVA15 confirmed that the Han strain is a naturally occurring isolate instead of an engineered agent deliberately distributed by terrorists or other parties. In conclusion, our method used in this study not only facilitates epidemiological studies but also made it easier to distinguish naturally occurring outbreaks from intentionally released pathogens. PMID:25073769

Li, S; An, X; Huang, Y; Pei, G; Cao, D; Mi, Z; Gu, Z; Zhao, X; Li, J; Gu, G; Tong, Y

2015-01-01

328

The necrophagous fly anthrax transmission pathway: empirical and genetic evidence from wildlife epizootics.  

PubMed

Early studies confirmed Bacillus anthracis in emesis and feces of flies under laboratory conditions, but there is little empirical field evidence supporting the roles of flies in anthrax transmission. We collected samples during outbreaks of anthrax affecting livestock and native and exotic wildlife on two ranches in West Texas (2009-2010). Sampling included animal carcasses, maggots, adult flies feeding on or within several meters of carcasses, and leaves from surrounding vegetation. Microbiology and PCR were used to detect B. anthracis in the samples. Viable B. anthracis and/or PCR-positive results were obtained from all represented sample types. Genetic analysis of B. anthracis samples using multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) confirmed that each ranch represented a distinct genetic lineage. Within each ranch, we detected the same genotype of B. anthracis from carcasses, maggots, and adult flies. The results of this study provide evidence supporting a transmission cycle in which blowflies contaminate vegetation near carcasses that may then infect additional browsing animals during anthrax outbreaks in the shrubland environment of West Texas. PMID:25072988

Blackburn, Jason K; Van Ert, Matthew; Mullins, Jocelyn C; Hadfield, Ted L; Hugh-Jones, Martin E

2014-08-01

329

Identification of a surrogate marker for infection in the African green monkey model of inhalation anthrax.  

PubMed

In 2001, a bioterrorism attack involving Bacillus anthracis spore-laced letters resulted in 22 cases of inhalation anthrax, with five fatalities. This incident identified gaps in our health care system and precipitated a renewed interest in identifying both therapeutics and rapid diagnostic assays. To address those gaps, well-characterized animal models that resemble the human disease are needed. In addition, a rapid assay for a reliable diagnostic marker is key to the success of these efforts. In this study, we exposed African green monkeys to B. anthracis spores; examined clinical signs and physiological parameters, including fever, heart rate, complete blood count, and bacteremia; and evaluated the PCR assay and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay for the biomarkers protective antigen and capsule. The results demonstrated that although there were neither objective clinical nor physiological signs that consistently identified either infection or the onset of clinical anthrax disease, the African green monkey is a suitable animal model exhibiting a disease course similar to that observed in the rhesus model and humans. We also demonstrated that detection of the biomarkers protective antigen and capsule correlated with bacterial loads in the blood of these nonhuman primates. The ECL immunoassay described here is simple and sensitive enough to provide results in one to two hours, making this assay a viable option for use in the diagnosis of anthrax, leading to timely initiation of treatment, which is a key component of B. anthracis therapeutic development. PMID:18852240

Rossi, Cynthia A; Ulrich, Melanie; Norris, Sarah; Reed, Douglas S; Pitt, Louise M; Leffel, Elizabeth K

2008-12-01

330

Call-tracking data and the public health response to bioterrorism-related anthrax.  

PubMed

After public notification of confirmed cases of bioterrorism-related anthrax, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Emergency Operations Center responded to 11,063 bioterrorism-related telephone calls from October 8 to November 11, 2001. Most calls were inquiries from the public about anthrax vaccines (58.4%), requests for general information on bioterrorism prevention (14.8%), and use of personal protective equipment (12.0%); 882 telephone calls (8.0%) were referred to the state liaison team for follow-up investigation. Of these, 226 (25.6%) included reports of either illness clinically confirmed to be compatible with anthrax or direct exposure to an environment known to be contaminated with Bacillus anthracis. The remaining 656 (74.4%) included no confirmed illness but reported exposures to "suspicious" packages or substances or the receipt of mail through a contaminated facility. Emergency response staff must handle high call volumes following suspected or actual bioterrorist attacks. Standardized health communication protocols that address contact with unknown substances, handling of suspicious mail, and clinical evaluation of suspected cases would allow more efficient follow-up investigations of clinically compatible cases in high-risk groups. PMID:12396921

Mott, Joshua A; Treadwell, Tracee A; Hennessy, Thomas W; Rosenberg, Paula A; Wolfe, Mitchell I; Brown, Clive M; Butler, Jay C

2002-10-01

331

Sodium Channel Inhibiting Marine Toxins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saxitoxin (STX), tetrodotoxin (TTX) and their many chemical relatives are part of our daily lives. From killing people who eat seafood containing these toxins, to being valuable research tools unveiling the invisible structures of their pharmacological receptor, their global impact is beyond measure. The pharmacological receptor for these toxins is the voltage-gated sodium channel which transports Na ions between the exterior to the interior of cells. The two structurally divergent families of STX and TTX analogues bind at the same location on these Na channels to stop the flow of ions. This can affect nerves, muscles and biological senses of most animals. It is through these and other toxins that we have developed much of our fundamental understanding of the Na channel and its part in generating action potentials in excitable cells.

Llewellyn, Lyndon E.

332

Importance of Toxin A, Toxin B, and CDT in Virulence of an Epidemic Clostridium difficile Strain  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile infection is the main cause of healthcare-acquired diarrhea in the developed world. In addition to the main virulence factors toxin A and B, epidemic, PCR Ribotype 027 strains, such as R20291, produce a third toxin, CDT. To develop effective medical countermeasures, it is important to understand the importance of each toxin. Accordingly, we created all possible combinations of isogenic toxin mutants of R20291 and assessed their virulence. We demonstrated that either toxin A or toxin B alone can cause fulminant disease in the hamster infection model and present tantalizing data that C. difficile toxin may also contribute to virulence. PMID:23935202

Kuehne, Sarah A.; Collery, Mark M.; Kelly, Michelle L.; Cartman, Stephen T.; Cockayne, Alan; Minton, Nigel P.

2014-01-01

333

Natural Toxins: The Past and the Present  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different bacteria, viruses and toxins constitute a potential menace for people. The number of toxins that could be applied\\u000a for a bioterrorist attack with real public health risk, though, is relatively limited. However, these natural toxins could\\u000a cause difficult troubles. The objective of this paper is focused on the toxins of various origins that might be used as a\\u000a biological

E. Grishin

334

Yeast killer toxins and dimorphism.  

PubMed Central

The differential action of four selected yeast killer toxins on the mycelial and yeast forms of four isolates of the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii was comparatively evaluated. The results confirmed that the yeast killer phenomenon is present among hyphomycetes and yeasts and that both morphological forms of S. schenckii are susceptible to the action of the same yeast killer toxin. Quantitative differences in the response to the killer action of the mycelial and yeast forms in individual strains were also observed. To avoid retroconversion of the dimorphic forms, we used a modification of the conventional killer system. Images PMID:2754015

Polonelli, L; Conti, S; Campani, L; Morace, G; Fanti, F

1989-01-01

335

Gastrointestinal helminths may affect host susceptibility to anthrax through seasonal immune trade-offs.  

PubMed

BackgroundMost vertebrates experience coinfections, and many pathogen-pathogen interactions occur indirectly through the host immune system. These interactions are particularly strong in mixed micro-macroparasite infections because of immunomodulatory effects of helminth parasites. While these trade-offs have been examined extensively in laboratory animals, few studies have examined them in natural systems. Additionally, many wildlife pathogens fluctuate seasonally, at least partly due to seasonal host immune changes. We therefore examined seasonality of immune resource allocation, pathogen abundance and exposure, and interactions between infections and immunity in plains zebra (Equus quagga) in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, a system with strongly seasonal patterns of gastrointestinal (GI) helminth infection intensity and concurrent anthrax outbreaks. Both pathogens are environmentally transmitted, and helminth seasonality is driven by environmental pressures on free living life stages. The reasons behind anthrax seasonality are currently not understood, though anthrax is less likely directly driven by environmental factors.ResultsWe measured a complex, interacting set of variables and found evidence that GI helminth infection intensities, eosinophil counts, IgE and IgGb antibody titers, and possibly IL-4 cytokine signaling were increased in wetter seasons, and that ectoparasite infestations and possibly IFN-¿ cytokine signaling were increased in drier seasons. Monocyte counts and anti-anthrax antibody titers were negatively associated with wet season eosinophilia, and monocytes were negatively correlated with IgGb and IgE titers. Taken together, this supports the hypothesis that ENP wet seasons are characterized by immune resource allocation toward Th-2 type responses, while Th1-type immunity may prevail in drier seasons, and that hosts may experience Th1-Th2 trade-offs. We found evidence that this Th2-type resource allocation is likely driven by GI parasite infections, and that these trade-offs may render hosts less capable of concurrently mounting effective Th1-type immune responses against anthrax.ConclusionsThis study is one of the first to examine laboratory-demonstrated Th1-Th2 trade-offs in a natural system. It provides evidence that seasonally bound pathogens may affect, through immunology, transmission dynamics of pathogens that might otherwise not be seasonally distributed. It suggests that, by manipulating the internal host ecosystem, GI parasites may influence the external ecosystem by affecting the dynamics of another environmentally transmitted pathogen. PMID:25388877

Cizauskas, Carrie A; Turner, Wendy C; Wagner, Bettina; Küsters, Martina; Vance, Russell E; Getz, Wayne M

2014-11-12

336

Trophic transfer of cyanobacterial toxins from zooplankton to planktivores: consequences for pike larvae and mysid shrimps.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentially harmful effects of zooplankton preexposed to cyanobacteria on two planktivorous animals: a fish larva (pike, Esox lucius) and a mysid shrimp (Neomysis integer). The planktivores were fed zooplankton from a natural community that had been preexposed to cell-free extract or to purified toxin (nodularin) of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena, and the growth, feeding, and pellet production of the planktivores, as well as the toxin content of the pellets, were measured. In addition, radiolabeled nodularin ((3)H-dihydronodularin) was used in separate experiments to measure the vector transfer of nodularin from zooplankton to their predators. During 11-day exposures, dissolved nodularin was transferred to pike larvae and N. integer via zooplankton at very low rates of accumulation. Treatment with N. spumigena extract decreased the ingestion and feces production rates of pike larvae. With purified nodularin alone, no such effect could be observed. No effect on molting cycle length, fecal pellet production, C:N ratio, or growth of N. integer was detected. The results suggest that dissolved cyanobacterial toxins released during bloom decay can have a negative impact on feeding and, hence, on the growth of fish larvae via zooplankton, even without direct contact between cyanobacteria and the fish. PMID:15892036

Karjalainen, Miina; Reinikainen, Marko; Spoof, Lisa; Meriluoto, Jussi A O; Sivonen, Kaarina; Viitasalo, Markku

2005-06-01

337

Advax-Adjuvanted Recombinant Protective Antigen Provides Protection against Inhalational Anthrax That Is Further Enhanced by Addition of Murabutide Adjuvant  

PubMed Central

Subunit vaccines against anthrax based on recombinant protective antigen (PA) potentially offer more consistent and less reactogenic anthrax vaccines but require adjuvants to achieve optimal immunogenicity. This study sought to determine in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax infection whether the polysaccharide adjuvant Advax or the innate immune adjuvant murabutide alone or together could enhance PA immunogenicity by comparison to an alum adjuvant. A single immunization with PA plus Advax adjuvant afforded significantly greater protection against aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain 7702 than three immunizations with PA alone. Murabutide had a weaker adjuvant effect than Advax when used alone, but when murabutide was formulated together with Advax, an additive effect on immunogenicity and protection was observed, with complete protection after just two doses. The combined adjuvant formulation stimulated a robust, long-lasting B-cell memory response that protected mice against an aerosol challenge 18 months postimmunization with acceleration of the kinetics of the anamnestic IgG response to B. anthracis as reflected by ?4-fold-higher anti-PA IgG titers by day 2 postchallenge versus mice that received PA with Alhydrogel. In addition, the combination of Advax plus murabutide induced approximately 3-fold-less inflammation than Alhydrogel as measured by in vivo imaging of cathepsin cleavage resulting from injection of ProSense 750. Thus, the combination of Advax and murabutide provided enhanced protection against inhalational anthrax with reduced localized inflammation, making this a promising next-generation anthrax vaccine adjuvanting strategy. PMID:24554695

