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1

Radiometric Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by Pamela J. W. Gore at Georgia Perimeter College, provides a concise explanation of the geologic principles of radiometric dating. Students can learn about the fundamentals of half lives, isotopes, and dating minerals. There are also descriptions of how Carbon-14 and Fission Track dating work.

Gore, Pamela J.

2008-03-12

2

Tulane University: Radiometric Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The fourth website, developed by Professor Stephen A. Nelson at Tulane University, provides a detailed mathematical explanation of the principles of radiometric dating. The site is divided into sections which include: Principles of Radiometric Dating; The Rb/Sr System; The U, Th, Pb System; and The Age of the Earth. Other dating methods are covered briefly as well, such as potassium argon (K-Ar) dating and carbon-14. Professor Nelson concludes with a description of other users of isotopes.

Nelson, Stephen A.

2008-03-12

3

Radiometric Dating Does Work!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the accuracy of dating methods and creationist arguments that radiometric dating does not work. Explains the Manson meteorite impact and the Pierre shale, the ages of meteorites, the K-T tektites, and dating the Mount Vesuvius eruption. (Author/YDS)

Dalrymple, G. Brent

2000-01-01

4

Radiometric Dating in Geology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

Pankhurst, R. J.

1980-01-01

5

Absolute Time Radiometric Dating: the source of the dates on  

E-print Network

measured with a mass spectrometer. · 2. The decay constant measured by a scintillometer. Basis Time Scale · Radiometric dates from igneous rocks can be used to indirectly date sedimentary rocksAbsolute Time Radiometric Dating: the source of the dates on the Geologic Time Scale Radiometric

Kammer, Thomas

6

Topic in Depth - Radiometric Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There have been many modern scientific pushes to discover the age of natural and human-made artifacts and this folder describes some of them. Carbon-14 and Potassium Argon dating are just a few covered here in lesson plans, lectures, and overviews.

2010-09-13

7

Infrared radiometric technique in temperature measurement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One class of commercially available imaging infrared radiometers using cooled detectors is sensitive to radiation over the 3 to 12 micron wavelength band. Spectral filters can tailor instrument sensitivity to specific regions where the target exhibits optimum radiance. The broadband spectral response coupled with real time two-dimensional imaging and emittance/background temperature corrections make the instruments useful for remote measurement of surface temperatures from -20 C to +1500 C. Commonly used radiometric techniques and assumptions are discussed, and performance specifications for a typical modern commercial instrument are presented. The potential usefulness of an imaging infrared radiometer in space laboratories is highlighted through examples of research, nondestructive evaluation, safety, and routine maintenance applications. Future improvements in instrument design and application of the radiometric technique are discussed.

Glazer, S.; Madding, R.

1988-01-01

8

Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000-year-old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica  

PubMed Central

We present successful 81Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ?350-kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The 81Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by (i) 85Kr and 39Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination and (ii) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the 81Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 130115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samples are available, greatly enhancing their scientific value as archives of old ice and meteorites. At present, ATTA 81Kr analysis requires a 4080-kg ice sample; as sample requirements continue to decrease, 81Kr dating of ice cores is a future possibility. PMID:24753606

Buizert, Christo; Baggenstos, Daniel; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V.; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Muller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.; Brook, Edward J.

2014-01-01

9

Radiometric 81Kr dating identifies 120,000 year old ice at Taylor Glacier, Antarctica  

E-print Network

We present the first successful 81Kr-Kr radiometric dating of ancient polar ice. Krypton was extracted from the air bubbles in four ~350 kg polar ice samples from Taylor Glacier in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, and dated using Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). The 81Kr radiometric ages agree with independent age estimates obtained from stratigraphic dating techniques with a mean absolute age offset of 6 +/- 2.5 ka. Our experimental methods and sampling strategy are validated by 1) 85Kr and 39Ar analyses that show the samples to be free of modern air contamination, and 2) air content measurements that show the ice did not experience gas loss. We estimate the error in the 81Kr ages due to past geomagnetic variability to be below 3 ka. We show that ice from the previous interglacial period (MIS 5e, 130-115 ka before present) can be found in abundance near the surface of Taylor Glacier. Our study paves the way for reliable radiometric dating of ancient ice in blue ice areas and margin sites where large samp...

Buizert, Christo; Jiang, Wei; Purtschert, Roland; Petrenko, Vasilii V; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Mueller, Peter; Kuhl, Tanner; Lee, James; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P; Brook, Edward J

2014-01-01

10

GEOL 103 Writing Assignment 4: Radiometric Dating Name _KEY______________ Lab section: Monday or Tuesday (circle one)  

E-print Network

in a mass spectrometer. 5. 40 K is decaying to 40 Ar all the time, but 40 Ar is a gas and can escape (of U, K, Rb, Sr, etc) used in dating have different blocking temperatures. daught er parent Fig. 9GEOL 103 Writing Assignment 4: Radiometric Dating Name _KEY______________ Lab section: Monday

Kirby, Carl S.

11

How Old Is It? How Do We Know? A Review of Dating Methods Part One: Relative Dating, Absolute Dating, and Non-radiometric Dating Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Davis A. Young The essential ideas behind the major methods for assessing the relative ages of geological and archeological materials and events are reviewed. These include the principles of original horizontality, superposition, inclusion, cross-cutting relations, and cross-dating by index fossils (biological succession) or artifacts. Some general principles of absolute dating are intro- duced, and, as representatives of non-radiometric methods, tree-ring,

Davis A. Young

12

Radiometric dating of lake sediments from Signy Island (maritime Antarctic): evidence of recent climatic change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores from three lakes (Moss, Sombre and Heywood) in the maritime Antarctic (Signy Island, South Orkney Islands) have been successfully dated radiometrically by210Pb and137Cs. The core inventories of both fallout radionuclides are an order of magnitude higher than that which can be supported by the direct atmospheric flux at this latitude. The elevated values may be explained by fallout

P. G. Appleby; V. J. Jones; J. C. Ellis-Evans

1995-01-01

13

In situ radiometric dating on Mars: Investigation of the feasibility of KAr dating using flight-type mass and X-ray spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absolute chronology of Mars is poorly known and, as a consequence, a key science aim is to perform accurate radiometric dating of martian geological materials. The scientific benefits of in situ radiometric dating are significant and arguably of most importance is the calibration of the martian cratering rate, similar to what has been achieved for the Moon, to reduce

D. L. Talboys; S. Barber; J. C. Bridges; S. P. Kelley; D. Pullan; A. B. Verchovsky; G. Butcher; A. Fazel; G. W. Fraser; C. T. Pillinger; M. R. Sims; I. P. Wright

2009-01-01

14

Calibrating Late Quaternary terrestrial climate signals: radiometrically dated pollen evidence from the southern Sierra Nevada, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We constructed a radiometrically calibrated proxy record of Late Pleistocene and Holocene climate change exceeding 230,000 yr duration, using pollen profiles from two cores taken through age-equivalent dry lakes - one core having greater age control (via 230Th alpha mass-spectrometry) and the other having greater stratigraphic completeness. The better dated of these two serial pollen records (Searles Lake) served as a reference section for improving the effective radiometric age control in a nearby and more complete pollen record (Owens Lake) because they: (1) are situated ~90 km apart in the same drainage system (on, and immediately leeward of, the eastern flank of the Sierra Nevada), and (2) preserved strikingly similar pollen profiles and concordant sequences of sedimentological changes. Pollen assemblages from both lakes are well preserved and diverse, and document serial changes in Late Pleistocene and Holocene plant zone distribution and composition in the westernmost Great Basin; they consist of taxa now inhabiting montane forest, woodland, steppe, and desert-scrub environments. The studied core intervals are interpreted here to be the terrestrial equivalent of marine ?18O stages 1 through 9; these pollen profiles now appear to be among the best radiometrically dated Late Pleistocene records of terrestrial climate change known.

Litwin, Ronald J.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Durika, Nancy J.; Smith, George I.

1999-01-01

15

Dating Techniques in Archaeology and Paleoanthropology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some of the new physical dating methods being used by archaeologists and paleoanthropologists to study the material remains of ancient primates. Describes the quaternary physical dating techniques, advances in radiocarbon dating, and the radiocalcium data method. (TW)

Taylor, R. E.

1987-01-01

16

Dating techniques in archaeology and paleoanthropology  

SciTech Connect

Archaeologists have an increasing array of physical dating methods at their disposal. R.E. Taylor of the University of California discusses available techniques, recent advances in radiocarbon dating, and current developments in radiocalcium dating.

Taylor, R.E.

1987-02-15

17

Radiometrically determined dates and sedimentation rates for recent sediments in nine North African wetland lakes (the CASSARINA Project)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores were collected from nine wetland lakes in Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt for the CASSARINA project investigating environmental change in Northern African wetlands. The cores were dated radiometrically by using natural (210Pb) and artificial (137Cs and 241Am) radionuclides. At sites in Morocco and Tunisia with mean annual rainfall totals ranging from 5001000 mm yr-1, fallout records were generally satisfactory

P. G. Appleby; H. H. Birks; R. J. Flower; N. Rose; S. M. Peglar; M. Ramdani; M. M. Kraem; A. A. Fathi

2001-01-01

18

Radiometric dating of the type-site for Homo heidelbergensis at Mauer, Germany.  

PubMed

The Mauer mandible, holotype of Homo heidelbergensis, was found in 1907 in fluvial sands deposited by the Neckar River 10 km southeast of Heidelberg, Germany. The fossil is an important key to understanding early human occupation of Europe north of the Alps. Given the associated mammal fauna and the geological context, the find layer has been placed in the early Middle Pleistocene, but confirmatory chronometric evidence has hitherto been missing. Here we show that two independent techniques, the combined electron spin resonance/U-series method used with mammal teeth and infrared radiofluorescence applied to sand grains, date the type-site of Homo heidelbergensis at Mauer to 609 40 ka. This result demonstrates that the mandible is the oldest hominin fossil reported to date from central and northern Europe and raises questions concerning the phyletic relationship of Homo heidelbergensis to more ancient populations documented from southern Europe and in Africa. We address the paleoanthropological significance of the Mauer jaw in light of this dating evidence. PMID:21041630

Wagner, Gnther A; Krbetschek, Matthias; Degering, Detlev; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Shao, Qingfeng; Falgures, Christophe; Voinchet, Pierre; Dolo, Jean-Michel; Garcia, Tristan; Rightmire, G Philip

2010-11-16

19

Ar-Ar dating techniques for terrestrial meteorite impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ages of the largest (>100 km) known impacts on Earth are now well characterised. However the ages of many intermediate sized craters (20-100 km) are still poorly known, often the only constraints are stratigraphic - the difference between the target rock age and the age of crater filling sediments. The largest impacts result in significant melt bodies which cool to form igneous rocks and can be dated using conventional radiometric techniques. Smaller impacts give rise to thin bands of melted rock or melt clasts intimately mixed with country rock clasts in breccia deposits, and present much more of a challenge to dating. The Ar-Ar dating technique can address a wide variety of complex and heterogeneous samples associated with meteorite impacts and obtain reasonable ages. Ar-Ar results will be presented from a series of terrestrial meteorite impact craters including Boltysh (65.170.64 Ma, Strangways (64642 Ma), and St Martin (22032 Ma) and a Late Triassic spherule bed, possibly representing distal deposits from Manicouagan (2141 Ma) crater. Samples from the Boltysh and Strangways craters demonstrate the importance of rapid cooling upon the retention of old ages in glassy impact rocks. A Late Triassic spherule bed in SW England is cemented by both carbonate and K-feldspar cements allowing Ar-Ar dating of fine grained cement to place a mimimum age upon the age of the associated impact. An age of 214.72.5 Ma places the deposit with errors of the age of the Manicouagan impact, raising the possibility that it may represent a distal deposit (the deposit lay around 2000 km away from the site of the Manicouagan crater during the Late Triassic). Finally the limits of the technique will be demonstrated using an attempt to date melt rocks from the St Martin Crater in Canada.

Kelley, S. P.

2003-04-01

20

Teaching radioactive decay & radiometric dating: an analog activity based on fluid dynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A fluid flowing from an upper beaker into a lower beaker (shampoo in this case) behaves mathematically identically to radioactive decay, mimicking the exponential decay process, dependent on the amount of fluid in the upper beaker (representing the amount of parent isotopes) and the size of the hole in the beaker (representing the decay constant). Students measure the fluid depth with time for several "runs" with varied conditions, then graph their results, create decay equations, manipulate these equations and use them to "date" another experiment. They then apply their new understanding to make predictions regarding complications involved in the decay process and its use in dating (such as daughter loss). Developed by Lily Claiborne and Calvin Miller.

Grundstrom, Erika

21

The Dating Game: Radioactive Half-Life and Dating Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity using M&M candy, students will explore the concepts of radioactive decay and dating. Students generate a radioactive decay table to simplify the math, use their data to plot a decay graph, develop the concept of half-life, and then use the graph to find the age of a mummified seal in Wright Valley, Antarctica. In a follow-up exercise, students will solve a mysterious Arctic murder.

Tulley, Hillary

22

NASA IKONOS Radiometric Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this program: Perform radiometric vicarious calibrations of IKQNOS imagery and compare with Space Imaging calibration coefficients The approach taken: utilize multiple well-characterized sites which are widely used by the NASA science community for radiometric characterization of airborne and spaceborne sensors; and to Perform independent characterizations with independent teams. Each team has slightly different measurement techniques and data processing methods.

Pagnutti, Mary; Frisbee, Troy; Zanoni, Vicki; Blonski, Slawek; Daehler, Erik; Grant, Brennan; Holekamp, Kara; Ryan, Robert; Sellers, Richard; Smith, Charles

2002-01-01

23

Radiometric Calibration of the AWiFS Using Vicarious Calibration Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiometric calibration assessment of the AWiFS (Advanced Wide Field Sensor) on the Indian Remote Sensing Resourcesat-1 satellite was performed by the NASA Applied Research & Technology Project Office (formerly the Applied Sciences Directorate) at the John C. Stennis Space Center. A reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, requiring ground-based measurements coincident with satellite acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations, was used to estimate at-sensor radiance. The AWiFS is a 4-band, multispectral, moderate-resolution (60 m) imaging sensor that operates in the visible through short-wave infrared spectrum and is currently being considered as a Landsat-like alternative. Several study sites near the Stennis Space Center that attempted to span the dynamic range of the sensor were employed. Satellite at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated to determine the sensor's radiometric accuracy. The results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of the radiometric accuracy of AWiFS image products, which are commercially available through GeoEye. These results are an extension of an independent assessment made by the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group, the South Dakota State University Satellite Calibration Group & Image Processing Lab, and the NASA Applied Sciences Directorate at the John C. Stennis Space Center the previous year.

Pagnutti, Mary; Holekamp, Kara

2007-01-01

24

A comparison of radiometric correction techniques in the evaluation of the relationship between LST and NDVI in Landsat imagery.  

PubMed

Atmospheric corrections for multi-temporal optical satellite images are necessary, especially in change detection analyses, such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) rationing. Abrupt change detection analysis using remote-sensing techniques requires radiometric congruity and atmospheric correction to monitor terrestrial surfaces over time. Two atmospheric correction methods were used for this study: relative radiometric normalization and the simplified method for atmospheric correction (SMAC) in the solar spectrum. A multi-temporal data set consisting of two sets of Landsat images from the period between 1991 and 2002 of Penang Island, Malaysia, was used to compare NDVI maps, which were generated using the proposed atmospheric correction methods. Land surface temperature (LST) was retrieved using ATCOR3_T in PCI Geomatica 10.1 image processing software. Linear regression analysis was utilized to analyze the relationship between NDVI and LST. This study reveals that both of the proposed atmospheric correction methods yielded high accuracy through examination of the linear correlation coefficients. To check for the accuracy of the equation obtained through linear regression analysis for every single satellite image, 20 points were randomly chosen. The results showed that the SMAC method yielded a constant value (in terms of error) to predict the NDVI value from linear regression analysis-derived equation. The errors (average) from both proposed atmospheric correction methods were less than 10%. PMID:21755424

Tan, Kok Chooi; Lim, Hwee San; Matjafri, Mohd Zubir; Abdullah, Khiruddin

2012-06-01

25

Radiometric dating/techniques The International Encyclopedia of Geography: People, the Earth,  

E-print Network

: People, the Earth, Environment, and Technology Manuscript ID: IEGE-13-0077.R1 Wiley - Manuscript type Figure 1. The Mississippi River just north of the Atchafalaya River undergoes avulsions frequently, where Valley and important geographic locations discussed in the case study. U - Upham, N ­ Norcross, and H

Dorn, Ron

26

Paleomagnetic Secular Variation (PSV), 137Cs, and Hg dating techniques  

E-print Network

Paleomagnetic Secular Variation (PSV), 137Cs, and Hg dating techniques Matt Poole G610 Holocene) #12;Calendar-year depth model for PLB98-2 #12;Paleomagnetic Secular Variation (PSV) · Refers to small not preserve » Higher rates of deposition = higher accuracy #12;Paleomagnetic Secular Variation (PSV) · (Lund

Fountain, Andrew G.

27

Safeguards applications of far infrared radiometric techniques for the detection of contraband  

SciTech Connect

A new safeguards system under development employs radiometers in the 100 to 300 GHz spectral band to detect contraband, including shielding materials (used to attenuate the gamma ray emissions from nuclear materials), weapons, or explosives covertly concealed on personnel. Clothing is highly transparent at these frequencies and imaging techniques can detect contraband by its emissivity and reflectivity differences relative to human tissues. Experimental data are presented and sample images are used as a basis to discuss system advantages and limitations.

Hodges, D.T.; Reber, E.E.; Foote, F.B.; Schellenbaum, R.L.

1980-02-01

28

Sun Photometer Laser and Lamp Based Radiometric Calibrations; Comparison with the Langley Technique and Implications on Remote Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite-based remote sensing of the earth is a valuable data source for biological and oceanic studies. However when using remote sensing, it is necessary to correct the measured signal for atmospheric effects. As aerosols play a major role in atmospheric scattering, correcting algorithms based on Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) data have been developed to describe the scattering of radiation by aerosols. AOT data are collected by filter radiometers measuring the solar irradiance. The AOT is then retrieved applying the Beer-Bouger-Lambert Law to those measurements. Two radiometers, called Satellite Validation for Marine Biology and Aerosol Determination (SimbadA), were calibrated in this study. These instruments measure the upwelling radiance from the ocean as well as the solar irradiance, providing information on both marine reflectance and AOT. The goals of this study were to calibrate the radiometers using independent methods, evaluate the uncertainties for each method, and assess the influence of the results in terms of the science requirements. The radiometers were calibrated in irradiance and radiance mode using a monochromatic, laser-illuminated integrating sphere, in radiance mode using two different lamp-illuminated integrating spheres, and in irradiance mode using the Langley technique. First, a limited characterization of the instrument was conducted. The instrument's temporal stability and its spectral out-of-band response were evaluated. The instrument was then calibrated in radiance mode using a laser-illuminated integrating sphere that overfilled its field of view (FOV). The absolute radiance responsivity from this calibration was compared to results from measurements of two calibrated lamp illuminated spheres. The first comparison, with the NIST portable radiometric source (NPR), was a validation as good agreement between the two methods has been reported in previous studies. The second comparison was with the Hardy sphere from the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In this comparison the NASA radiance scale was compared to NIST's. A disagreement was observed and will be discussed. Finally, an absolute irradiance responsivity calibration was performed with the laser based facility using a small integrating sphere that underfilled the instrument's FOV. This was done in order to do a comparison with the Langley technique, which is based on irradiance measurements. Using the absolute spectral responsivity obtained with the laser based calibration and a solar irradiance spectrum, the expected Top of the Atmosphere signal (V0) was determined and compared with the V0 obtained from the Langley calibration. Results will be presented and implications for derived AOT discussed.

Souaidia, N.; Pietras, C.; Brown, S. W.; Lykke, K. R.; Frouin, R.; Deschamps, P.; Fargion, G.; Johnson, B. C.

2002-12-01

29

Application of paleomagnetic techniques for dating hydrocarbon migration events  

SciTech Connect

Establishing a relationship between hydrocarbon migration and the precipitation of authigenic magnetite is important for the development of a method to date hydrocarbon migration using paleomagnetic techniques. Important evidence for the relationship comes from a study of light and dark-banded calcite speleothems that occur in Ordovician limestones in southern Oklahoma. The speleothems are Permian in age, based on interbedded fossils. The dark bands contain primary fluid inclusions filled with hydrocarbons that are not extensively biograded. They also possess over an order of magnitude stronger magnetization than light bands. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data indicate that the magnetization in the dark bands was acquired during the Early Permian and resides in magnetite. Spheres, interpreted to be authigenic magnetite, are also found in magnetic extracts from the dark calcite. The results from the light and dark bands suggest that chemical conditions created by the hydrocarbons caused precipitation of authigenic magnetite and acquisition of the associated chemical remanent magnetization.

Elmore, R.D.

1988-01-01

30

Simplified Vicarious Radiometric Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A measurement-based radiance estimation approach for vicarious radiometric calibration of spaceborne multispectral remote sensing systems has been developed. This simplified process eliminates the use of radiative transfer codes and reduces the number of atmospheric assumptions required to perform sensor calibrations. Like prior approaches, the simplified method involves the collection of ground truth data coincident with the overpass of the remote sensing system being calibrated, but this approach differs from the prior techniques in both the nature of the data collected and the manner in which the data are processed. In traditional vicarious radiometric calibration, ground truth data are gathered using ground-viewing spectroradiometers and one or more sun photometer( s), among other instruments, located at a ground target area. The measured data from the ground-based instruments are used in radiative transfer models to estimate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) target radiances at the time of satellite overpass. These TOA radiances are compared with the satellite sensor readings to radiometrically calibrate the sensor. Traditional vicarious radiometric calibration methods require that an atmospheric model be defined such that the ground-based observations of solar transmission and diffuse-to-global ratios are in close agreement with the radiative transfer code estimation of these parameters. This process is labor-intensive and complex, and can be prone to errors. The errors can be compounded because of approximations in the model and inaccurate assumptions about the radiative coupling between the atmosphere and the terrain. The errors can increase the uncertainty of the TOA radiance estimates used to perform the radiometric calibration. In comparison, the simplified approach does not use atmospheric radiative transfer models and involves fewer assumptions concerning the radiative transfer properties of the atmosphere. This new technique uses two neighboring uniform ground target areas having different reflectance values. The target areas can be natural or artificial and must be large enough to minimize adjacent-pixel contamination effects. The radiative coupling between the atmosphere and the terrain needs to be approximately the same for the two targets. This condition can be met for relatively uniform backgrounds when the distance between the targets is within a few hundred meters. For each target area, the radiance leaving the ground in the direction of the satellite is measured with a radiometrically calibrated spectroradiometer. Using the radiance measurements from the two targets, atmospheric adjacency and atmospheric scattering effects can be subtracted, thereby eliminating many assumptions about the atmosphere and the radiative interaction between the atmosphere and the terrain. In addition, the radiometrically calibrated spectroradiometer can be used with a known reflectance target to estimate atmospheric transmission and diffuse- to-global ratios without the need for ancillary sun photometers. Several comparisons between the simplified method and traditional techniques were found to agree within a few percent. Hence, the simplified method reduces the overall complexity of performing vicarious calibrations and can serve as a method for validating traditional radiative transfer models

Stanley, Thomas; Ryan, Robert; Holekamp, Kara; Pagnutti, Mary

2010-01-01

31

New Sakmarian ages for the Rio Bonito formation (Paran Basin, southern Brazil) based on LA-ICP-MS U-Pb radiometric dating of zircons crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two ash fall beds (tonstein) sampled from the post-glacial Permian deposits of the Paran Basin have provided new U-Pb radiometric age constraints for this stratigraphic interval. The zircon grains were recovered from tonstein layers interbedded with fine-grained and carbonaceous lithologies in the middle portion of the Rio Bonito Formation. In both samples, the dominant population is interpreted as generated by explosive volcanism, as having formed immediately before the eruption. Based on 238U/206Pb, the selected zircon grains from the dominant population have weighted mean ages of 290.62.8Ma and 281.73.2Ma, corresponding to the Sakmarian and Kungurian ages in the Cisuralian epoch, respectively. These ages constrain the time of the deposition of the tonstein horizons and have important stratigraphic implications for the Late Paleozoic evolution of both the Paran Basin and the southwestern region of Gondwana. The results presented here and the radiometric data already published suggest that deposition of the post-glacial coal-bearing deposits of the Rio Bonito Formation was probably initiated before the Early Permian. Thus, we infer that the climate had already ameliorated by this period in order to allow for the formation and accumulation of peat in this region of Gondwana.

Cagliari, Joice; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Tognoli, Francisco Manoel Wohnrath; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp; Faccini, Ubiratan Ferrucio

2014-12-01

32

TES radiometric assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TES is an infrared Fourier transform spectrometer on board the EOS-Aura spacecraft launched July 15, 2004. Improvements to the radiometric calibration and consequent assessment of radiometric accuracy have been on-going since launch.

Worden, H.; Sarkissian, E.; Bowman, K.; Fisher, B.; Rider, D.; Aumann, H. H.; Apolinski, M.; Debaca, R. C.; Gluck, S.; Madatyan, M.; McDuffie, J.; Tremblay, D.; Shephard, M.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Tobin, D.; Revercomb, H.

2005-01-01

33

Teaching the Mathematics of Radioactive Dating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method used to teach the concept of radiometric dating using mathematical equations. Explores the lack of information in textbooks on how to solve radiometric dating problems using mathematical concepts. (SAH)

Shea, James H.

2001-01-01

34

Assessing soil erosion and control factors by radiometric technique in the source region of the Yellow River, Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of 137Cs concentration in soils were made in a representative catchment to quantify erosion rates and identify the main factors involved in the erosion in the source region of the Yellow River in the Tibetan Plateau. In order to estimate erosion rates in terms of the main factors affecting soil loss, samples were collected taking into account the slope and vegetation cover along six selected transects within the Dari County catchment. The reference inventory for the area was established at a stable, well-preserved, site of small thickness (value of 2324 Bqm- 2). All the sampling sites had been eroded and 137Cs inventories varied widely in the topsoil (14.87-25.56 Bqkg- 1). The effective soil loss values were also highly variable (11.03-28.35 tkm- 1yr- 1) in line with the vegetation cover change. The radiometric approach was useful in quantifying soil erosion rates and examining patterns of soil movement.

Wang, Yibo; Niu, Fujun; Wu, Qingbai; Gao, Zeyong

2014-05-01

35

On the intrinsic accuracy and precision of luminescence dating techniques for fired ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luminescence dating techniques have been used extensively for archaeological and geological samples. Such techniques are based on thermally or optically stimulated signals. This paper presents simulations of several luminescence techniques for equivalent dose (ED) estimation for ceramic materials containing quartz. The simulations are carried out using a recently published comprehensive kinetic model for quartz, consisting of 11 electron and hole

Vasilis Pagonis; Reuven Chen; George Kitis

2011-01-01

36

Radiometric Dating of Folds: A new approach to determine the timing of deformation at shallow-crustal conditions, with examples from the Mexican Fold-Thrust Belt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a robust method to obtain absolute ages of folds that were formed at shallow crustal conditions. The method takes advantage of illite neocrystallization in folded, clay-bearing layers and the ability to obtain accurate retention and total gas ages from small size fractions using encapsulated Ar analysis, analogous to prior work on fault gouge dating. We illustrate our approach in folded Cretaceous shale-bentonitic layers that are interbedded with carbonates of the Zimapn and the Tampico-Misantla cretaceous basins in central-eastern Mexico. Basinal carbonates were buried by syntectonic turbidites and inverted during the formation of the Mexican Fold-Thrust in the Late Cretaceous. Results were obtained from four chevron folds that are representative of different stages of deformation, burial/temperature conditions and location within this thin-skinned orogenic wedge: two from the Zimapn Basin (Folds 1 and 2) in the west and two from the Tampico-Misantla Basin (Folds 3 and 4) in the east. Mineralogic compositions and variations in illite-polytypes, crystallite-size (CS) and Ar/Ar ages were obtained from size fractions in limbs and hinges of folded layers. Ar retention ages produce a folding age of ~81 Ma for Fold 1 and ~69 Ma for Fold 2, which are fully consistent with stratigraphic limits from syn-orogenic turbidities and observed overprinting events in the Mexican Fold-Thrust Belt. The total gas age of Fold 3, on the easternmost margin of the Tampico-Misantla Basin is similar to that of Fold 2, indicating that the second event is regional in scale. In addition to presenting a new, reliable method to constrain the timing of local deformation, we interpret folding and associated clay neo-mineralization in terms of the regional burial history, and localization and propagation of deformation within a heterogeneous orogenic wedge involving progressive deformation of two basins separated by a platform block.

