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1

Radiometric Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by Pamela J. W. Gore at Georgia Perimeter College, provides a concise explanation of the geologic principles of radiometric dating. Students can learn about the fundamentals of half lives, isotopes, and dating minerals. There are also descriptions of how Carbon-14 and Fission Track dating work.

Gore, Pamela J. W.

2

Radiometric Dating Does Work!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the accuracy of dating methods and creationist arguments that radiometric dating does not work. Explains the Manson meteorite impact and the Pierre shale, the ages of meteorites, the K-T tektites, and dating the Mount Vesuvius eruption. (Author/YDS)

Dalrymple, G. Brent

2000-01-01

3

Radiometric Dating in Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

Pankhurst, R. J.

1980-01-01

4

Museum Victoria: Radiometric Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Museum Victoria offers a useful overview of radioactive decay of Potassium-40 and Carbon-14. The website discusses the benefits of isotopes for the research interests of geologists and physicists. There is also information about the dating capabilities of uranium, thorium, and ribidium.

5

Absolute Time Radiometric Dating: the source of the dates on  

E-print Network

Time Scale · Radiometric dates from igneous rocks can be used to indirectly date sedimentary rocks.029x109 · t = 360,178,000 +/- 859,000 years Setting the Radiometric Clock · When an igneous melt, muscovite, and biotite. · Note that whole rock analysis would not give the age of cooling. #12;Setting

Kammer, Thomas

6

Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica  

PubMed Central

We present successful 81Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ?350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The 81Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) 85Kr and 39Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the 81Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA 81Kr analysis requires a 4080-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, 81Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility. PMID:24753606

Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Brook, Edward J.

2014-01-01

7

Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica.  

PubMed

We present successful (81)Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ?350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The (81)Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) (85)Kr and (39)Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the (81)Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130-115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA (81)Kr analysis requires a 40-80-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, (81)Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility. PMID:24753606

Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Brook, Edward J

2014-05-13

8

In situ radiometric dating on Mars: Investigation of the feasibility of K-Ar dating using flight-type mass and X-ray spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absolute chronology of Mars is poorly known and, as a consequence, a key science aim is to perform accurate radiometric dating of martian geological materials. The scientific benefits of in situ radiometric dating are significant and arguably of most importance is the calibration of the martian cratering rate, similar to what has been achieved for the Moon, to reduce the large uncertainties on absolute boundary ages of martian epochs. The Beagle 2 Mars lander was capable of performing radiometric date measurements of rocks using the analyses from two instruments in its payload: (i) the X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) and (ii) the Gas Analysis Package (GAP). We have investigated the feasibility of in situ radiometric dating using the K-Ar technique employing flight-like versions of Beagle 2 instrumentation. The K-Ar ages of six terrestrial basalts were measured and compared to the 'control' Ar-Ar radiometric ages in the range 171-1141 Ma. The K content of each basalt was measured by the flight spare XRS and the 40Ar content using a laboratory analogue of the GAP. The K-Ar ages of five basalts broadly agreed with their corresponding Ar-Ar ages. For one final basalt, the 40Ar content was below the detection limit and so an age could not be derived. The precision of the K-Ar ages was 30% on average. The conclusions from this study are that careful attention must be paid to improving the analytical performance of the instruments, in particular the accuracy and detection limits. The accuracy of the K and Ar measurements are the biggest source of uncertainty in the derived K-Ar age. Having investigated the technique using flight-type planetary instrumentation, we conclude that come of the principle challenges of conducting accurate in situ radiometric dating on Mars using instruments of these types include determining the sample mass, ensuring all the argon is liberated from the sample given the maximum achievable temperature of the mass spectrometer ovens, and argon loss and non-radiogenic argon in the analysed samples.

Talboys, D. L.; Barber, S.; Bridges, J. C.; Kelley, S. P.; Pullan, D.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Butcher, G.; Fazel, A.; Fraser, G. W.; Pillinger, C. T.; Sims, M. R.; Wright, I. P.

2009-09-01

9

Geochemistry and radiometric dating of a Middle Pleistocene peat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium, lead, and sulphur data for a Middle Pleistocene interglacial peat deposit from Norfolk, UK, suggest that uptake of these elements was synchronous and confined to a single early diagenetic episode, probably coeval with peat formation. Sulphur isotope data indicate that reducing conditions have been maintained within the deposit throughout its history. Both uranium and lead concentration profiles show a marked discontinuity near the middle of the bed, probably indicating an environmental change, possibly emergence. The lead isotope data are compatible with a single lead component below the discontinuity and two components above. Groundwater is thought to be the dominant source of lead with an additional airfall component present in the upper peat. The uranium and lead concentration profiles below the discontinuity and the sulfur isotope profile throughout the peat support the view that these elements were sequestered from upwelling groundwaters. The organic material is particularly suitable for 230Th/238U dating because it contains a negligible allogenic mineral component and very low 232Th activity. A sequence of consistent ages through the peat profiel (mean 317 14 ka) over a wide range of uranium concentrations (7-65 mg g -1, strongly suggests that a discrete, short-lived, uranium-uptake event has been dated and that subsequent differential isotopic migration has not occurred. One sample, from immediately below the discontinuity, has an infinite apparent age, but there is strong evidence for sequestration of uranium from the peat into adjacent wood fragments found along the discontinuity. Calculated initial 234U/238U values of 1.2-1.3 support a groundwater origin for the uranium, rather than a marine origin resulting from a subsequent rapid transgression. The very restricted range of U/Pb ratios in the lower part of the peat bed, and the heterogeneity of the initial lead isotopic composition in the upper part, preclude U?Pb isochron dating. 210Po measurements (as a proxy for 210Pb) also indicate possible post-depositional migration of 222Rn which, if active over a significant period, would bias any U?Pb age estimate. The 230Th/238U ages are consistent with deposition during oxygen isotope Stage 9.

Rowe, Peter J.; Richards, David A.; Atkinson, Timothy C.; Bottrell, Simon H.; Cliff, Robert A.

1997-10-01

10

Radiometric dating of sedimentary rocks: the application of diagenetic xenotime geochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the field of geochronology have led to a greater understanding of the scale and duration of geological processes. It is currently possible to date igneous and metamorphic rocks by a variety of radiometric methods to within a million years, but establishing the depositional age of sedimentary rocks has remained exceedingly difficult. The problem is most pronounced for Precambrian rocks, where the low diversity and abundance of organisms have prevented the establishment of any meaningful biostratigraphic framework for correlating strata. Also, most Precambrian successions have been metamorphosed, rendering original minerals and textures difficult to interpret, and resetting diagenetic minerals. Xenotime (YPO 4) is an isotopically robust chronometer, which is increasingly being recognized as a trace constituent in siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. It may start to grow during early diagenesis, typically forming syntaxial outgrowths on detrital zircon grains. Diagenetic xenotime occurs in a wide variety of rock types, including conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, shale, phosphorite and volcaniclastic rocks, varying from early Archaean to Mesozoic in age. The formation of diagenetic xenotime is principally related to redox cycling of Fe-oxyhydroxides and microbial decomposition of organic matter, leading to elevated concentrations of dissolved phosphate and rare earth elements (REE) in sediment pore-waters. Xenotime has the properties of an ideal U-Pb chronometer, containing elevated levels of U (generally >1000 ppm) and very low concentrations of initial common Pb. In addition, it has an exceptional ability to remain closed to element mobility during later thermal events, and commonly yields concordant and precise dates. Because of the small size of diagenetic xenotime crystals and common textural complexities, an in situ isotopic technique with a spatial resolution of <10 ?m is required to successfully date xenotime; to date, this has only been achieved by ion microprobe. In metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, diagenetic xenotime retains its age information up to lower amphibolite facies in sandstone, and up to mid-upper greenschist facies in pelitic rocks. In many Precambrian basins (e.g., Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa), diagenetic xenotime is overgrown by chemically distinct and texturally younger xenotime related to burial diagenesis, contact metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration or regional metamorphism. With the aid of petrography, geochemical microanalysis and the use of isotopic techniques with fine spatial resolution, it may be possible to use xenotime to date early diagenesis, and potentially every major fluid and thermal event to have affected a depositional basin.

Rasmussen, Birger

2005-01-01

11

Radiometric Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site covers the use of radioactive decay as a clock to determine the age in years of events in earth history. The activity uses coin tosses to describe isotopes, both stable and unstable, and radioactive decay.

Colbath, G. K.; College, Cerritos

12

Investigation of the Feasibility of in situ Radiometric Dating on Mars using the Beagle 2 Gas Analysis Package and X-ray Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are significant scientific returns to establishing an in situ age for Martian geological materials perhaps most notably to perform a calibration of the Martian cratering rate Beagle 2 was to have attempted a radiometric dating of rocks accessible by the lander We have investigated the feasibility of 40K-40Ar radiometric dating of basalt rocks utilising versions of the Beagle 2 Gas Analysis Package GAP a miniature mass spectrometer and the X-ray Spectrometer XRS Several basalts were used in the study of 39Ar-40Ar radiometric ages in the range 171 - 1141 Ma The K content of each basalt was measured by the flight spare XRS and the 40Ar content using a next-generation model of the GAP We report on the results from these analyses Having investigated the technique using flight-like instrumentation we discuss operational aspects of conducting in-situ radiometric dating on Mars using robotic spacecraft with particular emphasis on Mars landers

Talboys, D. L.; Pullan, D.; Wright, I. P.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Kelley, S. P.; Fraser, G. W.; Sims, M.; Pillinger, C. T.

13

Radiometric Calibration Techniques for Signal-of-Opportunity Reflectometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bi-static reflection measurements utilizing global navigation satellite service (GNSS) or other signals of opportunity (SoOp) can be used to sense ocean and terrestrial surface properties. End-to-end calibration of GNSS-R has been performed using well-characterized reflection surface (e.g., water), direct path antenna, and receiver gain characterization. We propose an augmented approach using on-board receiver electronics for radiometric calibration of SoOp reflectometers utilizing direct and reflected signal receiving antennas. The method calibrates receiver and correlator gains and offsets utilizing a reference switch and common noise source. On-board electronic calibration sources, such as reference switches, noise diodes and loop-back circuits, have shown great utility in stabilizing total power and correlation microwave radiometer and scatterometer receiver electronics in L-band spaceborne instruments. Application to SoOp instruments is likely to bring several benefits. For example, application to provide short and long time scale calibration stability of the direct path channel, especially in low signal-to-noise ratio configurations, is directly analogous to the microwave radiometer problem. The direct path channel is analogous to the loopback path in a scatterometer to provide a reference of the transmitted power, although the receiver is independent from the reflected path channel. Thus, a common noise source can be used to measure the gain ratio of the two paths. Using these techniques long-term (days to weeks) calibration stability of spaceborne L-band scatterometer and radiometer has been achieved better than 0.1. Similar long-term stability would likely be needed for a spaceborne reflectometer mission to measure terrestrial properties such as soil moisture.

Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Shah, Rashmi; Deshpande, Manohar; Johnson, Carey

2014-01-01

14

Antiquity of man in America indicated by radiometric dates on the Yuha burial site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

MUCH evidence suggests that man was present in the Western Hemisphere before 12,000 yr ago, but the case has remained less than conclusive 1. In some situations, the geological age of the site is reasonably well established but the association or nature of the artefacts is questionable2,3. In other cases, museum specimens of human bones dated by radiocarbon analysis of collagen lack desirable information concerning site location, geology, and stratigraphy even though the accuracy of their absolute ages seems valid4-6. We report here the results of radiometric dates of the Yuha burial site from Imperial County, California, for which the geology and stratigraphy have been documented and reported in detail7. ?? 1976 Nature Publishing Group.

Bischoff, J.L.; Merriam, R.; Childers, W.M.; Protsch, R.

1976-01-01

15

Dating Techniques in Archaeology and Paleoanthropology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some of the new physical dating methods being used by archaeologists and paleoanthropologists to study the material remains of ancient primates. Describes the quaternary physical dating techniques, advances in radiocarbon dating, and the radiocalcium data method. (TW)

Taylor, R. E.

1987-01-01

16

Dating techniques in archaeology and paleoanthropology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Archaeologists have an increasing array of physical dating methods at their disposal. R.E. Taylor of the University of California discusses available techniques, recent advances in radiocarbon dating, and current developments in radiocalcium dating.

R. E. Taylor

1987-01-01

17

Dating techniques in archaeology and paleoanthropology  

SciTech Connect

Archaeologists have an increasing array of physical dating methods at their disposal. R.E. Taylor of the University of California discusses available techniques, recent advances in radiocarbon dating, and current developments in radiocalcium dating.

Taylor, R.E.

1987-02-15

18

Radiometric dating of the type-site for Homo heidelbergensis at Mauer, Germany  

PubMed Central

The Mauer mandible, holotype of Homo heidelbergensis, was found in 1907 in fluvial sands deposited by the Neckar River 10 km southeast of Heidelberg, Germany. The fossil is an important key to understanding early human occupation of Europe north of the Alps. Given the associated mammal fauna and the geological context, the find layer has been placed in the early Middle Pleistocene, but confirmatory chronometric evidence has hitherto been missing. Here we show that two independent techniques, the combined electron spin resonance/U-series method used with mammal teeth and infrared radiofluorescence applied to sand grains, date the type-site of Homo heidelbergensis at Mauer to 609 40 ka. This result demonstrates that the mandible is the oldest hominin fossil reported to date from central and northern Europe and raises questions concerning the phyletic relationship of Homo heidelbergensis to more ancient populations documented from southern Europe and in Africa. We address the paleoanthropological significance of the Mauer jaw in light of this dating evidence. PMID:21041630

Wagner, Gnther A.; Krbetschek, Matthias; Degering, Detlev; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Shao, Qingfeng; Falgures, Christophe; Voinchet, Pierre; Dolo, Jean-Michel; Garcia, Tristan; Rightmire, G. Philip

2010-01-01

19

Radiometric Dating of Ignimbrite from Inner Mongolia Provides no Indication of a Post-Middle Jurassic Age for the Daohugou Beds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lacustrine deposits exposed at Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China, have yielded superbly preserved vertebrate fossils. The fossil beds were first misinterpreted as of Early Cretaceous age, based on alleged occurrences of key fossils of the Jehol Biota. Compelling evidence revealed by more rigorous research involving regional biostratigraphy, radiometric dating, and paleontology supports the Middle Jurassic age of the fossil beds. Despite

GAO Ke-Qin; REN Dong

20

GEOL 103 Writing Assignment 4: Radiometric Dating Name _KEY______________ Lab section: Monday or Tuesday (circle one)  

E-print Network

= 3900 million years old. absolute age dating exercise 1 #12;2) If one metamorphic rock (that year age is the age of the granite. The rock is 280 million years old if we are referring years)?__ 2.6 billion years old _ What is the absolute age of the basaltic intrusion (in years)?__ 1

Kirby, Carl S.

21

Radiometric dating of quaternary deposits and the hominid mandible of lake banyolas, Spain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We report results of U-series analyses of the travertine matrix surrounding the Banyolas mandible that indicate an age of 45??4 ka bp. The mandible, an archaic hominid fossil generally deemed of mid-Pleistocene age, was recovered from a travertine matrix in 1887. Similar analyses on 21 travertine samples from quarries near the discovery site yield coherent U-series dates in correct stratigraphic order, ranging from 44 ka bp to 117 ka bp. Isotopic composition of these samples and the mandible matrix show no evidence of open system behaviour. Coherent isotopic results from adjacent quarries support the validity of the date on the mandible travertine, and we conclude the mandible is much younger than previously believed. ?? 1991.

Julia, R.; Bischoff, J.L.

1991-01-01

22

NASA IKONOS Radiometric Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this program: Perform radiometric vicarious calibrations of IKQNOS imagery and compare with Space Imaging calibration coefficients The approach taken: utilize multiple well-characterized sites which are widely used by the NASA science community for radiometric characterization of airborne and spaceborne sensors; and to Perform independent characterizations with independent teams. Each team has slightly different measurement techniques and data processing methods.

Pagnutti, Mary; Frisbee, Troy; Zanoni, Vicki; Blonski, Slawek; Daehler, Erik; Grant, Brennan; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Sellers, Richard; Smith, Charles

2002-01-01

23

Initial Radiometric Calibration of the AWiFS using Vicarious Calibration Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA SSC maintains four ASD FieldSpec FR spectroradiometers: 1) Laboratory transfer radiometers; 2) Ground surface reflectance for V&V field collection activities. Radiometric Calibration consists of a NIST-calibrated integrating sphere which serves as a source with known spectral radiance. Spectral Calibration consists of a laser and pen lamp illumination of integrating sphere. Environmental Testing includes temperature stability tests performed in environmental chamber.

Pagnutti, Mary; Thome, Kurtis; Aaron, David; Leigh, Larry

2006-01-01

24

Radiometric Calibration of the AWiFS Using Vicarious Calibration Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiometric calibration assessment of the AWiFS (Advanced Wide Field Sensor) on the Indian Remote Sensing Resourcesat-1 satellite was performed by the NASA Applied Research & Technology Project Office (formerly the Applied Sciences Directorate) at the John C. Stennis Space Center. A reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, requiring ground-based measurements coincident with satellite acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations, was used to estimate at-sensor radiance. The AWiFS is a 4-band, multispectral, moderate-resolution (60 m) imaging sensor that operates in the visible through short-wave infrared spectrum and is currently being considered as a Landsat-like alternative. Several study sites near the Stennis Space Center that attempted to span the dynamic range of the sensor were employed. Satellite at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated to determine the sensor's radiometric accuracy. The results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of the radiometric accuracy of AWiFS image products, which are commercially available through GeoEye. These results are an extension of an independent assessment made by the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group, the South Dakota State University Satellite Calibration Group & Image Processing Lab, and the NASA Applied Sciences Directorate at the John C. Stennis Space Center the previous year.

Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara

2007-01-01

25

Ground-based radiometric calibration of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) using in situ techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landsat 8 was successfully launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on 11 February 2013, and was placed into the orbit previously occupied by Landsat 5. Landsat 8 is the latest platform in the 40-year history of the Landsat series of satellites, and it contains two instruments that operate in the solar-reflective and the thermal infrared regimes. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) is a pushbroom sensor that contains eight multispectral bands ranging from 400-2300 nm, and one panchromatic band. The spatial resolution of the multispectral bands is 30 m, which is similar to previous Landsat sensors, and the panchromatic band has a 15-m spatial resolution, which is also similar to previous Landsat sensors. The 12-bit radiometric resolution of OLI improves upon the 8-bit resolution of the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) onboard Landsat 7. An important requirement for the Landsat program is the long-term radiometric continuity of its sensors. Ground-based vicarious techniques have been used for over 20 years to determine the absolute radiometric calibration of sensors that encompass a wide variety of spectral and spatial characteristics. This work presents the early radiometric calibration results of Landsat 8 OLI that were obtained using the traditional reflectance-based approach. University of Arizona personnel used five sites in Arizona, California, and Nevada to collect ground-based data. In addition, a unique set of in situ data were collected in March 2013, when Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 were observing the same site within minutes of each other. The tandem overfly schedule occurred while Landsat 8 was shifting to the WRS-2 orbital grid, and lasted only a few days. The ground-based data also include results obtained using the University of Arizona's Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS), which is an automated suite of instruments located at Railroad Valley, Nevada. The results presented in this work include a comparison to the L1T at-sensor spectral radiance and the top-of-atmosphere reflectance, both of which are standard products available from the US Geological Survey.

Czapla-Myers, J.

2013-12-01

26

An X-ray Radiometric Technique Developed for Determining Principal Stresses in Gas and Oil Pipelines Following Shot-Blasting Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An X-ray radiometric technique is proposed for determining principal stresses in oil and gas pipelines following shot-blasting treatment. Its physical essence is based on the elaboration of experimental dependences between the radioisotopic parameter and the specific volume of a crystallographic unit cell of the ? phase. The suggested technique is implemented under field conditions of pipeline routes and makes it

V. I. Bochenin; V. P. Kuznetsov; V. I. Moshkin; A. I. Neupokoev

2005-01-01

27

A potential dating technique using 228Th/228Ra ratio for tracing the chronosequence of elemental concentrations in plants.  

PubMed

We propose a radiometric method based on measurement of the radioactivity of the naturally occurring radionuclides (228)Ra and 228)Th and the derived (228)Th/(228)Ra ratios in plant samples to estimate plant age and the corresponding nutritional conditions in a field-growing fern, Dicranopteris linearis. Plant age (tissue age) was associated with the (228)Th/(228)Ra ratio in fronds, which implies the accumulation time of immobile elements in the plant tissue or the life span of the fronds. Results indicated that the accumulation of alkaline earth elements in D. linearis is relatively constant with increased age, while the K concentration is reversed with age because of translocation among plant tissues. Estimation of dating uncertainty based on measurement conditions revealed that the radiometric technique can be applied to trace chronosequential changes of elemental concentrations and environmental pollutants in plants with ages of less than 10-15 years. PMID:17336537

Chao, J H; Niu, H; Chiu, C Y; Lin, C

2007-06-01

28

Can Carbonates be Dated Using KAr Techniques?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the feasibility of K-Ar dating of carbonates, we analyzed four carbonates, using an electron probe and noble gas mass spectrometer. Early results are not promising. K contents were <100 ppm except for one sample with a K-rich inclusion.

E. K. Olson; T. D. Swindle; D. A. Kring; D. L. Dettman; P. E. Rosenberg; P. B. Larson

1999-01-01

29

The Sima de los Huesos hominids date to beyond U/Th equilibrium (>350 kyr) and perhaps to 400-500 kyr: New radiometric dates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Sima de los Huesos site of the Atapuerca complex near Burgos, Spain contains the skeletal remains of at least 28 individuals in a mud breccia underlying an accumulation of the Middle Pleistocene cave bear (U. deningeri). Earlier dating estimates of 200 to 320 kyr were based on U-series and ESR methods applied to bones, made inaccurate by unquantifiable uranium cycling. We report here on a new discovery within the Sima de los Huesos of human bones stratigraphically underlying an in situ speleothem. U-series analyses of the speleothem shows the lower part to be at isotopic U/Th equilibrium, translating to a firm lower limit of 350 kyr for the SH hominids. Finite dates on the upper part suggest a speleothem growth rate of c. 1 cm/32 kyr. This rate, along with paleontological constraints, place the likely age of the hominids in the interval of 400 to 600 kyr. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bischoff, J.L.; Shamp, D.D.; Aramburu, A.; Arsuaga, J.L.; Carbonell, E.; Bermudez de Castro, Jose Maria

2003-01-01

30

(25143) Itokawa: The power of radiometric techniques for the interpretation of remote thermal observations in the light of the Hayabusa rendezvous results*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near-Earth asteroid (25143) Itokawa was characterized in great detail by the Japanese Hayabusa mission. We revisited the available thermal observations in the light of the true asteroid properties with the goal of evaluating the possibilities and limitations of thermal model techniques. In total, we used 25 published ground-based mid-infrared photometric observations and five so far unpublished measurements from the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite AKARI in combination with improved H-G values (absolute magnitude and slope parameter). Our thermophysical model (TPM) approach allowed us to determine correctly the sense of rotation, to estimate the thermal inertia and to derive robust effective size and albedo values by only using a simple spherical shape model. A more complex shape model, derived from light-curve inversion techniques, improved the quality of the predictions considerably and made the interpretation of the thermal light curve possible. The radiometrically derived effective diameter value agrees within 2% with the true Itokawa size value. The combination of our TPM and the final (25143) Itokawa in-situ shape model was then used as a benchmark for deriving and testing radiometric solutions. The consolidated value for the surface-averaged thermal inertia is ? = 700 200 J m-2 s-0.5 K-1. We found that even the high-resolution shape models still require additional small-scale roughness in order to explain the disk-integrated infrared measurements. Our description of the thermal effects as a function of wavelengths, phase angle, and rotational phase facilitates the planning of crucial thermal observations for sophisticated characterization of small bodies, including other potentially hazardous asteroids. Our analysis shows the power of radiometric techniques to derive the size, albedo, thermal inertia, and also spin-axis orientation from small sets of measurements at thermal infrared wavelengths.

Mller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Usui, Fumihiko

2014-06-01

31

New Sakmarian ages for the Rio Bonito formation (Paran Basin, southern Brazil) based on LA-ICP-MS U-Pb radiometric dating of zircons crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two ash fall beds (tonstein) sampled from the post-glacial Permian deposits of the Paran Basin have provided new U-Pb radiometric age constraints for this stratigraphic interval. The zircon grains were recovered from tonstein layers interbedded with fine-grained and carbonaceous lithologies in the middle portion of the Rio Bonito Formation. In both samples, the dominant population is interpreted as generated by explosive volcanism, as having formed immediately before the eruption. Based on 238U/206Pb, the selected zircon grains from the dominant population have weighted mean ages of 290.62.8Ma and 281.73.2Ma, corresponding to the Sakmarian and Kungurian ages in the Cisuralian epoch, respectively. These ages constrain the time of the deposition of the tonstein horizons and have important stratigraphic implications for the Late Paleozoic evolution of both the Paran Basin and the southwestern region of Gondwana. The results presented here and the radiometric data already published suggest that deposition of the post-glacial coal-bearing deposits of the Rio Bonito Formation was probably initiated before the Early Permian. Thus, we infer that the climate had already ameliorated by this period in order to allow for the formation and accumulation of peat in this region of Gondwana.

Cagliari, Joice; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Tognoli, Francisco Manoel Wohnrath; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio

2014-12-01

32

NASA IKONOS Radiometric Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA acquired imagery from the IKONOS satellite as part of its Scientific Data Purchase (SDP) program, which purchases scientific data sets from commercial sources. This viewgraph presentation describes the IKONOS satellite and its sensors, and then gives an overview of characterization efforts undertaken by NASA in cooperation with other government agencies. The characterization included relative radiometric correction, absolute radiometric characterization of data from Lunar Lake Playa, Nevada, and calibration of data from Stennis Space Center, Mississippi.

Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Kelly, Michelle; Holekamp, Kara; Daehler, Erik; Zanoni, Vicki; Schiller, Stephen; Thome, Kurtis

2002-01-01

33

Radiometric dating (more details for you) The half-life is the time is takes for HALF of the remaining RADIOACTIVE parent isotope  

E-print Network

of the remaining RADIOACTIVE parent isotope (N) to decay to the daughter isotope (D): · uranium 238 lead 206 4470 system so that no parent isotope or daughter product has escaped or been added. This assumption can is a good example of this. Time since death and communication with atmosphere. o Can also date time since

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

34

Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing  

SciTech Connect

The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

Myers, D.

1997-04-01

35

Range and effectiveness of the unspiked K-Ar technique constrained by cross calibration with 40Ar-39Ar dated quaternary lavas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unspiked K-Ar dating method ("Cassignol" technique) can distinguish very small amounts of 40Ar* in late Quaternary lavas. Nevertheless, this particular technique, which is a sensitive and rapid dating method, relies on the basic assumptions of the 40K-40Ar chronometer. The Achilles' tendon of the method is that we cannot verify the isotopic composition of the initial argon trapped in the samples. In other terms, we must assume that, at the time of formation, the 40Ar-36Ar ratio of the sample was the modern atmospheric value (295.5). A direct comparison between the magnetic polarity of some dated samples and their radiometric ages, using the APTS reference framework, demonstrates that some unaltered groundmass samples may give erroneously old ages. These overestimations, for the most part, probably reflect excess argon. This problem is obvious for some lavas on Gran Canaria which recorded the Reunion event. In the same island, several K-Ar ages which are coherent with the magnetic polarity of the samples coincide with magnetic reversals or event boundaries. However, the inconsistencies observed between some samples and the APTS, suggest that these age determinations must be considered carefully, if they are to be used to update the GPTS. Combined K-Ar and 40Ar-39Ar experiments on multiple subsamples of groundmass separated from individual basaltic lava flows facilitates a comparison of the two techniques and provides examples of the complementary information provided by each. These experiments also confirm the effectiveness of the two techniques to date key events such as geomagnetic field reversals and climatic changes. Examples of our results from Quaternary lavas of Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria and from Patagonia, will demonstrate the effectiveness of this combined approach.

Guillou, H.; Scaillet, S.; Singer, B.; Perez Torrado, F. J.; Carracedo, J. C.

2003-04-01

36

Real-Time Adaptive Radiometric Compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent radiometric compensation techniques make it possible to project images onto colored and textured surfaces. This is realized with projector-camera systems by scanning the projection surface on a per-pixel basis. With the captured information, a compensation image is calculated that neutralizes geometric distortions and color blending caused by the underly- ing surface. As a result, the brightness and the contrast

Anselm Grundhfer; Oliver Bimber

2008-01-01

37

Unravelling the chronology and evolution of the Pleistocene-Holocene basin in the hanging-wall of the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake fault by multidisciplinary approach (paleomagnetism, palaeontology, geochemistry and radiometric dating) on a 150 m deep hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw=6.1 L'Aquila earthquake struck the central Apennines (Italy), on April 6th, 2009. INSAR data showed that the maximum subsidence of ca. 15 cm was located in the continental Aterno Basin, partly controlled by the Paganica extensional fault, yielding the L'Aquila earthquake. Preliminary geological and geophysical surveys have been performed in the depocenter of the Aterno Basin to figure out the underground configuration and determine the best location for a deep hole. The drilling was performed in May-June 2013, recovering 151 m of continental Holocene and Pleistocene sediments. The upper sandy-silty sequence (41 m), interbedded with gravels, is interpreted as fluvial-alluvial origin. The lower clayey-silty sequence, interpreted as lacustrine sediments, continues downward until the bottom (disrupted by 30 m of gravels). The continuous sediment record of the hole is being processed along three stages: i) Description consists of the elaboration of stratigraphical logs, color description and photographic record of the core. The second stage consists of sampling for the different analyses. ii) Continuous samples (U-Channel) were collected from the undisturbed centre of the core for paleomagnetic measurements. Additional samples were collected in the clayey-silty fraction (10 to 25 cm spacing) for calcimetry, geochemical, palynological and ostracoda fauna analysis. Finally, individual levels rich in organic matter and charcoal were sampled for radiometric datings. Iii) The measurements include magnetic susceptibility, paleomagnetic and rock magnetic properties, content of calcium carbonate and 16/18 oxygen ratio, crumble and classification of fossils for pollens and ostracods analyses. Paleomagnetic analyses will hopefully allow us to obtain experimental constraints for dating the Holocene-Pleistocene sediments of the Aterno Basin. The presence of Carbon-14 in organic materials can yield absolute dating. Palynology, oxygen ratio and calcium carbonate content will provide information about the environmental and climatic variations and paleotemperature of the water during sedimentation. The study of ostracods will provide information about the paleonvironment (e.g. water depth variations). Geotechnical tests and diffractometric analysis will document the mechanical properties and mineralogical composition of the lacustrine deposits. All the results, along with sedimentological studies, will be integrated to evaluate the occurrence of eventual ciclicities and the degree of inter-relation between the measured parameters. The final aim is to evaluate a possible correlation between the sedimentary events and activation of local extensional structures in the geological past, observe their recurrence (if any) in recent geological times and propose a reconstruction of the Pleistocene evolution of the Aterno Basin.

Mochales, T.; Porreca, M.; Smedile, A.; Buratti, N.; Macri', P.; Di Chiara, A.; Sagnotti, L.; Speranza, F.; Amoroso, S.; Nicolosi, I.; D'ajello Caracciolo, F.; Carluccio, R.; Di Giulio, G.; Vassallo, M.; Villani, F.; Civico, R.

2013-12-01

38

DATE:  

Cancer.gov

DATE: February 2, 2010 TO: SIP Mentors/Sponsors/Supervisors of Minor-aged employees FROM: Dr. Randall Morin Director, EHS SUBJECT: Policies and guidance documentation on minors working at the NCI-F Every year the NCI-F welcomes new

39

Developing OSL Geological Dating Techniques for Use on Future Missions to Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface of Mars has been subject to aeolian, fluvial, and periglacial activity in the (relatively) recent past. Unfortunately, chronological dating of recent events on Mars is difficult as the errors associated with crater counting are comparable to younger ages (approx. 1 Ma). Consequently, techniques to quantify the ages of geological processes on Mars have become an important area of research. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is one candidate technique for in-situ dating of the deposition of Martian surface sediments. This method can aid in developing a geological and climatic history of the last million years on Mars. The current paper addresses some of the challenges and progress associated with developing OSL as a viable in-situ dating technique for Mars. Some of the challenges include the mineral composition, the effectiveness of solar resetting under Martian conditions, the temperature regime, and determining the natural dose rate on Mars. All of these topics are currently under investigation, and some preliminary results are presented.

Blair, M. W.; Kalchgruber, R.; Deo, S.; McKeever, S. W. S.

2005-01-01

40

40Ar/39Ar technique of KAr dating: a comparison with the conventional technique  

USGS Publications Warehouse

K-Ar ages have been determined by the 40Ar/39Ar total fusion technique on 19 terrestrial samples whose conventional K-Ar ages range from 3.4 my to nearly 1700 my. Sample materials included biotite, muscovite, sanidine, adularia, plagioclase, hornblende, actinolite, alunite, dacite, and basalt. For 18 samples there are no significant differences at the 95% confidence level between the KAr ages obtained by these two techniques; for one sample the difference is 4.3% and is statistically significant. For the neutron doses used in these experiments (???4 ?? 1018 nvt) it appears that corrections for interfering Ca- and K-derived Ar isotopes can be made without significant loss of precision for samples with K/Ca > 1 as young as about 5 ?? 105 yr, and for samples with K/Ca < 1 as young as about 107 yr. For younger samples the combination of large atmospheric Ar corrections and large corrections for Ca- and K-derived Ar may make the precision of the 40Ar/39Ar technique less than that of the conventional technique unless the irradiation parameters are adjusted to minimize these corrections. ?? 1971.

Brent, Dalrymple G.; Lanphere, M.A.

1971-01-01

41

U-series dating of impure carbonates: An isochron technique using total-sample dissolution  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U-series dating is a well-established technique for age determination of Late Quaternary carbonates. Materials of sufficient purity for nominal dating, however, are not as common as materials with mechanically inseparable aluminosilicate detritus. Detritus contaminates the sample with extraneous Th. We propose that correction for contamination is best accomplished with the isochron technique using total sample dissolution (TSD). Experiments were conducted on artificial mixtures of natural detritus and carbonate and on an impure carbonate of known age. Results show that significant and unpredictable transfer of radionuclides occur from the detritus to the leachate in commonly used selective leaching procedures. The effects of correcting via leachate-residue pairs and isochron plots were assessed. Isochrons using TSD gave best results, followed by isochron plots of leachates only. ?? 1991.

Bischoff, J.L.; Fitzpatrick, J.A.

1991-01-01

42

Radiometric Navigation Update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boeing Aerospace Company (BAC) of Seattle, Washington and Sperry Microwave Electronics of Clearwater, Florida have developed a multiple-beam radiometric navigation update system. This paper describes the system design, flight test program, and preliminary results. The system was designed and its performance evaluated using analytically derived formulas for performance measures and detailed Monte Carlo simulations. As a result BAC recommended a five or seven fixed beam radiometer. Sperry built a seven-beam, 35 GHz radiometer which BAC flight tested in 1979 to demonstrate its effectiveness over a variety of test scenes under various environmental conditions. Four scenes were selected for the flight test varying from land-water to highly forested regions. Preliminary analysis of the flight test results confirm the expected performance improvement over the single-fixed-beam system tested in 1975. This approach to a terrain sensing millimeter wave radiometer would be applicable to low altitude penetrating aircraft. The system is low cost, with no moving parts; low volume, requiring only a single receiver with small wide-beam antennas; and stealthy, being completely passive. Radiometry can also be complementary to todays terrain correlation approach since flat areas usually contain a maximum of cultural features; where one system works poorly the other works well. This test program provides a data base for studying a wide variety of pattern matching and correlation algorithms, with and without attitude compensation, and using various subsets of the full seven-beam combination.

Nettles, James L.; Witsmeer, A. James; Wilt, Robert E.

1980-12-01

43

Radiometric framework for image mosaicking.  

PubMed

Nonuniform exposures often affect imaging systems, e.g., owing to vignetting. Moreover, the sensor's radiometric response may be nonlinear. These characteristics hinder photometric measurements. They are particularly annoying in image mosaicking, in which images are stitched to enhance the field of view. Mosaics suffer from seams stemming from radiometric inconsistencies between raw images. Prior methods feathered the seams but did not address their root cause. We handle these problems in a unified framework. We suggest a method for simultaneously estimating the radiometric response and the camera nonuniformity, based on a frame sequence acquired during camera motion. The estimated functions are then compensated for. This permits image mosaicking, in which no seams are apparent. There is no need to resort to dedicated seam-feathering methods. Fundamental ambiguities associated with this estimation problem are stated. PMID:15898543

Litvinov, Anatoly; Schechner, Yoav Y

2005-05-01

44

The ID-KArD technique: In-situ dating on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to measure absolute ages on the Martian surface is crucial for understanding the planet's evolution. A detailed geological history of the Moon has been determined through analysis of returned samples from specific units, and relative ages calculated by crater counting techniques. However, without returned samples or in-situ dating analyses, we lack absolute age markers for Mars and thus cannot accurately or precisely date its well-documented surface. Instead, we have relied on an estimated Mars/Moon cratering ratio and relative crater counting techniques in an attempt to calculate surface ages and classify geological units. The use of such relative parameters diminishes the precision and accuracy for surface age calculations, and thus highlights the need for independent age determinations from returned samples or in-situ dating. In this research, we describe our technique - ID-KArD (Isotope Dilution K-Ar Dating) - intended for in-situ age dating of geological units on the Martian surface. ID-KArD resolves two challenges that have previously obstructed in-situ age dating on Mars: 1) High fusion temperatures are avoided with the use of a lithium-borate flux; 2) Sample mass measurement is not required, due to the addition of an isotope dilution doubly-spiked glass. The glass has a known 39Ar/41K ratio, which removes the need for concentration measurements. Thus, only isotope ratios are required for a K-Ar age determination. ID-KArD has the potential to address Mars chronology inaccuracies, and would be a suitable technique for consideration on future missions. In the first phase of ID-KArD proof of concept, we selected a Viluy trap basalt (K2O ~ 0.7 wt%), with concordant K-Ar and Ar-Ar ages of 354.3 3.5 and 357.7 1.4 Ma respectively (Courtillot et al., 2010). An aliquot was combined into a crucible with the flux and the spike glass for separate Ar (MAP 215:50, Caltech), followed by K (KEMS, GRC) isotopic analysis. Combining our results, we obtained an age of 351 19 Ma (Farley et al., 2013), in good agreement with the previously published ages. For the second phase, we have designed and built a single instrument, capable of analysing both Ar and K from a single sample. The instrument includes two ionisation sources for separate K (thermal) and Ar (electron impact) ionsiation, and a quadrupole mass spectrometer. In addition, we have designed a sample heating mechanism that allows degassing of flux prior to sample addition, and achieves temperatures in the range of the SAM oven on Curiosity. Thus far, the instrument has successfully measured both isotopic systems, and following further testing in the coming weeks, we will date Martian surface analogues, age standards, and finally meteoritic material.

Cartwright, J. A.; Farley, K. A.; Hurowitz, J.; Asimow, P. D.; Jacobson, N. S.

2013-12-01

45

Shear Force in Radiometric Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of the radiometer vane thickness and edge geometry on the total radiometric force is examined numerically solving the ES BGK model kinetic equation. The flow of argon over a single vane and a multi-vane configurations is considered in the range of Knudsen numbers from 0.02 to 1. The shear force is found to reduce the total radiometric force for most vane configurations. It is shown that a change in the vane shape may offset the losses due to the shear force in a multi-vane geometry.

Gimelshein, Natalia E.; Gimelshein, Sergey F.; Ketsdever, Andrew D.; Selden, Nathaniel P.

2011-05-01

46

Comparison of techniques for dating of subsurface ice from Monlesi ice cave, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of cave ice is documented in many karst regions but very little is known about the age range of this potential paleoclimate archive. This case study from the Monlesi ice cave, Swiss Jura Mountains, demonstrates that dating of cave ice is possible using a multi-parameter approach. Ice petrography, debris content and oxygen isotope composition have the potential for identification of annual growth layers, but require a continuous core from the ice deposits, limiting application of this approach. Furthermore, complete melting of ice accumulations from individual years may occur, causing amalgamation of several annual bands. Use of3H content of the ice and14C dating of organic debris present in the ice proved to be of limited utility, providing rather broad bounds for the actual age. Initial estimates based on 210Pb analyses from clear ice samples gave results comparable to those from other methods. The most reliable techniques applied were the determination of ice turnover rates, and the dating of anthropogenic inclusions (a roof tile) in the ice. These suggest, respectively, that the base of the cave ice was a minimum of 120 and a maximum of 158 years old. Therefore, our data support the idea that mid-latitude and low-altitude subsurface ice accumulations result from modern deposition processes rather than from presence of Pleistocene relict ice.

Luetscher, Marc; Bolius, David; Schwikowski, Margit; Schotterer, Ulrich; Smart, Peter L.

47

On-orbit radiometric calibration of Earth-observing sensors using the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vicarious techniques are used to provide supplemental radiometric calibration data for sensors with onboard calibration systems, and are increasingly important for sensors without onboard calibration systems. The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) is located at Railroad Valley, Nevada. It is a facility that was developed with the goal of increasing the amount of ground-based radiometric calibration data that are collected annually while maintaining the current level of radiometric accuracy produced by traditional manned field campaigns. RadCaTS is based on the reflectance-based approach, and currently consists of a Cimel sun photometer to measure the atmosphere, a weather station to monitor meteorological conditions, and ground-viewing radiometers (GVRs) that are used the determine the surface reflectance throughout the 1 1-km area. The data from these instruments are used in MODTRAN5 to determine the at-sensor spectral radiance at the time of overpass. This work describes the RadCaTS concept, the instruments used to obtain the data, and the processing method used to determine the surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere spectral radiance. A discussion on the design and calibration of three new eight-channel GVRs is introduced, and the surface reflectance retrievals are compared to in situ measurements. Radiometric calibration results determined using RadCaTS are compared to Landsat 7 ETM+, MODIS, and MISR.

Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey S.; Leisso, Nathan P.; Anderson, Nikolaus J.; Biggar, Stuart F.

2012-06-01

48

JACIE Radiometric Assessment of QuickBird Multispectral Imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can place confidence in the imagery they use and can fully understand its properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) Earth Science Applications (ESA) directorate,through the Joint Agency for Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) framework, established a commercial imaging satellite radiometric calibration team consisting of two groups: 1) NASA SSC ESA, supported by South Dakota State University, and 2) the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group. The two groups determined the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients of the Digital Globe 4-band, 2.4-m QuickBird multispectral product covering the visible through near-infrared spectral region. For a 2-year period beginning in 2002, both groups employed some variant of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, which required ground-based measurements coincident with QuickBird image acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations. The groups chose several study sites throughout the United States that covered nearly the entire dynamic range of the QuickBird sensor. QuickBird at-sensor radiance values were compared with those estimated by the two independent groups to determine the QuickBird sensor's radiometric accuracy. Approximately 20 at-sensor radiance estimates were vicariously determined each year. The estimates were combined to provide a high-precision radiometric gain calibration coefficient. The results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of the QuickBird sensor's absolute calibration and stability over the 2-year period. While the techniques and method described reflect those developed at the NASA SSC, the results of both JACIE team groups are included in this paper.

Pagnutti, Mary; Carver, David; Holekamp, Kara; Knowlton, Kelly; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Aaron, David

2004-01-01

49

Influence of Lossy Compressed DEM on Radiometric Correction for Land Cover Classification of Remote Sensing Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World coverage Digital Elevation Models (DEM) have progressively increased their spatial resolution (e.g., ETOPO, SRTM, or Aster GDEM) and, consequently, their storage requirements. On the other hand, lossy data compression facilitates accessing, sharing and transmitting large spatial datasets in environments with limited storage. However, since lossy compression modifies the original information, rigorous studies are needed to understand its effects and consequences. The present work analyzes the influence of DEM quality -modified by lossy compression-, on the radiometric correction of remote sensing imagery, and the eventual propagation of the uncertainty in the resulting land cover classification. Radiometric correction is usually composed of two parts: atmospheric correction and topographical correction. For topographical correction, DEM provides the altimetry information that allows modeling the incidence radiation on terrain surface (cast shadows, self shadows, etc). To quantify the effects of the DEM lossy compression on the radiometric correction, we use radiometrically corrected images for classification purposes, and compare the accuracy of two standard coding techniques for a wide range of compression ratios. The DEM has been obtained by resampling the DEM v.2 of Catalonia (ICC), originally having 15 m resolution, to the Landsat TM resolution. The Aster DEM has been used to fill the gaps beyond the administrative limits of Catalonia. The DEM has been lossy compressed with two coding standards at compression ratios 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 100:1 and 200:1. The employed coding standards have been JPEG2000 and CCSDS-IDC; the former is an international ISO/ITU-T standard for almost any type of images, while the latter is a recommendation of the CCSDS consortium for mono-component remote sensing images. Both techniques are wavelet-based followed by an entropy-coding stage. Also, for large compression ratios, both techniques need a post processing for correctly delimiting coastline, avoiding the confusion between elevation and no-data values. Six (from March 2005 to May 2007) geometrically corrected Landsat-5 images on the path-row 197-031 have been used. The six optical bands and the NDVI for each date have been introduced in a powerful hybrid classification process. The training areas and the ground truth have been obtained from the Mapa de Cobertes del Sl de Catalunya (v. 3), a land cover map created by photointerpretation of 0.5 m orthophotomaps acquired between 2005 and 2007 and covering all the extension of Catalonia. The legend has been reduced from 233 categories to 21. Preliminary results have shown that the effect on land cover classification of applying lossy compression to the DEM used in the radiometric correction is small (lower than 1%) even for compression ratios up to 200:1. Comparing classification performance after a compression of 5:1 and and a compression of 200:1 with both coding standards showed that: a) the percentage of correctly classified image was 73%; b) 20% was wrongly classified; c) 3.5% was wrongly classified at compression ratio 5:1; and d) also 3.5% was wrongly classified at compression ratio 200:1. These results are the first in the literature to analyze the effect of DEM lossy compressing when DEM are employed for radiometric correction.

Mor, G.; Pesquer, L.; Blanes, I.; Serra-Sagrist, J.; Pons, X.

2012-12-01

50

Application of the 40Ar/39Ar technique to date the Minoan Tuff, Santorini  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The age of the catastrophic eruption of the volcano of Santorini during the Bronze Age is well established from 14C dating at 3344.9 7.5 a1 (uncertainties quoted as 1-?). Application of the 40Ar/39Ar technique to products from this eruption is used here to (1) investigate the limits of the technique using conventional single collector mass spectrometry on a MAP215-50 instrument, (2) analyse sources of uncertainty to identify major contributing factors for the uncertainty of young 40Ar/39Ar ages, and (3) provide 40Ar/39Ar ages for a sample that has been previously dated via 14C and dendrochronology to further investigate issues with the accuracy of 40Ar/39Ar dating in the late Quaternary. We have separated the plagioclase fraction from the lower Minoan Tuff that immediately overlies the Cape Riva (rp6) tuff in a bay on the west coast of Thira, NW of the town of Oia. Using the calibration of 40Ar/36Ar of Lee et al.2, the decay constant recommended by Min at al.3, and the FCs age of Kuiper et al.4, we calculate an inverse isochron age of 3.7 1.6 ka and a trapped 40Ar/36Ar intercept of 299.8 1.2, slightly higher than the ratio for atmospheric argon of 298.56 0.31, when all steps with ages > 50 ka are included in the regression. Enrichment in radiogenic 40Ar in the steps used for the isochron is extremely low, given the low concentration of K2O in plagioclase and the extremely young age. The stepwise heating approach proved useful because in all 5 replicate experiments unexpectedly high ages showed up at higher step temperatures, suggesting that in each separate some older contaminant was present. The plateaus of each of the replicate experiments had quite reproducible ages, however, and a pooled age was calculated for 23 out of 48 individual steps. The pooled age for the plateau was 17.6 4.1 ka, which is high due to the slight component of excess 40Ar in the non-radiogenic component, as revealed from regression analysis. refs: 1SW Manning et al. (2006) Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C., Science 312, 565 - 569. 2Lee J-Y, et al. (2006), A redetermination of the isotopic abundances of atmospheric Ar. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, 4507-4512 3Min K, et al. (2001), Call for an improved set of decay constants for geochronological use. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65, 111 - 121. 4Kuiper et al. (2008), Synchronizing rock clocks of Earth History. Science 320, 500 - 504.

Wijbrans, J. R.; Kuiper, K.; Morgan, L. E.; Klaver, M.; Vroon, P. Z.

2012-12-01

51

Modeling radiometric effects on airborne multispectral videography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observing the Earth through remote technologies allows for the extraction of synoptic data that is difficult to match with ground-based measurements. Over time, remote sensing instruments and associated processing algorithms have improved in both spectral and spatial resolution. Currently, commercial spaceborne and airborne imaging systems are capable of producing data at one-meter spatial resolution. To fully utilize these improved data sources, it is critical that processing and analysis algorithms keep pace with instrument advances. This dissertation describes models and algorithms used to correct high spatial resolution airborne imagery for radiometric effects. These radiometric effects include topography and view-angle (also termed bidirectional reflectance). Also studied were radiometric and geometric calibration issues. The sensor used for this study was a four camera off-the-shelf system which is capable of collecting imagery in the visible through near-infrared (0.4-1.0 ?m) spectral region. Three topographic correction models were applied to one- meter spatial resolution imagery collected over Fort Huachuca, Arizona, in October 1998. The model proposed by Ekstrand (1996) was successful in reducing topographic effects found in the semidesert grassland and Madrean forest communities. Spectral signature coefficient of variation, histogram range, and histogram normality all showed improvement after correction for both classes. Additionally, the optimal spatial resolution of the supporting Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was found to be 40 meters. This disagrees with previous research stating that the imagery to be corrected and the supporting DEM should be the same spatial resolution. Two bidirectional reflectance models were applied to 1.5 meter spatial resolution imagery collected over Parramore Island, Virginia, in May 1999. A modified version of a model proposed by Irons et al. (1991) was found to substantially reduce bidirectional reflectance effects over four vegetation communities. Spectral signature coefficient of variation and overlap pixel difference showed improvement after correction. Additionally, an unsupervised technique was developed to generate training data for model coefficient generation. This technique produces a large amount of training points, is relatively free of user bias, and can be used as a masking procedure to apply the correction models to the appropriate land- cover classes. Finally, the computational aspects of mosaic construction and sensor orientation calculation were examined. A distributed approach for pass-point generation was developed utilizing off-the-shelf hardware and software. The use of six processors was found to improve performance by a factor of 5.2 (measured by calculation time) when compared to a single processor. Products developed as part of the computational process are discussed. These included orthomosaics, anaglyphs, and digital elevation models. The radiometric correction models studied should be extendable to any high spatial resolution (airborne or spaceborne) multispectral or hyperspectral system. The end-to-end processing routines developed as part of this study will substantially increase the data throughput of digital multispectral videography systems.