Feinen, Brandon; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Verma, Anita

2014-01-01

338

Shiga toxins induce autophagy leading to differential signaling pathways in toxin-sensitive and toxin-resistant human cells  

PubMed Central

Summary The bacterial virulence factors Shiga toxins (Stxs) are expressed by Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and certain Escherichia coli strains. Stxs are protein synthesis inhibitors and induce apoptosis in many cell types. Stxs induce apoptosis via prolonged ER stress signaling to activate both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in human myeloid cells. Studies have shown that autophagy, a lysosome-dependent catabolic process, may be associated with activation of pro-survival or death processes. It is currently unknown if autophagy contributes to apoptosis or protects cells from Stxs. To study cellular responses to Stxs, we intoxicated toxin-sensitive cells (THP-1 and HK-2 cells), and toxin-resistant cells (primary human monocyte-derived macrophages) and examined toxin intracellular trafficking and autophagosome formation. Stxs translocated to different cell compartments in toxin-resistant versus toxin-sensitive cells. Confocal microscopy revealed autophagosome formation in both toxin-resistant and toxin-sensitive cells. Proteolytic cleavage of Atg5 and Beclin-1 play pivotal roles in switching non-cytotoxic autophagy to cell death signaling. We detected cleaved forms of Atg5 and Beclin-1 in Stx-treated toxin-sensitive cells, while cleaved caspases, calpains, Atg5 and Beclin-1 were not detected in toxin-resistant primary human monocytes and macrophages. These findings suggest that toxin sensitivity correlates with caspase and calpain activation, leading to Atg5 and Beclin-1 cleavage. PMID:21722286

Lee, Moo-Seung; Cherla, Rama P.; Jenson, Matthew H.; Leyva-Illades, Dinorah; Martinez-Moczygemba, Margarita; Tesh, Vernon L.

2011-01-01

339

Isolation of Radiolabeled Isoflavones from Kudzu (Pueraria lobata) Root Cultures  

PubMed Central

Isoflavones have potential for preventing and treating several chronic health conditions, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this study, radiolabeled isoflavones were recovered from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures after incubation with uniformly labeled 14C-sucrose in the culture medium for 21 days. Approximately 19% of administered label was recovered in the isoflavone-rich dried extracts of kudzu root cultures (90.2 ?Ci/g or 3.3 MBq/g extract). HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the predominant isoflavones isolated from kudzu root cultures to be puerarin, daidzin, and malonyl-daidzin. The average concentration of the major isoflavone puerarin in kudzu root cultures was 33.6 mg/g extract, with a specific activity of 63.5 ?Ci/g (2.3 MBq/g). The isolated isoflavones were sufficiently 14C-labeled to permit utilization for subsequent in vivo metabolic tracking studies PMID:18690681

Reppert, Adam; Yousef, Gad G.; Rogers, Randy B.; Lila, Mary Ann

2009-01-01

340

Isolation of radiolabeled isoflavones from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures.  

PubMed

Isoflavones have potential for preventing and treating several chronic health conditions, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In this study, radiolabeled isoflavones were recovered from kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root cultures after incubation with uniformly labeled (14)C-sucrose in the culture medium for 21 days. Approximately 19% of administered label was recovered in the isoflavone-rich dried extracts of kudzu root cultures (90.2 microCi/g or 3.3 MBq/g extract). HPLC-PDA analysis revealed the predominant isoflavones isolated from kudzu root cultures to be puerarin, daidzin, and malonyl-daidzin. The average concentration of the major isoflavone puerarin in kudzu root cultures was 33.6 mg/g extract, with a specific activity of 63.5 microCi/g (2.3 MBq/g). The isolated isoflavones were sufficiently (14)C-labeled to permit utilization for subsequent in vivo metabolic tracking studies. PMID:18690681

Reppert, Adam; Yousef, Gad G; Rogers, Randy B; Lila, Mary Ann

2008-09-10

341

Risk Assessment of Shellfish Toxins  

PubMed Central

Complex secondary metabolites, some of which are highly toxic to mammals, are produced by many marine organisms. Some of these organisms are important food sources for marine animals and, when ingested, the toxins that they produce may be absorbed and stored in the tissues of the predators, which then become toxic to animals higher up the food chain. This is a particular problem with shellfish, and many cases of poisoning are reported in shellfish consumers each year. At present, there is no practicable means of preventing uptake of the toxins by shellfish or of removing them after harvesting. Assessment of the risk posed by such toxins is therefore required in order to determine levels that are unlikely to cause adverse effects in humans and to permit the establishment of regulatory limits in shellfish for human consumption. In the present review, the basic principles of risk assessment are described, and the progress made toward robust risk assessment of seafood toxins is discussed. While good progress has been made, it is clear that further toxicological studies are required before this goal is fully achieved. PMID:24226039

Munday, Rex; Reeve, John

2013-01-01

342

Recombinant Toxins for Cancer Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant toxins target cell surface receptors and antigens on tumor cells. They kill by mechanisms different from conventional chemotherapy, so that cross resistance to conventional chemotherapeutic agents should not be a problem. Furthermore, they are not mutagens and should not induce secondary malignancies or accelerate progression of benign malignancies. They can be mass-produced cheaply in bacteria as homogeneous proteins. Either

Ira Pastan; David Fitzgerald

1991-01-01

343

Nemertean Toxin Genes Revealed through Transcriptome Sequencing.  

PubMed

Nemerteans are one of few animal groups that have evolved the ability to utilize toxins for both defense and subduing prey, but little is known about specific nemertean toxins. In particular, no study has identified specific toxin genes even though peptide toxins are known from some nemertean species. Information about toxin genes is needed to better understand evolution of toxins across animals and possibly provide novel targets for pharmaceutical and industrial applications. We sequenced and annotated transcriptomes of two free-living and one commensal nemertean and annotated an additional six publicly available nemertean transcriptomes to identify putative toxin genes. Approximately 63-74% of predicted open reading frames in each transcriptome were annotated with gene names, and all species had similar percentages of transcripts annotated with each higher-level GO term. Every nemertean analyzed possessed genes with high sequence similarities to known animal toxins including those from stonefish, cephalopods, and sea anemones. One toxin-like gene found in all nemerteans analyzed had high sequence similarity to Plancitoxin-1, a DNase II hepatotoxin that may function well at low pH, which suggests that the acidic body walls of some nemerteans could work to enhance the efficacy of protein toxins. The highest number of toxin-like genes found in any one species was seven and the lowest was three. The diversity of toxin-like nemertean genes found here is greater than previously documented, and these animals are likely an ideal system for exploring toxin evolution and industrial applications of toxins. PMID:25432940

Whelan, Nathan V; Kocot, Kevin M; Santos, Scott R; Halanych, Kenneth M

2014-01-01

344

Optimising the radiolabelling properties of technetium tricarbonyl and His-tagged proteins  

PubMed Central

Background To date, the majority of protein-based radiopharmaceuticals have been radiolabelled using non-site-specific conjugation methods, with little or no control to ensure retained protein function post-labelling. The incorporation of a hexahistidine sequence (His-tag) in a recombinant protein can be used to site-specifically radiolabel with 99mTc-tricarbonyl ([99mTc(CO)3]+). This chemistry has been made accessible via a technetium tricarbonyl kit; however, reports of radiolabelling efficiencies and specific activities have varied greatly from one protein to another. Here, we aim to optimise the technetium tricarbonyl radiolabelling method to produce consistently >95% radiolabelling efficiencies with high specific activities suitable for in vivo imaging. Methods Four different recombinant His-tagged proteins (recombinant complement receptor 2 (rCR2) and three single chain antibodies, ?-CD33 scFv, ?-VCAM-1 scFv and ?-PSMA scFv), were used to study the effect of kit volume, ionic strength, pH and temperature on radiolabelling of four proteins. Results We used 260 and 350 ?L [99mTc(CO)3]+ kits enabling us to radiolabel at higher [99mTc(CO)3]+ and protein concentrations in a smaller volume and thus increase the rate at which maximum labelling efficiency and specific activity were reached. We also demonstrated that increasing the ionic strength of the reaction medium by increasing [Na+] from 0.25 to 0.63 M significantly increases the rate at which all four proteins reach a >95% labelling efficiency by at least fourfold, as compared to the conventional IsoLink® kit (Covidien, Petten, The Netherlands) and 0.25 M [Na+]. Conclusion We have found optimised kit and protein radiolabelling conditions suitable for the reproducible, fast, efficient radiolabelling of proteins without the need for post-labelling purification. PMID:24606843

2014-01-01

345

Protective Immunity to Ricin Toxin Conferred by Antibodies against the Toxin’s Binding Subunit (RTB)  

PubMed Central

The B subunit (RTB) of ricin toxin is a galactose-/N-acetyl galactosamine-specific lectin that promotes attachment and entry of ricin into host cells. RTB is also the archetype of the so-called R-type lectin family, whose members include haemagglutinins of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) progenitor toxins, as well as the binding subunits of cytolethal distending toxins. Although RTB is an appealing subunit vaccine candidate, as well as a potential target for immunotherapeutics, the degree to which RTB immunization elicits protective antibodies against ricin toxin remains unresolved. To address this issue, groups of mice were immunized with RTB and then challenged with 5xLD50s of ricin administered intraperitoneally. Despite high RTB-specific serum antibody titers, groups of RTB immunized mice were only partially immune to ricin challenge. Analysis of a collection of RTB-specific B cell hybridomas suggested that only a small fraction of antibodies against RTB have demonstrable neutralizing activity. Two RTB-specific neutralizing monoclonal IgG1 antibodies, 24B11 and SylH3, when passively administered to mice, were sufficient to protect the animals against a 5xLD50 dose of ricin. Both 24B11 and SylH3 blocked ricin attachment to terminal galactose residues and prevented toxin binding to the surfaces of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM), suggesting that they function by steric hindrance and recognize epitopes located on RTB’s carbohydrate recognition sub-domains (1? or 2?). These data raise the possibility of using specific RTB sub-domains, rather than RTB itself, as antigens to more efficiently elicit neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity against ricin. PMID:21872634

Yermakova, Anastasiya; Mantis, Nicholas J.

2011-01-01

346

Direct radiolabeling of antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen for diagnostic imaging  

DOEpatents

Antibodies against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 is radiolabeled by direct means with a radionuclide for use in detection of occult abscess and inflammation. Radiolabeling is accomplished by partial reduction of the disulfide bonds of the antibody using Sn(II), or using other reducing agents followed by the addition of Sn(II), removal of excess reducing agent and reduction by-products, and addition of a specified amount of radionuclide reducing agent, such as stannous tartrate. The resulting product may be stored frozen or lyophilized, with radiolabeling accomplished by the addition of the radionuclide. No Drawings

Rhodes, B.A.

1994-09-13

347

Direct radiolabeling of antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen for diagnostic imaging  

DOEpatents

Antibody against stage specific embryonic antigen-1 is radiolabeled by direct means with a radionuclide for use in detection of occult abscess and inflammation. Radiolabeling is accomplished by partial reduction of the disulfide bonds of the antibody using Sn(II), or using other reducing agents followed by the addition of Sn(II), removal of excess reducing agent and reduction by-products, and addition of a specified amount of radionuclide reducing agent, such as stannous tartrate. The resulting product may be store frozen or lyophilized, with radiolabeling accomplished by the addition of the radionuclide.