Fitz Diaz, E.; van der Pluijm, B. A.

2012-12-01

37

Who's on First: A Relative Dating Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students are introduced to sequencing and geologic time through relative dating techniques. Students begin by categorizing cards of nonsense words, then move on to cards with pictures of fossils. Once students begin to grasp "relative" dating, they can extend their knowledge of geologic time by exploring radiometric dating and developing a timeline of Earth's history. There is a teacher's guide to this activity with background information and templates to use for teaching about relative dating. There are also objectives, materials, procedure, and questions.

38

Dating fault fabrics using modern techniques of 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology: evidence for Paleozoic deformation in the Eastern  

E-print Network

Dating fault fabrics using modern techniques of 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology: evidence for Paleozoic be met in any of its publications. #12;Dating fault fabrics using modern techniques of 40Ar/39Ar/207/pampeanas-deformation Citation: Whitmeyer, S. 2008. Dating fault fabrics using modern techniques of 40Ar/39

Whitmeyer, Steven J.

39

Dating samples of lunar soil from the Mare Crisium by the Ar/39/-Ar/40/ technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two samples (dolerite and gabbro fragments) from a depth of 184 cm in the Luna 24 core are dated using the Ar(39)-Ar(40) technique. The values obtained are found to be lower than all published isotopic ages for the Luna 24 samples. An analysis of possible dating errors of the lunar samples, together with the good agreement of the results from the Ar(39)-Ar(40) technique of geochronologic standards and anorthosite from the Korosten pluton with the results from Rb-Sr, U-Pb, and Sm-Nd methods, attests the reliability of the values.

Shanin, L. L.; Arakeliants, M. M.; Bogatikov, O. A.; Ivanenko, V. V.; Pupyrev, Iu. G.; Tarasov, L. S.; Frikh-Khar, D. I.

1981-07-01

40

40Ar/39Ar technique of KAr dating: a comparison with the conventional technique  

USGS Publications Warehouse

K-Ar ages have been determined by the 40Ar/39Ar total fusion technique on 19 terrestrial samples whose conventional K-Ar ages range from 3.4 my to nearly 1700 my. Sample materials included biotite, muscovite, sanidine, adularia, plagioclase, hornblende, actinolite, alunite, dacite, and basalt. For 18 samples there are no significant differences at the 95% confidence level between the KAr ages obtained by these two techniques; for one sample the difference is 4.3% and is statistically significant. For the neutron doses used in these experiments (???4 ?? 1018 nvt) it appears that corrections for interfering Ca- and K-derived Ar isotopes can be made without significant loss of precision for samples with K/Ca > 1 as young as about 5 ?? 105 yr, and for samples with K/Ca < 1 as young as about 107 yr. For younger samples the combination of large atmospheric Ar corrections and large corrections for Ca- and K-derived Ar may make the precision of the 40Ar/39Ar technique less than that of the conventional technique unless the irradiation parameters are adjusted to minimize these corrections. ?? 1971.

Brent, Dalrymple G.; Lanphere, M.A.

1971-01-01

41

Developing OSL Geological Dating Techniques for Use on Future Missions to Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The surface of Mars has been subject to aeolian, fluvial, and periglacial activity in the (relatively) recent past. Unfortunately, chronological dating of recent events on Mars is difficult as the errors associated with crater counting are comparable to younger ages (approx. 1 Ma). Consequently, techniques to quantify the ages of geological processes on Mars have become an important area of research. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is one candidate technique for in-situ dating of the deposition of Martian surface sediments. This method can aid in developing a geological and climatic history of the last million years on Mars. The current paper addresses some of the challenges and progress associated with developing OSL as a viable in-situ dating technique for Mars. Some of the challenges include the mineral composition, the effectiveness of solar resetting under Martian conditions, the temperature regime, and determining the natural dose rate on Mars. All of these topics are currently under investigation, and some preliminary results are presented.

Blair, M. W.; Kalchgruber, R.; Deo, S.; McKeever, S. W. S.

2005-01-01

42

Real-Time Adaptive Radiometric Compensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent radiometric compensation techniques make it possible to project images onto colored and textured surfaces. This is realized with projector-camera systems by scanning the projection surface on a per-pixel basis. With the captured information, a compensation image is calculated that neutralizes geometric distortions and color blending caused by the underly- ing surface. As a result, the brightness and the contrast

Anselm Grundhfer; Oliver Bimber

2008-01-01

43

Radiometric crack detection in fast moving surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cracks in the surfaces of metal shafts rotating up to 3200 rpm were detected by passive, radiometric sensing of the 812-?m thermal radiation emitted. This detection is possible because the effective crack emissivity approaches that of a black body, while the metal itself has a much lower emissivity. By the use of signal storage and signal subtraction, the technique is

Irving Kaufman; Ashish K. Choudhury

1985-01-01

44

Common Blood Bank Contaminants Evaluated by the Bactec Radiometric System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research techniques in blood preservation require frequent entry into blood bags stored at 4 C. Rapid detection of possible contamination and careful evaluation of a selected bacteriological method are essential. Bactec(Registered) radiometric methods (Jo...

B. D. Brown, J. D. Kaiser

1977-01-01

45

Radiometric Methods for Rapid Diagnosis of Viral Infection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three radiometric techniques were investigated for monitoring the effects of herpes simplex virus type I and II and cytomegalovirus on the metabolism of human embryonic lung fibroblast (WI-38) monolayers. The study was based on the hypothesis that (1) ear...

H. N. Wagner, M. F. Tsan

1978-01-01

46

Radiometric cloud imaging with an uncooled microbolometer thermal infrared camera.  

PubMed

An uncooled microbolometer-array thermal infrared camera has been incorporated into a remote sensing system for radiometric sky imaging. The radiometric calibration is validated and improved through direct comparison with spectrally integrated data from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). With the improved calibration, the Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI) system routinely obtains sky images with radiometric uncertainty less than 0.5 W/(m(2 )sr) for extended deployments in challenging field environments. We demonstrate the infrared cloud imaging technique with still and time-lapse imagery of clear and cloudy skies, including stratus, cirrus, and wave clouds. PMID:19498585

Shaw, Joseph; Nugent, Paul; Pust, Nathan; Thurairajah, Brentha; Mizutani, Kohei

2005-07-25

47

Radiometric assays for glycerol, glucose, and glycogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed radiometric assays for small quantities of glycerol, glucose and glycogen, based on a technique described by Thorner and Paulus for the measurement of glycerokinase activity. In the glycerol assay, glycerol is phosphorylated with (32P)ATP and glycerokinase, residual (32P)ATP is hydrolyzed by heating in acid, and free (32P)phosphate is removed by precipitation with ammonium molybdate and triethylamine. Standard

D. C. Bradley; H. R. Kaslow

1989-01-01

48

Absolute radiometric code (ARC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Absolute Radiometric Code (ARC) is a collection of Matlab functions tied together under a Matlab Graphical User Interface (GUI). ARC was developed as part of the Satellite Imaging Experiment conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory at Kirtland, AFB, in order to get fast estimates of the Optical Cross Sections of various satellites. ARC uses multiple star measures to calculate the atmospheric and optical transmission of the system. The transmissions are then used to compute the optical cross section of an object. Generally, the optical transmission of a sensor system can be characterized quite well, so it serves as a sanity check on all ARC results. The atmospheric transmission changes considerably from night to night and even from hour to hour on the same night. ARC uses a collection of calibration stars at various elevation angles to determine the atmospheric transmission through the viewing times. The star calibration is generally taken several times during the experiment period.

Riker, James F.; Roark, Jon; Stogsdill, Stephen E.; DeShetler, W. Bruce; Brunson, Richard L.

1999-08-01

49

Application of the 40Ar/39Ar technique to date the Minoan Tuff, Santorini  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The age of the catastrophic eruption of the volcano of Santorini during the Bronze Age is well established from 14C dating at 3344.9 7.5 a1 (uncertainties quoted as 1-?). Application of the 40Ar/39Ar technique to products from this eruption is used here to (1) investigate the limits of the technique using conventional single collector mass spectrometry on a MAP215-50 instrument, (2) analyse sources of uncertainty to identify major contributing factors for the uncertainty of young 40Ar/39Ar ages, and (3) provide 40Ar/39Ar ages for a sample that has been previously dated via 14C and dendrochronology to further investigate issues with the accuracy of 40Ar/39Ar dating in the late Quaternary. We have separated the plagioclase fraction from the lower Minoan Tuff that immediately overlies the Cape Riva (rp6) tuff in a bay on the west coast of Thira, NW of the town of Oia. Using the calibration of 40Ar/36Ar of Lee et al.2, the decay constant recommended by Min at al.3, and the FCs age of Kuiper et al.4, we calculate an inverse isochron age of 3.7 1.6 ka and a trapped 40Ar/36Ar intercept of 299.8 1.2, slightly higher than the ratio for atmospheric argon of 298.56 0.31, when all steps with ages > 50 ka are included in the regression. Enrichment in radiogenic 40Ar in the steps used for the isochron is extremely low, given the low concentration of K2O in plagioclase and the extremely young age. The stepwise heating approach proved useful because in all 5 replicate experiments unexpectedly high ages showed up at higher step temperatures, suggesting that in each separate some older contaminant was present. The plateaus of each of the replicate experiments had quite reproducible ages, however, and a pooled age was calculated for 23 out of 48 individual steps. The pooled age for the plateau was 17.6 4.1 ka, which is high due to the slight component of excess 40Ar in the non-radiogenic component, as revealed from regression analysis. refs: 1SW Manning et al. (2006) Chronology for the Aegean Late Bronze Age 1700-1400 B.C., Science 312, 565 - 569. 2Lee J-Y, et al. (2006), A redetermination of the isotopic abundances of atmospheric Ar. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 70, 4507-4512 3Min K, et al. (2001), Call for an improved set of decay constants for geochronological use. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 65, 111 - 121. 4Kuiper et al. (2008), Synchronizing rock clocks of Earth History. Science 320, 500 - 504.

Wijbrans, J. R.; Kuiper, K.; Morgan, L. E.; Klaver, M.; Vroon, P. Z.

2012-12-01

50

ACE: Age Calculation Engine--A Design Environment for Cosmogenic Dating Techniques  

E-print Network

with flexibility, scalability, se- curity and safety in mind. These properties have allowed us to create cosmogenic dating methods with a flexible and powerful software infrastruc- ture upon which to base it to existing cosmogenic dating software. We also discuss how our system has been evaluated and our plans

Bradley, Elizabeth

51

Multi-date satellite image processing techniques for European forest mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for using Landsat TM images from different imaging dates for mapping European forest ecosystems is described. The methodology has been applied to a forested area in central Ireland. The multi-date images are first corrected for the effects of varying sun position, topography and atmospheric conditions. The imagery is classified using a database of pre-established spectral-phenological profiles for the

Niall L. McCormick; Pamela J. Kennedy; S. Folving

1995-01-01

52

Assessment of VIIRS radiometric performance using vicarious calibration sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiometric performance of satellite instruments needs to be regularly monitored to determine if there is any drift in the instrument response over time despite the calibration with the best effort. If a drift occurs, it needs to be characterized in order to keep the radiometric accuracy and stability well within the specification. Instrument gain change over time can be validated independently using many techniques such as using stable earth targets (desert, ocean, snow sites etc), inter-comparison with other well calibrated radiometers (using SNO, SNO-x), deep convective clouds (DCC), lunar observations or other methods. This study focus on using vicarious calibration sites for the assessment of radiometric performance of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) reflective solar bands. The calibration stability is primarily analyzed by developing the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance time series over these sites. In addition, the radiometric bias relative to AQUA MODIS is estimated over these calibration sites and analyzed. The radiometric bias is quantified in terms of observed and spectral bias. The spectral characterization and bias analysis will be performed using hyperspectral measurements and radiative transfer models such as MODTRAN.

Uprety, Sirish; Cao, Changyong; Blonski, Slawomir; Wang, Wenhui

2014-09-01

53

Radiometric Methods for Rapid Diagnosis of Viral Infection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A rapid radiometric technique was developed for detecting the presence of herpes simplex virus type 1 in stationary monolayers of the diploid cell line WI-38. The time of detection was compared to that obtained from visual examinations for cytopathic effe...

S. M. Larson, P. Charache, H. N. Wagner

1974-01-01

54

Relative Age Dating Techniques and a Late Quaternary Chronology, Arikaree Cirque, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Quaternary deposits in Arikaree Cirque are re-examined, using eight relative age dating methods including lichenometry. If snowkill of lichens is unrecognized, an erroneously young age may be assigned to Neoglacial deposits if only lichenometric methods are employed. The data were entered into two clustering programs, which were used to group sample sites according to age. The results of this

Tom Carroll

1974-01-01

55

Age validation of canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) using two independent otolith techniques: lead-radium and bomb radiocarbon dating.  

SciTech Connect

Canary rockfish (Sebastes pinniger) have long been an important part of recreational and commercial rockfish fishing from southeast Alaska to southern California, but localized stock abundances have declined considerably. Based on age estimates from otoliths and other structures, lifespan estimates vary from about 20 years to over 80 years. For the purpose of monitoring stocks, age composition is routinely estimated by counting growth zones in otoliths; however, age estimation procedures and lifespan estimates remain largely unvalidated. Typical age validation techniques have limited application for canary rockfish because they are deep dwelling and may be long lived. In this study, the unaged otolith of the pair from fish aged at the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada was used in one of two age validation techniques: (1) lead-radium dating and (2) bomb radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) dating. Age estimate accuracy and the validity of age estimation procedures were validated based on the results from each technique. Lead-radium dating proved successful in determining a minimum estimate of lifespan was 53 years and provided support for age estimation procedures up to about 50-60 years. These findings were further supported by {Delta}{sup 14}C data, which indicated a minimum estimate of lifespan was 44 {+-} 3 years. Both techniques validate, to differing degrees, age estimation procedures and provide support for inferring that canary rockfish can live more than 80 years.

Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A; Lundstrom, C C; Stanley, R D

2007-11-04

56

Aliased noise in radiometric measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnitude of aliased noise that degrades the accuracy of continuous reconstructions of discrete radiometric measurements was evaluated as a function of the spatial response and sampling intervals of the radiometer, and of the resolution of the reconstructed measurements. A Wiener spectrum, representative of a wide range of scenes, was used to characterize the radiance fluctuations.

Huck, F. O.; Park, S. K.; Halyo, N.; Stallman, S. T.

1980-01-01

57

Selected applications of microwave radiometric techniques  

E-print Network

to occur at 5. 13 mm, in general agreement with Van Vleck [8]. Weger [10] considered the problem of calculating apparent sky temperatures for a variety of weather condi- tions. Expressions for calculating the energy that a sur- face will reflect under.... *egr, , J 30 0 = propagation constant of the oil layer d, = d. cose, d = thickness of the oil layer K = permittivity of oil and water, respectively oil' water Calculated values of the apparent temperature of an oil layer on a calm water surface...

Jean, Buford Randall

2012-06-07

58

A new technique for precise uranium-series dating of travertine micro-samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Secondary carbonate formations, such as travertine and calcareous tufa deposits, are important archives for quaternary continental climate studies and archaeology. The extremely complex growth mechanisms result in some serious problems for precise mass spectrometric uranium-series dating. Often, detrital and organic particles contaminate the carbonate and large pore volumes yield a great potential for open system behavior. We utilized microscopic, mineralogical and geochemical methods prior to sample selection to determine the abundance of primary calcite, i.e. micrite and spar. Furthermore, the state of alteration was characterized by cathodoluminescence and trace-element analysis. We conclude that travertine and calcareous tufa are appropriate for precise U-series age determination if a) micrite and/or spar are the dominant phases; b) cathodoluminescence of both phases is weak or absent; c) Fe and Al levels are low; and d) Sr concentrations are close to the average of the studied site. We mapped and sampled solely areas of major micrite/spar abundance having minor alteration for accurate U-series dating. When this new method was applied, travertines located in eastern Germany (sites Bad Langensalza, Burgtonna and Weimar-Ehringsdorf) gave single 230Th/ 238U-ages consistent with the lithological growth sequence and greatly improved compared to previously published chronologies. In addition, we determined 230Th/U isochron ages on bulk samples that confirm our single ages. In contrast to primary calcite, pore cements are homogeneously distributed throughout the travertine fabric and reflect early diagenetic processes and/or weathering.

Mallick, Ronzon; Frank, Norbert

2002-12-01

59

Influence of Lossy Compressed DEM on Radiometric Correction for Land Cover Classification of Remote Sensing Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

World coverage Digital Elevation Models (DEM) have progressively increased their spatial resolution (e.g., ETOPO, SRTM, or Aster GDEM) and, consequently, their storage requirements. On the other hand, lossy data compression facilitates accessing, sharing and transmitting large spatial datasets in environments with limited storage. However, since lossy compression modifies the original information, rigorous studies are needed to understand its effects and consequences. The present work analyzes the influence of DEM quality -modified by lossy compression-, on the radiometric correction of remote sensing imagery, and the eventual propagation of the uncertainty in the resulting land cover classification. Radiometric correction is usually composed of two parts: atmospheric correction and topographical correction. For topographical correction, DEM provides the altimetry information that allows modeling the incidence radiation on terrain surface (cast shadows, self shadows, etc). To quantify the effects of the DEM lossy compression on the radiometric correction, we use radiometrically corrected images for classification purposes, and compare the accuracy of two standard coding techniques for a wide range of compression ratios. The DEM has been obtained by resampling the DEM v.2 of Catalonia (ICC), originally having 15 m resolution, to the Landsat TM resolution. The Aster DEM has been used to fill the gaps beyond the administrative limits of Catalonia. The DEM has been lossy compressed with two coding standards at compression ratios 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 100:1 and 200:1. The employed coding standards have been JPEG2000 and CCSDS-IDC; the former is an international ISO/ITU-T standard for almost any type of images, while the latter is a recommendation of the CCSDS consortium for mono-component remote sensing images. Both techniques are wavelet-based followed by an entropy-coding stage. Also, for large compression ratios, both techniques need a post processing for correctly delimiting coastline, avoiding the confusion between elevation and no-data values. Six (from March 2005 to May 2007) geometrically corrected Landsat-5 images on the path-row 197-031 have been used. The six optical bands and the NDVI for each date have been introduced in a powerful hybrid classification process. The training areas and the ground truth have been obtained from the Mapa de Cobertes del Sl de Catalunya (v. 3), a land cover map created by photointerpretation of 0.5 m orthophotomaps acquired between 2005 and 2007 and covering all the extension of Catalonia. The legend has been reduced from 233 categories to 21. Preliminary results have shown that the effect on land cover classification of applying lossy compression to the DEM used in the radiometric correction is small (lower than 1%) even for compression ratios up to 200:1. Comparing classification performance after a compression of 5:1 and and a compression of 200:1 with both coding standards showed that: a) the percentage of correctly classified image was 73%; b) 20% was wrongly classified; c) 3.5% was wrongly classified at compression ratio 5:1; and d) also 3.5% was wrongly classified at compression ratio 200:1. These results are the first in the literature to analyze the effect of DEM lossy compressing when DEM are employed for radiometric correction.

Mor, G.; Pesquer, L.; Blanes, I.; Serra-Sagrist, J.; Pons, X.

2012-12-01

60

Concealed object detection with radiometric imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

a passive millimeter wave imaging system can detect concealed objects under clothing. In this paper, we address real- time outdoor concealed-object detection and segmentation with a radiometric imaging system. The radiometric imaging system operates around 94 GHz to generate images with a 1 Hz frame rate. Multilevel segmentation clusters pixels according to a Gaussian mixture model. Experimental results confirm that

Seokwon Yeom; Dong-Su Lee; Jung-Young Son; Min-Kyoo Jung; Yushin Jang; Sang-Won Jung; Seok-Jae Lee

2011-01-01

61

Radiometric Measurements and Data for Evaluating Photovoltaics  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Photovoltiac Radiometric Measurements Task ddresses the impact of solar and optical radiation on photovoltaic (PV) devices. The task maintains spectral and broadband calibration capability directly traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

Myers, D. R.; Andreas, A.; Rymes, M.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Treadwell, J.

2000-01-01

62

Changes in the Radiometric Sensitivity of SeaWiFS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the lunar and solar measurements used to determine the changes in the radiometric sensitivity of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). Radiometric sensitivity is defined as the output from the instrument (or from one of the instrument bands) per unit spectral radiance at the instrument's input aperture. Knowledge of the long-term repeatability of the SeaWiFS measurements is crucial to maintaining the quality of the ocean scenes derived from measurements by the instrument. For SeaWiFS bands 1 through 6 (412 nm through 670 rim), the change in radiometric sensitivity is less than 0.2% for the period from November 1997 through November 1998. For band 7 (765 nm), the change is about 1.5%, and for band 8 (865 nm) about 5%. The rates of change of bands 7 and 8, which were linear with time for the first eight months of lunar measurements, are now slowing. The scatter in the data points about the trend lines in this analysis is less than 0.3% for all eight SeaWiFS bands. These results are based on monthly measurements of the moon. Daily solar measurements using an onboard diffuser show that the radiometric sensitivities of the SeaWiFS bands have changed smoothly during the time intervals between lunar measurements. Since SeaWiFS measurements have continued past November 1998, the results presented here are considered as a snapshot of the instrument performance as of that date.

McClain, Charles R.; Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Patt, Frederick S.

1998-01-01

63

Dating Techniques Irka Hajdas  

E-print Network

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ Slide 2 Universe 13.7-13.9 Ga Earth 4.5 Ga K-T boundary 65 Ma Hominids 4.4 Ma Events of Quaternary 2,000 Plants, bones, shells, coral K-Ar & Ar-Ar Late Holocene 30,000 Volcanic eruptions, lava flow U-Th 0

Gilli, Adrian

64

Radiometric correction of LANDSAT data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. The six independent sensors of the multispectral band scanner are supposed to be identical; however, in actual practice, they may have different gain settings and offset factors, which result in the effect known as stripping (black lines at regular intervals) of the imagery. A simple two parameter method to correct the gain settings and offset factors of each of the sensors with respect to one sensor, taken as reference, was developed. This method assumes: (1) the response of a detector varies linearly with the radiance of radiation received, and (2) the means, as well as the standard deviations, of a reasonably large number of pixels, in a given wavelength band, are equal for each of the detectors for the radiometrically corrected data.

Dejesusparada, N.; Kumar, R. (principal investigator); Cavalcanti, L. A.

1977-01-01

65

Small satellite radiometric measurement system  

SciTech Connect

A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth's radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

Weber, P.G.

1992-01-01

66

Small satellite radiometric measurement system  

SciTech Connect

A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth`s radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

Weber, P.G.

1992-01-01

67

Chemical Principles Revisited: Archaeological Dating.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses methods used to date archaeological artifacts and other remains. They include: (1) nuclear dating techniques (radiocarbon dating, accelerator radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence, and others); (2) chemical dating techniques (amino acid racemization, obsidian hydration dating, elemental content changes, and thermal analysis dating); and

Rowe, M. W.

1986-01-01

68

Results of magnetic HGI and radiometric surveys in W. Canada  

SciTech Connect

This article presents four case histories in which ground-based magnetic horizontal gradient intensity (HGI) and radiometric surveys were used in Western Canada for cost-effective geochemical exploration for hydrocarbons. The authors has developed these two surface exploration techniques from published studies and adapted them for use on the prairies the past 7 years. These surveys are used in conjunction with the usual geologic and seismic studies for: (1) evaluating prospects and land; (2) verifying seismic anomalies and inexpensively locating areas for conducting expensive 3D seismic surveys. Occasionally, as in two of the case histories discussed, these surveys were used successfully as stand-alone exploration methods where seismic exploration is not effective. The HGI and radiometric surveys measure, by geophysical methods, those effects associated with geochemical alterations due to vertical microseepage of hydrocarbons. The total cost, including permitting, data acquisition, data processing, and interpretation of the combination HGI and radiometric surveys is about 15% the total cost of a 3D seismic survey. Because of this, the author finds them an attractive and rapid survey adjunct to traditional exploration. They substantially reduce finding costs and significantly raise the probability of financial success.

LeSchack, L.A. [Topaz Energy Exploration Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1997-05-19

69

DATING SAFETY DATING VIOLENCE  

E-print Network

at the beginning of the relationship, such as a sexual assault or "date rape". 1 Although dating violence may, college and university students. This research has shown out of 7,800 undergraduate college students across Canada, 28% of females reported to have been a victim of sexual assault or "date rape" in the past

Lennard, William N.

70

Radiometric Evidence for a Composite Reefal Terrace of MIS 7 and MIS 5e age in Great Inagua Island, Bahamas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the slowly subsiding Florida - Bahamas region, radiometrically dated, emerged reefs have so far been attributed to the last interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5e, 122-133 ka BP) when sea level was at least 6 m above modern datum. In this and other areas, coral samples that yielded radiometric ages ranging between 133 and 150 ka have been either interpreted as diagenetically aged MIS 5e specimens, or thought to represent an early phase of high sea level during the last interglacial period, or judged unreliable and discarded. Using the classical (alpha-counting technique, we recently obtained 230Th/234U ages between 144 to 193 ka on pristine corals collected from the Devil's Point fossil reef on the island of Great Inagua, Bahamas, that was up to now assigned to MIS 5e. Dating some of these samples with the more recently developed thermal-ionization mass-spectrometric (TIMS) method gave us ages between 135 and 164 ka. Stratigraphic evidence, refined analytical work, and petrographic data indicate that the studied samples date from MIS 7 (186-242 ka) and have been diagenetically rejuvenated by the precipitation of aragonite cement in coral chambers during MIS 5e. Our new data suggest that the Devil's Point fossil reef has a polycyclic origin. It was initiated during MIS 7 but, as documented from earlier studies, the main growth phase occurred during MIS 5e. Coral samples from other regions that gave age values similar to ours should now be re-examined in light of these new data.

Kindler, P.; Reyss, J.; Cazala, C.

2001-12-01

71

Combined use of relative and absolute dating techniques for detecting signals of Alpine landscape evolution during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of three relative and two absolute (numerical) dating techniques, applied on nine soil profiles in an Alpine environment located in Val di Rabbi (Trentino, Northern Italy), was used to improve the investigation methodology of Alpine sites in response to climate change and to reconstruct the chronology of late Pleistocene and early Holocene landscape evolution. The degree of podzolisation,

Filippo Favilli; Markus Egli; Dagmar Brandova; Susan Ivy-Ochs; Peter Kubik; Paolo Cherubini; Aldo Mirabella; Giacomo Sartori; Daniele Giaccai; Wilfried Haeberli

2009-01-01

72

The absolute radiometric calibration of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager using the reflectance-based approach and the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landsat 8 was launched on 11 February 2013 as the newest platform in the Landsat program. It contains two Earthobserving instruments, one of which is the Operational Land Imager (OLI). OLI includes an onboard radiometric calibration system that is used to monitor changes in its responsivity throughout the mission lifetime, and it consists of Spectralon solar diffuser panels as well as tungsten lamp assemblies. External techniques are used to monitor both OLI and its calibration system, and they include lunar views, side slither maneuvers of the satellite, and ground-based vicarious calibration. This work presents the absolute radiometric calibration results for Landsat 8 OLI that were obtained using two ground-based measurement techniques. The first is the reflectance-based approach, where measurements of atmospheric and surface properties are made during a Landsat 8 overpass, and it requires personnel to be on site during the time of measurement. The second uses the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS), which was developed by the Remote Sensing Group in the College of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona so that radiometric calibration data can be collected without the requirement of on-site personnel. It allows more data to be collected annually, which increases the temporal sampling of trending results.

Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Anderson, Nikolaus; Thome, Kurtis; Biggar, Stuart

2014-10-01

73

Heat distribution error in radiometric calorimeters  

SciTech Connect

Calorimetric assay of plutonium and tritium is an important and well characterized measurement. The discussion of heat distribution error for radiometric calorimeters in relevant consensus standards is adequate for existing water bath calorimeters since they have a relatively flat response profile throughout the sample chamber. The development of transportable dry calorimeters has resulted in instruments with response profiles showing larger variations. This work describes the approach used to determine the heat distribution error term in the error models for two transportable dry calorimeters and recommends that this approach be used for all radiometric calorimeters and included in appropriate consensus standards. 7 refs.

Strohm, W.W. [EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (United States); Perry, R.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1991-12-31

74

Heat distribution error in radiometric calorimeters  

SciTech Connect

Calorimetric assay of plutonium and tritium is an important and well characterized measurement. The discussion of heat distribution error for radiometric calorimeters in relevant consensus standards is adequate for existing water bath calorimeters since they have a relatively flat response profile throughout the sample chamber. The development of transportable dry calorimeters has resulted in instruments with response profiles showing larger variations. This work describes the approach used to determine the heat distribution error term in the error models for two transportable dry calorimeters and recommends that this approach be used for all radiometric calorimeters and included in appropriate consensus standards. 7 refs.

Strohm, W.W. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (United States)); Perry, R.B. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

1991-01-01

75

Radiometric-microbiologic assay of niacin using Kloeckera brevis: analysis of human blood and food  

SciTech Connect

Kloeckera brevis, a yeast, was used as the test organism for the development of a radiometric-microbiologic (RMA) assay for niacin. The assay was determined to be sensitive to the 2 ng niacin per vial level and specific for the biologically active forms of this vitamin. The method was shown to be simple, accurate, and precise in the analysis of niacin in human blood and food. The application of the radiometric technique eliminates some of the problems encountered with conventional turbidimetric-microbiologic assay.

Guilarte, T.R.; Pravlik, K.

1983-12-01

76

Accuracy assessment for infrared camera laboratory radiometric calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accuracy assessment method of infrared camera laboratory radiometric calibration was studied for the sake of validation of space infrared camera measured data. Firstly, image process of infrared camera was analyzed and modeled on laboratory radiometric calibration, a model of linear radiometric calibration coefficient synthesized impact chain was built; secondly, based on the model, a model of uncertainty of linear

Xu-Fen Xie; Wei Zhang; Hong-Bin Nie; Yi-Ming Cao; Qiang Wang; Hong-Yuan Wang

2011-01-01

77

Geometric and radiometric characterization of LANDSAT-D thematic mapper and multispectral scanner data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A geometrically raw image of Washington, D.C. was acquired and radiometrically corrected. The data show little of the detector stripping common in earlier MSS images. The radiometrically corrected data have uniform means and standard deviations for the detectors in each band; however, the data for different detectors utilize a different pattern of DN levels, resulting in ubiquitous stripping of 1 DN amplitude. Band-to-band registration was assessed using color composites and small area correlation techniques. The spectral equivalency of the first four bands of the thematic mapper with the four bands of the MSS is being examined. Geometric analysis of the Washington, D.C. scene have started and a generalized routine for examining the contents of the label files and nonvideo data files was implemented. Several discrepancies from the documentation are described. Night scenes and daytime ocean scenes required for radiometric purposes were identified and the data ordered.

Kieffer, H. H. (principal investigator)

1983-01-01

78

Vegetation canopy optical and structural variability based on radiometric and laser analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a comprehensive vegetation monitoring and\\/or management, a good understanding of the distribution of the solar radiation energy among components of this vegetation is needed. The energy received by the vegetation is measured by spectroradiometers either at satellite elevations or near the ground (in situ measurements). In this study, in situ, radiometric data and laser scanning techniques are combined, in

Jules R. Dim; Koji Kajiwara; Yoshiaki Honda

2007-01-01

79

Spectrally Tunable Sources for Advanced Radiometric Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common radiometric platform for the development of application-specific metrics to quantify the performance of sensors and systems is described. Using this platform, sensor and system performance may be quantified in terms of the accuracy of measurements of standardized sets of source distributions. The prototype platform consists of spectrally programmable light sources that can generate complex spectral distributions in the

B. C. Johnson

80

Radiometric Sorting of Rio Algom Uranium Ore.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An ore sample of about 0.2 percent uranium from Quirke Mine was subjected to radiometric sorting by Ore Sorters Limited. Approximately 60 percent of the sample weight fell within the sortable size range: -150 + 25 mm. Rejects of low uranium content (<0.01...

M. A. Cristovici

1983-01-01

81

Intersatellite radiometric calibration for a satellite radar scatterometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the launch of NASA's SeaWinds radar scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite in 1999, a radiometer function, known as the QuikSCAT Radiometer - QRad, was implemented in the Science Ground Data Processing Systems to allow the measurement of the earth's microwave brightness temperature (Tb) using the radar system noise temperature [1, 2]. This paper will describe an inter-satellite radiometric calibration technique to validate the QRad brightness temperature algorithm and the QuikSCAT L2A Tb product. This approach allows the inter-comparison of two satellite sensors (radiometers) that have significant differences in their designs. To assess the quality of the QRad instrument, we compare its Tb measurements with the near simultaneous and collocated ocean brightness temperature observations from WindSat on the Coriolis Satellite, which serves as the brightness temperature calibration standard. Since the QRad and WindSat instruments were of different designs, brightness temperature normalizations were made for WindSat before comparison to account for expected differences in Tb because of incidence angle and channel frequency differences. Brightness temperatures for nine months during 2005 and 2006 were spatially collocated for rainfree homogeneous ocean scenes (match-ups) within 1 latitude x longitude boxes and within a +/- 60 minute window. To ensure high quality comparison, these collocations were quality controlled and edited to remove non-homogenous ocean scenes and/or transient environmental conditions, including rain contamination. WindSat and QRad Tb's were averaged within 1 boxes and were used for the radiometric inter-calibration analysis on a monthly basis. Results show that QRad radiometric calibration is stable in the mean over the yearly seasonal cycle.

Hanna, Rafik; Jones, Linwood

2010-04-01

82

Faint Young Sun, Radiocarbon dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first problem in this assignment is the culmination of the unit on energy balance and greenhouse gases. The students have already calculated blackbody temperatures as a function of albedo, sun's luminosity and distance from sun. They have also already calculated the magnitude of the greenhouse effect (optical thickness) of the modern atmosphere. In this first problem, the students apply these same calculations to the Faint Young Sun hypothesis and infer what can account for the geological evidence for liquid water on earth since 4.3 Ga. The second problem follows an introductory lecture on radiometric decay and radiometric dating. The students have seen the decay equation and learned what are decay constants and stable versus radioactive isotopes. In this problem, the students apply these concepts to radiocarbon.

Cook, Mea

83

Reconstruction of the Late Quaternary Glaciation of the Macha Khola valley (Gorkha Himal, Nepal) using relative and absolute ( 14C, 10Be, dendrochronology) dating techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Quaternary glacier fluctuations in the Macha Khola valley (Gorkha Himal, Nepal) were reconstructed using relative and absolute dating techniques. Our results indicate that younger moraine complexes were left by Late Holocene (<1.7cal.ka BP), mid-Holocene (ca 3cal.ka BP), and Lateglacial (ca 13cal.ka BP) ice advances. Older Late Quaternary glacier advances occurred during Marine Oxygen Isotope Stages (MIS) 2 and 34.

W. Zech; B. Glaser; U. Abramowski; C. Dittmar; P. W. Kubik

2003-01-01

84

New radiometric and petrological constraints on the evolution of the Pichincha volcanic complex (Ecuador)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fieldwork, radiometric (40Ar\\/39Ar and 14C) ages and whole-rock geochemistry allow a reconstruction of eruptive stages at the active, mainly dacitic, Pichincha Volcanic\\u000a Complex (PVC), whose eruptions have repeatedly threatened Quito, most recently from 1999 to 2001. After the emplacement of\\u000a basal lavas dated at ?1100 to 900ka, the eruptive activity of the old Rucu Pichincha volcano lasted from ?850ka to

Claude Robin; Pablo Samaniego; Jean-Luc Le Pennec; Michel Fornari; Patricia Mothes; Johannes van der Plicht

2010-01-01

85

Principal Component Noise Filtering for NAST-I Radiometric Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed- Interferometer (NAST-I) instrument is a high-resolution scanning interferometer that measures emitted thermal radiation between 3.3 and 18 microns. The NAST-I radiometric calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient and hot temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes a principal component (PC) noise filter to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, further improve the absolute radiometric calibration accuracy. To test the procedure and estimate the PC filter noise performance, we form dependent and independent test samples using odd and even sets of blackbody spectra. To determine the optimal number of eigenvectors, the PC filter algorithm is applied to both dependent and independent blackbody spectra with a varying number of eigenvectors. The optimal number of PCs is selected so that the total root-mean-square (RMS) error is minimized. To estimate the filter noise performance, we examine four different scenarios: apply PC filtering to both dependent and independent datasets, apply PC filtering to dependent calibration data only, apply PC filtering to independent data only, and no PC filters. The independent blackbody radiances are predicted for each case and comparisons are made. The results show significant reduction in noise in the final calibrated radiances with the implementation of the PC filtering algorithm.

Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L., Sr.

2011-01-01

86

Numerical Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students investigate methods used by geologists studying active tectonics for determining ages in actual numbers of years. Introductory materials describe the three most-used techniques for dating material formed during the Quaternary Period (approximately the last 1.65 million years), discuss the concepts of radioactive decay and half-life, and explain how these may be used to determine the numerical age of an object or substance. The exercise includes a set of problems in which students calculate isotopic abundance, half-life, decay rate, and absolute age. Example problems and a bibliography are provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

87

Numerical Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this exercise, students investigate methods used by geologists studying active tectonics for determining ages in actual numbers of years. Introductory materials describe the three most-used techniques for dating material formed during the Quaternary Period (approximately the last 1.65 million years), discuss the concepts of radioactive decay and half-life, and explain how these may be used to determine the numerical age of an object or substance. The exercise includes a set of problems in which students calculate isotopic abundance, half-life, decay rate, and absolute age. Example problems and a bibliography are provided.

Pinter, Nicholas

2011-07-07

88

Hyperspectral imaging spectro radiometer improves radiometric accuracy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reliable and accurate infrared characterization is necessary to measure the specific spectral signatures of aircrafts and associated infrared counter-measures protections (i.e. flares). Infrared characterization is essential to improve counter measures efficiency, improve friend-foe identification and reduce the risk of friendly fire. Typical infrared characterization measurement setups include a variety of panchromatic cameras and spectroradiometers. Each instrument brings essential information; cameras measure the spatial distribution of targets and spectroradiometers provide the spectral distribution of the emitted energy. However, the combination of separate instruments brings out possible radiometric errors and uncertainties that can be reduced with Hyperspectral imagers. These instruments combine both spectral and spatial information into the same data. These instruments measure both the spectral and spatial distribution of the energy at the same time ensuring the temporal and spatial cohesion of collected information. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the main contributors of radiometric uncertainties and shows how a hyperspectral imager can reduce these uncertainties.

Prel, Florent; Moreau, Louis; Bouchard, Robert; Bullis, Ritchie D.; Roy, Claude; Vallires, Christian; Levesque, Luc

2013-06-01

89

A radiometric Bode's Law: Predictions for Uranus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetospheres of three planets, Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, are known to be sources of intense, nonthermal radio bursts. The emissions from these sources undergo pronounced long term intensity fluctuations that are caused by the solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere of each planet. Determinations by spacecraft of the low frequency radio spectra and radiation beam geometry now permit a reliable assessment of the overall efficiency of the solar wind in stimulating these emissions. Earlier estimates of how magnetospheric radio output scales with the solar wind energy input must be revised greatly, with the result that, while the efficiency is much lower than previously thought, it is remarkably uniform from planet to planet. The formulation of a radiometric Bode's Law from which a planet's magnetic moment is estimated from its radio emission output is presented. Applying the radiometric scaling law to Uranus, the low-frequency radio power is likely to be measured by the Voyager 2 spacecraft as it approaches this planet.

Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.

1984-01-01

90

Date: _________________________ From: ____________________________________________  

E-print Network

06/21/13 Date: _________________________ From: ____________________________________________ Via information apply: Business name & address Daily rate Hotel tax Date from Date for an online booking hotel receipt." This form may not be used for lost online booking receipts. (b) Other. I

91

Thermoluminescence (TL) dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is an important technique used to determine the ages of some ancient earth materials; in this case, sediments and certain ancient artifacts. TL energy is stored in the form of trapped electrons and quartz sand is the most commonly used mineral employed in the dating process. Topics which are discussed include basic principles of TL dating, sampling techniques and strategies, sample processing, dateable material, cost and turnaround time, other applications, and associated literature.

Price, David

1997-10-15

92

Radiocarbon dates on bones of extinct birds from Hawaii.  

PubMed Central

Bones from a stratified sedimentary deposit in the Puu Naio Cave site on Maui, Hawaiian Islands, reveal the late Holocene extinction of 19 species of birds. The age of the sediment and associated fauna was determined by direct radiocarbon dating (tandem particle accelerator-mass spectrometer; TAMS) of amino acids extracted from bones weighing as little as 450 mg. The 14C dates indicate that sediment has been accumulating in the lava tube for at least the last 7750 years, a suitable time frame for testing the hypothesis that Holocene extinction on islands began after human colonization. Despite growing evidence that a worldwide wave of extinctions coincided with human colonization of oceanic islands, little radiometric data have been available to date the extinction of most small fossil vertebrates on islands. The TAMS technique of dating purified collagen from the bones of small vertebrates could lead to vastly improved chronologies of extinction for oceanic islands where catastrophic mid- to late-Holocene extinction is expected or known to have occurred. Chronologies derived from nonarcheological sites that show continuous sedimentation, such as the Puu Naio Cave deposit, may also yield key evidence on the timing of earliest human settlement of Oceania. Images PMID:3470800

James, H F; Stafford, T W; Steadman, D W; Olson, S L; Martin, P S; Jull, A J; McCoy, P C

1987-01-01

93

Relative radiometric calibration of LANDSAT TM reflective bands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raw thematic mapper (TM) calibration data from pre-launch tests and in-orbit acquisitions from LANDSAT 4 and 5 satellites are analyzed to assess the radiometric characteristics of the TM sensor. A software program called TM radiometric and algorithmic performance program (TRAPP) was used for the majority of analyses. Radiometric uncertainty in the final TM image originates from: (1) scene variability (solar irradiance and atmospheric scattering); (2) optical and electrical variability of the sensor; and (3) variability introduced during image processing.

Barker, J. L.

1984-01-01

94

Data analysis techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large and diverse number of computational techniques are routinely used to process and analyze remotely sensed data. These techniques include: univariate statistics; multivariate statistics; principal component analysis; pattern recognition and classification; other multivariate techniques; geometric correction; registration and resampling; radiometric correction; enhancement; restoration; Fourier analysis; and filtering. Each of these techniques will be considered, in order.

Park, Steve

1990-01-01

95

Fission track dating of kimberlitic zircons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The only reliable method for dating kimberlites at present is the lengthy and specialized hydrothermal procedure that extracts 206Pb and 238U from low-uranium zircons. This paper describes a second successful method by fission track dating of large single-crystal zircons, 1.0-1.5 cm in dimension. The use of large crystals overcomes the limitations imposed in conventional fission track analysis which utilizes crushed fragments. Low track densities, optical track dispersion, and the random orientation of polished surfaces in the etch and irradiation cycle are effectively overcome. Fission track ages of zircons from five African kimberlites are reported, from the Kimberley Pool (90.3 ?? 6.5 m.y.), Orapa (87.4 ?? 5.7 and 92.4 ?? 6.1 m.y.), Nzega (51.1 ?? 3.8 m.y.), Koffiefontein (90.0 ?? 8.2 m.y.), and Val do Queve (133.4 ?? 11.5 m.y.). In addition we report the first radiometric ages (707.9 ?? 59.6 and 705.5 ?? 61.0 m.y.) of crustal zircons from kimberlites in northwest Liberia. The fission track ages agree well with earlier age estimates. Most of the zircons examined in this study are zoned with respect to uranium but linear correlations are established (by regression analysis) between zones of variable uranium content, and within zones of constant uranium content (by analysis of variance). Concordance between the fission track method and the U/Pb technique is established and we concluded that track fading from thermal annealing has not taken place. Kimberlitic zircons dated in this study, therefore, record the time of eruption. ?? 1983.

Haggerty, S.E.; Raber, E.; Naeser, C.W.

1983-01-01

96

Optical Imaging and Radiometric Modeling and Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OPTOOL software is a general-purpose optical systems analysis tool that was developed to offer a solution to problems associated with computational programs written for the James Webb Space Telescope optical system. It integrates existing routines into coherent processes, and provides a structure with reusable capabilities that allow additional processes to be quickly developed and integrated. It has an extensive graphical user interface, which makes the tool more intuitive and friendly. OPTOOL is implemented using MATLAB with a Fourier optics-based approach for point spread function (PSF) calculations. It features parametric and Monte Carlo simulation capabilities, and uses a direct integration calculation to permit high spatial sampling of the PSF. Exit pupil optical path difference (OPD) maps can be generated using combinations of Zernike polynomials or shaped power spectral densities. The graphical user interface allows rapid creation of arbitrary pupil geometries, and entry of all other modeling parameters to support basic imaging and radiometric analyses. OPTOOL provides the capability to generate wavefront-error (WFE) maps for arbitrary grid sizes. These maps are 2D arrays containing digital sampled versions of functions ranging from Zernike polynomials to combination of sinusoidal wave functions in 2D, to functions generated from a spatial frequency power spectral distribution (PSD). It also can generate optical transfer functions (OTFs), which are incorporated into the PSF calculation. The user can specify radiometrics for the target and sky background, and key performance parameters for the instrument s focal plane array (FPA). This radiometric and detector model setup is fairly extensive, and includes parameters such as zodiacal background, thermal emission noise, read noise, and dark current. The setup also includes target spectral energy distribution as a function of wavelength for polychromatic sources, detector pixel size, and the FPA s charge diffusion modulation transfer function (MTF).

Ha, Kong Q.; Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Moiser, Gary E.; Howard, Joseph M.; Le, Chi M.

2010-01-01

97

Amino acid racemization dating of Upper Pleistocene - Holocene terrestrial gastropods from a Mediterranean region (Murcia, SE Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amino acid racemization method has become a widely used geochronological tool for dating Quaternary deposits. The method is based on the fact that living organisms contain only L-amino acids which gradually racemize into D-amino acids after death. Thus, the D/L ratio increases with time after death until it is equal to 1, that is, when equilibrium is reached. Gastropod shells are particularly useful for amino acid racemization dating. Because the amino acid racemization method is not a numerical dating method in isolation, it needs to be calibrated, mainly with radiometric dating methods. The racemization process is genus- and temperature-dependent. In this work we present a preliminary analysis that compares the radiometric age estimated from different dating methods of a number of gastropods recovered in localities from Murcia (Southeastern Spain), with the age obtained through the amino acid racemization method. Taking advantage of recent paleoseismological research in the Murcia region (SE Spain), 28 gastropods specimens were collected from different trenches dug in young Quaternary alluvial deposits. The specimens were subsequently classified and then analyzed according to the standards protocols of the Biomolecular Stratigraphy Laboratory (UPM, Madrid School of Mines). The species found were Otala lactea, Iberus gualterianus, Sphincterochila candidissima and Theba pisana. The D/L ratios of aspartic acid, leucine, phenylalanine and glutamic acid were determined, and the corresponding average age of each specimen was calculated introducing the D/L values in the age calculation algorithm of Torres et al. (1997) for gastropods of central and southern Spain. The racemization age for each locality was then compared to the radiometric age of the deposit where the specimens were collected. To this respect, the samples were classified in different groups considering the reliability on the age control method. The most reliable sample consists only on dates obtained by the radiocarbon method applied to pieces of charcoal found in the same sedimentary unit as the gastropod. The other subsets consider dates, or bracketed dates, obtained from other dating techniques (TL, OSL, Uranium series) or even stratigraphic criteria. Preliminary results show that Torres et al. (1997) calibration algorithm estimates ages as much as ten times older than the most likely one. We think that this result is due to a strong bias on the way the algorithm was obtained, based mostly in Lower Pleistocene/Pliocene samples. Hence, the new data presented here could be used to constraint better the Torres et al. (1997) function towards Upper Pleistocene and Holocene dates. This type of calibration model would be very valuable in determining ages of recent deposits in the Murcia Region, a matter that is critical in paleoseismological research.

Garcia-Mayordomo, Julian; Ortiz, Jose E.; Torres, Trinidad; Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Martinez-Diaz, Jose J.; Altolaguirre, Yul; Canales-Fernandez, Maria L.; Martin-Banda, Raquel

2014-05-01

98

Rapid radiometric methods to detect and differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis from other mycobacterial species  

SciTech Connect

Rapid methods for the differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis/M. bovis (TB complex) from other mycobacteria (MOTT bacilli) were developed and evaluated in a three-phase study. In the first phase, techniques for identification of Mycobacterium species were developed by using radiometric technology and BACTEC Middlebrook 7H12 liquid medium. Based on /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution, characteristic growth patterns were established for 13 commonly encountered mycobacterial species. Mycobacteria belonging to the TB complex were differentiated from other mycobacteria by cellular morphology and rate of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ evolution. For further differentiation, radiometric tests for niacin production and inhibition by Q-nitro-alpha-acetyl amino-beta-hydroxy-propiophenone (NAP) were developed. In the second phase, 100 coded specimens on Lowenstein-Jensen medium were identified as members of the TB complex, MOTT bacilli, bacteria other than mycobacteria, or ''no viable organisms'' within 3 to 12 (average 6.4) days of receipt from the Centers for Disease Control. Isolation and identification of mycobacteria from 20 simulated sputum specimens were carried out in phase III. Out of 20 sputum specimens, 16 contained culturable mycobacteria, and all of the positives were detected by the BACTEC method in an average of 7.3 days. The positive mycobacterial cultures were isolated and identified as TB complex or MOTT bacilli in an average of 12.8 days. The radiometric NAP test was found to be highly sensitive and specific for a rapid identification of TB complex, whereas the radiometric niacin test was found to have some inherent problems. Radiometric BACTEC and conventional methodologies were in complete agreement in Phase II as well as in Phase III.

Siddiqi, S.H.; Hwangbo, C.C.; Silcox, V.; Good, R.C.; Snider, D.E. Jr.; Middlebrook, G.

1984-10-01

99

Relative radiometric calibration of LANDSAT TM reflective bands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A common scientific methodology and terminology is outlined for characterizing the radiometry of both TM sensors. The magnitude of the most significant sources of radiometric variability are discussed and methods are recommended for achieving the exceptional potential inherent in the radiometric precision and accuracy of the TM sensors.

Barker, J. L.

1984-01-01

100

A simple radiometric in vitro assay for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

A radiometric method for screening acetylcholinesterase inhibitors has been described. The method is based on the production of (/sup 14/C)carbon dioxide from the hydrolysis of acetylcholine. The inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50) values for several known acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were in agreement with literature values. The new radiometric method is simple, inexpensive, and has the potential for automation.

Guilarte, T.R.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, R.F.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

1983-01-01

101

Radiocarbon Dating  

SciTech Connect

Radiocarbon dating can be used to determine the age of objects that contain components that were once alive. In the case of human remains, a radiocarbon date can distinguish between a crime scene and an archeological site. Documents, museum artifacts and art objects can be dated to determine if their age is correct for the historical context. A radiocarbon date does not confirm authenticity, but it can help identify a forgery.

Buchholz, B A

2007-12-20

102

Relative Radiometric Normalization and Atmospheric Correction of a SPOT 5 Time Series  

PubMed Central

Multi-temporal images acquired at high spatial and temporal resolution are an important tool for detecting change and analyzing trends, especially in agricultural applications. However, to insure a reliable use of this kind of data, a rigorous radiometric normalization step is required. Normalization can be addressed by performing an atmospheric correction of each image in the time series. The main problem is the difficulty of obtaining an atmospheric characterization at a given acquisition date. In this paper, we investigate whether relative radiometric normalization can substitute for atmospheric correction. We develop an automatic method for relative radiometric normalization based on calculating linear regressions between unnormalized and reference images. Regressions are obtained using the reflectances of automatically selected invariant targets. We compare this method with an atmospheric correction method that uses the 6S model. The performances of both methods are compared using 18 images from of a SPOT 5 time series acquired over Reunion Island. Results obtained for a set of manually selected invariant targets show excellent agreement between the two methods in all spectral bands: values of the coefficient of determination (r2 exceed 0.960, and bias magnitude values are less than 2.65. There is also a strong correlation between normalized NDVI values of sugarcane fields (r2 = 0.959). Despite a relative error of 12.66% between values, very comparable NDVI patterns are observed.

Hajj, Mahmoud El; Begue, Agnes; Lafrance, Bruno; Hagolle, Olivier; Dedieu, Gerard; Rumeau, Matthieu

2008-01-01

103

Dating Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the impact of gender and the presence of children full time in the home on single parents' dating behavior. This research focused on three aspects of dating: dating opportunities, impressions and interactions. Surveying a sample of 83 Parents Without Partners members, the research found: (1) women without children in the home full time find it easier to

Sandra Petronio; Thomas Endres

1987-01-01

104

A double-spike method for K-Ar measurement: A technique for high precision in situ dating on Mars and other planetary surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for K-Ar dating using a double isotope dilution technique is proposed and demonstrated. The method is designed to eliminate known difficulties facing in situ dating on planetary surfaces, especially instrument complexity and power availability. It may also have applicability in some terrestrial dating applications. Key to the method is the use of a solid tracer spike enriched in both 39Ar and 41K. When mixed with lithium borate flux in a Knudsen effusion cell, this tracer spike and a sample to be dated can be successfully fused and degassed of Ar at <1000 C. The evolved 40Ar?/39Ar ratio can be measured to high precision using noble gas mass spectrometry. After argon measurement the sample melt is heated to a slightly higher temperature (1030 C) to volatilize potassium, and the evolved 39K/41K ratio measured by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry. Combined with the known composition of the tracer spike, these two ratios define the K-Ar age using a single sample aliquot and without the need for extreme temperature or a mass determination. In principle the method can be implemented using a single mass spectrometer. Experiments indicate that quantitative extraction of argon from a basalt sample occurs at a sufficiently low temperature that potassium loss in this step is unimportant. Similarly, potassium isotope ratios measured in the Knudsen apparatus indicate good sample-spike equilibration and acceptably small isotopic fractionation. When applied to a flood basalt from the Viluy Traps, Siberia, a K-Ar age of 351 19 Ma was obtained, a result within 1% of the independently known age. For practical reasons this measurement was made on two separate mass spectrometers, but a scheme for combining the measurements in a single analytical instrument is described. Because both parent and daughter are determined by isotope dilution, the precision on K-Ar ages obtained by the double isotope dilution method should routinely approach that of a pair of isotope ratio determinations, likely better than 5%.

Farley, K. A.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Asimow, P. D.; Jacobson, N. S.; Cartwright, J. A.

2013-06-01

105

Visible/infrared radiometric calibration station  

SciTech Connect

We have begun construction of a visible/infrared radiometric calibration station that will allow for absolute calibration of optical and IR remote sensing instruments with clear apertures less than 16 inches in diameter in a vacuum environment. The calibration station broadband sources will be calibrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and allow for traceable absolute radiometric calibration to within {plus_minus}3% in the visible and near IR (0.4--2.5 {mu}m), and less than {plus_minus}1% in the infrared, up to 12 {mu}m. Capabilities for placing diffraction limited images or for sensor full-field flooding will exist. The facility will also include the calibration of polarization and spectral effects, spatial resolution, field of view performance, and wavefront characterization. The configuration of the vacuum calibration station consists of an off-axis 21 inch, f/3.2, parabolic collimator with a scanning fold flat in collimated space. The sources are placed, via mechanisms to be described, at the focal plane of the off-axis parabola. Vacuum system pressure will be in the 10{sup {minus}6} Torr range. The broadband white-light source is a custom design by LANL with guidance from Labsphere Inc. The continuous operating radiance of the integrating sphere will be from 0.0--0.006 W/cm{sup 2}/Sr/{mu}m (upper level quoted for {approximately}500 nm wavelength). The blackbody source is also custom designed at LANL with guidance from NIST. The blackbody temperature will be controllable between 250--350{degrees}K. Both of the above sources have 4.1 inch apertures with estimated radiometric instability at less than 1%. The designs of each of these units will be described. The monochromator and interferometer light sources are outside the vacuum, but all optical relay and beam shaping optics are enclosed within the vacuum calibration station. These sources are described, as well as the methodology for alignment and characterization.