Fischer, Robert L., Jr.

52

Inverting radiometric measurements with a neural network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A neural network scheme for retrieving remotely sensed vertical temperature profiles was applied to observed ground based radiometer measurements. The neural network used microwave radiance measurements and surface measurements of temperature and pressure as inputs. Because the microwave radiometer is capable of measuring 4 oxygen channels at 5 different elevation angles (9, 15, 25, 40, and 90 degs), 20 microwave measurements are potentially available. Because these measurements have considerable redundancy, a neural network was experimented with, accepting as inputs microwave measurements taken at 53.88 GHz, 40 deg; 57.45 GHz, 40 deg; and 57.45, 90 deg. The primary test site was located at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), NM. Results are compared with measurements made simultaneously with balloon borne radiosonde instruments and with radiometric temperature retrievals made using more conventional retrieval algorithms. The neural network was trained using a Widrow-Hoff delta rule procedure. Functions of date to include season dependence in the retrieval process and functions of time to include diurnal effects were used as inputs to the neural network.

Measure, Edward M.; Yee, Young P.; Balding, Jeff M.; Watkins, Wendell R.

1992-02-01

53

Changes in the Radiometric Sensitivity of SeaWiFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the lunar and solar measurements used to determine the changes in the radiometric sensitivity of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). Radiometric sensitivity is defined as the output from the instrument (or from one of the instrument bands) per unit spectral radiance at the instrument's input aperture. Knowledge of the long-term repeatability of the SeaWiFS measurements is crucial to maintaining the quality of the ocean scenes derived from measurements by the instrument. For SeaWiFS bands 1 through 6 (412 nm through 670 rim), the change in radiometric sensitivity is less than 0.2% for the period from November 1997 through November 1998. For band 7 (765 nm), the change is about 1.5%, and for band 8 (865 nm) about 5%. The rates of change of bands 7 and 8, which were linear with time for the first eight months of lunar measurements, are now slowing. The scatter in the data points about the trend lines in this analysis is less than 0.3% for all eight SeaWiFS bands. These results are based on monthly measurements of the moon. Daily solar measurements using an onboard diffuser show that the radiometric sensitivities of the SeaWiFS bands have changed smoothly during the time intervals between lunar measurements. Since SeaWiFS measurements have continued past November 1998, the results presented here are considered as a snapshot of the instrument performance as of that date.

McClain, Charles R.; Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Patt, Frederick S.

1998-01-01

54

Age validation of canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) using two independent otolith techniques: lead-radium and bomb radiocarbon dating.  

SciTech Connect

Canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) have long been an important part of recreational and commercial rockfish fishing from southeast Alaska to southern California, but localized stock abundances have declined considerably. Based on age estimates from otoliths and other structures, lifespan estimates vary from about 20 years to over 80 years. For the purpose of monitoring stocks, age composition is routinely estimated by counting growth zones in otoliths; however, age estimation procedures and lifespan estimates remain largely unvalidated. Typical age validation techniques have limited application for canary rockfish because they are deep dwelling and may be long lived. In this study, the unaged otolith of the pair from fish aged at the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada was used in one of two age validation techniques: (1) lead-radium dating and (2) bomb radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) dating. Age estimate accuracy and the validity of age estimation procedures were validated based on the results from each technique. Lead-radium dating proved successful in determining a minimum estimate of lifespan was 53 years and provided support for age estimation procedures up to about 50-60 years. These findings were further supported by {Delta}{sup 14}C data, which indicated a minimum estimate of lifespan was 44 {+-} 3 years. Both techniques validate, to differing degrees, age estimation procedures and provide support for inferring that canary rockfish can live more than 80 years.

Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Lundstrom, C C; Stanley, R D

2007-11-04

55

Investigation of the irradiation history of the Iranian dates and pistachio nuts using thermoluminescence technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three different varieties of Iranian fresh dates and five types of raw and salted pistachio nuts have been tested for identification of irradiation histories. Doses of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy from a gamma cell Gc-220 have been administrated to the samples under investigation. TL response versus dose for date and for pistachio nuts have been obtained. The effect of added ingredients such as salt in pistachio nuts, and moisture in date samples on the TL response have been studied. The fading of TL intensity of the irradiated dates and pistachio nuts have also been measured. Based on the latter results, it appears possible to identify the irradiated dates (10 kGy), within (1-2) months post-irradiation. In the salted pistachio nuts, the salt itself gives a very significant and distinguishable response. In the unsalted case, however, the difference between the irradiated and unirradiated samples seem difficult to detect due to partial overlapping of the respective responses.

Sharifzadeh, M.; Sohrabpour, M.

1993-07-01

56

A novel radiocarbon dating technique applied to an ice core from the Alps indicating late Pleistocene ages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ice cores retrieved from high-altitude glaciers are important archives of past climatic and atmospheric conditions in midlatitude and tropical regions. Because of the specific flow behavior of ice, their age-depth relationship is nonlinear, preventing the application of common dating methods such as annual layer counting in the deepest and oldest part. Here we present a new approach and technique, allowing dating of any such ice core at arbitrary depth for the age range between 500 years B.P. and the late Pleistocene. This new, complementary dating tool has great potential for numerous ice core related paleoclimate studies since it allows improvement and extension of existing and future chronologies. Using small to ultrasmall sample size (100 ?g > carbon content > 5 ?g) accelerator mass spectrometry, we take advantage of the ice-included, water-insoluble organic carbon fraction of carbonaceous aerosols for radiocarbon (14C) dating. Analysis and dating of the bottom ice of the Colle Gnifetti glacier (Swiss-Italian Alps, 4555'50?N, 752'33?E, 4455 m asl) has been successful in a first application, and the results revealed the core to cover most of the Holocene at the least with indication for late Pleistocene ice present at the very bottom.

Jenk, Theo M.; Szidat, SNke; Bolius, David; Sigl, Michael; GGgeler, Heinz W.; Wacker, Lukas; Ruff, Matthias; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F.; Schwikowski, Margit

2009-07-01

57

Results of magnetic HGI and radiometric surveys in W. Canada  

SciTech Connect

This article presents four case histories in which ground-based magnetic horizontal gradient intensity (HGI) and radiometric surveys were used in Western Canada for cost-effective geochemical exploration for hydrocarbons. The authors has developed these two surface exploration techniques from published studies and adapted them for use on the prairies the past 7 years. These surveys are used in conjunction with the usual geologic and seismic studies for: (1) evaluating prospects and land; (2) verifying seismic anomalies and inexpensively locating areas for conducting expensive 3D seismic surveys. Occasionally, as in two of the case histories discussed, these surveys were used successfully as stand-alone exploration methods where seismic exploration is not effective. The HGI and radiometric surveys measure, by geophysical methods, those effects associated with geochemical alterations due to vertical microseepage of hydrocarbons. The total cost, including permitting, data acquisition, data processing, and interpretation of the combination HGI and radiometric surveys is about 15% the total cost of a 3D seismic survey. Because of this, the author finds them an attractive and rapid survey adjunct to traditional exploration. They substantially reduce finding costs and significantly raise the probability of financial success.

LeSchack, L.A. [Topaz Energy Exploration Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1997-05-19

58

Evaluation of the Radiometric Integrity of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Band 6 Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach for experimentally evaluating the radiometric calibration of the LANDSAT-4 band 6 data is described which draws on a method used to radiometrically calibrate the HCMR data which involved underflying the satellite with an infrared line scanner. By extending this technology to higher altitudes experimental radiance data suitable for radiometric calibration of the TM band 6 sensor can be generated. Repetition of this experiment can permit evaluation of long term drift in the sensor and provide a data base for evaluating atmospheric propagation models for radiation transfer. To date, efforts were concentrated on modifying the infrared line scanner to match the spectral response of the TM band 6 sensor. In addition, the LOWTRAN code corresponding to a satellite overpass of September 1982 was run to yield a plot of transmission and path radiance as a function of altitude.

Schott, J. R.

1984-01-01

59

Advances in U-Th-Pb-He Double Dating Techniques and Applications in Diamond Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zircon entrained within kimberlite deposits should have distinctive U-Th-Pb-He signatures compared to those found in the host terrane. To investigate the application of zircon double dating to kimberlite diamond exploration, we performed (U-Th)/He and SHRIMP U/Pb double dating analysis of zircon from the Sacramore kimberlite pipe located in the Merlin field in the Northern Territory of Australia and of detrital zircon from a regional sample of the kimberlitic host, the Bukalara Sandstone. The Sacramore zircon U/Pb age (n=14) ranged from 1541-2433 Ma, consistent with the Mesoproterozoic formation of the North Australian Craton and indicating that the kimberlitic zircon is of xenocrystic origin. (U- Th)/He thermochronometry of these kimberlite zircon xenocrysts (n=33) yielded a mean weighted average age of 3684 Ma (2?), concordant with a previously determined phlogopite Rb-Sr age of 3674 Ma for the Merlin field. The U/Pb age (1472-2939 Ma; n=41) of detrital zircon from the Bukalara Sandstone is statistically indistinguishable from that of the kimberlite zircon xenocrysts, while the detrital (U-Th)/He ages range from 459 to 1279 Ma. A bivariate age density distribution approach (Sircombe 2006, Geochem Geophys Geosyst V7) using the open-licence R statistical package allows 3D visualization of double-dated zircon populations. The consistently young (U-Th)/He ages of the kimberlite zircon xenocrysts distinguish them from surficial detrital zircon. This geochemical feature could have application for regional diamond exploration in tropical and sub-tropical climates where standard kimberlite indicator minerals (e.g., Cr-pyrope, Cr-diopside, picroilmenite, chromite) are prone to destruction by chemical weathering. Up to 40% of detrital zircon grains obtained from streams draining the Merlin kimberlite field have (U-Th)/He ages comparable to those obtained from the Sacramore pipe.

McInnes, B. I.; Evans, N. J.; McDonald, B. J.; Chia, J.

2009-05-01

60

Monazite Age Domain Boundary Characterization Using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monazite (mnz) geochronology is rapidly becoming the technique of choice for unraveling local and regional polyphase thermotectonic histories. High retention of radiogenic Pb makes monazite ideal for various in-situ radiometric dating methods including techniques such as electron microprobe (EMP) and ion microprobe (IMP, especially SHRIMP). Recent studies have shown the validity of total Th-U-Pb chemical ages (EMP) by reproducing U-Pb

C. W. Loehn; R. J. Tracy

2006-01-01

61

Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager: Radiometric Response Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is one of three instruments to be flown on the first Earth Observing mission (EO-1) under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). ALI contains a number of innovative features, including a wide field of view optical design, compact multispectral focal plane arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe detectors for the short wave infrared bands, and silicon carbide optics. This document outlines the techniques adopted during ground calibration of the radiometric response of the Advanced Land Imager. Results from system level measurements of the instrument response, signal-to-noise ratio, saturation radiance, and dynamic range for all detectors of every spectral band are also presented.

Mendenhall, J. A.; Lencioni, D. E.; Evans, J. B.

2000-01-01

62

Experimental methods of indoor millimeter-wave radiometric imaging for personnel concealed contraband detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasingly emerging terrorism attacks and violence crimes around the world have posed severe threats to public security, so carrying out relevant research on advanced experimental methods of personnel concealed contraband detection is crucial and meaningful. All of the advantages of imaging covertly, avoidance of interference with other systems, intrinsic property of being safe to persons under screening , and the superior ability of imaging through natural or manmade obscurants, have significantly combined to enable millimeter-wave (MMW) radiometric imaging to offer great potential in personnel concealed contraband detection. Based upon the current research status of MMW radiometric imaging and urgent demands of personnel security screening, this paper mainly focuses on the experimental methods of indoor MMW radiometric imaging. The reverse radiation noise resulting from super-heterodyne receivers seriously affects the image experiments carried out at short range, so both the generation mechanism and reducing methods of this noise are investigated. Then, the benefit of sky illumination no longer exists for the indoor radiometric imaging, and this leads to the decrease in radiometric temperature contrast between target and background. In order to enhance the radiometric temperature contrast for improving indoor imaging performance, the noise illumination technique is adopted in the indoor imaging scenario. In addition, the speed and accuracy of concealed contraband detection from acquired MMW radiometric images are usually restricted to the deficiencies in traditional artificial interpretation by security inspectors, thus an automatic recognition and location algorithm by integrating improved Fuzzy C-means clustering with moment invariants is put forward. A series of original results are also presented to demonstrate the significance and validity of these methods.

Hu, Taiyang; Xiao, Zelong; Li, Hao; Lv, Rongchuan; Lu, Xuan

2014-11-01

63

Radiometric-microbiologic assay of niacin using Kloeckera brevis: analysis of human blood and food  

SciTech Connect

Kloeckera brevis, a yeast, was used as the test organism for the development of a radiometric-microbiologic (RMA) assay for niacin. The assay was determined to be sensitive to the 2 ng niacin per vial level and specific for the biologically active forms of this vitamin. The method was shown to be simple, accurate, and precise in the analysis of niacin in human blood and food. The application of the radiometric technique eliminates some of the problems encountered with conventional turbidimetric-microbiologic assay.

Guilarte, T.R.; Pravlik, K.

1983-12-01

64

Geometric and radiometric characterization of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper and multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geometrically raw image of Washington, D.C. was acquired and radiometrically corrected. The data show little of the detector stripping common in earlier MSS images. The radiometrically corrected data have uniform means and standard deviations for the detectors in each band; however, the data for different detectors utilize a different pattern of DN levels, resulting in ubiquitous stripping of 1 DN amplitude. Band-to-band registration was assessed using color composites and small area correlation techniques. The spectral equivalency of the first four bands of the thematic mapper with the four bands of the MSS is being examined. Geometric analysis of the Washington, D.C. scene have started and a generalized routine for examining the contents of the label files and nonvideo data files was implemented. Several discrepancies from the documentation are described. Night scenes and daytime ocean scenes required for radiometric purposes were identified and the data ordered.

Kieffer, H. H. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

65

Real-time measurement of camshaft wear in an automotive engine-a radiometric method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiometric method has been developed for the determination of camshaft wear during engine operation. After a radioactive tracer is induced at the tips of one or more cam lobes by the technique of surface layer activation, calibration procedures are performed to determine the amount of radioactive material remaining versus the depth worn. The decrease in γ-ray intensity measured external

E. W. Schneider; D. H. Blossfeld

1990-01-01

66

Radiometric Characterization of IKONOS Multispectral Imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiometric characterization of Space Imaging's IKONOS 4-m multispectral imagery has been performed by a NASA funded team from the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group (UARSG), and South Dakota State University (SDSU). Both intrinsic radiometry and the effects of Space Imaging processing on radiometry were investigated. Relative radiometry was examined with uniform Antarctic and Saharan sites. Absolute radiometric calibration was performed using reflectance-based vicarious calibration methods on several uniform sites imaged by IKONOS, coincident with ground-based surface and atmospheric measurements. Ground-based data and the IKONOS spectral response function served as input to radiative transfer codes to generate a Top-of-Atmosphere radiance estimate. Calibration coefficients derived from each vicarious calibration were combined to generate an IKONOS radiometric gain coefficient for each multispectral band assuming a linear response over the full dynamic range of the instrument. These calibration coefficients were made available to Space Imaging, which subsequently adopted them by updating its initial set of calibration coefficients. IKONOS imagery procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program is processed with or without a Modulation Transfer Function Compensation kernel. The radiometric effects of this kernel on various scene types was also investigated. All imagery characterized was procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program.

Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Kelly, Michelle; Holekamp, Kara; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen

2002-01-01

67

Radiometric terrain correction of SPOT5 image  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing SPOT5 images have been widely applied to the surveying of agriculture and forest resources and to the monitoring of ecology environment of mountain areas. However, the accuracy of land-cover classification of mountain areas is often influenced by the topographical shadow effect. Radiometric terrain correction is important for this kind of application. In this study, a radiometric terrain correction model which based on the rationale of moment matching was made in ERDAS IMAGINE by using the Spatial Modeler Language. Lanxi city in China as the study area, a SPOT5 multispectral image with the spatial resolution of 10 m of that mountain area was corrected by the model. Furthermore, in order to present the advantage of this new model in radiometric terrain correction of remote sensing SPOT5 image, the traditional C correction approach was also applied to the same area to see its difference with the result of the radiometric terrain correction model. The results show that the C correction approach keeps the overall statistical characteristics of spectral bands. The mean and the standard deviation value of the corrected image are the same as original ones. However, the standard deviation value became smaller by using the radiometric terrain correction model and the mean value changed accordingly. The reason of these changes is that before the correction, the histogram of the original image is represented as the 'plus-skewness distribution' due to the relief-caused shade effect, after the correction of the model, the histogram of the image is represented as the normal distribution and the shade effect of the relief has been removed. But as for the result of the traditional C approach, the skewness of the histogram remains the same after the correction. Besides, some portions of the mountain area have been over-corrected. So in my study area, the C correction approach can't remove the shade effect of the relief ideally. The results show that the radiometric terrain correction model based on the rationale of moment matching is an effective model to reduce the shade effect than the traditional C correction approach, especially in the complex undulation of mountain area with lots of shade effect. In other words, the traditional C correction approach will show the better result at the plain area with less shade effect. Besides, the accuracy of the DEM data and the registration accuracy between the image and the DEM data will also influence the final correction accuracy. In order to achieve the higher radiometric terrain correction, high spatial resolution DEM data is preferred.

Feng, Xiuli; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Ke

2007-06-01

68

Dating Saharan dust deposits on Lanzarote (Canary Islands) by luminescence dating techniques and their implication for palaeoclimate reconstruction of NW Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lava flow dammed valleys (Vegas) on Lanzarote (Canary Islands) represent unique sediment traps, filled with autochthonous volcanic material and allochthonous Saharan dust. These sediments and the intercalated palaeosoil sediments document past environmental change of the last glacial-interglacial cycles, both on Lanzarote and in NW Africa. A reliable chronology must be established to use these sediment archives for palaeoclimate reconstructions. Owing to the lack of organic material and the limiting time range of the 14C-dating method, luminescence dating is the most promising method for these sediments. However, the fluvio-eolian character of these sediments is a major problem for luminescence dating, because these sediments are prone to insufficient resetting of the parent luminescence signal (bleaching) prior to sedimentation. To check for the best age estimates, we compare the bleaching behavior of (1) different grain sizes (coarse- versus fine-grain quartz OSL) and (2) different minerals (fine-grain feldspar IRSL versus fine-grain quartz OSL). The results show that owing to its bleaching characteristics, quartz is the preferable mineral for luminescence dating. On the basis of the fine- and coarse-grain quartz OSL age estimates, a chronostratigraphy up to 100 ka could be established. Beyond this age limit for OSL quartz, the chronostratigraphy could be extended up to 180 ka by correlating the vega sediments with dated marine sediment archives.

von Suchodoletz, H.; Fuchs, M.; ZLler, L.

2008-02-01

69

Absolute Dating of Middle Pleistocene Palaeontological Records from the Guadix-Baza Basin, Spain, Using Extended-range OSL Dating Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Guadix-Baza basin, southern Spain, contains an important archive of palustrine/lacustrine records covering the late Miocene to Middle Pleistocene. Numerous palaentological sites have been described within the Guadix-Baza basin, which record faunal and climatic changes spanning the Early to Middle Pleistocene, and contain some of the earliest evidence of human presence in Europe. Chronological control for these palustrine/lacustrine sequences has been achieved via a combination of relative dating methods, such as stratigraphic correlations, palaeomagnatism and biochronology. However, in spite of the large number of research undertaken over the past 20 years, absolute chronological control is still lacking for these sites due to (i) the antiquity of the deposits, which precludes the use of radiocarbon and conventional optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, and (ii) the lack of datable material for long-ranging methods, such as Ar/Ar on tephras or U-series. Conventional OSL dating of quartz is now routinely applied to sedimentary deposits that are less than 200 ka old, but it is not generally suitable for older deposits owing to saturation of the OSL signal. Over the past 10 years, a series of extended range OSL methodologies have been proposed for dating Middle Pleistocene deposits, which make use of luminescence signals with higher saturation limits. Here we report on chronologies obtained using so-called thermally-transferred (TT) OSL dating and post-IR IRSL feldspar dating of Early/Middle Pleistocene deposits from the Baza sub-basin. In total, 5 samples were collected from deposits bracketing the main palaeontological/archaeological horizons at two sites (Huescar-1 and Cullar de Baza-1). Single-grain OSL was also applied to the youngest samples to obtain additional chronologies for comparison with the multi-grain TT-OSL and post-IR IRSL ages. The suitability of the TT-OSL and post-IR IRSL signals for dating these deposits is tested via a series of quality assurance criteria (signal composition, dose recovery tests, bleaching tests, sensitivity correction assessments). The resultant extended-age OSL chronologies are presented and used to assess (i) the accuracy of existing chronostratigraphic frameworks developed at these sites, and (ii) the wider applicability of these novel dating approaches for constraining early human presence in Europe.

Demuro, M.; Arnold, L. J.; Pares, J. M.

2012-12-01

70

Absolute dating of Middle Pleistocene palaeontological records from the Guadix-Baza basin, Spain, using extended-range OSL dating techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Guadix-Baza basin, southern Spain, contains an important archive of palustrine/lacustrine records covering the late Miocene to Middle Pleistocene. Numerous palaentological sites have been described within the Guadix-Baza basin, which record faunal and climatic changes spanning the Early to Middle Pleistocene, and contain some of the earliest evidence of human presence in Europe. Chronological control for these palustrine/lacustrine sequences has been achieved via a combination of relative dating methods, such as stratigraphic correlations, palaeomagnatism and biochronology. However, in spite of the large number of research undertaken over the past 20 years, absolute chronological control is still lacking for these sites due to (i) the antiquity of the deposits, which precludes the use of radiocarbon and conventional optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, and (ii) the lack of datable material for long-ranging methods, such as Ar/Ar on tephras or U-series. Conventional OSL dating of quartz is now routinely applied to sedimentary deposits that are less than 200 ka old, but it is not generally suitable for older deposits owing to saturation of the OSL signal. Over the past 10 years, a series of extended range OSL methodologies have been proposed for dating Middle Pleistocene deposits, which make use of luminescence signals with higher saturation limits. Here we report on chronologies obtained using so-called thermally-transferred (TT) OSL dating and post-IR IRSL feldspar dating of Middle Pleistocene deposits from the Baza sub-basin. In total, 5 samples were collected from deposits bracketing the main palaeontological/archaeological horizons at two sites (Huescar-1 and Cullar de Baza-1). Single-grain OSL was also applied to the youngest samples to obtain additional chronologies for comparison with the multi-grain TT-OSL and post-IR IRSL ages. The suitability of the TT-OSL and post-IR IRSL signals for dating these deposits is tested via a series of quality assurance criteria (signal composition, dose recovery tests, bleaching tests, sensitivity correction assessments). The resultant extended-age OSL chronologies are presented and used to assess (i) the accuracy of existing chronostratigraphic frameworks developed at these sites, and (ii) the wider applicability of these novel dating approaches for constraining early human presence in Europe.

Demuro, Martina; Arnold, Lee; Pares, Josep

2013-04-01

71

Chemical Principles Revisited: Archaeological Dating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods used to date archaeological artifacts and other remains. They include: (1) nuclear dating techniques (radiocarbon dating, accelerator radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence, and others); (2) chemical dating techniques (amino acid racemization, obsidian hydration dating, elemental content changes, and thermal analysis dating); and

Rowe, M. W.

1986-01-01

72

Uranium-series dating of antarctic ice  

SciTech Connect

It is very interesting to date polar ice radiometrically. Bands of dust imbedded in ice are frequently observed in antarctic ice fields. This work focuses on dating ice samples with high dust contents by the uranium-series method. The author obtained uranium-series ages of 325 thousand (+/- 75) and 100 thousand (+/- 20) years for dusty ice samples from two sites in the main Allan Hills ice field. The dust-banded ice was collected from 50- to 100-centimeter depth at two sites, called Cul de Sac 100 and Cul de Sac 150. The particles in these samples were examined with an optical microscope and found to consist essentially (more than 95% of the particulates) of fine volcanic glass shards full of vesicles and microvesicles. Evidently the fine volcanic glass shards were deposited on snow, became incorporated in the ice, and moved with the ice to the Allan Hills sites. Ice samples with other types of particulates, such as terrestrial morraine, may also be amenable to uranium-series dating; however, it is difficult to date ice with less than 0.03 gram of fine particulates per kilogram of ice with their present technique. The uranium-series method can cover the age range from 10,000 to 600,000 years.

Fireman, E.L.

1986-01-01

73

Radiometric tests on wet and dry antenna reflector surface panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of X-band noise temperature tests on two types of antenna surface panels are presented. The first type tested was a solid antenna panel, while the second type was a perforated panel with 3/16-in.-diameter holes. Measurements were made at 8.45 GHz using an X-band radiometric system. Included in this article are measured noise temperature contributions from: (1) thermal diffusive white paint on solid and perforated panels, and (2) water sprayed on both painted and unpainted perforated panels. Experiments on perforated panels were restricted to the 3/16-in.-diameter hole panels formerly used on Deep Space Network 64-m antennas. Rigorous calibration equations, applicable to a variety of antenna panel and dichroic plate test configurations, are presented. It was demonstrated that an accurate, stable radiometric measurement system of the type used for the results of this research makes it possible to obtain information that would be much more difficult to obtain using other techniques.

Otoshi, T. Y.; Franco, M. M.

1990-01-01

74

Airborne Radiometrics and Comparison with Activity Measurements in Groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne geophysical measurements including magnetics, electromagnetics and radiometry were carried out in a 312 sqkm large area in eastern Bavaria comprising crystalline rocks and Cenozoic sediments. The helicopter-borne investigations of 2007 were accompanied by ground-borne gamma spectroscopy and radon activity measurements in groundwater outcrops. The comparison of the radiometric data gathered allows to delineate hidden granitic intrusions and to distinguish between different intrusive phases of the igneous rocks suites. Furthermore fault systems can be mapped or proved and the depth of the weathering zone in hard rock areas can be roughly assessed in certain areas, both crucial for groundwater exploitation in hard rock environment. Besides that, hydrogeological implications from airborne data are scarce, due to the great heterogeneity of the geological background. Rn-222 activity measurements at springs using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) technique, however, proved to be a simple method to distinguish waters otherwise chemically indistinct. Even though not an intrinsic property of groundwater but a geological parameter measured in groundwater, radon measurements, especially multiple measurements and time series additionally may provide useful information for groundwater monitoring: Time dependent variations of radon concentrations can be correlated with fluctuations of areal precipitation and thus indicate the varying impact of surface run-off or shallow groundwater of superficial deposits. The basic difference in radiometric characteristics of groundwater and surface water can also be utilized in monitoring the hydrological regime (infiltration vs. exfiltration) within river valleys.

Diepolder, G. W.; Herold, H.; Siemon, B.

2009-04-01

75

Principal Component Noise Filtering for NAST-I Radiometric Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed- Interferometer (NAST-I) instrument is a high-resolution scanning interferometer that measures emitted thermal radiation between 3.3 and 18 microns. The NAST-I radiometric calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient and hot temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes a principal component (PC) noise filter to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, further improve the absolute radiometric calibration accuracy. To test the procedure and estimate the PC filter noise performance, we form dependent and independent test samples using odd and even sets of blackbody spectra. To determine the optimal number of eigenvectors, the PC filter algorithm is applied to both dependent and independent blackbody spectra with a varying number of eigenvectors. The optimal number of PCs is selected so that the total root-mean-square (RMS) error is minimized. To estimate the filter noise performance, we examine four different scenarios: apply PC filtering to both dependent and independent datasets, apply PC filtering to dependent calibration data only, apply PC filtering to independent data only, and no PC filters. The independent blackbody radiances are predicted for each case and comparisons are made. The results show significant reduction in noise in the final calibrated radiances with the implementation of the PC filtering algorithm.

Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L., Sr.

2011-01-01

76

NASA IKONOS Multispectral Radiometric Calibration and 3-Year Temporal Stability Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can place confidence in the imagery they use and can fully understand its properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other system. In addition, the user community has little or no insight into the design and operation of commercial sensors or into the methods involved in generating commercial products. To address this calibration need, the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) Earth Science Applications (ESA) Directorate established a commercial satellite imaging radiometric calibration team consisting of three independent groups: NASA, SSC,ESA, the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group, and South Dacota State University. Each group determined the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients of the Space Imaging IKONOS 4-band, 4 m multispectral product covering the visible through near-infrared spectral region. For a three year period beginning in 2000, each team employed some variant of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, requiring ground-based measurements coincident with IKONOS image acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations. Several study sites throughout the United States were employed that covered nearly the entire dynamic range of the IKONOS sensor. IKONOS at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent group to determine the IKONOS sensor's radiometric accuracy and stability. Over 10 individual vicariously determined at-sensor radiance estimates were used each year. When combined, these estimates provided a high-precision radiometric gain calibration coefficient. No significant calibration offset was observed. The results of this evaluation provide the scientific community with an independent assessment of the IKONOS sensor's absolute calibration and temporal stability over the 3-year period. While the techniques and method described in this paper reflect those developed at the NASA SSC, the results of the entire team are included.

Pagnutti, Mary; Carver, David; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen; Aaran, David

2003-01-01

77

Dating Techniques Irka Hajdas  

E-print Network

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 5 Method Age range (years) Archive/Material 210 Pb 0- 200 Recent sediments Dendrochronology 0 ­ 12

Gilli, Adrian

78

INTRABAND RADIOMETRIC PERFORMANCE OF THE LANDSAT 4 THEMATIC MAPPER.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This preliminary report examines those radiometric characteristics of the Landsat 4 Thematic Mapper (TM) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. Analysis is based largely on radiometrically raw (B type) data of three daytime and two nighttime scenes; in most scenes, a set of 512 lines were examined on an individual-detector basis. Subscenes selected for uniform-radiance were used to characterize subtle radiometric differences and noise problems.

Kieffer, Hugh H.; Eliason, Eric M.; Chavez, Pat S., Jr.

1985-01-01

79

Optical Imaging and Radiometric Modeling and Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OPTOOL software is a general-purpose optical systems analysis tool that was developed to offer a solution to problems associated with computational programs written for the James Webb Space Telescope optical system. It integrates existing routines into coherent processes, and provides a structure with reusable capabilities that allow additional processes to be quickly developed and integrated. It has an extensive graphical user interface, which makes the tool more intuitive and friendly. OPTOOL is implemented using MATLAB with a Fourier optics-based approach for point spread function (PSF) calculations. It features parametric and Monte Carlo simulation capabilities, and uses a direct integration calculation to permit high spatial sampling of the PSF. Exit pupil optical path difference (OPD) maps can be generated using combinations of Zernike polynomials or shaped power spectral densities. The graphical user interface allows rapid creation of arbitrary pupil geometries, and entry of all other modeling parameters to support basic imaging and radiometric analyses. OPTOOL provides the capability to generate wavefront-error (WFE) maps for arbitrary grid sizes. These maps are 2D arrays containing digital sampled versions of functions ranging from Zernike polynomials to combination of sinusoidal wave functions in 2D, to functions generated from a spatial frequency power spectral distribution (PSD). It also can generate optical transfer functions (OTFs), which are incorporated into the PSF calculation. The user can specify radiometrics for the target and sky background, and key performance parameters for the instrument s focal plane array (FPA). This radiometric and detector model setup is fairly extensive, and includes parameters such as zodiacal background, thermal emission noise, read noise, and dark current. The setup also includes target spectral energy distribution as a function of wavelength for polychromatic sources, detector pixel size, and the FPA s charge diffusion modulation transfer function (MTF).

Ha, Kong Q.; Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Moiser, Gary E.; Howard, Joseph M.; Le, Chi M.

2010-01-01

80

Airborne SAR radiometric calibration using point targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trihedral corner reflector, with high stability, large RCS and little change within a wide angle range, is widely used in SAR radiometric calibration. Results from airborne SAR overflights of corner reflectors are utilized to compute calibration constant, transfer function of the system and backscattering coefficient of different targets. The key step of SAR calibration is the derivation of calibration constant. In this paper, we used two methods, the peak and integral method, to compute the calibration constant. Through real flight data, we found that, using point target for SAR calibration is simple and practicable.

Zongmin, Feng; Lei, Huang; Zhihua, Tang; Jiuli, Liu; Liangbo, Zhao

2014-03-01

81

Data analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large and diverse number of computational techniques are routinely used to process and analyze remotely sensed data. These techniques include: univariate statistics; multivariate statistics; principal component analysis; pattern recognition and classification; other multivariate techniques; geometric correction; registration and resampling; radiometric correction; enhancement; restoration; Fourier analysis; and filtering. Each of these techniques will be considered, in order.

Park, Steve

1990-01-01

82

Rapid radiometric methods to detect and differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis from other mycobacterial species  

SciTech Connect

Rapid methods for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis (TB complex) from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli) were developed and evaluated in a three-phase study. In the first phase, techniques for identification of Mycobacterium species were developed by using radiometric technology and BACTEC Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Based on /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution, characteristic growth patterns were established for 13 commonly encountered mycobacterial species. Mycobacteria belonging to the TB complex were differentiated from other mycobacteria by cellular morphology and rate of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution. For further differentiation, radiometric tests for niacin production and inhibition by Q-nitro-alpha-acetyl amino-beta-hydroxy-propiophenone (NAP) were developed. In the second phase, 100 coded specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as members of the TB complex, MOTT bacilli, bacteria other than mycobacteria, or ''no viable organisms'' within 3 to 12 (average 6.4) days of receipt from the Centers for Disease Control. Isolation and identification of mycobacteria from 20 simulated sputum specimens were carried out in phase III. Out of 20 sputum specimens, 16 contained culturable mycobacteria, and all of the positives were detected by the BACTEC method in an average of 7.3 days. The positive mycobacterial cultures were isolated and identified as TB complex or MOTT bacilli in an average of 12.8 days. The radiometric NAP test was found to be highly sensitive and specific for a rapid identification of TB complex, whereas the radiometric niacin test was found to have some inherent problems. Radiometric BACTEC and conventional methodologies were in complete agreement in Phase II as well as in Phase III.

Siddiqi, S.H.; Hwangbo, C.C.; Silcox, V.; Good, R.C.; Snider, D.E. Jr.; Middlebrook, G.

1984-10-01

83

SOME PROBLEMS OF RADIOMETRIC METHOD OF URANIUM ORE CONCENTRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methods of determinirg the unevenness of uranium distribution in the ; pieces of ore and the means of utilizing the data obtained are discussed. ; Definite regularities in the radiometric method of concentration in connection ; with the questions of techaology and equipment are deduced in mathematical form. ; General characteristics of the main design units of radiometric separators

G. A. Kovda; M. L. Skrinichenko

1959-01-01

84

Radiometric Quality Evaluation of INSAT-3D Imager Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INSAT-3D is an advanced meteorological satellite of ISRO which acquires imagery in optical and infra-red (IR) channels for study of weather dynamics in Indian sub-continent region. In this paper, methodology of radiometric quality evaluation for Level-1 products of Imager, one of the payloads onboard INSAT-3D, is described. Firstly, overall visual quality of scene in terms of dynamic range, edge sharpness or modulation transfer function (MTF), presence of striping and other image artefacts is computed. Uniform targets in Desert and Sea region are identified for which detailed radiometric performance evaluation for IR channels is carried out. Mean brightness temperature (BT) of targets is computed and validated with independently generated radiometric references. Further, diurnal/seasonal trends in target BT values and radiometric uncertainty or sensor noise are studied. Results of radiometric quality evaluation over duration of eight months (January to August 2014) and comparison of radiometric consistency pre/post yaw flip of satellite are presented. Radiometric Analysis indicates that INSAT-3D images have high contrast (MTF > 0.2) and low striping effects. A bias of <4K is observed in the brightness temperature values of TIR-1 channel measured during January-August 2014 indicating consistent radiometric calibration. Diurnal and seasonal analysis shows that Noise equivalent differential temperature (NEdT) for IR channels is consistent and well within specifications.

Prakash, S.; Jindal, D.; Badal, N.; Kartikeyan, B.; Gopala Krishna, B.

2014-11-01

85

Helium-4 characteristics of groundwaters from Central Australia: Comparative chronology with chlorine-36 and carbon-14 dating techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryHelium isotope and concentration characteristics were determined for a suite of groundwater samples from the Amadeus Basin in Central Australia. Two study areas include a wellfield south of Alice Springs, and the Dune Plains and Mututjulu aquifers near Uluru. Measurements of 36Cl/Cl and 14C on the same sample suite enable us to assess the relative applicability of the three groundwater chronometers over a range of anticipated groundwater residence times (ages), and to investigate possible causes of discordant 'ages' derived from the different groundwater dating techniques. Results from the analyses of 39 groundwater samples reveal helium-4 ( 4He) concentrations that range from 0.80 to 98.8 (10 -7 cm 3 STP g -1 H 2O) in the Alice Springs samples, and from 0.47 to 65.6 (10 -7 cm 3 STP g -1 H 2O) in the Uluru samples. 4He concentrations yield uncorrected groundwater residence times (i.e. time since recharge) of between modern to >2500 ka (near Alice Springs) and modern to 1600 ka (near Uluru) assuming an effective porosity of 20%, and uranium and thorium contents of 1.7 and 6.1 ppm, respectively. 36Cl/Cl ratios on the same samples range from 93 to 158 (10 -15) (near Alice Springs) and from 80 to 335 (10 -15) (near Uluru) representing groundwater residence times near Alice Springs from modern to >200 ka, and from modern to >300 ka near Uluru. Percent modern carbon (pmc) on the same samples ranged from 64.9 to 12.5 pmc near Alice Springs, and from 93.5 to <2 pmc near Uluru. Corresponding 14C residence times for the Alice Springs samples range from modern to 13.0 ka, and near Uluru from modern to >30 ka. For the Amadeus Basin groundwater samples, the 4He method (uncorrected) over-estimates groundwater residence time compared to 36Cl and 14C techniques. This implies the presence of an extraneous He component or basal flux of He ( J0). To reconcile groundwater 4He and 14C residence times, it is necessary to adopt J0 values between 0 and 30 (10 -8) cm 3 STP He cm -2 a -1 which supplements in situ produced He within the aquifer. Adoption of J0 values over this range lowers 4He residence times relative to 36Cl and produces closer agreement between the 4He and 14C chronometers. The extraneous He component (basal flux) in Amadeus Basin samples is dominated by radiogenic crustal 4He without a detectable amount of mantle-derived 3He. We conclude that the stable tectonic regime, albeit with the presence of major faults within the basin, inhibits the input of mantle volatiles to the groundwater system so that in this region, diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism for He in the crust.

Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.; Cresswell, Richard G.; Hostetler, Stephen; Jacobson, Gerry

2008-01-01

86

Combined use of relative and absolute dating techniques for detecting signals of Alpine landscape evolution during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combination of three relative and two absolute (numerical) dating techniques, applied on nine soil profiles in an Alpine environment located in Val di Rabbi (Trentino, Northern Italy), was used to improve the investigation methodology of Alpine sites in response to climate change and to reconstruct the chronology of late Pleistocene and early Holocene landscape evolution. The degree of podzolisation, clay mineral evolution and the element mass balances of each site were investigated. Furthermore, the stable fraction of the soil organic matter (SOM) was extracted with 10% H 2O 2 and 14C-dated. The age of the organic residues was compared with the age of charcoal fragments found in one of the studied soils and with the age of rock boulders obtained by surface exposure dating (SED) with cosmogenic 10Be. Numerical dating and weathering characteristics of the soils showed a fairly good agreement and enabled a relative and absolute differentiation of landscape elements. The combination of 14C-dating of SOM and SED indicated that deglaciation processes in Val di Rabbi were already far advanced by around 14 000 cal BP and that glacier oscillations affected the highest part of the region until about 9000 cal BP. The development of clay minerals is time-dependent and reflects weathering intensity. We found a close link between secondary clay minerals like smectite or vermiculite and soil age as obtained by the dating of the organic residues after the H 2O 2 treatment. Calculated element mass balances strongly correlated with the ages derived from 14C measurements. Old soils have lost a major part of base cations (up to 75% compared to the parent material), Fe and Al, which indicates a continuous high weathering intensity. Results of the chemical and mineralogical analyses were in good agreement with numerical dating techniques, showing the dynamics of an Alpine landscape within a relatively small area. The combination of relative and absolute dating techniques is a promising tool for the reconstruction of landscape history in high-elevation Alpine areas on siliceous substrates.

Favilli, Filippo; Egli, Markus; Brandova, Dagmar; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kubik, Peter; Cherubini, Paolo; Mirabella, Aldo; Sartori, Giacomo; Giaccai, Daniele; Haeberli, Wilfried

2009-11-01

87

Visible/infrared radiometric calibration station  

SciTech Connect

We have begun construction of a visible/infrared radiometric calibration station that will allow for absolute calibration of optical and IR remote sensing instruments with clear apertures less than 16 inches in diameter in a vacuum environment. The calibration station broadband sources will be calibrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and allow for traceable absolute radiometric calibration to within {plus_minus}3% in the visible and near IR (0.4--2.5 {mu}m), and less than {plus_minus}1% in the infrared, up to 12 {mu}m. Capabilities for placing diffraction limited images or for sensor full-field flooding will exist. The facility will also include the calibration of polarization and spectral effects, spatial resolution, field of view performance, and wavefront characterization. The configuration of the vacuum calibration station consists of an off-axis 21 inch, f/3.2, parabolic collimator with a scanning fold flat in collimated space. The sources are placed, via mechanisms to be described, at the focal plane of the off-axis parabola. Vacuum system pressure will be in the 10{sup {minus}6} Torr range. The broadband white-light source is a custom design by LANL with guidance from Labsphere Inc. The continuous operating radiance of the integrating sphere will be from 0.0--0.006 W/cm{sup 2}/Sr/{mu}m (upper level quoted for {approximately}500 nm wavelength). The blackbody source is also custom designed at LANL with guidance from NIST. The blackbody temperature will be controllable between 250--350{degrees}K. Both of the above sources have 4.1 inch apertures with estimated radiometric instability at less than 1%. The designs of each of these units will be described. The monochromator and interferometer light sources are outside the vacuum, but all optical relay and beam shaping optics are enclosed within the vacuum calibration station. These sources are described, as well as the methodology for alignment and characterization.

Byrd, D.A.; Maier, W.B. II; Bender, S.C.; Holland, R.F.; Michaud, F.D.; Luettgen, A.L.; Christensen, R.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); O`Brian, T.R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NML), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Radiometric Physics Div.

1994-07-01

88

40Ar/(39)Ar dating of the Kapthurin Formation, Baringo, Kenya.  

PubMed

The(40)Ar/(39)Ar radiometric dating technique has been applied to tuffs and lavas of the Kapthurin Formation in the Tugen Hills, Kenya Rift Valley. Two variants of the(40)Ar/(39)Ar technique, single-crystal total fusion (SCTF) and laser incremental heating (LIH) have been employed to date five marker horizons within the formation: near the base, the Kasurein Basalt at 0.61+/-0.04 Ma; the Pumice Tuff at 0.543+/-0.004 Ma; the Upper Kasurein Basalt at 0.552+/-0.015 Ma; the Grey Tuff at 0.509+/-0.009 Ma; and within the upper part of the formation, the Bedded Tuff at 0.284+/-0.012 Ma. The new, precise radiometric age determination for the Pumice Tuff also provides an age for the widespread Lake Baringo Trachyte, since the Pumice Tuff is the early pyroclastic phase of this voluminous trachyte eruption. These results establish the age of fossil hominids KNM-BK 63-67 and KNM-BK 8518 at approximately 0.510-0.512 Ma, a significant finding given that few Middle Pleistocene hominids are radiometrically dated. The Kapthurin hominids are thus the near contemporaries of those from Bodo, Ethiopia and Tanzania. A flake and core industry from lacustrine sediments in the lower part of the formation is constrained by new dates of 0.55-0.52 Ma, a period during which the Acheulian industry, characterized by handaxes, is known throughout East Africa. Points, typical of the Middle Stone Age (MSA), are found in Kapthurin Formation sediments now shown to date to between 0.509+/-0.009 Ma and 0.284+/-0.012 Ma. This date exceeds previous estimates for the age of the MSA elsewhere in East Africa by 49 ka, and establishes the age of Acheulian to MSA transition for the region. Evidence of the use of the Levallois technique for the manufacture of both small flakes and biface preforms, the systematic production of blades, and the use and processing of red ochre also occurs in this interval. The presence of blades and red ochre at this depth is important as blades signify a high degree of technical competence and red ochre suggests symbolic behavior. PMID:11795974

Deino, Alan L; McBrearty, Sally

2002-01-01

89

Reconstruction of the Late Quaternary Glaciation of the Macha Khola valley (Gorkha Himal, Nepal) using relative and absolute ( 14C, 10Be, dendrochronology) dating techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Quaternary glacier fluctuations in the Macha Khola valley (Gorkha Himal, Nepal) were reconstructed using relative and absolute dating techniques. Our results indicate that younger moraine complexes were left by Late Holocene (<1.7cal.ka BP), mid-Holocene (ca 3cal.ka BP), and Lateglacial (ca 13cal.ka BP) ice advances. Older Late Quaternary glacier advances occurred during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages (MIS) 2 and 34.

W. Zech; B. Glaser; U. Abramowski; C. Dittmar; P. W. Kubik

2003-01-01

90

Faint Young Sun, Radiocarbon dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first problem in this assignment is the culmination of the unit on energy balance and greenhouse gases. The students have already calculated blackbody temperatures as a function of albedo, sun's luminosity and distance from sun. They have also already calculated the magnitude of the greenhouse effect (optical thickness) of the modern atmosphere. In this first problem, the students apply these same calculations to the Faint Young Sun hypothesis and infer what can account for the geological evidence for liquid water on earth since 4.3 Ga. The second problem follows an introductory lecture on radiometric decay and radiometric dating. The students have seen the decay equation and learned what are decay constants and stable versus radioactive isotopes. In this problem, the students apply these concepts to radiocarbon.

Cook, Mea

91

GIFTS SM EDU Radiometric and Spectral Calibrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Sensor Module (SM) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high resolution spectral imager designed to measure infrared (IR) radiance using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The GIFTS instrument gathers measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the processing algorithms involved in the calibration. The calibration procedures can be subdivided into three categories: the pre-calibration stage, the calibration stage, and finally, the post-calibration stage. Detailed derivations for each stage are presented in this paper.

Tian, J.; Reisse, R. a.; Johnson, D. G.; Gazarik, J. J.

2007-01-01

92

Absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.

Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.

1986-01-01

93

Landsat-7 ETM+ radiometric stability and absolute calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Launched in April 1999, the Landsat-7 ETM+ instrument is in its fourth year of operation. The quality of the acquired calibrated imagery continues to be high, especially with respect to its three most important radiometric performance parameters: reflective band instrument stability to better than ??1%, reflective band absolute calibration to better than ??5%, and thermal band absolute calibration to better than ??0.6 K. The ETM+ instrument has been the most stable of any of the Landsat instruments, in both the reflective and thermal channels. To date, the best on-board calibration source for the reflective bands has been the Full Aperture Solar Calibrator, which has indicated changes of at most -1.8% to -2.0% (95% C.I.) change per year in the ETM+ gain (band 4). However, this change is believed to be caused by changes in the solar diffuser panel, as opposed to a change in the instrument's gain. This belief is based partially on ground observations, which bound the changes in gain in band 4 at -0.7% to +1.5%. Also, ETM+ stability is indicated by the monitoring of desert targets. These image-based results for four Saharan and Arabian sites, for a collection of 35 scenes over the three years since launch, bound the gain change at -0.7% to +0.5% in band 4. Thermal calibration from ground observations revealed an offset error of +0.31 W/m 2 sr um soon after launch. This offset was corrected within the U. S. ground processing system at EROS Data Center on 21-Dec-00, and since then, the band 6 on-board calibration has indicated changes of at most +0.02% to +0.04% (95% C.I.) per year. The latest ground observations have detected no remaining offset error with an RMS error of ??0.6 K. The stability and absolute calibration of the Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor make it an ideal candidate to be used as a reference source for radiometric cross-calibrating to other land remote sensing satellite systems.

Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Barsi, J.A.; Kaita, E.; Thome, K.J.; Helder, D.L.; Palluconi, F.D.; Schott, J.R.; Scaramuzza, P.

2002-01-01

94

Errors in radiometric remote sensing of sea-surface temperature and salinity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for remote measurement of sea-surface physical temperature and salinity using radiometric measurements from aircraft or satellite are reviewed. Studies have been conducted to determine the sensitivity of the errors in surface temperature and salinity to errors in the measured brightness temperatures using combinations of UHF, L, S, and C-band measurements. These investigations were made using values of conductivity, static dielectric constant, and relaxation time derived from the regression equations of Klein and Swift (1977). Results of the error sensitivity study are presented in the form of error contour plots which permit the calculation of errors in the estimation of the physical parameters for given errors in the raw radiometric measurements.

Britt, C. L., Jr.

1984-01-01

95

The role of spatial, spectral and radiometric resolution on information content. [of aircraft scanners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a factorial experiment to evaluate the effects of spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution on training-data spectral separability and classification accuracy are reported. Aircraft scanner data from five flightlines at 19.8 km over California including croplands, rangeland, forest, water, and urban areas were systematically degraded over a range approximately from Landsat MSS to Thematic Mapper specifications. Reference data were collected on the ground and from aerial photography. The degradations, training-site delineation, data-analysis procedures, and accuracy-assessment techniques are described; the results are presented in tables and graphs and discussed. It is found that while accuracy was increased by higher spectral resolution in 70 percent of the cases and uniformly by increased radiometric resolution, it was decreased by higher spatial resolution. This phenomenon is attributed to classification methods.

Buis, J. S.; Acevedo, W.; Wrigley, R. C.; Alexander, D. A.