Rhodes, Buck A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01

348

Structurally integrated organic light-emitting device-based sensors for oxygen, glucose, hydrazine, and anthrax  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of the new platform of structurally integrated luminescent chemical and biological sensors, in which the photoluminescence (PL) excitation source is an organic light-emitting device (OLED), is demonstrated for the detection of oxygen, glucose, hydrazine, and anthrax lethal factor (LF). The oxygen sensors are based on the collisional quenching of the PL of tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) Ru (II) (Ru(dpp)) and Pt octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP) by O2. The glucose sensors are based on the O2 sensors, to which glucose oxidase, which catalyzes the reaction between glucose and O2, is added. The oxygen and glucose sensors are operable in either the PL intensity I mode or the PL lifetime t mode, where the value of I or t yields the oxygen level. In the t mode, the need for sensor calibration, which remains a challenge in real-world sensing applications, is eliminated. The performance of sensors based on [blue 4,4'-bis(2,2'-diphenylvinyl)-1,1'-biphenyl (DPVBi) OLEDs]/[Ru(dpp)] are compared to those of [green tris(8-hydroxy quinoline) Al (Alq3)]/[PtOEP]. The latter are strongly preferred over the former, due to the relatively long t of PtOEP (~130 ms in the absence of O2), and the higher efficiency and brightness of the green Alq3 OLEDs. Demonstration of the hydrazine sensor is based on the reaction between nonluminescent anthracene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde and hydrazine or hydrazine sulfate, which generates a luminescent product. The anthrax LF sensor is based on the cleavage of certain peptides by the anthrax-secreted LF enzyme. As the LF cleaves a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor-acceptor pair-labeled peptide, and the two cleaved segments are separated, the PL of the donor, previously absorbed by the acceptor, becomes detectable by the photodetector.

Shinar, Ruth; Choudhury, Bhaskar; Zhou, Zhaoqun; Wu, Hai-Sheng; Tabatabai, Louisa B.; Shinar, Joseph

2004-12-01

349

Discovery and characterization of cnidarian peptide toxins that affect neuronal potassium ion channels.  

PubMed

Peptides have been isolated from several species of sea anemones and shown to block currents through various potassium ion channels, particularly in excitable cells. The toxins can be grouped into four structural classes: type 1 with 35-37 amino acid residues and three disulphide bridges; type 2 with 58-59 residues and three disulphide bridges; type 3 with 41-42 residues and three disulphide bridges; and type 4 with 28 residues and two disulphide bridges. Examples from the first class are BgK from Bunodosoma granulifera, ShK from Stichodactyla helianthus and AsKS (or kaliseptine) from Anemonia sulcata (now A. viridis). These interfere with binding of radiolabelled dendrotoxin to synaptosomal membranes and block currents through channels with various Kv1 subunits and also intermediate conductance K(Ca) channels. Toxins in the second class are homologous to Kunitz-type inhibitors of serine proteases; these toxins include kalicludines (AsKC 1-3) from A. sulcata and SHTXIII from S. haddoni; they block Kv1.2 channels. The third structural group includes BDS-I, BDS-II (from A. sulcata) and APETx 1 (from Anthropleura elegantissima). Their pharmacological specificity differs: BDS-I and -II block currents involving Kv3 subunits, while APETx1 blocks ERG channels. The fourth group comprises the more recently discovered SHTX I and II from S. haddoni. Their channel blocking specificity is not yet known but they displace dendrotoxin binding from synaptosomal membranes. Sea anemones can be predicted to be a continued source of new toxins that will serve as molecular probes of various K(+) channels. PMID:19269305

Castañeda, Olga; Harvey, Alan L

2009-12-15

350

The toxin and antidote puzzle  

PubMed Central

Insects carry out essential ecological functions, such as pollination, but also cause extensive damage to agricultural crops and transmit human diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Advances in insect transgenesis are making it increasingly feasible to engineer genes conferring desirable phenotypes, and gene drive systems are required to spread these genes into wild populations. Medea provides one solution, being able to spread into a population from very low initial frequencies through the action of a maternally-expressed toxin linked to a zygotically-expressed antidote. Several other toxin-antidote combinations are imaginable that distort the offspring ratio in favor of a desired transgene, or drive the population towards an all-male crash. We explore two such systems—Semele, which is capable of spreading a desired transgene into an isolated population in a confined manner; and Merea, which is capable of inducing a local population crash when located on the Z chromosome of a Lepidopteron pest. PMID:21876382

2011-01-01

351

Immunogenicity and efficacy of an anthrax/plague DNA fusion vaccine in a mouse model.  

PubMed

The efficacy of multi-agent DNA vaccines consisting of a truncated gene encoding Bacillus anthracis lethal factor (LFn) fused to either Yersinia pestis V antigen (V) or Y . pestis F1 was evaluated. A/J mice were immunized by gene gun and developed predominantly IgG1 responses that were fully protective against a lethal aerosolized B. anthracis spore challenge but required the presence of an additional DNA vaccine expressing anthrax protective antigen to boost survival against aerosolized Y. pestis. PMID:22515653

Albrecht, Mark T; Eyles, Jim E; Baillie, Les W; Keane-Myers, Andrea M

2012-08-01

352

An update on uremic toxins.  

PubMed

In the last decade, uremic toxicity as a potential cause for the excess of cardiovascular disease and mortality observed in chronic kidney disease gained more and more interest. This review focuses on uremic toxins with known cardiovascular effects and their removal. For protein-bound solutes, for example, indoxylsulfate and the conjugates of p-cresol, and for small water-soluble solutes, for example, guanidines, such as ADMA and SDMA, there is a growing evidence for a role in cardiovascular toxicity in vitro (e.g., affecting leukocyte, endothelial, vascular smooth muscle cell function) and/or in vivo. Several middle molecules (e.g., beta-2-microglobulin, interleukin-6, TNF-alpha and FGF-23) were shown to be predictors for cardiovascular disease and/or mortality. Most of these solutes, however, are difficult to remove during dialysis, which is traditionally assessed by studying the removal of urea, which can be considered as a relatively inert uremic retention solute. However, even the effective removal of other small water-soluble toxins than urea can be hampered by their larger distribution volumes. Middle molecules (beta-2-microglobulin as prototype, but not necessarily representative for others) are cleared more efficiently when the pore size of the dialyzer membrane increases, convection is applied and dialysis time is prolonged. Only adding convection to diffusion improves the removal of protein-bound toxins. Therefore, alternative removal strategies, such as intestinal adsorption, drugs interfering with toxic biochemical pathways or decreasing toxin concentration, and extracorporeal plasma adsorption, as well as kinetic behavior during dialysis need further investigation. Even more importantly, randomized clinical studies are required to demonstrate a survival advantage through these strategies. PMID:22893494

Neirynck, N; Vanholder, R; Schepers, E; Eloot, S; Pletinck, A; Glorieux, G

2013-02-01

353

Novel Class of Spider Toxin  

PubMed Central

Venom of the yellow sac spider Cheiracanthium punctorium (Miturgidae) was found unique in terms of molecular composition. Its principal toxic component CpTx 1 (15.1 kDa) was purified, and its full amino acid sequence (134 residues) was established by protein chemistry and mass spectrometry techniques. CpTx 1 represents a novel class of spider toxin with modular architecture. It consists of two different yet homologous domains (modules) each containing a putative inhibitor cystine knot motif, characteristic of the widespread single domain spider neurotoxins. Venom gland cDNA sequencing provided precursor protein (prepropeptide) structures of three CpTx 1 isoforms (a–c) that differ by single residue substitutions. The toxin possesses potent insecticidal (paralytic and lethal), cytotoxic, and membrane-damaging activities. In both fly and frog neuromuscular preparations, it causes stable and irreversible depolarization of muscle fibers leading to contracture. This effect appears to be receptor-independent and is inhibited by high concentrations of divalent cations. CpTx 1 lyses cell membranes, as visualized by confocal microscopy, and destabilizes artificial membranes in a manner reminiscent of other membrane-active peptides by causing numerous defects of variable conductance and leading to bilayer rupture. The newly discovered class of modular polypeptides enhances our knowledge of the toxin universe. PMID:20657014

Vassilevski, Alexander A.; Fedorova, Irina M.; Maleeva, Ekaterina E.; Korolkova, Yuliya V.; Efimova, Svetlana S.; Samsonova, Olga V.; Schagina, Ludmila V.; Feofanov, Alexei V.; Magazanik, Lev G.; Grishin, Eugene V.

2010-01-01

354

Bacterial protein toxins and inflammation.  

PubMed

Although human mucosal linings are continuously exposed to microbes, the microbes rarely induce disease. This is because mucosal surfaces are protected by a first line of defence termed the innate immunity system. Inflammatory processes are activated as a consequence of a complex interplay between microbes and host target cells. Although inflammation is essential for clearing out infectious agents, it can also be harmful to the host and is therefore subjected to tight control at multiple levels. It was recently discovered that the bacterial protein toxin alpha-haemolysin (HlyA), secreted by uropathogenic Escherichia coli, induces constant, low-frequency Ca2+ oscillations in renal epithelial cells. Ca2+ oscillation occurs at a characteristic periodicity of 12 min, and affects gene expression in target epithelial cells. Specifically, the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and chemokine IL-8 were induced by HlyA-induced Ca2+ oscillations. A few additional bacterial protein toxins have been reported to induce Ca2+ oscillations in target epithelial cells, although their effects are poorly understood. However, the pioneering work on HlyA demonstrates a novel feature of bacterial protein toxins on host target cells: as inducers of second messenger responses which fine-tune gene expression in target epithelial cells. PMID:14620146

Söderblom, Tomas; Oxhamre, Camilla; Torstensson, Elisabeth; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta

2003-01-01

355

A Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor mediates cell lineage ablation after toxin administration  

E-print Network

A Cre-inducible diphtheria toxin receptor mediates cell lineage ablation after toxin administration in oligodendrocytes, we observed myelin loss after intraperitoneal DT injections. Thus, DT crosses the blood

Cai, Long

356

Bt toxin modification for enhanced efficacy.  

PubMed

Insect-specific toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide a valuable resource for pest suppression. Here we review the different strategies that have been employed to enhance toxicity against specific target species including those that have evolved resistance to Bt, or to modify the host range of Bt crystal (Cry) and cytolytic (Cyt) toxins. These strategies include toxin truncation, modification of protease cleavage sites, domain swapping, site-directed mutagenesis, peptide addition, and phage display screens for mutated toxins with enhanced activity. Toxin optimization provides a useful approach to extend the utility of these proteins for suppression of pests that exhibit low susceptibility to native Bt toxins, and to overcome field resistance. PMID:25340556

Deist, Benjamin R; Rausch, Michael A; Fernandez-Luna, Maria Teresa; Adang, Michael J; Bonning, Bryony C

2014-10-01

357

Radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for imaging and therapy: Potential, problems, and prospects: Scientific highlights  

SciTech Connect

This meeting focused on areas of research on radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. Topics covered included the production, purification, and fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies and immunochemistry of hybridomas; the production and the chemistry of radionuclides; the radiohalogenation and radiometal labeling techniques; the in-vivo pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled antibodies; the considerations of immunoreactivity of radiolabeled preparations; the instrumentation and imaging techniques as applied to radioimmunodetection; the radiation dosimetry in diagnostic and therapeutic use of labeled antibodies; the radioimmunoscintigraphy and radioimmunotherapy studies; and perspectives and directions for future research. Tutorial as well as scientific lectures describing the latest research data on the above topics were presented. Three workshop panels were convened on ''Methods for Determining Immunoreactivity of Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibodies - Problems and Pitfalls,'' Radiobiological and Dosimetric Considerations for Immunotherapy with Labeled Antibodies,'' and ''The Human Anti-Mouse Antibody Response in Patients.''

Srivastava, S.C.; Buraggi, G.L.

1986-01-01

358

Prokaryotic toxin–antitoxin stress response loci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although toxin–antitoxin gene cassettes were first found in plasmids, recent database mining has shown that these loci are abundant in free-living prokaryotes, including many pathogenic bacteria. For example, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has 38 chromosomal toxin–antitoxin loci, including 3 relBE and 9 mazEF loci. RelE and MazF are toxins that cleave mRNA in response to nutritional stress. RelE cleaves mRNAs that are

Susanne K. Christensen; Anders Løbner-Olesen; Kenn Gerdes

2005-01-01

359

Bioorthogonal chemistry for (68) Ga radiolabelling of DOTA-containing compounds.  