Byrd, D.A.; Maier, W.B. II; Bender, S.C.; Holland, R.F.; Michaud, F.D.; Luettgen, A.L.; Christensen, R.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); O`Brian, T.R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NML), Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Radiometric Physics Div.

1994-07-01

106

GIFTS SM EDU Radiometric and Spectral Calibrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Sensor Module (SM) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high resolution spectral imager designed to measure infrared (IR) radiance using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The GIFTS instrument gathers measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the processing algorithms involved in the calibration. The calibration procedures can be subdivided into three categories: the pre-calibration stage, the calibration stage, and finally, the post-calibration stage. Detailed derivations for each stage are presented in this paper.

Tian, J.; Reisse, R. a.; Johnson, D. G.; Gazarik, J. J.

2007-01-01

107

Absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calibration data for the solar reflective bands of the Landsat-5 TM obtained from five in-flight absolute radiometric calibrations from July 1984-November 1985 at White Sands, New Mexico are presented and analyzed. Ground reflectance and atmospheric data were utilized to predict the spectral radiance at the entrance pupil of the TM and the average number of digital counts in each TM band. The calibration of each of the TM solar reflective bands was calculated in terms of average digital counts/unit spectral radiance for each band. It is observed that for the 12 reflectance-based measurements the rms variation from the means as a percentage of the mean is + or - 1.9 percent; for the 11 measurements in the IR bands, it is + or - 3.4 percent; and the rms variation for all 23 measurements is + or - 2.8 percent.

Slater, P. N.; Biggar, S. F.; Holm, R. G.; Jackson, R. D.; Mao, Y.

1986-01-01

108

Landsat-7 EMT+ On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat-7 was launched on April 15, 1999 and completed its on orbit initialization and verification period on June 28, 1999. The ETM+ payload is similar to the TM sensors on previous Landsat satellites and incorporates two new devices to improve its absolute radiometric calibration. The Full Aperture Solar Calibrator (FASC) is a deployable diffuser panel. This device has been deployed 9 times to date, with a normal deployment schedule of once per month. The initial analysis of the FASC data has given absolute calibration results within 5% of the prelaunch integrating sphere calibrations and a range of variation of 2% between dates. The Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator (PASC), is a set of auxiliary optics that allows the ETM+ to view the sun through a reduced aperture. Data have normally been acquired on a daily basis with the PASC. Initial results with the PASC were encouraging, despite some unexpected saturation in the shortest wavelength band. The response of the ETM+ short wavelength (silicon) bands to the PASC increased initially and has begun to decrease in some of these bands. The longer wavelength (InSb) bands have shown up to 30% oscillations that vary between detectors within the band. Studies are ongoing to better characterize the response to the PASC. The ETM+ also incorporates an internal calibrator (IC), a shutter that oscillates in front of the focal plane that directs light from the internal calibrator lamps to the focal plane. The responses to this device are also varying, though differently than the PASC results. Both the IC and PASC results are attributable to the calibration devices as opposed to the ETM+ itself.

Markham, Brian L.; Barker, J. L.; Kaita, E.; Seiferth, J.; Morfitt, Ron

1999-01-01

109

Precision radiometric surface temperature (PRST) sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need for a Precision Radiometric Surface Temperature (PRST) measurement capability that can achieve noncontact profiling of a sample's surface temperature when heated dynamically during laser processing, aerothermal heating or metal cutting/machining. Target surface temperature maps within and near the heated spot provide critical quantitative diagnostic data for laser-target coupling effectiveness and laser damage assessment. In the case of metal cutting, this type of measurement provides information on plastic deformation in the primary shear zone where the cutting tool is in contact with the workpiece. The challenge in these cases is to measure the temperature of a target while its surface's temperature and emissivity are changing rapidly and with incomplete knowledge of how the emissivity and surface texture (scattering) changes with temperature. Bodkin Design and Engineering, LLC (BDandE), with partners Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) and Space Computer Corporation (SCC), has developed a PRST Sensor that is based on a hyperspectral MWIR imager spanning the wavelength range 2-5 ?m and providing a hyperspectral datacube of 20-24 wavelengths at 60 Hz frame rate or faster. This imager is integrated with software and algorithms to extract surface temperature from radiometric measurements over the range from ambient to 2000K with a precision of 20K, even without a priori knowledge of the target's emissivity and even as the target emissivity may be changing with time and temperature. In this paper, we will present a description of the PRST system as well as laser heating test results which show the PRST system mapping target surface temperatures in the range 600-2600K on a variety of materials.

Daly, James T.; Roberts, Carson; Bodkin, Andrew; Sundberg, Robert; Beaven, Scott; Weinheimer, Jeffrey

2013-05-01

110

A new calibration point for the late Miocene section of the geomagnetic polarity time scale - Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of lava flows from Akaroa Volcano, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent dating of geomagnetic field reversals over the past 2 Ma, by both the radiometric and astrochronologic techniques, indicates that the K-Ar derived ages for these reversals are too young. We report an Ar-40/Ar-39 incremental heating study of two geomagnetic field reversals trapped in lavas on Akaroa Volcano, New Zealand, which demonstrates that the K-Ar derived ages for field reversals at 10-9 Ma are too young by about 7 percent. The new age for the termination of chron 5, a critical tie point on the geomagnetic polarity time-scale for late Miocene time, is 9.67 +/- 0.11 Ma.

Baksi, Ajoy K.; Hoffman, Kenneth A.; Farrar, Edward

1993-04-01

111

Post-glacial Slip History of The Sparta Fault (greece) Determined By Cosmogenic Dating: A New Technique For Tectonic and Seismic Hazard Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major problem for understanding the active tectonics of the central and western Mediterranean region has been the inability to date geomorphic features in limestone. Recent advances in cosmogenic methods overcome this problem. The technique is relatively straight forward. Obtaining rates on numerous faults and related structures will not only improve our understanding of tectonic processes but will prove to be a major advance in establishing earthquake hazard. We illustrate the method by describ- ing continuous slip determinations at two places (10 km apart) on the Sparta normal fault scarp on which the great 464 BC earthquake was thought to have occurred. For a fault scarp, each major earthquake adds new surface exposing more rock to cosmic- ray bombardment. Using 36Cl cosmic ray exposure dating we obtained a continuous exposure history for the 7-12m-high limestone surfaces. The results confirm the hy- pothesis that the earthquake that destroyed ancient Sparta in 464 BC was on this fault. Four earlier earthquakes are also recorded at both sites in the last 13ka with similar slip amplitudes of about 2m and with time intervals ranging from 500yr to 4500yr. The observations confirm that the Sparta scarp is post-glacial, supporting the hypoth- esis that similar scarps elsewhere in the Mediterranean region have a similar age. The absence of any event since 464 BC could suggest a future event is imminent. However, the irregularity of earthquake time intervals could also be due to changes of loading with important consequences for the mechanics of continental deformation.

Benedetti, L.; King, G.; Finkel, R.; Papanastassiou, D.; Armijo, R.; Ryerson, F.; Farber, D.; Flerit, F.

112

Radiometric normalization, compositing, and quality control for satellite high resolution image mosaics over large areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

An objective normalization procedure has been developed to create image mosaics of radiometric equalization radiometric normalization for image mosaics (RNIM). The procedure employs a band-specific principal component analysis for overlap areas to achieve accurate and consistent radiometric transforms in each spectral band. It is demonstrated that the result of radiometric equalization is independent of the order of images to be

Yong Du; Josef Cihlar; Jean Beaubien; Rasim Latifovic

2001-01-01

113

Oxygen isotope studies and compilation of isotopic dates from Antarctica  

SciTech Connect

The Quaternary Isotope Laboratory, alone or in collaboration with other investigators, is currently involved in a number of oxygen-isotope studies mainly in Antarctica. Studies of a drill core from the South Pole, seasonal oxygen-18 signals preserved in the Dominion Range, isotope dating of the Ross Ice Shelf, oxygen-18 profiles of the Siple Coast, McMurdo Ice Shelf sampling, and a data compilation of radiometric dates from Antarctica are discussed.

Grootes, P.M.; Stuiver, M.

1986-01-01

114

Application of a combination of dating techniques to reconstruct the Lateglacial and early Holocene landscape history of the Albula region (eastern Switzerland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landforms in Val Mulix and the Albula region in eastern Switzerland offer a detailed insight into the period between the Oldest Dryas until the early Holocene. To better understand Lateglacial and Holocene climate change in the central Alps, glacial (moraines, polished bedrock) and periglacial (rock glacier) landforms were dated using a combined approach of numerical (cosmogenic 10Be) and relative (Schmidt-hammer, weathering rind thickness) dating techniques. At high-elevation sites near the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) trimline, 10Be exposure ages of glacially modified bedrock are between 11.2 ka and 13.5 ka. This suggests the persistence of long-lasting small local ice caps after the breakdown of the LGM ice domes or, alternatively, a reformation of ice perhaps during the Younger Dryas. In Val Mulix we obtained one of the first ages for the Daun-stadial (> 14.7 ka) moraines (14.9 1.8 ka), supporting a pre-Blling chronological position. The age is in excellent agreement with the age of a boulder from an Egesen I moraine located up-valley which we postulate may be a Daun moraine that was re-occupied during the Egesen stadial. A boulder from an Egesen II moraine gave an age of 10.7 ka, which is similar to ages of Egesen II moraines at other sites in the Alps. 10Be ages from boulders found on a relict rock glacier in Val Mulix indicate that the main active phase lasted from the Lateglacial until the early Holocene. The derived mean annual flow rate is of the order of decimetres, which is in accordance with values stated in the literature based on measuring active rock glaciers in the Alps. Exposure ages from a glacially polished rock barrier showed that this area was ice-free at the end of the Younger Dryas (9.0 0.7 ka and 11.9 0.9 ka). The polished bedrocks are located a few hundred meters down-valley from the Little Ice Age (LIA) moraines. This gives direct evidence of a fast ice retreat towards the end of the Younger Dryas, with glacier length variations that did not exceed the 1850 AD extension (Little Ice Age maximum). Surface exposure dating is, however, limited by several methodological constraints. The choice of suitable snow depths plays a crucial role in the calculation of the 10Be ages. Shielding of surfaces from cosmic rays by snow can significantly influence the exposure age, and variations in the estimated annual snowfall in the Albula region since the LGM is therefore a potential source of considerable uncertainty in our measurements. While the measurement of weathering rind thicknesses turned out to be an appropriate tool to support the reconstruction of Lateglacial landscape evolution, Schmidt-hammer R-values were less helpful. The R-values enabled a temporal distinction of landforms within the Holocene (LIA moraine, active rock glaciers) but not within the Lateglacial. From a methodological point of view, the different dating methods enabled a cross-checking, an extended interpretation of the data and a more accurate estimate of the possible sources of error.

Bhlert, Ralph; Egli, Markus; Maisch, Max; Brandov, Dagmar; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Kubik, Peter W.; Haeberli, Wilfried

2011-04-01

115

Radiometric detection of yeasts in blood cultures of cancer patients  

SciTech Connect

During a 12-month period, 19,457 blood cultures were collected. Yeasts were isolated from 193 cultures derived from 76 cancer patients. Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis accounted for 79% of isolates. Of the three methods compared, the radiometric method required 2.9 days to become positive, blind subculture required 2.6 days, and Gram stains required 1 day. However, the radiometric method was clearly superior in detecting positive cultures, since 73% of all cultures were first detected radiometrically, 22% were detected by subculture, and only 5% were detected by Gram stain. Although 93% of the isolates were detected by aerobic culture, five (7%) isolates were obtained only from anaerobic cultures. Seven days of incubation appear to be sufficient for the radiometric detection of yeasts.

Hopfer, R.L.; Orengo, A.; Chesnut, S.; Wenglar, M.

1980-09-01

116

Absolute radiometric calibration of CBERS-02 IRMSS thermal band  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the laboratory calibration before launch of CBERS-02 IRMSS thermal infrared channel, the onboard blackbody calibration,\\u000a the radiometric crosscalibration against TERRA MODIS corresponding channel and the in-flight field calibration at Lake Qinghai:\\u000a water surface radiometric calibration test site of China on Aug. 17, 2004 are carried out in this research. When making onboard\\u000a blackbody calibration of CBERS-02 IRMSS, it

Yong Zhang; Xingfa Gu; Tao Yu; Yuxiang Zhang; Liangfu Chen; Xiaoying Li; Xiaowen Li; Liming He

2005-01-01

117

Automated gamma spectrometry and data analysis on radiometric neutron dosimeters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated gamma-ray spectrometry system was designed and implemented by the Westinghouse Hanford Company at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) to analyze radiometric neutron dosimeters. Unattended, automatic, 24 hour\\/day, 7 day\\/week operation with online data analysis and mainframe-computer compatible magnetic tape output are system features. The system was used to analyze most of the 4000-plus radiometric monitors (RM's) from

1983-01-01

118

Earthtime Lesson Plan for U/Pb Dating (grade 8-12)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earthtime Lesson Plan is a complete description of a radiometric dating module taught to high school students at MIT. U/Pd dating and it's uses, teacher background, materials needed, time frame and National Science Standards are all provided as well as worksheets with teacher solutions. This module, consisting of three activities, is initially designed for a 90min period.

119

Phoretic and Radiometric Force Measurements on Microparticles in Microgravity Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermophoretic, diffusiophoretic and radiometric forces on microparticles are being measured over a wide range of gas phase and particle conditions using electrodynamic levitation of single particles to simulate microgravity conditions. The thermophoretic force, which arises when a particle exists in a gas having a temperature gradient, is measured by levitating an electrically charged particle between heated and cooled plates mounted in a vacuum chamber. The diffusiophoretic force arising from a concentration gradient in the gas phase is measured in a similar manner except that the heat exchangers are coated with liquids to establish a vapor concentration gradient. These phoretic forces and the radiation pressure force acting on a particle are measured directly in terms of the change in the dc field required to levitate the particle with and without the force applied. The apparatus developed for the research and the experimental techniques are discussed, and results obtained by thermophoresis experiments are presented. The determination of the momentum and energy accommodation coefficients associated with molecular collisions between gases molecules and particles and the measurement of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and small particles are of particular interest.

Davis, E. James

1996-01-01

120

Virtual Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an interactive exercise about Geologic Time. It focuses on how geologists and archaeologists determine the ages of rocks and ancient artifacts. This is a beta release of an instructional activity still under development. Virtual Dating contains two modules as well as a demonstration version. One module is Virtual Dating Isochron for rocks and minerals and the other is Virtual Dating Radiocarbon (Carbon-14). The interactive modules involve the students in exploring data and background information and answering questions as they move through the activity. An answer checking and feedback function is employed. There is also a Virtual Dating Demo if you want to do a quick run-through of the activity without answer checking enabled.

Novak, Gary

1999-04-01

121

Date Rape  

MedlinePLUS

... not force or pressure you to have sex. Alcohol and Drugs Alcohol and drugs can play a role in date ... couldn't remember things. Mixing these drugs with alcohol is highly dangerous. People can end up dead ...

122

Blast investigation by fast multispectral radiometric analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge regarding the processes involved in blasts and detonations is required in various applications, e.g. missile interception, blasts of high-explosive materials, final ballistics and IED identification. Blasts release large amount of energy in short time duration. Some part of this energy is released as intense radiation in the optical spectral bands. This paper proposes to measure the blast radiation by a fast multispectral radiometer. The measurement is made, simultaneously, in appropriately chosen spectral bands. These spectral bands provide extensive information on the physical and chemical processes that govern the blast through the time-dependence of the molecular and aerosol contributions to the detonation products. Multi-spectral blast measurements are performed in the visible, SWIR and MWIR spectral bands. Analysis of the cross-correlation between the measured multi-spectral signals gives the time dependence of the temperature, aerosol and gas composition of the blast. Farther analysis of the development of these quantities in time may indicate on the order of the detonation and amount and type of explosive materials. Examples of analysis of measured explosions are presented to demonstrate the power of the suggested fast multispectral radiometric analysis approach.

Devir, A. D.; Bushlin, Y.; Mendelewicz, I.; Lessin, A. B.; Engel, M.

2011-06-01

123

Luminescence dating and palaeomagnetic age constraint on hominins from Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, Spain.  

PubMed

Establishing a reliable chronology on the extensive hominin remains at Sima de los Huesos is critical for an improved understanding of the complex evolutionary histories and phylogenetic relationships of the European Middle Pleistocene hominin record. In this study, we use a combination of 'extended-range' luminescence dating techniques and palaeomagnetism to provide new age constraint on sedimentary infills that are unambiguously associated with the Sima fossil assemblage. Post-infrared-infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR-IR) dating of K-feldspars and thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) dating of individual quartz grains provide weighted mean ages of 43315ka (thousands of years) and 41619ka, respectively, for allochthonous sedimentary horizons overlying the hominin-bearing clay breccia. The six replicate luminescence ages obtained for this deposit are reproducible and provide a combined minimum age estimate of 42712ka for the underlying hominin fossils. Palaeomagnetic directions for the luminescence dated sediment horizon and underlying fossiliferous clays display exclusively normal polarities. These findings are consistent with the luminescence dating results and confirm that the hominin fossil horizon accumulated during the Brunhes Chron, i.e., within the last 780ka. The new bracketing age constraint for the Sima hominins is in broad agreement with radiometrically dated Homo heidelbergensis fossil sites, such as Mauer and Arago, and suggests that the split of the H.neanderthalensis and H.sapiens lineages took place during the early Middle Pleistocene. More widespread numerical dating of key Early and Middle Pleistocene fossil sites across Europe is needed to test and refine competing models of hominin evolution. The new luminescence chronologies presented in this study demonstrate the versatility of TT-OSL and pIR-IR techniques and the potential role they could play in helping to refine evolutionary histories over Middle Pleistocene timescales. PMID:24485349

Arnold, Lee J; Demuro, Martina; Pars, Josep M; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Aranburu, Arantza; Bermdez de Castro, Jos Mara; Carbonell, Eudald

2014-02-01

124

Luminescence dating of last interglacial coastal deposits of Cyprus: overcoming quartz complications by elevated-temperature Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) from feldspars.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When dating samples from a coastal area of South East Cyprus it was revealed that the OSL characteristics of quartz were problematic giving highly scattered and unexpectedly low Des. Deconvolution of the CW-OSL signals showed that the most likely cause for these underestimations was due to a weak fast component, accompanied by a thermally unstable medium component. Fortunately, recent advancements in luminescence dating have made possible the use of feldspar IRSL instead. Particularly, the "post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence", known as p-IRIR not only compensates for the problems associated with quartz but also saves all benefits of feldspar dating, such as intense signals under laboratory stimulation and considerably higher saturation levels, and additionally deals with the problem of anomalous fading. The potential application of an elevated temperature p-IRIR SAR protocol developed by Thiel et al. (2011) for feldspar is examined for seven late Pleistocene coastal aeolian and littoral samples from a coastal site in south east Cyprus. Published radiometric ages from the same site put additional significance on evaluating the effectiveness of p-IRIR dating, as independent age control on the latter remains scarce in literature to date. Indeed, p-IRIR and published radiometric ages for Cyprus are in a good agreement. Ages are in stratigraphic order assigning the formation of the studied deposits to the Last Interglacial stage. The p-IRIR dating was concluded to be a reliable technique for establishing precise and accurate chronologies and a trustworthy alternative to quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating when the quartz luminescence characteristics are unsuitable.

Tsakalos, Evangelos; Athanassas, Constantin; Bassiakos, Yannis

2013-04-01

125

SDO EVE ESP radiometric calibration and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Extreme ultraviolet Spectro-Photometer (ESP), as a part of the Extreme ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) suite of instruments, was calibrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on the Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF) Beam Line 2 in February 2007. Precise ESP alignment to the SURF beam was achieved through successive scans in X, Y, Pitch and Yaw, using a comparison of the four channels of the ESP quad photodiode as a measure of alignment. The observed alignment between the ESP and the other instruments in the EVE package was found to be in very good agreement with that measured at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) at the University of Colorado during ESP/EVE integration. The radiometric calibration of the ESP photometers in the spectral range around 4.4 nm (central zeroth order), and the four first order channels centered at about 18.9, 25.4, 29.8, and 36.1 nm was performed with SURF synchrotron radiation. The co-alignment of the SURF beam and the ESP optical axis for each energy and injected current was determined based on quad diode (QD) photometer responses (photodiode count-rate data). This determined beam position was later used to obtain exact energy-wavelength-flux profiles for each of the calibration energies and to calculate the quantum efficiency of the ESP channels. The results of this calibration (quantum efficiencies) are compared to the previous ESP NIST calibration results at SURF Beam Line 9 and to SOHO/SEM efficiencies.

Didkovsky, Leonid; Judge, Darrell; Wieman, Seth; Woods, Tom; Chamberlin, Phil; Jones, Andrew; Eparvier, Frank; Triplett, Matt; Woodraska, Don; McMullin, Don; Furst, Mitch; Vest, Rob

2007-09-01

126

Absolute Radiometric Calibration of Narrow-Swath Imaging Sensors with Reference to Non-Coincident Wide-Swath Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inter-calibration method is developed to provide absolute radiometric calibration of narrow-swath imaging sensors with reference to non-coincident wide-swath sensors. The method predicts at-sensor radiance using non-coincident imagery from the reference sensor and knowledge of spectral reflectance of the test site. The imagery of the reference sensor is restricted to acquisitions that provide similar view and solar illumination geometry to reduce uncertainties due to directional reflectance effects. Spectral reflectance of the test site is found with a simple iterative radiative transfer method using radiance values of a well-understood wide-swath sensor and spectral shape information based on historical ground-based measurements. At-sensor radiance is calculated for the narrow-swath sensor using this spectral reflectance and atmospheric parameters that are also based on historical in situ measurements. Results of the inter-calibration method show agreement on the 2 5 percent level in most spectral regions with the vicarious calibration technique relying on coincident ground-based measurements referred to as the reflectance-based approach. While the variability of the inter-calibration method based on non-coincident image pairs is significantly larger, results are consistent with techniques relying on in situ measurements. The method is also insensitive to spectral differences between the sensors by transferring to surface spectral reflectance prior to prediction of at-sensor radiance. The utility of this inter-calibration method is made clear by its flexibility to utilize image pairings with acquisition dates differing in excess of 30 days allowing frequent absolute calibration comparisons between wide- and narrow-swath sensors.

McCorkel, Joel; Thome, Kurtis; Lockwood, Ronald

2012-01-01

127

Combined use of relative and numerical dating techniques for detecting signals of Alpine landscape evolution during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene in Val di Rabbi (Trentino, northern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined use of relative and absolute dating techniques was applied on nine soil profiles in order to reconstruct late Pleistocene and early Holocene landscape evolution in an Alpine environment located in Val di Rabbi (Trentino, northern Italy). The degree of podzolisation, clay mineral evolution and element mass balances of each site were investigated. Furthermore, the stable fraction of the

F. Favilli; M. Egli; D. Brandova; S. Ivy-Ochs; P. Kubik; P. Cherubini; A. Mirabella; G. Sartori; D. Giaccai; W. Haeberli

2009-01-01

128

Magnetic susceptibility applied as an agedepthclimate relative dating technique using sediments from Scladina Cave, a Late Pleistocene cave site in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we demonstrate that magnetic susceptibility (MS) data from Scladina Cave, Belgium, provide a timedepthclimate relationship that is correlated to the marine oxygen isotopic record and thus yields a high-resolution relative dating method for sediments recovered from many archaeological sites. This methodology will help resolve one of the major problems facing archaeologists, namely the difficulty of acquiring absolute dates with

Brooks B Ellwood; Francis B Harrold; Stephen L Benoist; Paul Thacker; Marcel Otte; Dominique Bonjean; Gary J Long; Ahmed M Shahin; Raphal P Hermann; Fernande Grandjean

2004-01-01

129

A Kalman Approach to Lunar Surface Navigation using Radiometric and Inertial Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future lunar missions supporting the NASA Vision for Space Exploration will rely on a surface navigation system to determine astronaut position, guide exploration, and return safely to the lunar habitat. In this report, we investigate one potential architecture for surface navigation, using an extended Kalman filter to integrate radiometric and inertial measurements. We present a possible infrastructure to support this technique, and we examine an approach to simulating navigational accuracy based on several different system configurations. The results show that position error can be reduced to 1 m after 5 min of processing, given two satellites, one surface communication terminal, and knowledge of the starting position to within 100 m.

Chelmins, David T.; Welch, Bryan W.; Sands, O. Scott; Nguyen, Binh V.

2009-01-01

130

Fundus image change analysis: geometric and radiometric normalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image change analysis will potentiate fundus feature quantitation in natural history and intervention studies for major blinding diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Geometric and radiometric normalization of fundus images acquired at two points in time are required for accurate change detection, but existing methods are unsatisfactory for change analysis. We have developed and explored algorithms for correction of image misalignment (geometric) and inter- and intra-image brightness variation (radiometric) in order to facilitate highly accurate change detection. Thirty-five millimeter color fundus photographs were digitized at 500 to 1000 dpi. Custom-developed registration algorithms correcting for translation only; translation and rotation; translation, rotation, and scale; and polynomial based image-warping algorithms allowed for exploration of registration accuracy required for change detection. Registration accuracy beyond that offered by rigid body transformation is required for accurate change detection. Radiometric correction required shade-correction and normalization of inter-image statistical parameters. Precise geometric and radiometric normalization allows for highly accurate change detection. To our knowledge, these results are the first demonstration of the combination of geometric and radiometric normalization offering sufficient accuracy to allow for accurate fundus image change detection potentiating longitudinal study of retinal disease.

Shin, David S.; Kaiser, Richard S.; Lee, Michael S.; Berger, Jeffrey W.

1999-06-01

131

Radiometric validation of NASA's Ames Research Center's Sensor Calibration Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Ames Research Center's Airborne Sensor Facility (ASF) is responsible for the calibration of several airborne Earth-viewing sensor systems in support of NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) investigations. The primary artifact used to calibrate these sensors in the reflective solar region from 400 to 2500 nm is a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere source. In September 1999, a measurement comparison was made at the Ames ASF Sensor Calibration Facility to validate the radiometric scale, establish the uncertainties assigned to the radiance of this source, and examine its day-to-day repeatability. The comparison was one of a series of validation activities overseen by the EOS Calibration Program to ensure the radiometric calibration accuracy of sensors used in long-term, global, remote-sensing studies. Results of the comparison, including an evaluation of the Ames Sensor Calibration Laboratory (SCL) measurement procedures and assigned radiometric uncertainties, provide a validation of their radiometric scale at the time of the comparison. Additionally, the maintenance of the radiance scale was evaluated by use of independent, long-term, multiyear radiance validation measurements of the Ames sphere source. This series of measurements provided an independent assessment of the radiance values assigned to integrating sphere sources by the Ames SCF. Together, the measurements validate the SCF radiometric scale and assigned uncertainties over the time period from September 1999 through July 2003.

Brown, Steven W.; Johnson, B. Carol; Biggar, Stuart F.; Zalewski, Edward F.; Cooper, John; Hajek, Pavel; Hildum, Edward; Grant, Patrick; Barnes, Robert A.; Butler, James J.