1983-01-01

96

Radiometric responsivity determination for Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE) flown on space shuttle mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A procedure was developed to obtain the radiometric (radiance) responsivity of the Feature Identification and Local Experiment (FILE) instrument in preparation for its flight on Space Shuttle Mission 41-G (November 1984). This instrument was designed to obtain Earth feature radiance data in spectral bands centered at 0.65 and 0.85 microns, along with corroborative color and color-infrared photographs, and to collect data to evaluate a technique for in-orbit autonomous classification of the Earth's primary features. The calibration process incorporated both solar radiance measurements and radiative transfer model predictions in estimating expected radiance inputs to the FILE on the Shuttle. The measured data are compared with the model predictions, and the differences observed are discussed. Application of the calibration procedure to the FILE over an 18-month period indicated a constant responsivity characteristic. This report documents the calibration procedure and the associated radiometric measurements and predictions that were part of the instrument preparation for flight.

Wilson, R. G.; Davis, R. E.; Wright, R. E., Jr.; Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Bullock, G. F.

1986-01-01

97

Absolute Radiometric Calibration of EUNIS-06  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrometer (EUNIS) is a soundingrocket payload that obtains imaged high-resolution spectra of individual solar features, providing information about the Sun's corona and upper transition region. Shortly after its successful initial flight last year, a complete end-to-end calibration was carried out to determine the instrument's absolute radiometric response over its Longwave bandpass of 300 - 370A. The measurements were done at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in England, using the same vacuum facility and EUV radiation source used in the pre-flight calibrations of both SOHO/CDS and Hinode/EIS, as well as in three post-flight calibrations of our SERTS sounding rocket payload, the precursor to EUNIS. The unique radiation source provided by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) had been calibrated to an absolute accuracy of 7% (l-sigma) at 12 wavelengths covering our bandpass directly against the Berlin electron storage ring BESSY, which is itself a primary radiometric source standard. Scans of the EUNIS aperture were made to determine the instrument's absolute spectral sensitivity to +- 25%, considering all sources of error, and demonstrate that EUNIS-06 was the most sensitive solar E W spectrometer yet flown. The results will be matched against prior calibrations which relied on combining measurements of individual optical components, and on comparisons with theoretically predicted 'insensitive' line ratios. Coordinated observations were made during the EUNIS-06 flight by SOHO/CDS and EIT that will allow re-calibrations of those instruments as well. In addition, future EUNIS flights will provide similar calibration updates for TRACE, Hinode/EIS, and STEREO/SECCHI/EUVI.

Thomas, R. J.; Rabin, D. M.; Kent, B. J.; Paustian, W.

2007-01-01

98

Precision radiometric surface temperature (PRST) sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need for a Precision Radiometric Surface Temperature (PRST) measurement capability that can achieve noncontact profiling of a sample's surface temperature when heated dynamically during laser processing, aerothermal heating or metal cutting/machining. Target surface temperature maps within and near the heated spot provide critical quantitative diagnostic data for laser-target coupling effectiveness and laser damage assessment. In the case of metal cutting, this type of measurement provides information on plastic deformation in the primary shear zone where the cutting tool is in contact with the workpiece. The challenge in these cases is to measure the temperature of a target while its surface's temperature and emissivity are changing rapidly and with incomplete knowledge of how the emissivity and surface texture (scattering) changes with temperature. Bodkin Design and Engineering, LLC (BDandE), with partners Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) and Space Computer Corporation (SCC), has developed a PRST Sensor that is based on a hyperspectral MWIR imager spanning the wavelength range 2-5 ?m and providing a hyperspectral datacube of 20-24 wavelengths at 60 Hz frame rate or faster. This imager is integrated with software and algorithms to extract surface temperature from radiometric measurements over the range from ambient to 2000K with a precision of 20K, even without a priori knowledge of the target's emissivity and even as the target emissivity may be changing with time and temperature. In this paper, we will present a description of the PRST system as well as laser heating test results which show the PRST system mapping target surface temperatures in the range 600-2600K on a variety of materials.

Daly, James T.; Roberts, Carson; Bodkin, Andrew; Sundberg, Robert; Beaven, Scott; Weinheimer, Jeffrey

2013-05-01

99

Landsat-7 EMT+ On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat-7 was launched on April 15, 1999 and completed its on orbit initialization and verification period on June 28, 1999. The ETM+ payload is similar to the TM sensors on previous Landsat satellites and incorporates two new devices to improve its absolute radiometric calibration. The Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) is a deployable diffuser panel. This device has been deployed 9 times to date, with a normal deployment schedule of once per month. The initial analysis of the FASC data has given absolute calibration results within 5% of the prelaunch integrating sphere calibrations and a range of variation of 2% between dates. The Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC), is a set of auxiliary optics that allows the ETM+ to view the sun through a reduced aperture. Data have normally been acquired on a daily basis with the PASC. Initial results with the PASC were encouraging, despite some unexpected saturation in the shortest wavelength band. The response of the ETM+ short wavelength (silicon) bands to the PASC increased initially and has begun to decrease in some of these bands. The longer wavelength (InSb) bands have shown up to 30% oscillations that vary between detectors within the band. Studies are ongoing to better characterize the response to the PASC. The ETM+ also incorporates an internal calibrator (IC), a shutter that oscillates in front of the focal plane that directs light from the internal calibrator lamps to the focal plane. The responses to this device are also varying, though differently than the PASC results. Both the IC and PASC results are attributable to the calibration devices as opposed to the ETM+ itself.

Markham, Brian L.; Barker, J. L.; Kaita, E.; Seiferth, J.; Morfitt, Ron

1999-01-01

100

Intraband radiometric performance of the Landsat Thematic Mappers.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Radiometric characteristics have been examined of the Landsat-4 and Landsat-5 Thematic Mappers (TMs) that can be established without absolute calibration of spectral data. This analysis is based on radiometrically and geometrically raw (B-type) data of both uniform (flat-field) and high-contrast scenes. Subscenes selected for uniform radiance were used to characterized subtle radiometric differences and noise problems. Although the general performance of the Thematic Mappers is excellent, various anomalies that have a magnitude of a few digital levels (DN) or less are quantified. -from Authors

Kieffer, H.H.; Cook, D.A.; Eliason, E.M.; Eliason, P.T.

1985-01-01

101

Radiocarbon dates on bones of extinct birds from Hawaii.  

PubMed Central

Bones from a stratified sedimentary deposit in the Puu Naio Cave site on Maui, Hawaiian Islands, reveal the late Holocene extinction of 19 species of birds. The age of the sediment and associated fauna was determined by direct radiocarbon dating (tandem particle accelerator-mass spectrometer; TAMS) of amino acids extracted from bones weighing as little as 450 mg. The 14C dates indicate that sediment has been accumulating in the lava tube for at least the last 7750 years, a suitable time frame for testing the hypothesis that Holocene extinction on islands began after human colonization. Despite growing evidence that a worldwide wave of extinctions coincided with human colonization of oceanic islands, little radiometric data have been available to date the extinction of most small fossil vertebrates on islands. The TAMS technique of dating purified collagen from the bones of small vertebrates could lead to vastly improved chronologies of extinction for oceanic islands where catastrophic mid- to late-Holocene extinction is expected or known to have occurred. Chronologies derived from nonarcheological sites that show continuous sedimentation, such as the Puu Naio Cave deposit, may also yield key evidence on the timing of earliest human settlement of Oceania. Images PMID:3470800

James, H F; Stafford, T W; Steadman, D W; Olson, S L; Martin, P S; Jull, A J; McCoy, P C

1987-01-01

102

Amino acid racemization dating of Upper Pleistocene - Holocene terrestrial gastropods from a Mediterranean region (Murcia, SE Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amino acid racemization method has become a widely used geochronological tool for dating Quaternary deposits. The method is based on the fact that living organisms contain only L-amino acids which gradually racemize into D-amino acids after death. Thus, the D/L ratio increases with time after death until it is equal to 1, that is, when equilibrium is reached. Gastropod shells are particularly useful for amino acid racemization dating. Because the amino acid racemization method is not a numerical dating method in isolation, it needs to be calibrated, mainly with radiometric dating methods. The racemization process is genus- and temperature-dependent. In this work we present a preliminary analysis that compares the radiometric age estimated from different dating methods of a number of gastropods recovered in localities from Murcia (Southeastern Spain), with the age obtained through the amino acid racemization method. Taking advantage of recent paleoseismological research in the Murcia region (SE Spain), 28 gastropods specimens were collected from different trenches dug in young Quaternary alluvial deposits. The specimens were subsequently classified and then analyzed according to the standards protocols of the Biomolecular Stratigraphy Laboratory (UPM, Madrid School of Mines). The species found were Otala lactea, Iberus gualterianus, Sphincterochila candidissima and Theba pisana. The D/L ratios of aspartic acid, leucine, phenylalanine and glutamic acid were determined, and the corresponding average age of each specimen was calculated introducing the D/L values in the age calculation algorithm of Torres et al. (1997) for gastropods of central and southern Spain. The racemization age for each locality was then compared to the radiometric age of the deposit where the specimens were collected. To this respect, the samples were classified in different groups considering the reliability on the age control method. The most reliable sample consists only on dates obtained by the radiocarbon method applied to pieces of charcoal found in the same sedimentary unit as the gastropod. The other subsets consider dates, or bracketed dates, obtained from other dating techniques (TL, OSL, Uranium series) or even stratigraphic criteria. Preliminary results show that Torres et al. (1997) calibration algorithm estimates ages as much as ten times older than the most likely one. We think that this result is due to a strong bias on the way the algorithm was obtained, based mostly in Lower Pleistocene/Pliocene samples. Hence, the new data presented here could be used to constraint better the Torres et al. (1997) function towards Upper Pleistocene and Holocene dates. This type of calibration model would be very valuable in determining ages of recent deposits in the Murcia Region, a matter that is critical in paleoseismological research.

Garcia-Mayordomo, Julian; Ortiz, Jose E.; Torres, Trinidad; Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Martinez-Diaz, Jose J.; Altolaguirre, Yul; Canales-Fernandez, Maria L.; Martin-Banda, Raquel

2014-05-01

103

Radiometric detection of yeasts in blood cultures of cancer patients.  

PubMed Central

During a 12-month period, 19,457 blood cultures were collected. Yeasts were isolated from 193 cultures derived from 76 cancer patients. Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis accounted for 79% of isolates. Of the three methods compared, the radiometric method required 2.9 days to become positive, "blind" subculture required 2.6 days, and Gram stains required 1 day. However, the radiometric method was clearly superior in detecting positive cultures, since 73% of all cultures were first detected radiometrically, 22% were detected by subculture, and only 5% were detected by Gram stain. Although 93% of the isolates were detected by aerobic culture, five (7%) isolates were obtained only from anaerobic cultures. Seven days of incubation appear to be sufficient for the radiometric detection of yeasts. PMID:7012168

Hopfer, R L; Orengo, A; Chesnut, S; Wenglar, M

1980-01-01

104

MODIS On-orbit Radiometric Calibration Algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a key instrument for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), consists of 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging form 0.41 micron to 14.4 microns and spatial resolutions of 0.25km (2 bands), 0.5km (5 bands), and 1.0km at nadir. The 36 spectral bands are distributed on four Focal Plane Assemblies (FPA): visible (VIS), near-infrared (NIR), short- and mid-wave infrared (SMIR), and long-wave infrared (LWIR). A Spectral Radiometric Calibration Assembly (SRCA), built into the MODIS instrument, is used to characterize the relative band to band registration and VIS and NIR bands' spectral stability. The MODIS 2-sided paddle wheel scan mirror provides a -55 degree to +55 degree scan of the Earth covering a 10km (at nadir) along track by 2330km along scan swath. The MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) was launched on-board the EOS Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 (Sun-synchronous near polar orbit, 10:30 am equator crossing time, descending node). MODIS has been providing the science community global coverage of the land, oceans, and atmosphere. A second instrument, the Flight Model 1 (FM1), will be launched on the EOS Aqua spacecraft in April 2002 (Sun-synchronous near polar orbit, 1:30 pm equator crossing time, ascending node). The MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST), funded by the MODIS Science Team, is responsible for the instrument pre-launch and on-orbit calibration and characterization and for developing, maintaining, and improving the Level 1B algorithm that converts the instrument digital counts to radiometrically calibrated top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiance and reflectance products. The Level1B data, along with other science products (oceans, land, and atmosphere), are freely available to the public through NASA Goddard Earth Science (GES) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The MODIS 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) from 0.41 to 2.1 microns are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The other 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB) from 3.7 to 14.4 microns are calibrated on-orbit by an on board calibrator (OBC) blackbody (BB). In this presentation, we address both TEB and RSB on-orbit calibration issues using examples from Terra MODIS on-orbit calibration data analyses. We also describe the radiance and reflectance calibration algorithms implemented in the L1B, including corrections designed to reduce the impact of instrument anomalies and algorithm improvements.

Xiong, X.; Chiang, K.; Adimi, F.; Sun, J.; Esposito, J.; Barnes, W. L.

2002-05-01

105

Impact of the cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determining spectral reflectance coefficients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays remote sensing plays a very important role in many different study fields, i.e. environmental studies, hydrology, mineralogy, ecosystem studies, etc. One of the key areas of remote sensing applications is water quality monitoring. Understanding and monitoring of the water quality parameters and detecting different water contaminants is an important issue in water management and protection of whole environment and especially the water ecosystem. There are many remote sensing methods to monitor water quality and detect water pollutants. One of the most widely used method for substance detection with remote sensing techniques is based on usage of spectral reflectance coefficients. They are usually acquired using discrete methods such as spectrometric measurements. These however can be very time consuming, therefore image-based methods are used more and more often. In order to work out the proper methodology of obtaining spectral reflectance coefficients from hyperspectral and multispectral images, it is necessary to verify the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on the accuracy of determination of them. This paper presents laboratory experiments that were conducted using two monochromatic XEVA video sensors (400-1700 nm spectral data registration) with two different radiometric resolutions (12 and 14 bits). In view of determining spectral characteristics from images, the research team used set of interferometric filters. All data collected with multispectral digital video cameras were compared with spectral reflectance coefficients obtained with spectroradiometer. The objective of this research is to find the impact of cameras radiometric resolution on reflectance values in chosen wavelength. The main topic of this study is the analysis of accuracy of spectral coefficients from sensors with different radiometric resolution. By comparing values collected from images acquired with XEVA sensors and with the curves obtained with spectroradiometer it's possible to determine accuracy of imagebased spectral reflectance coefficients and decide which sensor will be more accurate to determine them for protection of water aquatic environment purpose.

Orych, A.; Walczykowski, P.; Jenerowicz, A.; Zdunek, Z.

2014-11-01

106

Phoretic and Radiometric Force Measurements on Microparticles in Microgravity Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and radiometric forces on microparticles are being measured over a wide range of gas phase and particle conditions using electrodynamic levitation of single particles to simulate microgravity conditions. The thermophoretic force, which arises when a particle exists in a gas having a temperature gradient, is measured by levitating an electrically charged particle between heated and cooled plates mounted in a vacuum chamber. The diffusiophoretic force arising from a concentration gradient in the gas phase is measured in a similar manner except that the heat exchangers are coated with liquids to establish a vapor concentration gradient. These phoretic forces and the radiation pressure force acting on a particle are measured directly in terms of the change in the dc field required to levitate the particle with and without the force applied. The apparatus developed for the research and the experimental techniques are discussed, and results obtained by thermophoresis experiments are presented. The determination of the momentum and energy accommodation coefficients associated with molecular collisions between gases molecules and particles and the measurement of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and small particles are of particular interest.

Davis, E. James

1996-01-01

107

Blast investigation by fast multispectral radiometric analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge regarding the processes involved in blasts and detonations is required in various applications, e.g. missile interception, blasts of high-explosive materials, final ballistics and IED identification. Blasts release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some part of this energy is released as intense radiation in the optical spectral bands. This paper proposes to measure the blast radiation by a fast multispectral radiometer. The measurement is made, simultaneously, in appropriately chosen spectral bands. These spectral bands provide extensive information on the physical and chemical processes that govern the blast through the time-dependence of the molecular and aerosol contributions to the detonation products. Multi-spectral blast measurements are performed in the visible, SWIR and MWIR spectral bands. Analysis of the cross-correlation between the measured multi-spectral signals gives the time dependence of the temperature, aerosol and gas composition of the blast. Farther analysis of the development of these quantities in time may indicate on the order of the detonation and amount and type of explosive materials. Examples of analysis of measured explosions are presented to demonstrate the power of the suggested fast multispectral radiometric analysis approach.

Devir, A. D.; Bushlin, Y.; Mendelewicz, I.; Lessin, A. B.; Engel, M.

2011-06-01

108

Transportable high sensitivity small sample radiometric calorimeter  

SciTech Connect

A new small-sample, high-sensitivity transportable radiometric calorimeter, which can be operated in different modes, contains an electrical calibration method, and can be used to develop secondary standards, will be described in this presentation. The data taken from preliminary tests will be presented to indicate the precision and accuracy of the instrument. The calorimeter and temperature-controlled bath, at present, require only a 30-in. by 20-in. tabletop area. The calorimeter is operated from a laptop computer system using unique measurement module capable of monitoring all necessary calorimeter signals. The calorimeter can be operated in the normal calorimeter equilibration mode, as a comparison instrument, using twin chambers and an external electrical calibration method. The sample chamber is 0.75 in (1.9 cm) in diameter by 2.5 in. (6.35 cm) long. This size will accommodate most {sup 238}Pu heat standards manufactured in the past. The power range runs from 0.001 W to <20 W. The high end is only limited by sample size.

Wetzel, J.R.; Biddle, R.S.; Cordova, B.S.; Sampson, T.E.; Dye, H.R.; McDow, J.G.

1998-12-31

109

The Radiometric Bode's Law and Extrasolar Planets  

E-print Network

We predict the radio flux densities of the extrasolar planets in the current census, making use of an empirical relation--the radiometric Bode's Law--determined from the five ``magnetic'' planets in the solar system (Earth and the four gas giants). Radio emission from these planets results from solar-wind powered electron currents depositing energy in the magnetic polar regions. We find that most of the known extrasolar planets should emit in the frequency range 10--1000 MHz and, under favorable circumstances, have typical flux densities as large as 1 mJy. We also describe an initial, systematic effort to search for radio emission in low radio frequency images acquired with the Very Large Array. The limits set by the VLA images (~ 300 mJy) are consistent with, but do not provide strong constraints on, the predictions of the model. Future radio telescopes, such as the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) and the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), should be able to detect the known extrasolar planets or place austere limits on their radio emission. Planets with masses much lower than those in the current census will probably radiate below 10 MHz and will require a space-based array.

Joseph Lazio; W. M. Farrell; Jill Dietrick; Elizabeth Greenlees; Emily Hogan; Christopher Jones; L. A. Hennig

2004-05-18

110

Fission track dating of kimberlitic zircons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The only reliable method for dating kimberlites at present is the lengthy and specialized hydrothermal procedure that extracts 206Pb and 238U from low-uranium zircons. This paper describes a second successful method by fission track dating of large single-crystal zircons, 1.0-1.5 cm in dimension. The use of large crystals overcomes the limitations imposed in conventional fission track analysis which utilizes crushed fragments. Low track densities, optical track dispersion, and the random orientation of polished surfaces in the etch and irradiation cycle are effectively overcome. Fission track ages of zircons from five African kimberlites are reported, from the Kimberley Pool (90.3 ?? 6.5 m.y.), Orapa (87.4 ?? 5.7 and 92.4 ?? 6.1 m.y.), Nzega (51.1 ?? 3.8 m.y.), Koffiefontein (90.0 ?? 8.2 m.y.), and Val do Queve (133.4 ?? 11.5 m.y.). In addition we report the first radiometric ages (707.9 ?? 59.6 and 705.5 ?? 61.0 m.y.) of crustal zircons from kimberlites in northwest Liberia. The fission track ages agree well with earlier age estimates. Most of the zircons examined in this study are zoned with respect to uranium but linear correlations are established (by regression analysis) between zones of variable uranium content, and within zones of constant uranium content (by analysis of variance). Concordance between the fission track method and the U/Pb technique is established and we concluded that track fading from thermal annealing has not taken place. Kimberlitic zircons dated in this study, therefore, record the time of eruption. ?? 1983.

Haggerty, S.E.; Raber, E.; Naeser, C.W.

1983-01-01

111

Numerical Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students investigate methods used by geologists studying active tectonics for determining ages in actual numbers of years. Introductory materials describe the three most-used techniques for dating material formed during the Quaternary Period (approximately the last 1.65 million years), discuss the concepts of radioactive decay and half-life, and explain how these may be used to determine the numerical age of an object or substance. The exercise includes a set of problems in which students calculate isotopic abundance, half-life, decay rate, and absolute age. Example problems and a bibliography are provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

112

Numerical Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students investigate methods used by geologists studying active tectonics for determining ages in actual numbers of years. Introductory materials describe the three most-used techniques for dating material formed during the Quaternary Period (approximately the last 1.65 million years), discuss the concepts of radioactive decay and half-life, and explain how these may be used to determine the numerical age of an object or substance. The exercise includes a set of problems in which students calculate isotopic abundance, half-life, decay rate, and absolute age. Example problems and a bibliography are provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

2011-07-07

113

Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid, and precipitation, emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band because communication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of water vapor-induced propagation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity wave experiments, and radio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation model development, supported planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily, monthly, and seasonal variations. Only long-term monitoring will prevent biases from being introduced by an exceptionally wet or dry year. Support for planetary missions included tropospheric calibration for the recent Mars Observer gravity wave experiments and Ka-band link experiment (KaBLE). Additionally, several proposed radio science experiments such as profiling planetary atmospheres using satellite occultations and Ka-band gravitational wave searches require advanced radiometer technology development. Finally, there has been a consistent advanced technology program to advance satellite navigational and tracking capabilities. This year that included an experiment with radiometer based tropospheric calibration for a series of VLBI catalog measurements.

Walter, Steven J.

1994-01-01

114

In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1:0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2:0.53 to 0.61 micrometers band 3:0.62 to 0.70 micrometers and 4:0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors.

Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

1984-01-01

115

Spectral, spatial and radiometric factors in cover type discrimination  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolutions on the utilization of Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data is assessed quantitatively using a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design experiment. Eight possible factor combinations were examined for agricultural, urban, forestry, range, and water types of land covers for three levels of information. Spectral bandwidths were configured to simulate all four Landsat MSS channels and Landsat TM channels 1, 2, 3, 4, and 7. By means of bar charts and tables it is shown that the 8-bit radiometric and 75-meter spatial resolutions provide a higher overall accuracy than the 6-bit radiometric and 25-meter spatial resolutions. Spectrally, the difference between the four MSS channels and five TM channel configurations is noted to be insignificant.

Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Acevedo, W.; Wrigley, R.

1983-01-01

116

Mapping surface soil moisture with L-band radiometric measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA C-130 airborne remote sensing aircraft was used to obtain four-beam pushbroom microwave radiometric measurements over two small Kansas tall-grass prairie region watersheds, during a dry-down period after heavy rainfall in May and June, 1987. While one of the watersheds had been burned 2 months before these measurements, the other had not been burned for over a year. Surface soil-moisture data were collected at the time of the aircraft measurements and correlated with the corresponding radiometric measurements, establishing a relationship for surface soil-moisture mapping. Radiometric sensitivity to soil moisture variation is higher in the burned than in the unburned watershed; surface soil moisture loss is also faster in the burned watershed.

Wang, James R.; Shiue, James C.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Engman, Edwin T.

1989-01-01

117

Radiometric Measurement Comparisons Using Transfer Radiometers in Support of the Calibration of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EOS satellite instruments operating in the visible through the shortwave infrared wavelength regions (from 0.4 micrometers to 2.5 micrometers) are calibrated prior to flight for radiance response using integrating spheres at a number of instrument builder facilities. The traceability of the radiance produced by these spheres with respect to international standards is the responsibility of the instrument builder, and different calibration techniques are employed by those builders. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Earth Observing System (EOS) Project Science Office, realizing the importance of preflight calibration and cross-calibration, has sponsored a number of radiometric measurement comparisons, the main purpose of which is to validate the radiometric scale assigned to the integrating spheres by the instrument builders. This paper describes the radiometric measurement comparisons, the use of stable transfer radiometers to perform the measurements, and the measurement approaches and protocols used to validate integrating sphere radiances. Stable transfer radiometers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center Remote Sensing Group, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and the National Research Laboratory of Metrology in Japan, have participated in these comparisons. The approaches used in the comparisons include the measurement of multiple integrating sphere lamp levels, repeat measurements of select lamp levels, the use of the stable radiometers as external sphere monitors, and the rapid reporting of measurement results. Results from several comparisons are presented. The absolute radiometric calibration standard uncertainties required by the EOS satellite instruments are typically in the +/- 3% to +/- 5% range. Preliminary results reported during eleven radiometric measurement comparisons held between February 1995 and May 1998 have shown the radiance of integrating spheres agreed to within +/- 2.5% from the average at blue wavelengths and to within +/- 1.7% from the average at red and near infrared wavelengths. This level of agreement lends confidence in the use of the transfer radiometers in validating the radiance scales assigned by EOS instrument calibration facilities to their integrating sphere sources.

Butler, James J.; Johnson, B. Carol; Brown, Steven W.; Yoon, Howard W.; Barnes, Robert A.; Markham, Brian L.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Zalewski, Edward F.; Spyak, Paul R.; Cooper, John W.; Sakuma, Fumihiro

1999-01-01

118

Date: _________________________ From: ____________________________________________  

E-print Network

06/21/13 Date: _________________________ From: ____________________________________________ Via information apply: Business name & address Daily rate Hotel tax Date from Date for an online booking hotel receipt." This form may not be used for lost online booking receipts. (b) Other. I

119

ASD FieldSpec Calibration Setup and Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) Fieldspec Calibration Setup and Techniques. The topics include: 1) ASD Fieldspec FR Spectroradiometer; 2) Components of Calibration; 3) Equipment list; 4) Spectral Setup; 5) Spectral Calibration; 6) Radiometric and Linearity Setup; 7) Radiometric setup; 8) Datadets Required; 9) Data files; and 10) Field of View Measurement. This paper is in viewgraph form.

Olive, Dan

2001-01-01

120

A double-spike method for K-Ar measurement: A technique for high precision in situ dating on Mars and other planetary surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for K-Ar dating using a double isotope dilution technique is proposed and demonstrated. The method is designed to eliminate known difficulties facing in situ dating on planetary surfaces, especially instrument complexity and power availability. It may also have applicability in some terrestrial dating applications. Key to the method is the use of a solid tracer spike enriched in both 39Ar and 41K. When mixed with lithium borate flux in a Knudsen effusion cell, this tracer spike and a sample to be dated can be successfully fused and degassed of Ar at <1000 C. The evolved 40Ar?/39Ar ratio can be measured to high precision using noble gas mass spectrometry. After argon measurement the sample melt is heated to a slightly higher temperature (1030 C) to volatilize potassium, and the evolved 39K/41K ratio measured by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry. Combined with the known composition of the tracer spike, these two ratios define the K-Ar age using a single sample aliquot and without the need for extreme temperature or a mass determination. In principle the method can be implemented using a single mass spectrometer. Experiments indicate that quantitative extraction of argon from a basalt sample occurs at a sufficiently low temperature that potassium loss in this step is unimportant. Similarly, potassium isotope ratios measured in the Knudsen apparatus indicate good sample-spike equilibration and acceptably small isotopic fractionation. When applied to a flood basalt from the Viluy Traps, Siberia, a K-Ar age of 351 19 Ma was obtained, a result within 1% of the independently known age. For practical reasons this measurement was made on two separate mass spectrometers, but a scheme for combining the measurements in a single analytical instrument is described. Because both parent and daughter are determined by isotope dilution, the precision on K-Ar ages obtained by the double isotope dilution method should routinely approach that of a pair of isotope ratio determinations, likely better than 5%.

Farley, K. A.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Asimow, P. D.; Jacobson, N. S.; Cartwright, J. A.

2013-06-01

121

Oxygen isotope studies and compilation of isotopic dates from Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

The Quaternary Isotope Laboratory, alone or in collaboration with other investigators, is currently involved in a number of oxygen-isotope studies mainly in Antarctica. Studies of a drill core from the South Pole, seasonal oxygen-18 signals preserved in the Dominion Range, isotope dating of the Ross Ice Shelf, oxygen-18 profiles of the Siple Coast, McMurdo Ice Shelf sampling, and a data compilation of radiometric dates from Antarctica are discussed.

Grootes, P.M.; Stuiver, M.

1986-01-01

122

Earthtime Lesson Plan for U/Pb Dating (grade 8-12)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earthtime Lesson Plan is a complete description of a radiometric dating module taught to high school students at MIT. U/Pd dating and it's uses, teacher background, materials needed, time frame and National Science Standards are all provided as well as worksheets with teacher solutions. This module, consisting of three activities, is initially designed for a 90min period.

123

Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of radiometric tarps  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of radiometric tarp samples used in the vicarious calibration of Earth remote sensing satellite instruments are presented in this paper. The results illustrate the BRDF dependence on the orientation of the tarps' weft and warp threads. The study was performed using the GSFC scatterometer at incident zenith angles of 0 deg., 10 deg., and 30 deg.; scatter zenith angles from 0 deg. to 60 deg.; and scatter azimuth angles of 0 deg., 45 deg., 90 deg., 135 deg., and 180 deg.. The wavelengths were 485 nm, 550 nm, 633 nm, and 800 nm. The tarp's weft and warp dependence on BRDF is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. The BRDF difference can be as high as 8% at 0 deg. incident angle and 12% at 30 deg. incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps are reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well-pronounced forward scatter. The provided BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps is an excellent reference for anyone interested in using tarps for radiometric calibrations. The results are NIST traceable.

Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J

2008-06-20

124

A preliminary study of a very large space radiometric antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approach used to compute the size of a special radiometric reflector antenna is presented. Operating at 1 GHz, this reflector is required to produce 200 simultaneous contiguous beams, each with a 3 dB footprint of 1 km from an assumed satellite height of 650 km. The overall beam efficiency for each beam is required to be more than 90%.

Agrawal, P. K.

1979-01-01

125

OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE IN RADIOMETRIC INSTRUMENTATION FOR SPENT FUEL MONITORING  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the global quantity of spent nuclear fuel steadily grows and the regulatory basis for the U.S spent fuel disposal program is developing, radiometric monitoring requirements are becoming increasingly important. Spent fuel measurements can be used for burn-up credit (for storage and transport), safeguards verification and radionuclide inventory quantification to meet disposal criteria. Verification measurements reduce reliance on operator data

Alan Simpson; Tony Marlow; Johnna Franco; Martin Clapham; Andrew Chesterman

126

The absolute radiometric calibration of Terra imaging sensors: MODIS, MISR, and ASTER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Terra spacecraft contains five Earth-observation instruments, three of which are multispectral imaging sensors that complement each other in spectral and spatial coverage. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 channels ranging from 0.4-14.4 ?m, with spatial resolutions of 250, 500, and 1000 m. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) uses individual imaging sensors to view the earth at nine discreet angles. Each radiometer has four channels in the visible and near infrared (VNIR), and the nadir-viewing camera has a spatial resolution of 275 m. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was designed with fourteen bands ranging from 0.5-11.6 ?m. It is the high-resolution sensor on Terra, with a spatial resolution of 15 m in the VNIR, and 30 m in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). This work describes the vicarious techniques used to perform the absolute radiometric calibration of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER in the solar-reflective region (0.4-2.5 ?m). It includes the reflectance-based approach, which uses ground-based personnel to make in situ measurements during the time of overpass. It also includes more recent results that were obtained using the University of Arizona's automated Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley, Nevada. In addition to the absolute radiometric calibration of Terra sensors, RadCaTS is used to perform the cross comparison of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER with Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI.

Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Thome, Kurtis; Anderson, Nikolaus; Biggar, Stuart

2014-10-01

127

Dating Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating

Stader, David L.

2011-01-01

128

Post-glacial Slip History of The Sparta Fault (greece) Determined By Cosmogenic Dating: A New Technique For Tectonic and Seismic Hazard Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major problem for understanding the active tectonics of the central and western Mediterranean region has been the inability to date geomorphic features in limestone. Recent advances in cosmogenic methods overcome this problem. The technique is relatively straight forward. Obtaining rates on numerous faults and related structures will not only improve our understanding of tectonic processes but will prove to be a major advance in establishing earthquake hazard. We illustrate the method by describ- ing continuous slip determinations at two places (10 km apart) on the Sparta normal fault scarp on which the great 464 BC earthquake was thought to have occurred. For a fault scarp, each major earthquake adds new surface exposing more rock to cosmic- ray bombardment. Using 36Cl cosmic ray exposure dating we obtained a continuous exposure history for the 7-12m-high limestone surfaces. The results confirm the hy- pothesis that the earthquake that destroyed ancient Sparta in 464 BC was on this fault. Four earlier earthquakes are also recorded at both sites in the last 13ka with similar slip amplitudes of about 2m and with time intervals ranging from 500yr to 4500yr. The observations confirm that the Sparta scarp is post-glacial, supporting the hypoth- esis that similar scarps elsewhere in the Mediterranean region have a similar age. The absence of any event since 464 BC could suggest a future event is imminent. However, the irregularity of earthquake time intervals could also be due to changes of loading with important consequences for the mechanics of continental deformation.

Benedetti, L.; King, G.; Finkel, R.; Papanastassiou, D.; Armijo, R.; Ryerson, F.; Farber, D.; Flerit, F.

129

Radiometric Correctionradiometric correction Radiometric correction is important to ensure that terrestrial variables retrieved from optical satellite sensor  

E-print Network

that terrestrial variables retrieved from optical satellite sensor systems are calibrated to a common physical for ensuring high-quality information from remote sensors. Radiometric correction ensures that measurements are made with a variety of different satellite sensors under different observational conditions

Coburn, Craig

130

Luminescence dating and palaeomagnetic age constraint on hominins from Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, Spain.  

PubMed

Establishing a reliable chronology on the extensive hominin remains at Sima de los Huesos is critical for an improved understanding of the complex evolutionary histories and phylogenetic relationships of the European Middle Pleistocene hominin record. In this study, we use a combination of 'extended-range' luminescence dating techniques and palaeomagnetism to provide new age constraint on sedimentary infills that are unambiguously associated with the Sima fossil assemblage. Post-infrared-infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IR) dating of K-feldspars and thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) dating of individual quartz grains provide weighted mean ages of 43315ka (thousands of years) and 41619ka, respectively, for allochthonous sedimentary horizons overlying the hominin-bearing clay breccia. The six replicate luminescence ages obtained for this deposit are reproducible and provide a combined minimum age estimate of 42712ka for the underlying hominin fossils. Palaeomagnetic directions for the luminescence dated sediment horizon and underlying fossiliferous clays display exclusively normal polarities. These findings are consistent with the luminescence dating results and confirm that the hominin fossil horizon accumulated during the Brunhes Chron, i.e., within the last 780ka. The new bracketing age constraint for the Sima hominins is in broad agreement with radiometrically dated Homo heidelbergensis fossil sites, such as Mauer and Arago, and suggests that the split of the H.neanderthalensis and H.sapiens lineages took place during the early Middle Pleistocene. More widespread numerical dating of key Early and Middle Pleistocene fossil sites across Europe is needed to test and refine competing models of hominin evolution. The new luminescence chronologies presented in this study demonstrate the versatility of TT-OSL and pIR-IR techniques and the potential role they could play in helping to refine evolutionary histories over Middle Pleistocene timescales. PMID:24485349

Arnold, Lee J; Demuro, Martina; Pars, Josep M; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Aranburu, Arantza; Bermdez de Castro, Jos Mara; Carbonell, Eudald

2014-02-01

131

Application and sensitivity investigation of Fourier transforms for microwave radiometric inversions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing microwave radiometer technology now provides a suitable method for remote determination of the ocean surface's absolute brightness temperature. To extract the brightness temperature of the water from the antenna temperature equation, an unstable Fredholm integral equation of the first kind was solved. Fast Fourier Transform techniques were used to invert the integral after it is placed into a cross-correlation form. Application and verification of the methods to a two-dimensional modeling of a laboratory wave tank system were included. The instability of the Fredholm equation was then demonstrated and a restoration procedure was included which smooths the resulting oscillations. With the recent availability and advances of Fast Fourier Transform techniques, the method presented becomes very attractive in the evaluation of large quantities of data. Actual radiometric measurements of sea water are inverted using the restoration method, incorporating the advantages of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm for computations.

Holmes, J. J.; Balanis, C. A.

1974-01-01

132

Radiometric method for testing susceptibility of mycobacteria to pyrazinamide in 7H12 broth  

SciTech Connect

The test of susceptibility to pyrazinamide requires an acid environment (pH less than or equal to 5.5). This, however, is not favorable to the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, especially in solid agar media. To obviate this difficulty, we developed a testing method with 7H12 broth medium and based on radiometric readings of the growth. The radiometric method employed in this study (BACTEC system) provides an opportunity to detect the dynamics of growth by daily recording of the growth index, which reflects the metabolic activity of the multiplying bacteria. In our technique, M. tuberculosis isolates were initially cultivated at pH 6.8. After logarithmic growth had begun, phosphoric acid solution was added to obtain pH 5.5. When pyrazinamide was added simultaneously with the acid, the growth index of susceptible cultures decreased, whereas it continued to increase in pH 5.5 control vials and in tests with pyrazinamide-resistant strains.

Heifets, L.B.; Iseman, M.D.

1985-02-01

133

New Instrumentation for Characterizing the Moon as a Radiometric Standard for Space-based Radiometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to understand and monitor climate change has led to proposed radiometric accuracy requirements for space-based remote-sensing instruments that are very stringent. However, many of these requirements are unmet by the current fleet of earth orbiting instruments. A major problem is quantifying the changes that instruments undergo during the launch and throughout the mission. While on-orbit calibrators and monitors have been developed, they too can suffer changes from the launch and harsh space environment. One potential solution is to use the moon as a calibration reference source. Already the stability of the moon has been used to remove drift and to cross-calibrate different instruments. But, at present, the uncertainty of the absolute lunar spectral irradiance is too high for absolute on-orbit calibration of climate monitoring instruments. To enable use of the moon as an absolute calibration standard, we present in this paper an Earth-based instrument to measure the lunar spectral irradiance to an uncertainty of 1 % (k=1) over the spectral range from 320 nm to 2500 nm with a spectral resolution of approximately 0.3 %. The instrument would be flown on high altitude balloons and deployed at high elevation astronomical observatories in order to mitigate the effects of the Earth's atmosphere on the lunar observations. Periodic calibrations using advanced instrumentation and techniques available from NIST would ensure SI traceability and low radiometric uncertainties for the lunar irradiance measurements.

Smith, A.; Lorentz, S.; Yoon, H.; Datla, R.; Pollock, D.; Stone, T.; Tansock, J.

2007-12-01

134

Radiocarbon Dating  

SciTech Connect

Radiocarbon dating can be used to determine the age of objects that contain components that were once alive. In the case of human remains, a radiocarbon date can distinguish between a crime scene and an archeological site. Documents, museum artifacts and art objects can be dated to determine if their age is correct for the historical context. A radiocarbon date does not confirm authenticity, but it can help identify a forgery.

Buchholz, B A

2007-12-20

135

Radiometric millimetric imaging at Roke Manor Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes two systems developed by Roke Manor Research in partnership with HMG's Home Office Immigration and Nationality Directorate and which are based upon passive millimetric microwave radiometry techniques. Their purpose is to aid the detection of people concealed in curtain-sided and plastic-sided freight vehicles. The paper covers the basic physics of radiometry, the history of these developments and concludes with an account of the future directions of this work.

Hall, Jason; Harman, Martin L.

2004-12-01

136

Wireless device identification with radiometric signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We design, implement, and evaluate a technique to identify the source network interface card (NIC) of an IEEE 802.11 frame through passive radio-frequency analysis. This tech- nique, called PARADIS, leverages minute imperfections of transmitter hardware that are acquired at manufacture and are present even in otherwise identical NICs. These imper- fections are transmitter-specic and manifest themselves as artifacts of the

Vladimir Brik; Suman Banerjee; Marco Gruteser; Oh Sangho

2008-01-01

137

DATE PALM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter reviews date palm biology and cultivation. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest fruit crops grown in the arid regions of the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa, and the Middle East. The exact origin of the date palm is unknown but most probably the area of origin w...

138

Estimation of solar gravitational harmonics with Starprobe radiometric tracking data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential gravitational science return of a proposed spacecraft mission, called Starprobe, is investigated. The current mission plan is to place a spacecraft in a highly eccentric, highly inclined solar orbit with a perihelion distance of four solar radii. A covariance analysis based on Kalman filtering theory is performed to predict the accuracies with which gravitational parameters associated with the nonsphericity of the sun and relativistic effects can be estimated with radiometric tracking data. The accuracies are computed as functions of the quality and quantity of the radiometric data, the orbital parameters, the magnitude and character of the nongravitational accelerations acting on the spacecraft, and the errors in the tracking station locations and the ephemeris of the earth relative to the sun.

Mease, K. D.; Wood, L. J.; Bergam, M. J.; White, L. K.

1981-01-01

139

Radiometric and Spatial Characterization of High-Spatial Resolution Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and improvement of commercial hyperspatial sensors in recent years has increased the breadth of information that can be retrieved from spaceborne and airborne imagery. NASA, through it's Scientific Data Purchases, has successfully provided such data sets to its user community. A key element to the usefulness of these data are an understanding of the radiometric and spatial response quality of the imagery. This proposal seeks funding to examine the absolute radiometric calibration of the Ikonos sensor operated by Space Imaging and the recently-launched Quickbird sensor from DigitalGlobe. In addition, we propose to evaluate the spatial response of the two sensors. The proposed methods rely on well-understood, ground-based targets that have been used by the University of Arizona for more than a decade.

Thome, Kurtis; Zanoni, Vicki (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

140

The OLI Radiometric Scale Realization Round Robin Measurement Campaign  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A round robin radiometric scale realization was performed at the Ball Aerospace Radiometric Calibration Laboratory in January/February 2011 in support of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) Program. Participants included Ball Aerospace, NIST, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and the University of Arizona. The eight day campaign included multiple observations of three integrating sphere sources by nine radiometers. The objective of the campaign was to validate the radiance calibration uncertainty ascribed to the integrating sphere used to calibrate the OLI instrument. The instrument level calibration source uncertainty was validated by quatnifying: (1) the long term stability of the NIST calibrated radiance artifact, (2) the responsivity scale of the Ball Aerospace transfer radiometer and (3) the operational characteristics of the large integrating sphere.

Cutlip, Hansford; Cole,Jerold; Johnson, B. Carol; Maxwell, Stephen; Markham, Brian; Ong, Lawrence; Hom, Milton; Biggar, Stuart

2011-01-01

141

The 90 GHz radiometric imaging. [for terrain analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 90-GHz (3 mm wavelength) radiometer with a noise output fluctuation of 0.22 K (RMS), with a scanning antenna beam mirror, and the data processing system are described. Real-time radiometric imaging of terrain and man-made objects are shown. Flying at an altitude of 1500 ft a radiometer antenna with a 2 degrees halfpower beamwidth can distinguish landforms, waterways, roads, runways, bridges, ships at sea and their wakes, aircraft on runways, and athletic fields. A flight taken at an altitude of 3000 ft with approximately 2000 ft of clouds below the radiometer demonstrates the ability to distinguish bridges, rivers, marshland and other landforms even though the clouds are optically opaque. The radiometric images of a few representative scenes along with photographs of the corresponding scenes are presented to demonstrate the resolution of the imager system.

King, H. E.; White, J. D.; Wilson, W. J.; Mori, T. T.; Hollinger, J. P.; Troy, B. E.; Kenney, J. E.; Mcgoogan, J. T.

1976-01-01

142

Rapid radiometric method for detection of Salmonella in foods  

SciTech Connect

A radiometric method for the detection of Salmonella in foods has been developed which is based on Salmonella poly H agglutinating serum preventing Salmonella from producing 14CO2 from (14C) dulcitol. The method will detect the presence or absence of Salmonella in a product within 30 h compared to 4 to 5 days by routine culture methods. The method has been evaluated against a routine culture method using 58 samples of food. The overall agreement was 91%. Five samples negative for Salmonella by the routine method were positive by the radiometric method. These may have been false positives. However, the routine method may have failed to detect Salmonella due to the presence of large numbers of lactose-fermenting bacteria which hindered isolation of Salmonella colonies on the selective agar plates.

Stewart, B.J.; Eyles, M.J.; Murrell, W.G.

1980-08-01

143

Radiometric accuracy assessment of LANDSAT 4 Multispectral Scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT 4 mission has unique characteristics relative to previous LANDSAT missions. The effects of these changes on the character of MSS radiometric data were explored. The histogram calibration process made a significant reduction of the channel differences within a band. If this improvement proves consistent over a wide radiometric range and persists over time, LANDSAT 4 MSS may not have the banding problems that plagued previous MSS instruments. For a simultaneous overpass of LANDSAT 3 and 4, uniform test areas were selected that were common in both data sets. Significant differences in radiance values between the two satellites were observed when R sub max and R sub min were used to compute obsolute radiance values. Ground truth should be used to determine new values. A woodgrain appearing pattern is apparent in the MSS images that were not apparent in previous MSS's. It is believed to be caused by many different frequency components, most of which originate from a common source.

Alford, W. L.; Imhoff, M. L.

1985-01-01

144

Absolute radiometric calibration accuracy of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft was launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS has demonstrated in-flight NIST traceability and high radiometric accuracy. This accuracy is achieved in orbit by transferring the calibration from a Large Area Blackbody (LABB) to the On-Board Calibrator (OBC) blackbody during preflight testing. The LABB theoretical emissivity is in excess of 0.9999 and temperature uncertainty is less than 30 mK. The LABB emitted radiance is NIST traceable through precision Platinum Resistance Thermometers (PRTs) located on the internal surfaces. The radiometric accuracy predictions for AIRS based on the OBC, LABB, and pre-flight measurements give an accuracy of 0.2K, 3 sigma. AIRS pre-flight calibration coefficients have not changed in flight, preserving the link between observations and pre-flight calibration and characterization. An update is being considered that will improve accuracy and preserve traceability.

Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Schindler, Rudolf; Elliott, Denis; Broberg, Steve; Overoye, Kenneth; Weiler, Margaret H.

2008-08-01

145

Radiometric measurements of gap probability in conifer tree canopies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of gap probability were made for some moderate-sized, open-grown conifers of varying species. Results of the radiometric analysis show that the gap probability, which is taken as the mean of the binomial, fits well a negative exponential function of a path length. The conifer shadow, then, is an object of almost uniform darkness with some bright holes or gaps that are found near the shadow's edge and rapidly disappear toward the shadows center.

Albers, Bryan J.; Strahler, Alan H.; Li, Xiaowen; Liang, Shunlin; Clarke, Keith C.

1990-01-01

146

Application of radiometric force to microactuation and energy transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The force that acts on a thin vane immersed in rarefied gas when a temperature gradient is imposed along or across the vane has historically been known as the Radiometric force. First observed by Fresnel in 1825, the radiometric force has regained its former popularity in recent decades due to the advent of micro-machines, where a transitional flow regime can occur at atmospheric pressures. Whether used for its force potential or simply viewed as a nuisance, this force cannot be ignored in micro-devices where thermal gradients exist. Potential applications of radiometric force now span from atomic force microscopy to astrophysics to high altitude flight. This paper describes an application of these forces to a conceptual micro-scale energy harvester, where two possible geometries of operation are described. It is shown that one configuration is significantly simpler to fabricate while the other geometry is more efficient at producing larger forces. The effect of pressure, feature separation, and feature-to-ring gap are analyzed. For consistency and the accurate treatment of the relevant flow conditions, an implementation of the SMOKE code that solves the ES BGK equation was used in all computations.

Selden, Nathaniel; Gimelshein, Natalia; Gimelshein, Sergey; Ketsdever, Andrew

2012-11-01

147

In situ radiometric and exposure age dating of the martian surface.  

PubMed

We determined radiogenic and cosmogenic noble gases in a mudstone on the floor of Gale Crater. A K-Ar age of 4.21 0.35 billion years represents a mixture of detrital and authigenic components and confirms the expected antiquity of rocks comprising the crater rim. Cosmic-ray-produced (3)He, (21)Ne, and (36)Ar yield concordant surface exposure ages of 78 30 million years. Surface exposure occurred mainly in the present geomorphic setting rather than during primary erosion and transport. Our observations are consistent with mudstone deposition shortly after the Gale impact or possibly in a later event of rapid erosion and deposition. The mudstone remained buried until recent exposure by wind-driven scarp retreat. Sedimentary rocks exposed by this mechanism may thus offer the best potential for organic biomarker preservation against destruction by cosmic radiation. PMID:24324273

Farley, K A; Malespin, C; Mahaffy, P; Grotzinger, J P; Vasconcelos, P M; Milliken, R E; Malin, M; Edgett, K S; Pavlov, A A; Hurowitz, J A; Grant, J A; Miller, H B; Arvidson, R; Beegle, L; Calef, F; Conrad, P G; Dietrich, W E; Eigenbrode, J; Gellert, R; Gupta, S; Hamilton, V; Hassler, D M; Lewis, K W; McLennan, S M; Ming, D; Navarro-Gonzlez, R; Schwenzer, S P; Steele, A; Stolper, E M; Sumner, D Y; Vaniman, D; Vasavada, A; Williford, K; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R F

2014-01-24

148

New radiometric dating constrains the time for initiation of the Karakorum fault zone (KFZ), SW Tibet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Karakorum fault zone (KFZ), composed of strike-slip faults, has played an important role in intra-continental deformation during the Cenozoic convergence between the Indian and Eurasian plates. However, the spatial and temporal evolution of the KFZ remains under debate. This paper reports new zircon U-Pb Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP) and biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar ages for samples from the fault zone to clarify the timing of events. The ages of Zircon U-Pb fall mainly around 47-50 Ma, which corresponds to a period of important magmatic activity of the Gangdese granitic belt (also known as the Trans-Himalayan magmatic belt). A metamorphic event followed in the period around 32 Ma, and that was then followed by a medium temperature cooling event between about 12 and 7.7 Ma. Biotite 40Ar/ 39Ar ages provide evidence that the 12-7.7 Ma cooling event coincides with the initiation of the KFZ cutting through the Ayilari granite. The Ayilari granite pluton does not seem to have experienced the separate 25-23 Ma cooling event, as shown in previous studies 60-80 km west of the current study area [Lacassin, R., Valli, F., Arnaud, N., Leloup, P.H., Paquette, J.L., Li, H., Tapponnier, P., Chevalier, M.L., Guillot, S., Maheo, G., Xu, Z., 2004. Large-scale geometry, offset and kinematic evolution of the Karakorum fault, Tibet. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 219 (3-4), 255-269.; Valli, F., Arnaud, N., Leloup, H.P., Sobel, E.R., Maheo, G., Lacassin, R., Guillot, S., Li, H., Tapponnier, P., Xu, Z., 2007. Twenty million years of continuous deformation along the Karakorum fault, western Tibet: a thermochronological analysis. Tectonics 26, doi: 10.1029/2005TC001913.; Valli, F., Leloup, P., Paquette, J., Arnaud, N., Li, H., Tapponnier, P., Lacassin, R., Guillot, S., Liu, D., Deloule, E., Xu, Z., Maho, G., 2008. New U-Th/Pb constraints on timing of shearing and long-term slip-rate on the Karakorum fault. Tectonics 27, doi:10.1029/2007TC002184.]. We conclude that the 25-23 Ma cooling event bears no relationship to the activity of the KFZ, but resulted from a local metamorphic event caused either by a regional tectonic event (such as activity of the south Kailas thrust fault) or by magmatism around Shiquanhe (also known as Gar). The study of the KFZ around Namru supports the opinion that the KFZ propagated along the fault strike to the Gar-Menshi area around 12 Ma.