PubMed

Copper-catalysed 'click' chemistry is a highly utilised technique for radiolabelling small molecules and peptides for imaging applications. The usefulness of these reactions falls short, however, when metal catalysis is not a practically viable route; such as when using metal chelates as radioligands. Here, we describe a method for carrying out 'click-type' radiochemistry in the presence of DOTA chelates, by combining (68) Ga radiolabelling techniques with well-established bioorthogonal reactions, which do not rely upon metal catalysis. PMID:24307493

Evans, Helen L; Carroll, Laurence; Aboagye, Eric O; Spivey, Alan C

2014-04-01

360

A radiolabeled antiglobulin test for crossmatching platelet transfusions  

SciTech Connect

Despite the use of HLA-matched platelets for alloimmunized recipients, transfusion failures occur. In order to reduce these failures, researchers investigated the use of a radiolabeled antiglobulin technique for platelet crossmatching. The principle of the test is that of an indirect Coombs test using /sup 125/I labeled goat anti-human IgG. Incompatibility is determined by calculating a radioactivity antiglobulin test (RAGT) index. Using this technique, researchers performed 89 crossmatches on 19 leukemic or aplastic patients who were refractory to random donor platelets and receiving varying degrees of HLA-matched platelets. Effectiveness of the transfusion was assessed from the posttransfusion corrected platelet count increment (CCI) determined at 1 and 20 hr. When the RAGT index was 1.9 or less, the mean CCI at 1 lhr was 17,570 +/- 7003/cu mm, n . 55. When the RAGT index was 2.0 or greater, the mean CCI was 4237 +/- 4100/cu mm, n . 34. At 20 hr when the RAGT index was 1.9 or less, the mean CCI was 8722 +/- 3143/cu mm, n . 33, and when the index was 2.0 or greater, the mean CCI was 571 +/- 1286/cu mm, n . 23. Using this technique, one false negative resulted. Nine positive crossmatches with good increments at 1 hr were found; at 20 hr, however, the survival of these units was zero. These data suggest that this method is a useful adjunct in the selection of platelets in the refractory patient.

Kickler, T.S.; Braine, H.G.; Ness, P.M.; Koester, A.; Bias, W.

1983-02-01

361

Structurally integrated organic light-emitting device (OLED)-based sensors for industrial and environmental security: sensors for hydrazine and anthrax  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of the new compact platform of structurally integrated, photoluminescent (bio)chemical sensors, where the photoluminescence (PL) excitation source is an OLED, to the detection of hydrazine and anthrax, is described. The hydrazine sensor is based on the reaction between nonluminescent anthracene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde and hydrazine or hydrazine sulfate, which generates a luminescent product. The anthrax sensor is based on a Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay, where the anthrax-secreted lethal factor enzyme cleaves certain labeled peptides at a specific site. The cleaving separates the FRET donor-acceptor pair, resulting in an increase in the PL of the donor, which was previously absorbed by the acceptor.

Zhou, Zhaoqun; Shinar, Ruth; Choudhury, Bhaskar; Tabatabai, Louisa B.; Liao, Chuxiong; Shinar, Joseph

2005-11-01

362

TOXINS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY / 1 Animal Toxins in the World of Modern  

E-print Network

TOXINS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY / 1 Animal Toxins in the World of Modern Biotechnology JEAN-MARC SABATIER1 Biotechnologies, Bâtiment Biopolis, 5, avenue du Grand Sablon, 38700 La Tronche, France. Tel.: +33-4-56520563; Fax: +33-4-56520637; E-mail address: michel.dewaard@ujf-grenoble.fr Running title: Toxins in Biotechnology

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

363

Experiments with cholera toxin detoxified with glutaraldehyde*  

PubMed Central

Studies on the production, purification, and detoxification of cholera toxin are reported. The toxin was first partially purified with aluminium hydroxide and further purification was effected with Bio Gel A-5m and Sephadex G-75. The toxins were detoxified with glutaraldehyde; the toxoids so obtained, when injected into the skin of rabbits, appeared to have no residual toxicity. All the toxins were immunogenic. The toxoid partially purified with aluminium hydroxide retained most of its immunizing capacity, but the highly purified toxoids did not retain their capacity to stimulate antibody production in rabbits. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 1 PMID:4219758

Saletti, M.; Ricci, A.

1974-01-01

364

Novel (64)Cu-radiolabeled bile acid conjugates for targeted PET imaging.  

PubMed

A promising bifunctional chelate (N-NE3TA) was conjugated to bile acids, cholic acid (CA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) as tumor targeting vectors. Bile acid conjugates of N-NE3TA (CA-N-NE3TA, DCA-N-NE3TA, and CDCA-N-NE3TA) were comparatively evaluated for complexation with (64)Cu, an imaging probe for positron emission tomography (PET). N-NE3TA-bile acid conjugates were evaluated for radiolabeling kinetics with (64)Cu, and the corresponding (64)Cu-radiolabeled conjugates were screened for complex stability in human serum and EDTA solution. The NE3TA-bile acid conjugates instantly bound to (64)Cu with excellent radiolabeling efficiency at room temperature. All NE3TA-bile acid conjugates radiolabeled with (64)Cu remained inert in human serum for 2days without releasing a considerable amount of the radioactivity. The (64)Cu-radiolabeled complexes were further challenged by EDTA in a 100-fold molar excess. Bile acid-N-NE3TA conjugates radiolabeled with (64)Cu were quite stable with a minimal transfer of (64)Cu to EDTA at 4h time point. The in vitro data indicate that the bile acid-N-NE3TA conjugates deserve further biological evaluation for (64)Cu-based targeted PET imaging applications. PMID:25661712

Chong, Hyun-Soon; Chen, Yunwei; Kang, Chi Soo; Sun, Xiang; Wu, Ningjie

2015-03-01

365

9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...handled anthrax material is thorough cleansing of the hands and arms with liquid soap...have had time to form spores. In the cleansing, a brush or other appropriate appliance...about the fingernails. This process of cleansing is most effective when performed...

2010-01-01

366

9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...handled anthrax material is thorough cleansing of the hands and arms with liquid soap...have had time to form spores. In the cleansing, a brush or other appropriate appliance...about the fingernails. This process of cleansing is most effective when performed...

2012-01-01

367

9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...handled anthrax material is thorough cleansing of the hands and arms with liquid soap...have had time to form spores. In the cleansing, a brush or other appropriate appliance...about the fingernails. This process of cleansing is most effective when performed...

2013-01-01

368

9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...handled anthrax material is thorough cleansing of the hands and arms with liquid soap...have had time to form spores. In the cleansing, a brush or other appropriate appliance...about the fingernails. This process of cleansing is most effective when performed...

2011-01-01

369

9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...  

...handled anthrax material is thorough cleansing of the hands and arms with liquid soap...have had time to form spores. In the cleansing, a brush or other appropriate appliance...about the fingernails. This process of cleansing is most effective when performed...

2014-01-01

370

Development and application of an analytical method for the determination of squalene in formulations of anthrax vaccine adsorbed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific lots of Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, administered to members of the US Armed Forces, have been described on various Internet sites and in news articles as a source of squalene, a chemical purported by these media to be associated with the Gulf War Syndrome. We have developed and validated a method using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection for the

Ronald J Spanggord; Benjamin Wu; Meg Sun; Peter Lim; William Y Ellis

2002-01-01

371

Anthrax pathogen evades the mammalian immune system through stealth siderophore Strong, B. Rowe Byers, and Kenneth N. Raymond  

E-print Network

production Anthrax pathogen evades the mammalian immune system through stealth siderophore Strong evades the mammalian immune system through stealth siderophore production Rebecca J. Abergel*, Melissa K of Technology, Pasadena, CA, and approved October 11, 2006 (received for review August 14, 2006) Systemic

Strong, Roland K.

372

Differentiation of springtime vegetation indices associated with summer anthrax epizootics in west Texas, USA, deer.  

PubMed

Anthrax outbreaks in white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, are frequent in west Texas, USA, particularly across the Edwards Plateau. However, the outbreak severity varies among years. We summarize the outbreak history in white-tailed deer at a ranch north of Del Rio, Texas, from 2001 to 2010 and compare mortality rates to remotely sensed vegetation indices derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite data. It has long been posited that the occurrence of mid- to high-latitude epizootics is associated with hot, dry summer conditions preceded by a wet spring, with cases occurring after summer rain events. Here we employed vegetation green-up indices as a proxy for such environmental conditions. Annual trajectories of vegetation indices identified a clear pattern of early green springs with dry summers in severe outbreak years. In contrast, later, less intense spring green-up with greener summers were associated with enzootic mortality years, when few cases occurred. There was a statistically significant difference in the annual timing and intensity of spring green-up from vegetation indices for epizootic and enzootic years. Years with epizootics have early, intense spring conditions, whereas enzootic years have low-intensity green-up. These results suggest that early green-up signatures may be useful in identifying epizootic climatic conditions ahead of the summer anthrax period. Such analyses are required to ultimately develop an early warning system for wildlife managers and veterinary public health officials. PMID:23778625

Blackburn, Jason K; Goodin, Douglas G

2013-07-01

373

Detection of anthrax lef with DNA-based photonic crystal sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacillus anthracis has posed a threat of becoming biological weapons of mass destruction due to its virulence factors encoded by the plasmid-borne genes, such as lef for lethal factor. We report the development of a fast and sensitive anthrax DNA biosensor based on a photonic crystal structure used in a total-internal-reflection configuration. For the detection of the lef gene, a single-stranded DNA lef probe was biotinylated and immobilized onto the sensor via biotin-streptavidin interactions. A positive control, lef-com, was the complementary strand of the probe, while a negative control was an unrelated single-stranded DNA fragment from the 16S rRNA gene of Acinetobacter baumannii. After addition of the biotinylated lef probe onto the sensor, significant changes in the resonance wavelength of the sensor were observed, resulting from binding of the probe to streptavidin on the sensor. The addition of lef-com led to another significant increase as a result of hybridization between the two DNA strands. The detection sensitivity for the target DNA reached as low as 0.1 nM. In contrast, adding the unrelated DNAs did not cause an obvious shift in the resonant wavelength. These results demonstrate that detection of the anthrax lef by the photonic crystal structure in a total-internal-reflection sensor is highly specific and sensitive.

Zhang, Bailin; Dallo, Shatha; Peterson, Ralph; Hussain, Syed; Weitao, Tao; Ye, Jing Yong

2011-12-01

374

Calcium-independent metal-ion catalytic mechanism of anthrax edema factor  

SciTech Connect

Edema factor (EF), a key anthrax exotoxin, has an anthrax protective antigen-binding domain (PABD) and a calmodulin (CaM)-activated adenylyl cyclase domain. Here, we report the crystal structures of CaM-bound EF, revealing the architecture of EF PABD. CaM has N- and C-terminal domains and each domain can bind two calcium ions. Calcium binding induces the conformational change of CaM from closed to open. Structures of the EF-CaM complex show how EF locks the N-terminal domain of CaM into a closed conformation regardless of its calcium-loading state. This represents a mechanism of how CaM effector alters the calcium affinity of CaM and uncouples the conformational change of CaM from calcium loading. Furthermore, structures of EF-CaM complexed with nucleotides show that EF uses two-metal-ion catalysis, a prevalent mechanism in DNA and RNA polymerases. A histidine (H351) further facilitates the catalysis of EF by activating a water to deprotonate 3'OH of ATP. Mammalian adenylyl cyclases share no structural similarity with EF and they also use two-metal-ion catalysis, suggesting the catalytic mechanism-driven convergent evolution of two structurally diverse adenylyl cyclases.