2005-10-01

132

Relative Dating Via Fractures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

This VIS image of the eastern part of the Tharsis region illustrates how fractures can be used in relative dating of a surface. The fractured materials on the right side of the image are embayed by younger volcanic flows originating to the west of the image. Note how the younger flows cover the ends of the fractures, and are not at all fractured themselves.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 43.2, Longitude 269.4 East (90.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

133

ASD FieldSpec Calibration Setup and Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) Fieldspec Calibration Setup and Techniques. The topics include: 1) ASD Fieldspec FR Spectroradiometer; 2) Components of Calibration; 3) Equipment list; 4) Spectral Setup; 5) Spectral Calibration; 6) Radiometric and Linearity Setup; 7) Radiometric setup; 8) Datadets Required; 9) Data files; and 10) Field of View Measurement. This paper is in viewgraph form.

Olive, Dan

2001-01-01

134

Radiometric Measurement Comparisons Using Transfer Radiometers in Support of the Calibration of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

EOS satellite instruments operating in the visible through the shortwave infrared wavelength regions (from 0.4 micrometers to 2.5 micrometers) are calibrated prior to flight for radiance response using integrating spheres at a number of instrument builder facilities. The traceability of the radiance produced by these spheres with respect to international standards is the responsibility of the instrument builder, and different calibration techniques are employed by those builders. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Earth Observing System (EOS) Project Science Office, realizing the importance of preflight calibration and cross-calibration, has sponsored a number of radiometric measurement comparisons, the main purpose of which is to validate the radiometric scale assigned to the integrating spheres by the instrument builders. This paper describes the radiometric measurement comparisons, the use of stable transfer radiometers to perform the measurements, and the measurement approaches and protocols used to validate integrating sphere radiances. Stable transfer radiometers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center Remote Sensing Group, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and the National Research Laboratory of Metrology in Japan, have participated in these comparisons. The approaches used in the comparisons include the measurement of multiple integrating sphere lamp levels, repeat measurements of select lamp levels, the use of the stable radiometers as external sphere monitors, and the rapid reporting of measurement results. Results from several comparisons are presented. The absolute radiometric calibration standard uncertainties required by the EOS satellite instruments are typically in the +/- 3% to +/- 5% range. Preliminary results reported during eleven radiometric measurement comparisons held between February 1995 and May 1998 have shown the radiance of integrating spheres agreed to within +/- 2.5% from the average at blue wavelengths and to within +/- 1.7% from the average at red and near infrared wavelengths. This level of agreement lends confidence in the use of the transfer radiometers in validating the radiance scales assigned by EOS instrument calibration facilities to their integrating sphere sources.

Butler, James J.; Johnson, B. Carol; Brown, Steven W.; Yoon, Howard W.; Barnes, Robert A.; Markham, Brian L.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Zalewski, Edward F.; Spyak, Paul R.; Cooper, John W.; Sakuma, Fumihiro

1999-01-01

135

Analysis of Multispectral Radiometric Signatures from Geosynchronous Satellites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Air Force Research Laboratory Directed Energy Directorate has collected and analyzed passive Multispectral radiometric data using two different sets of filters: astronomical broad-band Johnson filters and the Space Object Identification In Living Color (SILC) filters for Space Situational Awareness (SSA) of geosynchronous satellites (GEOs). The latter set of filters was designed as part of the SILC Space Battlelab initiative. The radiometric data of geosynchronous satellites were taken using a charge-coupled device (CCD) on the 24-inch Ritchey-Chretien telescope at Capilla Peak Observatory of the University of New Mexico. The target list is comprised of satellites with similar and dissimilar bus structures. Additionally, some of the satellites are in a cluster. The results presented will show the advances in classifying GEOs by their bus type and a resolution scenario of cluster cross tagging using Multispectral radiometric measurements.

Payne, Tamara E.; Gregory, Stephen A.; Houtkooper, Nina M.; Burdullis, Todd W.

2002-12-01

136

In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the thematic mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, New Mexico area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1:0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2:0.53 to 0.61 micrometers band 3:0.62 to 0.70 micrometers and 4:0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors.

Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

1984-01-01

137

In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of the Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to determine temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system in flight spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM image collections over the White Sands, NM area. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined, band 1: 0.45 to 0.52 micrometers, band 2: 0.53 to 0.61 micrometers, band 3: 0.62 to 0.70 micrometers, and 4: 0.78 to 0.91 micrometers. These levels were compared to the output digital counts from the detectors that sampled the radiometrically measured ground area, thus providing an absolute radiometric calibration of the entire TM system utilizing those detectors. Previously announced in STAR as N84-15633

Castle, K. R.; Holm, R. G.; Kastner, C. J.; Palmer, J. M.; Slater, P. N.; Dinguirard, M.; Ezra, C. E.; Jackson, R. D.; Savage, R. K.

1984-01-01

138

Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid, and precipitation, emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band because communication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of water vapor-induced propagation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity wave experiments, and radio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation model development, supported planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily, monthly, and seasonal variations. Only long-term monitoring will prevent biases from being introduced by an exceptionally wet or dry year. Support for planetary missions included tropospheric calibration for the recent Mars Observer gravity wave experiments and Ka-band link experiment (KaBLE). Additionally, several proposed radio science experiments such as profiling planetary atmospheres using satellite occultations and Ka-band gravitational wave searches require advanced radiometer technology development. Finally, there has been a consistent advanced technology program to advance satellite navigational and tracking capabilities. This year that included an experiment with radiometer based tropospheric calibration for a series of VLBI catalog measurements.

Walter, Steven J.

1994-01-01

139

Radiometric Calibration of the Earth Observing System's Imaging Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work on the grant was mainly directed towards developing new, accurate, redundant methods for the in-flight, absolute radiometric calibration of satellite multispectral imaging systems and refining the accuracy of methods already in use. Initially the work was in preparation for the calibration of MODIS and HIRIS (before the development of that sensor was canceled), with the realization it would be applicable to most imaging multi- or hyper-spectral sensors provided their spatial or spectral resolutions were not too coarse. The work on the grant involved three different ground-based, in-flight calibration methods reflectance-based radiance-based and diffuse-to-global irradiance ratio used with the reflectance-based method. This continuing research had the dual advantage of: (1) developing several independent methods to create the redundancy that is essential for the identification and hopefully the elimination of systematic errors; and (2) refining the measurement techniques and algorithms that can be used not only for improving calibration accuracy but also for the reverse process of retrieving ground reflectances from calibrated remote-sensing data. The grant also provided the support necessary for us to embark on other projects such as the ratioing radiometer approach to on-board calibration (this has been further developed by SBRS as the 'solar diffuser stability monitor' and is incorporated into the most important on-board calibration system for MODIS)- another example of the work, which was a spin-off from the grant funding, was a study of solar diffuser materials. Journal citations, titles and abstracts of publications authored by faculty, staff, and students are also attached.

Slater, Philip N. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

140

Radiometric Sensitivity to Soil Moisture Relative to Vegetation Canopy Anisotropy, Canopy Temperature,  

E-print Network

Radiometric Sensitivity to Soil Moisture Relative to Vegetation Canopy Anisotropy, Canopy Sensitivity to Soil Moisture Relative to Vegetation Canopy Anisotropy, Canopy Temperature, and Canopy Water of micrometeorology and soil moisture, the radiometric sensi- tivities to vegetation canopy temperature, soil moisture

Sarabandi, Kamal

141

Thermochronology of economic mineral deposits: dating the stages of mineralization at Panasqueira, Portugal, by high-precision 40Ar/ 39Ar age spectrum techniques on muscovite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study is an example of a new and powerful application of 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum dating of muscovite. It is now possible to establish time constraints necessary for solving some of the long-standing problems in economic geology. Beyond this, the unique geologic situation of Panasqueira has allowed us to quantify the thermal characteristics of muscovite. Published fluid inclusion data have been used to estimate a muscovite argon closure temperature of ~325??C during rapid cooling or short reheating and a temperature of ~270??C during slow cooling or extended reheating. Argon-loss patterns displayed by all dated muscovites resulted from reheating after original closure; the mechanism for this argon loss appears to have been argon transport by volume diffusion. Thus, 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum dating of muscovite can be used to evaluate thermal conditions controlling argon diffusion as well as age, duration, and number of episodes of mineralization. -from Authors

Snee, L.W.; Sutter, J.F.; Kelly, W.C.

1988-01-01

142

Prelaunch absolute radiometric calibration of LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are summarized and analyzed from several prelaunch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere used as part of the absolute radiometric calibration experiments for the protoflight TM sensor carried on the LANDSAT-4 satellite. The calibration procedure is presented and the radiometric sensitivity of the TM is assessed. The internal calibrator and dynamic range after calibration are considered. Tables show dynamic range after ground processing, spectral radiance to digital number and digital number to spectral radiance values for TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and for channel 4 of band 6.

Barker, J. L.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.; Walker, J. A.

1984-01-01

143

In situ radiometric and exposure age dating of the martian surface.  

PubMed

We determined radiogenic and cosmogenic noble gases in a mudstone on the floor of Gale Crater. A K-Ar age of 4.21 0.35 billion years represents a mixture of detrital and authigenic components and confirms the expected antiquity of rocks comprising the crater rim. Cosmic-ray-produced (3)He, (21)Ne, and (36)Ar yield concordant surface exposure ages of 78 30 million years. Surface exposure occurred mainly in the present geomorphic setting rather than during primary erosion and transport. Our observations are consistent with mudstone deposition shortly after the Gale impact or possibly in a later event of rapid erosion and deposition. The mudstone remained buried until recent exposure by wind-driven scarp retreat. Sedimentary rocks exposed by this mechanism may thus offer the best potential for organic biomarker preservation against destruction by cosmic radiation. PMID:24324273

Farley, K A; Malespin, C; Mahaffy, P; Grotzinger, J P; Vasconcelos, P M; Milliken, R E; Malin, M; Edgett, K S; Pavlov, A A; Hurowitz, J A; Grant, J A; Miller, H B; Arvidson, R; Beegle, L; Calef, F; Conrad, P G; Dietrich, W E; Eigenbrode, J; Gellert, R; Gupta, S; Hamilton, V; Hassler, D M; Lewis, K W; McLennan, S M; Ming, D; Navarro-Gonzlez, R; Schwenzer, S P; Steele, A; Stolper, E M; Sumner, D Y; Vaniman, D; Vasavada, A; Williford, K; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R F

2014-01-24

144

In Situ Radiometric Dating of Aqueously Formed Carbonates in Sutter's Mill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Manganese-Chromium systematics for dolomite grains in the Sutter's Mill meteorite, section SM-51. Measurements yield a well-defined isochron with aqueous alteration ages comparable to CM and CI chondrites.

Jilly, C. E.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Yin, Q.-Z.; Sugiura, N.; Krot, A. N.

2013-09-01

145

Radiometric dating of young MORB using the (40)Ar-(39)Ar incremental heating method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of reliable crystallization ages by K-Ar methods for young (is less than 1 Ma), fresh basalts from the seafloor (mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs)) has been frustrated by several effects. The small amounts of radiogenic Ar-40 developed over these timescales in such low-K rocks are difficult to resolve from predominantly atmospheric Ar-40. An additional concern is that mantle-derived Ar-40 may not be totally outgassed when magmas quench at seafloor hydrostatic pressures. We have developed a successful strategy for partially separating atmospheric from radiogenic Ar-40 in (40)Ar-(39)Ar incremental heating experiments on mid-ocean ridge basalts, from the East Pacific Rise near the Clipperton Fracture Zone. Pre-heating samples to 400 C removes surficial atmospheric Ar-40, while subsequent heating at 600-1000 C produces favorable proportions of radiogenic Ar-40. Experiments using 'zero-age' glassy and holocrystalline samples show that mantle-derived Ar-40 is retained only in the outermost few cm of rapidly cooled pillow basalts.

Duncan, R. A.; Hogan, L. G.

1994-09-01

146

Estimating sensible heat flux from radiometric temperature over crop canopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model devised by Lhommeet al. (1988) allows one to calculate the sensible heat flux over a homogeneous crop canopy from radiometric surface temperature by adding a so-called canopy aerodynamic resistance to the classical aerodynamic resistance calculated above the canopy. This model is reformulated in order to simplify the mathematical procedure needed to calculate this additional resistance. Analytical expressions of

J. P. Lhomme; N. Katerji; J. M. Bertolini

1992-01-01

147

Estimating sensible heat flux from radiometric temperature over crop canopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The model devised by Lhomme et al. (1988) allows one to calculate the sensible heat flux over a homogeneous crop canopy from radiometric surface temperature by adding a so-called canopy aerodynamic resistance to the classical aerodynamic resistance calculated above the canopy. This model is reformulated in order to simplify the mathematical procedure needed to calculate this additional resistance. Analytical expressions

J. P. Lhomme; N. Katerji; J. M. Bertolini

1992-01-01

148

Radiometric performance evaluation of ASTER VNIR, SWIR, and TIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiometric performance of the Advanced Spectrometer for Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is characterized by using acquired imagery data. Noise-equivalent reflectance and temperature, sensitivity (gain), bias (offset), and modulation transfer function (MTF) are determined for the visible and near-infrared (VNIR), the shortwave infrared (SWIR), and the thermal infrared (TIR) radiometers that constitute ASTER. The responsivity evaluated from onboard calibration

Kohei Arai; Hideyuki Tonooka

2005-01-01

149

Fundus image change analysis: geometric and radiometric normalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image change analysis will potentiate fundus feature quantitation in natural history and intervention studies for major blinding diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Geometric and radiometric normalization of fundus images acquired at two points in time are required for accurate change detection, but existing methods are unsatisfactory for change analysis. We have developed and explored algorithms for

David S. Shin; Richard S. Kaiser; Michael S. Lee; Jeffrey W. Berger

1999-01-01

150

Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions of radiometric tarps  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) of radiometric tarp samples used in the vicarious calibration of Earth remote sensing satellite instruments are presented in this paper. The results illustrate the BRDF dependence on the orientation of the tarps' weft and warp threads. The study was performed using the GSFC scatterometer at incident zenith angles of 0 deg., 10 deg., and 30 deg.; scatter zenith angles from 0 deg. to 60 deg.; and scatter azimuth angles of 0 deg., 45 deg., 90 deg., 135 deg., and 180 deg.. The wavelengths were 485 nm, 550 nm, 633 nm, and 800 nm. The tarp's weft and warp dependence on BRDF is well defined at all measurement geometries and wavelengths. The BRDF difference can be as high as 8% at 0 deg. incident angle and 12% at 30 deg. incident angle. The fitted BRDF data show a very small discrepancy from the measured ones. New data on the forward and backscatter properties of radiometric tarps are reported. The backward scatter is well pronounced for the white samples. The black sample has well-pronounced forward scatter. The provided BRDF characterization of radiometric tarps is an excellent reference for anyone interested in using tarps for radiometric calibrations. The results are NIST traceable.

Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J

2008-06-20

151

Stellar calibration of the ROLO lunar radiometric reference  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lunar Calibration program at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Flagstaff, AZ, provides the radiometric reference of the Moon as a source for calibration at reflected-solar wavelengths. To develop this capability, thousands of multispectral images of the Moon were acquired by the Robotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) telescope imaging systems. During normal ROLO operations, 10 to 12 different stars were

Thomas C. Stone

2010-01-01

152

The absolute radiometric calibration of Terra imaging sensors: MODIS, MISR, and ASTER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Terra spacecraft contains five Earth-observation instruments, three of which are multispectral imaging sensors that complement each other in spectral and spatial coverage. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has 36 channels ranging from 0.4-14.4 ?m, with spatial resolutions of 250, 500, and 1000 m. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) uses individual imaging sensors to view the earth at nine discreet angles. Each radiometer has four channels in the visible and near infrared (VNIR), and the nadir-viewing camera has a spatial resolution of 275 m. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was designed with fourteen bands ranging from 0.5-11.6 ?m. It is the high-resolution sensor on Terra, with a spatial resolution of 15 m in the VNIR, and 30 m in the shortwave infrared (SWIR). This work describes the vicarious techniques used to perform the absolute radiometric calibration of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER in the solar-reflective region (0.4-2.5 ?m). It includes the reflectance-based approach, which uses ground-based personnel to make in situ measurements during the time of overpass. It also includes more recent results that were obtained using the University of Arizona's automated Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley, Nevada. In addition to the absolute radiometric calibration of Terra sensors, RadCaTS is used to perform the cross comparison of MODIS, MISR, and ASTER with Landsat 7 ETM+ and Landsat 8 OLI.

Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Thome, Kurtis; Anderson, Nikolaus; Biggar, Stuart

2014-10-01

153

Relative Dating in Archaeology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two classroom exercises introduce students to stratigraphy and the law of superposition as well as seriation, dating techniques used by archaeologists to establish a relative chronology. They can be adapted to students at different levels using local materials. In the first exercise, dated materials such as newspapers may be used to illustrate the concepts; students may then manipulate materials to simulate mapping and excavation or create a poster. In the second exercise, students are shown and discuss materials to develop their understanding of artifacts and materials within the context of a culture.

Griggs, Cathy

1988-01-01

154

Relative Dating in Archaeology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These two classroom exercises introduce students to stratigraphy and the law of superposition as well as seriation, dating techniques used by archaeologists to establish a relative chronology. They can be adapted to students at different levels using local materials. In the first exercise, dated materials such as newspapers may be used to illustrate the concepts; students may then manipulate materials to simulate mapping and excavation or create a poster. In the second exercise, students are shown and discuss materials to develop their understanding of artifacts and materials within the context of a culture.

Griggs, Cathy

155

Data from radar images integrated with information from traditional lithologic and dating techniques improve resolution of surficial geologic units in the central Florida peninsula  

SciTech Connect

Side Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) images provide information useful to 1:100,000-scale surficial geologic mapping across the Florida peninsula from Sarasota to Fort Pierce. The SLAR images show textural patterns, sharp gradients, and certain compositional variations that cause differences in reflectivity. Quaternary and Pliocene beach ridges and marginal marine plains, visible on SLAR images, occupy most of the eastern half of the area; the most prominent beach ridge, which was deposited during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene, is the southern terminus of the central highlands of Florida. Other geologic features detected by radar are a change from iron-poor to moderately iron-rich soil that marks the boundary between two middle Quaternary ( ) units, oyster reefs associated with late Pleistocene bay deposits northwest of Lake Okeechobee, and permanent and ephemeral ponds that reflect the thickness of unconsolidated sediment over weathered carbonate rocks. In addition to the geomorphic and compositional information from SLAR, mineralogic, textural, and age data from drill holes and pits were used to delineate surficial geologic map units. Stratigraphic and numerical age estimates are based on molluscan biostratigraphy, uranium disequilibrium series dates on corals, [sup 87]Sr/[sup 66]Sr dates on molluscs, and [sup 14]C dates on peat and humate.

McCartan, L.; Moy, W.S.; Wingard, G.L. Owens, J.P.; Kover, A.N.; Van Valkenburg, S.G.; Mason, D.B. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

1994-03-01

156

Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits through geological time: implications from recent age-dating research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remarkable advances in age dating Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits provide a new opportunity to understand how and where these deposits form in the Earth's crust. These dates are summarized and examined in a framework of global tectonics, paleogeography, fluid migration, and paleoclimate. Nineteen districts have been dated by paleomagnetic and/or radiometric methods. Of the districts that have both paleomagnetic and radiometric dates, only the Pine Point and East Tennessee districts have significant disagreements. This broad agreement between paleomagnetic and radiometric dates provides added confidence in the dating techniques used. The new dates confirm the direct connection between the genesis of MVT lead-zinc ores with global-scale tectonic events. The dates show that MVT deposits formed mainly during large contractional tectonic events at restricted times in the history of the Earth. Only the deposits in the Lennard Shelf of Australia and Nanisivik in Canada have dates that correspond to extensional tectonic events. The most important period for MVT genesis was the Devonian to Permian time, which corresponds to a series of intense tectonic events during the assimilation of Pangea. The second most important period for MVT genesis was Cretaceous to Tertiary time when microplate assimilation affected the western margin of North America and Africa-Eurasia. There is a notable paucity of MVT lead-zinc ore formation following the breakup of Rodinia and Pangea. Of the five MVT deposits hosted in Proterozoic rocks, only the Nanisivik deposit has been dated as Proterozoic. The contrast in abundance between SEDEX and MVT lead-zinc deposits in the Proterozoic questions the frequently suggested notion that the two types of ores share similar genetic paths. The ages of MVT deposits, when viewed with respect to the orogenic cycle in the adjacent orogen suggest that no single hydrologic model can be universally applied to the migration of the ore fluids. However, topographically driven models best explain most MVT districts. The migration of MVT ore fluids is not a natural consequence of basin evolution; rather, MVT districts formed mainly where platform carbonates had some hydrological connection to orogenic belts. There may be a connection between paleoclimate and the formation of some MVT deposits. This possible relationship is suggested by the dominance of evaporated seawater in fluid inclusions in MVT ores, by hydrological considerations that include the need for multiple-basin volumes of ore fluid to form most MVT districts, and the need for adequate precipitation to provide sufficient topographic head for topographically-driven fluid migration. Paleoclimatic conditions that lead to formation of evaporite conditions but yet have adequate precipitation to form large hydrological systems are most commonly present in low latitudes. For the MVT deposits and districts that have been dated, more than 75% of the combined metal produced are from deposits that have dates that correspond to assembly of Pangea in Devonian through Permian time. The exceptional endowment of Pangea and especially, North America with MVT lead-zinc deposits may be explained by the following: (1) Laurentia, which formed the core of North America, stayed in low latitudes during the Paleozoic, which allowed the development of vast carbonate platforms; (2) intense orogenic activity during the assembly of Pangea created ground preparation for many MVT districts through far-field deformation of the craton; (3) uplifted orogenic belts along Pangean suture zones established large-scale migration of basin fluids; and (4) the location of Pangea in low latitudes with paleoclimates with high evaporation rates led to the formation of brines by the evaporation of seawater and infiltration of these brines into deep basin aquifers during Pangean orogenic events.

Leach, David L.; Bradley, Dwight; Lewchuk, Michael T.; Symons, David T.; de Marsily, Ghislain; Brannon, Joyce

2001-12-01

157

Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits through geological time: Implications from recent age-dating research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Remarkable advances in age dating Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits provide a new opportunity to understand how and where these deposits form in the Earth's crust. These dates are summarized and examined in a framework of global tectonics, paleogeography, fluid migration, and paleoclimate. Nineteen districts have been dated by paleomagnetic and/or radiometric methods. Of the districts that have both paleomagnetic and radiometric dates, only the Pine Point and East Tennessee districts have significant disagreements. This broad agreement between paleomagnetic and radiometric dates provides added confidence in the dating techniques used. The new dates confirm the direct connection between the genesis of MVT lead-zinc ores with global-scale tectonic events. The dates show that MVT deposits formed mainly during large contractional tectonic events at restricted times in the history of the Earth. Only the deposits in the Lennard Shelf of Australia and Nanisivik in Canada have dates that correspond to extensional tectonic events. The most important period for MVT genesis was the Devonian to Permian time, which corresponds to a series of intense tectonic events during the assimilation of Pangea. The second most important period for MVT genesis was Cretaceous to Tertiary time when microplate assimilation affected the western margin of North America and Africa-Eurasia. There is a notable paucity of MVT lead-zinc ore formation following the breakup of Rodinia and Pangea. Of the five MVT deposits hosted in Proterozoic rocks, only the Nanisivik deposit has been dated as Proterozoic. The contrast in abundance between SEDEX and MVT lead-zinc deposits in the Proterozoic questions the frequently suggested notion that the two types of ores share similar genetic paths. The ages of MVT deposits, when viewed with respect to the orogenic cycle in the adjacent orogen suggest that no single hydrologic model can be universally applied to the migration of the ore fluids. However, topographically driven models best explain most MVT districts. The migration of MVT ore fluids is not a natural consequence of basin evolution; rather, MVT districts formed mainly where platform carbonates had some hydrological connection to orogenic belts. There may be a connection between paleoclimate and the formation of some MVT deposits. This possible relationship is suggested by the dominance of evaporated seawater in fluid inclusions in MVT ores, by hydrological considerations that include the need for multiple-basin volumes of ore fluid to form most MVT districts, and the need for adequate precipitation to provide sufficient topographic head for topographically-driven fluid migration. Paleoclimatic conditions that lead to formation of evaporite conditions but yet have adequate precipitation to form large hydrological systems are most commonly present in low latitudes. For the MVT deposits and districts that have been dated, more than 75% of the combined metal produced are from deposits that have dates that correspond to assembly of Pangea in Devonian through Permian time. The exceptional endowment of Pangea and especially, North America with MVT lead-zinc deposits may be explained by the following: (1) Laurentia, which formed the core of North America, stayed in low latitudes during the Paleozoic, which allowed the development of vast carbonate platforms; (2) intense orogenic activity during the assembly of Pangea created ground preparation for many MVT districts through far-field deformation of the craton; (3) uplifted orogenic belts along Pangean suture zones established large-scale migration of basin fluids; and (4) the location of Pangea in low latitudes with paleoclimates with high evaporation rates led to the formation of brines by the evaporation of seawater and infiltration of these brines into deep basin aquifers during Pangean orogenic events.

Leach, D. L.; Bradley, D.; Lewchuk, M. T.; Symons, D. T. A.; De Marsily, G.; Brannon, J.

2001-01-01

158

Application and sensitivity investigation of Fourier transforms for microwave radiometric inversions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing microwave radiometer technology now provides a suitable method for remote determination of the ocean surface's absolute brightness temperature. To extract the brightness temperature of the water from the antenna temperature equation, an unstable Fredholm integral equation of the first kind was solved. Fast Fourier Transform techniques were used to invert the integral after it is placed into a cross-correlation form. Application and verification of the methods to a two-dimensional modeling of a laboratory wave tank system were included. The instability of the Fredholm equation was then demonstrated and a restoration procedure was included which smooths the resulting oscillations. With the recent availability and advances of Fast Fourier Transform techniques, the method presented becomes very attractive in the evaluation of large quantities of data. Actual radiometric measurements of sea water are inverted using the restoration method, incorporating the advantages of the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm for computations.

Holmes, J. J.; Balanis, C. A.

1974-01-01

159

Polarization\\/radiometric based material classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for identifying the material properties of objects in an image using multiple images taken through a polarizing lens at various rotations in front of a stationary camera (only the filter moves). Using these images, it is possible to obtain the classification of material surfaces at all points on a spectacular highlight. The algorithm is demonstrated on laboratory images.

L. B. Wolff; Terrance E. Boult

1989-01-01

160

Radiometric millimetric imaging at Roke Manor Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes two systems developed by Roke Manor Research in partnership with HMG's Home Office Immigration and Nationality Directorate and which are based upon passive millimetric microwave radiometry techniques. Their purpose is to aid the detection of people concealed in curtain-sided and plastic-sided freight vehicles. The paper covers the basic physics of radiometry, the history of these developments and concludes with an account of the future directions of this work.

Hall, Jason; Harman, Martin L.

2004-12-01

161

Radiometric stability of the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) following 15 years on-orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) has successfully operated on the EOS/ Terra spacecraft since 1999. It consists of nine cameras pointing from nadir to 70.5 view angle with four spectral channels per camera. Specifications call for a radiometric uncertainty of 3% absolute and 1% relative to the other cameras. To accomplish this, MISR utilizes an on-board calibrator (OBC) to measure camera response changes. Once every two months the two Spectralon panels are deployed to direct solar-light into the cameras. Six photodiode sets measure the illumination level that are compared to MISR raw digital numbers, thus determining the radiometric gain coefficients used in Level 1 data processing. Although panel stability is not required, there has been little detectable change in panel reflectance, attributed to careful preflight handling techniques. The cameras themselves have degraded in radiometric response by 10% since launch, but calibration updates using the detector-based scheme has compensated for these drifts and allowed the radiance products to meet accuracy requirements. Validation using Sahara desert observations show that there has been a drift of ~1% in the reported nadir-view radiance over a decade, common to all spectral bands.