Wang, Shifeng; Fang, Xiaomin; Lai, Qingzhou; Zheng, Dewen; Wang, Yanbin

2009-10-01

149

Novel Hyperspectral Sun Photometer for Satellite Remote Sensing Data Radiometric Calibration and Atmospheric Aerosol Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple and cost-effective, hyperspectral sun photometer for radiometric vicarious remote sensing system calibration, air quality monitoring, and potentially in-situ planetary climatological studies, was developed. The device was constructed solely from off the shelf components and was designed to be easily deployable for support of short-term verification and validation data collects. This sun photometer not only provides the same data products as existing multi-band sun photometers, this device requires a simpler setup, less data acquisition time and allows for a more direct calibration approach. Fielding this instrument has also enabled Stennis Space Center (SSC) Applied Sciences Directorate personnel to cross calibrate existing sun photometers. This innovative research will position SSC personnel to perform air quality assessments in support of the NASA Applied Sciences Program's National Applications program element as well as to develop techniques to evaluate aerosols in a Martian or other planetary atmosphere.

Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Holekamp, Kara; Harrington, Gary; Frisbie, Troy

2006-01-01

150

Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits through geological time: Implications from recent age-dating research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Remarkable advances in age dating Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits provide a new opportunity to understand how and where these deposits form in the Earth's crust. These dates are summarized and examined in a framework of global tectonics, paleogeography, fluid migration, and paleoclimate. Nineteen districts have been dated by paleomagnetic and/or radiometric methods. Of the districts that have both paleomagnetic and radiometric dates, only the Pine Point and East Tennessee districts have significant disagreements. This broad agreement between paleomagnetic and radiometric dates provides added confidence in the dating techniques used. The new dates confirm the direct connection between the genesis of MVT lead-zinc ores with global-scale tectonic events. The dates show that MVT deposits formed mainly during large contractional tectonic events at restricted times in the history of the Earth. Only the deposits in the Lennard Shelf of Australia and Nanisivik in Canada have dates that correspond to extensional tectonic events. The most important period for MVT genesis was the Devonian to Permian time, which corresponds to a series of intense tectonic events during the assimilation of Pangea. The second most important period for MVT genesis was Cretaceous to Tertiary time when microplate assimilation affected the western margin of North America and Africa-Eurasia. There is a notable paucity of MVT lead-zinc ore formation following the breakup of Rodinia and Pangea. Of the five MVT deposits hosted in Proterozoic rocks, only the Nanisivik deposit has been dated as Proterozoic. The contrast in abundance between SEDEX and MVT lead-zinc deposits in the Proterozoic questions the frequently suggested notion that the two types of ores share similar genetic paths. The ages of MVT deposits, when viewed with respect to the orogenic cycle in the adjacent orogen suggest that no single hydrologic model can be universally applied to the migration of the ore fluids. However, topographically driven models best explain most MVT districts. The migration of MVT ore fluids is not a natural consequence of basin evolution; rather, MVT districts formed mainly where platform carbonates had some hydrological connection to orogenic belts. There may be a connection between paleoclimate and the formation of some MVT deposits. This possible relationship is suggested by the dominance of evaporated seawater in fluid inclusions in MVT ores, by hydrological considerations that include the need for multiple-basin volumes of ore fluid to form most MVT districts, and the need for adequate precipitation to provide sufficient topographic head for topographically-driven fluid migration. Paleoclimatic conditions that lead to formation of evaporite conditions but yet have adequate precipitation to form large hydrological systems are most commonly present in low latitudes. For the MVT deposits and districts that have been dated, more than 75% of the combined metal produced are from deposits that have dates that correspond to assembly of Pangea in Devonian through Permian time. The exceptional endowment of Pangea and especially, North America with MVT lead-zinc deposits may be explained by the following: (1) Laurentia, which formed the core of North America, stayed in low latitudes during the Paleozoic, which allowed the development of vast carbonate platforms; (2) intense orogenic activity during the assembly of Pangea created ground preparation for many MVT districts through far-field deformation of the craton; (3) uplifted orogenic belts along Pangean suture zones established large-scale migration of basin fluids; and (4) the location of Pangea in low latitudes with paleoclimates with high evaporation rates led to the formation of brines by the evaporation of seawater and infiltration of these brines into deep basin aquifers during Pangean orogenic events.

Leach, D.L.; Bradley, D.; Lewchuk, M.T.; Symons, D.T.A.; De Marsily, G.; Brannon, J.

2001-01-01

151

Combined use of relative and numerical dating techniques for detecting signals of Alpine landscape evolution during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene in Val di Rabbi (Trentino, northern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A combined use of relative and absolute dating techniques was applied on nine soil profiles in order to reconstruct late Pleistocene and early Holocene landscape evolution in an Alpine environment located in Val di Rabbi (Trentino, northern Italy). The degree of podzolisation, clay mineral evolution and element mass balances of each site were investigated. Furthermore, the stable fraction of the soil organic matter (SOM) was extracted from selected horizons with 10% H2O2 and 14C-dated. The ages of the organic residues were compared with the ages of charcoal fragments found in one of the studied soils and with the ages of rock boulders obtained by the surface exposure dating (SED) method with cosmogenic 10Be. The combination of 14C dating of SOM and SED indicated that deglaciation processes in Val di Rabbi were very much advanced around 14000 cal BP and that glacier oscillations have affected the highest part of the region until about 9000 cal BP. The development of clay mineral reflects weathering intensity. We found a close link between secondary clay minerals like smectite and vermiculite and soil age as obtained by H2O2. The degree of podzolisation is time dependent and was used as an evidence of surface stability. The amount of Fe and Al forms that migrated and accumulated in the illuvial horizon correlated well with the time of soil development. Element mass balance calculations strongly correlated with the ages derived from 14C measurements. Old soils have lost a major part of base cations (up to 75%), Fe and Al. Chemical and mineralogical analyses were in good agreement with numerical dating techniques, showing the dynamics of an Alpine landscape within a relatively small area and enabling a relative and absolute differentiation of landscape elements. The combination of relative and numerical dating techniques is a promising tool to understand landscape evolution and to provide absolute chronologies of the Late glacial in high-elevation Alpine areas with siliceous parent material.

Favilli, F.; Egli, M.; Brandova, D.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Kubik, P.; Cherubini, P.; Mirabella, A.; Sartori, G.; Giaccai, D.; Haeberli, W.

2009-04-01

152

Framework for preparing and performing absolute radiometric measurements using electrooptical instruments for the earth observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex of measurements necessary for high-quality radiometric measurements of the Earth to be performed using space electrooptical instruments, including hyperspectrometric instruments, has been considered. This complex was developed in order to maintain the uniformity of measurements according to Russian legislation. In addition to organizational measures, it is necessary to determine the interrelation between radiometric data and geophysical parameters received using these data and to solve the methodological problems of the Earth observation instrument (EOI) radiometric calibration and in-orbit verification of EOI radiometric characteristics. The considered approaches are largely close to the statements of the international document "Quality Assurance Framework for Earth ObservationQA4EO".

Panfilov, A. S.; Gavrilov, V. R.; Sapritsky, V. I.

2014-12-01

153

Radiometric calibration of the Landsat MSS sensor series  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multispectral remote sensing of the Earth using Landsat sensors was ushered on July 23, 1972, with the launch of Landsat-1. Following that success, four more Landsat satellites were launched, and each of these carried the Multispectral Scanner System (MSS). These five sensors provided the only consistent multispectral space-based imagery of the Earth's surface from 1972 to 1982. This work focuses on developing both a consistent and absolute radiometric calibration of this sensor system. Cross-calibration of the MSS was performed through the use of pseudoinvariant calibration sites (PICSs). Since these sites have been shown to be stable for long periods of time, changes in MSS observations of these sites were attributed to changes in the sensors themselves. In addition, simultaneous data collections were available for some MSS sensor pairs, and these were also used for cross-calibration. Results indicated substantial differences existed between instruments, up to 16%, and these were reduced to 5% or less across all MSS sensors and bands. Lastly, this paper takes the calibration through the final step and places the MSS sensors on an absolute radiometric scale. The methodology used to achieve this was based on simultaneous data collections by the Landsat-5 MSS and Thematic Mapper (TM) instruments. Through analysis of image data from a PICS location and through compensating for the spectral differences between the two instruments, the Landsat-5 MSS sensor was placed on an absolute radiometric scale based on the Landsat-5 TM sensor. Uncertainties associated with this calibration are considered to be less than 5%.

Helder, Dennis L.; Karki, Sadhana; Bhatt, Rajendra; Micijevik, Esad; Aaron, David; Jasinski, Benjamin

2012-01-01

154

A radiometric interpretive legend for Landsat digital thematic maps  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A legend is suggested for use with computer-generated thematic maps made from Landsat digital data that designates some of the radiometric characteristics of each thematic map unit as well as the described terrain attributes of each map unit. The relationship between spectral band and radiance for each map unit is shown by a two-dimensional polygon with the four Landsat multispectral scanner bands plotted on the ordinate and radiance levels on the abscissa. The resulting shape is colored to correspond with the map unit color, thus facilitating the recognition and understanding of the computer-generated map units.

Robinove, Charles J.

1977-01-01

155

Radiometric correction and equalization of satellite digital data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Satellite digital data from Landsat and NOAA satellites is often marred by striping or streaking errors due to variations in the response of the radiometric sensors. In this paper, we discuss the equalization of the digital data as a preprocessing step, prior to image enhancement or automatic classification. The methods described make use of statistics of the data itself to generate nonlinear or linear memory-less equalization algorithms. These algorithms, by contrast to multidimensional filtering, do not result in a loss of spatial resolution. Examples of applications to Landsat and NOAA-3 thermal infrared data are given and illustrated.

Algazi, V. R.; Ford, G. E.; Kazakoff, J. A.

1979-01-01

156

Regression models for vegetation radar-backscattering and radiometric emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simple regression estimation of radar backscatter and radiometric emission from vegetative terrain is proposed, based on the exact radiative transfer models. A vegetative canopy is modeled as a Rayleigh scattering layer above an irregular Kirchhoff surface. The rms errors between the exact and the estimated ones are found to be less than 5 percent for emission, and 1 dB for the backscattering case, in most practical uses. The proposed formulas are useful in quickly estimating backscattering and emission from the vegetative terrain.

Eom, H. J.

1986-01-01

157

Microwave radar and radiometric remote sensing measurements of lake ice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Simultaneous microwave radar and spectral radiometric data were collected over Lake Erie during March 1978. A theoretical development is presented which interprets the data collected at nadir in terms of changes in the ice thickness and the electromagnetic attenuation coefficient. The theory also addresses the failure of the spectral radiometer to determine ice thickness through observations of quarter wavelength excursions in the reflectivity. Radar data collected off-nadir showed a substantially different behavior compared to that collected near nadir. This difference is attributed to a change in propagation characteristics from quasi-specular return from the ice-water interface to scattering from the rough air-ice interface.

Swift, C. T.; Jones, W. L., Jr.; Harrington, R. F.; Fedors, J. C.; Couch, R. H.; Jackson, B. L.

1980-01-01

158

Spectrally and Radiometrically Stable, Wideband, Onboard Calibration Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Onboard Calibration (OBC) source incorporates a medical/scientific-grade halogen source with a precisely designed fiber coupling system, and a fiber-based intensity-monitoring feedback loop that results in radiometric and spectral stabilities to within less than 0.3 percent over a 15-hour period. The airborne imaging spectrometer systems developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory incorporate OBC sources to provide auxiliary in-use system calibration data. The use of the OBC source will provide a significant increase in the quantitative accuracy, reliability, and resulting utility of the spectral data collected from current and future imaging spectrometer instruments.

Coles, James B.; Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Quetin, Gregory R.; Porter, Michael D.; Green, Robert O.; Nolte, Scott H.; Hernandez, Marco A.; Knoll, Linley A.

2013-01-01

159

Date Created: 2006 Date Amended  

E-print Network

Date Created: 2006 Date Amended: - 1 ­ Library Admissions Policy.doc LIBRARY ADMISSIONS POLICY to access and borrow material from the library. In addition, there are other categories of persons who, in principle, have a "right of access" to the RCA Library. · RCA Alumni (ex-students) · Students and staff from

Subramanian, Sriram

160

Automatic and improved radiometric correction of Landsat imagery using reference values from MODIS surface reflectance images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiometric correction is a prerequisite for generating high-quality scientific data, making it possible to discriminate between product artefacts and real changes in Earth processes as well as accurately produce land cover maps and detect changes. This work contributes to the automatic generation of surface reflectance products for Landsat satellite series. Surface reflectances are generated by a new approach developed from a previous simplified radiometric (atmospheric + topographic) correction model. The proposed model keeps the core of the old model (incidence angles and cast-shadows through a digital elevation model [DEM], Earth-Sun distance, etc.) and adds new characteristics to enhance and automatize ground reflectance retrieval. The new model includes the following new features: (1) A fitting model based on reference values from pseudoinvariant areas that have been automatically extracted from existing reflectance products (Terra MODIS MOD09GA) that were selected also automatically by applying quality criteria that include a geostatistical pattern model. This guarantees the consistency of the internal and external series, making it unnecessary to provide extra atmospheric data for the acquisition date and time, dark objects or dense vegetation. (2) A spatial model for atmospheric optical depth that uses detailed DEM and MODTRAN simulations. (3) It is designed so that large time-series of images can be processed automatically to produce consistent Landsat surface reflectance time-series. (4) The approach can handle most images, acquired now or in the past, regardless of the processing system, with the exception of those with extremely high cloud coverage. The new methodology has been successfully applied to a series of near 300 images of the same area including MSS, TM and ETM+ imagery as well as to different formats and processing systems (LPGS and NLAPS from the USGS; CEOS from ESA) for different degrees of cloud coverage (up to 60%) and SLC-off. Reflectance products have been validated with some example applications: time series robustness (for a pixel in a pseudoinvariant area, deviations are only 1.04% on average along the series), spectral signatures generation (visually coherent with the MODIS ones, but more similar between dates), and classification (up to 4 percent points better than those obtained with the original manual method or the CDR products). In conclusion, this new approach, that could also be applied to other sensors with similar band configurations, offers a fully automatic and reasonably good procedure for the new era of long time-series of spatially detailed global remote sensing data.

Pons, X.; Pesquer, L.; Cristbal, J.; Gonzlez-Guerrero, O.

2014-12-01

161

Virtual Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive exercise about Geologic Time. It focuses on how geologists and archaeologists determine the ages of rocks and ancient artifacts. This is a beta release of an instructional activity still under development. Virtual Dating contains two modules as well as a demonstration version. One module is Virtual Dating Isochron for rocks and minerals and the other is Virtual Dating Radiocarbon (Carbon-14). The interactive modules involve the students in exploring data and background information and answering questions as they move through the activity. An answer checking and feedback function is employed. There is also a Virtual Dating Demo if you want to do a quick run-through of the activity without answer checking enabled.

Novak, Gary

1999-04-01

162

Investigation of radiometric properties of the LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiometric data quality of the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner (MSS) was examined using several LANDSAT 4 frames. It was found that LANDSAT 4 MSS produces high-quality data of the caliber experienced with previous LANDSATS. For example, the detector equalization procedure worked well, leaving a residual banding effect of about 0.3 digital counts RMS, close to the theoretical minimum value of quantization error. Nevertheless, artifacts of the data were found, two of which were not experienced in previous MSS data. A low-level coherent noise effect was observed in all bands, with a magnitude of about 0.5 digital counts and a frequency of approximately 28 KHz (representing a wavelength of about 3.6 pixels); a substantial increase in processing complexity would be required to reduce this artifact in the data. Also, a substantial scan-length variation (of up to six pixels) was noted in MSS data when the TM sensor was operating; the LANDSAT 4 correction algorithms being applied routinely by the EROS Data Center to produce a p-type data should remove most of this variation. Between-satellite calibrations were examined in paired LANDSAT 3 and LANDSAT 4 MSS data sets, which were closely matched in acquisition time and place. Radiometric comparisons showed that all bands were highly linear in digital counts, and a well-determined linear transformation between the MSS's was established.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Rice, D. P.

1983-01-01

163

Radiometric Characterization of Hyperspectral Imagers using Multispectral Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Remote Sensing Group (RSG) at the University of Arizona has a long history of using ground-based test sites for the calibration of airborne and satellite based sensors. Often, ground-truth measurements at these test sites are not always successful due to weather and funding availability. Therefore, RSG has also automated ground instrument approaches and cross-calibration methods to verify the radiometric calibration of a sensor. The goal in the cross-calibration method is to transfer the calibration of a well-known sensor to that of a different sensor, This work studies the feasibility of determining the radiometric calibration of a hyperspectral imager using multispectral a imagery. The work relies on the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (M0DIS) as a reference for the hyperspectral sensor Hyperion. Test sites used for comparisons are Railroad Valley in Nevada and a portion of the Libyan Desert in North Africa. Hyperion bands are compared to MODIS by band averaging Hyperion's high spectral resolution data with the relative spectral response of M0DlS. The results compare cross-calibration scenarios that differ in image acquisition coincidence, test site used for the calibration, and reference sensor. Cross-calibration results are presented that show agreement between the use of coincident and non-coincident image pairs within 2% in most brands as well as similar agreement between results that employ the different MODIS sensors as a reference.

McCorkel, Joel; Kurt, Thome; Leisso, Nathan; Anderson, Nikolaus; Czapla-Myers, Jeff

2009-01-01

164

Parallel relative radiometric normalisation for remote sensing image mosaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relative radiometric normalisation (RRN) is a vital step to achieve radiometric consistency among remote sensing images. Geo-analysis over large areas often involves mosaicking massive remote sensing images. Hence RRN becomes a data-intensive and computing-intensive task. This study implements a parallel RNN method based on the iteratively re-weighted multivariate alteration detection (IR-MAD) transformation and orthogonal regression. To parallelise the method of IR-MAD and orthogonal regression, there are two key problems: the normalisation path determination and the task dependence on normalisation coefficients calculation. In this paper, the reference image and normalisation paths are determined based on the shortest distance algorithm to reduce normalisation error. Formulas of orthogonal regression are acquired considering the effect of the normalisation path to reduce the task dependence on the calculation of coefficients. A master-slave parallel mode is proposed to implement the parallel method, and a task queue and a process queue are used for task scheduling. Experiments show that the parallel RRN method provides good normalisation results and favourable parallel speed-up, efficiency and scalability, which indicate that the parallel method can handle large volumes of remote sensing images efficiently.

Chen, Chong; Chen, Zhenjie; Li, Manchun; Liu, Yongxue; Cheng, Liang; Ren, Yibin

2014-12-01

165

Diffusion-wave laser radiometric diagnostic quality-control technologies for materials NDE/NDT  

E-print Network

Diffusion-wave laser radiometric diagnostic quality-control technologies for materials NDE/NDT A and their implementation as laser infrared photothermal radiometric diagnostics for industrial materials NDT, has resulted in two emerging NDE/NDT technologies. The solution of the ill-posed thermal- wave inverse problem has

Mandelis, Andreas

166

Suitability of the amazon rain forest as an on-orbit, microwave radiometric calibration target  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive microwave sensors known as radiometers are calibrated receivers that make absolute measurements of weak natural blackbody noise power emissions to infer geophysical properties of the Earth's atmosphere and surface. Because of the high accuracy needed in measuring these geophysical parameters, frequent on-orbit radiometric calibrations over natural surfaces with stable radiometric emissions are highly desirable. This paper discusses the suitability

Suleiman O. Alsweiss; W. Linwood Jones

2007-01-01

167

Comparison of aerodynamic and radiometric surface temperature using precision weighing lysimeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiometric surface temperature (Ts) is commonly used as a surrogate for aerodynamic temperature (To) in computing the sensible heat flux term (H) in the energy balance. However, these temperatures may differ by several degrees, leading to possible errors (especially for large H) and their relationship is not well known. Previous researchers have established empirical and semi-empirical parameterizations of the radiometric

Paul D. Colaizzi; Steven R. Evett; Terry A. Howell; Judy A. Tolk

2004-01-01

168

Evaluating Radiometric Measurements Using a Fixed 45 Degrees Responsivity and Zenith Angle Dependent Responsivities (Poster)  

SciTech Connect

This poster seeks to demonstrate the importance and application of an existing but unused approach that ultimately reduces the uncertainty of radiometric measurements. Current radiometric data is based on a single responsivity value that introduces significant uncertainty to the data, however, through using responsivity as a function of solar zenith angle, the uncertainty could be decreased by 50%.

Dooraghi, M.; Habte, A.; Reda, I.; Sengupta, M.; Gotseff, P.; Andreas, A.; Anderberg, M.

2014-03-01

169

Relative Dating Via Fractures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

This VIS image of the eastern part of the Tharsis region illustrates how fractures can be used in relative dating of a surface. The fractured materials on the right side of the image are embayed by younger volcanic flows originating to the west of the image. Note how the younger flows cover the ends of the fractures, and are not at all fractured themselves.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.2, Longitude 269.4 East (90.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

170

The Landsat Data Continuity Mission Operational Land Imager (OLI) Radiometric Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) has a comprehensive radiometric characterization and calibration program beginning with the instrument design, and extending through integration and test, on-orbit operations and science data processing. Key instrument design features for radiometric calibration include dual solar diffusers and multi-lamped on-board calibrators. The radiometric calibration transfer procedure from NIST standards has multiple checks on the radiometric scale throughout the process and uses a heliostat as part of the transfer to orbit of the radiometric calibration. On-orbit lunar imaging will be used to track the instruments stability and side slither maneuvers will be used in addition to the solar diffuser to flat field across the thousands of detectors per band. A Calibration Validation Team is continuously involved in the process from design to operations. This team uses an Image Assessment System (IAS), part of the ground system to characterize and calibrate the on-orbit data.

Markham, Brian L.; Dabney, Philip W.; Murphy-Morris, Jeanine E.; Knight, Edward J.; Kvaran, Geir; Barsi, Julia A.

2010-01-01

171

Radiometric ratio characterization for low-to-mid CPV modules operating in variable irradiance conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) design methodology is proposed which aims to maximize system efficiency for a given irradiance condition. In this technique, the acceptance angle of the system is radiometrically matched to the angular spread of the site's average irradiance conditions using a simple geometric ratio. The optical efficiency of CPV systems from flat-plate to high-concentration is plotted at all irradiance conditions. Concentrator systems are measured outdoors in various irradiance conditions to test the methodology. This modeling technique is valuable at the design stage to determine the ideal level of concentration for a CPV module. It requires only two inputs: the acceptance angle profile of the system and the site's average direct and diffuse irradiance fractions. Acceptance angle can be determined by raytracing or testing a fabricated prototype in the lab with a solar simulator. The average irradiance conditions can be found in the Typical Metrological Year (TMY3) database. Additionally, the information gained from this technique can be used to determine tracking tolerance, quantify power loss during an isolated weather event, and do more sophisticated analysis such as I-V curve simulation.

Vorndran, Shelby; Russo, Juan; Zhang, Deming; Gordon, Michael; Kostuk, Raymond

2012-10-01

172

Absolute ages from crater statistics: Using radiometric ages of Martian samples for determining the Martian cratering chronology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the absence of dates derived from rock samples, impact crater frequencies are commonly used to date Martian surface units. All models for absolute dating rely on the lunar cratering chronology and on the validity of its extrapolation to Martian conditions. Starting from somewhat different lunar chronologies, rather different Martian cratering chronologies are found in the literature. Currently favored models are compared. The differences at old ages are significant, the differences at younger ages are considerable and give absolute ages for the same crater frequencies as different as a factor of 3. The total uncertainty could be much higher, though, since the ratio of lunar to Martian cratering rate which is of basic importance in the models is believed to be known no better than within a factor of 2. Thus, it is of crucial importance for understanding the the evolution of Mars and determining the sequence of events to establish an unambiguous Martian cratering chronology from crater statistics in combination with clean radiometric ages of returned Martian samples. For the dating goal, rocks should be as pristine as possible from a geologically simple area with a one-stage emplacement history of the local formation. A minimum of at least one highland site for old ages, two intermediate-aged sites, and one very young site is needed.

Neukum, G.

1988-01-01

173

ROSCAM: a 95-GHz radiometric one-second camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to obtain millimeter wave images under a variety of environmental conditions, such as rain, snow, fog, smoke, dust, etc., has numerous DoD as well as commercial applications. The demonstrated ability to look through doors, walls and clothing has recently extended potential millimeter wave applications to contraband detection and surveillance within buildings. Though the phenomenology supports the generation of high quality millimeter wave images, present-day frame time capabilities limit the use of millimeter wave cameras. Several solutions to frame time reduction are currently being investigated within government and industry. Two popular approaches include: (1) Electronic scanning focal plane arrays (FPA); (2) Mechanical raster scanning of a single antenna beam. One significant difference between the two approaches noted above is the number of receiving channels required. This is important because camera cost is driven by the number of receiver channels used in a camera, as well as the added complexities associated with inter-channel gain stability. There are a number of applications that do not require a motion picture capability. Images obtained sequentially at a nominal rate of one per second would satisfy the needs of a wide range of applications. It is evident, however, that the motion picture quality of a starring FPA may ultimately reduce the market for one-second cameras. In the interim, the one-second camera fills an important need. The goal of the Radiometric One Second Camera (ROSCAM) investigation is to demonstrate a practical millimeter-wave imaging (MMWI) camera, with a frame time of approximately one second. The approach combines a high-speed mechanical raster scanning antenna system with a single-channel radiometric receiving system. For baseline comparison, it is assumed that the scene is comprised of 1,000 pixels, each sampled for one millisecond, to generate a single frame in one second. The ROSCAM is based on combining a state-of-the-art radiometric receiver with a high-speed mechanical antenna scanning mechanism. One purpose of the initial measurement program described here, was to determine the ability of an existing high-speed raster scanning antenna to meet ROSCAM antenna requirements, specifically, a Field of View (FOV) consisting of 1,000 pixels scanned in a frame time of one second. A by- product of this investigation was the determination of the number of radiometer channels needed to generate a motion picture with a similar FOV. This paper includes: (1) Description of the ROSCAM Breadboard; (2) ROSCAM Performance Capabilities; (3) Measurement Results; (4) Conclusions.

Smith, Roger M.; Sundstrom, Bryce M.; Belcher, Byron W.; Ewen, Doc

1998-08-01

174

Ar-Ar Dating of Martian Chassignites, NWA2737 and Chassigny, and Nakhlite MIL03346  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Until recently only three nakhlites and one chassignite had been identified among martian meteorites. These four exhibit very similar radiometric ages and cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages, indicating that they may have derived from a common location on Mars and were ejected into space by a single impact. This situation is quite different from that of martian shergottites, which exhibit a range of radiometric ages and CRE ages (1). Recently, several new nakhlites and a new martian dunite (NWA2737) have been recognized. Here we report our results of Ar-39-Ar-40 dating for the MIL03346 nakhlite and the NWA2737 "chassignite", along with new results on Chassigny.

Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.

2006-01-01

175

Date Rape  

MedlinePLUS

What Is Date Rape? When people think of rape , they might picture a stranger jumping out of a shadowy place and attacking someone. ... things that you can do: Immediately After a Rape If you're hurt, go straight to the ...

176

Determination of precipitation profiles from airborne passive microwave radiometric measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study presents the first quantitative retrievals of vertical profiles of precipitation derived from multispectral passive microwave radiometry. Measurements of microwave brightness temperature (Tb) obtained by a NASA high-altitude research aircraft are related to profiles of rainfall rate through a multichannel piecewise-linear statistical regression procedure. Statistics for Tb are obtained from a set of cloud radiative models representing a wide variety of convective, stratiform, and anvil structures. The retrieval scheme itself determines which cloud model best fits the observed meteorological conditions. Retrieved rainfall rate profiles are converted to equivalent radar reflectivity for comparison with observed reflectivities from a ground-based research radar. Results for two case studies, a stratiform rain situation and an intense convective thunderstorm, show that the radiometrically derived profiles capture the major features of the observed vertical structure of hydrometer density.

Kummerow, Christian; Hakkarinen, Ida M.; Pierce, Harold F.; Weinman, James A.

1991-01-01

177

[In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of UAV multispectral sensor].  

PubMed

Based on the data of the scientific experiment in Urad Front Banner for UAV Remote Sensing Load Calibration Field project, with the help of 6 hyperspectral radiometric targets with good Lambertian property, the wide-view multispectral camera in UAV was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. The result reveals that for green, red and infrared channel, whose images were successfully captured, the linear correlation coefficients between the DN and radiance are all larger than 99%. In final analysis, the comprehensive error is no more than 6%. The calibration results demonstrate that the hyperspectral targets equipped by the calibration field are well suitable for air-borne multispectral load in-flight calibration. The calibration result is reliable and could be used in the retrieval of geophysical parameters. PMID:23427528

Chen, Wei; Yan, Lei; Gou, Zhi-Yang; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Liu, Da-Ping; Duan, Yi-Ni

2012-12-01

178

Radiometric performance of the Viking Mars lander cameras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Viking lander cameras feature an array of 12 silicon photodiodes for electronic focus selection and multispectral imaging. Comparisons of absolute radiometric calibrations of the four cameras selected for the mission to Mars with performance predictions based on their design data revealed minor discrepancies. These discrepancies were caused primarily by the method used to calibrate the photosensor array and apparently also from light reflections internal to the array. The sensitivity and dynamic range of all camera channels are found to be sufficient for high quality pictures, providing that the commandable gains and offsets can be optimized for the scene radiance; otherwise, the quantization noise may be too high or the dynamic range too low for an adequate characterization of the scene.

Huck, F. O.; Burcher, E. E.; Taylor, E. J.; Wall, S. D.

1975-01-01

179

Radiometric accuracy of the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) is a cryogenically-cooled 10-band photometer with a large field-of-view (0.886 x 0.886 sq deg) which scans by rotation of the Cosmic Background Explorer about a spin axis. In-orbit calibration requires that the DIRBE detect and measure with precision the signatures of compact sources as they transit the field-of-view. Analysis of the conceptual optical design revealed that response of the 10 bands would vary significantly as a function of source position in the field-of-view, caused by anamorphic pupil distortion and field separation. The optical design reported in this paper is the result of changes which greatly improve the response uniformity and radiometric accuracy of the DIRBE.

Howell, B. J.; Wilson, M. E.

1984-01-01

180

Radiometric calibration and SNR calculation of a SWIR imaging telescope  

SciTech Connect

Radiometric calibration of an imaging telescope is usually made using a uniform illumination sphere in a laboratory. In this study, we used the open-sky images taken during bright day conditions to calibrate our telescope. We found a dark signal offset value and a linear response coefficient value for each pixel by using three different algorithms. Then we applied these coefficients to the taken images, and considerably lowered the image non-uniformity. Calibration can be repeated during the operation of telescope with an object that has better uniformity than open-sky. Also SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of each pixel was calculated from the open-sky images using the temporal mean and standard deviations. It is found that SNR is greater than 80 for all pixels even at low light levels.

Yilmaz, Ozgur; Turk, Fethi; Selimoglu, Ozgur [Tubitak Uzay (Space Technologies Research Institute) ODTU Campus 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

2012-09-06

181

Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Detectors Between 200-600A.  

PubMed

Radiometric transfer standards consisting of windowless diodes with cathodes made of anodized aluminum oxide on aluminum are now available from the National Bureau of Standards with calibrations in the 200-600-A wavelength range. This extends the previously existing range of calibration for these diodes (600-1200 A). For wavelengths shorter than 600 A, synchrotron radiation at NBS-SURF is used as the source of radiant energy. A noble gas double ionization chamber is used to calibrate a secondary standard diode that is then intercompared with the transfer standards. Monitors take into account variations in the intensity of synchrotron radiation and in beam position. Methods of accounting for the effects of second-order radiation in the incident flux and secondary ionization in the double ionization chamber are discussed. Calibration uncertainties are about 10%. PMID:20135017

Saloman, E B; Ederer, D L

1975-04-01

182

Calculation of atmospheric loss from microwave radiometric noise temperature measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microwave propagation loss in the atmosphere can be inferred from microwave radiometric noise temperature measurements. The relevant equations are given and a derivation and calculation is made assuming various physical models. Comparison is made with the commonly used lumped element atmospheric model (isothermal and uniform loss) and the model with linear temperature and exponential loss distributions. The results are useful for estimating the integral inversion differences due to the model selection. This indicates that the commonly used lumped element atmospheric model is a very good approximation with judicious choice of the effective physical temperature. For the worst case comparison, the lumped element model agrees with the variable parameter model within 0.2 dB up to a propagation loss of 3 dB.

Stelzried, C.; Slobin, S. D.

1981-01-01

183

MODIS Reflective Solar Bands Radiometric Stability Monitoring Using the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MODIS Protoflight Model (PFM) on-board the Terra spacecraft and the MODIS Flight Model 1 (FM1) on- board the Aqua spacecraft were launched on December 18, 1999 and May 4, 2002, respectively. They are scheduled to view the Moon through the space view (SV) port approximately once a month to monitor the long- term radiometric stability of their reflective solar bands (RSB). The lunar irradiance observed by MODIS depends on the viewing geometry, including Sun-Moon distance, Moon-MODIS distance, Sun-Moon-MODIS phase angle, and lunar librations. Algorithms have been developed to select lunar views such that these geometric effects are minimized. In each MODIS lunar observation, the Moon can be viewed in multiple scans. The lunar irradiance of a MODIS RSB can be derived either from the responses of all detectors of a spectral band in one scan which fully covers the Moon or from that of one detector in all scans. Based on lunar observations, a set of coefficients is defined and derived to trend degradation of the MODIS system response at the Angle of Incidence (AOI) of its space view port. It is shownthat degradation is both wavelength and mirror side dependent. For Terra MODISband 8 (412nm), the gain degrades 36% and 33% for mirror side one and two, respectively, after six years on-orbit. A comparison between the lunar coefficientsand those derived from the Solar Diffuser (SD) calibrations shows that lunar observation provides a reliable means to monitor the radiometric stability of the MODIS RSB (with an estimated uncertainty) and reveals that the RSB degrade differently at different AOI.

Sun, J.; Xiong, X.; Barnes, W. L.

2006-05-01

184

Thermoluminescence dating of volcanic plagioclases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoluminescence (TL) is a well-established archaeological dating1 technique but the most common mineral in volcanic rocks, plagioclase feldspar, is affected by `anomalous fading' which prevents its use for dating lava flows. We describe here how the alpha contribution to annual dose rate is calculated. Plagioclase ages are compared with those obtained by 14C, K-Ar and TL dating on quartz. Our

G. Gurin; G. Valladas

1980-01-01

185

Relative Dating in Archaeology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two classroom exercises introduce students to stratigraphy and the law of superposition as well as seriation, dating techniques used by archaeologists to establish a relative chronology. They can be adapted to students at different levels using local materials. In the first exercise, dated materials such as newspapers may be used to illustrate the concepts; students may then manipulate materials to simulate mapping and excavation or create a poster. In the second exercise, students are shown and discuss materials to develop their understanding of artifacts and materials within the context of a culture.

Griggs, Cathy

186

Relative Dating in Archaeology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two classroom exercises introduce students to stratigraphy and the law of superposition as well as seriation, dating techniques used by archaeologists to establish a relative chronology. They can be adapted to students at different levels using local materials. In the first exercise, dated materials such as newspapers may be used to illustrate the concepts; students may then manipulate materials to simulate mapping and excavation or create a poster. In the second exercise, students are shown and discuss materials to develop their understanding of artifacts and materials within the context of a culture.

Griggs, Cathy

1988-01-01

187

Radiometric Characterization of the IKONOS, QuickBird, and OrbView-3 Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can better understand their properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, satellite at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent team member to determine the sensor's radiometric accuracy. The combined results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of these commercially available high spatial resolution sensors' absolute calibration values.

Holekamp, Kara

2006-01-01

188

Radiometric Calibration Assessment of Commercial High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Image Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can better understand their properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, satellite at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent team member to determine the sensor's radiometric accuracy. The combined results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of these commercially available high spatial resolution sensors' absolute calibration values.

Holekamp, Kara; Aaron, David; Thome, Kurtis

2006-01-01

189

Concept, simulation, and instrumentation for radiometric inflight icing detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-agency Flight in Icing Remote Sensing Team (FIRST), a consortium of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), has developed technologies for remotely detecting hazardous inflight icing conditions. The USACE Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) assessed the potential of onboard passive microwave radiometers for remotely detecting icing conditions ahead of aircraft. The dual wavelength system differences the brightness temperature of Space and clouds, with greater differences potentially indicating closer and higher magnitude Cloud Liquid Water Content (CLWC). The Air Force RADiative TRANsfer model (RADTRAN) was enhanced to assess the flight track sensing concept, and a "flying" RADTRAN was developed to simulate a radiometer system flying through simulated clouds. Neural network techniques were developed to invert brightness temperatures and obtain integrated cloud liquid water. In addition, a dual wavelength Direct-Detection Polarimeter Radiometer (DDPR) system was built for detecting hazardous drizzle drops. This paper reviews technology development to date and addresses initial polarimeter performance.

Ryerson, Charles C.; Koenig, George G.; Reehorst, Andrew L.; Scott, Forrest R.

2008-08-01

190

Concept, Simulation, and Instrumentation for Radiometric Inflight Icing Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multi-agency Flight in Icing Remote Sensing Team (FIRST), a consortium of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), has developed technologies for remotely detecting hazardous inflight icing conditions. The USACE Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) assessed the potential of onboard passive microwave radiometers for remotely detecting icing conditions ahead of aircraft. The dual wavelength system differences the brightness temperature of Space and clouds, with greater differences potentially indicating closer and higher magnitude cloud liquid water content (LWC). The Air Force RADiative TRANsfer model (RADTRAN) was enhanced to assess the flight track sensing concept, and a 'flying' RADTRAN was developed to simulate a radiometer system flying through simulated clouds. Neural network techniques were developed to invert brightness temperatures and obtain integrated cloud liquid water. In addition, a dual wavelength Direct-Detection Polarimeter Radiometer (DDPR) system was built for detecting hazardous drizzle drops. This paper reviews technology development to date and addresses initial polarimeter performance.

Ryerson, Charles; Koenig, George G.; Reehorst, Andrew L.; Scott, Forrest R.

2009-01-01

191

South american geochronology: radiometric time scale for middle to late tertiary mammal-bearing horizons in patagonia.  

PubMed

Radiometric (potassium-argon) age determinations for basalts and tuffs associated with middle to late Tertiary mammal-bearing horizons in Patagonia, southern Argentina, permit refinement of boundaries and hiatuses between beds of Deseadan (early Oligocene) through Friasian (middle to late Miocene) age. At two localities beds of Deseadan age are overlain by basalts, which gave dates of 33.6 and 35.4 million years ago; 34.0 million years ago is tentatively accepted as a terminal date for known Deseadan. At several localities beds of Colhuehuapian age are underlain by basalts, which gave dates ranging from 28.8 to 24.3 million years ago; 25.0 million years is tentatively taken as a basal age for known Colhuehuapian. The paleontological hiatus between known Deseadan and known Colhuehuapian is thus in the order of 9.0 million years. Two tuffs from the Santa Cruz Formation (Santacrucian) gave ages of 21.7 and 18.5 million years. Plagioclase and biotite concentrates of an ignimbrite from the Colln Cur Formation (Friasian) gave ages ranging from 15.4 to 14.0 million years. PMID:17738414

Marshall, L G; Pascual, R; Curtis, G H; Drake, R E

1977-03-25

192

QuEChERS, a sample preparation technique that is catching on: an up-to-date interview with its inventors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The technique of QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) is only 7 years old, yet it is revolutionizing the manner in which multiresidue, multiclass pesticide analysis (and perhaps beyond) is performed. Columnist Ron Majors sits down with inventors Steve Lehotay and Michelangelo An...

193

Intra-annual NDVI validation of the Landsat 5 TM radiometric calibration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone of the extensive archive of moderate-resolution Earth imagery. Even after more than 24 years of service, the L5 TM is still operational. Given the longevity of the satellite, the detectors have aged and the sensor's radiometric characteristics have changed since launch. The calibration procedures and parameters in the National Land Archive Production System (NLAPS) have also changed with time. Revised radiometric calibrations in 2003 and 2007 have improved the radiometric accuracy of recently processed data. This letter uses the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a metric to evaluate the radiometric calibration. The calibration change has improved absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic radiometry and will provide the basis for continued long-term studies of the Earth's land surfaces.

Chander, G.; Groeneveld, D.P.

2009-01-01

194

Experimental Research on Passive Millimeter Wave Radiometric Stealth Technology of Metal Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Working all day and all weather, a passive millimeter wave radiometer (PMMW) can be widely used in civil and military affairs. It can get some specific information about the material characteristics different from radar and infrared detectors. On basis of the radiometric operating range equation, the radiation cross section and stealth effect of metal objects are presented for the PMMW near-sensing application. The measurement experiments of metal solid models adopts 3 mm band Dicke radiometer with the outdoor calibration system. The sky temperature and other different surface metal objects are also measured as the contrastive experiments. The results show the radiometric temperature contrasts of solid models have remarkable difference in the bare and coated conditions, and the radiometric operating range can decrease to 60.8 %. In addition, the PMMW stealth methods through different surface treatment respectively reduce the radiometric antenna temperature contrast in some degree.

Zhang, Guangfeng; Lou, Guowei; Li, Xingguo

2012-12-01

195

Quantitative measurements of sliding friction coefficients of tribological interfaces with a new differential infrared radiometric instrument  

E-print Network

Quantitative measurements of sliding friction coefficients of tribological interfaces with a new sliding friction coefficient SFC measurements using a mechanical friction rig and infrared radiometric. INSTRUMENTAL DESIGN FOR SLIDING FRICTION COEFFICIENT MEASUREMENTS Figure 1 is an overview of the differential

Mandelis, Andreas

196

Flight Technology Improvement. [spaceborne optical radiometric instruments, attitude control, and electromechanical and power subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shortcomings in spaceborne instrumentation technology are analyzed and recommendations are given for corrections and technology development. The technologies discussed are optical radiometric instruments and calibration, attitude control and determination, and electromechanical and power subsystems.

1979-01-01

197

Radiometric Accuracy Assessment of LANDSAT-4 Multispectral Scanner (MSS) Data. [Vermont  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LANDSAT-4 mission has unique characteristics relative to previous LANDSAT missions. The spacecraft is new; the orbit is lower with a more frequent repeat cycle; and the ground processing facility consists of new hardware with different algorithms being applied. How some of these changes affect the character of the radiometric data quality is explored. Banding effects; radiometric differences between LANDSAT 3 and 4; and the woodgrain pattern observed visually in the images are considered.

Alford, W. L.; Imhoff, M. L.

1984-01-01

198

Study of Spectral/Radiometric Characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for Land Use Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation conducted in support of the LANDSAT 4/5 Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) Program is discussed. Results of engineering analyses of radiometric, spatial, spectral, and geometric properties of the Thematic Mapper systems are summarized; major emphasis is placed on the radiometric analysis. Details of the analyses are presented in appendices, which contain three of the eight technical papers produced during this investigation; these three, together, describe the major activities and results of the investigation.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D. (principal investigator)

1985-01-01

199

The use of single-date MODIS imagery for estimating large-scale urban impervious surface fraction with spectral mixture analysis and machine learning techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban impervious surface information is essential for urban and environmental applications at the regional/national scales. As a popular image processing technique, spectral mixture analysis (SMA) has rarely been applied to coarse-resolution imagery due to the difficulty of deriving endmember spectra using traditional endmember selection methods, particularly within heterogeneous urban environments. To address this problem, we derived endmember signatures through a least squares solution (LSS) technique with known abundances of sample pixels, and integrated these endmember signatures into SMA for mapping large-scale impervious surface fraction. In addition, with the same sample set, we carried out objective comparative analyses among SMA (i.e. fully constrained and unconstrained SMA) and machine learning (i.e. Cubist regression tree and Random Forests) techniques. Analysis of results suggests three major conclusions. First, with the extrapolated endmember spectra from stratified random training samples, the SMA approaches performed relatively well, as indicated by small MAE values. Second, Random Forests yields more reliable results than Cubist regression tree, and its accuracy is improved with increased sample sizes. Finally, comparative analyses suggest a tentative guide for selecting an optimal approach for large-scale fractional imperviousness estimation: unconstrained SMA might be a favorable option with a small number of samples, while Random Forests might be preferred if a large number of samples are available.

Deng, Chengbin; Wu, Changshan

2013-12-01

200

A multi-channel radiometric profiler of temperature, humidity and cloud liquid.  

SciTech Connect

A microwave radiometer is described that provides continuous thermodynamic (temperature, water vapor, and moisture) soundings during clear and cloudy conditions. The radiometric profiler observes radiation intensity at 12 microwave frequencies, along with zenith infrared and surface meteorological measurements. Historical radiosonde and neural network or regression methods are used for profile retrieval. We compare radiometric, radiosonde, and forecast soundings and evaluate the accuracy of radiometric temperature and water vapor soundings on the basis of statistical comparison with radiosonde soundings. We find that radiometric soundings are equivalent in accuracy to radiosonde soundings when used in numerical weather forecasting. A case study is described that demonstrates improved fog forecasting on the basis of variational assimilation of radiometric soundings. The accuracy of radiometric cloud liquid soundings is evaluated by comparison with cloud liquid sensors carried by radiosondes. Accurate high-resolution three-dimensional water vapor and wind analysis is described on the basis of assimilation of simulated thermodynamic and wind soundings along with GPS slant delays. Examples of mobile thermodynamic and wind profilers are shown. Thermodynamic profiling, particularly when combined with wind profiling and slant GPS, provides continuous atmospheric soundings for improved weather and dispersion forecasting.

Ware, R.; Carpenter, R.; Guldner, J.; Liljegren, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Solheim, F.; Vandenberghe, F.; Environmental Research; Radiometrics Corp.; Univ. Corp. for Atmospheric Research; Weather Decision Technologies Inc.; Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc.; National Center for Atmospheric Research

2003-07-31

201

Recognition of past earthquakes along the Sparta fault (Peloponnesus, southern Greece) during the Holocene, by combining results of different dating techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sparta fault is an impressive landform, located on the eastern front of Taygetos mountain, southern Greece. Detailed morphotectonic observations on this fault suggest that it should be active at least since Early Quaternary. However, according to the current seismological knowledge, this region is characterized by very low seismicity. The only reported earthquake to have occurred in this area is that of 464 B. C., a destructive event that devastated the whole city of Sparta. In order to get information on the occurrence of past earthquakes during the Holocene, results of different independent dating works that have performed along the Sparta fault were used. These researchers confirm the existence not only of the 464 B. C. earthquake but also of several more that occurred at ca. 3900 B. C., 2500 B. C. and 2000 B. C., 550 A. D. and 1000 A. D. The events that occurred at 2500 and 464 B. C. should correspond to major events of magnitude of the order of 7, which ruptured the entire length of the fault, while these at 3900 B. C., 2000 B. C., 550 A. D. and 1000 A. D., to smaller events of magnitude 6-6.5. The return periods of strong earthquakes along the Sparta fault is estimated to be around 2000 years, but within these periods events of smaller magnitude that ruptured segments of the fault have also occurred.

Papanastassiou, D.; Gaki-Papanastassiou, K.; Maroukian, H.

2005-09-01

202

In-flight radiometric calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reflectance-based method was used to provide an analysis of the in-flight radiometric performance of AVIRIS. Field spectral reflectance measurements of the surface and extinction measurements of the atmosphere using solar radiation were used as input to atmospheric radiative transfer calculations. Five separate codes were used in the analysis. Four include multiple scattering, and the computed radiances from these for flight conditions were in good agreement. Code-generated radiances were compared with AVIRIS-predicted radiances based on two laboratory calibrations (pre- and post-season of flight) for a uniform highly reflecting natural dry lake target. For one spectrometer (C), the pre- and post-season calibration factors were found to give identical results, and to be in agreement with the atmospheric models that include multiple scattering. This positive result validates the field and laboratory calibration technique. Results for the other spectrometers (A, B and D) were widely at variance with the models no matter which calibration factors were used. Potential causes of these discrepancies are discussed.

Conel, James E.; Green, Robert O.; Alley, Ronald E.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Carrere, Veronique; Margolis, Jack S.; Vane, Gregg; Chrien, Thomas G.; Slater, Philip N.; Biggard, Stuart F.