Shen, Yuequan; Zhukovskaya, Natalia L.; Guo, Qing; Florián, Jan; Tang, Wei-Jen (Loyola); (UC)

2009-11-18

375

A Supramolecular Sensing Platform for Phosphate Anions and an Anthrax Biomarker in a Microfluidic Device  

PubMed Central

A supramolecular platform based on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) has been implemented in a microfluidic device. The system has been applied for the sensing of two different analyte types: biologically relevant phosphate anions and aromatic carboxylic acids, which are important for anthrax detection. A Eu(III)-EDTA complex was bound to ?-cyclodextrin monolayers via orthogonal supramolecular host-guest interactions. The self-assembly of the Eu(III)-EDTA conjugate and naphthalene ?-diketone as an antenna resulted in the formation of a highly luminescent lanthanide complex on the microchannel surface. Detection of different phosphate anions and aromatic carboxylic acids was demonstrated by monitoring the decrease in red emission following displacement of the antenna by the analyte. Among these analytes, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and pyrophosphate, as well as dipicolinic acid (DPA) which is a biomarker for anthrax, showed a strong response. Parallel fabrication of five sensing SAMs in a single multichannel chip was performed, as a first demonstration of phosphate and carboxylic acid screening in a multiplexed format that allows a general detection platform for both analyte systems in a single test run with ?M and nM detection sensitivity for ATP and DPA, respectively. PMID:22174602

Eker, Bilge; Yilmaz, Mahmut Deniz; Schlautmann, Stefan; Gardeniers, Johannes G. E.; Huskens, Jurriaan

2011-01-01

376

42 CFR 73.3 - HHS select agents and toxins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...toxins: Abrin Botulinum neurotoxins Botulinum neurotoxin producing species of Clostridium Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (Herpes B virus) Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin Coccidioides posadasii/Coccidioides immitis Conotoxins...

2010-10-01

377

Development of a highly efficacious vaccinia-based dual vaccine against smallpox and anthrax, two important bioterror entities.  

PubMed

Bioterrorism poses a daunting challenge to global security and public health in the 21st century. Variola major virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, and Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax, remain at the apex of potential pathogens that could be used in a bioterror attack to inflict mass casualties. Although licensed vaccines are available for both smallpox and anthrax, because of inadequacies associated with each of these vaccines, serious concerns remain as to the deployability of these vaccines, especially in the aftermath of a bioterror attack involving these pathogens. We have developed a single vaccine (Wyeth/IL-15/PA) using the licensed Wyeth smallpox vaccine strain that is efficacious against both smallpox and anthrax due to the integration of immune-enhancing cytokine IL-15 and the protective antigen (PA) of B. anthracis into the Wyeth vaccinia virus. Integration of IL-15 renders Wyeth vaccinia avirulent in immunodeficient mice and enhances anti-vaccinia immune responses. Wyeth/IL-15/PA conferred sterile protection against a lethal challenge of B. anthracis Ames strain spores in rabbits. A single dose of Wyeth/IL-15/PA protected 33% of the vaccinated A/J mice against a lethal spore challenge 72 h later whereas a single dose of licensed anthrax vaccine protected only 10%. Our dual vaccine Wyeth/IL-15/PA remedies the inadequacies associated with the licensed vaccines, and the inherent ability of Wyeth vaccinia virus to be lyophilized without loss of potency makes it cold-chain independent, thus simplifying the logistics of storage, stockpiling, and field delivery in the event of a bioterror attack involving smallpox or anthrax. PMID:20921397

Merkel, Tod J; Perera, Pin-Yu; Kelly, Vanessa K; Verma, Anita; Llewellyn, Zara N; Waldmann, Thomas A; Mosca, Joseph D; Perera, Liyanage P

2010-10-19

378

The Central Nervous System as Target of Bacillus anthracis Toxin Independent Virulence in Rabbits and Guinea Pigs  

PubMed Central

Infection of the central nervous system is considered a complication of Anthrax and was reported in humans and non-human primates. Previously we have reported that Bacillus anthracis possesses a toxin-independent virulent trait that, like the toxins, is regulated by the major virulence regulator, AtxA, in the presence of pXO2. This toxin-independent lethal trait is exhibited in rabbits and Guinea pigs following significant bacteremia and organ dissemination. Various findings, including meningitis seen in humans and primates, suggested that the CNS is a possible target for this AtxA-mediated activity. In order to penetrate into the brain tissue, the bacteria have to overcome the barriers isolating the CNS from the blood stream. Taking a systematic genetic approach, we compared intracranial (IC) inoculation and IV/SC inoculation for the outcome of the infection in rabbits/GP, respectively. The outstanding difference between the two models is exhibited by the encapsulated strain Vollum?pXO1, which is lethal when injected IC, but asymptomatic when inoculated IV/SC. The findings demonstrate that there is an apparent bottleneck in the ability of mutants to penetrate into the brain. Any mutant carrying either pXO1 or pXO2 will kill the host upon IC injection, but only those carrying AtxA either on pXO1 or in the chromosome in the background of pXO2 can penetrate into the brain following peripheral inoculation. The findings were corroborated by histological examination by H&E staining and immunofluorescence of rabbits' brains following IV and IC inoculations. These findings may have major implications on future research both on B. anthracis pathogenicity and on vaccine development. PMID:25375158

Levy, Haim; Glinert, Itai; Weiss, Shay; Bar-David, Elad; Sittner, Assa; Schlomovitz, Josef; Altboum, Zeev; Kobiler, David

2014-01-01

379

Influence of Protein Formulation and Carrier Solution on Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation: A Case Study of the Plant-Produced Recombinant Anthrax Protective Antigen pp-PA83.  

PubMed

Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (afFFF) was used to investigate the properties of a plant-produced anthrax toxin protective antigen, pp-PA83. The afFFF fractogram consisted of two main peaks with molar masses similar to the molecular mass of pp-PA83 monomer. afFFF carrier solutions strongly influenced the ratio and the intensity of the two main peaks. These differences indicate that conformation changes in the pp-PA83 molecule occurred during the afFFF analysis. Similar fractograms were obtained for different pp-PA83 formulations when the afFFF carrier solution and the protein formulation were the same (or very similar). The data show that in specific cases, afFFF could be used to study protein conformation and document the importance of studying the influence of the carrier solution on afFFF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci. PMID:25417936

Palais, Caroline; Chichester, Jessica A; Manceva, Slobodanka; Yusibov, Vidadi; Arvinte, Tudor

2014-11-21

380

Botulinum toxin: The Midas touch.  

PubMed

Botulinum Toxin (BT) is a natural molecule produced during growth and autolysis of bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. Use of BT for cosmetic purposes has gained popularity over past two decades, and recently, other therapeutic uses of BT has been extensively studied. BT is considered as a minimally invasive agent that can be used in the treatment of various orofacial disorders and improving the quality of life in such patients. The objective of this article is to review the nature, mechanism of action of BT, and its application in various head and neck diseases. PMID:24678189

Shilpa, P S; Kaul, Rachna; Sultana, Nishat; Bhat, Suraksha

2014-01-01

381

Botulinum toxin: The Midas touch  

PubMed Central

Botulinum Toxin (BT) is a natural molecule produced during growth and autolysis of bacterium called Clostridium botulinum. Use of BT for cosmetic purposes has gained popularity over past two decades, and recently, other therapeutic uses of BT has been extensively studied. BT is considered as a minimally invasive agent that can be used in the treatment of various orofacial disorders and improving the quality of life in such patients. The objective of this article is to review the nature, mechanism of action of BT, and its application in various head and neck diseases. PMID:24678189

Shilpa, P. S.; Kaul, Rachna; Sultana, Nishat; Bhat, Suraksha

2014-01-01

382

Botulinum Toxin and Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders  

PubMed Central

The history of botulinum toxin is fascinating. First recognized as the cause of botulism nearly 200 years ago, it was originally feared as a deadly poison. Over the last 30 years, however, botulinum toxin has been transformed into a readily available medication used to treat a variety of medical disorders. Interest in the use of botulinum toxin has been particularly strong for patients with spastic smooth muscle disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Patients with achalasia, diffuse esophageal spasm, gastroparesis, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and anal fissures have all been treated with botulinum toxin injections, often with impressive results. However, not all patients respond to botulinum toxin therapy, and large randomized controlled trials are lacking for many conditions commonly treated with botulinum toxin. This paper reviews the history, microbiology, and pharmacology of botulinum toxin, discusses its mechanism of action, and then presents recent evidence from the literature regarding the use of botulinum toxin for the treatment of a variety of gastrointestinal tract disorders. PMID:21960915

Weiser, Kirsten; Kennedy, Abigail

2008-01-01

383

The toxin component of targeted anti-tumor toxins determines their efficacy increase by saponins.  

PubMed

Tumor-targeting protein toxins are composed of a toxic enzyme coupled to a specific cell binding domain that targets cancer-associated antigens. The anti-tumor treatment by targeted toxins is accompanied by dose-limiting side effects. The future prospects of targeted toxins for therapeutic use in humans will be determined by reduce side effects. Certain plant secondary metabolites (saponins) were shown to increase the efficacy of a particular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted toxin, paralleled by a tremendous decrease of side effects. This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of substituting different toxin moieties fused to an EGF ligand binding domain on the augmentative ability of saponins for each against therapeutic potential of the saponin-mediated efficacy increase for different anti-tumor toxins targeting the EGFR. We designed several EGFR-targeted toxins varying in the toxic moiety. Each targeted toxin was used in combination with a purified saponin (SA1641), isolated from the ornamental plant Gypsophila paniculata L. SA1641 was characterized and the SA1641-mediated efficacy increase was investigated on EGFR-transfected NIH-3T3 cells. We observed a high dependency of the SA1641-mediated efficacy increase on the nature of toxin used for the construction of the targeted toxin, indicating high specificity. Structural alignments revealed a high homology between saporin and dianthin-30, the two toxic moieties that benefit most from the combination with SA1641. We further demonstrate that SA1641 did not influence the plasma membrane permeability, indicating an intracellular interaction of SA1641 and the toxin components of targeted toxins. Surface plasmon resonance measurements point to a transient binding of SA1641 to the toxin components of targeted toxins. PMID:22309811

Weng, Alexander; Thakur, Mayank; Beceren-Braun, Figen; Bachran, Diana; Bachran, Christopher; Riese, Sebastian B; Jenett-Siems, Kristina; Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Melzig, Matthias F; Fuchs, Hendrik

2012-06-01

384

Brown spider dermonecrotic toxin directly induces nephrotoxicity  

SciTech Connect

Brown spider (Loxosceles genus) venom can induce dermonecrotic lesions at the bite site and systemic manifestations including fever, vomiting, convulsions, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. The venom is composed of a mixture of proteins with several molecules biochemically and biologically well characterized. The mechanism by which the venom induces renal damage is unknown. By using mice exposed to Loxosceles intermedia recombinant dermonecrotic toxin (LiRecDT), we showed direct induction of renal injuries. Microscopic analysis of renal biopsies from dermonecrotic toxin-treated mice showed histological alterations including glomerular edema and tubular necrosis. Hyalinization of tubules with deposition of proteinaceous material in the tubule lumen, tubule epithelial cell vacuoles, tubular edema and epithelial cell lysis was also observed. Leukocytic infiltration was neither observed in the glomerulus nor the tubules. Renal vessels showed no sign of inflammatory response. Additionally, biochemical analyses showed such toxin-induced changes in renal function as urine alkalinization, hematuria and azotemia with elevation of blood urea nitrogen levels. Immunofluorescence with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies and confocal microscopy analysis showed deposition and direct binding of this toxin to renal intrinsic structures. By immunoblotting with a hyperimmune dermonecrotic toxin antiserum on renal lysates from toxin-treated mice, we detected a positive signal at the region of 33-35 kDa, which strengthens the idea that renal failure is directly induced by dermonecrotic toxin. Immunofluorescence reaction with dermonecrotic toxin antibodies revealed deposition and binding of this toxin directly in MDCK epithelial cells in culture. Similarly, dermonecrotic toxin treatment caused morphological alterations of MDCK cells including cytoplasmic vacuoles, blebs, evoked impaired spreading and detached cells from each other and from culture substratum. In addition, dermonecrotic toxin treatment of MDCK cells changed their viability evaluated by XTT and Neutral-Red Uptake methodologies. The present results point to brown spider dermonecrotic toxin cytotoxicity upon renal structures in vivo and renal cells in vitro and provide experimental evidence that this brown spider toxin is directly involved in nephrotoxicity evoked during Loxosceles spider venom accidents.