Bruegge, Carol J.; Val, Sebastian; Diner, David J.; Jovanovic, Veljko; Gray, Ellyn; Di Girolamo, Larry; Zhao, Guangyu

2014-09-01

162

Development and calibration of UV/VUV radiometric sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program exists at NIST to calibrate radiometric sources for the spectral range from 118-350 nm. These include deuterium lamps, hollow-cathode lamps, RF-excited dimer lamps, and wall-stabilized argon arcs. Sources have been calibrated for and used by researchers in solar physics, astrophysics, atmospheric physics (ozone measurements), magnetically controlled fusion, and photobiology. The argon arcs were developed in our laboratory, and provide intense sources of both radiance and irradiance. Calibrations are performed relative to two primary sources, a wall-stabilized hydrogen arc and a 12,000 K black-body line arc, both developed in our laboratory. Also we recently have begun periodic calibrations on the NIST storage ring, SURF II, to insure consistency between our respective radiometric bases. Various sources have been calibrated for space' applications, including several which are flyable. Also, some development and testing of radiometers for semiconductor lithography were recently carried out with an intense argon arc source.

Bridges, J. M.

1993-01-01

163

The 90 GHz radiometric imaging. [for terrain analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 90-GHz (3 mm wavelength) radiometer with a noise output fluctuation of 0.22 K (RMS), with a scanning antenna beam mirror, and the data processing system are described. Real-time radiometric imaging of terrain and man-made objects are shown. Flying at an altitude of 1500 ft a radiometer antenna with a 2 degrees halfpower beamwidth can distinguish landforms, waterways, roads, runways, bridges, ships at sea and their wakes, aircraft on runways, and athletic fields. A flight taken at an altitude of 3000 ft with approximately 2000 ft of clouds below the radiometer demonstrates the ability to distinguish bridges, rivers, marshland and other landforms even though the clouds are optically opaque. The radiometric images of a few representative scenes along with photographs of the corresponding scenes are presented to demonstrate the resolution of the imager system.

King, H. E.; White, J. D.; Wilson, W. J.; Mori, T. T.; Hollinger, J. P.; Troy, B. E.; Kenney, J. E.; Mcgoogan, J. T.

1976-01-01

164

The OLI Radiometric Scale Realization Round Robin Measurement Campaign  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A round robin radiometric scale realization was performed at the Ball Aerospace Radiometric Calibration Laboratory in January/February 2011 in support of the Operational Land Imager (OLI) Program. Participants included Ball Aerospace, NIST, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and the University of Arizona. The eight day campaign included multiple observations of three integrating sphere sources by nine radiometers. The objective of the campaign was to validate the radiance calibration uncertainty ascribed to the integrating sphere used to calibrate the OLI instrument. The instrument level calibration source uncertainty was validated by quatnifying: (1) the long term stability of the NIST calibrated radiance artifact, (2) the responsivity scale of the Ball Aerospace transfer radiometer and (3) the operational characteristics of the large integrating sphere.

Cutlip, Hansford; Cole,Jerold; Johnson, B. Carol; Maxwell, Stephen; Markham, Brian; Ong, Lawrence; Hom, Milton; Biggar, Stuart

2011-01-01

165

Issues in Absolute Spectral Radiometric Calibration: Intercomparison of Eight Sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of atmospheric models to AVIRIS and other spectral imaging data to derive surface reflectance requires that the sensor output be calibrated to absolute radiance. Uncertainties in absolute calibration are to be expected, and claims of 92% accuracy have been published. Measurements of accurate surface albedos and cloud absorption to be used in radiative balance calculations depend critically on knowing the absolute spectral-radiometric response of the sensor. The Earth Observing System project is implementing a rigorous program of absolute radiometric calibration for all optical sensors. Since a number of imaging instruments that provide output in terms of absolute radiance are calibrated at different sites, it is important to determine the errors that can be expected among calibration sites. Another question exists about the errors in the absolute knowledge of the exoatmospheric spectral solar irradiance.

Goetz, Alexander F. H.; Kindel, Bruce; Pilewskie, Peter

1998-01-01

166

High speed radiometric measurements of IED detonation fireballs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuum emission is predominant in fireball spectral phenomena and in some demonstrated cases, fine detail in the temporal evolution of infrared spectral emissions can be used to estimate size and chemical composition of the device. Recent work indicates that a few narrow radiometric bands may reveal forensic information needed for the explosive discrimination and classification problem, representing an essential step in moving from "laboratory" measurements to a rugged, fieldable system. To explore phenomena not observable in previous experiments, a high speed (10?s resolution) radiometer with four channels spanning the infrared spectrum observed the detonation of nine home made explosive (HME) devices in the < 100lb class. Radiometric measurements indicate that the detonation fireball is well approximated as a single temperature blackbody at early time (0 < t <~ 3ms). The effective radius obtained from absolute intensity indicates fireball growth at supersonic velocity during this time. Peak fireball temperatures during this initial detonation range between 3000.3500K. The initial temperature decay with time (t <~ 10ms) can be described by a simple phenomenological model based on radiative cooling. After this rapid decay, temperature exhibits a small, steady increase with time (10 <~ t <~ 50ms) and peaking somewhere between 1000.1500K-likely the result of post-detonation combustion-before subsequent cooling back to ambient conditions . Radius derived from radiometric measurements can be described well (R2 > 0.98) using blast model functional forms, suggesting that energy release could be estimated from single-pixel radiometric detectors. Comparison of radiometer-derived fireball size with FLIR infrared imagery indicate the Planckian intensity size estimates are about a factor of two smaller than the physical extent of the fireball.

Spidell, Matthew T.; Gordon, J. Motos; Pitz, Jeremey; Gross, Kevin C.; Perram, Glen P.

2010-04-01

167

Radiometric Temperatures of Urban Canyon Walls obtained from Vehicle Traverses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.?Building walls form an important component of the total surface area in cities, but are not generally considered in most\\u000a attempts to measure urban surface temperatures. A procedure which allows sampling of the spatial and temporal variation of\\u000a wall surface temperatures in urban areas is presented. Radiometric surface temperatures are monitored using an array of infrared\\u000a thermometers mounted on a

J. A. Voogt; T. R. Oke

1998-01-01

168

LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner (MSS) subsystem radiometric characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multispectral band scanner (mass) and its spectral characteristics are described and methods are given for relating video digital levels on computer compatible tapes to radiance into the sensor. Topics covered include prelaunch calibration procedures and postlaunch radiometric processng. Examples of current data resident on the MSS image processing system are included. The MSS on LANDSAT 4 is compared with the scanners on earlier LANDSAT satellites.

Alford, W. (editor); Barker, J. (editor); Clark, B. P.; Dasgupta, R.

1983-01-01

169

BOREAS TE-18, 60-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 2 1 Jun-1995. The 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18-Sep-1994 in the SSA and 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (1991). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, the full-resolution (30-m) images may not be publicly distributed. However, this spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images may be openly distributed and is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. After the radiometric rectification processing, the original data were degraded to a 60-m pixel size from the original 30-m pixel size by averaging the data over a 2- by 2-pixel window. The data are stored in binary image-format files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

2000-01-01

170

Radiometric measurements of gap probability in conifer tree canopies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of gap probability were made for some moderate-sized, open-grown conifers of varying species. Results of the radiometric analysis show that the gap probability, which is taken as the mean of the binomial, fits well a negative exponential function of a path length. The conifer shadow, then, is an object of almost uniform darkness with some bright holes or gaps that are found near the shadow's edge and rapidly disappear toward the shadows center.

Albers, Bryan J.; Strahler, Alan H.; Li, Xiaowen; Liang, Shunlin; Clarke, Keith C.

1990-01-01

171

Employment Counseling Action Plan Today's Date  

E-print Network

Employment Counseling Action Plan Today's Date: Action Item: Due Date: Resources: Progress: Prepare or revise resume Prepare sample cover letters Register with several staffing agencies Seek out employment opportunities Practice interviewing techniques Review internal and external job opportunities Contact employers

Myers, Lawrence C.

172

[Spectral radiometric calibration research of Quick Bird digital image].  

PubMed

The present article uses the basic operation of the digital remote image radiometric calibration of the Quickbird with high distinguishing rate, including the physical attribute and the mathematical basement of digital images, the annotation as well as the format of image data. The study makes use of information of spectral radiance from the ground-atmosphere system, which is recorded by the digital remote image of Quick Bird in Honghe area. This dissertation offered the calculation means of radiometric calibration, and changed the pixel digital number into band-integrated radiance. Then, the spectral radiance was calculated. After the radiometric calibration, the Quick Bird image showed the quantitative information of spectral feature from various ground items. Only through the calibration can the Quick Bird image be quantitatively compared and analyzed with other remote sensor images. Thus, the inversion image has the value of application. The significance consists in offering important basic condition for the image amalgamation and better disposal of the special inforation pick-up. This effort also offered spectral information of the ground items for the inversion of the remote image. Therefore, the authors can combine the research of the spectral character of ground items with the establishment of the remote application model in order to quantitatively analyze the ground items. PMID:18536397

Zhang, Guo-Kun; Chen, Chun; Xing, Fu; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Zhao, Yun-Sheng

2008-03-01

173

Ar-Ar Dating of Martian Chassignites, NWA2737 and Chassigny, and Nakhlite MIL03346  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Until recently only three nakhlites and one chassignite had been identified among martian meteorites. These four exhibit very similar radiometric ages and cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages, indicating that they may have derived from a common location on Mars and were ejected into space by a single impact. This situation is quite different from that of martian shergottites, which exhibit a range of radiometric ages and CRE ages (1). Recently, several new nakhlites and a new martian dunite (NWA2737) have been recognized. Here we report our results of Ar-39-Ar-40 dating for the MIL03346 nakhlite and the NWA2737 "chassignite", along with new results on Chassigny.

Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.

2006-01-01

174

Recognition of past earthquakes along the Sparta fault (Peloponnesus, southern Greece) during the Holocene, by combining results of different dating techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sparta fault is an impressive landform, located on the eastern front of Taygetos mountain, southern Greece. Detailed morphotectonic observations on this fault suggest that it should be active at least since Early Quaternary. However, according to the current seismological knowledge, this region is characterized by very low seismicity. The only reported earthquake to have occurred in this area is that of 464 B. C., a destructive event that devastated the whole city of Sparta. In order to get information on the occurrence of past earthquakes during the Holocene, results of different independent dating works that have performed along the Sparta fault were used. These researchers confirm the existence not only of the 464 B. C. earthquake but also of several more that occurred at ca. 3900 B. C., 2500 B. C. and 2000 B. C., 550 A. D. and 1000 A. D. The events that occurred at 2500 and 464 B. C. should correspond to major events of magnitude of the order of 7, which ruptured the entire length of the fault, while these at 3900 B. C., 2000 B. C., 550 A. D. and 1000 A. D., to smaller events of magnitude 6-6.5. The return periods of strong earthquakes along the Sparta fault is estimated to be around 2000 years, but within these periods events of smaller magnitude that ruptured segments of the fault have also occurred.

Papanastassiou, D.; Gaki-Papanastassiou, K.; Maroukian, H.

2005-09-01

175

Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc deposits through geological time: implications from recent age-dating research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remarkable advances in age dating Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) lead-zinc deposits provide a new opportunity to understand how and where these deposits form in the Earth's crust. These dates are summarized and examined in a framework of global tectonics, paleogeography, fluid migration, and paleoclimate. Nineteen districts have been dated by paleomagnetic and\\/or radiometric methods. Of the districts that have both paleomagnetic

David L. Leach; Dwight Bradley; Michael T. Lewchuk; David T. Symons; Ghislain de Marsily; Joyce Brannon

2001-01-01

176

Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Studies of Temperature, Water Vapor and Clouds  

SciTech Connect

The importance of accurate measurements of column amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid has been well documented by scientists within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. At the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), both microwave radiometers (MWR) and the MWRProfiler (MWRP), been used operationally by ARM for passive retrievals of the quantities: Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) and Liquid Water Path (LWP). However, it has been convincingly shown that these instruments are inadequate to measure low amounts of PWV and LWP. In the case of water vapor, this is especially important during the Arctic winter, when PWV is frequently less than 2 mm. For low amounts of LWP (< 50 g/m{sup 2}), the MWR and MWRP retrievals have an accuracy that is also not acceptable. To address some of these needs, in March-April 2004, NOAA and ARM conducted the NSA Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment - Water Vapor Intensive Operational Period at the ARM NSA/Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) site. After this experiment, the radiometer group at NOAA moved to the Center for Environmental Technology (CET) of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the University of Colorado at Boulder. During this 2004 experiment, a total of 220 radiosondes were launched, and radiometric data from 22.235 to 380 GHz were obtained. Primary instruments included the ARM MWR and MWRP, a Global Positioning System (GPS), as well as the CET Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). We have analyzed data from these instruments to answer several questions of importance to ARM, including: (a) techniques for improved water vapor measurements; (b) improved calibration techniques during cloudy conditions; (c) the spectral response of radiometers to a variety of conditions: clear, liquid, ice, and mixed phase clouds; and (d) forward modeling of microwave and millimeter wave brightness temperatures from 22 to 380 GHz. Many of these results have been published in the open literature. During the third year of this contract, we participated in another ARM-sponsored experiment at the NSA during February-March 2007. This experiment is called the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) and the GSR was operated successfully for the duration of the campaign. One of the principal goals of the experiment was to provide retrievals of water vapor during PWV amounts less than 2 mm and to compare GSR data with ARM radiometers and radiosondes. A secondary goal was to compare the radiometric response of the microwave and millimeter wavelength radiometers to water and ice clouds. In this final report, we will include the separate progress reports for each of the three years of the project and follow with a section on major accomplishments of the project.

Westwater, Edgeworth

2011-05-06

177

Retrievals of Column Water Vapor Using Millimeter-Wave Radiometric Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Water vapor is one of the most important atmospheric constituents that has a critical impact on cloud formation (ice or liquid). It is also a source that needs to be accounted for in remote measurements of surface parameters. In the high-latitude regions, e.g., Antarctica, monitoring of the state of water vapor and its transport into and out of these regions is important towards our understanding the state of balance of ice sheets and its effect on the global sea level. The technique of retrieving low amount of column water vapor using the millimeter-wave radiometric measurements, as presented in this paper, will be very useful for these regions, especially during winter times when the atmosphere is relatively dry.

Wang, J. R.; Racette, P.; Triesky, M. E.; Manning, W.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

178

High accuracy in situ radiometric mapping.  

PubMed

In situ and airborne gamma ray spectrometry have been shown to provide rapid and spatially representative estimates of environmental radioactivity across a range of landscapes. However, one of the principal limitations of this technique has been the influence of changes in the vertical distribution of the source (e.g. 137Cs) on the observed photon fluence resulting in a significant reduction in the accuracy of the in situ activity measurement. A flexible approach for single gamma photon emitting radionuclides is presented, which relies on the quantification of forward scattering (or valley region between the full energy peak and Compton edge) within the gamma ray spectrum to compensate for changes in the 137Cs vertical activity distribution. This novel in situ method lends itself to the mapping of activity concentrations in environments that exhibit systematic changes in the vertical activity distribution. The robustness of this approach has been demonstrated in a salt marsh environment on the Solway coast, SW Scotland, with both a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm NaI(Tl) detector and a 35% n-type HPGe detector. Application to ploughed field environments has also been demonstrated using HPGe detector, including its application to the estimation of field moist bulk density and soil erosion measurement. Ongoing research work is also outlined. PMID:15162872

Tyler, Andrew N

2004-01-01

179

Precise Crystallization Age of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: Direct Dating of the Platiniferous Merensky Reef Using the Zircon U-Pb Chemical Abrasion ID-TIMS Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the age of the Bushveld Complex, the world's largest layered intrusion and host to the majority of the known resources of platinum group elements, chromium and vanadium, has been difficult given the very low abundance of U-bearing minerals in the ultramafic-mafic cumulate rocks that comprise the body. This study provides a precise crystallization age for this giant layered intrusion and associated PGE mineralization, and allows for a re-evaluation of the duration and areal extent of Bushveld-related magmatic activity. Abundant, clear and colorless, anhedral zircon grains were separated from a sample of pegmatoidal feldspathic orthopyroxenite collected from the Merensky Reef in the West Mine (Townlands Shaft), Rustenburg Section. Low-U (21-105 ppm) zircon occurs with interstitial biotite and is locally directly in contact with sulfide. The zircon grains were subjected to different pre-treatment methods (no pre-treatment, air abrasion, and chemical abrasion [CA]) and isotope ratios for individual grains were analyzed by ID-TIMS. U-Pb data for the unabraded and air-abraded grains, and leachates from the CA procedure, are slightly discordant (0.1-1.6%) and yield overlapping 207Pb/206Pb dates ranging from 2052.5 to 2058.9 Ma. For the CA zircon grains (n=6), all data are concordant and give a Concordia age of 2054.3 2.5 Ma (2sd, decay-constant errors included), which is interpreted as the age of crystallization of the Merensky Reef. This age is within error of published ages for the overlying, and locally cross-cutting, Bushveld or Lebowa granite suite, which implies that the entire Bushveld Complex was emplaced within a 2-3 myr interval. Comparison with ages from satellite intrusions (e.g. Moshaneng, Botswana; Uitkomst, South Africa) indicates that the Bushveld magmatic event at ca. 2054 Ma was regionally extensive across the northern Kaapvaal Craton and is consistent with relatively rapid emplacement of mantle-derived magmas along the Thabazimbi-Murchison Lineament, a 500 km-long, lithosphere-scale tectonic break.

Scoates, J. S.; Friedman, R. M.

2006-12-01

180

A comparison of the lichenometric and Schmidt hammer dating techniques based on data from the proglacial areas of some Icelandic glaciers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of Rhizocarpon section and Schmidt hammer R-values are reported from the proglacial geomorphic features on the forelands of the Icelandic glaciers of Kv?rjkull, Hlrjkull and Heinabergsjkull (rfi and south Vatnajkull), Sandfellsjkull and ldufellsjkull (east Mrdalsjkull), and Brrjkull, Eyjabakkajkull and west Snfell (north Vatnajkull). These data are used in reconstructions of patterns of glacier recession since the Little Ice Age maximum, and the geomorphic signals of climatic versus non-climatic events are discussed. Age control was obtained from various dated substrates by utilizing historical accounts, aerial photographs and grave stones. Three lichen growth rates are calculated: (a) 0.51 mm a -1 (corrected to 0.50 mm a -1) with a colonization lag time of <16 yr for the arid forelands of north Vatnajkull; (b) 0.56 mm a -1 with a colonization lag time of 5 yr for the Icelandic southeast coast; and (c) 0.80 mm a -1 with a colonization lag time of 6.5 yr for the south Vatnajkull and east Mrdalsjkull forelands. These compare favourably with a previously published growth rate of 0.44 mm a -1 for the arid north of Iceland. This regional coverage of data allows a comparison between annual precipitation totals and lichen growth rates and the construction of a growth rate prediction curve for Iceland. The success of the Schmidt hammer in differentiating moraines based upon age varied according to the geomorphological setting. Reasonable R-value/lichen size correlations were obtained on the east Mrdalsjkull and Heinabergsjkull forelands where unrestricted glacier advance into lowlands allows for a higher degree of debris surface freshening by direct glacial processes. Weak correlations were obtained at Kv?rjkull, where the glacier was restricted by a precursor latero-frontal moraine loop and therefore the debris comprising the Little Ice Age recessional moraines was diluted with material of various ages being reworked by mass movement from the precursor moraine loop. Similar problems arise in areas affected by surging glaciers, such as Brrjkull and Eyjabakkajkull. It appears that an accurate R-value age-prediction curve can not be constructed for a timescale of <100 yr in Iceland.

Evans, D. J. A.; Archer, S.; Wilson, D. J. H.

181

Radiometric measurement comparisons using transfer radiometers in support of the calibration of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EOS satellite instruments operating in the visible through the shortwave infrared wavelength regions (from 0.4 micrometer to 2.5 micrometer) are calibrated prior to flight for radiance response using integrating spheres at a number of instrument builder facilities. The traceability of the radiance produced by these spheres with respect to international standards is the responsibility of the instrument builder, and different calibration techniques are employed by those builders. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Earth Observing System (EOS) Project Science Office, realizing the importance of preflight calibration and cross-calibration, has sponsored a number of radiometric measurement comparisons, the main purpose of which is to validate the radiometric scale assigned to the integrating spheres by the instrument builders. This paper describes the radiometric measurement comparisons, the use of stable transfer radiometers to perform the measurements, and the measurement approaches and protocols used to validate integrating sphere radiances. Stable transfer radiometers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center Remote Sensing Group, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and the National Research Laboratory of Metrology in Japan, have participated in these comparisons. The approaches used in the comparisons include the measurement of multiple integrating sphere lamp levels, repeat measurements of select lamp levels, the use of the stable radiometers as external sphere monitors, and the rapid reporting of measurement results. Results from several comparisons are presented. The absolute radiometric calibration standard uncertainties required by the EOS satellite instruments are typically in the plus or minus 3% to plus or minus 5% range. Preliminary results reported during eleven radiometric measurement comparisons held between February 1995 and May 1998 have shown the radiance of integrating spheres agreed to within plus or minus 2.5% from the average at blue wavelengths and to within plus or minus 1.7% from the average at red and near infrared wavelengths. This level of agreement lends confidence in the use of the transfer radiometers in validating the radiance scales assigned by EOS instrument calibration facilities to their integrating sphere sources.

Butler, James J.; Johnson, B. Carol; Brown, Steven W.; Yoon, Howard W.; Barnes, Robert A.; Markham, Brian L.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Zalewski, Edward F.; Spyak, Paul R.; Cooper, John W.; Sakuma, Fumihiro

1999-12-01

182

Dating human bone: is racemization dating species-specific?  

PubMed

Our recently developed dating technique based on the racemization rate of aspartic acid was applied to dating human bone, as well as that of other mammals, utilizing capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. First, several well-dated (mostly (14)C-dated and with strong archeological evidence) human bones ranging in age from 150 to ~10,000 years were used to develop a calibration curve for human bone. The D/L ratio of aspartic acid for these specimens ranged from 2.4% to ~10%, with a correlation coefficient of better than 0.99, indicating a strong linear relationship between the d/l ratio of aspartic acid and the age of the specimens. This calibration curve can now be used to date human archeological specimens of unknown age, up to ~10,000 years. However, when the technique was applied to well-dated mixed species of larger mammal bones such as bison, whale, llama, etc., the calibration curve showed a slower rate of racemization with a lower correlation (0.88). As additional large mammal bones with less certain age (i.e., using archeological evidence alone with no (14)C-dating) were dated the correlation coefficient decreased to 0.70. The correlation coefficient decreased further to 0.58 when the racemization data from all mammals (including human) were added to the calibration curve, indicating the importance of using well-dated, species-specific specimens for forming a calibration curve. This conclusion is consistent with our previously published calibration curve for a single species of silk (Bombyx mori), which followed the expected reversible first-order kinetics. These results support species specificity of amino acid racemization dating. PMID:24156614

Moini, Mehdi; Rollman, Christopher M; France, Christine A M

2013-12-01

183

Temperature measurements behind reflected shock waves in air. [radiometric measurement of gas temperature in self-absorbing gas flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A radiometric method for the measurement of gas temperature in self-absorbing gases has been applied in the study of shock tube generated flows. This method involves making two absolute intensity measurements at identical wavelengths, but for two different pathlengths in the same gas sample. Experimental results are presented for reflected shock waves in air at conditions corresponding to incident shock velocities from 7 to 10 km/s and an initial driven tube pressure of 1 torr. These results indicate that, with this technique, temperature measurements with an accuracy of + or - 5 percent can be carried out. The results also suggest certain facility related problems.

Bader, J. B.; Nerem, R. M.; Dann, J. B.; Culp, M. A.

1972-01-01

184

Radiometric packaging of uncooled microbolometer FPA arrays for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INO has extensive experience in the design and fabrication of focal plane arrays (FPAs) of uncooled microbolometers. In particular, the FPA of 5123 microbolometers, developed in collaboration with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), has been selected for use in the NIRST (New Infrared Sensor Technology) radiometer of the SAC-D Aquarius mission. The FPA has been designed for pushbroom scanning of the Earth to provide radiometric data in the mid- and long-wave infrared for the monitoring of fires as well as thermal mapping of ocean temperature. Uncooled microbolometer detectors are suited for space applications due to their low power consumption while still exhibiting adequate performance. Furthermore, the spectral range of their response could be tuned from the mid- to the far-infrared to meet different mission requirements. In order to ensure that the detector receives only the thermal contribution from the desired target and to minimize radiometric error due to variation of the temperature of the surrounding during the measurements, a radiometric package is required. In a radiometric package the detector environment is thermally stabilized by means of a temperature controlled radiation shield. The radiation shield should also be designed to prevent stray radiation from reaching the detector. Under the Space Technology Development Program of the CSA, INO has designed, assembled and tested a radiometric package in order to characterize its performance and compatibility with the space environment. The operating spectral band is defined by the spectral characteristics of a bandpass filter placed in front of the FPA. For typical space missions, the package must pass standard environmental tests without degradation of its performance (thermal cycling from -55 to +85 C according to MIL-STD-810, random acceleration up to 14 G RMS from 20-2000 Hz and shock up to 75 G). In order to ensure reliability in those conditions while maintaining optimum performance, an adequate selection of materials is necessary. In this paper, INO's radiometric packaging technology for uncooled microbolometer FPA's will be presented. The selection of materials will be discussed and the final choices presented based on thermal simulations and experimental data. The effects of different design parameters on the performance, such as material, shape and thickness of radiation shield and choice of adhesive have been studied. An instantaneous noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of ~ 20 mK was obtained under the measurement conditions (broadband LWIR, 140 ms integration time, f/1 optics, characterization in flood exposure). The design of the package reduced the contribution of environmental temperature variations on the offset of the sensor. The equivalent response of the package varied less than 0.08 C per degree of variation of the temperature of the package. The package also showed low sensitivity to stray radiation as a result of the effectiveness of the radiation shield design. The device successfully passed the prescribed environmental tests without degradation of performance.

Garca-Blanco, S.; Cote, P.; Leclerc, M.; Blanchard, N.; Desroches, Y.; Caron, J.-S.; Ngo Phong, L.; Chateauneuf, F.; Pope, T.

2009-02-01

185

BOREAS TE-18, 30-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 21-Jun-1995. the 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18 Sep-1994 in the SSA and from 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (199 1). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. The data are stored in binary image-format files. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, these full-resolution images may not be publicly distributed. However, a spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. See Sections 15 and 16 for information about how to possibly acquire the full resolution data. Information about the full-resolution images is provided in an inventory listing on the CD-ROMs. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

2000-01-01

186

Evaluation of S190A radiometric exposure test data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The S190A preflight radiometric exposure test data generated as part of preflight and system test of KM-002 Sequence 29 on flight camera S/N 002 was analyzed. The analysis was to determine camera system transmission using available data which included: (1) films exposed to a calibrated light source subject; (2) filter transmission data; (3) calibrated light source data; (4) density vs. log10 exposure curves for the films; and (5) spectral sensitometric data for the films. The procedure used is outlined, and includes the data and a transmission matrix as a function of field position for nine measured points on each station-film-filter-aperture-shutter speed combination.

Lockwood, H. E.; Goodding, R. A.

1974-01-01

187

Spectrally and Radiometrically Stable, Wideband, Onboard Calibration Source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Onboard Calibration (OBC) source incorporates a medical/scientific-grade halogen source with a precisely designed fiber coupling system, and a fiber-based intensity-monitoring feedback loop that results in radiometric and spectral stabilities to within less than 0.3 percent over a 15-hour period. The airborne imaging spectrometer systems developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory incorporate OBC sources to provide auxiliary in-use system calibration data. The use of the OBC source will provide a significant increase in the quantitative accuracy, reliability, and resulting utility of the spectral data collected from current and future imaging spectrometer instruments.

Coles, James B.; Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Quetin, Gregory R.; Porter, Michael D.; Green, Robert O.; Nolte, Scott H.; Hernandez, Marco A.; Knoll, Linley A.