1988-01-01

203

Combined Geometric/radiometric Point Cloud Matching for Shear Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the recent past, dense image matching methods such as Semi-Global Matching (SGM) became popular for many applications. The SGM approach has been adapted to and implemented for Leica ADS line-scanner data by North West Geomatics (North West) in co-operation with Leica Geosystems; it is used in North West's production workflow. One of the advantages of ADS imagery is the calibrated color information (RGB and near infrared), extending SGM-derived point clouds to dense "image point clouds" or, more general, information clouds (info clouds). With the goal of automating the quality control of ADS data, info clouds are utilized for Shear Analysis: Three-dimensional offsets of adjacent ADS image strips are determined from a pattern of info cloud pairs in strip overlaps by point cloud matching. The presented approach integrates geometry (height) and radiometry (intensity) information; matching is based on local point-to-plane distances for all points in a given cloud. The offset is derived in a least squares adjustment by applying it to each individual distance computation equation. Using intensities in addition to heights greatly benefits the offset computation, because intensity gradients tend to occur more frequently than height gradients. They can provide or complement the required information for the derivation of planimetric offset components. The paper details the combined geometric/radiometric point cloud matching approach and verifies the results against manual measurements.

Gehrke, S.

2012-07-01

204

Laser photothermal radiometric instrument for industrial steel hardness inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the industrial demand for on-line steel hardness inspection and quality control, a non-contact, non-destructive laser photothermal radiometric instrument (HD-PTR) was developed. The instrument is equipped with a non-liquid-nitrogen-cooled HgCdZnTe (MCZT) detector, a National Instruments data acquisition card with a Dynamic System Analysis (DSA) module, and control software. A series of industrial steel samples which included automotive screws and aircraft gears (flat or curvilinear) were examined. The effective hardness case depths of these samples ranged from 0.21 mm to 1.78 mm. The results demonstrated that three measurement parameters (metrics) can be extracted when using a fast swept-sine photothermal method. These parameters include the phase minimum (or peak) frequency, fmin, the half width, W, and the area, S. It was found that they are complementary for evaluating widely different ranges of hardness case depths. fminis most suitable for large case depths, and W and S for shallower case depths.

Guo, X.; Sivagurunathan, K.; Pawlak, M.; Garcia, J.; Mandelis, A.; Giunta, S.; Milletari, S.; Bawa, S.

2010-03-01

205

Radiometric analyses of Landsat-4 digital image data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of analyses of the radiometric characteristics of digital image data produced by the Landsat 4 MSS and TM sensors are reviewed. The MSS analysis found high quality data comparable to the products of previous Landsats, except for a low-level coherent noise effect having a magnitude of about 0.5 counts in each band and a spatial period of about 3.6 pixels. The TM analysis found excellent spatial resolution, generally high data quality and expected scan-angle effects. Procedures for equalizing detector responses appear to be working as intended. Two low-amplitude artifacts also were discovered. The first is associated with the direction of scan (TM employs bidirectional scanning). The second, a very low employs bidirectional scanning). The second, a very low frequency level-shift artifact which produces image banding that is most pronounced in TM1, could be a serious problem for water-related applications or others where average signal levels are low. Correction procedures are under investigation.

Malila, W. A.; Rice, D. P.; Metzler, M. D.

1984-01-01

206

Advanced radiometric and interferometric milimeter-wave scene simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smart munitions and weapons utilize various imaging sensors (including passive IR, active and passive millimeter-wave, and visible wavebands) to detect/identify targets at short standoff ranges and in varied terrain backgrounds. In order to design and evaluate these sensors under a variety of conditions, a high-fidelity scene simulation capability is necessary. Such a capability for passive millimeter-wave scene simulation exists at TRW. TRW's Advanced Radiometric Millimeter-Wave Scene Simulation (ARMSS) code is a rigorous, benchmarked, end-to-end passive millimeter-wave scene simulation code for interpreting millimeter-wave data, establishing scene signatures and evaluating sensor performance. In passive millimeter-wave imaging, resolution is limited due to wavelength and aperture size. Where high resolution is required, the utility of passive millimeter-wave imaging is confined to short ranges. Recent developments in interferometry have made possible high resolution applications on military platforms. Interferometry or synthetic aperture radiometry allows the creation of a high resolution image with a sparsely filled aperture. Borrowing from research work in radio astronomy, we have developed and tested at TRW scene reconstruction algorithms that allow the recovery of the scene from a relatively small number of spatial frequency components. In this paper, the TRW modeling capability is described and numerical results are presented.

Hauss, B. I.; Moffa, P. J.; Steele, W. G.; Agravante, H.; Davidheiser, R.; Samec, T.; Young, S. K.

1993-01-01

207

Laboratory experience with a radiometric method for detecting bacteremia.  

PubMed Central

Two bacteriologic systems for detecting bacteria in blood were compared; the automated radiometric BACTEC and the conventional method used in our laboratory for many years. BACTEC consisted of two bottles with 30 ml and the conventional method with 50 ml of media for aerobes and anaerobes. The BACTEC bottles were inoculated with 2 to 3 ml and the conventional with 4 to 5 ml of blood at the patient's bedside. Out of the 3,045 blood specimens cultured (804 patients), 262 (117 patients) were positive by one or both methods. The conventional system detected 5more cultures. The explanation of the differences is discussed. Positive blood cultures were detected by the BACTEC procedure as early as 6 h after the blood collection. In the first 24 h, on the average, 77% of aerobic organisms were detected by the BACTEC as compared to 48% by the conventional system. All anaerobic BACTEC cultures were positive within 4 days, whereas the conventional system detected at that time 74%. At day 4, 67% of fungi were detected by the BACTEC and only 27% by the conventional system. Of the 3,045 blood cultures examined by the BACTEC, 208 were recorded as false positive with growth index readings ranging from 30 to 59. PMID:1100660

Thiemke, W A; Wicher, K

1975-01-01

208

Radiometric sensitivity contrast metrics for hyperspectral remote sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the calculation, interpretation, and implications of various radiometric sensitivity metrics for Earth-observing hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensors. The most commonly used sensor performance metric is signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), from which additional noise equivalent quantities can be computed, including: noise equivalent spectral radiance (NESR), noise equivalent delta reflectance (NE??), noise equivalent delta emittance (NE??), and noise equivalent delta temperature (NE?T). For hyperspectral sensors, these metrics are typically calculated from an at-aperture radiance (typically generated by MODTRAN) that includes both target radiance and non-target (atmosphere and background) radiance. Unfortunately, these calculations treat the entire at-aperture radiance as the desired signal, even when the target radiance is only a fraction of the total (such as when sensing through a long or optically dense atmospheric path). To overcome this limitation, an augmented set of metrics based on contrast signal-to-noise ratio (CNSR) is developed, including their noise equivalent counterparts (CNESR, CNE??, CNE??, and CNE?T). These contrast metrics better quantify sensor performance in an operational environment that includes remote sensing through the atmosphere.

Silny, John F.; Zellinger, Lou

2014-09-01

209

Design, manufacture, and calibration of infrared radiometric blackbody sources  

SciTech Connect

A Radiometric Calibration Station (RCS) is being assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) which will allow for calibration of sensors with detector arrays having spectral capability from about 0.4-15 {mu}m. The configuration of the LANL RCS. Two blackbody sources have been designed to cover the spectral range from about 3-15 {mu}m, operating at temperatures ranging from about 180-350 K within a vacuum environment. The sources are designed to present a uniform spectral radiance over a large area to the sensor unit under test. The thermal uniformity requirement of the blackbody cavities has been one of the key factors of the design, requiring less than 50 mK variation over the entire blackbody surface to attain effective emissivity values of about 0.999. Once the two units are built and verified to the level of about 100 mK at LANL, they will be sent to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where at least a factor of two improvement will be calibrated into the blackbody control system. The physical size of these assemblies will require modifications of the existing NIST Low Background Infrared (LBIR) Facility. LANL has constructed a bolt-on addition to the LBIR facility that will allow calibration of our large aperture sources. Methodology for attaining the two blackbody sources at calibrated levels of performance equivalent to present state of the art will be explained in the following.

Byrd, D.A.; Michaud, F.D.; Bender, S.C. [and others

1996-04-01

210

Investigation of Aerodynamic and Aerodynamic and Radiometric Land Surface Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of the project was to reconcile the difference between T(sub s,r) and T(sub aero), while maintaining consistency within models and with theory and data. The project involved collaboration between researchers at Bucknell University, Boston University, University of mode Island, and the USDNARS Hydrology Laboratory. This report focuses on the work done at Bucknell, which used an analytical continuous-source flux model developed by Crago (1998), based on work by Brutsaert and Sugita (1996) to generate fluxes at all levels of the canopy. Named ALARM [Analytical Land- Atmosphere-Radiometer Model] by Suleiman and Crago (2002), the model assumes the foliage has an exponential vertical temperature profile. The same profile is felt by the within-canopy turbulence and 'seen" by a radiometer viewing the surface from any zenith view angle. ALARM converts radiometric surface temperatures taken from any view angle into a clearly-defined version of Taero called the equivalent isothermal surface temperature T(sub s,j), and then calculates the sensible heat flux H using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. This allows remotely sensed Ts,r measurements to be used to produce high quality sensible and latent heat flux estimates, or to validate or update the surface temperature produced by SVATs in climate or mesoscale models.

Crago, Richard D.; Friedl, Mark; Kustas, William; Wang, Ye-Qiao

2003-01-01

211

Polarization impacts on the water-leaving radiance retrieval from above-water radiometric measurements.  

PubMed

Above-water measurements of water-leaving radiance are widely used for water-quality monitoring and ocean-color satellite data validation. Reflected skylight in above-water radiometry needs to be accurately estimated prior to derivation of water-leaving radiance. Up-to-date methods to estimate reflection of diffuse skylight on rough sea surfaces are based on radiative transfer simulations and sky radiance measurements. But these methods neglect the polarization state of the incident skylight, which is generally highly polarized. In this paper, the effects of polarization on the sea surface reflectance and the subsequent water-leaving radiance estimation are investigated. We show that knowledge of the polarization field of the diffuse skylight significantly improves above-water radiometry estimates, in particular in the blue part of the spectrum where the reflected skylight is dominant. A newly developed algorithm based on radiative transfer simulations including polarization is described. Its application to the standard Aerosol Robotic Network-Ocean Color and hyperspectral radiometric measurements of the 1.5-year dataset acquired at the Long Island Sound site demonstrates the noticeable importance of considering polarization for water-leaving radiance estimation. In particular it is shown, based on time series of collocated data acquired in coastal waters, that the azimuth range of measurements leading to good-quality data is significantly increased, and that these estimates are improved by more than 12% at 413 nm. Full consideration of polarization effects is expected to significantly improve the quality of the field data utilized for satellite data validation or potential vicarious calibration purposes. PMID:23262527

Harmel, Tristan; Gilerson, Alexander; Tonizzo, Alberto; Chowdhary, Jacek; Weidemann, Alan; Arnone, Robert; Ahmed, Sam

2012-12-10

212

Help a geochronologist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity allows students to better understand radiometric dating and absolute dating techniques by calculating radiometric ages of zircon crystals. Their calculated ages then serve as tools to practice creating graphs, interpret analytic data, and reconstruct geologic events.

Berquist, Peter J.

213

Mars chronology: Assessing techniques for quantifying surficial processes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Currently, the absolute chronology of Martian rocks, deposits and events is based mainly on crater counting and remains highly imprecise with epoch boundary uncertainties in excess of 2 billion years. Answers to key questions concerning the comparative origin and evolution of Mars and Earth will not be forthcoming without a rigid Martian chronology, enabling the construction of a time scale comparable to Earth's. Priorities for exploration include calibration of the cratering rate, dating major volcanic and fluvial events and establishing chronology of the polar layered deposits. If extinct and/or extant life is discovered, the chronology of the biosphere will be of paramount importance. Many radiometric and cosmogenic techniques applicable on Earth and the Moon will apply to Mars after certain baselines (e.g. composition of the atmosphere, trace species, chemical and physical characteristics of Martian dust) are established. The high radiation regime may pose a problem for dosimetry-based techniques (e.g. luminescence). The unique isotopic composition of nitrogen in the Martian atmosphere may permit a Mars-specific chronometer for tracing the time-evolution of the atmosphere and of lithic phases with trapped atmospheric gases. Other Mars-specific chronometers include measurement of gas fluxes and accumulation of platinum group elements (PGE) in the regolith. Putting collected samples into geologic context is deemed essential, as is using multiple techniques on multiple samples. If in situ measurements are restricted to a single technique it must be shown to give consistent results on multiple samples, but in all cases, using two or more techniques (e.g. on the same lander) will reduce error. While there is no question that returned samples will yield the best ages, in situ techniques have the potential to be flown on multiple missions providing a larger data set and broader context in which to place the more accurate dates. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Doran, P.T.; Clifford, S.M.; Forman, S.L.; Nyquist, L.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Stewart, B.W.; Sturchio, N.C.; Swindle, T.D.; Cerling, T.; Kargel, J.; McDonald, G.; Nishiizumi, K.; Poreda, R.; Rice, J.W.; Tanaka, K.

2004-01-01

214

Mars chronology: assessing techniques for quantifying surficial processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, the absolute chronology of Martian rocks, deposits and events is based mainly on crater counting and remains highly imprecise with epoch boundary uncertainties in excess of 2 billion years. Answers to key questions concerning the comparative origin and evolution of Mars and Earth will not be forthcoming without a rigid Martian chronology, enabling the construction of a time scale comparable to Earth's. Priorities for exploration include calibration of the cratering rate, dating major volcanic and fluvial events and establishing chronology of the polar layered deposits. If extinct andor extant life is discovered, the chronology of the biosphere will be of paramount importance. Many radiometric and cosmogenic techniques applicable on Earth and the Moon will apply to Mars after certain baselines (e.g. composition of the atmosphere, trace species, chemical and physical characteristics of Martian dust) are established. The high radiation regime may pose a problem for dosimetry-based techniques (e.g. luminescence). The unique isotopic composition of nitrogen in the Martian atmosphere may permit a Mars-specific chronometer for tracing the time-evolution of the atmosphere and of lithic phases with trapped atmospheric gases. Other Mars-specific chronometers include measurement of gas fluxes and accumulation of platinum group elements (PGE) in the regolith. Putting collected samples into geologic context is deemed essential, as is using multiple techniques on multiple samples. If in situ measurements are restricted to a single technique it must be shown to give consistent results on multiple samples, but in all cases, using two or more techniques (e.g. on the same lander) will reduce error. While there is no question that returned samples will yield the best ages, in situ techniques have the potential to be flown on multiple missions providing a larger data set and broader context in which to place the more accurate dates.

Doran, Peter T.; Clifford, Stephen M.; Forman, Steven L.; Nyquist, Larry; Papanastassiou, Dimitri A.; Stewart, Brian W.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Swindle, Timothy D.; Cerling, Thure; Kargel, Jeff

2004-01-01

215

An automated method for relative radiometric correction performed through spectral library based classification and comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a method to perform automated radiometric correction of remotely sensed multispectral hyperspectral images. The effects of atmosphere, as well as the calibration errors which the satellite sensors may present, may be compensated by performing the radiometric correction operation in order to achieve good performances in different applications, such as classification and change detection. As far as the change detection is concerned, relative radiometric correction is particularly interesting since it deals with images which have to be compared and since in this context an absolute correction may be characterized by a high complexity. One method for performing radiometric correction of multispectral images can be based on a least-square approach: considering one image as the reference one and the other as a linearly scaled version of the reference one, the linear coefficients can be calculated by using a set of control points conveniently chosen. Unfortunately, the choice of control points is a tricky operation, strictly connected to the specific application. In this paper we propose an automated method for performing relative radiometric correction of multispectral remotely sensed images, in which the choice of the control points is based on a comparison of the spectral content of those images to the spectral response of known materials. Specifically, we perform a vector quantization of the images separately, considering N quantization levels represented by N known materials' signatures properly selected. Then the quantized images are compared in order to identify the areas classified as belonging to the same class, so identified by the same quantization index which will make the subset of control points that should be used for performing relative radiometric correction. Experimental results showed that choosing points characterized by an homogeneous spectral content for radiometric correction improves the performances of specific image processing algorithms, such as change detection and classification algorithms.

D'Elia, C.; Ruscino, S.

2012-11-01

216

Wafer-level radiometric performance testing of uncooled microbolometer arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A turn-key semi-automated test system was constructed to perform on-wafer testing of microbolometer arrays. The system allows for testing of several performance characteristics of ROIC-fabricated microbolometer arrays including NETD, SiTF, ROIC functionality, noise and matrix operability, both before and after microbolometer fabrication. The system accepts wafers up to 8 inches in diameter and performs automated wafer die mapping using a microscope camera. Once wafer mapping is completed, a custom-designed quick insertion 8-12 ?m AR-coated Germanium viewport is placed and the chamber is pumped down to below 10-5 Torr, allowing for the evaluation of package-level focal plane array (FPA) performance. The probe card is electrically connected to an INO IRXCAM camera core, a versatile system that can be adapted to many types of ROICs using custom-built interface printed circuit boards (PCBs). We currently have the capability for testing 384x288, 35 ?m pixel size and 160x120, 52 ?m pixel size FPAs. For accurate NETD measurements, the system is designed to provide an F/1 view of two rail-mounted blackbodies seen through the Germanium window by the die under test. A master control computer automates the alignment of the probe card to the dies, the positioning of the blackbodies, FPA image frame acquisition using IRXCAM, as well as data analysis and storage. Radiometric measurement precision has been validated by packaging dies measured by the automated probing system and re-measuring the SiTF and Noise using INO's pre-existing benchtop system.

Dufour, Denis G.; Topart, Patrice; Tremblay, Bruno; Julien, Christian; Martin, Louis; Vachon, Carl

2014-03-01

217

Precise quantitation of PAIgG: A new radiometric microtechnique  

SciTech Connect

We report the development of a radiometric assay for platelet-bound IgG that is both sensitive and quantitative. The assay utilized 96-well millititer plates incorporating a 0.2 microns filter membrane in the bottom. A 125I-labeled monoclonal antihuman IgG, as a secondary antibody, detected the platelet-bound human IgG. Since 5 x 10(6) platelets were used for each assay, tests for platelet-bound IgG can be performed on persons with severe thrombocytopenia. For the detection of circulating antiplatelet alloantibodies, as little as 10 microliters of platelet-free plasma per assay is required. Antiplatelet IgG was quantitated by using anti-PIA1 antibody that was purified with affinity and elution and DEAE chromatography. This purified antiplatelet antibody was labeled with 125I and was used to determine the binding ratio of secondary antibody to primary antibody. Under our standard conditions, this ratio was found to be stable at approximately 0.35 over the sensitivity range of the assay. The assay can detect approximately 200 molecules of human IgG per platelet (0.1 ng of secondary antibody bound per 5 x 10(6) platelets). It has a linear range from 0 to 7,000 molecules per platelet. Quantitation of anti-PIA1 binding for platelets stored for up to 6 months under refrigeration showed no change in number of PIA1 binding sites. Clinical studies showed that 18 of 19 ITP patients had an increased number of IgG molecules per platelet as did patients with malignancy and drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia. Patients who had received multiple platelet transfusions had antiplatelet antibody in their plasma. Normal amounts of PAIgG were observed in platelets and plasma of patients with nonimmune thrombocytopenia.

Schwartz, K.A.; Gauger, J.A.; Davis, J.M. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-03-01

218

Optimum information acquisition under radiometric resolution constraint in spaceborne remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the beginning of space-borne remote sensing less than two decades ago, sensor technologies have greatly advanced. State-of-the-art sensor systems, such as the Earth Observing System (Eos), will have higher spatial, spectral, radiometric resolutions, which are selected together to enhance the capabilities of differentiating surface categories. Multiple, pointable platforms covering different parts of electromagnetic spectrum will circle the earth, detect and monitor terrestrial changes, and measure the essential surface and atmospheric parameters. It is anticipated that sensors of future generations will have even greater spectral, spatial, and radiometric resolutions. However, resolutions cannot increase without bound. Noise of electronic, mechanical, optical, and atmospheric origins limits the effective resolutions of the measurements. In this paper, several aspects of the effects of radiometric resolution on remotely sensed data are examined. It is shown that higher radiometric resolution indeed improves information content. But to improve the utilization of the spectrometer, radiometric sensitivity must also be modified. Using clusters constructed from empirical signatures, it is shown that discriminability between clusters converges beyond 6 bits. It is also shown that the information content of current sensor measurements is not limited by the atmosphere, but by the sensitivity settings of the spectrometers. It is proposed that a spectrometer with variable sensitivity and capable of sampling scene radiance into full dynamic range be used as a means of optimizing information content. If implemented, the same amount of information content currently observed could be measured with fewer bits.

Kiang, Richard K.

1990-11-01

219

(abstract) Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid,and precipitation , emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band becausecommunication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of watervapor-induced prop agation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity waveexperiments, and r adio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation mode development, supp orted planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily, monthly, and seasonal variations. Only long-term monitoring will prevent biases from being introduced by an exceptionally wet or dry year. Support for planetary missions included tropospheric calibration for the recent Mars Observer gravity wave experiments and Ka-band link experiment (KaBLE). Additionally, several proposed radio science experiments such as profiling planetary atmospheres using satellite occultations and Ka-band gravitational wave searches require advanced radiometer technology development. Finally, there has been a consistent advanced technology program to advance satellite navigational and tracking capabilities. This year that included an experiment with radiometer based tropospheric calibration for a series of VLBI catalog measurements.

Walter, Steven J.

1994-01-01

220

Landsat-7 ETM+: 12 years on-orbit reflective-band radiometric performance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Landsat-7 ETM+ sensor has been operating on orbit for more than 12 years, and characterizations of its performance have been ongoing over this period. In general, the radiometric performance of the instrument has been remarkably stable: 1) noise performance has degraded by 2% or less overall, with a few detectors displaying step changes in noise of 2% or less; 2) coherent noise frequencies and magnitudes have generally been stable, though the within-scan amplitude variation of the 20 kHz noise in bands 1 and 8 disappeared with the failure of the scan line corrector and a new similar frequency noise (now about 18 kHz) has appeared in two detectors in band 5 and increased in magnitude with time; 3) bias stability has been better than 0.25 DN out of a normal value of 15 DN in high gain; 4) relative gains, the differences in response between the detectors in the band, have generally changed by 0.1% or less over the mission, with the exception of a few detectors with a step response change of 1% or less; and 5) gain stability averaged across all detectors in a band, which is related to the stability of the absolute calibration, has been more stable than the techniques used to measure it. Due to the inability to confirm changes in the gain (beyond a few detectors that have been corrected back to the band average), ETM+ reflective band data continues to be calibrated with the prelaunch measured gains. In the worst case, some bands may have changed as much as 2% in uncompensated absolute calibration over the 12 years.

Markham, B.L.; Haque, M.O.; Barsi, J.A.; Micijevic, E.; Helder, D.L.; Thome, K.J.; Aaron, D.; Czapla-Myers, J. S.

2012-01-01

221

Evaluation of the radiometric quality of the TM data using clustering and multispectral distance measures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometrically and geometrically corrected TM data from three different geographic locations were examined. Histograms were inspected for each band to determine the dynamic range of the data, the shape of the distributions, and to verify whether empty bins were introduced by the radiometric correction process. The effect of geometric correction on the radiometry of the resampled pixels was determined. The information content between TM and MSS data sets were compared and the TM data were used to map the thermal effluent discharge into a river ecosystem from a nuclear thermal power plant, and application only possible previously only possible through the acquisition of thermal infrared scanner data from aircraft altitudes.

Bartolucci, L. A.; Dean, M. E.; Anuta, P. E.

1983-01-01

222

A vacuum-compatible flat plate radiometric source for system-level testing of optical sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, development of a fiber-optically coupled, vacuum-compatible, flat plate radiometric source applicable to the characterization and calibration of remote sensing optical sensors in situ in a thermal vacuum chamber is described. Results of thermal and radiometric performance of a flat plate illumination source in a temperature-controlled vacuum chamber operating at liquid nitrogen temperature are presented. Applications, including use with monochromatic tunable laser sources for the end-to-end system-level testing of large aperture sensors, are briefly discussed.

Brown, Steven W.; Smith, Allan W.; Woodward, John T.; Lykke, Keith R.; Guenther, Bruce; Lambeck, Robert W.; Barnes, Robert A.

2009-09-01

223

Comparison of diverse methods for the correction of atmospheric effects on LANDSAT and SKYLAB images. [radiometric correction in Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth's atmosphere reduces a sensors ability in currently discriminating targets. Using radiometric correction to reduce the atmospheric effects may improve considerably the performance of an automatic image interpreter. Several methods for radiometric correction from the open literature are compared leading to the development of an atmospheric correction system.

Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Camara, G.; Dias, L. A. V.; Mascarenhas, N. D. D.; Desouza, R. C. M.; Pereira, A. E. C.

1982-01-01

224

Microwave radiometric measurements of soil moisture in Italy Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 937948 (2003) EGU  

E-print Network

Sciences, 7(6), 937948 (2003) © EGU Microwave radiometric measurements of soil moisture in Italy GMicrowave radiometric measurements of soil moisture in Italy 937 Hydrology and Earth System GHz). The aim of the experiments was to collect soil moisture and vegetation biomass information

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

Uranium-series dating and growth characteristics of the deep-sea scleractinian coral: Enallopsammia rostrata from the Equatorial Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep-sea coral, Enallopsammia rostrata, a member of the Dendrophylliidae family, is a major structure-forming species that creates massive dendroid colonies, up to 1 m wide and 0.5 m tall. Living colonies of E. rostrata have been collected using the PISCES submersibles from three locations from 480 to 788 m water depth in the Line Islands (160W) in the Equatorial Pacific. We have applied to these colonies a high sensitivity, low blank technique to determine U-series ages in small quantities (70 15 mg) of modern and near modern calcareous skeletons using MC-ICP-MS (Multi-collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer). The application of this method to living slow-growing colonies from a range of sites as well as the observations of axial growth patterns in thin sections of their skeletons offer the first expanded and well constrained data on longevity, growth pattern and mean growth rates in E. rostrata. Absolute dated specimens indicate life spans of colonies ranging from 209 8 yrs to 605 7 yrs with radial growth rates from 0.012 to 0.072 mm yr -1 and vertical extension rates from 0.6 to 1.9 mm yr -1. The linear growth rates reported here are lower than those reported for other deep-sea scleractinian corals ( Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata). The U-series dating indicates that the growth ring patterns of E. rostrata are not consistent with annual periodicity emphasizing the importance of absolute radiometric dating methods to constrain growth rates. Slow accretion and extreme longevity make this species and its habitat especially vulnerable to disturbances and impacts from human activities. This dating method combined with observation of growth patterns opens up new perspectives in the field of deep-sea corals since it can provide quantitative estimates of growth rates and longevity of deep-sea corals in general.

Houlbrque, Fanny; McCulloch, Malcolm; Roark, Brendan; Guilderson, Tom; Meibom, Anders; Kimball, Justine; Mortimer, Graham; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Dunbar, Robert

2010-04-01

226

Exercise Log Date Distance Date Distance  

E-print Network

routine. Are You Starting a New Exercise Program? Stretching Brought to you by Staff Council httpExercise Log Date Distance Date Distance College of Sports Medicine recommends that if you are undertaking an exercise program that you see your

Gering, Jon C.

227

PRESCHOOL APPLICATION Current Date_______________________ Desired Admission Date ____________________________________  

E-print Network

____________________________ Child's food allergies _______________________________ Other allergies-to-date Immunizations __ Allergy Form __Signed General Permission Form__ Signed Research Permission Form ___ Preschool

228

A Sounding Rocket Mission Concept to Acquire High-Resolution Radiometric Spectra Spanning the 9 nm - 31 nm Wavelength Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When studying Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) emissions, both single-wavelength, two- dimensional (2D) spectroheliograms and multi-wavelength, one-dimensional (1D) line spectra are important, especially for a thorough understanding of the complex processes in the solar magnetized plasma from the base of the chromosphere through the corona. 2D image data are required for a detailed study of spatial structures, whereas radiometric (i.e., spectral) data provide information on relevant atomic excitation/ionization state densities (and thus temperature). Using both imaging and radiometric techniques, several satellite missions presently study solar dynamics in the EUV, including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Hinode, and the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The EUV wavelengths of interest typically span 9 nm to 31 nm, with the shorter wavelengths being associated with the hottest features (e.g., intense flares and bright points) and the longer wavelengths associated with cooler features (e.g., coronal holes and filaments). Because the optical components of satellite instruments degrade over time, it is not uncommon to conduct sounding rocket underflights for calibration purposes. The authors have designed a radiometric sounding rocket payload that could serve as both a calibration underflight for and a complementary scientific mission to the upcoming Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) mission aboard the GOES-R satellite (scheduled for a 2015 launch). The challenge to provide quality radiometric line spectra over the 9-31 nm range covered by SUVI was driven by the multilayer coatings required to make the optical components, including mirrors and gratings, reflective over the entire range. Typically, these multilayers provide useful EUV reflectances over bandwidths of a few nm. Our solution to this problem was to employ a three-telescope system in which the optical components were coated with multilayers that spanned three wavelength ranges to cover the three pairs of SUVI bands. The complete system was designed to fit within the Black Brandt-IX 22.-diameter payload skin envelope. The basic optical path is that of a simple parabolic telescope in which EUV light is focused onto a slit and shutter assembly and imaged onto a normal-incidence diffraction grating, which then disperses the light onto a 2048 2048 CCD sensor. The CCD thus records 1D spatial information along one axis and spectral information along the other. The slit spans 40 arc-minutes in length, thus covering a solar diameter out to +/- 1.3 solar radii. Our operations concept includes imaging at three distinct positions: the north-south meridian, the northeast-southwest diagonal, and real-time pointing at an active region. Six 10-second images will be obtained at each position. Fine pointing is provided by the SPARCS-VII attitude control system typically employed on Black Brandt solar missions. Both before and after launch, all three telescopes will be calibrated with the EUV line emission source and monochromater system at NASA's Stray Light Facility at Marshall Spaceflight Center. Details of the payload design, operations concept, and data application will be presented.

Krause, L. Habash; Cirtain, Jonathan; McGuirck, Michael; Pavelitz, Steven; Weber, Ed.; Winebarger, Amy

2012-01-01

229

Direct dating of human fossils.  

PubMed

The methods that can be used for the direct dating of human remains comprise of radiocarbon, U-series, electron spin resonance (ESR), and amino acid racemization (AAR). This review gives an introduction to these methods in the context of dating human bones and teeth. Recent advances in ultrafiltration techniques have expanded the dating range of radiocarbon. It now seems feasible to reliably date bones up to 55,000 years. New developments in laser ablation mass spectrometry permit the in situ analysis of U-series isotopes, thus providing a rapid and virtually non-destructive dating method back to about 300,000 years. This is of particular importance when used in conjunction with non-destructive ESR analysis. New approaches in AAR analysis may lead to a renaissance of this method. The potential and present limitations of these direct dating techniques are discussed for sites relevant to the reconstruction of modern human evolution, including Florisbad, Border Cave, Tabun, Skhul, Qafzeh, Vindija, Banyoles, and Lake Mungo. PMID:17103430

Grn, Rainer

2006-01-01

230

Calibrated, multiband radiometric measurements of the optical radiation from lightning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calibrated, multiband radiometric measurements of the optical radiation emitted by rocket-triggered lightning (RTL) have been made in the ultraviolet (UV, 200-360 nm), the visible and near infrared (VNIR, 400-1000 nm), and the long wave infrared (LWIR, 8-12 microm) spectral bands. Measurements were recorded from a distance of 198 m at the University of Florida International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) during the summers of 2011 and 2012. The ICLRT provided time-correlated measurements of the current at the base of the RTL channels. Following the onset of a return stroke, the dominant mechanism for the initial rise of the UV and VNIR waveforms was the geometrical growth of the channel in the field-of-view of the sensors. The UV emissions peaked about 0.7 micros after the current peak, with a peak spectral power emitted by the source per unit length of channel of 10 +/- 7 kW/(nm-m) in the UV. The VNIR emissions peaked 0.9 micros after the current peak, with a spectral power of at 7 +/- 4 kW/(nm-m). The LWIR emissions peaked 30-50 micros after the current peak, and the mean peak spectral power was 940 +/- 380 mW/(nm-m), a value that is about 4 orders of magnitude lower than the other spectral band emissions. In some returns strokes the LWIR peak coincides with a secondary maximum in the VNIR band that occurs during a steady decrease in channel current. Examples of the optical waveforms in each spectral band are shown as a function of time and are discussed in the context of the current measured at the channel base. Source power estimates in the VNIR band have a mean and standard deviation of 2.5 +/- 2.2 MW/m and are in excellent agreement with similar estimates of the emission from natural subsequent strokes that remain in a pre-existing channel which have a mean and standard deviation of 2.3 +/- 3.4 MW/m. The peak optical power emitted by RTL in the UV and VNIR bands are observed to be proportional to the square of the peak current at the channel base. The same trend was found for natural lightning using peak currents estimates provided by the National Lightning Detection Network. Ratios of the optical power to the electromagnetic power emitted at the time of peak current suggest the radiative efficiency in the VNIR band is a few percent during the early onset of a return stroke. The majority of return strokes in RTL are found to emit most of their optical energy during the initial impulse phase.

Quick, Mason G.

231

Thermal instability observation in power transistors by radiometric detection of temperature maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the thermal instability problems in semiconductor power devices are briefly presented. Experimental observations about these phenomena can be achieved by using infrared radiometry to obtain a temperature mapping of the surface of the devices. Our system, based on a radiometric microscope with an automatic scanning and elaboration system, is described. Finally, some results of our system, consisting

Sergio Pica; G. Scarpetta

1995-01-01

232

Lifetime radiometric calibration of HJ-1A/B CCD sensor using Dunhuang Gobi site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dunhuang Gobi site, a pseudo-invariant ground target, has been extensively used to calibrate the remote sensing instruments because of its high spatial and spectral uniformity and good temporal stability. Four Charge Coupled Device (CCD) sensors onboard HUANGJING-A/B (HJ-1A/B) satellites have been running 5-years since launched in 2008, and provided important remote sensing data for land surface reflectance retrieval, bio/geophysical variables estimation and environment pollution /disaster monitoring. The radiometric performance of HJ-1A/B CCD may change after launched because of many factors, thus, we have carried out many ground measurement campaigns at a pseudo-invariant test site-Dunhuang gobi to perform radiometric calibration of these sensors. This article describes the characteristics of Dunhuang gobi site and lifetime radiometric calibration monitoring results obtained for four CCD sensors. The results indicate that the long-term changes in calibration coefficients trending exceeding the dark-noise changes are primarily due to the drifts in the CCD radiometric responsivity, and the degradations of HJ-1A/B CCD are from -2.3%/year to -9.5%/year.

Han, Qijin; Zhang, Xuewen; Liu, Li; Wang, Aichun

2014-11-01

233

Radiometric Sensitivity to Soil Moisture Relative to Vegetation Canopy Anisotropy, Canopy Temperature,  

E-print Network

Radiometric Sensitivity to Soil Moisture Relative to Vegetation Canopy Anisotropy, Canopy Temperature, and Canopy Water Content at 1.4 GHz by Brian Kirk Hornbuckle A dissertation submitted in partial Sensitivity to Soil Moisture Relative to Vegetation Canopy Anisotropy, Canopy Temperature, and Canopy Water

Sarabandi, Kamal

234

Radiometric compensation for a low-cost immersive projection system Julien DEHOS  

E-print Network

Radiometric compensation for a low-cost immersive projection system Julien DEHOS Eric ZEGHERS Catopsys is a low-cost projection system aiming at making mixed reality (virtual, augmented or diminished the optical axis of P. the home by developing a low-cost immersive projection system. This system is composed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

235

RADIOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MAGNESIUM AND CALCIUM IN PORTLAND CEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiometric methods of analysis for magnesium and calcium have been ; developed as part of a program for the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. Office of ; Isotopes Development, which are applicable to the determination of these elements ; in portland cement Both methods employ, as a precipitant, a standard solution of ; (NH)HPO labeled with phosphorus-32. In the presence

C. T. Brown; J. E. Jr. Howes; T. S. Elleman; C. W. Townley; D. N. Sunderman

1960-01-01

236

Aerial radiometric and magnetic reconnaissance survey of south-central Colorado Trinidad Quadrangle  

SciTech Connect

The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial, gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the Trinidad Quadrangle, Colorado, are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume 1 of this final report. Statistical and geological analysis of radiometric data revealed 51 uranium anomalies worthy of field-checking as possible prospects.

Not Available

1980-01-01

237

RAW MATERIALS USED FOR THE PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA -NEW RADIOMETRIC DATA  

E-print Network

The nature of phosphate fertilizer produced by sulfuric acid attack and the nature of phosphogypsum (phosphorites), represent about 85 % of the phosphate rock used for the production of phosphoric acid (HabashiRAW MATERIALS USED FOR THE PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA - NEW RADIOMETRIC DATA Aurora

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

238

In-flight radiometric calibration of the airborne visible\\/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reflectance-based method was used to provide an analysis of the in-flight radiometric performance of AVIRIS. Field spectral reflectance measurements of the surface and extinction measurements of the atmosphere using solar radiation were used as input to atmospheric radiative transfer calculations. Five separate codes were used in the analysis. Four include multiple scattering, and the computed radiances from these for

James E. Conel; Robert O. Green; Ronald E. Alley; Carol J. Bruegge; Veronique Carrere; Jack S. Margolis; Gregg Vane; Thomas G. Chrien

1988-01-01

239

Comfort estimation for textile materials applied at medical uniform production using radiometric method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation method of coefficient of radiation of apparel fabric in the range of mm-waves by means of high-sensitivity microwave radiometric system is suggested. It allows determining the radiating ability factor of different materials for clothes and estimating the wave component in characteristics of comfort ability of clothes.

N. P. Suprun; Yu. A. Skripnik; Yu. I. Ostrovetskaya; K. L. Shevchenko; A. P. Yanenko

2009-01-01

240

UTILITY OF RADIOMETRIC-AERODYNAMIC TEMPERATURE RELATIONS FOR HEAT FLUX ESTIMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In many land surface models using bulk transfer (one-source) approaches, the application of radiometric surface temperature observations in energy flux computations has given mixed results. This is due in part to the non-unique relationship between the so-called aerodynamic temperature, which relat...

241

Research on methods of spectral calibration and radiometric calibration of the windowing Fourier transform imaging spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral calibration and radiometric calibration is an important part in the data processing of the windowing Fourier transform imaging spectrometer, it can ensure that the spectral curve output from spectrometer are more closely to target spectrum. The main idea of spectral calibration is using a monochromatic source whose wavelength is known, in the same way, radiometric calibration can be achieved by using radiation source whose radiation characteristic is known. In this paper, we propose a set of methods of spectral calibration and radiometric calibration. In order to carry out spectral calibration, we use monocharomator to scan several sample points near the position of every spectral channel of imaging spectrometer, and then we employ Gaussian fitting function to determine the central wavelength and bandwidth of every spectral channel. In order to carry out radiometric calibration, we employ panchromatic light source and integrating sphere, at the position of every spectral channel of imaging spectrometer, we measure the response ability of spectrometer to radiation. The calibration accuracy is carefully analyzed. Experimental results show that calibration accuracy meet the given requirements.

Zhang, Lei; Gao, Jiao Bo; Zhao, Yu Jie; Luo, Yan Ling; Xiao, Xiang Guo; Zhang, Fang

2013-08-01

242

Radiometric Correction of Terrestrial LiDAR Data for Mapping of Harvest Residues Density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In precision agriculture detailed geoinformation on plant and soil properties plays an important role. Laser scanning already has been used to describe in-field variations of plant growth in 3D and over time and can serve as valuable complementary topographic data set for remote sensing, such as deriving soil properties from hyperspectral sensors. In this study full-waveform laser scanning data acquired with a Riegl VZ-400 instrument is used to classify 3D point clouds into post-harvest straw residues and bare soil. A workflow for point cloud based classification is presented using radiometric and geometric point features. A radiometric correction is performed by using a range-correction function f(r), which is derived from lab experiments with a reference target of known reflectance. Thereafter, the corrected signal amplitude and local height features are explored with respect to the target classes. The following procedure includes feature calculation, decision tree analysis, point cloud classification and finally result validation using detailed classified reference RGB images. The classification tree separates the classes of harvest residues and bare soil with an accuracy of 96% by using geometric and radiometric features. The LiDAR-derived harvest residue coverage value of 75% lies in accordance with the image-based reference (coverage of 68%). The results indicate the high potential of radiometric features for natural surface classification, particularly in combination with geometric features.

Koenig, K.; Hfle, B.; Mller, L.; Hmmerle, M.; Jarmer, T.; Siegmann, B.; Lilienthal, H.

2013-10-01

243

Comparison of aerodynamic and radiometric surface temperature using precision weighing lysimeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Radiometric surface temperature (Ts) is commonly ,used as a surrogate for aerodynamic ,temperature (To) in computing the sensible heat flux term (H) in the energy balance. However, these temperatures may differ by several degrees, leading to possible errors (especially for large H) and their relationship is not well known. Previous researchers have established empirical and semi-empirical parameterizations of the

Paul D. Colaizzi; Steven R. Evett; Terry A. Howell; Judy A. Tolk; P. O. Drawer

244

THz imaging and radiometric measurements using a microbolometer-based camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A THz VOx-based 160120 microbolometer FPA camera with 52 ?m pixel pitch has been developed at INO. Radiometric NEP values have been measured at different wavelengths. Real-time video-rate reflectance imaging using large beam area from a high-power FIR optically pumped THz laser has been also performed, demonstrating high sensitivity for stand alone applications.

M. Bolduc; M. Terroux; L. Marchese; B. Tremblay; E. Savard; M. Doucet; H. Oulachgar; C. Alain; H. Jeronimek; A. Bergeron

2011-01-01

245

Continental Shelf Research 26 (2006) 24332453 Comparison of radiometric quantities measured in water,  

E-print Network

Continental Shelf Research 26 (2006) 2433­2453 Comparison of radiometric quantities measured conditions. A statistical comparison of both approaches was conducted in support of the validation of remote sensing data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and local algorithm development

Durako, Michael J.

246

Dendrochronologically Dated Ottoman Monuments  

E-print Network

Dendrochronologically Dated Ottoman Monuments Peter Ian Kuniholm #12;Dendrochronologically Dated 4 Ottoman Monuments Peter Ian Kuniholm INTRODUCTION Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating has been carried history, no matter PETERIANKUNMOLMl Aegean Dendrochronology Project, Department of the History of Art

Manning, Sturt

247

Low-T eclogite in the Dabie terrane of China: petrological and isotopic constraints on fluid activity and radiometric dating  

Microsoft Academic Search

While extensive studies have demonstrated fluid release during subduction of oceanic crust, little attention has been paid to fluid activity during subduction and exhumation of continental crust. Abundant occurrence of quartz veins within eclogites in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt of China provides us with an opportunity to study the origin and role of vein-forming fluids with respect to heat and

Xu-Ping Li; Yong-Fei Zheng; Yuan-Bao Wu; Fukun Chen; Bing Gong; Yi-Liang Li

2004-01-01

248

The Relationship between Balancing Reactions and Reaction Lifetimes: A Consideration of the Potassium Argon Radiometric Method for Dating Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowing the mechanism for a chemical reaction means that you can also know what the products of that reaction are, how much of each product is formed, and the kinetics of product formation. Conversely, not knowing what the products are, how much of each product is formed, or the kinetics of product formation means that the mechanism of the reaction cannot be fully known. This line of thinking, commonly taught in college chemistry courses throughout the world, applies as well to nuclear decay reactions occuring in minerals. When a geochronologist determines a mineral's age by the potassium argon method, it is implied that the mechanism(s) by which 40 Ar came to be inside the mineral are known. Yet, geochronologists never identify and quantify the other products that must form in addition to 40 Ar. In fact, no one even knows what the other products are, in any mineral. One may argue that, because most of the products from the potassium argon reaction are unknown, the geochronologist cannot actually know how the 40 Ar atoms came to be inside the mineral and, hence, cannot fully know the mineral's age. Formulating and critically examining such arguments can be an important part of the education of scientists.

Howard, William A.

2005-07-01

249

Lithostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and radiometric dating of the Stanislaus Group, CA, and age of the Little Walker Caldera  

E-print Network

counties, CA), composed of intercalated latite and quartz-latite (trachyandesite and trachyte-latite (trachytes/trachydacites) ignimbrites that erupted from the vicinity of Sonora Pass, CA. These volcanic rocks

Busby, Cathy

250

Efficient radiometrically accurate synthetic representation of IR scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is developed for synthesizing a high spectral resolution IR ship signature image, for use in an imaging IR Anti-Ship Cruise Missile (ASCM) model, from an IR scene database provided by the ship signature model NTCS\\/ShipIR. This synthesized IR ship image is generated for use over ranges representative of an ASCM engagement. The technique presented focuses on the application

Patrick C. Shaw; Robert E. Gover

2003-01-01

251

Three-dimensional radiometric aperture synthesis microscopy for security screening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three dimensional (3D) aperture synthesis imaging technique investigated here is a generalisation of the classic twodimensional radio astronomy technique with refinements for the near-field so it can be applied a personnel security screening portal. This technique can be viewed as a novel form of diffraction emission tomography and extends previous 3D aperture synthesis imaging research using matrix inversion techniques [1]. Simulations using three-dimensional Fourier transforms to create three-dimensional images from simulated three-dimensional visibility functions illustrate the Abbe microscopy resolution should be achievable in three dimensions simultaneously in a single sensor. The field-of-view is demonstrated to be limited by Fresnel scale effects and a means to over coming this by processing sub-sets of local visibility functions with different phase centres throughout the imaging volume is presented. The applications of this technique to a full 3D imaging security screening portal is explored and a route to extending simulation software for market driven imaging scenarios is discussed.

Salmon, Neil A.; Bowring, Nick

2014-10-01

252

PARADIS: Physical 802.11 Device Identification with Radiometric Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a technique that identifies an ieee 802.11 frame's source network interface card through passive radio-frequency analysis. Our approach, called paradis, leverages minute imperfections of transmitter hardware that are acquired at manufacture and are present even in other- wise identical nics. These imperfections are transmitter- specific and manifest themselves as artifacts of the emitted signals. We measure artifacts

Vladimir Brik; Suman Banerjee; Marco Gruteser; Sangho Oh

253

Advanced phase correction approach to obtain radiometric calibrated spectra of the optically well-balanced balloonborne Fourier transform spectrometer MIPAS-B2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The balloon borne IR-Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) MIPAS-B2 has been designed for a low self-emission from each of the instrument ports leading to low noise signals and a radiometrically balanced interferometer. The radiometric accuracy depends strongly on the quality of the phase correction of interferograms and of the calibration measurements and algorithms. It could be observed that the classically derived phases of the complex spectra are in correlation with line structures in the spectrum and cause disturbed calibrated spectra. These phase functions cannot be explained by the instrumental phase due to the beamsplitter nor by sampling shifts but by the emission of the beamsplitter itself. The determination of the instrumental phase function requires to invent an unconventional technique. According to the low radiance received from the stratosphere noise has also to be taken into account, especially in case of single non- coadded spectra. Therefore an advanced statistical method was investigated to derive the phase of the interferogram by minimizing the correlation of the real and imaginary part of the spectrum as well as the variance of the imaginary part (the beamsplitter spectrum). The complete processing and calibration scheme of the FTS-emission sounder will be presented focusing on a detailed description of phase behavior due to the beamsplitter emission and of the correction process.

Trieschmann, Olaf; Friedl-Vallon, Felix; Lengel, Anton; Oelhaf, Hermann; Wetzel, Gerald; Fischer, Herbert

1999-10-01

254

Sample detection and analysis techniques for electrophoretic separation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods for detecting and analyzing biological agents suitable for space flight operations were studied primarily by literature searches which were conducted of cell separation techniques. Detection methods discussed include: photometrometric, electric, radiometric, micrometry, ultrasonic, microscopic, and photographic. A bibliography, and a directory of vendors are included along with an index of commercial hardware.

Falb, R. D.; Hughes, K. E.; Powell, T. R.

1975-01-01

255

Nist role in radiometric calibrations for remote sensing programs at NASA, NOAA, DOE and DOD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Optical Technology Division (OTD) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been actively involved in providing calibration support to establish SI traceable measurement support for the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) radiometric sensors. Specialized transfer standard radiometers traceable to the NIST spectroradiometric scales were built; they cover the visible and infrared spectral range up to 10 ?m. An example of this effort has been the calibration support provided for the NASA's SeaWiFS program. The OTD has also developed the Thermal Infrared Transfer Radiometer (TXR) for NASA's EOS program, and measurements are planned at the calibration facilities for the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) that will fly on the Aura spacecraft. The TXR was used for the end-to-end radiometric calibration of a chamber at Los Alamos in support of DOE remote sensing programs. Plans also call for the TXR to be used in a feasibility test of calibration support for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) program. The need to calibrate the performance of sensors for missile defense prompted the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) of the Department of Defense (DOD) to sponsor the development of the Low Background Infrared Calibration Facility (LBIR) at NIST. The LBIR facility has been providing calibration of blackbodies and detectors to BMDO/DOD missile test facilities for over ten years. Internationally, OTD has been actively participating in the intercomparisons with other national standard laboratories in the measurement of SI traceable radiometric quantities. The requirements for global warming and climate change studies show the need for high accuracy data from remote sensing platforms. This translates into the need for long term radiometric calibration support for space-based sensors during the course of the mission. As a possibility to provide real time radiometric calibration support for a variety of missions, we will explore the future prospects of deploying SI traceable transfer standard radiometers on the International Space Station or other such platforms. Such a program would allow for recoverable instruments that could be periodically intercompared with the absolute radiometric standards in the laboratory and thereby provide long term measurement assurance for space based radiometry.

Parr, A. C.; Datla, R. U.

2001-01-01

256

Improving Ocean Color Data Products using a Purely Empirical Approach: Reducing the Requirement for Radiometric Calibration Accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometric calibration is the foundation upon which ocean color remote sensing is built. Quality derived geophysical products, such as chlorophyll, are assumed to be critically dependent upon the quality of the radiometric calibration. Unfortunately, the goals of radiometric calibration are not typically met in global and large-scale regional analyses, and are especially deficient in coastal regions. The consequences of the uncertainty in calibration are very large in terms of global and regional ocean chlorophyll estimates. In fact, stability in global chlorophyll requires calibration uncertainty much greater than the goals, and outside of modern capabilities. Using a purely empirical approach, we show that stable and consistent global chlorophyll values can be achieved over very wide ranges of uncertainty. Furthermore, the approach yields statistically improved comparisons with in situ data, suggesting improved quality. The results suggest that accuracy requirements for radiometric calibration cab be reduced if alternative empirical approaches are used.