Chaim, Olga Meiri [Department of Cell Biology, Federal University of Parana, Jardim das Americas, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Sade, Youssef Bacila [Department of Cell Biology, Federal University of Parana, Jardim das Americas, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Bertoni da Silveira, Rafael [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Toma, Leny [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kalapothakis, Evanguedes [Department of Pharmacology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos [Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Mangili, Oldemir Carlos [Department of Physiology, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Gremski, Waldemiro [Department of Cell Biology, Federal University of Parana, Jardim das Americas, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Catholic University of Parana, Health and Biological Sciences Institute, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Dietrich, Carl Peter von [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Nader, Helena B. [Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sanches Veiga, Silvio [Department of Cell Biology, Federal University of Parana, Jardim das Americas, 81531-990, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)]. E-mail: veigass@ufpr.br

2006-02-15

385

The Enterotoxicity of Clostridium difficile Toxins  

PubMed Central

The major virulence factors of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are two large exotoxins A (TcdA) and B (TcdB). However, our understanding of the specific roles of these toxins in CDI is still evolving. It is now accepted that both toxins are enterotoxic and proinflammatory in the human intestine. Both purified TcdA and TcdB are capable of inducing the pathophysiology of CDI, although most studies have focused on TcdA. C. difficile toxins exert a wide array of biological activities by acting directly on intestinal epithelial cells. Alternatively, the toxins may target immune cells and neurons once the intestinal epithelial barrier is disrupted. The toxins may also act indirectly by stimulating cells to produce chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines, neuropeptides and other neuroimmune signals. This review considers the mechanisms of TcdA- and TcdB-induced enterotoxicity, and recent developments in this field. PMID:22069662

Sun, Xingmin; Savidge, Tor; Feng, Hanping

2010-01-01

386

Immunotoxins: The Role of the Toxin  

PubMed Central

Immunotoxins are antibody-toxin bifunctional molecules that rely on intracellular toxin action to kill target cells. Target specificity is determined via the binding attributes of the chosen antibody. Mostly, but not exclusively, immunotoxins are purpose-built to kill cancer cells as part of novel treatment approaches. Other applications for immunotoxins include immune regulation and the treatment of viral or parasitic diseases. Here we discuss the utility of protein toxins, of both bacterial and plant origin, joined to antibodies for targeting cancer cells. Finally, while clinical goals are focused on the development of novel cancer treatments, much has been learned about toxin action and intracellular pathways. Thus toxins are considered both medicines for treating human disease and probes of cellular function. PMID:23965432

Antignani, Antonella; FitzGerald, David

2013-01-01

387

Crystallization of isoelectrically homogeneous cholera toxin  

SciTech Connect

Past difficulty in growing good crystals of cholera toxin has prevented the study of the crystal structure of this important protein. The authors have determined that failure of cholera toxin to crystallize well has been due to its heterogeneity. They have now succeeded in overcoming the problem by isolating a single isoelectric variant of this oligomeric protein (one A subunit and five B subunits). Cholera toxin purified by their procedure readily forms large single crystals. The crystal form has been described previously. They have recorded data from native crystals of cholera toxin to 3.0-{angstrom} resolution with our electronic area detectors. With these data, they have found the orientation of a 5-fold symmetry axis within these crystals, perpendicular to the screw dyad of the crystal. They are now determining the crystal structure of cholera toxin by a combination of multiple heavy-atom isomorphous replacement and density modification techniques, making use of rotational 5-fold averaging of the B subunits.

Spangler, B.D.; Westbrook, E.M. (Argonne National Laboratory, IL (USA))

1989-02-07

388

Clostridium difficile binary toxin (CDT) and diarrhea.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile is a major enteropathogen of humans. It produces two main virulence factors, toxins A and B. A third, less well known toxin, C. difficile toxin (CDT), is a binary toxin composed of distinct enzymatic (CdtA) and cell binding/translocation (CdtB) proteins. We used a novel enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA) to detect CdtB protein in feces and culture fluids. Additionally, PCR was used to assay C. difficile isolates from fecal samples for the CDT locus (CdtLoc). Although the results from 80 isolates suggest no relationship between toxin concentrations in situ and in vitro, there is a good correlation between PCR detection of the cdtB gene and EIA detection of CdtB protein in vitro. Possible implications of the detection of CDT in patients are discussed. PMID:21376825

Carman, Robert J; Stevens, Adam L; Lyerly, Matthew W; Hiltonsmith, Megan F; Stiles, Bradley G; Wilkins, Tracy D

2011-08-01

389

Rapid Point-of-Care Test To Detect Broad Ranges of Protective Antigen-Specific Immunoglobulin G Concentrations in Recipients of the U.S.Licensed Anthrax Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there is no routine monitoring of an immune response to the anthrax vaccine. Simple on-site tests are needed to evaluate the antibody response of anthrax-vaccinated individuals in the Armed Forces and others at high risk. Using a prototype lateral flow assay (LFA) (R. E. Biagini, D. L. Sammons, J. P. Smith, B. A. MacKenzie, C. A. F. Striley, J.

Diane R. Bienek; Raymond E. Biagini; David G. Charlton; Jerome P. Smith; Deborah L. Sammons; Shirley A. Robertson

2008-01-01

390

Bacteria and their toxins tamed for immunotherapy.  

PubMed

Bacterial toxins share the ability to enter host cells to target various intracellular proteins and to modulate host immune responses. Over the last 20 years, toxins and their mutated variants, as well as live attenuated bacteria, have been exploited for vaccination and immunotherapy of various infectious, malignant and autoimmune diseases. The ability of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin to translocate its adenylate cyclase domain across the host cell membrane, as well as the pathways of intracellular trafficking of Bacillus anthracis lethal and edema toxins, Shigella dysenteriae shiga toxin or Escherichia coli shiga-like toxin, have been repeatedly exploited for the delivery of antigenic epitopes into host cells and for stimulation of antigen-specific T cell responses. Similarly, E. coli ?-hemolysin, or effector proteins of Yersinia and Salmonella secreted by the type III secretion systems, were used to facilitate the delivery of fused heterologous proteins or peptides for antigenic presentation. Vibrio cholerae cholera toxin, E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin, B. pertussis pertussis toxin or the Cry1A protein of Bacillus thuringiensis have shown a great potential to act as adjuvants and to stimulate mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. The immunotherapeutic potential of some toxins, like Clostridium perfringens perfringolysin O, Streptococcus intermedius intermedilysin, or Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumolysin needs to be evaluated further. The Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid used as a vaccine delivery tool, or Corynebacterium diphtheriae diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A-based immunotoxins, are currently in various phases of clinical trials for cancer immunotherapy, as are some antigen-delivering Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes strains. PMID:22339216

Adkins, Irena; Holubova, Jana; Kosova, Martina; Sadilkova, Lenka

2012-06-01

391

Radiolabeling Human Peripheral Blood Stem Cells for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Imaging in Young Rhesus Monkeys  

PubMed Central

These studies focused on a new radiolabeling technique with copper (64Cu) and zirconium (89Zr) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using a CD45 antibody. Synthesis of 64Cu-CD45 and 89Zr-CD45 immunoconjugates was performed and the evaluation of the potential toxicity of radiolabeling human peripheral blood stem cells (hPBSC) was assessed in vitro (viability, population doubling times, colony forming units). hPBSC viability was maintained as the dose of 64Cu-TETA-CD45 increased from 0 (92%) to 160 µCi/mL (76%, p>0.05). Radiolabeling efficiency was not significantly increased with concentrations of 64Cu-TETA-CD45 >20 µCi/mL (p>0.50). Toxicity affecting both growth and colony formation was observed with hPBSC radiolabeled with ?40 µCi/mL (p<0.05). For 89Zr, there were no significant differences in viability (p>0.05), and a trend towards increased radiolabeling efficiency was noted as the dose of 89Zr-Df-CD45 increased, with a greater level of radiolabeling with 160 µCi/mL compared to 0–40 µCi/mL (p<0.05). A greater than 2,000 fold-increase in the level of 89Zr-Df-CD45 labeling efficiency was observed when compared to 64Cu-TETA-CD45. Similar to 64Cu-TETA-CD45, toxicity was noted when hPBSC were radiolabeled with ?40 µCi/mL (p<0.05) (growth, colony formation). Taken together, 20 µCi/mL resulted in the highest level of radiolabeling efficiency without altering cell function. Young rhesus monkeys that had been transplanted prenatally with 25×106 hPBSC expressing firefly luciferase were assessed with bioluminescence imaging (BLI), then 0.3 mCi of 89Zr-Df-CD45, which showed the best radiolabeling efficiency, was injected intravenously for PET imaging. Results suggest that 89Zr-Df-CD45 was able to identify engrafted hPBSC in the same locations identified by BLI, although the background was high. PMID:24098579

Tarantal, Alice F.; Lee, C. Chang I.; Kukis, David L.; Cherry, Simon R.

2013-01-01

392

Radiolabel ratio method for measuring pulmonary clearance of intratracheal bacterial challenges  

SciTech Connect

Calculation of bacterial clearance is a fundamental step in any study of in situ lung antibacterial defenses. A method is described whereby about 85% of a radiolabeled bacterial inoculum was consistently introduced into the bronchopulmonary tree of a mouse by the intratracheal route. Mice were then killed 1 and 4 hours later; their lungs were removed aseptically and homogenized, and viable bacteria and radiolabel counts were determined. Radiolabel counts fell slowly, and more than 80% of the original radiolabel was still present in homogenized lung samples from animals sacrificed 4 hours after challenge. Bacteria/isotope ratios for the bacterial inoculum and homogenized lung samples from animals sacrificed immediately after challenge were very similar. Bacterial clearance values were the same whether computed from bacterial counts alone or according to a radiolabel ratio method whereby the change in the bacteria/isotope ratio in ground lung aliquots was divided by a similar ratio from bacteria used to inoculate animals. Some contamination resulted from oral streptococci being swept into the bronchopulmonary free during the aspiration process. This contamination was not a problem when penicillin was incorporated into the agar and penicillin-resistant strains were used for the bacterial challenges.

LaForce, F.M.; Boose, D.S.

1988-02-01

393

Antigen-binding site protection during radiolabeling leads to a higher immunoreactive fraction  

SciTech Connect

It is generally accepted that the immunointegrity of an antibody (Ab) depends on the preservation of its antigen-binding sites. Our goal was to radiolabel an antibody at several iodine:antibody molar ratios under conditions protecting its combining site and to compare its immunoreactive fraction (IRF) and electrophoretic mobility with those of the same antibody radiolabeled without protection. The data indicate that an antibody radiolabeled while its antigen-binding site is occupied by its antigen had the same IRF, regardless of the number of iodine atoms per antibody molecule. On the other hand, even at an I:Ab ratio of 1:1, the IRF of the same antibody radiolabeled without protection was lower than that of a protected one and decreased with increasing I:Ab ratios. In addition, the iodination of these Ab changes their electrophoretic mobility; however, when the Ab is labeled in the protected state, the degree of change is less. The binding of an antibody to its antigen prior to radiolabeling, therefore, enhances its immuno-integrity and prevents major conformational changes as reflected by electrophoresis.

Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Aaronson, R.A.; Daher, S.; Taube, R.A.; Adelstein, S.J.; Kassis, A.I. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

1991-01-01

394

Utilizing electrostatic interactions to facilitate F-18 radiolabeling of poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers.  