2013-01-01

188

PRESCHOOL APPLICATION Current Date_______________________ Desired Admission Date ____________________________________  

E-print Network

_ PRESCHOOL APPLICATION Current Date_______________________ Desired Admission Date ____________________________________ Where did you hear about the Preschool: Friend 29, 2014. Arizona State University Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College Preschool P.O. Box 871908 Tempe

189

Automatic and improved radiometric correction of Landsat imagery using reference values from MODIS surface reflectance images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiometric correction is a prerequisite for generating high-quality scientific data, making it possible to discriminate between product artefacts and real changes in Earth processes as well as accurately produce land cover maps and detect changes. This work contributes to the automatic generation of surface reflectance products for Landsat satellite series. Surface reflectances are generated by a new approach developed from a previous simplified radiometric (atmospheric + topographic) correction model. The proposed model keeps the core of the old model (incidence angles and cast-shadows through a digital elevation model [DEM], Earth-Sun distance, etc.) and adds new characteristics to enhance and automatize ground reflectance retrieval. The new model includes the following new features: (1) A fitting model based on reference values from pseudoinvariant areas that have been automatically extracted from existing reflectance products (Terra MODIS MOD09GA) that were selected also automatically by applying quality criteria that include a geostatistical pattern model. This guarantees the consistency of the internal and external series, making it unnecessary to provide extra atmospheric data for the acquisition date and time, dark objects or dense vegetation. (2) A spatial model for atmospheric optical depth that uses detailed DEM and MODTRAN simulations. (3) It is designed so that large time-series of images can be processed automatically to produce consistent Landsat surface reflectance time-series. (4) The approach can handle most images, acquired now or in the past, regardless of the processing system, with the exception of those with extremely high cloud coverage. The new methodology has been successfully applied to a series of near 300 images of the same area including MSS, TM and ETM+ imagery as well as to different formats and processing systems (LPGS and NLAPS from the USGS; CEOS from ESA) for different degrees of cloud coverage (up to 60%) and SLC-off. Reflectance products have been validated with some example applications: time series robustness (for a pixel in a pseudoinvariant area, deviations are only 1.04% on average along the series), spectral signatures generation (visually coherent with the MODIS ones, but more similar between dates), and classification (up to 4 percent points better than those obtained with the original manual method or the CDR products). In conclusion, this new approach, that could also be applied to other sensors with similar band configurations, offers a fully automatic and reasonably good procedure for the new era of long time-series of spatially detailed global remote sensing data.

Pons, X.; Pesquer, L.; Cristbal, J.; Gonzlez-Guerrero, O.

2014-12-01

190

Name Date Signature Name Date Signature  

E-print Network

Name Date Signature Name Date Signature Name Date Signature HARPS-N DRS User Manual Doc. Nr. OG.07.2012 All First Version 1.1 16.08.2012 All Christophe's corrections #12;#12;OG-MAN-HAN-13-0004 5/29 Table

191

Analysis of a Kalman filter for a strapdown inertial\\/radiometric area correlator guidance system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Position measurements can be generated for navigation purposes by correlating a radiometric 'picture' of the terrain immediately below an aerospace vehicle with a prestored reference map of the desired region. Because of stringent storage restrictions, a very simple Kalman filter has been proposed for optimally aiding a strapdown inertial system with data from a radiometric area correlator (RAC) onboard a

P. S. Maybeck

1977-01-01

192

Microwave radiometric imaging at 3 GHz for the exploration of breast tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process of microwave radiometric imaging at 3 GHz permits the mapping of radiometric intensities on a square area about half a decimeter on a side. These data, translated in terms of a colored image, point out the existence of lateral temperature gradients in tissues. This system was initially used for examining large breast tumors; at present, it is also

B. Bocquet; J. C. van de Velde; A. Mamouni; Y. Leroy; G. Giaux; J. Delannoy; D. Delvalee

1990-01-01

193

On the observability of Mars entry navigation using radiometric measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A thorough observability analysis of the Mars entry navigation using radiometric measurements from ground based beacons is performed. This analysis involves the evaluation of the Fisher information matrix which is derived from the maximum likelihood estimation. A series of navigation cases with multiple beacons are investigated, and both range and range-rate measurements are considered. The determinant of Fisher information matrix is used to quantify the observability of navigation system, while the trace of Fisher information matrix is used to determine the lower-bound of estimation errors. For one and two beacon cases, the navigation system is unobservable. However, the eigenvectors of Fisher information matrix give the observable and unobservable component. When three or more beacon measurements are employed, the states of entry vehicle become observable. Some valuable analytic conclusions on the relationship between the geometric configuration of beacons and observability are obtained consequently. Finally, simulation results from two navigation examples indicate that our effort is useful for understanding and assessing the observability of the Mars entry navigation using radiometric measurements.

Yu, Zhengshi; Cui, Pingyuan; Zhu, Shengying

2014-10-01

194

Investigation of radiometric properties of the LANDSAT-4 multispectral scanner  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiometric data quality of the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner (MSS) was examined using several LANDSAT 4 frames. It was found that LANDSAT 4 MSS produces high-quality data of the caliber experienced with previous LANDSATS. For example, the detector equalization procedure worked well, leaving a residual banding effect of about 0.3 digital counts RMS, close to the theoretical minimum value of quantization error. Nevertheless, artifacts of the data were found, two of which were not experienced in previous MSS data. A low-level coherent noise effect was observed in all bands, with a magnitude of about 0.5 digital counts and a frequency of approximately 28 KHz (representing a wavelength of about 3.6 pixels); a substantial increase in processing complexity would be required to reduce this artifact in the data. Also, a substantial scan-length variation (of up to six pixels) was noted in MSS data when the TM sensor was operating; the LANDSAT 4 correction algorithms being applied routinely by the EROS Data Center to produce a p-type data should remove most of this variation. Between-satellite calibrations were examined in paired LANDSAT 3 and LANDSAT 4 MSS data sets, which were closely matched in acquisition time and place. Radiometric comparisons showed that all bands were highly linear in digital counts, and a well-determined linear transformation between the MSS's was established.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Rice, D. P.

1983-01-01

195

Radiometric infrared focal plane array imaging system for thermographic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document describes research performed under the Radiometric Infrared Focal Plane Array Imaging System for Thermographic Applications contract. This research investigated the feasibility of using platinum silicide (PtSi) Schottky-barrier infrared focal plane arrays (IR FPAs) for NASA Langley's specific radiometric thermal imaging requirements. The initial goal of this design was to develop a high spatial resolution radiometer with an NETD of 1 percent of the temperature reading over the range of 0 to 250 C. The proposed camera design developed during this study and described in this report provides: (1) high spatial resolution (full-TV resolution); (2) high thermal dynamic range (0 to 250 C); (3) the ability to image rapid, large thermal transients utilizing electronic exposure control (commandable dynamic range of 2,500,000:1 with exposure control latency of 33 ms); (4) high uniformity (0.5 percent nonuniformity after correction); and (5) high thermal resolution (0.1 C at 25 C background and 0.5 C at 250 C background).

Esposito, B. J.; McCafferty, N.; Brown, R.; Tower, J. R.; Kosonocky, W. F.

1992-11-01

196

Suomi-NPP VIIRS lunar radiometric calibration observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar observations by the Suomi-NPP instrument VIIRS help improve our understanding of the radiometric calibration of the reflected solar bands (RSB). The spacecraft performs a scheduled roll maneuver approximately nine times per year to acquire lunar data at nearly constant phase angles. The instrument also captures lunar radiometric data at other times when the instrument Space View port serendipitously points at the Moon. In this paper, we present results only from the scheduled Moon observations, comparing the observed lunar irradiance to ROLO model results to provide calibration coefficients for each band, mirror side, and detector. These results can be evaluated directly to the primary RSB calibration method derived from the Solar Diffuser. This paper also discusses recent improvements to our methodology for measuring the lunar irradiance, including a new method for determining the lunar position within the field of view, an all-detector calibration methodology, and an assessment of the uncertainties in our lunar observations. This paper includes lunar observation data through June 2014.

Fulbright, Jon P.; Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

2014-09-01

197

Parallel relative radiometric normalisation for remote sensing image mosaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relative radiometric normalisation (RRN) is a vital step to achieve radiometric consistency among remote sensing images. Geo-analysis over large areas often involves mosaicking massive remote sensing images. Hence RRN becomes a data-intensive and computing-intensive task. This study implements a parallel RNN method based on the iteratively re-weighted multivariate alteration detection (IR-MAD) transformation and orthogonal regression. To parallelise the method of IR-MAD and orthogonal regression, there are two key problems: the normalisation path determination and the task dependence on normalisation coefficients calculation. In this paper, the reference image and normalisation paths are determined based on the shortest distance algorithm to reduce normalisation error. Formulas of orthogonal regression are acquired considering the effect of the normalisation path to reduce the task dependence on the calculation of coefficients. A master-slave parallel mode is proposed to implement the parallel method, and a task queue and a process queue are used for task scheduling. Experiments show that the parallel RRN method provides good normalisation results and favourable parallel speed-up, efficiency and scalability, which indicate that the parallel method can handle large volumes of remote sensing images efficiently.

Chen, Chong; Chen, Zhenjie; Li, Manchun; Liu, Yongxue; Cheng, Liang; Ren, Yibin

2014-12-01

198

Quality assurance in luminescence dating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in luminescence dating have led to increasing application of the technique to sediments from a wide range of depositional environments, many of which are characterised by rapid transport and deposition under turbid conditions. The complete zeroing of the luminescence signal, by exposure to light, is critical to obtaining an accurate age for deposition of the sediment, before any

Michele L. Clarke; Helen M. Rendell; Ann G. Wintle

1999-01-01

199

Radiometric performance of the Viking Mars lander cameras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Viking lander cameras feature an array of 12 silicon photodiodes for electronic focus selection and multispectral imaging. Comparisons of absolute radiometric calibrations of the four cameras selected for the mission to Mars with performance predictions based on their design data revealed minor discrepancies. These discrepancies were caused primarily by the method used to calibrate the photosensor array and apparently also from light reflections internal to the array. The sensitivity and dynamic range of all camera channels are found to be sufficient for high quality pictures, providing that the commandable gains and offsets can be optimized for the scene radiance; otherwise, the quantization noise may be too high or the dynamic range too low for an adequate characterization of the scene.

Huck, F. O.; Burcher, E. E.; Taylor, E. J.; Wall, S. D.

1975-01-01

200

[In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of UAV multispectral sensor].  

PubMed

Based on the data of the scientific experiment in Urad Front Banner for UAV Remote Sensing Load Calibration Field project, with the help of 6 hyperspectral radiometric targets with good Lambertian property, the wide-view multispectral camera in UAV was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. The result reveals that for green, red and infrared channel, whose images were successfully captured, the linear correlation coefficients between the DN and radiance are all larger than 99%. In final analysis, the comprehensive error is no more than 6%. The calibration results demonstrate that the hyperspectral targets equipped by the calibration field are well suitable for air-borne multispectral load in-flight calibration. The calibration result is reliable and could be used in the retrieval of geophysical parameters. PMID:23427528

Chen, Wei; Yan, Lei; Gou, Zhi-Yang; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Liu, Da-Ping; Duan, Yi-Ni

2012-12-01

201

Simulation of a compact large-area radiometric light source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a novel compact large-area radiometric light source (CLARLS) has recently been demonstrated by the SeaWiFS (sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor) quality monitor built for the SeaWiFS calibration and validation program. The SeaWiFS quality monitor (SQM) was successfully used as a calibration source onboard two trans-Atlantic cruises. The success of the CLARLS relies mostly on the uniformity of optical radiance it provides for sensor calibration. A theory to model the uniformity must account for the light scattering inside its light chamber. Here, such a model is proposed and the results of the numerical simulation are discussed.

Shaw, Ping-Shine

1997-09-01

202

Radiometric calibration and SNR calculation of a SWIR imaging telescope  

SciTech Connect

Radiometric calibration of an imaging telescope is usually made using a uniform illumination sphere in a laboratory. In this study, we used the open-sky images taken during bright day conditions to calibrate our telescope. We found a dark signal offset value and a linear response coefficient value for each pixel by using three different algorithms. Then we applied these coefficients to the taken images, and considerably lowered the image non-uniformity. Calibration can be repeated during the operation of telescope with an object that has better uniformity than open-sky. Also SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of each pixel was calculated from the open-sky images using the temporal mean and standard deviations. It is found that SNR is greater than 80 for all pixels even at low light levels.

Yilmaz, Ozgur; Turk, Fethi; Selimoglu, Ozgur [Tubitak Uzay (Space Technologies Research Institute) ODTU Campus 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

2012-09-06

203

Development of a portable ambient temperature radiometric assaying instrument  

SciTech Connect

There is a strong need for portable radiometric instrumentation that can accurately confirm the presence of nuclear materials and allow isotopic analysis of radionuclides in the field. To fulfill this need we are developing a hand-held, non-cryogenic, low-power gamma- and x-ray measurement and analysis instrument that can both search and then accurately verify the presence of nuclear materials. We report on the use of cadmium zinc telluride detectors, signal processing electronics, and the new field-portable instrument based on the MicroNOMAD Multichannel Analyzer from EG&G ORTBC. We also describe the isotopic analysis that allows uranium enrichment measurements to be made accurately in the field.

Lavietes, A.D.; McQuaid, J.H.; Ruhter, W.D.

1994-10-01

204

Polarimetric scene simulation in millimeter-wave radiometric imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the general requirements and an approach to scene simulation in millimetre wave radiometric imaging that is based on multi faceted semitransparent layered media in the earth"s three-dimensional geometry. The driving attributes in this field are essentially the transparency of clothing for security scanning and the transparency of fog, cloud, rain and dust for all weather flight. Out-door illumination and the physics of the interaction of millimetre waves with the atmosphere and obscurants are discussed, together with the interaction of millimetre waves with multi layer material surfaces, giving rise to transmission, reflection and emission. The physics of these interactions are discussed in the context of computer graphics. These considerations enable a powerful polarimetric modelling capability to be developed that can be used to simulate all scenarios, including artificial or burst illumination, from in-doors to imaging from satellites.

Salmon, Neil A.

2004-08-01

205

Radiometric Calibration Assessment of Commercial High Spatial Resolution Multispectral Image Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can better understand their properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, satellite at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent team member to determine the sensor's radiometric accuracy. The combined results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of these commercially available high spatial resolution sensors' absolute calibration values.

Holekamp, Kara; Aaron, David; Thome, Kurtis

2006-01-01

206

Radiometric Characterization of the IKONOS, QuickBird, and OrbView-3 Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can better understand their properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, satellite at-sensor radiance values were compared to those estimated by each independent team member to determine the sensor's radiometric accuracy. The combined results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of these commercially available high spatial resolution sensors' absolute calibration values.

Holekamp, Kara

2006-01-01

207

Improved Radiometric Based Method for Suppressing Impulse Noise from Corrupted Images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel filter is introduced in this paper to improve the ability of radiometric based method on suppressing impulse noise. Firstly, a new method is introduced to design the impulsive weight by measuring how impulsive a pixel is. Then, the impulsive weight is combined with the radiometric weight to obtain the evaluated values on each pixel in the whole corrupted image. The impulsive weight is mainly designed to suppress the impulse noise, while the radiometric weight is mainly designed to protect the noise-free pixel. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can perform much better than other filters in terms of the quantitative and qualitative aspects.

Wu, Changcheng; Zhao, Chunyu; Chen, Dayue

208

San Bernardino Cave (Italy) and the appearance of Levallois technology in Europe: results of a radiometric and technological reassessment.  

PubMed

The introduction of Levallois technology in Europe marked the transition from the Lower to the early Middle Paleolithic. This new method of flake production was accompanied by significant behavioral changes in hominin populations. The emergence of this technological advance is considered homogeneous in the European archaeological record at the Marine isotopic stage (MIS) 9/MIS 8 boundary. In this paper we report a series of combined electron spin resonance/U-series dates on mammal bones and teeth recovered from the lower units of San Bernardino Cave (Italy) and the technological analyses of the lithic assemblages. The San Bernardino Cave has yielded the earliest evidence of Levallois production on the Italian Peninsula recovered to date. In addition to our results and the review of the archaeological record, we describe the chronological and geographical differences between European territories and diversities in terms of technological developments. The belated emergence of Levallois technology in Italy compared to western Europe corresponds to the late Italian Neanderthal speciation event. The new radiometric dates and the technological analyses of San Bernardino Cave raise the issue of the different roles of glacial refugia in the peopling and the spread of innovative flaking strategies in Europe during the late Middle Pleistocene. PMID:24146836

Picin, Andrea; Peresani, Marco; Falgures, Christophe; Gruppioni, Giulia; Bahain, Jean-Jacques

2013-01-01

209

Simultaneous Inflight Spectral and Radiometric Calibration Validation of AVRIS and HYDICE Over Lunar Lake, Nevada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experiment to check the spectral and radiometric calibration of two sensors--the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectromenter (AVRIS) and the Hyperspectral digital image collection experiment (HYDICE)--is described.

Chrien, Thomas; Green, Robert; Chovit, Chris; Faust, Jessica; Johnson, Howell; Basedow, Robert; Zalewski, Edward; Colwell, John

1995-01-01

210

Flight Technology Improvement. [spaceborne optical radiometric instruments, attitude control, and electromechanical and power subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shortcomings in spaceborne instrumentation technology are analyzed and recommendations are given for corrections and technology development. The technologies discussed are optical radiometric instruments and calibration, attitude control and determination, and electromechanical and power subsystems.

1979-01-01

211

Radiometric and signal-to-noise ratio properties of multiplex dispersive spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

Recent theoretical investigations have shown important radiometric disadvantages of interferential multiplexing in Fourier transform spectrometry that apparently can be applied even to coded aperture spectrometers. We have reexamined the methods of noninterferential multiplexing in order to assess their signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance, relying on a theoretical modeling of the multiplexed signals. We are able to show that quite similar SNR and radiometric disadvantages affect multiplex dispersive spectrometry. The effect of noise on spectral estimations is discussed.

Barducci, Alessandro; Guzzi, Donatella; Lastri, Cinzia; Nardino, Vanni; Marcoionni, Paolo; Pippi, Ivan

2010-10-01

212

Youth Dating Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines responses to the Youth Dating Violence Survey of 37 adolescents enrolled in an alternative high school program. Many reported psychological victimization in a dating relationship and over half reported perpetrating psychological abuse in a dating relationship. Many participants had also been victims of physical violence while some had

James, William H.; West, Carolyn; Deters, Karla Ezrre; Armijo, Eduardo

2000-01-01

213

Dating and Physical Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical aggression in dating relationships has become a serious problem. Because knowledge of violence in marital relationships has expanded to include dating relationships, some of the attitudes of college students toward violent behavior in dating relationships are examined here. Also discussed are ways in which demographics and life history

Heritage, Jeannette; Carlton, Carol C.; West, Beryl

214

A multi-channel radiometric profiler of temperature, humidity and cloud liquid.  

SciTech Connect

A microwave radiometer is described that provides continuous thermodynamic (temperature, water vapor, and moisture) soundings during clear and cloudy conditions. The radiometric profiler observes radiation intensity at 12 microwave frequencies, along with zenith infrared and surface meteorological measurements. Historical radiosonde and neural network or regression methods are used for profile retrieval. We compare radiometric, radiosonde, and forecast soundings and evaluate the accuracy of radiometric temperature and water vapor soundings on the basis of statistical comparison with radiosonde soundings. We find that radiometric soundings are equivalent in accuracy to radiosonde soundings when used in numerical weather forecasting. A case study is described that demonstrates improved fog forecasting on the basis of variational assimilation of radiometric soundings. The accuracy of radiometric cloud liquid soundings is evaluated by comparison with cloud liquid sensors carried by radiosondes. Accurate high-resolution three-dimensional water vapor and wind analysis is described on the basis of assimilation of simulated thermodynamic and wind soundings along with GPS slant delays. Examples of mobile thermodynamic and wind profilers are shown. Thermodynamic profiling, particularly when combined with wind profiling and slant GPS, provides continuous atmospheric soundings for improved weather and dispersion forecasting.

Ware, R.; Carpenter, R.; Guldner, J.; Liljegren, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Solheim, F.; Vandenberghe, F.; Environmental Research; Radiometrics Corp.; Univ. Corp. for Atmospheric Research; Weather Decision Technologies Inc.; Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc.; National Center for Atmospheric Research

2003-07-31

215

Investigation of Aerodynamic and Aerodynamic and Radiometric Land Surface Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall goal of the project was to reconcile the difference between T(sub s,r) and T(sub aero), while maintaining consistency within models and with theory and data. The project involved collaboration between researchers at Bucknell University, Boston University, University of mode Island, and the USDNARS Hydrology Laboratory. This report focuses on the work done at Bucknell, which used an analytical continuous-source flux model developed by Crago (1998), based on work by Brutsaert and Sugita (1996) to generate fluxes at all levels of the canopy. Named ALARM [Analytical Land- Atmosphere-Radiometer Model] by Suleiman and Crago (2002), the model assumes the foliage has an exponential vertical temperature profile. The same profile is felt by the within-canopy turbulence and 'seen" by a radiometer viewing the surface from any zenith view angle. ALARM converts radiometric surface temperatures taken from any view angle into a clearly-defined version of Taero called the equivalent isothermal surface temperature T(sub s,j), and then calculates the sensible heat flux H using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. This allows remotely sensed Ts,r measurements to be used to produce high quality sensible and latent heat flux estimates, or to validate or update the surface temperature produced by SVATs in climate or mesoscale models.

Crago, Richard D.; Friedl, Mark; Kustas, William; Wang, Ye-Qiao

2003-01-01

216

Advanced radiometric and interferometric milimeter-wave scene simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart munitions and weapons utilize various imaging sensors (including passive IR, active and passive millimeter-wave, and visible wavebands) to detect/identify targets at short standoff ranges and in varied terrain backgrounds. In order to design and evaluate these sensors under a variety of conditions, a high-fidelity scene simulation capability is necessary. Such a capability for passive millimeter-wave scene simulation exists at TRW. TRW's Advanced Radiometric Millimeter-Wave Scene Simulation (ARMSS) code is a rigorous, benchmarked, end-to-end passive millimeter-wave scene simulation code for interpreting millimeter-wave data, establishing scene signatures and evaluating sensor performance. In passive millimeter-wave imaging, resolution is limited due to wavelength and aperture size. Where high resolution is required, the utility of passive millimeter-wave imaging is confined to short ranges. Recent developments in interferometry have made possible high resolution applications on military platforms. Interferometry or synthetic aperture radiometry allows the creation of a high resolution image with a sparsely filled aperture. Borrowing from research work in radio astronomy, we have developed and tested at TRW scene reconstruction algorithms that allow the recovery of the scene from a relatively small number of spatial frequency components. In this paper, the TRW modeling capability is described and numerical results are presented.

Hauss, B. I.; Moffa, P. J.; Steele, W. G.; Agravante, H.; Davidheiser, R.; Samec, T.; Young, S. K.

1993-12-01

217

Robust Multiscale Stereo Matching from Fundus Images with Radiometric Differences  

PubMed Central

A robust multiscale stereo matching algorithm is proposed to find reliable correspondences between low contrast and weakly textured retinal image pairs with radiometric differences. Existing algorithms designed to deal with piecewise planar surfaces with distinct features and Lambertian reflectance do not apply in applications such as 3D reconstruction of medical images including stereo retinal images. In this paper, robust pixel feature vectors are formulated to extract discriminative features in the presence of noise in scale space, through which the response of low-frequency mechanisms alter and interact with the response of high-frequency mechanisms. The deep structures of the scene are represented with the evolution of disparity estimates in scale space, which distributes the matching ambiguity along the scale dimension to obtain globally coherent reconstructions. The performance is verified both qualitatively by face validity and quantitatively on our collection of stereo fundus image sets with ground truth, which have been made publicly available as an extension of standard test images for performance evaluation. PMID:21464502

Tang, Li; Garvin, Mona K.; Lee, Kyungmoo; Alward, Wallace L.M.; Kwon, Young H.; Abramoff, Michael D.

2013-01-01

218

Optimized mapping of radiometric quantities into OpenGL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physically realistic synthesis of FLIR imagery requires intensive phenomenology calculations of the spectral band thermal emission and reflection from scene elements in the database. These calculations predict the heat conduction, convection, and radiation exchange between scene elements and the environment. Balancing this requirement is the need for imagery to be presented to a display in a timely fashion, often in real time. In order to support these conflicting requirements, some means of overcoming the gap between real time and high fidelity must be achieved. Over the past several years, the US Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has been developing a real-time forward looking infrared sensor simulation known as Paint the Night (PTN). As part of this development, NVESD has explored schemes for optimizing signature models and for mapping model radiometric output into parameters compatible with OpenGL, real-time rendering architectures. Relevant signature and mapping optimization issues are discussed, and a current NVESD PTN real-time implementation scheme is presented.

Lorenzo, Maximo; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Moulton, J. R., Jr.; Liu, Jesse

1999-07-01

219

NERO: General concept of a NEO radiometric observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NERO (Near-Earth Objects Radiometric Observatory) is one of the six studies for possible missions dedicated to near-Earth objects, that were funded by the ESA in 2002-2003. NERO is a further development of previous studies already submitted to ESA (Sysiphos,Spaceguard-1). The general concept is that a small satellite equipped with both a CCD for visible wavelengths and an array for thermal IR measurements around 10 microns would be an ideal platform for simultaneously obtaining two of the major objectives of current NEO science, namely the physical characterization of the objects and the discovery of NEOs which are difficult to detect because they have orbits entirely or partly interior to the Earth's orbit. The NERO study included a comprehensive analysis of the advantages and drawbacks of different orbital options for the satellite (including L2 of Earth and L2 of Venus) and a preliminary simulation of the effectiveness in deriving reliable orbits of the newly detected objects. The main results of this study, including also a preliminary design of the payload (optics, detectors, cooling system, etc.) are briefly summarized.

Cellino, A.; Somma, R.; Tommasi, L.; Paolinetti, R.; Muinonen, K.; Virtanen, J.; Tedesco, E. F.

220

Sensitivity of AIRS and IASI radiometric calibration to scene temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High radiometric accuracy under all conditions (such as scene temperature and scan angle) is critical for establishing a climate-quality data record. In this study we compare radiances of both AIRS and IASI using the difference each instrument sees between the brightness temperature at 1231 cm-1 and that at 961 cm-1. We collected spectra at 17 different sites distributed around the world in tropical, temperate, desert, and arctic climates. For perfectly calibrated instruments, the brightness temperature differences should closely agree, since diurnal differences caused by the differing orbits cancel to first order. We examine observed differences (indicative of calibration artifacts) as functions of scene temperature, time of day, and scan angle. AIRS is a cooled grating array spectrometer with 2378 spectral channels in the wavelength range from 3.7 to 15.4 microns. AIRS began routine operations in September 2002. IASI is a Fourier Transform spectrometer covering the range 3.6 to 15.5 microns in three bands. The spectral resolutions of AIRS and IASI are similar. IASI data have been available since July 2007.

Elliott, Denis A.; Aumann, Hartmut H.

2011-10-01

221

A RADIOMETRIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATING BLOOD CHOLINESTERASE IN THE FIELD.  

PubMed

A radiometric method has been developed which provides for the simple and rapid measurement of human blood cholinesterase under field conditions. The method involves minimal dilution of samples and the use of very low substrate concentrations, and is therefore more sensitive to cholinesterase inhibition by reversible anticholinesterases such as carbamates than the conventional manometric or DeltapH methods. A 20-mul sample of haemolysed whole blood is mixed with (14)C-labelled acetylcholine on a cavity microscope slide. After half a minute or three minutes the mixture is acidified and dried. Under these conditions radioactive acetate liberated enzymically is completely volatile while the radioactive unhydrolysed substrate is not. The loss of radioactivity on acidification and drying is therefore a direct measure of the acetylcholinesterase activity. The levels of radioactivity employed are far below those likely to present any significant health hazard or to require special laboratory conditions. Although the method requires a labelled substrate, a single preparation is sufficient for several hundred thousand enzyme assays. The method has been tested under simulated field conditions. PMID:14122430

WINTERINGHAM, F P; DISNEY, R W

1964-01-01

222

Design, manufacture, and calibration of infrared radiometric blackbody sources  

SciTech Connect

A Radiometric Calibration Station (RCS) is being assembled at the Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL) which will allow for calibration of sensors with detector arrays having spectral capability from about 0.4-15 {mu}m. The configuration of the LANL RCS. Two blackbody sources have been designed to cover the spectral range from about 3-15 {mu}m, operating at temperatures ranging from about 180-350 K within a vacuum environment. The sources are designed to present a uniform spectral radiance over a large area to the sensor unit under test. The thermal uniformity requirement of the blackbody cavities has been one of the key factors of the design, requiring less than 50 mK variation over the entire blackbody surface to attain effective emissivity values of about 0.999. Once the two units are built and verified to the level of about 100 mK at LANL, they will be sent to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), where at least a factor of two improvement will be calibrated into the blackbody control system. The physical size of these assemblies will require modifications of the existing NIST Low Background Infrared (LBIR) Facility. LANL has constructed a bolt-on addition to the LBIR facility that will allow calibration of our large aperture sources. Methodology for attaining the two blackbody sources at calibrated levels of performance equivalent to present state of the art will be explained in the following.