Gregg, Watson

2008-01-01

257

Improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source for system-level testing of optical sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, development of a fiber-optically coupled, vacuum-compatible, flat plate radiometric source applicable to the characterization and calibration of remote sensing optical sensors in situ in a thermal vacuum chamber is described. The original flat plate radiometric source configuration's performance was presented at the 2009 Berlin SPIE. Following the original effort, design upgrades were incorporated in order to improve radiometric throughput and uniformity. Results of thermal and radiometric performance, with incorporated upgrades, of a flat plate illumination source in a temperature-controlled vacuum chamber operating at liquid nitrogen temperature are presented. Applications, including use with monochromatic tunable laser sources for the end-to-end system-level testing of large aperture sensors, are briefly discussed.

Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Brown, Steven W.; Woodward, John T.; Lin, Chungsan

2014-09-01

258

Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS): Inflight radiometric calibration and the determination of surface reflectance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inflight radiometric performance of AVIRIS is presented together with a comparison of methods of recovering surface spectral reflectance from the data. Performance is evaluated by comparing radiance predicted from AVIRIS with radiance generated from the LOWIRAN 6 atmospheric model and measured surface reflectance. Comparisons show apparent agreement to within a few percent between 1800 and 2450 nm. Between 600 and 1800 nm the response of AVIRIS is systematically low by as much as 70 percent, and between 400 and 600 nm it is higher than expected. These problems are traced to thermal distortions of the instrument, and to detachment during flight of optical fibers connecting foreoptics to two of four spectrometers in the instrument. Of three methods studied, an empirical one involving calibration curves constructed from field reflectance measurements returns accurate predictions of the surface reflectance independent of the actual radiometric significance of the flight data.

Conel, J. E.; Vane, G.; Green, R. O.; Alley, R. E.; Carere, V.; Gabell, A.; Bruegge, C. J.

1988-01-01

259

Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. . In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

Hock, R. A.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, E. C.

2010-01-01

260

Real-Time EDL Navigation Performance Using Spacecraft to Spacecraft Radiometric Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-year task sponsored by NASA's Mars Technology Program's Advanced Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) work area includes investigation of improvements to EDL navigation by processing spacecraft-to-spacecraft radiometric data. Spacecraft-to- spacecraft navigation will take advantage of the UHF link between two spacecraft (i.e. to an orbiter from an approaching lander for EDL telemetry relay) to build radiometric data, specifically the velocity between the two spacecraft along the radio beam, that are processed to determine position and velocity in real time. The improved onboard state knowledge provided by spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will improve the performance of entry guidance by providing a more accurate state estimate and ultimately reduce the landed position error. Work on the final year of this task is reported here.

Burkhart, P. Daniel; Ely, Todd; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, Glenn; Campbell, Todd; Mogensen, Andy

2006-01-01

261

Measurement of the radiometric properties of materials for building and aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of the surface radiometric properties of construction and aerospace materials is discussed, and a facility for measurements of reflection and transmission is presented. The need for measurements of the radiometric properties of materials to be included in such structures as buildings, greenhouses, radomes, spacecraft and industrial plants is discussed, and the relations of the solar-integrated reflectance, transmittance and absorptance of materials are considered. It is pointed out that the heat loss from a surface can be predicted from the determination of the total emissivity of the surface, which in turn can be determined from measurements of the complete hemispherical transmittance and reflectance. The design and operating principles of an absolute diffuse IR hemispherical reflectance and transmittance measurement facility is then detailed which makes use of a hemispherical focusing mirror system for the uniform hemispheric irradiation of the sample so that the hemispherical radiance from the sample can be determined for a variety of emission angles.

Clarke, F. J. J.

1980-01-01

262

Research paper Constraining the age of rock art by dating a rockfall event using sediment and  

E-print Network

dating techniques, dendrochronology and lichenometry, are indirect measurements requiring the presence of specific species of organisms (Lang et al., 1999). Dendrochronology is a useful method for dating rockfall

Pederson, Joel L.

263

Efficient radiometrically accurate synthetic representation of IR scenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique is developed for synthesizing a high spectral resolution IR ship signature image, for use in an imaging IR Anti-Ship Cruise Missile (ASCM) model, from an IR scene database provided by the ship signature model NTCS/ShipIR. This synthesized IR ship image is generated for use over ranges representative of an ASCM engagement. The technique presented focuses on the application of in-band averaged transmittance to the source ship signature as a means of reducing the spectral calculations required by the cruise missile model. In order to achieve this reduction in computation, while preserving the fidelity of the apparent ship signature, the idea of sub-banding is introduced. Sub-banding describes the manner in which the IR band is partitioned into smaller bandwidths, such that the error produced in the ship's average contrast radiance due to the use of in-band averaged transmittance is minimized over range. The difference between the average contrast radiance of an IR ship image generated using in-band averaging and the average contrast radiance of a spectrally generated IR ship image is the metric for this minimization. This choice is based on measured data collected from the recent NATO SIMVEX trial, which used high quality IR measurements of the CFAV Quest in an effort to refine the NTCS/ShipIR model. The technique is general and applicable to any band(s) of interest. Results are presented which verify that the use of in-band averaged transmittance over an IR band (3.5-5.0 ?m), partitioned using three optimal sub-bands, produces an IR ship image with an average contrast radiance within the desired error bar of a spectrally generated ship image's average contrast radiance.

Shaw, Patrick C.; Gover, Robert E.

2003-08-01

264

Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiometric characteristics of LANDSAT 5 TM data were analyzed. Effects which were found earlier and quantified in LANDSAT 4 TM data were quantified for LANDSAT-5 data as well, including: scan-direction-related signal droop and scan correlated level shifts. Coincident LANDSAT 4 and 5 fully corrected (CCT-PT) TM data were analyzed, and band-by-band relationships between the two sensors were derived in terms of both signal counts and radiance.

Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D. (principal investigators)

1985-01-01

265

Measured and modeled radiometric quantities in coastal waters: toward a closure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate radiative transfer modeling in the coupled atmosphere-sea system is increasing in importance for the development of advanced remote-sensing applications. Aiming to quantify the uncertainties in the modeling of coastal water radiometric quantities, we performed a closure experiment to intercompare theoretical and experimental data as a function of wavelength lambda and water depth z. Specifically, the study focused on above-water

Barbara Bulgarelli; Giuseppe Zibordi; Jean-Franois Berthon

2003-01-01

266

Tracking the radiometric performance of the rocsat?1 ocean color imager  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ocean Color Imager (OCI) is a multispectral imaging sensor aboard the ROCSAT?1 satellite with seven charge?coupled device (CCD) linear arrays as optical detectors. The CCD is known to be vulnerable to radiation damage, and optical transmission decays due to long?term exposure to the space environment. The radiometric performance of OCI in?orbit is therefore subject to change and tracking its

2003-01-01

267

Photothermal radiometric time-domain inspection of solid specimen by moving line heat source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-domain response of the temperature of solid specimen surface illuminated by a linearly-focused laser beam scanning over a solid specimen surface was theoretically formulated. The waveform is composed of surface diffusion and reflection components, both of which are represented by incomplete Gamma functions. Experimental results show photothermal radiometric signal increase caused by the reflection of heat flow at the internal defect boundary and agreed with calculated data qualitatively.

Hoshimiya, T.; Suzuki, M.; Takatsu, T.; Doi, N.; Endoh, H.

2010-03-01

268

A New Automatic System for Angular Measurement and Calibration in Radiometric Instruments  

PubMed Central

This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements. PMID:22319320

Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohrquez, Miguel ngel Martnez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar

2010-01-01

269

The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for independent, redundant absolute radiometric calibration methods is discussed with reference to the Thematic Mapper. Uncertainty requirements for absolute calibration of between 0.5 and 4 percent are defined based on the accuracy of reflectance retrievals at an agricultural site. It is shown that even very approximate atmospheric corrections can reduce the error in reflectance retrieval to 0.02 over the reflectance range 0 to 0.4.

Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Ding, Y.

1988-01-01

270

A procedure for radiometric recalibration of Landsat 5 TM reflective-band data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has been benefiting from a historical record of remotely sensed data. The multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone for this extensive archive. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for the L5 TM imagery used the detectors' response to the internal calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset for each detector. The IC system degraded with time, causing radiometric calibration errors up to 20%. In May 2003, the L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) were updated to use a lifetime lookup-table (LUT) gain model to radiometrically calibrate TM data instead of using scene-specific IC gains. Further modification of the gain model was performed in 2007. The L5 TM data processed using IC prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the recent calibration revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing level-1 products. The best recalibration results are obtained if the work-order report that was included in the original standard data product delivery is available. However, if users do not have the original work-order report, the IC trends can be used for recalibration. The IC trends were generated using the radiometric gain trends recorded in the NLAPS database. This paper provides the details of the recalibration procedure for the following: 1) data processed using IC where users have the work-order file; 2) data processed using IC where users do not have the work-order file; 3) data processed using prelaunch calibration parameters; and 4) data processed using the previous version of the LUT (e.g., LUT03) that was released before April 2, 2007.

Chander, G.; Haque, M.O.; Micijevic, E.; Barsi, J.A.

2010-01-01

271

Radiometric calibration of DMSP-OLS sensor using VIIRS day/night band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) has been collecting global night light imaging data for more than 40 years. With the launch of Suomi-NPP satellite in 2011, the Day/Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities because it surpasses DMSP-OLS in having broader radiometric measurement range, more accurate radiometric calibration, finer spatial resolution, and better geometric quality. DMSP-OLS sensor does not have on-board calibration and data is recorded as digital number (DN). Therefore, VIIRS-DNB provides opportunities to perform quantitative radiometric calibration of DMSP-OLS sensor. In this paper, vicarious radiometric calibration of DMSP-OLS at night under lunar illumination is performed. Events were selected when satellite flies above Dome C in Antarctic at night and the moon illuminates the site with lunar phase being more than quarter moon. Additional event selection criteria to limit solar and lunar zenith angle range have been applied to ensure no influence of stray light effects and adequate lunar illumination. The data from DMSP-OLS and VIIRS-DNB were analyzed to derive the characteristic radiance or DN for the region of interest. The scaling coefficient for converting DMSP-OLS DN values into radiance is determined to optimally merge the observation of DMSP-OLS into VIIRS-DNB radiance data as a function of lunar phases. Calibrating the nighttime light data collected by the DMSP-OLS sensors into radiance unit can enable applications of using both sensor data and advance the applications of night time imagery data.

Shao, Xi; Cao, Changyong; Zhang, Bin; Qiu, Shi; Elvidge, Christopher; Von Hendy, Michael

2014-11-01

272

Radiometric temperature measurement with Si and InGaAs single-photon avalanche photodiode.  

PubMed

We experimentally demonstrate the use of single-photon avalanche photodiode (SPAD) for radiometric temperature measurement. The low dark count rate CMOS SPAD and a commercial InGaAs/InP SPAD can detect the thermal radiation from a blackbody down to the temperatures of 510 and 405 K, respectively. Our work shows that current SPADs are cost-effective thermal sensors for various applications. PMID:25360916

Wu, J-Y; Lu, P-K; Hsiao, Y-J; Lin, S-D

2014-10-01

273

Introduction to the Sentinel-2 radiometric calibration activities during commissioning phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In partnership with the European Commission and in the frame of the Copernicus program, the European Space Agency (ESA) is developing the Sentinel-2 optical imaging mission devoted to the operational monitoring of land and coastal areas. The Sentinel-2 mission is based on a satellites constellation deployed in polar sun-synchronous orbit. Sentinel-2 will offer a unique combination of global coverage with a wide field of view (290km), a high revisit (5 days with two satellites), a high spatial resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) and multi-spectral imagery (13 spectral bands in visible and shortwave infra-red domains). The first satellite is planned to be launched in mid-2015. In this context, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) supports ESA to insure the calibration/validation commissioning phase during the first six months in flight. This paper provides first an overview of the Sentinel-2 system and a description of the products delivered by the ground segment associated to the main radiometric specifications to achieve. Then the paper will focus on the description of the Sentinel-2 Technical Expertise Center which is in charge of the radiometric and geometric activities during the commissioning phases of the Sentinel-2 satellites. The paper will finally address the radiometric methods and calibration sites used in this CNES image quality center to reach the specifications of the sensors, in term of absolute calibration, pixel to pixel relative sensitivity, MTF estimation and level 2 products accuracy.

Lachrade, S.; Trmas, T.; Lonjou, V.; Nosavan, J.; Petrucci, B.; Martimort, P.; Isola, C.

2014-10-01

274

Designing an in-flight airborne calibration site using experience from vicarious radiometric satellite calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory calibration of electro-optical sensors is preferably complemented by regular in-flight verification. This checks whether the lab calibration parameters remain valid or recalibration is necessary. In-flight verification can be achieved by vicarious calibration using in-flight measurements of calibration targets. We intend to identify and design a set of suitable radiometric calibration targets. For this, we borrow from expertise gained with the PROBA-V satellite calibration system, which uses multiple vicarious methods relying on diverse natural on-ground targets. Besides reflectance based calibration using ground measurements, the PROBA-V calibration methods are unproven for use in airborne calibration. The selected targets should be suitable for the calibration of both multispectral and hyperspectral imagers. We start from general requirements for radiometric targets and investigate their applicability to airborne calibration. From this we identify two possible sets of natural calibration sites in Belgium. One set, located in the Campine region, contains small water bodies and sandy lakesides. Another set is located in the Westhoek region near the Belgian coast. It offers better suitable water bodies, as well as sandy areas, grass fields and dark targets. Airborne calibration lends itself to the use of smaller artifical targets. We propose to complement the natural targets with a portable target consisting of agricultural nets with different densities. The definition of sets of calibration targets, both natural and artificial can facilitate the investigation of the usability of vicarious targets and method for inflight radiometric verification.

Livens, Stefan; Debruyn, Walter; Sterckx, Sindy; Reusen, Ils

2011-11-01

275

Radiometric performance of 640x480 and 320x244 PtSi IR cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Camera designs and radiometric performance evaluation results are presented for two PtSi IR imagers fabricated by the David Sarnoff Research Center. Measurements on the 640 X 480 IR-MOS imaging radiometer with 25 to 150 degree(s)C background temperatures indicated response non-linearity less than +/- 0.3% over 80% of the full signal range. By operation with variable integration time from 240 microsecond(s) ec to 33 msec a scanned image with a NE(Delta) T of less than 0.1 degree(s)C can be maintained over the full temperature range. The 320 X 122 IR-CCD imaging radiometer was designed for operation with integration times ranging from 0.12 to 133 msec to provide for 12 snapshot image settings. The signals from various integration times were effectively matched and scaled to increase the effective maximum measured signal from 1 X 106 to 50 X 106 electrons/pixel. Correction procedures were developed for achieving radiometric accuracy for achieving radiometric accuracy for operation of the imagers over multiple integration times and taking into account the effects of non- linear response of dark current and charge trapping in the readout BCCD registers. The camera stability was shown to be limited by the stability of the calibration source over a three- hour period.

McCaffrey, Nathaniel J.; Kaplinsky, Michael B.; Esposito, Benjamin J.; Kosonocky, Walter F.

1994-07-01

276

Comparison of the spatial and radiometric resolution of ERS and Metop C-band radars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ERS-1/2 and Metop-A/B satellites carry a very similar radars operating at similar frequencies (5.3/5.255 GHz) and same polarization (VV). However, the radars on-board the satellites of these two missions differ in the pulse waveform, bandwidth and slightly in geometry. Moreover, the on-board and the on-ground processing is different. This paper investigates the spatial and radiometric resolution of these radars and the resolution enhancement between ERS (1991-2011) and Metop (2006- ) missions. The spatial resolution assessment implies the computation and the comparison of the Spatial Response Function (SRF) of both systems. The SRF involves mainly the antenna gain pattern, the pulse waveform and the different on-board filtering stages. The radiometric resolution depends mainly on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the number of averaged independent samples (N). Furthermore, the correlation of the measurement samples in a resolution cell is computed to assess the independence assumption. The metric used to quantify the radiometric accuracy in scatterometry is called Kp which is the relative standard deviation. A comparison of Kp parameter extracted from the nominal products of the two missions confirms the expected performance based on the SNR, N and correlation analysis.

Elyouncha, Anis; Neyt, Xavier

2014-10-01

277

Temporal decrease of the PARASOL radiometric sensitivity: in-flight characterization of the multi-angular aspect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PARASOL, launched in December 2004, and after a 5 years mission inside the so-called A-train atmospheric orbital observatory together with Aqua, Aura, Calipso, and Cloudsat, is now flying on a slightly lower altitude and will continue its observation for several months. Evolution with time of the sensor's behaviour is a natural process. A decrease of the radiometric sensitivity has been detected an corrected. Because there is no on-board calibration device, this correction was based on an innovative technique developed using deep convective clouds and their remarkable spectral properties. This operational method has been previously published (Fougnie and Bach, 2007). This evolution, larger for shorter wavelengths, reaches nearly 10% for band 490, and 2% for band 865 after 5 years of mission. This estimation was established for "nadir/zenith" geometrical conditions. This means that it represents the evolution of the central part of the camera's field of view. We generalize here the method and results to other geometric configurations. It was possible to derive a 2D-mapping of the evolution for all the camera's field of view. This result was validated through other methods using different natural targets. The accuracy of the method is evaluated to a few tenth of percents after 5 years.

Fougnie, Bertrand

2010-09-01

278

Academic Interest Record Date:___________________________  

E-print Network

Academic Interest Record Date:___________________________ Name interests and goals: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What do you feel are your academic strengths and weaknesses

Collins, Gary S.

279

Opportunities to Intercalibrate Radiometric Sensors From International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highly accurate measurements of Earth's thermal infrared and reflected solar radiation are required for detecting and predicting long-term climate change. We consider the concept of using the International Space Station to test instruments and techniques that would eventually be used on a dedicated mission such as the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory. In particular, a quantitative investigation is performed to determine whether it is possible to use measurements obtained with a highly accurate reflected solar radiation spectrometer to calibrate similar, less accurate instruments in other low Earth orbits. Estimates of numbers of samples useful for intercalibration are made with the aid of year-long simulations of orbital motion. We conclude that the International Space Station orbit is ideally suited for the purpose of intercalibration.

Roithmayr, C. M.; Lukashin, C.; Speth, P. W.; Thome, K. J.; Young, D. F.; Wielicki, B. A.

2012-01-01

280

Principles of infrared measurements and review of instrumentation techniques for thermoelastic stress analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a state-of-the-art review of the techniques in the recent development in infrared measurement technology for experimental stress analysis. These techniques are based on the use of radiometric systems to determine by noncontact means the thermoelastic effect in structures and materials subjected to dynamic loading. The recent advent of highly sensitive infrared systems, some of which are capable

J. M. B. Webber

1987-01-01

281

A Low Loss Microstrip Antenna for Radiometric Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and analysis of a series-fed, low-loss, inverted microstrip array antenna, operating at 1.413 GHz is presented. The antenna is composed of two subarrays. Each subarray consists of an equal number of microstrip patches all connected together with microstrip lines. In the first design microstrip array for linear polarization is presented which incorporated a series feeding technique. The next design, which is capable of dual linear polarization (V-polarization and H-polarization), utilizes a corporate feed network for the V-pol and series feed arrangement for the H-pol. The first element of each subarray for H-pol is coaxially fed with a 180 deg phase difference. This approach ensures a symmetric radiation pattern on broadside in H-pol. For the V-pol two feeds are in the same phase on the two subarrays ensuring a broadside beam in V-pol. The designs presented here are simulated using the IE3D code that utilizes the method of moments. Measured results are compared with simulated results and show good agreement.

Wahid, Parveen

2000-01-01

282

Tritium/Helium-3 Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First, the USGS summarizes the use of tritium and helium-3 for dating geologically young groundwater (1). Researchers can find the conditions needed to solve the helium isotope mass balance as well as equations and corrections needed to obtain the age of water. The second website, provided by the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, discusses the presence of tritium and helium isotopes in the oceans (2). Users can find out about the Noble Gas Isotope Lab's research projects including the _Mantle 3He Distribution and Deep Circulation in the Indian Ocean_. Next, the University of Ottawa offers equations for helium and tritium concentrations and decay (3). Visitors can also learn how solubility of noble gases is affected by temperature. Fourth, the University of Waterloo describes the characteristics of the hydrogen radioisotope, tritium (4). The website explains how tritium was discovered through the work of Lord Rutherford, Sir John, Ernest Lawrence, Luis Alvarex, Willard Libby, and others. Next, the University of T'bingen furnishes a pdf file dealing with numerous dating techniques including fission track, radio carbon, and thermoluminescence dating (5). Beginning on page nine, individuals can learn about tritium formation and decay as well as its use in dating ground water. At the sixth website, the USGS describes the characteristics of the stable isotopes of helium (6). Visitors can discover how 3He is used to date geologically young ground water, whereas 4He is used to date older ground water. The seventh website, created by SAHRA (Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas) at the University of Arizona, illustrates the effectiveness of isotope hydrology in "understanding fundamental physical, chemical, biological, and climate forcing processes occurring in a watershed" (7). Along with the discussion of the fundamentals of age dating and sources of isotopes, visitors can learn the advantages to using tritium for water samples collected in the field. Lastly, the Victoria University of Manchester introduces its research using noble gas isotopes to better understand earth systems (8). Visitors can discover the decay rates of tritium to 3He and the rates of accumulation of 4He in older groundwater as well as many applications of dating water.

283

Original article Vegetative multiplication of date palms from in vitro  

E-print Network

Original article Vegetative multiplication of date palms from in vitro cultured inflorescences 16 March 1998; accepted 24 July 1998) Abstract - Explants from inflorescences of date palms from. The technique offers great promise for vegetative propagation of date palms since several hundred plants could

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Accelerator radiocarbon dating of evidence for prehistoric horticulture in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of direct detection radiocarbon dating, which uses an accelerator as part of a highly selective mass spectrometer, it is now possible to determine the age of milligram samples of organic materials1-5. One application of accelerator dating is in evaluating scanty, sometimes controversial evidence for early horticulture throughout the world. We have now used the technique to date

Nicholas Conard; David L. Asch; Nancy B. Asch; David Elmore; Harry Gove; Meyer Rubin; James A. Brown; Michael D. Wiant; Kenneth B. Farnsworth; Thomas G. Cook

1984-01-01

285

From Romance to Rocket Science: Speed Dating in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the first comprehensive review of speed dating in the tertiary sector. While speed dating has its origins as a networking technique to connect singles, it has only more recently made its way into the academy. Since 2005 universities world-wide have begun to adopt speed dating protocols as a tool for building research culture. An

Muurlink, Olav; Poyatos Matas, Cristina

2011-01-01

286

Name: _____________________________________ Date: __________ Address: ___________________________________  

E-print Network

_________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ The Sports Complex is not a private health club. Facilities are available when not scheduled for classes: _________ Check Number: ________ Cash Receipt: ________ Date: ________ By: ______ STONY BROOK UNIVERSITY SPORTS

Homes, Christopher C.

287

The radiometric performance of FY-3A/B MERSI reflective solar bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) is a keystone instrument onboard Fengyun-3 (FY-3), the second generation of polar-orbiting meteorological satellites in China. The first unit still in operation is FY-3A which was launched on May 27, 2008 in a sun-synchronous morning orbit with a local equator-crossing time of 10:30 AM in descending node. The second unit still in operation is FY-3B which was launched on November 5, 2010, in an afternoon orbit with an equator-crossing time of 1:30 PM in ascending node. FY-3 MERSI provides global coverage on top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances used for a broad range of scientific studies of the Earth's system. Nineteen of the 20 MERSI spectral bands are reflective solar bands (RSBs) from 412 NM to 2130 nm, which cannot be absolutely calibrated onboard. The long-term on-orbit response changes of FY-3A/B MERSI are relatively large at visible bands. A multisite calibration tracking method has been developed to monitor the RSB radiometric response variation, revealing that the overall degradation for 412 nm of FY-3A MERSI is about 43% until June 2014. A daily calibration updating model is developed to recalibrate FY-3A/B MERSI, and the data quality is monitored using SNO targets against Aqua MODIS. This paper demonstrates the radiometric performance of FY-3A/B MERSI RSBs after recalibration accounting for the temporal variation of radiometric response. The recalibrated MERSI shows good agreement with MODIS. For FY-3B MERSI band 1 (470nm), the overall percentage difference (Mean+/-Std) is within 4%.

Sun, Ling; Xu, Na; Hu, Xiuqing; Rong, Zhiguo; Yang, Zhongdong; Lu, Naimeng

2014-11-01

288

Ground-based microwave radiometric remote sensing of the tropical atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

A partially developed 9-channel ground-based microwave radiometer for the Department of Meteorology at Penn State was completed and tested. Complementary units were added, corrections to both hardware and software were made, and system software was corrected and upgraded. Measurements from this radiometer were used to infer tropospheric temperature, water vapor and cloud liquid water. The various weighting functions at each of the 9 channels were calculated and analyzed to estimate the sensitivities of the brightness temperature to the desired atmospheric variables. The mathematical inversion problem, in a linear form, was viewed in terms of the theory of linear algebra. Several methods for solving the inversion problem were reviewed. Radiometric observations were conducted during the 1990 Tropical Cyclone Motion Experiment. The radiometer was installed on the island of Saipan in a tropical region. The radiometer was calibrated using tipping curve and radiosonde data as well as measurements of the radiation from a blackbody absorber. A linear statistical method was applied for the data inversion. The inversion coefficients in the equation were obtained using a large number of radiosonde profiles from Guam and a radiative transfer model. Retrievals were compared with those from local, Saipan, radiosonde measurements. Water vapor profiles, integrated water vapor, and integrated liquid water were retrieved successfully. For temperature profile retrievals, however, the radiometric measurements with experimental noises added no more profile information to the inversion than that they were determined mainly by the surface pressure measurements. A method was developed to derive the integrated water vapor and liquid water from combined radiometer and ceilometer measurements. Significant improvement on radiometric measurements of the integrated liquid water can be gained with this method.

Han, Yong.

1992-01-01

289

A novel solution for car traffic control based on radiometric microwave devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The significant problem of traffic in big cities, connected with huge and building up quantity of automobile cars, demands for novel strategies, based on nonconventional solutions, in order to improve system traffic control, especially at crossroads. As well known, the usual solution is based on the time relay, which requires the installation of a fixed traffic interval (signal light switching) at a crossroad; this solution is low cost, but does not account for the actual traffic conditions. Therefore, in the recent years, attention is towards to new designs, where the monitoring of the and control of traffic is carried out by using various methods including, optical, the infrared, magnetic, radar tracking, acoustical ones. In this work, we discuss the deployment of high sensitivity radiometric systems and radiometers(sensor) in the microwave range [1, 2]. In fact, the radiometer as "sensor" can provide an always updated information about the car traffic in any weather condition and in absence or low visibility conditions. In fact, the radiometric sensor detects the cars thanks to the different behavior of the car roofs which reflect the cold sky whereas the road asphalt is visible as warm object (at around outside temperature). [1] A. G. Denisov, V. P. Gorishnyak, S. E. Kuzmin et al., "Some experiments concerning resolution of 32 sensors passive 8mm wave imaging system," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (ISSTT '09), Charlottesville, Va, USA, April 2009. [2] F. Soldovieri, A. Natale, V. Gorishnyak, A. Pavluchenko, A. Denisov, and L. Chen, "Radiometric Imaging for Monitoring and Surveillance Issues," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2013, Article ID 272561, 8 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/272561.

Soldovieri, Francesco; Denisov, Alexander; Speziale, Victor

2014-05-01

290

Evaluation of the AIRS and CrIS relative radiometric calibration under cloudy conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The validation of the radiometric calibration of virtually all infrared radiometers has previously been carried out under carefully selected, generally spatially uniform conditions, with the assumption that the radiometric accuracy of the data may be dependent on scene brightness temperature, but is independent of other scene unique conditions, such as scene spatial uniformity. The availability of AIRS and CrIS observations from polar orbits with the identical ascending node presents an opportunity to evaluate the validity of this assumption. For each day between May 2012 and January 2014 we collected 22,000 Random Nadir Spectra (RNS). We then analyzed the time series of the daily differences between AIRS and CrIS Probability Density Function in the 900 cm-1 atmospheric window channel. Under polar conditions the PDF differences between AIRS and CrIS are typically less than 50 mK for the 10%tile, the mean and the 90%tiles values of the PDF. Under area representative global conditions day and night CrIS is about 0.2K colder than AIRS at the 10%tile and mean values. These differences are well within the limits of the instrument requirements specification. However, the difference between AIRS and CrIS have a complicated zonal distribution, particular for the tropical zone. For day tropical land CrIS is 0.3 K warmer in the mean, 1K warmer in the 10%tile value (cold tails of the PDF) than AIRS. The reasons for these differences are still under investigation. A number of modifications to the CrIS radiometric calibration algorithms have been proposed.

Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan M.

2014-09-01

291

Use of 4-D atmospheric models in the simulation of radiometric measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Atmospheric moisture data contained in the Global 4-D Atmospheric Models developed in previous studies were analyzed to establish regional differences. The regional values of precipitable water along latitudinal belts were compared with values derived from the corresponding atmospheric models defined in the U.S Standard Atmosphere Supplement. The effects of the differences between the 4-D Models and the Standard Atmosphere Models on radiometric computations in the infrared window and water vapor absorption band regions were evaluated using a standard computation model of radiation transfer through a cloudless atmosphere. The significance of these differences in simulation is discussed.

Chang, D. T.; Fowler, M. G.

1973-01-01

292

Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress during the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan-ERIM's and 5 image data quality assessment program for the thematic mapper is described. Analyses of LANDSAT 5 TM radiometric characteristics were performed. Effects which had earlier been found in LANDSAT 4 TM data were found to be present in LANDSAT 5 data as well, including: (1) scan direction related signal droop; (2) scan correlated level shifts; and (3) low frequency coherent noise. Coincident LANDSAT 4 and 5 raw TM data were analyzed, and band by band relationships between the two sensors were derived. Earlier efforts which developed an information theoretic measure of multispectral information content were continued, comparing TM and MSS information content.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D.

1984-01-01

293

The effect of spatial, spectral and radiometric factors on classification accuracy using thematic mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was acquired over central California in August, 1983 and used to simulate Thematic Mapper data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field center pixels) showed better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.

Wrigley, R. C.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Card, D.

1984-01-01

294

An update on the status and performance of the Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM) has been operating on Cerro Tololo for over two years looking for clouds in the 10 to 12 micron IR band. Every 90 seconds each night RASICAM collects an integrated image of sky conditions and reports them to the Blanco telescope control system (TCS) to be shared with other instruments. We report on the RASICAM design, calibration and performance of the system. Additionally, correlation with conditions as observed in the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) will be presented.

Reil, Kevin; Lewis, Peter; Schindler, Rafe; Zhang, Zhang

2014-08-01

295

The effect of spatial, spectral and radiometric factors on classification accuracy using Thematic Mapper data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was used to simulate TM data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field-center pixels) show better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.

Wrigley, R. C.; Acevedo, W.; Alexander, D.; Buis, J.; Card, D.

1984-01-01

296

The Future Spaceborne Hyperspectral Imager Enmap: its In-Flight Radiometric and Geometric Calibration Concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German Aerospace Center DLR - namely the Earth Observation Center EOC and the German Space Operations Center GSOC - is responsible for the establishment of the ground segment of the future German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program). The Earth Observation Center has long lasting experiences with air- and spaceborne acquisition, processing, and analysis of hyperspectral image data. In the first part of this paper, an overview of the radiometric in-flight calibration concept including dark value measurements, deep space measurements, internal lamps measurements and sun measurements is presented. Complemented by pre-launch calibration and characterization these analyses will deliver a detailed and quantitative assessment of possible changes of spectral and radiometric characteristics of the hyperspectral instrument, e.g. due to degradation of single elements. A geometric accuracy of 100 m, which will be improved to 30 m with respect to a used reference image, if it exists, will be achieved by ground processing. Therfore, and for the required co-registration accuracy between SWIR and VNIR channels, additional to the radiometric calibration, also a geometric calibration is necessary. In the second part of this paper, the concept of the geometric calibration is presented in detail. The geometric processing of EnMAP scenes will be based on laboratory calibration results. During repeated passes over selected calibration areas images will be acquired. The update of geometric camera model parameters will be done by an adjustment using ground control points, which will be extracted by automatic image matching. In the adjustment, the improvements of the attitude angles (boresight angles), the improvements of the interior orientation (view vector) and the improvements of the position data are estimated. In this paper, the improvement of the boresight angles is presented in detail as an example. The other values and combinations follow the same rules. The geometric calibration will mainly be executed during the commissioning phase, later in the mission it is only executed if required, i.e. if the geometric accuracy of the produced images is close to or exceeds the requirements of 100 m or 30 m respectively, whereas the radiometric calibration will be executed periodically during the mission with a higher frequency during commissioning phase.

Schneider, M.; Mller, R.; Krawzcyk, H.; Bachmann, M.; Storch, T.; Mogulsky, V.; Hofer, S.

2012-07-01

297

Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress under the LANDSAT-4 and 5 Image Data Quality Assessment program for the Thematic Mapper is described. An initial screening of LANDSAT-5 data is performed. Tools are developed to allow access to TIPS-format data. Analysis of scan direction related signal droop is resumed with detailed analysis of nighttime data. A new mathematical model is developed to describe the effect. Coherent noise of a lower frequency than previously reported is discovered and analyzed. Coincident LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS data are analyzed to improve understanding of radiometric relationships between similar wavebands in the two sensors.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D.

1984-01-01

298

Radiometric calibration of SPOT 2 HRV - A comparison of three methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three methods for determining an absolute radiometric calibration of a spacecraft optical sensor are compared. They are the well-known reflectance-based and radiance-based methods and a new method based on measurements of the ratio of diffuse-to-global irradiance at the ground. The latter will be described in detail and the comparison of the three approaches will be made with reference to the SPOT-2 HRV cameras for a field campaign 1990-06-19 through 1990-06-24 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico.

Biggar, Stuart F.; Dinguirard, Magdeleine C.; Gellman, David I.; Henry, Patrice; Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. S.; Slater, Philip N.

1991-01-01

299

Evaluation of spatial, radiometric and spectral Thematic Mapper performance for coastal studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 31 March 1983, the University of Delaware's Center for Remote Sensing initiated a study to evaluate the spatial, radiometric and spectral performance of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper for coastal and estuarine studies. The investigation was supported by Contract NAS5-27580 from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The research was divided into three major subprojects: (1) a comparison of LANDSAT TM to MSS imagery for detecting submerged aquatic vegetation in Chesapeake Bay; (2) remote sensing of submerged aquatic vegetation - a radiative transfer approach; and (3) remote sensing of coastal wetland biomass using Thematic Mapper wavebands.

Klemas, V.; Ackleson, S. G.; Hardisky, M. A.

1985-01-01

300

Determination of the in-flight spectral and radiometric characteristics of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AVIRIS is a science research imaging spectrometer that measures radiance in 224 channels between 400 to 2450 nm in the electromagnetic spectrum. To determine the inflight spectral and radiometric characteristics of AVIRIS a validation and calibration experiment was performed. Five data sets were acquired over a calibration site on the homogeneous playa of Rogers Dry Lake, California, U.S. Surface reflectance, atmospheric optical depths, and atmospheric water vapor measurements were acquired concurrently with the overflights. These in situ measurements were used to constrain the LOWTRAN 7 radiative transfer code to predict the total spectral radiance incident at the AVIRIS aperture. These predicted radiances and the AVIRIS measured radiances were analyzed to validate the inflight characteristics. Inflight spectral channel positions and response functions over the AVIRIS spectral range were derived. Radiometric calibration coefficients were calculated for each channel as well as radiometric accuracy, intraflight stability, and noise equivalent delta radiance.

Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.; Carrere, Veronique; Bruegge, Carol J.; Margolis, Jack S.; Rast, Michael; Hoover, Gordon

1991-01-01

301

Not only Chauvet: dating Aurignacian rock art in Altxerri B Cave (northern Spain).  

PubMed

The discovery and first dates of the paintings in Grotte Chauvet provoked a new debate on the origin and characteristics of the first figurative Palaeolithic art. Since then, other art ensembles in France and Italy (Aldne, Fumane, Arcy-sur-Cure and Castanet) have enlarged our knowledge of graphic activity in the early Upper Palaeolithic. This paper presents a chronological assessment of the Palaeolithic parietal ensemble in Altxerri B (northern Spain). When the study began in 2011, one of our main objectives was to determine the age of this pictorial phase in the cave. Archaeological, geological and stylistic evidence, together with radiometric dates, suggest an Aurignacian chronology for this art. The ensemble in Altxerri B can therefore be added to the small but growing number of sites dated in this period, corroborating the hypothesis of more complex and varied figurative art than had been supposed in the early Upper Palaeolithic. PMID:24012252

Gonzlez-Sainz, C; Ruiz-Redondo, A; Garate-Maidagan, D; Iriarte-Avils, E

2013-10-01

302

Structure and dating errors in the geologic time scale and periodicity in mass extinctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structure in the geologic time scale reflects a partly paleontological origin. As a result, ages of Cenozoic and Mesozoic stage boundaries exhibit a weak 28-Myr periodicity that is similar to the strong 26-Myr periodicity detected in mass extinctions of marine life by Raup and Sepkoski. Radiometric dating errors in the geologic time scale, to which the mass extinctions are stratigraphically tied, do not necessarily lessen the likelihood of a significant periodicity in mass extinctions, but do spread the acceptable values of the period over the range 25-27 Myr for the Harland et al. time scale or 25-30 Myr for the DNAG time scale. If the Odin time scale is adopted, acceptable periods fall between 24 and 33 Myr, but are not robust against dating errors. Some indirect evidence from independently-dated flood-basalt volcanic horizons tends to favor the Odin time scale.

Stothers, Richard B.

1989-01-01

303

An Empirical Approach to Ocean Color Data: Reducing Bias and the Need for Post-Launch Radiometric Re-Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new empirical approach is developed for ocean color remote sensing. Called the Empirical Satellite Radiance-In situ Data (ESRID) algorithm, the approach uses relationships between satellite water-leaving radiances and in situ data after full processing, i.e., at Level-3, to improve estimates of surface variables while relaxing requirements on post-launch radiometric re-calibration. The approach is evaluated using SeaWiFS chlorophyll, which is the longest time series of the most widely used ocean color geophysical product. The results suggest that ESRID 1) drastically reduces the bias of ocean chlorophyll, most impressively in coastal regions, 2) modestly improves the uncertainty, and 3) reduces the sensitivity of global annual median chlorophyll to changes in radiometric re-calibration. Simulated calibration errors of 1% or less produce small changes in global median chlorophyll (less than 2.7%). In contrast, the standard NASA algorithm set is highly sensitive to radiometric calibration: similar 1% calibration errors produce changes in global median chlorophyll up to nearly 25%. We show that 0.1% radiometric calibration error (about 1% in water-leaving radiance) is needed to prevent radiometric calibration errors from changing global annual median chlorophyll more than the maximum interannual variability observed in the SeaWiFS 9-year record (+/- 3%), using the standard method. This is much more stringent than the goal for SeaWiFS of 5% uncertainty for water leaving radiance. The results suggest ocean color programs might consider less emphasis of expensive efforts to improve post-launch radiometric re-calibration in favor of increased efforts to characterize in situ observations of ocean surface geophysical products. Although the results here are focused on chlorophyll, in principle the approach described by ESRID can be applied to any surface variable potentially observable by visible remote sensing.

Gregg, Watson W.; Casey, Nancy W.; O'Reilly, John E.; Esaias, Wayne E.

2009-01-01

304

A preliminary evaluation of LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper data for their geometric and radiometric accuracies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some LANDSAT thematic mapper data collected over the eastern United States were analyzed for their whole scene geometric accuracy, band to band registration and radiometric accuracy. Band ratio images were created for a part of one scene in order to assess the capability of mapping geologic units with contrasting spectral properties. Systematic errors were found in the geometric accuracy of whole scenes, part of which were attributable to the film writing device used to record the images to film. Band to band registration showed that bands 1 through 4 were registered to within one pixel. Likewise, bands 5 and 7 also were registered to within one pixel. However, bands 5 and 7 were misregistered with bands 1 through 4 by 1 to 2 pixels. Band 6 was misregistered by 4 pixels to bands 1 through 4. Radiometric analysis indicated two kinds of banding, a modulo-16 stripping and an alternate light dark group of 16 scanlines. A color ratio composite image consisting of TM band ratios 3/4, 5/2, and 5/7 showed limonitic clay rich soils, limonitic clay poor soils, and nonlimonitic materials as distinctly different colors on the image.

Podwysocki, M. H.; Bender, L. U.; Falcone, N.; Jones, O. D.

1983-01-01

305

Radiometric probe design for the measurement of heat flux within a solid rocket motor nozzle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvements to solid rocket motor (SRM) nozzle designs and material performance is based on the ability to instrument motors during test firings to understand the internal combustion processes and the response of nozzle components to the severe heating environment. Measuring the desired parameters is very difficult because the environment inside of an SRM is extremely severe. Instrumentation can be quickly destroyed if exposed to the internal rocket motor environment. An optical method is under development to quantify the heating of the internal nozzle surface. A radiometric probe designed for measuring the thermal response and material surface recession within a nozzle while simultaneously confining the combustion products has been devised and demonstrated. As part of the probe design, optical fibers lead to calibrated detectors that measure the interior nozzle thermal response. This two color radiometric measurement can be used for a direct determination of the total heat flux impinging on interior nozzle surfaces. This measurement has been demonstrated using a high power CO2 laser to simulate SRM nozzle heating conditions on carbon phenolic and graphite phenolic materials.

Goldey, Charles L.; Laughlin, William T.; Popper, Leslie A.

1996-11-01

306

The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the first SIMBIOS (Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies) Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1). The purpose of the SIMRIC-1 is to ensure a common radiometric scale of the calibration facilities that are engaged in calibrating in situ radiometers used for ocean color related research and to document the calibration procedures and protocols. SIMBIOS staff visited the seven participating laboratories for at least two days each. The SeaWiFS Transfer Radiometer SXR-II measured the calibration radiances produced in the laboratories. The measured radiances were compared with the radiances expected by the laboratories. Typically, the measured radiances were higher than the expected radiances by 0 to 2%. This level of agreement is satisfactory. Several issues were identified, where the calibration protocols need to be improved, especially the reflectance calibration of the reference plaques and the distance correction when using the irradiance standards at distances greater than the 50 cm. The responsivity of the SXR-II changed between 0.3% (channel 6) and 1.6% (channel 2) from December 2000 to December 2001. Monitoring the SXR-II with a portable light source showed a linear drift of the calibration, except for channel 1, where a 2% drop occurred in summer.

Meister, Gerhard; Abel, Peter; McClain, Charles; Barnes, Robert; Fargion, Giulietta; Cooper, John; Davis, Curtiss; Korwan, Daniel; Godin, Mike; Maffione, Robert

2002-01-01

307

A multi-frequency radiometric measurement of soil moisture content over bare and vegetated fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A USDA Beltsville Agricultural Research Center site was used for an experiment in which soil moisture remote sensing over bare, grass, and alfalfa fields was conducted over a three-month period using 0.6 GHz, 1.4 GHz, and 10.6 GHz Dicke-type microwave radiometers mounted on mobile towers. Ground truth soil moisture content and ambient air and sil temperatures were obtained concurrently with the radiometric measurements. Biomass of the vegetation cover was sampled about once a week. Soil density for each of the three fields was measured several times during the course of the experiment. Results of the radiometric masurements confirm the frequency dependence of moisture sensing sensitivity reduction reported earlier. Observations over the bare, wet field show that the measured brightness temperature is lowest at 5.0 GHz and highest of 0.6 GHz frequency, a result contrary to expectation based on the estimated dielectric permittivity of soil water mixtures and current radiative transfer model in that frequency range.

Wang, J. R.; Schmugge, T. J.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Gould, W. I.; Glazar, W. S.; Fuchs, J. E. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

308

Real-Time EDL Navigation Performance Using Spacecraft to Spacecraft Radiometric Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A two-year task sponsored by NASA's Mars Technology Program's Advanced Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) work area includes investigation of improvements to EDL navigation by processing spacecraft-to-spacecraft radiometric data. Spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will take advantage of the UHF link between two spacecraft (i.e. to an orbiter from an approaching lander for EDL telemetry relay) to build radiometric data, specifically the velocity between the two spacecraft along the radio beam, that are processed to determine position and velocity in real time. The improved onboard state knowledge provided by spacecraft-to-spacecraft navigation will improve the performance of entry guidance by providing a more accurate state estimate and ultimately reduce the landed position error. A previous paper documented the progress of the first year of this task, including the spacecraft definitions, selection and documentation of the required algorithms and analysis results used to define the algorithm set. The final year of this task is reported here. Topics include modifications to the previously selected algorithm set for implementation, and performance of the implemented algorithms in a stand-alone filter, on an emulator of the target processor and finally on a breadboard processing unit.

Burkhart, P. Daniel; Ely, Todd; Duncan, Courtney; Lightsey, Glenn; Campbell, Todd; Mogensen, Andy

2006-01-01

309

Re-evaluation of pulsed photothermal radiometric profiling in samples with spectrally varied infrared absorption coefficient.  

PubMed

Spectral variation of the sample absorption coefficient in mid-infrared (muIR) demands caution in photothermal radiometric measurements, because a constant muIR is regularly assumed in inverse analysis of the acquired signals. Adverse effects of such approximation were recently demonstrated in numerical simulations of pulsed photothermal radiometric (PPTR) temperature profiling in soft biological tissues, utilizing a general-purpose optimization code in the reconstruction process. We present here an original reconstruction code, which combines a conjugate gradient minimization algorithm with non-negativity constraint to the sought temperature vector. For the same test examples as in the former report (hyper-Gaussian temperature profiles, InSb detector with 3-5 microm acquisition band, signal-to-noise ratio SNR=300) we obtain markedly improved reconstruction results, both when using a constant value mueff and when the spectral variation muIR(lambda) is accounted for in the analysis. By comparing the results, we find that the former approach introduces observable artefacts, especially in the superficial part of the profile (z<100 microm). However, the artefacts are much less severe than previously reported and are almost absent in the case of a deeper, single-lobed test profile. We demonstrate that the observed artefacts do not result from sub-optimal selection of mueff, and that they vary with specific realizations of white noise added to the simulated signals. The same holds also for a two-lobed test profile. PMID:17264372

Majaron, Boris; Milanic, Matija

2007-02-21

310

Initial On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration of the Suomi NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The on-orbit radiometric response calibration of the VISible/Near InfraRed (VISNIR) and the Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR) bands of the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite is carried out through a Solar Diffuser (SD). The transmittance of the SD screen and the SD's Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) are measured before launch and tabulated, allowing the VIIRS sensor aperture spectral radiance to be accurately determined. The radiometric response of a detector is described by a quadratic polynomial of the detector?s digital number (dn). The coefficients were determined before launch. Once on orbit, the coefficients are assumed to change by a common factor: the F-factor. The radiance scattered from the SD allows the determination of the F-factor. In this Proceeding, we describe the methodology and the associated algorithms in the determination of the F-factors and discuss the results.

Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Fulbright, Jon; Lee, Shihyan; McIntire, Jeff; Chiang, Vincent; Xiong, Jack

2012-01-01

311

[In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of UAV hyperspectral camera and its validation analysis].  

PubMed

With the data in Urad Front Banner, Inner Mongolia on November 14th, 2010, hyper-spectral camera on UAV was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. During the in-flight absolute radiometric calibration, 6 hyper-spectral radiometric gray-scale targets were arranged in the validation field. These targets' reflectances are 4.5%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% separately. To validate the calibration result, four extra hyper-spectral targets with sharp-edge spectrum were arranged to simulate the reflection and absorption peaks in natural objectives. With these peaks, the apparent radiance calculated by radiation transfer model and that calculated through calibration coefficients are much different. The result shows that in the first 15 bands (blue bands), errors are somewhat huge due to the noises of equipment. In the rest bands with quite even spectrum, the errors are small, most of which are less than 10%. For those bands with sharp changes in spectral curves, the errors are quite considerable, varying from 10% to 25%. PMID:22512184

Gou, Zhi-yang; Yan, Lei; Chen, Wei; Jing, Xin; Yin, Zhong-yi; Duan, Yi-ni

2012-02-01

312

Effect of osmotic stabilizers on radiometric detection of cell wall-damaged bacteria.  

PubMed Central

The effect of osmotic stabilizers on the 14CO2-dependent radiometric detection of cell wall-damaged Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied in BACTEC 14C-labeled blood culture medium. The organisms were previously exposed to cefamandole or carbenicillin at 63 to 80% of the minimum inhibitory concentrations. The addition of 10% sucrose, 2.2% glycerol, and 2.2% ethylene glycol to the medium failed to reduce the time required for detection and diminished the amounts of 14CO2 released by the growing cultures. Viable counts made after 4 to 7 h of incubation showed a decreased culture density in osmotically stabilized media as compared with saline or Ficoll controls. Sucrose and Ficoll had little or no inhibitory effect on 14CO2 evolution by P. aeruginosa. The osmotic stabilizers tested did not seem to improve the survival of the bacterial inoculum and failed to increase the sensitivity of the radiometric system of detection. PMID:120874

Martinez, O V; Malinin, T I

1979-01-01

313

Thermal Infrared Radiometric Calibration of the Entire Landsat 4, 5, and 7 Archive (1982-2010)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat's continuing record of the thermal state of the earth's surface represents the only long term (1982 to the present) global record with spatial scales appropriate for human scale studies (i.e., tens of meters). Temperature drives many of the physical and biological processes that impact the global and local environment. As our knowledge of, and interest in, the role of temperature on these processes have grown, the value of Landsat data to monitor trends and process has also grown. The value of the Landsat thermal data archive will continue to grow as we develop more effective ways to study the long term processes and trends affecting the planet. However, in order to take proper advantage of the thermal data, we need to be able to convert the data to surface temperatures. A critical step in this process is to have the entire archive completely and consistently calibrated into absolute radiance so that it can be atmospherically compensated to surface leaving radiance and then to surface radiometric temperature. This paper addresses the methods and procedures that have been used to perform the radiometric calibration of the earliest sizable thermal data set in the archive (Landsat 4 data). The completion of this effort along with the updated calibration of the earlier (1985 1999) Landsat 5 data, also reported here, concludes a comprehensive calibration of the Landsat thermal archive of data from 1982 to the present

Schott, John R.; Hook, Simon J.; Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Miller, Jonathan; Padula, Francis P.; Raqueno, Nina G.