PubMed

The development of methods for the facile conjugation and radiolabeling of poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers would be of great benefit in evaluating biomedical applications of these intriguing molecularly defined polymers. Two anionic N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) esters (7 and 10) were developed and radiolabeled with fluorine-18 using Cu(I)-catalyzed click reactions. The radiolabeling of a primary amine-terminated PAMAM generation-6 (G6) dendrimer with [(18)F]7 or [(18)F]10 was complete in water or methanol within 5 min at room temperature. This highly efficient conjugation reaction benefits from a high, localized concentration of these NHS esters on the surface of PAMAM dendrimers, due to the electrostatic attraction between the anionic NHS esters and the positively-charged PAMAM dendrimers. The large medium effect (pH, salt, solvent) observed for these conjugation reactions is consistent with this mechanism. This novel strategy of utilizing electrostatic interactions provides a novel, facile, and efficient method for the conjugation and radiolabeling of PAMAM dendrimers that also has potential for radiolabeling other appropriate nanoparticles. PMID:25254430

Zhou, Dong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Carroll, Vincent M; Dence, Carmen S; Katzenellenbogen, John A

2014-11-21

395

Microbial contamination detection at low levels by [125]I radiolabeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contamination of mission spacecraft is an ongoing issue. A broad diversity of microorganisms have been detected in clean rooms where spacecraft are assembled. Some of which, depicted as oligotroph, are of special regard, as they are capable of colonizing inorganic surfaces like metal, and have been shown to be a concern for forward contamination of pristine celestial bodies. Currently, the NASA standard assay is the only approved assay intended for the enumeration of spores and heterotrophic microbial populations. However, culture-based microbial detection methods underestimate the viable microbial population. More recently, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence and limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assays, which employ measure-ments of selected metabolic products as a proxy of biomass, have been used successfully to circumvent the necessity of the growth of microorganisms in order to estimate the biodurdens associated with spacecraft assembly facility. However, these methods have limitation in the amount of cells that can be detected, i.e., 103 cells, and the type of microorganisms respec-tively. This work seeks to develop a new highly sensitive method for the determination of bioburdens (and the detection of microorganisms and life) that is independant of the type of organism while preserving a good turn-around time for analysis for planetary protection purposes. The assay is based on the detection of the organism's protein by labeling them by radioiodination, 125 I, of aromatic rings on tyrosine amino acids residues. Radiolabeling techniques are inherently sensitive and 125 I, in particular, benefits from a 60 day half-life, providing greater activity and signal per unit number of labels. Furthermore, microorganisms can contain over 50% of protein by dry weight. Thus, just one label per protein increases the sensitivity, compared to the ATP and LAL assays, by one and three orders of magnitude by using standard detection methods and the use of multiphoton detection (MPD), respectively. Therefore this assay enables the detection to lower levels than previously possible, down to single cells. The method has also applicability for testing returned samples hardware and for the testing sterilization methods as well as other Astrobiological applications. Future work could extend to species such as viruses and prions.

Summers, David; Karouia, Fathi

396

Radiolabeled technetium chelates for use in renal function determinations  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to novel radiopharmaceutical imaging agents incorporating Tc-99m as a radiolabel. In particular, the novel imaging agents disclosed herein have relatively high renal extraction efficiencies, and hence are useful for conducting renal function imaging procedures. The novel Tc-99m compounds of a present invention have the following general formula: ##STR1## wherein X is S or N; and wherein Y is--H or wherein Y is ##STR2## and where R.sub.1 is --H, --CH.sub.3, or --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.3 ; R.sub.2 is --H, --CH.sub.2 CO.sub.2 H, --CH.sub.2 CONH.sub.2, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 CO.sub.2 H, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 CONH.sub.2, --CH.sub.3, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.3, CH.sub.2 C.sub.6 H.sub.5, or --CH.sub.2 OH; and Z is --H, --CO.sub.2 H, --CONH.sub.2, --SO.sub.3 H, --SO.sub.2 NH.sub.2, or --CONHCH.sub.2 CO.sub.2 H; and the Tc is Tc-99m; and water-soluble salts thereof. Of the foregoing, the presently preferred Tc-99m compound of the present invention is Tc-99m-mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (Tc-99m-MAGGG). The present invention is also directed to novel chelating agents that may be reacted with Tc-99m to form the foregoing compounds. Such novel chelating agents have the following general formula. ##STR3## where X and Y have the same definitions as above, and wherein Y' is --H.sub.2 when X is N, or wherein Y' is --H, or a suitable protective group such as --COCH.sub.3, --COC.sub.6 H.sub.5, --CH.sub.2 NHCOCH.sub.3, --COCF.sub.3, or --COCH.sub.2 OH when X is S. The present invention also provides methods for preparing and using the novel Tc-99m compounds.

Fritzberg, Alan (Edmonds, WA); Kasina, Sudhakar (Kirkland, WA); Johnson, Dennis L. (Las Cruces, NM)

1990-01-01

397

Radiolabeled technetium chelates for use in renal function determinations  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to novel radiopharmaceutical imaging agents incorporating Tc-99m as a radiolabel. In particular, the novel imaging agents disclosed herein have relatively high renal extraction efficiencies, and hence are useful for conducting renal function imaging procedures. The novel Tc-99m compounds of a present invention have the following general formula: ##STR1## wherein X is S or N; and wherein Y is --H or wherein Y is ##STR2## and where R.sub.1 is --H, --CH.sub.3, or --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.3 ; R.sub.2 is --H, --CH.sub.2 CO.sub.2 H, --CH.sub.2 CONH.sub.2, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 CO.sub.2 H, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.2 CONH.sub.2, --CH.sub.3, --CH.sub.2 CH.sub.3, CH.sub.2 C.sub.6 H.sub.5, or --CH.sub.2 OH; and Z is --H, --CO.sub.2 H, --CONH.sub.2, --SO.sub.3 H, --SO.sub.2 NH.sub.2, or --CONHCH.sub.2 CO.sub.2 H; and the Tc is Tc-99m; and water-soluble salts thereof. Of the foregoing, the presently preferred Tc-99m compound of the present invention is Tc-99m-mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (Tc-99m-MAGGG). The present invention is also directed to novel chelating agents that may be reacted with Tc-99m to form the foregoing compounds. Such novel chelating agents have the following general formula. ##STR3## where X and Y have the same definitions as above, and wherein Y' is --H.sub.2 when X is N, or wherein Y' is --H, or a suitable protective group such as --COCH.sub.3, --COC.sub.6 H.sub.5, --CH.sub.2 NHCOCH.sub.3, --COCF.sub.3, or --COCH.sub.2 OH when X is S. The present invention also provides methods for preparing and using the novel Tc-99m compounds.

Fritzberg, Alan (Edmonds, WA); Kasina, Sudhaker (Kirkland, WA); Johnson, Dennis L. (Las Cruces, NM)

1994-01-01

398

9 CFR 121.4 - Overlap select agents and toxins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...seized agent or toxin to an entity eligible to receive such agent or toxin or destroys the agent or toxin by a recognized sterilization or inactivation process. (2) The Federal law enforcement agency safeguards and secures the seized agent or toxin...

2010-01-01

399

9 CFR 121.3 - VS select agents and toxins.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...seized agent or toxin to an entity eligible to receive such agent or toxin or destroys the agent or toxin by a recognized sterilization or inactivation process. (2) The Federal law enforcement agency safeguards and secures the seized agent or toxin...

2010-01-01

400

MATERIALS FOR BINDING MYCOTOXINS AND THEIR USE IN TOXIN DETECTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Materials capable of binding mycotoxins find numerous uses. These include components of test kits for toxin detection, as agents for isolation of toxins from foods or toxin purification, and as binding agents to prevent toxin uptake and thereby protect domestic animals. There is no shortage of mat...

401

Bioterrorism-Related Anthrax: International Response by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  

PubMed Central

After reports of the intentional release of Bacillus anthracis in the United States, epidemiologists, laboratorians, and clinicians around the world were called upon to respond to widespread political and public concerns. To respond to inquiries from other countries regarding anthrax and bioterrorism, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established an international team in its Emergency Operations Center. From October 12, 2001, to January 2, 2002, this team received 130 requests from 70 countries and 2 territories. Requests originated from ministries of health, international organizations, and physicians and included subjects ranging from laboratory procedures and clinical evaluations to assessments of environmental and occupational health risks. The information and technical support provided by the international team helped allay fears, prevent unnecessary antibiotic treatment, and enhance laboratory-based surveillance for bioterrorism events worldwide. PMID:12396915

Macy, Jonathan T.; De La Cruz, Margarita Irizarry; Lai, James E.; McAuliffe, Jay F.; Popovic, Tanja; Pillai, Segaran P.; Mintz, Eric D.

2002-01-01

402

Bioterrorism-related anthrax: international response by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.  

PubMed

After reports of the intentional release of Bacillus anthracis in the United States, epidemiologists, laboratorians, and clinicians around the world were called upon to respond to widespread political and public concerns. To respond to inquiries from other countries regarding anthrax and bioterrorism, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established an international team in its Emergency Operations Center. From October 12, 2001, to January 2, 2002, this team received 130 requests from 70 countries and 2 territories. Requests originated from ministries of health, international organizations, and physicians and included subjects ranging from laboratory procedures and clinical evaluations to assessments of environmental and occupational health risks. The information and technical support provided by the international team helped allay fears, prevent unnecessary antibiotic treatment, and enhance laboratory-based surveillance for bioterrorism events worldwide. PMID:12396915

Polyak, Christina S; Macy, Jonathan T; Irizarry-De La Cruz, Margarita; Lai, James E; McAuliffe, Jay F; Popovic, Tanja; Pillai, Segaran P; Mintz, Eric D

2002-10-01

403

Inhalational anthrax outbreak among postal workers, Washington, D.C., 2001.  

PubMed

In October 2001, four cases of inhalational anthrax occurred in workers in a Washington, D.C., mail facility that processed envelopes containing Bacillus anthracis spores. We reviewed the envelopes' paths and obtained exposure histories and nasal swab cultures from postal workers. Environmental sampling was performed. A sample of employees was assessed for antibody concentrations to B. anthracis protective antigen. Case-patients worked on nonoverlapping shifts throughout the facility, suggesting multiple aerosolization events. Environmental sampling showed diffuse contamination of the facility. Potential workplace exposures were similar for the case-patients and the sample of workers. All nasal swab cultures and serum antibody tests were negative. Available tools could not identify subgroups of employees at higher risk for exposure or disease. Prophylaxis was necessary for all employees. To protect postal workers against bioterrorism, measures to reduce the risk of occupational exposure are necessary. PMID:12396917

Dewan, Puneet K; Fry, Alicia M; Laserson, Kayla; Tierney, Bruce C; Quinn, Conrad P; Hayslett, James A; Broyles, Laura N; Shane, Andi; Winthrop, Kevin L; Walks, Ivan; Siegel, Larry; Hales, Thomas; Semenova, Vera A; Romero-Steiner, Sandra; Elie, Cheryl; Khabbaz, Rima; Khan, Ali S; Hajjeh, Rana A; Schuchat, Anne

2002-10-01

404

The Potential Impact of an Anthrax Attack on Real Estate Prices and Foreclosures in Seattle.  

PubMed

This article provides a methodology for the economic analysis of the potential consequences of a simulated anthrax terrorism attack on real estate within the Seattle metropolitan area. We estimate spatially disaggregated impacts on median sales price of residential housing within the Seattle metro area following an attack on the central business district (CBD). Using a combination of longitudinal panel regression and GIS analysis, we find that the median sales price in the CBD could decline by as much as $280,000, and by nearly $100,000 in nearby communities. These results indicate that total residential property values could decrease by over $50 billion for Seattle, or a 33% overall decline. We combine these estimates with HUD's 2009 American Housing Survey (AHS) to further predict 70,000 foreclosures in Seattle spatial zones following the terrorism event. PMID:23682844

Dormady, Noah; Szelazek, Thomas; Rose, Adam

2013-05-17

405

Cyanobacterial toxins: risk management for health protection  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic cyanobacterial populations have been reported in freshwaters in over 45 countries, and in numerous brackish, coastal, and marine environments. The principal toxigenic genera are listed. Known sources of the families of cyanobacterial toxins (hepato-, neuro-, and cytotoxins, irritants, and gastrointestinal toxins) are briefly discussed. Key procedures in the risk management of cyanobacterial toxins and cells are reviewed, including derivations (where sufficient data are available) of tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) and guideline values (GVs) with reference to the toxins in drinking water, and guideline levels for toxigenic cyanobacteria in bathing waters. Uncertainties and some gaps in knowledge are also discussed, including the importance of exposure media (animal and plant foods), in addition to potable and recreational waters. Finally, we present an outline of steps to develop and implement risk management strategies for cyanobacterial cells and toxins in waterbodies, with recent applications and the integration of Hazard Assessment Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles.

Codd, Geoffrey A.; Morrison, Louise F.; Metcalf, James S

2005-03-15

406

Botulinum toxin injection for facial wrinkles.  

PubMed

Botulinum toxin injection for treatment of facial wrinkles is the most frequently performed cosmetic procedure in the United States, and it is one of the most common entry procedures for clinicians seeking to incorporate aesthetic treatments into their practice. Treatment of frown lines and crow's feet, which are the cosmetic indications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and horizontal forehead lines, offers predictable results, has few adverse effects, and is associated with high patient satisfaction. Wrinkles are formed by dermal atrophy and repetitive contraction of underlying facial musculature. Botulinum toxin is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Injection of small quantities of botulinum toxin into specific overactive muscles causes localized muscle relaxation that smooths the overlying skin and reduces wrinkles. Botulinum toxin effects take about two weeks to fully develop and last three to four months. Dynamic wrinkles, seen during muscle contraction, yield more dramatic results than static wrinkles, which are visible at rest. Botulinum toxin injection is contraindicated in persons with keloidal scarring, neuromuscular disorders (e.g., myasthenia gravis), allergies to constituents of botulinum toxin products, and body dysmorphic disorder. Minor bruising can occur with botulinum toxin injection. Temporary blepharoptosis and eyebrow ptosis are rare complications that are technique-dependent; incidence declines as injector skill improves. PMID:25077722

Small, Rebecca

2014-08-01

407

Mechanistic Modeling of Emergency Events: Assessing the Impact of Hypothetical Releases of Anthrax  

PubMed Central

A modular system for source-to-dose-to-effect modeling analysis has been developed based on the modeling environment for total risk studies (MENTOR),(1) and applied to study the impacts of hypothetical atmospheric releases of anthrax spores. The system, MENTOR-2E (MENTOR for Emergency Events), provides mechanistically consistent analysis of inhalation exposures for various release scenarios, while allowing consideration of specific susceptible subpopulations (such as the elderly) at the resolution of individual census tracts. The MENTOR-2E application presented here includes atmospheric dispersion modeling, statistically representative samples of individuals along with corresponding activity patterns, and population-based dosimetry modeling that accounts for activity and physiological variability. Two hypothetical release scenarios were simulated: a 100 g release of weaponized B. anthracis over a period of (a) one hour and (b) 10 hours, and the impact of these releases on population in the State of New Jersey was studied. Results were compared with those from simplified modeling of population dynamics (location, activities, etc.), and atmospheric dispersion of anthrax spores. The comparisons showed that in the two release scenarios simulated, each major approximation resulted in an overestimation of the number of probable infections by a factor of 5 to 10; these overestimations can have significant public health implications when preparing for and responding effectively to an actual release. This is in addition to uncertainties in dose-response modeling, which result in an additional factor of 5 to 10 variation in estimated casualties. The MENTOR-2E system has been developed in a modular fashion so that improvements in individual modules can be readily made without impacting the other modules, and provides a first step toward the development of models that can be used in supporting real-time decision making. PMID:18643828

Isukapalli, S. S.; Lioy, P. J.; Georgopoulos, P. G.

2011-01-01

408

The Role of HLA DR-DQ Haplotypes in Variable Antibody Responses to Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed  

PubMed Central

Host genetic variation, particularly within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci, reportedly mediates heterogeneity in immune response to certain vaccines; however, no large study of genetic determinants of anthrax vaccine response has been described. We searched for associations between the IgG antibody to protective antigen (AbPA) response to Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA) in humans and polymorphisms at HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and class II (HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DPB1) loci. The study included 794 European-Americans and 200 African-Americans participating in a 43-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of AVA (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00119067). Among European-Americans, genes from tightly linked HLA-DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes displayed significant overall associations with longitudinal variation in AbPA levels at 4, 8, 26, and 30 weeks from baseline in response to vaccination with 3 or 4 doses of AVA (global p=6.53×10?4). In particular, carriage of the DRB1-DQA1-DQB1 haplotypes *1501-*0102-*0602 (p=1.17×10?5), *0101-*0101-*0501 (p=0.009), and *0102-*0101-*0501 (p=0.006) was associated with significantlylower AbPA levels. In carriers of two copies of these haplotypes, lower AbPA levels persisted following subsequent vaccinations. No significant associations were observed amongst African-Americans or for any HLA class I allele/haplotype. Further studies will be required to replicate these findings and to explore the role of host genetic variation outside of the HLA region. PMID:21368772

Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Parker, Scott D.; Poland, Gregory A.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Song, Wei; Zhang, Kui; McKinney, Brett A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Tang, Jianming; Kaslow, Richard A.

2011-01-01

409

Reducing mortality from anthrax bioterrorism: strategies for stockpiling and dispensing medical and pharmaceutical supplies.  

PubMed

A critical question in planning a response to bioterrorism is how antibiotics and medical supplies should be stockpiled and dispensed. The objective of this work was to evaluate the costs and benefits of alternative strategies for maintaining and dispensing local and regional inventories of antibiotics and medical supplies for responses to anthrax bioterrorism. We modeled the regional and local supply chain for antibiotics and medical supplies as well as local dispensing capacity. We found that mortality was highly dependent on the local dispensing capacity, the number of individuals requiring prophylaxis, adherence to prophylactic antibiotics, and delays in attack detection. For an attack exposing 250,000 people and requiring the prophylaxis of 5 million people, expected mortality fell from 243,000 to 145,000 as the dispensing capacity increased from 14,000 to 420,000 individuals per day. At low dispensing capacities (<14,000 individuals per day), nearly all exposed individuals died, regardless of the rate of adherence to prophylaxis, delays in attack detection, or availability of local inventories. No benefit was achieved by doubling local inventories at low dispensing capacities; however, at higher dispensing capacities, the cost-effectiveness of doubling local inventories fell from 100,000 US dollars to 20,000 US dollars/life year gained as the annual probability of an attack increased from 0.0002 to 0.001. We conclude that because of the reportedly rapid availability of regional inventories, the critical determinant of mortality following anthrax bioterrorism is local dispensing capacity. Bioterrorism preparedness efforts directed at improving local dispensing capacity are required before benefits can be reaped from enhancing local inventories. PMID:16999586

Bravata, Dena M; Zaric, Gregory S; Holty, Jon-Erik C; Brandeau, Margaret L; Wilhelm, Emilee R; McDonald, Kathryn M; Owens, Douglas K

2006-01-01

410

Paradichlorobenzene (toxin)-induced leucoencephalopathy.  

PubMed

A 40-year-old woman with a history of polysubstance abuse, hypertension, depression and anxiety with panic attacks admitted to the emergency room at the request of her primary physician owing to progressive decline in her mental status associated with anorexia and generalised pruritic skin rashes. Initial outpatient workup and that during two previous hospital admissions including thyroid function and syphilis tests, urine toxicology screen and brain imaging studies were unremarkable. Repeat MRI of the brain during her third hospital admission showed diffuse periventricular and white matter disease. This prompted further questioning of family members which revealed chronic ingestion of mothballs and toilet cakes containing paradichlorobenzene in the patient leading to toxin-induced leucoencephalopathy consistent with her neurological symptoms of altered mental status, ataxic gait, cogwheel rigidity in the arms and characteristic skin rashes. Subsequently, a feeding tube was placed to address her worsening nutritional status and she was discharged home in a stable state. PMID:23608871

Buckman, Francis

2013-01-01

411

The role of toxin A and toxin B in the virulence of Clostridium difficile.  

PubMed

During the past decade, there has been a striking increase in Clostridium difficile nosocomial infections worldwide predominantly due to the emergence of epidemic or hypervirulent isolates, leading to an increased research focus on this bacterium. Particular interest has surrounded the two large clostridial toxins encoded by most virulent isolates, known as toxin A and toxin B. Toxin A was thought to be the major virulence factor for many years; however, it is becoming increasingly evident that toxin B plays a much more important role than anticipated. It is clear that further experiments are required to accurately determine the relative roles of each toxin in disease, especially in more clinically relevant current epidemic isolates. PMID:22154163

Carter, Glen P; Rood, Julian I; Lyras, Dena

2012-01-01

412

Isogenic Lysogens of Diverse Shiga Toxin 2Encoding Bacteriophages Produce Markedly Different Amounts of Shiga Toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We produced isogenic Escherichia coli K-12 lysogens of seven different Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-encoding bacteriophages derived from clinical Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) isolates of serotypes O157:H7, O145, O111, and O83 to assess the variability among these phages and determine if there were phage-related differences in toxin production. Phage genomic restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and superinfection resistance studies revealed

PATRICK L. WAGNER; DAVID W. K. ACHESON; MATTHEW K. WALDOR

1999-01-01

413

Molecular characterization of Bacillus anthracis directly from patients' eschar and beef in an anthrax outbreak in Jiangsu Province, China, 2012.  

PubMed

An outbreak of anthrax was reported in Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, China in 2012. Laboratory confirmation of cases was made by detection of Bacillus anthracis genes rpoB, pagA, and cap using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR); source tracking was conducted by multiple locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and pagA sequencing using DNA extracted from case specimens and meat from a suspected slaughtered cow. The genotypes were MLVA type 57 and pagA genotype I. Combined with the field epidemiological data, the four cutaneous anthrax cases most likely were caused by butchering of the sick cow. Backward tracing of animal cases identified the region of origin, and some public health measures, such as reactive or preventative animal vaccination for cattle, intersectoral cooperation, ensuring proper pre-slaughter inspection, and educating butchers and villagers about this disease, could be used to prevent B. anthracis infection. PMID:25002304

Tan, Zhongming; Qi, Xian; Gu, Ling; Bao, Changjun; Tang, Fenyang; Zhu, Yefei

2014-09-01

414

Production and cell surface display of recombinant anthrax protective antigen on the surface layer of attenuated Bacillus anthracis.  

PubMed

To investigate the surface display of the anthrax protective antigen (PA) on attenuated Bacillus anthracis, a recombinant B. anthracis strain, named AP429 was constructed by integrating into the chromosome a translational fusion harboring the DNA fragments encoding the cell wall-targeting domain of the S-layer protein EA1 and the anthrax PA. Crerecombinase action at the loxP sites excised the antibiotic marker. Western blot analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunofluorescence analysis confirmed that PA was successfully expressed on the S-layer of the recombinant antibiotic marker-free strain. Notwithstanding extensive proteolytic degradation of the hybrid protein SLHs-PA, quantitative ELISA revealed that approximately 8.1 × 10(6) molecules of SLHs-PA were gained from each Bacillus cell. Moreover, electron microscopy assay indicated that the typical S-layer structures could be clearly observed from the recombinant strain micrographs. PMID:25504373

Wang, Yan-Chun; Yuan, Sheng-Ling; Tao, Hao-Xia; Wang, Ling-Chun; Zhang, Zhao-Shan; Liu, Chun-Jie

2015-02-01

415

An Ounce of Prevention is a Ton of Work: Mass Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Anthrax, New York City, 2001  

PubMed Central

Protocols for mass antibiotic prophylaxis against anthrax were under development in New York City beginning in early 1999. This groundwork allowed the city’s Department of Health to rapidly respond in 2001 to six situations in which cases were identified or anthrax spores were found. The key aspects of planning and lessons learned from each of these mass prophylaxis operations are reviewed. Antibiotic distribution was facilitated by limiting medical histories to issues relevant to prescribing prophylactic antibiotic therapy, formatting medical records to facilitate rapid decision making, and separating each component activity into discrete work stations. Successful implementation of mass prophylaxis operations was characterized by clarity of mission and eligibility criteria, well-defined lines of authority and responsibilities, effective communication, collaboration among city agencies (including law enforcement), and coordination of staffing and supplies. This model can be adapted for future planning needs including possible attacks with other bioterrorism agents, such as smallpox. PMID:12780998

Moskin, Linda C.; Zucker, Jane R.

2003-01-01

416