2012-01-01

314

Recovery, compilation, back-calibration, and standardization of existing radiometric survey data: Namibia, southern Africa  

SciTech Connect

During 1992 and 1993 select portions of existing government airborne radiometric data covering almost 91,000 km{sup 2} of central Namibia were compiled into a master digital data set. This compilation involved the interactive, semi-automated digital recovery of approximately 42,000 line kilometers of original analogue chart traces. A further 49,000 line kilometers of digital data were also reprocessed. Available data represented ten (10) different surveys collected over twelve (12) years with a variety of spectrometers, spectral windows and survey parameters. Preliminary digital grids of each radioelement were compiled, verified and used to select representative sites for ground measurements within each survey block. Results obtained from the ground program were used to back-calibrate the airborne data, standardize the various surveys and convert airborne measurements into equivalent ground concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium. The quality and consistency of final map products conclusively demonstrates that existing analogue radiometric data, in various states of preservation, can be successfully recovered, combined with ``modern`` digital data, and utilized to assist exploration, mapping and environmental studies.

Duffy, A.; Urquhart, W.E.S. [High-Sense Geophysics Ltd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Eberle, D.G. [Federal Inst. for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Windhoek (Namibia); Grasty, R.L. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Hutchins, D.G. [Geological Survey of Namibia, Windhoek (Namibia)

1994-12-31

315

Radiometric calibration of the telescope and ultraviolet spectrometer SUMER on SOHO.  

PubMed

The prelaunch spectral-sensitivity calibration of the solar spectrometer SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation) is described. SUMER is part of the payload of the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), which begins its scientific mission in 1996. The instrument consists of a telescope and a spectrometer capable of taking spatially and spectrally highly resolved images of the Sun in a spectral range from 50 to 161 nm. The pointing capabilities, the dynamic range, and the sensitivity of the instrument allow measurements both on the solar disk and above the limb as great as two solar radii. To determine plasma temperatures and densities in the solar atmosphere, the instrument needs an absolute spectral-sensitivity calibration. Here we describe the prelaunch calibration of the full instrument, which utilizes a radiometric transfer-standard source. The transfer standard was based on a high-current hollow-cathode discharge source. It had been calibrated in the laboratory for vacuum UV radiometry of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt by use of the calculable spectral photon flux of the Berlin electron storage ring for synchrotron radiation (BESSY)-a primary radiometric source standard. PMID:21102947

Hollandt, J; Schhle, U; Paustian, W; Curdt, W; Khne, M; Wende, B; Wilhelm, K

1996-09-01

316

Determination of U, Pu and Am isotopes in Irish Sea sediment by a combination of AMS and radiometric methods.  

PubMed

Samples from a marine sediment core from the Irish Sea (54.416 N, 3.563 W) were analyzed for the isotopic composition of uranium, plutonium and americium by a combination of radiometric methods and AMS. The radiochemical procedure consisted of a Pu separation step by anion exchange, subsequent U separation by extraction chromatography using UTEVA and finally Am separation with TRU Resin. Additionally to radiometric determination of these isotopes by alpha spectrometry, the separated samples were also used for the determination of (236)U/(238)U and plutonium isotope ratios by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the VERA facility. PMID:21316820

Srncik, M; Hrnecek, E; Steier, P; Wallner, G

2011-04-01

317

Field determination of optimal dates for the discrimination of invasive wetland plant species using derivative spectral analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mapping invasive plant species in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems helps to understand the causes of their progression, manage some of their negative consequences, and control them. In recent years, a variety of new remote-sensing techniques, like Derivative Spectral Analysis (DSA) of hyperspectral data, have been developed to facilitate this mapping. A number of questions related to these techniques remain to be addressed. This article attempts to answer one of these questions: Is the application of DSA optimal at certain times of the year? Field radiometric data gathered weekly during the summer of 1999 at selected field sites in upstate New York, populated with purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.), common reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.)) and cattail (Typha L.) are analyzed using DSA to differentiate among plant community types. First, second and higher-order derivatives of the reflectance spectra of nine field plots, varying in plant composition, are calculated and analyzed in detail to identify spectral ranges in which one or more community types have distinguishing features. On the basis of the occurrence and extent of these spectral ranges, experimental observations suggest that a satisfactory differentiation among community types was feasible on 30 August, when plants experienced characteristic phenological changes (transition from flowers to seed heads). Generally, dates in August appear optimal from the point of view of species differentiability and could be selected for image acquisitions. This observation, as well as the methodology adopted in this article, should provide a firm basis for the acquisition of hyperspectral imagery and for mapping the targeted species over a broad range of spatial scales. ?? 2005 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

Laba, M.; Tsai, F.; Ogurcak, D.; Smith, S.; Richmond, M.E.

2005-01-01

318

StarDate Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This on-line version of StarDate astronomy magazine provides current viewing information, a sky almanac, Moon phase calculator, sunrise and sunset calculator, planet viewing information, and meteor shower updates. News and Features contains information and details on the latest findings and research in the field of astronomy. Resources contains an image gallery, an astroglossary, and solar system, constellation, and star guides. The Radio section contains past radio programs by date, or searchable by subject. Also available are an archive database of past StarDate articles, and a teacher's section with ideas for teaching astronomy concepts in the classroom.

319

Gift Reply Form Date _________________________  

E-print Network

Gift Reply Form Date _________________________ Name/State/Zip ____________________________________________________ Phone _____________________ E-mail ______________________________ My Gift All Gifts Great and Small Fund: (unrestricted) $__________ Walk of Honor Brick or Paver: A gift of $150 or more qualifies you

Langerhans, Brian

320

Rock Dating Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gallery of online resources is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. The Rock Dating Gallery, part of the Earth: Inside and Out seminar, features illustrations from the Hall of Planet Earth, which has two informative overviews: Dating Rocks with Radioactivity and Telling Time Precisely. Stillwater Gabbro, has two images of this rock from the Stillwater Complex in Montana and a video (with a printable PDF transcript) explaining how it was dated. Stillwater Gabbro: Collecting and Dating, has a Rate of Decay Graph, a Computing the Rate of Decay video (with a printable PDF transcript), and three images: Fieldwork in Montana, Collecting a Sample for the Hall, and Vials of Crushed Rock.

321

Teen Dating Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: School Violence Data & Statistics Risk & Protective Factors Prevention Prevention Tools & ... suicide Additionally, youth who are victims of dating violence in high school are at higher risk for victimization during college. ...

322

Dating the Vinland Map  

ScienceCinema

Scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory, the University of Arizona, and the Smithsonian Institution used carbon-dating technology to determine the age of a controversial parchment that might be the first-ever map of North America.

None

2013-07-17

323

Identifying potentially active volcanoes in the Andes: Radiometric evidence for late Pleistocene-early Holocene eruptions at Volcn Imbabura, Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent eruptions from volcanoes with no previously known historical activity in Chile and Indonesia have raised the importance of the early identification of potentially active centers for the purpose of hazard assessment. Here we bring radiometric evidence ( 14 C, 39Ar- 40Ar) of previously unrecognized but significant magmatic activity at partly eroded Imbabura volcano (Ecuador) in late Pleistocene to early Holocene times, on whose perimeter live more than 300,000 persons. Following an effusive stage from 50 to 30 ka with the emplacement of andesitic lava flows on different flanks of its edifice, the activity became explosive with the generation of andesitic block-and-ash flows on its eastern side, beginning at ~ 35 ka cal BP. Subsequently a flank collapse associated with a volcanic blast occurred on the volcano's SW flank at ~ 30 ka cal BP. The resulting debris avalanche and blast breccias cover an area now heavily populated around San Pablo Lake and its source was later concealed by successive dome building episodes at Huarmi which produced ~ 2.8 km 3 of silicic andesite. Renewed dome activity at the edifice's Taita summit occurred at ~ 17 ka cal BP and continued intermittently into early Holocene times, as indicated by pyroclastic flow deposits overlying a palaeosoil dated at ~ 9 ka cal BP. In summary, this study reveals an eruptive behavior characterized by a low recurrence rate but with quite large eruptions, a pattern which is also observed at other silicic volcanoes of Ecuador's Western Cordillera. It is now imperative to reconsider the origin and source of the many tephra layers catalogued in Holocene lacustrine sediments in the Imbabura area. Tephra and lava volume estimates for Imbabura volcano converted to Dense Rock Equivalent values yield a minimum magmatic output rate of 0.13 km 3/ka in the past 35,000 years, which argues for sustained magma production for this volcano in recent geological times. The Imbabura example thus raises the question of how to improve population preparedness for volcanoes with infrequent eruptions, and how to guide authorities' decisions concerning the development of urban areas and infrastructures near presently inactive but potentially highly dangerous volcanoes.

Le Pennec, J. L.; Ruiz, A. G.; Eissen, J. P.; Hall, M. L.; Fornari, M.

2011-09-01

324

Food Product Dating  

MedlinePLUS

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Food Product Dating / Food Product Dating Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

325

A Traceable Ground to On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration System for the Solar Reflective Wavelength Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the combination of a Mie scattering spectral BSDF and BTDF albedo standard whose calibration is traceable to the NIST SIRCUS Facility or the NIST STARR II Facility. The Space-based Calibration Transfer Spectroradiometer (SCATS) sensor uses a simple, invariant optical configuration and dedicated narrow band spectral channel modules to provide very accurate, polarization-insensitive, stable measurements of earth albedo and lunar disk albedo. Optical degradation effects on calibration stability are eliminated through use of a common optical system for observations of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. The measurements from space would be traceable to SI units through preflight calibrations of radiance and irradiance at NIST's SIRCUS facility and the invariant optical system used in the sensor. Simultaneous measurements are made in multiple spectral channels covering the solar reflective wavelength range of 300 nm to 2.4 microns. The large dynamic range of signals is handled by use of single-element, highly-linear detectors, stable discrete electronic components, and a non imaging optical configuration. Up to 19 spectral modules can be mounted on a single-axis drive to give direct pointing at the Earth and at least once per orbit view of the Sun and Moon. By observing the Sun on every orbit, the most stringent stability requirements of the system are limited to short time periods. The invariant optical system for both radiance and irradiance measurements also give excellent transfer to-orbit SI traceability. Emerging instrumental requirements for remotely sensing tropospheric trace species have led to a rethinking by some of the paradigm for Systeme International d'Unites (SI) traceability of the spectral irradiance and radiance radiometric calibrations to spectral albedo (sr(exp -1)) which is not a SI unit. In the solar reflective wavelength region the spectral albedo calibrations are tied often to either the spectral albedo of a solar diffuser or the Moon. This new type of Mie scattering diffuser (MSD) is capable of withstanding high temperatures, and is more Lambertian than Spectralon(tm). It has the potential of covering the entire solar reflective wavelength region. Laboratory measurements have shown that the specular reflectance component is negligible, and indicate that internal absorption by multiple scattering is small. This MSD, a true volume diffuser, exhibits a high degree of radiometric stability which suggests that measurements at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) could provide a spectral albedo standard. Measurements have been made of its radiometric stability under a simulated space environment of high energy gamma rays, high energy protons, and UV radiation from ambient down to the vacuum ultraviolet H Lyman alpha at 121.6 nm for its eventual use in space as a solar diffuser.

Heath, Donald F.; Georgiev, Georgi

2012-01-01

326

Ground-Based Microwave Radiometric Remote Sensing of the Tropical Atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A partially developed 9-channel ground-based microwave radiometer for the Department of Meteorology at Penn State was completed and tested. Complementary units were added, corrections to both hardware and software were made, and system software was corrected and upgraded. Measurements from this radiometer were used to infer tropospheric temperature, water vapor and cloud liquid water. The various weighting functions at each of the 9 channels were calculated and analyzed to estimate the sensitivities of the brightness temperatures to the desired atmospheric variables. The mathematical inversion problem, in a linear form, was viewed in terms of the theory of linear algebra. Several methods for solving the inversion problem were reviewed. Radiometric observations were conducted during the 1990 Tropical Cyclone Motion Experiment. The radiometer was installed on the island of Saipan in a tropical region. During this experiment, the radiometer was calibrated by using tipping curve and radiosonde data as well as measurements of the radiation from a blackbody absorber. A linear statistical method was first applied for the data inversion. The inversion coefficients in the equation were obtained using a large number of radiosonde profiles from Guam and a radiative transfer model. Retrievals were compared with those from local, Saipan, radiosonde measurements. Water vapor profiles, integrated water vapor, and integrated liquid water were retrieved successfully. For temperature profile retrievals, however, it was shown that the radiometric measurements with experimental noises added no more profile information to the inversion than that which was available from a climatological mean. Although successful retrievals of the geopotential heights were made, it was shown that they were determined mainly by the surface pressure measurements. The reasons why the radiometer did not contribute to the retrievals of temperature profiles and geopotential heights were discussed. A method was developed to derive the integrated water vapor and liquid water from combined radiometer and ceilometer measurements. Under certain assumptions, the cloud absorption coefficients and mean radiating temperature, used in the physical or statistical inversion equation, were determined from the measurements. It was shown that significant improvement on radiometric measurements of the integrated liquid water can be gained with this method.

Han, Yong

327

Survey of radiometric calibration results and methods for visible and near infrared channels of NOAA7, -9, and -11 AVHRRs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiometric calibration methods for NOAA AVHRR reflectance channels are reviewed and calibration results for the NOAA-7, -9, and -11 AVHRRs are summarized. Expressions are provided for the gain values and calibration coefficients of these sensors. Analysis shows that significant errors may result in vegetation index calculations from use of prelaunch calibration values for NOAA-11 AVHRR. The postlaunch calibration methods are

N. Che; J. C. Price

1992-01-01

328

Review Article Radiometric correction of visible and infrared remote sensing data at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews experience in radiometric corrections of satellite and airborne remote sensing data at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) during the period 1972 to 1986. It also describes current research areas and recommends areas of future research where high priority is important for global change monitoring and for the derivation of quantitative information from remotely-sensed data in

F. J. Ahern; R. J. Brown; J. Cihlar; R. Gauthier; J. Murphy; R. A. Neville; P. M. Teillet

1987-01-01

329

SDO EVE ESP Radiometric Calibration and Results Leonid Didkovsky a, Darrell Judgea, Seth Wiemana, Tom Woodsb, Phil Chamberlinb, Andrew  

E-print Network

SDO EVE ESP Radiometric Calibration and Results Leonid Didkovsky a, Darrell Judgea, Seth Wiemana) Extreme ultraviolet Spectro-Photometer (ESP), as a part of the Ex- treme ultraviolet Variability ESP alignment to the SURF beam was achieved through successive scans in X, Y, Pitch and Yaw, using

Didkovsky, Leonid

330

Geometric calibration and radiometric correction of LiDAR data and their impact on the quality of derived products.  

PubMed

LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) systems are capable of providing 3D positional and spectral information (in the utilized spectrum range) of the mapped surface. Due to systematic errors in the system parameters and measurements, LiDAR systems require geometric calibration and radiometric correction of the intensity data in order to maximize the benefit from the collected positional and spectral information. This paper presents a practical approach for the geometric calibration of LiDAR systems and radiometric correction of collected intensity data while investigating their impact on the quality of the derived products. The proposed approach includes the use of a quasi-rigorous geometric calibration and the radar equation for the radiometric correction of intensity data. The proposed quasi-rigorous calibration procedure requires time-tagged point cloud and trajectory position data, which are available to most of the data users. The paper presents a methodology for evaluating the impact of the geometric calibration on the relative and absolute accuracy of the LiDAR point cloud. Furthermore, the impact of the geometric calibration and radiometric correction on land cover classification accuracy is investigated. The feasibility of the proposed methods and their impact on the derived products are demonstrated through experimental results using real data. PMID:22164121

Habib, Ayman F; Kersting, Ana P; Shaker, Ahmed; Yan, Wai-Yeung

2011-01-01

331

High-precision radiometric tracking for planetary approach and encounter in the inner solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The benefits of improved radiometric tracking data have been studied for planetary approach within the inner Solar System using the Mars Rover Sample Return trajectory as a model. It was found that the benefit of improved data to approach and encounter navigation was highly dependent on the a priori uncertainties assumed for several non-estimated parameters, including those for frame-tie, Earth orientation, troposphere delay, and station locations. With these errors at their current levels, navigational performance was found to be insensitive to enhancements in data accuracy. However, when expected improvements in these errors are modeled, performance with current-accuracy data significantly improves, with substantial further improvements possible with enhancements in data accuracy.

Christensen, C. S.; Thurman, S. W.; Davidson, J. M.; Finger, M. H.; Folkner, W. M.

1989-01-01

332

Statistical synthesis of radiometric imaging formation in scanning radiometers with signal weight processing by Kravchenko windows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical optimization of the radiometric images (RMIs) algorithms formation in scanning radiometers with weight correction of the antenna amplitude-phase distribution and synchronous sliding strobing of the received noise-like signal by a function describing the antenna pattern corrected by temporal Kravchenko windows is performed for the first time. The ambiguity function (AF) of the scanning radiometer, which determines the RMI quality, is found. It is established that the AF shape substantially depends on the amplitude field distribution (AFD) in the antenna. It is shown that the use of the AFD in the antenna in the form of weight functions (classic and Kravchenko) makes it possible to correct the AF shape and to increase the RMI quality. A simulation of the RMI formation algorithm is performed. It follows from the analysis of simulation data that the use of the weight Kravchenko functions provides higher accuracy of the RMI restoration compared with classic weight functions.

Volosyuk, V. K.; Kravchenko, V. F.; Pavlikov, V. V.; Pustovoit, V. I.

2014-05-01

333

The absolute radiometric calibration of HJ-1B satellite based on simultaneous ground measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering the aging and radiation recession of satellite remote senors on-orbit, regular in-orbit calibration is essential to updating the calibration parameters and improving the data's quantitative application level. This paper reviews the existing on-orbit radiometric calibration methods, and introduces famous radiation calibration fields around the world. Simultaneous ground measurement was carried out for the calibration of visible-near infrared bands of HJ-1B satellite. A comparison was made between the results of the experiment and the calibration parameters released along with environmental satellite images, which represents desirable validity and applicability. The calibration result determined the sensor recession and aging in in-orbit operation. Finally, reasonable proposals for the quantitative application of satellite data are given.

Wu, Xue; Zhang, Yongsheng; Yu, Ying; Zou, Yu; Dong, Guangjun

2014-05-01

334

Prediction of radio frequency power generation of Neptune's magnetosphere from generalized radiometric Bode's law  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetospheric radio frequency emission power has been shown to vary as a function of both solar wind and planetary values such as magnetic field by Kaiser and Desch (1984). Planetary magnetic fields have been shown to scale with planetary variables such as density and angular momentum by numerous researchers. This paper combines two magnetic scaling laws with the radiometric law to yield 'Bode's'-type laws governing planetary radio emissions. Further analysis allows the reduction of variables to planetary mass and orbital distance. These generalized laws are then used to predict the power otuput of Neptune to be about 1.6 x 10 to the 7th W; with the intensity peaking at about 3 MHz.

Million, M. A.; Goertz, C. K.

1988-01-01

335

Effective infrared absorption coefficient for photothermal radiometric measurements in biological tissues.  

PubMed

Although photothermal radiometric (PTR) measurements commonly employ broad-band signal acquisition to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, all reported studies apply a fixed infrared (IR) absorption coefficient to simplify the involved signal analysis. In samples with large spectral variation of micro(lambda) in mid-IR, which includes most biological tissues, the selection of the effective IR absorption coefficient value (micro(eff)) can strongly affect the accuracy of the result. We present a novel analytical approach for the determination of optimal micro(eff) from spectral properties of the sample and radiation detector. In extensive numerical simulations of pulsed PTR temperature profiling in human skin using three common IR radiation detectors and several acquisition spectral bands, we demonstrate that our approach produces viable values micro(eff). Two previously used analytical estimations perform much worse in the same comparison. PMID:18182701

Majaron, Boris; Milanic, Matija

2008-01-01

336

Radiometric characterization of ultra-bright xenon short-arc discharge lamps for novel applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest generations of ultra-bright Xenon short-arc discharge lamps have prodigious emissions outside the visible spectrum, primarily in the near infrared. Their brightness distributions are spatially and angularly inhomogeneous due to both the pronounced non-uniformities of the plasma arc and the substantial infrared radiation from the hot electrodes. These characteristics are fortuitously favorable for applications in photonic surgery, biomedical diagnostics, high-temperature chemical reactors and furnaces: cases where the full lamp spectrum is utilizable, and the key is reconstituting the spectral power density of the optimal regions of the lamp's plasma at a remote target. The associated optical systems must be tailored to lamp radiometric properties that are not extensively available and invariably are restricted to visible light due to their widespread use in projection systems. We present experimental measurements for the spectral, spatial and angular distributions of 150 W lamps of this genre, and relate to their ramifications for broadband high-flux applications.

Nakar, Doron; Malul, Asher; Feuermann, Daniel; Gordon, Jeffrey M.

2007-09-01

337

Radiometric and Geometric Analysis of Hyperspectral Imagery Acquired from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

SciTech Connect

In the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energys Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).

Ryan C. Hruska; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Nancy F. Glenn

2012-09-01

338

Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the thematic mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The previous characterization of scan-related low-frequency noise was confirmed and extended through analysis of reflective-band data from another nighttime acquisition. Amplitude and phase relationships of the level shifts were determined for each detector in each of free full frames. Analysis of scan-direction-related signal droop effects in nighttime data from the reflective bands was begun with encouraging initial observations. Also, an effort to characterize high-frequency noise in the reflective bands through Fourier analysis of nighttime data was initiated. Recommendations are made relative to the choice of radiometric calibration constants in the thematic mapper image processing system for the routine processing of TM data. Non-linear (piece-wise linear) calibration curves are recommended.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D.

1984-01-01

339

In-flight radiometric calibration of the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A reflectance-based method was used to provide an analysis of the in-flight radiometric performance of AVIRIS. Field spectral reflectance measurements of the surface and extinction measurements of the atmosphere using solar radiation were used as input to atmospheric radiative transfer calculations. Five separate codes were used in the analysis. Four include multiple scattering, and the computed radiances from these for flight conditions were in good agreement. Code-generated radiances were compared with AVIRIS-predicted radiances based on two laboratory calibrations for a uniform highly reflecting natural dry lake target. For one spectrometer, the pre- and post-season calibration factors were found to give identical results, and to be in agreement with the atmospheric models that include multiple scattering. Results for the other spectrometers were widely at variance with the models no matter which calibration factors were used. Potential causes of these discrepancies are discussed.

Conel, James E.; Green, Robert O.; Alley, Ronald E.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Carrere, Veronique; Margolis, Jack S.; Vane, Gregg; Chrien, Thomas G.

1988-01-01

340

In-flight calibration of the spectral and radiometric characteristics of AVIRIS in 1991  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On 7 Mar. 1991, an in-flight calibration experiment was held at the Ivanpah Playa in southeastern California for the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) imaging spectrometer. Five AVIRIS overflights were acquired of a calibration target designated on the Ivanpah Playa surface. At the time of the overflights, the reflectance of the calibration target was measured with a field spectrometer. In addition, the atmospheric optical depths and water vapor abundance were measured from a radiometer station adjacent to the calibration target. These in-situ measurements were used to constrain the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to model the upwelling spectral radiance incident to the sensor aperture during the overflights. Analyses of this modeled radiance in conjunction with the laboratory-calibrated radiance were used to determine the spectral and radiometric calibration of AVIRIS while in flight.

Green, Robert O.; Conel, James E.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Margolis, Jack S.; Carrere, Veronique; Vane, Gregg; Hoover, Gordon

1992-01-01

341

Radiometric Quality of the MODIS Bands at 667 and 678nm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MODIS instruments on Terra and Aqua were designed to allow the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence effects over ocean. The retrieval algorithm is based on the difference between the water-leaving radiances at 667nm and 678nm. The water-leaving radiances at these wavelengths are usually very low relative to the top-of-atmosphere radiances. The high radiometric accuracy needed to retrieve the small fluorescence signal lead to a dual gain design for the 667 and 678nm bands. This paper discusses the benefits obtained from this design choice and provides justification for the use of only one set of gains for global processing of ocean color products. Noise characteristics of the two bands and their related products are compared to other products of bands from 412nm to 2130nm. The impact of polarization on the two bands is discussed. In addition, the impact of stray light on the two bands is compared to other MODIS bands.

Meister, Gerhard; Franz, Bryan A.

2011-01-01

342

Radiometric Quality of the MODIS Bands at 667 and 678nm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MODIS instruments on Terra and Aqua were designed to allow the measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence effects over ocean. The retrieval algorithm is based on the difference between the water-leaving radiances at 667nm and 678nm. The water-leaving radiances at these wavelengths are usually very low relative to the top- of-atmosphere radiances. The high radiometric accuracy needed to retrieve the small fluorescence signal lead to a dual gain design for the 667 and 678nm bands. This paper discusses the benefits obtained from this design choice and provides justification for the use of only one set of gains for global processing of ocean color products. Noise characteristics of the two bands and their related products are compared to other products of bands from 412nm to 2130nm. The impact of polarization on the two bands is discussed. In addition, the impact of stray light on the two bands is compared to other MODIS bands.

Meister, Gerhard; Franz, Bryan A.

2010-01-01

343

Evaluating Radiometric Sensitivity of LandSat 8 Over Coastal-Inland Waters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational Land Imager (OLI) aboard Landsat 8 was launched in February 2013 to continue the Landsat's mission of monitoring earth resources at relatively high spatial resolution. Compared to Landsat heritage sensors, OLI has an additional 443-nm band (termed coastal/aerosol (CA) band), which extends its potential for mapping/monitoring water quality in coastal/inland waters. In addition, OLI's pushbroom design allows for longer integration time and, as a result, higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Using a series of radiative transfer simulations, we provide insights into the radiometric sensitivity of OLI when studying coastal/inland waters. This will address how the changes in water constituents manifest at top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and whether the changes are resolvable at TOA (focal plane) relative to OLI's overall noise.

Pahlevan, Nima; Wei, Jian-Wei; Shaaf, Crystal B.; Schott, John R.

2014-01-01

344

Radiometric determination of trace amounts of zinc using liquid scintillation counting.  

PubMed

A sensitive and selective radiometric method of substoichiometric isotope dilution analysis for the determination of trace amounts of zinc is described. The activity of (65)Zn used as a tracer in this method was measured by liquid scintillation counting and its counting efficiency was found to be 76+/-2.7%. The method is based on the extraction of the ion-association complex of zinc from thiocyanate medium at pH 7.9 using substoichiometric amount of Aliquat-336 in toluene. The method is sensitive to 20 ng of Zn(II) in an aqueous phase volume of up to 15 ml and its reliability was tested by applying it to a certified reference material-magnesium alloy and pharmaceutical samples. PMID:18967214

Sandhya, D; Subramanian, M S

1998-08-01

345

Aerial radiometric and magnetic reconnaissance survey of portions of Kentucky and Tennessee: Corbin Quadrangle. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The results of a high-sensitivity, aerial, gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey of the Corbin Quadrangle, Kentucky and Tennessee, are presented. Instrumentation and methods are described in Volume 1. This work was done as part of the US Department of Energy National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program. Statistical and geological analysis of the radiometric data revealed 41 anomalies worthy of field checking as possible prospects. Six anomalies coincide with highways that may be major contributors to their anomalous values. Most of the anomalies are grouped in two areas and appear to be associated with Lower Mississippian, Upper Ordovician sedimentary rocks. A third group of anomalies along the Cumberland Plateau are associated with Pennsylvanian sedimentary rocks.

Not Available

1980-03-01

346

Radiometric and Noise Characteristics of InAs-Rich T2S. MWIR Pin Photodiodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a full characterization of the radiometric performances of a type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice pin photodiode operating in the mid-wavelength infrared domain. We first focused our attention on quantum efficiency, responsivity and angular response measurements: quantum efficiency reaches 23% at λ = 2.1 µm for 1 µm thick structure. Noise under illumination measurements are also reported: noise is limited by the Schottky contribution for reverse bias voltage smaller than 1.2 V. The specific detectivity, estimated for 2p field-of-view and 333 K background temperature, was determined equal to 2.29 x 10^10 Jones for -0,8 V bias voltage and 77 K operating temperature.

Giard, E.; Taalat, R.; Delmas, M.; Rodriguez, J.-B.; Christol, P.; Ribet-Mohamed, I.

2014-06-01

347

Radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner. [of Thematic Mapper Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absolute radiometric calibration of the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator reflective channels was examined based on laboratory tests and in-flight comparisons to ground measurements. The NS001 data are calibrated in-flight by reference to the NS001 internal integrating sphere source. This source's power supply or monitoring circuitry exhibited greater instability in-flight during 1988-1989 than in the laboratory. Extrapolating laboratory behavior to in-flight data resulted in 7-20 percent radiance errors relative to ground measurements and atmospheric modeling. Assuming constancy in the source's output between laboraotry and in-flight resulted in generally smaller errors. Upgrades to the source's power supply and monitoring circuitry in 1990 improved its in-flight stability, though in-flight ground reflectance based calibration tests have not yet been performed.

Markham, Brian L.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.; Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. S.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Gellman, David I.; Slater, Philip N.

1991-01-01

348

Investigation of LANDSAT follow-on thematic mapper spatial, radiometric and spectral resolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Fine resolution M7 multispectral scanner data collected during the Corn Blight Watch Experiment in 1971 served as the basis for this study. Different locations and times of year were studied. Definite improvement using 30-40 meter spatial resolution over present LANDSAT 1 resolution and over 50-60 meter resolution was observed, using crop area mensuration as the measure. Simulation studies carried out to extrapolate the empirical results to a range of field size distributions confirmed this effect, showing the improvement to be most pronounced for field sizes of 1-4 hectares. Radiometric sensitivity study showed significant degradation of crop classification accuracy immediately upon relaxation from the nominally specified values of 0.5% noise equivalent reflectance. This was especially the case for data which were spectrally similar such as that collected early in the growing season and also when attempting to accomplish crop stress detection.

Nalepka, R. F. (principal investigator); Morgenstern, J. P.; Kent, E. R.; Erickson, J. D.

1976-01-01

349

Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization. ?? 2006 IEEE.

Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

2010-01-01

350

Assessment of GOCI radiometric products using MERIS, MODIS and field measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) launched by South Korea in June 2010 constitutes a major breakthrough in marine optics remote-sensing for its capabilities to observe the diurnal cycles of the ocean. The light signal recorded at eight wavelengths by the sensor allows, after correction for Solar illumination and atmospheric effects, the retrieval of coloured biogeochemical products such as the chlorophyll, suspended sediment and coloured dissolved organic matter concentrations every hour between 9:00 am and 4:00 pm local time around the Korean peninsula. However operational exploitation of the mission needs beforehand a sound validation of first the radiometric calibration, i.e. inspection of the top-of-atmosphere reflectance, and second atmospheric corrections for retrieval of the water-leaving reflectance at sea surface. This study constitutes a contribution to the quality assessment of the GOCI radiometric products generated by the Korea Ocean Satellite Center (KOSC) through comparison with concurrent data from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, NASA) and MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS, ESA) sensors as well as in situ measurements. These comparisons are made with spatially and temporally collocated data. We focus on Rayleigh-corrected reflectance ( ? RC ) and normalized remote-sensing marine reflectance (nRrs). Although GOCI compares reasonably well with MERIS and MODIS, what demonstrates the success of Ocean Colour in geostationary orbit, we show that the current GOCI atmospheric correction systematically masks out data over very turbid waters and needs further examination and correction for future release of the GOCI products.

Lamquin, Nicolas; Mazeran, Constant; Doxaran, David; Ryu, Joo-Hyung; Park, Young-Je

2012-09-01

351

Orbit determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter using laser ranging and radiometric tracking data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) launched in 2009 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) still orbits the Moon in a polar orbit at an altitude of 50 kilometers and below. Its main objective is the detailed exploration of the Moon's surface by means of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) and three high resolution cameras bundled in the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) unit. Referring these observations to a Moon-fixed reference frame requires the computation of highly accurate and consistent orbits. For this task only Earth-based observations are available, primarily radiometric tracking data from stations in the United States, Australia and Europe. In addition, LRO is prepared for one-way laser measurements from specially adapted sites. Currently, 10 laser stations participate more or less regularly in this experiment. For operational reasons, the official LRO orbits from NASA only include radiometric data so far. In this presentation, we investigate the benefit of the laser ranging data by feeding both types of observations in an integrated orbit determination process. All computations are performed by an in-house software development based on a dynamical approach improving orbit and force parameters in an iterative way. Special attention is paid to the determination of bias parameters, in particular of timing biases between radio and laser stations and the drift and aging of the LRO spacecraft clock. The solutions from the combined data set will be compared to radio- and laser-only orbits as well as to the NASA orbits. Further results will show how recent gravity field models from the GRAIL mission can improve the accuracy of the LRO orbits.

Lcher, Anno; Kusche, Jrgen

2014-05-01

352

PLEIADES-HR 1A&1B image quality commissioning: innovative radiometric calibration methods and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PLEIADES is an earth observing system conducted by the French National Space Agency, CNES. It consists of two satellites launched on December 2011 (PHR-1A) and December 2012 (PHR-1B), both designed to provide optical pushbroom imagery on five spectral bands to civilian and defense users, with ground sample distance up to 70 cm. During inflight image quality commissioning, radiometric activities included inter-detector normalization coefficients computation, refocusing operations, MTF assessment and estimation of signal to noise ratios. This paper presents inflight results for both satellites. It focuses on several innovative methods that were implemented, taking advantage of the satellite platform great agility. These methods are based on processing images obtained through dedicated exotic guidance. In particular, slow-motion steering enables an efficient estimation of the instrumental noise model, since during acquisition each detector has been viewing a stable ground target along different time samples. Conversely, rotated retina guidance is used to guarantee that all different elementary detectors have successively viewed the same set of landscape samples during acquisition. Non-uniformity of detector sensitivities can then be characterized, and on-board coefficients used prior to compression can be calibrated in order to prevent vertical striping effects on operational images. Defocus control and Point Spread Function estimation can be easily obtained through processing acquisitions of stars associated to various spectral characteristics, for different adjustments of the refocusing system. All these methods allow an accurate estimation of radiometric performance on the whole range of specified spectral radiances, while drastically reducing the number of required acquisitions on natural targets.

Martin, Vincent; Blanchet, Gwendoline; Kubik, Philippe; Lacherade, Sophie; Latry, Christophe; Lebegue, Laurent; Lenoir, Florie; Porez-Nadal, Florence

2013-09-01

353

Assessment of the Short-Term Radiometric Stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) sensor was launched on April 15th, 1999 and has been in operation for over nine years. It has six reflective solar spectral bands located in the visible and shortwave infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.5 - 2.5 micron) at a spatial resolution of 30 m. The on-board calibrators are used to monitor the on-orbit sensor system changes. The ETM+ performs solar calibrations using on-board Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) and the Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC). The Internal Calibrator Lamp (IC) lamps, a blackbody and shutter optics constitute the on-orbit calibration mechanism for ETM+. On 31 May 2003, a malfunction of the scan-line corrector (SLC) mirror assembly resulted in the loss of approximately 22% of the normal scene area. The missing data affects most of the image with scan gaps varying in width from one pixel or less near the centre of the image to 14 pixels along the east and west edges of the image, creating a wedge-shaped pattern. However, the SLC failure has no impacts on the radiometric performance of the valid pixels. On December 18, 1999, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Proto-Flight Model (PFM) was launched on-board the NASA's EOS Terra spacecraft. Terra MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 14.5 micron and collects data over a wide field of view angle (+/-55 deg) at three nadir spatial resolutions of 250 m, 500 in 1 km for bands 1 to 2, 3 to 7, and 8 to 36, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with spectral wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.1 micron. The RSB radiometric calibration is performed by using on-board solar diffuser (SD), solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), space-view (SV), and spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). Through the SV port, periodic lunar observations are used to track radiometric response changes at different angles of incidence (AOI) of the scan mirror. As a part of the AM Constellation satellites, Terra MODIS flies approximately 30 minutes behind L7 ETM+ in the same orbit. The orbit of L7 is repetitive, circular, sunsynchronous, and near polar at a nominal altitude of 705 km (438 miles) at the Equator. The spacecraft crosses the Equator from north to south on a descending node between 10:00 AM and 10:15 AM. Circling the Earth at 7.5 km/sec, each orbit takes nearly 99 minutes. The spacecraft completes just over 14 orbits per day, covering the entire Earth between 81 degrees north and south latitude every 16 days. The longest continuous imaging swath that L7 sensor can collect is for a 14-minute subinterval contact period which is equivalent to 35 full WRS-2 scenes. On the other hand, Terra can provide the entire corresponding orbit with wider swath at any given ETM+ collection without contact time limitation. There are six spectral matching band pairs between MODIS (bands 3, 4, 1, 2, 6, 7) and ETM+ (bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7) sensor. MODIS has narrower spectral responses than ETM+ in all the bands. A short-term radiometric stability was evaluated using continuous ETM+ scenes within the contact period and the corresponding half orbit MODIS scenes. The near simultaneous earth observations (SNO) were limited by the smaller swath size of ETM+ (187 km) as compared to MODIS (2330 km). Two sets of continuous granules for MODIS and ETM+ were selected and mosaiced based on pixel geolocation information for non cloudy pixels over the North American continent. The Top-of- Atmosphere (TOA) reflectances were computed for the spectrally matching bands between ETM+ and MODIS over the regions of interest (ROI). The matching pixel pairs were aggregated from a finer to a coarser pixel resolution and the TOA reflectance values covering a wide dynamic range of the sensors were compared and analyzed. Considering the uncertainties of the absolute calibration of the both sensors, radiometric stability was verified for the band pairs. The Railroad Valley Playa, Nada (RVPN) was included in the path of this continuous orbit, which served as a verification poin

Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaxiong; Chander, G.; Angal, Amit

2009-01-01

354

Dating Historical Color Images Frank Palermo1  

E-print Network

of historical city-scape images by reconstructing the 3D world using structure-from- motion techniques which.g. Storey [23] focuses entirely on the dating of military photographs. In contrast, works targeted primarily. For example, Messier [14] notes that exposing a photographic print to ultraviolet light may yield clues about

Treuille, Adrien

355

Plutonium age dating reloaded  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the age determination of plutonium is and has been a pillar of nuclear forensic investigations for many years, additional research in the field of plutonium age dating is still needed and leads to new insights as the present work shows: Plutonium is commonly dated with the help of the 241Pu/241Am chronometer using gamma spectrometry; in fewer cases the 240Pu/236U chronometer has been used. The age dating results of the 239Pu/235U chronometer and the 238Pu/234U chronometer are scarcely applied in addition to the 240Pu/236U chronometer, although their results can be obtained simultaneously from the same mass spectrometric experiments as the age dating result of latter. The reliability of the result can be tested when the results of different chronometers are compared. The 242Pu/238U chronometer is normally not evaluated at all due to its sensitivity to contamination with natural uranium. This apparent 'weakness' that renders the age dating results of the 242Pu/238U chronometer almost useless for nuclear forensic investigations, however turns out to be an advantage looked at from another perspective: the 242Pu/238U chronometer can be utilized as an indicator for uranium contamination of plutonium samples and even help to identify the nature of this contamination. To illustrate this the age dating results of all four Pu/U clocks mentioned above are discussed for one plutonium sample (NBS 946) that shows no signs of uranium contamination and for three additional plutonium samples. In case the 242Pu/238U chronometer results in an older 'age' than the other Pu/U chronometers, contamination with either a small amount of enriched or with natural or depleted uranium is for example possible. If the age dating result of the 239Pu/235U chronometer is also influenced the nature of the contamination can be identified; enriched uranium is in this latter case a likely cause for the missmatch of the age dating results of the Pu/U chronometers.

Sturm, Monika; Richter, Stephan; Aregbe, Yetunde; Wellum, Roger; Mayer, Klaus; Prohaska, Thomas

2014-05-01

356

Depth dependence of soil carbonate accumulation based on cosmogenic 36Cl dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indurated pedogenic carbonate layers (calcretes) are common in soils on stable surfaces in arid to semiarid climates. The morphology and composition of calcretes provide important information on the geomorphic and climatic histories of the regions where they are formed, but they have proved difficult to date with conventional radiometric methods. We report cosmogenic 36Cl-buildup ages from three fractions (leachable Cl, carbonate, silicate) of a calcrete from the surface of an alluvial slope below the Ajo Mountains in southern Arizona. All three fractions give reasonably concordant ages, ranging from 700 ka at the base of the calcrete horizon to 200 ka at its top. These ages are in good agreement both with estimates of age based on correlation with similar, independently dated, soils in the region and with 36Cl-buildup ages on surficial boulders. These results support the ideas that calcretes accumulate upward with time and that water movement through the carbonate matrix is very limited after induration.

Liu, Beiling; Phillips, Fred M.; Elmore, David; Sharma, Pankaj

1994-12-01

357

Date palm: Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The future of date palm, as a dioecious, monocot fruit tree largely depends on (1) developing advanced knowledge and information about the dynamics, management, and sustainability of the tree as a central component of the oasis agro-ecosystem, and (2) in-depth understanding of the genetic diversity ...

358

The Dating Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities to cultivate the tendency to see special qualities in numbers that can be played on certain calendar days. Includes games on the constant of the day, Fibonacci and golden ratio dates, primes, powers, December 25, and the day of the year. (ASK)

Zerger, Monte J.

1998-01-01

359

Can We Date Starbursts?  

E-print Network

Age dating starbursts is an exercise with many caveats. We attempt to summarise a discussion session that was lead along a rather optimistic guideline: the aim was to highlight that current age estimates, despite undeniable uncertainties, do provide constraints on the physics of starbursts. In many cases, better starburst theories will be needed before the improvement of empirical timelines becomes crucial.

A. Lancon

2000-12-19

360

Understanding Teen Dating Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... R, Ellis W, Stitt L, Donner A. A school based program to prevent adolescent violence: a cluster randomized trial. Archives of Pediatric and ... Shifting Boundaries: an experimental evaluation of a dating violence prevention program in middle schools. Prevention Science 2013; 14:64-76. 11. Foshee ...

361

COUNTRY INSTITUTION SIGNING DATE  

E-print Network

COUNTRY INSTITUTION SIGNING DATE /RENEWAL WEB SITE ALBANIA University of Tirana 11.12.2001 www.unitir.edu.al/ ALBANIA University "Aleksander Moisiu Durres " 15.05.2010 www.uamd.edu.al/ ALBANIA Universiteti Pavaresia of Vlore 20.04.2010 www.unipavaresia.edu.al/ ALBANIA Polis Universiteti 21.03.2014 www

Di Pillo, Gianni

362

Biodiversity of date palm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is the dominant component upon which the sustainable biophysical and socio-economic structures of the oasis ecosystem are based; a fruit tree with unique nutritional, biochemical and biophysical characteristics, a rich source of aesthetic and cultural values, and ...

363

U-Series Dating of Carbonates by Mass Spectrometry With Examples of Speleothem Coral and Shell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uranium series dating is a well established technique for dating carbonate deposits of the last 350,000 years. The most common carbonates which have been dated are cave calcites (speleothem) and corals. The technique relies on the buildup of ?Th over time by radioactive decay of ?U and ?U, in materials which were initially free of ?Th. The ratios of the

Joyce Lundberg

1990-01-01

364

Ar-Ar Dating of Martian Meteorite, Dhofar 378: An Early Shock Event?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Martian meteorite, Dhofar 378 (Dho378) is a basaltic shergottite from Oman, weighing 15 g, and possessing a black fusion crust. Chemical similarities between Dho378 and the Los Angeles 001 shergottite suggests that they might have derived from the same Mars locale. The plagioclase in other shergottites has been converted to maskelenite by shock, but Dho378 apparently experienced even more intense shock heating, estimated at 55-75 GPa. Dho378 feldspar (approximately 43 modal %) melted, partially flowed and vesiculated, and then partially recrystallized. Areas of feldspathic glass are appreciably enriched in K, whereas individual plagioclases show a range in the Or/An ratio of approximately 0.18-0.017. Radiometric dating of martian shergottites indicate variable formation times of 160-475 Myr, whereas cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of shergottites indicate most were ejected from Mars within the past few Myr. Most determined Ar-39-Ar-40 ages of shergottites appear older than other radiometric ages because of the presence of large amounts of martian atmosphere or interior Ar-40. Among all types of meteorites and returned lunar rocks, the impact event that initiated the CRE age very rarely reset the Ar-Ar age. This is because a minimum time and temperature is required to facilitate Ar diffusion loss. It is generally assumed that the shock-texture characteristics in martian meteorites were produced by the impact events that ejected the rocks from Mars, although the time of these shock events (as opposed to CRE ages) are not directly dated. Here we report Ar-39-Ar-40 dating of Dho378 plagioclase. We suggest that the determined age dates the intense shock heating event this meteorite experienced, but that it was not the impact that initiated the CRE age.

Park, J.; Bogard, D. D.

2006-01-01

365

Dating violence and girls in the juvenile justice system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to explore the prevalence and associated behaviors of dating violence among a population of girls in the juvenile justice system. A sample of 590 girls from an urban juvenile justice system completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes and self-efficacy about and occurrence of dating violence. The analysis developed a random effect model to determine a risk profile for dating violence. The strongest predictors of dating violence were (a) initial sexual experience at age 13 or earlier, (b) unwillingness of initial sexual experience, (c) drug use, and (d) low self-efficacy about preventing dating violence. The high prevalence of dating violence and associated behaviors among participants suggests the importance of implementing primary prevention programs to assist preteen girls in delaying initial sexual intercourse and in learning techniques to prevent dating violence. PMID:18768739

Kelly, Patricia J; Cheng, An-Lin; Peralez-Dieckmann, Esther; Martinez, Elisabeth

2009-09-01

366

Dating volcanic and related sediments by luminescence methods: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications of luminescence dating of geological materials have undergone extensive development and refinement since 1974 when Wintle first attempted to date volcanic lava using thermoluminescence (TL). Today, luminescence techniques are potentially highly useful methods for dating volcanic and related materials and events over timescales ranging from 10 2 to 10 6 years. While luminescence approaches generally do not possess the precision afforded by techniques such as 40Ar/ 39Ar and 14C methods, they offer a useful alternative approach with advantages in terms of age range and scope of material. Although the application of luminescence methods has in some cases been successfully described, a comprehensive study outlining and defining protocols for routine luminescence dating of volcanic materials has not been forthcoming. This review surveys previous attempts to develop luminescence techniques to date volcanic products and discusses the state of knowledge of the luminescence behaviour of the four principal materials currently used for luminescence dating of volcanic events. Particular attention is paid to the red luminescence emissions, primarily because of previous successes in using Red Thermoluminescence (RTL) of quartz and feldspar for dating volcanic products, for which the upper age limit may extend beyond a million years. Proposals are made for future research directions; these include: technological developments in the measurement of optically stimulated red luminescence, the systematic characterization of RTL and optically stimulated red luminescence as key luminescence parameters in volcanic quartz, feldspar, glass and polymineral sample fractions, and optimization of luminescence dating methods to define a comprehensive protocol for routine dating of volcanic materials.

Fattahi, Morteza; Stokes, Stephen

2003-09-01

367

Sexual Coercion on Dates: It's Not Just Rape.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that sexual coercion while dating falls under the umbrella of school-related violence. Discusses acquaintance and date rape, a sexual coercion continuum, and coercion victims. Concludes with a discussion of six techniques to reduce risk of sexual coercion. (CFR)

Waldner-Haugrud, Lisa

1995-01-01

368

Advances in carbon dating using high energy mass spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of carbon dating being over thirty years old and the fact that in that period many thousands of dates have been produced, the conventional counting technique still suffers from certain drawbacks. Comparatively large samples are required, the time for an analysis is long, and the signal-to-background ratios obtainable are low. Recent work in a number of laboratories has

E. T. Hall

1980-01-01

369

Spring 2014-Timeline Dates-Coop & Internships important dates to remember Spring 2014-Key Academic dates  

E-print Network

Spring 2014-Timeline Dates-Coop & Internships important dates to remember Spring 2014- Key Academic Internships December 13, 2013 Last day to turn in forms into the International Center to guarantee January 13, 2014 start date December 21, 2013 The last date to work the Fall Co-op & Internship (Work

Heller, Barbara

370

Review of Terra MODIS thermal emissive band L1B radiometric performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Earth Observing System Terra satellite, launched into orbit on 18 December 1999, will have a "first light" 15th anniversary on 24 February 2015. For nearly 15 years the MODIS instrument has provided radiances in all spectral bands. Though some detectors have fallen below SNR thresholds, the vast majority of spectral bands continue to provide high quality L1B measurements for use in L2 science algorithms supporting global climate research. Radiometric accuracy of the Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands (TEBs) in the C6 L1B product has been assessed using various approaches over the nearly 15 year Terra MODIS data record, including comparisons with instruments on the ground, in aircraft under-flights, and on other satellites. All of these approaches contribute to the understanding of the Terra MODIS radiometric L1B performance. Early in the lifetime of Terra, ground-based measurements and NASA ER-2 aircraft under-flights revealed that TEBs in the infrared window ("window" bands) are well calibrated and performing within accuracy specifications. The ER-2 under-flights also suggested that many atmospheric bands may be performing outside of specification, especially LWIR CO2 sensitive bands that are subject to optical crosstalk, although analysis uncertainties are larger for atmospheric bands. Beginning in 2007, MetOp-A IASI observations were used to evaluate Terra MODIS TEB performance through Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) comparisons. These inter-satellite comparisons largely affirm the early aircraft and ground-based evaluations, showing that all Terra MODIS window bands have small biases, minimal trending, and minor detector and mirror side striping over the 2007-2013 timeframe. Most atmospheric bands are performing satisfactorily near to specification; however, biases, striping and trending are large and significantly out of specification in the water vapor sensitive band 27 and ozone sensitive band 30 while the CO2 sensitive band 36 bias significantly exceeds specification. The investigation has found that an effective spectral shift significantly reduces biases and scene temperature dependence (but not trends) in most atmospheric bands, bringing them closer to, if not within, specification.

Moeller, Chris; Menzel, W. P.; Quinn, Greg

2014-09-01

371

Reconstructing level changes and assessing evidence for tectonic and glacial-rebound induced tilting of the Lake Wakatipu basin, New Zealand using novel techniques for correlating and dating paleoshorelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial-rebound signals have not previously been identified or isolated from tectonic processes in the New Zealand landscape. This contrasts with other parts of the world where glacial-unloading has caused tens to hundreds of meters of uplift and increased fault activity. The aim of this research was to quantify the magnitude and timing of post-glacial lake-level changes and deformation of the Lake Wakatipu basin, New Zealand. Abandoned shorelines up to 43 m above the modern water-level had previously been suggested to be tilted. Accurate measurement of the magnitude and timing of tilting would provide a unique attempt to extract a glacial-rebound signal from the tectonically-overprinted New Zealand landscape. Paleo-shoreline profiles were surveyed along the lake using GPS and existing air-borne LiDAR datasets. The shoreline profiles were correlated based on elevation and numerically cross-correlated to assess potential progressive offset. The results reveal negligible elevation differences, in conflict with previous suggestions of shoreline tilting. The timing of lake lowering was assessed with Schmidt hammer exposure-age and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of a flight of alluvial terraces directly correlated with the shorelines. The ages suggest formation of the lake by ~17.1 +/- 2.6 ka, which is assumed to be the approximate age for initial formation of the highest and most prominent preserved shoreline. Abandonment of this high-stand shoreline is thought to have commenced at ~12 ka when lake drainage switched to a new outlet, and was followed by gradual lowering (of about 20 m in 8-10 kyr). Lowering accelerated at about 2 ka, rapidly achieving 26-29 m of lowering before then reversing by 3-6 m to attain the present-day level. Glacial-rebound induced uplift or fault activity in the last 18 kyr has not been recorded by paleo-shorelines of Lake Wakatipu. We suggest that a glacial-isostatic signal is not present in the data because either glacial rebound occurred very quickly after ice retreat, or that any uplift was uniformly distributed over the length of the lake. These results invite investigation of other glaciated areas of New Zealand to explore whether this pattern is spatially and temporally consistent.

McColl, S. T.; Stahl, T. A.; Cook, S.

2013-12-01

372

225-GHz atmospheric opacity of the South Pole sky derived from continual radiometric measurements of the sky-brightness temperature.  

PubMed

We report measurements of the atmospheric opacity of the South Pole at 225 GHz for the period from day 3 to day 180 in 1992. These opacity data were derived from continual radiometric measurements of the sky-brightness temperature as a function of the zenith angle. These radiometric measurements were performed with a 225-GHz heterodyne atmospheric radiometer on loan from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. This radiometer was previously used to characterize other candidate millimeter and submillimeter radio-telescope sites. We found that the atmospheric opacity was below 0.098 air mass(-1) 75% of the time from day 3 to day 70 in 1992, and below 0.055 air mass(-1) 75% of the time from day 70 to day 180 in 1992. Thus, our data demonstrate that the South Pole is an excellent site for performing millimeter-and submillimeter-wavelength radio astronomy. PMID:20862122

Chamberlin, R A; Bally, J

1994-02-20

373

Postlaunch Radiometric Validation of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Proto-Flight Model on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Spacecraft through 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument contains three scanning thermistor bolometer radiometric channels. These channels measure broadband radiances in the shortwave (0.3-5.0 m), total (0.3->100 m), and water vapor window regions (8-12 m). Ground-based radiometric calibrations of the CERES flight models were conducted by TRW Inc.'s Space and Electronics Group of Redondo Beach, California. On-orbit calibration

Kory J. Priestley; Bruce R. Barkstrom; Robert B. Lee III; Richard N. Green; Susan Thomas; Robert S. Wilson; Peter L. Spence; Jack Paden; D. K. Pandey; Aiman Al-Hajjah

2000-01-01

374

Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES): Long-wave Calibration Plan and Radiometric Test Model (RTM) Calibration Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CERES instrument has three radiometers which operate in the short-wave (0,3 ?m to 5 ?m), the long-wave (8 ?m to 12 ?m) and total broadband (0,3 ?m to >200 ?m) spectral regions. The long-wave calibration plan for CERES provides for absolute radiometric calibration of the two CERES sensors operating in the long-wave portion of the spectrum. Ground calibration is

P J Jarecke; M A Folkman; T R Hedman; M E Frink

1993-01-01

375

A definitive calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper anchored to the Landsat-7 radiometric scale  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A coordinated effort on the part of several agencies has led to the specification of a definitive radiometric calibration record for the Landsat-5 thematic mapper (TM) for its lifetime since launch in 1984. The time-dependent calibration record for Landsat-5 TM has been placed on the same radiometric scale as the Landsat-7 enhanced thematic mapper plus (ETM+). It has been implemented in the National Landsat Archive Production Systems (NLAPS) in use in North America. This paper documents the results of this collaborative effort and the specifications for the related calibration processing algorithms. The specifications include (i) anchoring of the Landsat-5 TM calibration record to the Landsat-7 ETM+ absolute radiometric calibration, (ii) new time-dependent calibration processing equations and procedures applicable to raw Landsat-5 TM data, and (iii) algorithms for recalibration computations applicable to some of the existing processed datasets in the North American context. The cross-calibration between Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ was achieved using image pairs from the tandem-orbit configuration period that was programmed early in the Laridsat-7 mission. The time-dependent calibration for Landsat-5 TM is based on a detailed trend analysis of data from the on-board internal calibrator. The new lifetime radiometric calibration record for Landsat-5 will overcome problems with earlier product generation owing to inadequate maintenance and documentation of the calibration over time and will facilitate the quantitative examination of a continuous, near-global dataset at 30-m scale that spans almost two decades.

Teillet, P.M.; Helder, D.L.; Ruggles, T.A.; Landry, R.; Ahern, F.J.; Higgs, N.J.; Barsi, J.; Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barker, J.L.; Thome, K.J.; Schott, J.R.; Palluconi, F.D.

2004-01-01

376

Orbit Determination and Gravity Field Estimation of the Dawn spacecraft at Vesta Using Radiometric and Image Constraints with GEODYN Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dawn spacecraft orbited the protoplanet Vesta from May 3, 2011 to July 25, 2012. Precise orbit determination was critical for the geophysical investigation, as well as the definition of the Vesta-fixed reference frame and the subsequent registration of datasets to the surface. GEODYN, the orbit determination and geodetic parameter estimation software of NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, was used to compute the orbit of the Dawn spacecraft and estimate the gravity field of Vesta. GEODYN utilizes radiometric Doppler and range measurements, and was modified to process image data from Dawn's cameras. X-band radiometric measurements were acquired by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). The addition of the capability to process image constraints decreases position uncertainty in the along- and cross-orbit track directions because of their geometric strengths compared with radiometric measurements. This capability becomes critical for planetary missions such as Dawn due to the weak gravity environment, where non-conservative forces affect the orbit more than typical of orbits at larger planetary bodies. Radiometric measurements were fit to less than 0.1 mm/s and 5 m for Doppler and range during the Survey orbit phase (compared with measurement noise RMS of about 0.05 mm/s and 2 m for Doppler and range). Image constraint RMS was fit to less than 100 m (resolution is 5 - 150 m/pixel, depending on the spacecraft altitude). Orbits computed using GEODYN were used to estimate a 20th degree and order gravity field of Vesta. The quality of the orbit determination and estimated gravity field with and without image constraints was assessed through comparison with the spacecraft trajectory and gravity model provided by the Dawn Science Team.

Centinello, F. J.; Zuber, M. T.; Mazarico, E.

2013-12-01

377

Identification of novel CK2 inhibitors with a benzofuran scaffold by novel non-radiometric in vitro assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein kinase CK2 is emerging as a target in neoplastic diseases. Inhibition of CK2 by small compounds could lead to new\\u000a therapies by counteracting the elevated CK2 activities found in a variety of tumors. Currently, CK2 inhibitors are primarily\\u000a evaluated by a radiometric in vitro assay tracing the amount of transferred ?-32P from ATP to a substrate peptide. Here, we

Andreas Gratz; Uwe Kucklnder; Ricardo Bollig; Claudia Gtz; Joachim Jose

378

Validation of otolith-increment age estimates for a deepwater fish species, the warty oreo Allocyttus verrucosus , by radiometric analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Otolith increment age estimates for a deepwater species, Allocyttus verrucosus, were validated by comparison with the results from 210Pb:226Ra radiometric analysis. Transverse sectioning and subsequent grinding of otoliths to a thickness of ? 0.2 mm revealed increments which provided age estimates for a range of fish sizes. Age estimates ranged from 7 yr for an immature fish of 15.2 cm

B. D. Stewart; G. E. Fenton; D. C. Smith-S; S. A. Short

1995-01-01

379

Implications for the Neoproterozoic Biological and Climatic History from Dating of the Doushantuo Phosphorites, S. China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models such as "Snowball Earth" suggest a link between Neoproterozoic glaciation events and the animal diversifications that preceded the Cambrian explosion. To evaluate such hypotheses, it is critical to resolve the precise chronology of the Neoproterozoic. As of now, ages of many Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions are only weakly constrained by bio- and chemostratigraphical correlation to successions that contain dated ash layers. Furthermore, attempts to radiometrically date sedimentary successions have had limited success. Pb-Pb and Lu-Hf dating of phosphates yield consistent ages close to 600 Ma for the Doushantuo phosphorites, South China. These age constraints are consistent with a depositional age estimate of 580 Ma +/- 20 Ma based on C-isotopic and biostratigraphic correlations (Knoll and Xiao, 1999, Acta Micropalaeontol. 16). The dates are however significantly younger than earlier reported Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages (610-700 Ma) for the Doushantuo sediments, which have been ascribed to the influence from detrital clay on the measured isotope compositions. The Lu-Hf and Pb-Pb ages indicate that the exquisitely preserved animal remains found in the Doushantuo Formation predate diverse Ediacaran fossil assemblages and thus represent the earliest animal ancestry assemblage known. The Doushantuo formation lies directly above the Nantuo Tillite deposits, which is generally correlated with the "Marinoan" glaciation - the younger of the two major Neoproterozoic ice ages. Age constraints for "Marinoan" glaciogenic deposits only exist in Newfoundland and Massachusetts, where radiometric dating constrain the glaciation to be younger than 595.5 +/- 2 Ma. Compared to this date, the Pb-Pb age of 599.3 +/- 4.2 Ma for the Doushantuo phosphorites indicates that the Nantuo glaciation predates the glaciation recorded in Eastern North America and therefore support the occurrence of a distinct post-Marinoan glaciation. The combination of Pb-Pb and Lu-Hf dating applied to successions with well-preserved fossils offers the best opportunity for direct dating of Proterozoic phosphatic deposits with the potential for calibrating the Neoproterozoic chrono-stratigraphical framework.

Barfod, G. H.; Albarede, F.; Knoll, A. H.; Xiao, S.; Frei, R.; Baker, J.

2002-12-01

380

Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements.  

PubMed

This paper reports an analytical method for the determination of plutonium isotopes ((238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu) in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatography in combination with extraction chromatography for chemical separation of Pu. Both radiometric methods (liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5 10(5) for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference values, revealing that the developed method for plutonium determination in environmental samples is reliable. The measurement results of (239+240)Pu by alpha spectrometry agreed very well with the sum of (239)Pu and (240)Pu measured by ICP-MS. ICP-MS can not only measure (239)Pu and (240)Pu separately but also (241)Pu. However, it is impossible to measure (238)Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 10(6) for uranium was obtained by chemical separation. PMID:24401459

Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Pan, Shaoming; Roos, Per

2014-02-01

381

Characterization of the Sonoran desert as a radiometric calibration target for Earth observing sensors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To provide highly accurate quantitative measurements of the Earth's surface, a comprehensive calibration and validation of the satellite sensors is required. The NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Characterization Support Team, in collaboration with United States Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation and Science Center, has previously demonstrated the use of African desert sites to monitor the long-term calibration stability of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+). The current study focuses on evaluating the suitability of the Sonoran Desert test site for post-launch long-term radiometric calibration as well as cross-calibration purposes. Due to the lack of historical and on-going in situ ground measurements, the Sonoran Desert is not usually used for absolute calibration. An in-depth evaluation (spatial, temporal, and spectral stability) of this site using well calibrated L7 ETM+ measurements and local climatology data has been performed. The Sonoran Desert site produced spatial variability of about 3 to 5% in the reflective solar regions, and the temporal variations of the site after correction for view-geometry impacts were generally around 3%. The results demonstrate that, barring the impacts due to occasional precipitation, the Sonoran Desert site can be effectively used for cross-calibration and long-term stability monitoring of satellite sensors, thus, providing a good test site in the western hemisphere.

Angal, Amit; Chander, Gyanesh; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Choi, Tae-young; Wu, Aisheng

2011-01-01

382

Determining water use of sorghum from two-source energy balance and radiometric temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of surface actual evapotranspiration (ET) can assist in predicting crop water requirements. An alternative to the traditional crop-coefficient methods are the energy balance models. The objective of this research was to show how surface temperature observations can be used, together with a two-source energy balance model, to determine crop water use throughout the different phenological stages of a crop grown. Radiometric temperatures were collected in a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) field as part of an experimental campaign carried out in Barrax, Spain, during the 2010 summer growing season. Performance of the Simplified Two-Source Energy Balance (STSEB) model was evaluated by comparison of estimated ET with values measured on a weighing lysimeter. Errors of 0.14 mm h-1 and 1.0 mm d-1 were obtained at hourly and daily scales, respectively. Total accumulated crop water use during the campaign was underestimated by 5%. It is then shown that thermal radiometry can provide precise crop water necessities and is a promising tool for irrigation management.

Snchez, J. M.; Lpez-Urrea, R.; Rubio, E.; Caselles, V.

2011-10-01

383

Determining irrigation needs of sorghum from two-source energy balance and radiometric temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimates of surface actual evapotranspiration (ET) can assist in predicting crop water requirements. An alternative to the traditional crop-coefficient methods are the energy balance models. The objective of this research was to show how surface temperature observations can be used, together with a two-source energy balance model, to determine crop water use throughout the different phenological stages of a crop grown. Radiometric temperatures were collected in a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) field as part of an experimental campaign carried out in Barrax, Spain, during the 2010 summer growing season. Performance of the Simplified Two-Source Energy Balance (STSEB) model was evaluated by comparison of estimated ET with values measured on a weighing lysimeter. Errors of 0.14 mm h-1 and 1.0 mm d-1 were obtained at hourly and daily scales, respectively. Accumulated crop water use during the campaign resulted 500 mm versus the total 524 mm measured by the lysimeter. It is then shown that thermal radiometry can provide precise crop water necessities and is a promising tool for irrigation management.

Snchez, J. M.; Lpez-Urrea, R.; Rubio, E.; Caselles, V.

2011-04-01

384

Performance and Results from a Space Borne, Uncooled Microbolometer Array Spectral Radiometric Imager  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometer experiment was flown on a space shuttle mission as a shuttle hitchhiker experiment in August of 1997. The goals of the experiment were to test uncooled array detectors for infrared spectral imaging from space and to apply for the first time retrieval from space of brightness temperatures of cloud, land and sea along with direct laser measurements of cloud top height. The instrument operates in 3 narrow and one broad spectral band, all between 7 and 13 microns in either stare or time-delay and integration mode. The nominal spatial resolution was 1/4 kilometer. Using onboard calibrations along with periodic views of deep space, radiometric calibration of imagery was carried out and performance analyzed. The noise equivalent temperature difference and absolute accuracy reported here varied with operating mode, spectral band and scene temperature but were within requirements. This paper provides a description of the instrument, its operating modes, the method of brightness temperature retrieval, the method of spectral registration and results from the flight.

Spinhirne, James M; Scott, V. Stan; Lancaster, Redgie S.; Manizade, Kathrine; Palm, Steven P.

2000-01-01

385

On-orbit radiometric calibration over time and between spacecraft using the moon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) project has developed a spectral irradiance model of the Moon that accounts for variations with lunar phase through the bright half of a month, lunar librations, and the location of an Earth-orbiting spacecraft. The methodology of comparing spacecraft observations of the Moon with this model has been developed to a set of standardized procedures so that comparisons can be readily made. In the cases where observations extend over several years (e.g., SeaWiFS), instrument response degradation has been determined with precision of about 0.1% per year. Because of the strong dependence of lunar irradiance on geometric angles, observations by two spacecraft cannot be directly compared unless acquired at the same time and location. Rather, the lunar irradiance based on each spacecraft instrument calibration can be compared with the lunar irradiance model. Even single observations by an instrument allow inter-comparison of its radiometric scale with other instruments participating in the lunar calibration program. Observations by SeaWiFS, ALI, Hyperion and MTI are compared here.

Kieffer, H.H.; Stone, T.C.; Barnes, R.A.; Bender, S.; Eplee, R.E., Jr.; Mendenhall, J.; Ong, L.

2002-01-01

386

Radiometric calibration stability of the EO-1 advanced land imager: 5 years on-orbit  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) was developed as a prototype sensor for follow on missions to Landsat-7. It was launched in November 2000 on the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite as a nominal one-year technology demonstration mission. As of this writing, the sensor has continued to operate in excess of 5 years. Six of the ALl's nine multi-spectral (MS) bands and the panchromatic band have similar spectral coverage as those on the Landsat-7 ETM+. In addition to on-board lamps, which have been significantly more stable than the lamps on ETM+, the ALI has a solar diffuser and has imaged the moon monthly since launch. This combined calibration dataset allows understanding of the radiometric stability of the ALI system, its calibrators and some differentiation of the sources of the changes with time. The solar dataset is limited as the mechanism controlling the aperture to the solar diffuser failed approximately 18 months after launch. Results over 5 years indicate that: the shortest wavelength band (443 nm) has degraded in response about 2%; the 482 nm and 565 nm bands decreased in response about 1%; the 660 nm, 790 nm and 868 nm bands each degraded about 5%; the 1250 nm and 1650 nm bands did not change significantly and the 2215 nm band increased in response about 2%.

Markham, B.L.; Ong, L.; Barsi, J.A.; Mendenhall, J.A.; Lencioni, D.E.; Helder, D.L.; Hollaren, D.M.; Morfitt, R.

2006-01-01

387

Radiometric analysis of raw materials and end products in the Turkish ceramics industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the findings of radiometric analysis carried out to determine the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in raw materials (clay, kaolin, quartz, feldspar, dolomite, alumina, bauxite, zirconium minerals, red mud and frit) and end products (glazed ceramic wall and floor tiles) in the Turkish ceramics industry. Hundred forty-six samples were obtained from various manufacturers and suppliers throughout the country and analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometer with HPGe detectors. Radiological parameters such as radium equivalent activity, activity concentration index and alpha index were calculated to assess the radiological aspects of the use of the ceramic end products as decorative or covering materials in construction sector. Results obtained were examined in the light of the relevant national and international legislation and guidance and compared with the results of similar studies reported in different countries. The results suggest that the use of ceramic end product samples examined in the construction of dwellings, workplaces and industrial buildings in Turkey is unlikely to give rise to any significant radiation exposure to the occupants.

Turhan, ?.; Ar?kan, ?. H.; Demirel, H.; Gngr, N.

2011-05-01

388

Improved radiometric performance attained by an elliptical microwave antenna with suction.  

PubMed

We present a new way to securely mount a medical microwave antenna onto the human body for improved in vivo temperature measurements by microwave radiometry. A low cost and simple vacuum pressure source is used to provide suction (negative pressure) on the aperture of an elliptical antenna with vacuum chamber cavity backing. The concept offers improved electromechanical coupling between the antenna surface and the skin of the body. The proposed solution is evaluated experimentally to test repeatability of radiometric temperature measurements by remounting the antenna many times in one sequence on a given anatomical location. Four representative locations (hand, belly, hip, and chest) were used to test the suction antenna concept against anatomical curvature and load variations. Statistical analysis shows a marked decrease in the standard deviation of measured temperatures with the use of suction compared to conventional manual fixation. At repeated measurements, the vacuum antenna produces less uncertainty and improved estimate of the true lossy load temperature. During body movement, the antenna mounted at bone-filled areas shows greatest potential for improved performance. PMID:22020663

Klemetsen, ystein; Jacobsen, Svein

2012-01-01

389

Radiometric analysis of samples of domestic fish species and radiological implications.  

PubMed

Radiometric analysis of samples of commonly sold fish species in Pakistan were carried out for the measurement of concentrations of naturally occurring and artificial radionuclides. For this purpose, a high resolution Ge detector was employed. Mean concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (40)K in fish samples were 1.3 +/- 0.3, 1.0 +/- 0.2, and 90 +/- 15 Bq kg, respectively, whereas concentration of (137)Cs was not detected. The annual effective dose due to ingestion of these radionuclides through fish diet was evaluated to be 2.3 microSv y(-1). This value of effective dose is found much below the average radiation dose of 0.29 mSv y(-1) received per capita worldwide through ingestion of natural radionuclides during the consumption of food assessed by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. It is concluded that fish supplies in the markets from the domestic fish farms are free from radiological risks. These results may contribute to the national and regional data regarding radioactivity levels in domestic fish species. PMID:20386204

Tahir, S N A; Alaamer, A S; Ayub, M; Khan, M Z

2010-05-01

390

Analysis of hyperspectral field radiometric data for monitoring nitrogen concentration in rice crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring crop conditions and assessing nutrition requirements is fundamental for implementing sustainable agriculture. Rational nitrogen fertilization is of particular importance in rice crops in order to guarantee high production levels while minimising the impact on the environment. In fact, the typical flooded condition of rice fields can be a significant source of greenhouse gasses. Information on plant nitrogen concentration can be used, coupled with information about the phenological stage, to plan strategies for a rational and spatially differentiated fertilization schedule. A field experiment was carried out in a rice field Northern Italy, in order to evaluate the potential of field radiometric measurements for the prediction of rice nitrogen concentration. The results indicate that rice reflectance is influenced by nitrogen supply at certain wavelengths although N concentration cannot be accurately predicted based on the reflectance measured at a given wavelength. Regression analysis highlighted that the visible region of the spectrum is most sensitive to plant nitrogen concentration when reflectance measures are combined into a spectral index. An automated procedure allowed the analysis of all the possible combinations into a Normalized Difference Index (NDI) of the narrow spectral bands derived by spectral resampling of field measurements. The derived index appeared to be least influenced by plant biomass and Leaf Area Index (LAI) providing a useful approach to detect rice nutritional status. The validation of the regressive model showed that the model is able to predict rice N concentration (R2=0.55 [p<0.01] RRMSE=29.4; modelling efficiency close to the optimum value).

Stroppiana, D.; Boschetti, M.; Confalonieri, R.; Bocchi, S.; Brivio, P. A.

2005-10-01

391

Dynamic tool to estimate the measurement error in radiometric IR cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In various applications of Infrared (IR) Thermography there is need for measuring true surface temperatures. Modern radiometric IR cameras are equipped with sophisticated tools like internal temperature sensors or internal temperature references to provide stabilized temperature read-outs and can guarantee a specified accuracy. But these manufacturer's accuracy specifications are only valid for known objects and under controlled laboratory conditions. In field use there are external effects such as unknown object emissivity, reflections or absorption that can be compensated by means of mathematical models. These factors usually have a significant influence on the results thus making it difficult for the user to estimate the real accuracy of the measurement. This paper introduces a computer tool where the thermographic measurement situation has been implemented in an MS Excel spreadsheet file. The user can vary the measurement parameters in the spreadsheet very easily using graphic controls called sliders. In a mixed numeric and graphical presentation the user can get a feel for the influence of a certain parameter in a specific situation and the model provides a good estimate of the measurement accuracy under realistic conditions.

Schoenbach, Bernd

2001-03-01

392

Radiometric immunosorbent assay for the detection of anti-hormone-binding protein antibodies  

SciTech Connect

A radiometric immunosorbent assay (RISA) for the detection of monoclonal antibodies to hormone-binding proteins has been developed. The assay involves incubating hybridoma supernatants in microtiter wells that have been coated with goat anti-mouse IgG antibodies. Any mouse IgG in the test supernatant is thus specifically retained in the wells. Radioactive ligand-binding protein complexes are then incubated in the wells. The presence of anti-binding protein antibodies in the supernatant is indicated by specific retention of radioactive ligand-binding protein complexes in the wells. Crude antigen preparations, such as tissue homogenates, can be used to detect antibodies. The assay is capable of detecting antibody at concentrations 20 ng/ml (approx. 100 pM IgG). The RISA has been used successfully to screen for monoclonal antibodies to the intracellular receptor for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ and should be useful for the detection of antibodies to ligand-binding proteins in general.

Pierce, E.A.; Dame, M.C.; DeLuca, H.F.

1986-02-15

393

Radiometric measurement comparison using the Ocean Color Temperature Scanner (OCTS) visible and near infrared integrating sphere  

SciTech Connect

As part of the pre-flight calibration and validation activities for the Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color satellite instruments, a radiometric measurement comparison was held in February 1995 at the NEC Corporation in Yokohama, Japan. Researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center (UA), and the National Research Laboratory of Metrology (NRLM) in Tsukuba, Japan used their portable radiometers to measure the spectral radiance of the OCTS visible and near-infrared integrating sphere at four radiance levels. These four levels corresponded to the configuration of the OCTS integrating sphere when the calibration coefficients for five of the eight spectral channels, or bands, of the OCTS instrument were determined. The measurements of the four radiometers differed by {minus}2.7% to 3.9% when compared to the NEC calibration of the sphere and the overall agreement was within the combined measurement uncertainties. A comparison of the measurements from the participating radiometers also resulted in agreement within the combined measurement uncertainties. These results are encouraging and demonstrate the utility of comparisons using laboratory calibration integrating sphere sources. Other comparisons will focus on instruments that are scheduled for spacecraft in the NASA study of climate change, the Earth Observing System (EOS).

Johnson, B.C. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Sakuma, F. [National Research Lab. of Metrology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Butler, J.J. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center; Biggar, S.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Optical Sciences Center; Cooper, J.W. [Hughes STX Corp., Greenbelt, MD (United States); Ishida, J.; Suzuki, K. [NEC Corp., Yokohama (Japan). Space Systems Div.

1997-11-01

394

A Maximum Likelihood Approach to Determine Sensor Radiometric Response Coefficients for NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical sensors aboard Earth orbiting satellites such as the next generation Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) assume that the sensors radiometric response in the Reflective Solar Bands (RSB) is described by a quadratic polynomial, in relating the aperture spectral radiance to the sensor Digital Number (DN) readout. For VIIRS Flight Unit 1, the coefficients are to be determined before launch by an attenuation method, although the linear coefficient will be further determined on-orbit through observing the Solar Diffuser. In determining the quadratic polynomial coefficients by the attenuation method, a Maximum Likelihood approach is applied in carrying out the least-squares procedure. Crucial to the Maximum Likelihood least-squares procedure is the computation of the weight. The weight not only has a contribution from the noise of the sensor s digital count, with an important contribution from digitization error, but also is affected heavily by the mathematical expression used to predict the value of the dependent variable, because both the independent and the dependent variables contain random noise. In addition, model errors have a major impact on the uncertainties of the coefficients. The Maximum Likelihood approach demonstrates the inadequacy of the attenuation method model with a quadratic polynomial for the retrieved spectral radiance. We show that using the inadequate model dramatically increases the uncertainties of the coefficients. We compute the coefficient values and their uncertainties, considering both measurement and model errors.

Lei, Ning; Chiang, Kwo-Fu; Oudrari, Hassan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

2011-01-01

395

Estimation of the cloud transmittance from radiometric measurements at the ground level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extinction of solar radiation due to the clouds is more significant than due to any other atmospheric constituent, but it is always difficult to be modeled because of the random distribution of clouds on the sky. Moreover, the transmittance of a layer of clouds is in a very complex relation with their type and depth. A method for estimating cloud transmittance was proposed in Paulescu et al. (Energ. Convers. Manage, 75 690-697, 2014). The approach is based on the hypothesis that the structure of the cloud covering the sun at a time moment does not change significantly in a short time interval (several minutes). Thus, the cloud transmittance can be calculated as the estimated coefficient of a simple linear regression for the computed versus measured solar irradiance in a time interval ?t. The aim of this paper is to optimize the length of the time interval ?t. Radiometric data measured on the Solar Platform of the West University of Timisoara during 2010 at a frequency of 1/15 seconds are used in this study.

Costa, Dario; Mares, Oana

2014-11-01

396

Vitamins A & D Inhibit the Growth of Mycobacteria in Radiometric Culture  

PubMed Central

Background The role of vitamins in the combat of disease is usually conceptualized as acting by modulating the immune response of an infected, eukaryotic host. We hypothesized that some vitamins may directly influence the growth of prokaryotes, particularly mycobacteria. Methods The effect of four fat-soluble vitamins was studied in radiometric Bactec culture. The vitamins were A (including a precursor and three metabolites,) D, E and K. We evaluated eight strains of three mycobacterial species (four of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), two of M. avium and two of M. tb. complex). Principal Findings Vitamins A and D cause dose-dependent inhibition of all three mycobacterial species studied. Vitamin A is consistently more inhibitory than vitamin D. The vitamin A precursor, ?-carotene, is not inhibitory, whereas three vitamin A metabolites cause inhibition. Vitamin K has no effect. Vitamin E causes negligible inhibition in a single strain. Significance We show that vitamin A, its metabolites Retinyl acetate, Retinoic acid and 13-cis Retinoic acid and vitamin D directly inhibit mycobacterial growth in culture. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that complementing the immune response of multicellular organisms, vitamins A and D may have heretofore unproven, unrecognized, independent and probable synergistic, direct antimycobacterial inhibitory activity. PMID:22235314

Greenstein, Robert J.; Su, Liya; Brown, Sheldon T.

2012-01-01

397

Modelling radiometric properties of inhomogeneous mineral dust particles: Applicability and limitations of effective medium theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of inhomogeneous mineralogical composition on the optical properties of mineral dust particles is investigated. More specifically, spheres composed of a non-absorbing mineral with multiple spherical hematite inclusions are considered. The size of the particles, the number of inclusions, and the hematite volume fraction are varied, and the differential and integral optical properties are compared to those computed for homogeneous spheres. The effective refractive index of the homogeneous spheres is obtained (i) by use of four conventional effective medium approximations; and (ii) by freely varying the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index until a best-fit of the scattering matrix elements is achieved for all scattering angles and particle sizes. Among the integral radiometric observables, the single scattering albedo is most sensitive to particle inhomogeneity, while the extinction and scattering efficiency and the asymmetry parameter are rather insensitive. The phase function, the degree of linear polarisation, the linear depolarisation, and, indeed, all elements of the scattering matrix are strongly modulated by particle inhomogeneity. None of the effective medium approaches, not even the best-fit method, are able to reproduce the single scattering albedo and the scattering matrix elements over the entire range of particle sizes.

Kahnert, Michael

2015-02-01

398

ESR dates for the hominid burial site of Es Skhul in Israel.  

PubMed

The Middle East has been critical to our understanding of recent human evolution ever since the recovery of Neanderthal and early anatomically modern fossils from the caves of Tabun and Skhul (Mount Carmel) over 50 years ago. It was generally believed, on archaeological and morphological grounds, that middle eastern Neanderthals (such as those from Tabun, Amud and Kebara) probably dated from more than 50,000 years ago, whereas the earliest anatomically modern specimens (from Skhul and Qafzeh) probably dated from about 40,000 years. Recent thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance (ESR) determinations, however, have supported biostratigraphy in dating the Qafzeh deposits to an earlier part of the late Pleistocene, probably more than 90,000 years ago. These dates have been questioned on unspecified technical grounds, and it has also been argued that they create explanatory problems by separating the morphologically similar Qafzeh and Skhul samples by some 50,000 years, thus implying a long-term coexistence of early modern humans and Neanderthals in the area. Here we report the first radiometric dating analysis for Skhul, using ESR on bovine teeth from the hominid burial levels. Early uptake and linear uptake ages average 81 +/- 15 and 101 +/- 12 kyr respectively. These analyses suggest that the Skhul and Qafzeh samples are of a similar age and therefore it is possible that the presence of early modern humans in the area was episodic, rather than long-term during the early late Pleistocene. PMID:2541339

Stringer, C B; Grn, R; Schwarcz, H P; Goldberg, P

1989-04-27

399

Date a Rock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson shows students that age-dating rocks involves counting atoms and comparing the counts. Students use simulated rock samples, which show a highly magnified selection of 128 atoms, each sample with a different proportion of the atoms of two different elements: a parent radioisotope, and its daughter product. By counting the parent radioactive atoms and knowing the half-life of those atoms, students can figure the number of half-lives since the sample solidified, and therefore the age of the sample.

Kalumuck, Karen

400

Response to Baksi, A., 2012, 'New 40Ar/39Ar dating of the Grande Ronde lavas, Columbia River Basalts, USA: Implications for duration of flood basalt eruption episodes' by Barry et al., 2010Discussion'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Baksi (2012) claims that a number of radiometric ages presented in Barry et al. (2010) are statistically invalid and that many of the samples were altered, thus not able to date the eruptions, and that there is no compelling evidence for a limited duration for the eruption of the Grande Ronde Basalts (GR Basalts), USA. However, Baksi (2012), has simply reiterated some of the assessment of the data presented in the paper and has used an 'Alteration Index', in order to assess the data. The 'Alteration Index' commonly shows that basaltic groundmass is altered and from this Baksi (2012) deduces that the ages are incorrect. In contrast, much work on young volcanics has shown that phenocrysts are often sources of incorrect ages. In any assessment of data, we maintain that whilst alteration is an important consideration, the best approach should include not just alteration, but also experimental reproducibility, stratigraphic order, comparison with other analyses, and analytical techniques, and that the application of an 'Alteration Index' is not a straightforward guide to the validity of an age.

Barry, T. L.; Self, S.; Kelley, S. P.; Reidel, S.; Hooper, P.; Widdowson, M.

2012-08-01

401

A simple and effective radiometric correction method to improve landscape change detection across sensors and across time  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Satellite data offer unrivaled utility in monitoring and quantifying large scale land cover change over time. Radiometric consistency among collocated multi-temporal imagery is difficult to maintain, however, due to variations in sensor characteristics, atmospheric conditions, solar angle, and sensor view angle that can obscure surface change detection. To detect accurate landscape change using multi-temporal images, we developed a variation of the pseudoinvariant feature (PIF) normalization scheme: the temporally invariant cluster (TIC) method. Image data were acquired on June 9, 1990 (Landsat 4), June 20, 2000 (Landsat 7), and August 26, 2001 (Landsat 7) to analyze boreal forests near the Siberian city of Krasnoyarsk using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), and reduced simple ratio (RSR). The temporally invariant cluster (TIC) centers were identified via a point density map of collocated pixel VIs from the base image and the target image, and a normalization regression line was created to intersect all TIC centers. Target image VI values were then recalculated using the regression function so that these two images could be compared using the resulting common radiometric scale. We found that EVI was very indicative of vegetation structure because of its sensitivity to shadowing effects and could thus be used to separate conifer forests from deciduous forests and grass/crop lands. Conversely, because NDVI reduced the radiometric influence of shadow, it did not allow for distinctions among these vegetation types. After normalization, correlations of NDVI and EVI with forest leaf area index (LAI) field measurements combined for 2000 and 2001 were significantly improved; the r 2 values in these regressions rose from 0.49 to 0.69 and from 0.46 to 0.61, respectively. An EVI "cancellation effect" where EVI was positively related to understory greenness but negatively related to forest canopy coverage was evident across a post fire chronosequence with normalized data. These findings indicate that the TIC method provides a simple, effective and repeatable method to create radiometrically comparable data sets for remote detection of landscape change. Compared to some previous relative radiometric normalization methods, this new method does not require high level programming and statistical skills, yet remains sensitive to landscape changes occurring over seasonal and inter-annual time scales. In addition, the TIC method maintains sensitivity to subtle changes in vegetation phenology and enables normalization even when invariant features are rare. While this normalization method allowed detection of a range of land use, land cover, and phenological/biophysical changes in the Siberian boreal forest region studied here, it is necessary to further examine images representing a wide variety of ecoregions to thoroughly evaluate the TIC method against other normalization schemes. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Chen, X.; Vierling, L.; Deering, D.

2005-01-01

402

Development of radiometric assays for quantification of enzyme activities of the key enzymes of thyroid hormones metabolism.  

PubMed

We newly elaborated and adapted several radiometric enzyme assays for the determination of activities of the key enzymes engaged in the biosynthesis (thyroid peroxidase, TPO) and metabolic transformations (conjugating enzymes and iodothyronine deiodinases, IDs) of thyroid hormones (THs) in the thyroid gland and in peripheral tissues, especially in white adipose tissue (WAT). We also elaborated novel, reliable radiometric methods for extremely sensitive determination of enzyme activities of IDs of types 1, 2 and 3 in microsomal fractions of different rat and human tissues, as well as in homogenates of cultured mammalian cells. The use of optimized TLC separation of radioactive products from the unconsumed substrates and film-less autoradiography of radiochromatograms, taking advantage of storage phosphor screens, enabled us to determine IDs enzyme activities as low as 10(-18) katals. In studies of the interaction of fluoxetine (Fluox) with the metabolism of THs, we applied adapted radiometric enzyme assays for iodothyronine sulfotransferases (ST) and uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronyltransferase (UDP-GT). Fluox is the most frequently used representative of a new group of non-tricyclic antidepressant drugs--selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors. We used the elaborated assays for quantification the effects of Fluox and for the assessment of the degree of potential induction of rat liver ST and/or UDP-GT enzyme activities by Fluox alone or in combination with T(3). Furthermore, we studied possible changes in IDs activities in murine adipose tissue under the conditions that promoted either tissue hypertrophy (obesogenic treatment) or involution (caloric restriction), and in response to leptin, using our newly developed radiometric enzyme assays for IDs. Our results suggest that deiodinase D1 has a functional role in WAT, with D1 possibly being involved in the control of adipose tissue metabolism and/or accumulation of the tissue. Significant positive correlation between specific enzyme activity of D1 in WAT and plasma leptin levels was found. The newly developed and adapted radiometric enzyme assays proved to be very useful tools for studies of factors modulating THs metabolism, not only in model animals but also in clinical studies of human obesity. PMID:24564653

Pavelka, S

2014-01-01

403

Date Attachable Offline Electronic Cash Scheme  

PubMed Central

Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling. PMID:24982931

Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

2014-01-01

404

Date attachable offline electronic cash scheme.  

PubMed

Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling. PMID:24982931

Fan, Chun-I; Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

2014-01-01

405

DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL DATING OF EASTERN RED CEDAR (JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA L.) LOGS FROM ALFRED'S CABIN,  

E-print Network

DENDROCHRONOLOGICAL DATING OF EASTERN RED CEDAR (JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA L.) LOGS FROM ALFRED'S CABIN these techniques been applied to sites and Structures in the Southeastern U.S. Here, dendrochronology has been most preclude successful application of tree-ring dating techniques. Dendrochronological techniques are rapidly

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

406

A&AA Faculty & Student Services. Date: ______________  

E-print Network

A&AA Faculty & Student Services. Date: ______________ Date: ______________ Office Use: ____________ Added to authorization list ____________ Printed updated list A&AA Faculty & Student Services. Date list A&AA Faculty & Student Services. Date: ______________ Date: ______________ Office Use

407

Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

2009-01-01

408

Color image processing for date quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many agricultural non-contact visual inspection applications use color image processing techniques because color is often a good indicator of product quality. Color evaluation is an essential step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. Most color spaces such as RGB and HSV represent colors with three-dimensional data, which makes using color image processing a challenging task. Since most agricultural applications only require analysis on a predefined set or range of colors, mapping these relevant colors to a small number of indexes allows simple and efficient color image processing for quality evaluation. This paper presents a simple but efficient color mapping and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time quality evaluation of Medjool dates. In contrast with more complex color image processing techniques, the proposed color mapping method makes it easy for a human operator to specify and adjust color-preference settings for different color groups representing distinct quality levels. Using this color mapping technique, the color image is first converted to a color map that has one color index represents a color value for each pixel. Fruit maturity level is evaluated based on these color indices. A skin lamination threshold is then determined based on the fruit surface characteristics. This adaptive threshold is used to detect delaminated fruit skin and hence determine the fruit quality. The performance of this robust color grading technique has been used for real-time Medjool date grading.

Lee, Dah Jye; Archibald, James K.

2010-01-01

409

StarDate Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the longest-running science feature in the United States, StarDate has covered everything from the Big Dipper to super novas. The program serves as the public education and outreach arm of the University of Texas McDonald Observatory, and is broadcast in both Spanish and English. Visitors can listen to their latest radio program, and there is so much more to take in on this fine site. Amateur astronomers will want to look at their daily "Stargazing Tip" which is featured on the homepage, and then can look at the "Featured Image". After that, it's definitely worthwhile to look more closely into the "Stargazing" section. This section includes weekly tips, a stargazing almanac, a beginner's guide, and tips for viewing the planets and meteors. Finally, educators will want to look at the "Teachers" section, as it features lesson plans and classroom activities.

410

Preliminary Assessment of Suomi-NPP VIIRS On-orbit Radiometric Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key instrument on-board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft that was launched on October 28th 2011. VIIRS was designed to provide moderate and imaging resolution of most of the globe twice daily. It is a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer with spatial resolutions of 370.and 740 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. It has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.412 11m and 12.01 11m, including 14 reflective solar bands (RSB), 7 thermal emissive bands (TEB), and 1 day-night band (ON B). VIIRS observations are used to generate 22 environmental data products (EORs). This paper will briefly describe NPP VIIRS calibration strategies performed by the independent government team, for the initial on-orbit Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) activities. In addition, this paper will provide an early assessment of the sensor on-orbit radiometric performance, such as the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dual gain transition verification, dynamic range and linearity, reflective bands calibration based on the solar diffuser (SO) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SOSM), and emissive bands calibration based on the on-board blackbody calibration (OBC). A comprehensive set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to VIIRS on-orbit early performance, and a plan for future cal/val activities and performance enhancements will be presented.

Oudrari, Hassan; DeLuccia, Frank; McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; Chiang, Vincent; Xiong, Xiao-xiong; Butler, James

2012-01-01

411

Absolute radiometric calibration of Landsat using a pseudo invariant calibration site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pseudo invariant calibration sites (PICS) have been used for on-orbit radiometric trending of optical satellite systems for more than 15 years. This approach to vicarious calibration has demonstrated a high degree of reliability and repeatability at the level of 1-3% depending on the site, spectral channel, and imaging geometries. A variety of sensors have used this approach for trending because it is broadly applicable and easy to implement. Models to describe the surface reflectance properties, as well as the intervening atmosphere have also been developed to improve the precision of the method. However, one limiting factor of using PICS is that an absolute calibration capability has not yet been fully developed. Because of this, PICS are primarily limited to providing only long term trending information for individual sensors or cross-calibration opportunities between two sensors. This paper builds an argument that PICS can be used more extensively for absolute calibration. To illustrate this, a simple empirical model is developed for the well-known Libya 4 PICS based on observations by Terra MODIS and EO-1 Hyperion. The model is validated by comparing model predicted top-of-atmosphere reflectance values to actual measurements made by the Landsat ETM+ sensor reflective bands. Following this, an outline is presented to develop a more comprehensive and accurate PICS absolute calibration model that can be Systme international d'units (SI) traceable. These initial concepts suggest that absolute calibration using PICS is possible on a broad scale and can lead to improved on-orbit calibration capabilities for optical satellite sensors.

Helder, D.; Thome, K.J.; Mishra, N.; Chander, G.; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, A.; Choi, Tae-young

2013-01-01

412

AVHRR, MODIS, and VIIRS radiometric stability and consistency in SST bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of IR Clear-Sky Radiances over Oceans for SST (MICROS; www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/sod/sst/micros) is NESDIS near-real time web-based radiance monitoring system. It analyzes Model (Community Radiative Transfer Model, CRTM) minus Observation (M-O) biases in brightness temperatures (BT) in three bands centered at 3.7 (IR37), 11 (IR11), and 12 m (IR12), for several AVHRR (NOAA-16, -17, -18, -19, Metop-A, -B), VIIRS (Suomi National Polar Partnership, S-NPP), and MODIS (Terra, Aqua) sensors. Double-differences (DD) are employed to check BTs for radiometric stability and consistency. All sensors are stable, with the exception of two AVHRRs, onboard NOAA-16 and to a lesser extent NOAA-18, and generally consistent. VIIRS onboard S-NPP, launched in October 2011, is well in-family, especially after its calibration was fine-tuned on 7 March 2012. MODIS M-O biases were initially out-of-family by up to -0.6 K, due to incorrect CRTM transmittance coefficients. Following MICROS feedback, CRTM Team updated coefficients and brought MODIS back in-family. Terra and Aqua BTs are very consistent in IR11 and IR12 but show cross-platform bias of 0.3 K in IR37, likely attributed to MODIS characterization. Work with MODIS Characterization Support Team is underway to resolve this. Initial analyses of AVHRR onboard Metop-B launched in September 2012 suggest that its BTs are offset from Metop-A by up to 0.3 K. Overall, MICROS DDs are well suited to evaluate the sensors stability, but dedicated effort is needed to ensure consistent radiative transfer modeling (RTM) calculations for various sensors before DDs can be used in Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) quantitative applications.

Liang, Xingming; Ignatov, Alexander

2013-06-01

413

Radiometric analysis of farmed fish (sea bass, gilthead bream, and rainbow trout) from Tenerife Island, Spain.  

PubMed

This study analyzed the content of gamma-emitting radionuclides in fish farmed on the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain). The fish species included in this study were sea bass, gilthead bream, and rainbow trout. The first two species are produced in offshore enclosures, while the third is produced in a freshwater fish farm. All measurements were performed using two high-purity germanium gamma-ray detectors. The content of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the fodder used to feed the different species of farmed fish studied was also determined. The following nuclides were often detected in the analyzed samples: 137Cs, 40K, 235U, 228Ac, 214Bi, 208Tl, 212Pb, and 214Pb. As a complement to this analysis, 210Po concentrations in two fish samples were determined by alpha spectrometry. The nuclide presenting the highest concentration was, as expected, the naturally occurring 40K, with an average concentration of 0.13 +/- 0.01 Bq/g (wet weight) (Bq/gww) in gilthead bream and sea bass and 0.12 +/- 0.01 Bq/gww in rainbow trout. The 235U concentrations determined in the same fish species were 0.6 +/- 0.5, 0.8 +/- 0.7, and 1.6 +/- 1.0 mBq/gww, respectively. This nuclide is seldom reported in fish samples. The concentrations of 137Cs (the only artificial nuclide determined in this study) in gilthead bream and sea bass were 0.026 +/- 0.006 and 0.044 +/- 0.01 mBq/gww, respectively. In addition to the radiometric analysis, the contribution of the analyzed nuclides to the effective dose from the mean daily intake of the fish was calculated. The calculated contribution, in terms of dose per person, produced by intake of the analyzed fish was 0.8 microSv/year. This value does not represent a significant risk to the local population. PMID:19777898

Jalili, A; Lpez-Prez, M; Karlsson, L; Hernndez, F; Rubio, C; Hernndez-Armas, J; Hardisson, A

2009-09-01

414

Preliminary assessment of Suomi-NPP VIIRS on-orbit radiometric performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Visible-Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is a key instrument on-board the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft that was launched on October 28th 2011. VIIRS was designed to provide moderate and imaging resolution of the planet Earth twice daily. It is a wide-swath (3,040 km) cross-track scanning radiometer with spatial resolutions of 375 m and 750 m at nadir for imaging and moderate bands, respectively. It has 22 spectral bands covering the spectrum between 0.4 ?m and 12.5 ?m, including 14 reflective solar bands (RSB), 7 thermal emissive bands (TEB), and 1 day-night band (DNB). VIIRS observations are used to generate 22 environmental data record (EDRs). This paper will briefly describe NPP VIIRS calibration strategies performed by the independent government team, for the initial on-orbit Intensive Calibration and Validation (ICV) activities. In addition, this paper will provide an early assessment of the sensor on-orbit radiometric performance, such as the sensor signal to noise ratios (SNRs), dual gain transition verification, dynamic range and linearity, reflective bands calibration based on the solar diffuser (SD) and solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM), emissive bands calibration based on the on-board blackbody calibration (OBC), and cross-comparison with MODIS. A comprehensive set of performance metrics generated during the pre-launch testing program will be compared to VIIRS early on-orbit performance, and a plan for future cal/val activities and performance enhancements will be presented.

Oudrari, Hassan; McIntire, Jeff; Moyer, David; Chiang, Kwofu; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, James

2012-09-01

415

Fall 2013-Timeline Dates-Coop & Internships important dates to remember Fall 2013-Key Academic dates  

E-print Network

Fall 2013-Timeline Dates-Coop & Internships important dates to remember Fall 2013- Key Academic advisors will begin meeting with students who are applying for New Fall 2013 Co-op and Internships August12 19, 2013 Fall classes begin August 19, 2013 Earliest date to start Fall 2013 Co-ops and Internships

416

Correlation and dating of Quaternary alluvial-fan surfaces using scarp diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Great interest has recently been focused on dating and interpreting alluvial-fan surfaces. As a complement to the radiometric methods often used for surface-exposure dating, this paper illustrates a rapid method for correlating and dating fan surfaces using the cross-sectional shape of gullies incised into fan surfaces. The method applies a linear hillslope-diffusion model to invert for the diffusivity age, ?t (m 2), using an elevation profile or gradient (slope) profile. Gullies near the distal end of fan surfaces are assumed to form quickly following fan entrenchment. Scarps adjacent to these gullies provide a measure of age. The method is illustrated on fan surfaces with ages of approximately 10 ka to 1.2 Ma in the arid southwestern United States. Two areas of focus are Death Valley, California, and the Ajo Mountains piedmont, Arizona. Gully-profile morphology is measured in two ways: by photometrically derived gradient (slope) profiles and by ground-surveyed elevation profiles. The ?t values determined using ground-surveyed profiles are more consistent than those determined using photo-derived ?t values. However, the mean ?t values of both methods are comparable. The photometric method provides an efficient way to quantitatively and objectively correlate and relatively-date alluvial-fan surfaces. The ?t values for each surface are determined to approximately 30-50% accuracy.

Hsu, Leslie; Pelletier, Jon D.

2004-06-01

417

AMS carbon-14 dating of ice: progress and future prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ``sublimation technique'' for the recovery of carbon dioxide from ice samples and the conversion of the recovered carbon dioxide into graphite for AMS dating will be described, together with its use in some applications. The technique involves placing the ice sample in a carefully degassed glass vacuum system, ``cleaning'' the ice by removing the outer few millimeters by sublimation,

A. T. Wilson; D. J. Donahue

1990-01-01

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