Byrd, D.A.; Michaud, F.D.; Bender, S.C. [and others

1996-04-01

223

Advanced radiometric and interferometric milimeter-wave scene simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smart munitions and weapons utilize various imaging sensors (including passive IR, active and passive millimeter-wave, and visible wavebands) to detect/identify targets at short standoff ranges and in varied terrain backgrounds. In order to design and evaluate these sensors under a variety of conditions, a high-fidelity scene simulation capability is necessary. Such a capability for passive millimeter-wave scene simulation exists at TRW. TRW's Advanced Radiometric Millimeter-Wave Scene Simulation (ARMSS) code is a rigorous, benchmarked, end-to-end passive millimeter-wave scene simulation code for interpreting millimeter-wave data, establishing scene signatures and evaluating sensor performance. In passive millimeter-wave imaging, resolution is limited due to wavelength and aperture size. Where high resolution is required, the utility of passive millimeter-wave imaging is confined to short ranges. Recent developments in interferometry have made possible high resolution applications on military platforms. Interferometry or synthetic aperture radiometry allows the creation of a high resolution image with a sparsely filled aperture. Borrowing from research work in radio astronomy, we have developed and tested at TRW scene reconstruction algorithms that allow the recovery of the scene from a relatively small number of spatial frequency components. In this paper, the TRW modeling capability is described and numerical results are presented.

Hauss, B. I.; Moffa, P. J.; Steele, W. G.; Agravante, H.; Davidheiser, R.; Samec, T.; Young, S. K.

1993-01-01

224

Radiometric sensitivity contrast metrics for hyperspectral remote sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the calculation, interpretation, and implications of various radiometric sensitivity metrics for Earth-observing hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensors. The most commonly used sensor performance metric is signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), from which additional noise equivalent quantities can be computed, including: noise equivalent spectral radiance (NESR), noise equivalent delta reflectance (NE??), noise equivalent delta emittance (NE??), and noise equivalent delta temperature (NE?T). For hyperspectral sensors, these metrics are typically calculated from an at-aperture radiance (typically generated by MODTRAN) that includes both target radiance and non-target (atmosphere and background) radiance. Unfortunately, these calculations treat the entire at-aperture radiance as the desired signal, even when the target radiance is only a fraction of the total (such as when sensing through a long or optically dense atmospheric path). To overcome this limitation, an augmented set of metrics based on contrast signal-to-noise ratio (CNSR) is developed, including their noise equivalent counterparts (CNESR, CNE??, CNE??, and CNE?T). These contrast metrics better quantify sensor performance in an operational environment that includes remote sensing through the atmosphere.

Silny, John F.; Zellinger, Lou

2014-09-01

225

Help a geochronologist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity allows students to better understand radiometric dating and absolute dating techniques by calculating radiometric ages of zircon crystals. Their calculated ages then serve as tools to practice creating graphs, interpret analytic data, and reconstruct geologic events.

Berquist, Peter J.

226

Molecular Laboratory Technician Date Available: Immediately  

E-print Network

Molecular Laboratory Technician Date Available: Immediately Location: Honey Bee Research laboratory technician with extensive molecular experience. The main responsibility of the successful to be proficient in general lab practices and molecular techniques: RNA and DNA purification, gradient, end

Jawitz, James W.

227

Polarization impacts on the water-leaving radiance retrieval from above-water radiometric measurements.  

PubMed

Above-water measurements of water-leaving radiance are widely used for water-quality monitoring and ocean-color satellite data validation. Reflected skylight in above-water radiometry needs to be accurately estimated prior to derivation of water-leaving radiance. Up-to-date methods to estimate reflection of diffuse skylight on rough sea surfaces are based on radiative transfer simulations and sky radiance measurements. But these methods neglect the polarization state of the incident skylight, which is generally highly polarized. In this paper, the effects of polarization on the sea surface reflectance and the subsequent water-leaving radiance estimation are investigated. We show that knowledge of the polarization field of the diffuse skylight significantly improves above-water radiometry estimates, in particular in the blue part of the spectrum where the reflected skylight is dominant. A newly developed algorithm based on radiative transfer simulations including polarization is described. Its application to the standard Aerosol Robotic Network-Ocean Color and hyperspectral radiometric measurements of the 1.5-year dataset acquired at the Long Island Sound site demonstrates the noticeable importance of considering polarization for water-leaving radiance estimation. In particular it is shown, based on time series of collocated data acquired in coastal waters, that the azimuth range of measurements leading to good-quality data is significantly increased, and that these estimates are improved by more than 12% at 413 nm. Full consideration of polarization effects is expected to significantly improve the quality of the field data utilized for satellite data validation or potential vicarious calibration purposes. PMID:23262527

Harmel, Tristan; Gilerson, Alexander; Tonizzo, Alberto; Chowdhary, Jacek; Weidemann, Alan; Arnone, Robert; Ahmed, Sam

2012-12-10

228

Critical Evaluation of Radiometric Ages Used for Tracking Hotspots in the Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the pillars supporting the plume hypothesis, is the progression of ages for numerous hotspot tracks in oceans. These ages should be based on radiometric measurements. The argon dating methods have been the tool most commonly used. Since most of the rocks selected for dating have suffered (considerable) alteration, K-Ar dates should not be used as accurate measures of the age of crystallization. 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages, though better than K-Ar dates in general, do not pinpoint samples that (a) contain excess argon or (b) have suffered partial loss of 40Ar* due to alteration. Hence 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating studies remain as the (only) tool of choice. From such experiments, at a minimum, ages must be based on plateau and/or isochron sections that meet the necessary statistical requirements to be considered crystallization ages. Earlier (Baksi, 1999, Jour. Geol.) it has been shown that almost all the purported crystallization ages for hotspot tracks in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, are invalid (see also www.mantleplumes.org/ArAr.html). Herein, I apply the tests outlined therein, to evaluate ages available in the literature for hotspot tracks in the Pacific Ocean. These can be divided into five main groups. (1) Those with reliable age data (e.g. Dalrymple and Garcia,1980; Dalrymple et al., 1980, DSDP 55, Hawaiian-Emperor Chain); the authors use care in selecting valid ages from their data sets. (2) Others (e.g. Pringle, 1993, AGU Monograph 77, Musicians Seamounts), most ages are statistically valid, though some fail the requisite test. In addition, many samples show high levels of atmospheric argon, suggesting the samples are (quite) altered; this could lead to incorrect plateau ages. (3) The next set (e.g. Winterer et al., 1993, AGU Monograph 77, Cretaceous guyots in the Northwest Pacific; Ozima et al., 1977, JGRAS, Western Pacific guyots; Saito and Ozima, 1977, EPSL, Western Pacific area) have few, if any, valid ages. Most plateaux/isochrons clearly fail the statistical test of reliability; many steps show high levels of atmospheric argon - the samples are (badly) altered. (4) A set of papers (e.g. Gripp and Gordon, 2002, Geophys. J. Int., young hotspot tracks; Duncan, 1985 - New Hebrides-Samoa lineament) make use of K-Ar dates, wholly or in the main. These dates should be treated as minimum estimates of the crystallization age. (5) A final set of papers (Sager et al., 1993, AGU Monograph 77, Japanese and Marcus-Wake Seamounts; Lincoln et al., 1993, AGU Monograph 77, Marshall Islands), quote ages without listing the relevant analytical data. These results are to be treated as suspect, and not used for quantitative tracking of hotspot trails. In conclusion, the purported progression of ages for numerous hotspot tracks in the Pacific Ocean does not withstand critical scrutiny.

Baksi, A. K.

2004-12-01

229

Laser photothermal radiometric instrumentation for fast in-line industrial steel hardness inspection and case depth measurements  

SciTech Connect

A contact-free, nondestructive laser photothermal radiometric instrumentation technique was developed to meet industrial demand for on-line steel hardness inspection and quality control. A series of industrial steel samples, flat or curvilinear, with different effective hardness case depths ranging between 0.21 and 1.78 mm were measured. The results demonstrated that three measurement parameters (metrics) extracted from fast swept-sine photothermal excitation and measurements, namely, the phase minimum frequency fmin, the peak or trough frequency width W, and the area S, are complementary for evaluating widely different ranges of hardness case depth: fmin is most suitable for large case depths, and W and S for small case depths. It was also found that laser beam angular inclination with respect to the surface plane of the sample strongly affects hardness measurement resolution and that the phase frequency maximum is more reliable than the amplitude maximum for laser beam focusing on the sample surface.

Guo Xinxin; Sivagurunathan, Konesh; Garcia, Jose; Mandelis, Andreas; Giunta, Salvatore; Milletari, Salvatore

2009-03-01

230

An automated method for relative radiometric correction performed through spectral library based classification and comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a method to perform automated radiometric correction of remotely sensed multispectral hyperspectral images. The effects of atmosphere, as well as the calibration errors which the satellite sensors may present, may be compensated by performing the radiometric correction operation in order to achieve good performances in different applications, such as classification and change detection. As far as the change detection is concerned, relative radiometric correction is particularly interesting since it deals with images which have to be compared and since in this context an absolute correction may be characterized by a high complexity. One method for performing radiometric correction of multispectral images can be based on a least-square approach: considering one image as the reference one and the other as a linearly scaled version of the reference one, the linear coefficients can be calculated by using a set of control points conveniently chosen. Unfortunately, the choice of control points is a tricky operation, strictly connected to the specific application. In this paper we propose an automated method for performing relative radiometric correction of multispectral remotely sensed images, in which the choice of the control points is based on a comparison of the spectral content of those images to the spectral response of known materials. Specifically, we perform a vector quantization of the images separately, considering N quantization levels represented by N known materials' signatures properly selected. Then the quantized images are compared in order to identify the areas classified as belonging to the same class, so identified by the same quantization index which will make the subset of control points that should be used for performing relative radiometric correction. Experimental results showed that choosing points characterized by an homogeneous spectral content for radiometric correction improves the performances of specific image processing algorithms, such as change detection and classification algorithms.

D'Elia, C.; Ruscino, S.

2012-11-01

231

Dating the Crucifixion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The date of the Crucifixion has been debated for many years, but there has been no agreement on the year nor the day. Astronomical calculations have now been used to reconstruct the Jewish calendar in the first century AD and to date a lunar eclipse that biblical and other references suggest followed the Crucifixion. The evidence points to Friday 3 April AD 33 as the date when Jesus Christ died.

Humphreys, Colin J.; Waddington, W. G.

1983-12-01

232

PROTESTING RETALIATION Date: ___________________________  

E-print Network

PROTESTING RETALIATION Date: ___________________________ Dear ___________________(Landlord): Ohio of the law. Thank you for your attention to this matter. Sincerely, Tenant ____________________________ Address ___________________________ Phone Number ______________________ PROTESTING NON-ACCEPTANCE OF RENT

Bogaerts, Steven

233

Microwave and Millimeter Wave Forward Modeling Results from the 2004 North Slope of Alaska Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The 2004 Arctic Winter Radiometric Experiment was conducted at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program field site near Barrow, Alaska from March 9 to April 9, 2004. The goals of the experiment were: to study the microwave and millimeter wave radiometric response to water vapor and clouds during cold and dry conditions; to obtain data for forward model studies at frequencies ranging from 22.235 to 400 GHz, to demonstrate new Environmental Technology Laboratory's (ETL) radiometric receiver and calibration technology and to compare both radiometric and in situ measurements of water vapor.

Westwater, E.R.; Cimini, D.; Klein, M.; Leuski, V.; Mattioli, V.; Gasiewski, A.J.; Dowlatshahi, S.; Liljegren, J.S.; Lesht, B.M.; Shaw, J.A.

2005-03-18

234

Radiometric calibration of a polarization-sensitive sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiometric accuracy of a sensor is adversely affected by scene polarization if its optical system is sensitive to polarization. Tests performed on the reflective bands of the NS001 Thematic Mapper simulator, an aircraft multispectral scanner, show that it is very sensitive to the polarization state of the incoming radiations. For 100 percent linearly polarized light, errors in the measured intensity vary from -40 to +40 percent, depending on the scan angle and spectral band. To estimate polarization-induced errors in the intensity measured at aircraft level, the intensity and polarization of the atmospheric radiances were simulated using a realistic earth-atmosphere radiative transfer model. For the polarization of atmospheric radiances in the solar meridian plane over a vegetated target, intensity errors may range from -10 to + 10 percent. The polarization-induced errors are highest in the shortest NS001 spectral band (0.450-0.525 microns) because of large atmospheric polarizations contributed by Rayleigh particles and small diluting effects caused by the small contributions of weakly polarized radiations coming from aerosols and the surface. Depending on the illumination and view angles, the errors in derived surface reflectance due to the radiance errors can be very large. In particular, for large off-nadir view angles in the forward scattered direction when the sun is low, the relative errors in the derived surface reflectance can be as large as 4 to 5 times the relative error in the radiances. Polarization sensitivity errors cannot be neglected for the shorter wavelengths when the surface reflectance contribution to atmospheric radiances is very small.

Ahmad, Suraiya P.; Markham, Brian L.

1992-01-01

235

Wafer-level radiometric performance testing of uncooled microbolometer arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A turn-key semi-automated test system was constructed to perform on-wafer testing of microbolometer arrays. The system allows for testing of several performance characteristics of ROIC-fabricated microbolometer arrays including NETD, SiTF, ROIC functionality, noise and matrix operability, both before and after microbolometer fabrication. The system accepts wafers up to 8 inches in diameter and performs automated wafer die mapping using a microscope camera. Once wafer mapping is completed, a custom-designed quick insertion 8-12 ?m AR-coated Germanium viewport is placed and the chamber is pumped down to below 10-5 Torr, allowing for the evaluation of package-level focal plane array (FPA) performance. The probe card is electrically connected to an INO IRXCAM camera core, a versatile system that can be adapted to many types of ROICs using custom-built interface printed circuit boards (PCBs). We currently have the capability for testing 384x288, 35 ?m pixel size and 160x120, 52 ?m pixel size FPAs. For accurate NETD measurements, the system is designed to provide an F/1 view of two rail-mounted blackbodies seen through the Germanium window by the die under test. A master control computer automates the alignment of the probe card to the dies, the positioning of the blackbodies, FPA image frame acquisition using IRXCAM, as well as data analysis and storage. Radiometric measurement precision has been validated by packaging dies measured by the automated probing system and re-measuring the SiTF and Noise using INO's pre-existing benchtop system.

Dufour, Denis G.; Topart, Patrice; Tremblay, Bruno; Julien, Christian; Martin, Louis; Vachon, Carl

2014-03-01

236

Today's Date __/__/20__ Information Technology  

E-print Network

Today's Date __/__/20__ Information Technology Information and Learning Commons/ McCarthy Commons _________________ Email Address _________________________________ Major ______________________ Expected Graduation Date _________________________________________________________________ City ______________________________ State ___________ Zip ___________________ Dates of Employment

de Lijser, Peter

237

Dating Violence in Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of violence in interpersonal relationships has been little studied in Russia, and the phenomenon of violence between dating partners has not been the object of scientific interest at all. The study on which the present article is based was designed to obtain information about the violence in dating among students enrolled in

Lysova, A. V.

2007-01-01

238

Create Date: Create Time  

E-print Network

Create Date: Create Time: User: 12/29/2010 10:48 AM arajan Page 1 of 56 Bill ID Chapter Number Lead Water Supply Act of 2012: groundwater contamination. Effective September 24, 2010. Bills Enacted In 2010;Create Date: Create Time: User: 12/29/2010 10:48 AM arajan Page 2 of 56 Bill ID Chapter Number Lead

239

GPU-based high-precision real-time radiometric rendering for IR scene generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming at the problem that traditional infrared scene real-time radiometric rendering method leads to greater calculation error for securing real-time purpose, this article studies the IR rendering comprehensive optimization method, which secures real-time performance as well as calculation accuracy. Firstly, based on the effective average value principle, the spectrum coupling thermal emission and reflected radiations in the spectral radiometric equation are decomposed into physical quantities, and the spectral radiometric equation is improved to become a simpler calculation between "primer" radiance terms and effective average factors. Secondly, the parameter processing method is proposed to cope with the situation when index parameters of effective average factors exceed the maximum dimensionalities of graphics processing unit (GPU) look-up-table (LUT); and pre-calculation method is applied to promote the real-time evaluation efficiency of the physical quantities in the radiometric equation. Finally, concurrent computation of radiometric equation is achieved with GPU IR scene generation software and the precise and real-time rendering of three-dimensional IR scene is realized.

Huang, Xi; Zhang, Jianqi; Zhang, Shaoze; Wu, Xin

2014-07-01

240

Thermoluminescence dating of volcanic ash  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2-11 ?m glass component of airfall ash provides a new method for dating tephra deposits when the thermoluminescence (TL) techniques developed for pottery dating are applied. Here I demonstrate that this method of tephrochronometry can be applied to both distal and proximal tephra over the age range 0.5 ka to > 500 ka. However, there are some major sources of error that have not yet been successfully circumvented, principally anomalous fading in associated feldspar grains. The 100% clear glass Holocene Mazama ash exhibits no anomalous fading, implying that for older tephra, physical separation of glass may permit measurement of accurate TL apparent ages. The observation of a minimum TL apparent age of 670 ka for the Coutlee tephra from southern British Columbia, previously known only to be > 37 ka old, illustrates the reconnaissance value of delayed-glow TL measurements on the bulk 4-11 ?m grains.

Berger, Glenn W.

1985-07-01

241

Remote sensing of precipitation structures using combined microwave radar and radiometric techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After reviewing published multiparameter radar observations and their interpretation for microphysical retrieval, the paper presents radiative transfer model simulations performed using radar measurements and a cloud model. The qualitative and quantitative aspects of the remote sensing of precipitation are discussed with particular attention given to the potential of estimating scattering-based ice water path.

Vivekanandan, J.; Turk, J.; Bringi, V. N.

1991-01-01

242

Radiometric calibration and processing procedure for reflective bands on LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiometric subsystem of NASA's LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor is described. Special emphasis is placed on the internal calibrator (IC) pulse shapes and timing cycle. The procedures for the absolute radiometric calibration of the TM channels with a 122-centimeter integrating sphere and the transfer of radiometric calibration from the channels to the IC are reviewed. The use of the IC to calibrate TM data in the ground processing system consists of pulse integration, pulse averaging, IC state identification, linear regression analysis, and histogram equalization. An overview of the SCROUNGE-era (before August 1983) method is presented. Procedural differences between SCOUNGE and the TIPS-era (after July 1983) and the implications of these difference are discussed.

Barker, J. L.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.

1985-01-01

243

Radiometric calibration and processing procedure for reflective bands on LANDSAT-4 protoflight Thematic Mapper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiometric subsystem of NASA's LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor is described. Special emphasis is placed on the internal calibrator (IC) pulse shapes and timing cycle. The procedures for the absolute radiometric calibration of the TM channels with a 122-centimeter integrating sphere and the transfer of radiometric calibration from the channels to the IC are reviewed. The use of the IC to calibrate TM data in the ground processing system consists of pulse integration, pulse averaging, IC state identification, linear regression analysis, and histogram equalization. An overview of the SCROUNGE-era (before August 1983) method is presented. Procedural differences between SCROUNGE and the TIPS-era (after July 1983) and the implications of these differences are discussed.

Barker, J. L.; Abrams, R. B.; Ball, D. L.; Leung, K. C.

1984-01-01

244

(abstract) Deep Space Network Radiometric Remote Sensing Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Planetary spacecraft are viewed through a troposphere that absorbs and delays radio signals propagating through it. Tropospheric water, in the form of vapor, cloud liquid,and precipitation , emits radio noise which limits satellite telemetry communication link performance. Even at X-band, rain storms have severely affected several satellite experiments including a planetary encounter. The problem will worsen with DSN implementation of Ka-band becausecommunication link budgets will be dominated by tropospheric conditions. Troposphere-induced propagation delays currently limit VLBI accuracy and are significant sources of error for Doppler tracking. Additionally, the success of radio science programs such as satellite gravity wave experiments and atmospheric occultation experiments depends on minimizing the effect of watervapor-induced prop agation delays. In order to overcome limitations imposed by the troposphere, the Deep Space Network has supported a program of radiometric remote sensing. Currently, water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and microwave temperature profilers (MTPs) support many aspects of the Deep Space Network operations and research and development programs. Their capability to sense atmospheric water, microwave sky brightness, and atmospheric temperature is critical to development of Ka-band telemetry systems, communication link models, VLBI, satellite gravity waveexperiments, and r adio science missions. During 1993, WVRs provided data for propagation mode development, supp orted planetary missions, and demonstrated advanced tracking capability. Collection of atmospheric statistics is necessary to model and predict performance of Ka-band telemetry links, antenna arrays, and radio science experiments. Since the spectrum of weather variations has power at very long time scales, atmospheric measurements have been requested for periods ranging from one year to a decade at each DSN site. The resulting database would provide reliable statistics on daily, monthly, and seasonal variations. Only long-term monitoring will prevent biases from being introduced by an exceptionally wet or dry year. Support for planetary missions included tropospheric calibration for the recent Mars Observer gravity wave experiments and Ka-band link experiment (KaBLE). Additionally, several proposed radio science experiments such as profiling planetary atmospheres using satellite occultations and Ka-band gravitational wave searches require advanced radiometer technology development. Finally, there has been a consistent advanced technology program to advance satellite navigational and tracking capabilities. This year that included an experiment with radiometer based tropospheric calibration for a series of VLBI catalog measurements.

Walter, Steven J.

1994-01-01

245

StarDate Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This on-line version of StarDate astronomy magazine provides current viewing information, a sky almanac, Moon phase calculator, sunrise and sunset calculator, planet viewing information, and meteor shower updates. News and Features contains information and details on the latest findings and research in the field of astronomy. Resources contains an image gallery, an astroglossary, and solar system, constellation, and star guides. The Radio section contains past radio programs by date, or searchable by subject. Also available are an archive database of past StarDate articles, and a teacher's section with ideas for teaching astronomy concepts in the classroom.

246

Microwave radiometric measurements of soil moisture in Italy Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 937948 (2003) EGU  

E-print Network

Microwave radiometric measurements of soil moisture in Italy 937 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 7(6), 937948 (2003) © EGU Microwave radiometric measurements of soil moisture in Italy G GHz). The aim of the experiments was to collect soil moisture and vegetation biomass information

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

Radiometric normalization of multitemporal high-resolution satellite images with quality control for land cover change detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radiometric normalization of multitemporal satellite optical images of the same terrain is often necessary for land cover change detection, e.g., relative differences. In previous studies, ground reference data or pseudo-invariant features (PIFs) were used in the radiometric rectification of multitemporal images. Ground reference data are costly and difficult to acquire for most satellite remotely sensed images and the selection

Yong Du; Philippe M Teillet; Josef Cihlar

2002-01-01

248

Overview of current technology in MMW radiometric sensors for law enforcement applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the current state-of-the-art in millimeter-wave radiometric imagers being developed for law enforcement use within the United States. The most prevalent application at present is the detection of concealed weapons (guns, knives, etc.) with a secondary application involving the detection of drugs and explosives. Three main topics will be addressed: the phenomenology of concealed weapon detection at millimeter wavelengths, the promise and short comings of first generation radiometric imagers, and the characteristics of second generation systems currently under development.

Ferris, David D., Jr.; Currie, Nicholas C.

2000-07-01

249

Study of radiometric calibration methods on a compact novel imaging guided FTIR spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emerging applications in Defense and Security require sensors with state-of-the-art sensitivity and capabilities. We have developed a compact novel instrument that can not only provide imaging capability, bust also one that provides spectral capability of the field of view (FOV) center under the imaging guided. The absolute radiance accuracy of an instrument is one of its fundamental characteristics. In order to meet the highest radiometric precision and accuracy, we give two specific calibration methods: two-point calibration and multi-point segmentation calibration. This paper presents the results of the analysis of the radiometric calibration of this instrument, with emphasis on the temporal behavior of the instrument response.

Dai, Xiaobing; Liu, Xiangyan; Gao, Pengcheng; He, Xudong

2013-10-01

250

Print Name: Date:Signature: APPLICATION APPROVAL  

E-print Network

Print Name: Date:Signature: APPLICATION APPROVAL OFFICE USE ONLY Semester Summer School Semester 2 Semester 1 Notes: Email Sent Date Signature:Name: Jumbunna File # Administration Unit Use Only Notification Date Date Date Acess Period Start Date: Start Date: Start Date: End Date: End Date: End Date: Date Date

University of Technology, Sydney

251

HOSPITALITY APPROVAL FORM DATE: __________________________  

E-print Network

) _____ Recruiting: Travel meals lodging for position candidates and prospective athletes. Not Advertising (See 62316HOSPITALITY APPROVAL FORM DATE: __________________________ PERMISSION IS REQUESTED TO USE & 62317 for advertising.) Hospitality form and participant list required for food over $30.00. (Account

Dyer, Bill

252

Expiration Dates Matter  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Expiration Dates Matter Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates ... Government For Press Combination Products Advisory Committees Science & Research Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & ...

253

Rock Dating Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gallery of online resources is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. The Rock Dating Gallery, part of the Earth: Inside and Out seminar, features illustrations from the Hall of Planet Earth, which has two informative overviews: Dating Rocks with Radioactivity and Telling Time Precisely. Stillwater Gabbro, has two images of this rock from the Stillwater Complex in Montana and a video (with a printable PDF transcript) explaining how it was dated. Stillwater Gabbro: Collecting and Dating, has a Rate of Decay Graph, a Computing the Rate of Decay video (with a printable PDF transcript), and three images: Fieldwork in Montana, Collecting a Sample for the Hall, and Vials of Crushed Rock.

254

Dating the Vinland Map  

ScienceCinema

Scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory, the University of Arizona, and the Smithsonian Institution used carbon-dating technology to determine the age of a controversial parchment that might be the first-ever map of North America.

None

2013-07-17

255

Event name: Event date  

E-print Network

design Other (specify): Confirmation letter Black and White Color Breakfast Brunch Lunch Dinner Buffet Equipment Details Room Details Student Center Entertainment Completion Date: Transporation and Security Signage Flowers Registration Logistics Projector Laptop Projector Screen Speakers Microphone Wireless TV

VandeVord, Pamela

256

Teen Dating Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... or consequences to the developing teen. Victims of teen dating violence are more likely to do poorly in school, and report binge drinking, suicide attempts, and physical fighting. Victims may also carry ...

257

One date, one break?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates that the conventional approach of using official liberalisation dates as the only existing breakdates\\u000a could lead to inaccurate conclusions as to the effect of the underlying liberalisation policies. It also proposes an alternative\\u000a paradigm for obtaining more robust estimates of volatility changes around official liberalisation dates and\\/or other important\\u000a market events. By focusing on five East Asian

Michail Karoglou; Panicos Demetriades; Siong Hook Law

2011-01-01

258

Radiometric Ages for Seamounts from the Easter-Salas y Gomez-Nazca Hotspot Track  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Easter-Salas y Gomez volcanic lineament is an east-west swath of isolated seamounts and coalesced ridges that merges at its eastern end with the southern end of the NE-SW trending Nazca Ridge. All morphologic aspects of this province are consistent with its origin as a hotspot track, with a plate motion change at the time of the inflection at the southern end of the Nazca Ridge. However, the first report of radiometric dating from dredged rocks from several seamounts showed young ages along the whole lineament, denying an age-progressive distribution required by the hotspot model. Instead, a "hot line" origin was proposed (Bonatti et al., 1977). New mapping and dredging during the R/V Revelle DRIFT 6 expedition (2001) revealed detailed volcanic morphology and has provided rocks from 30 previously unsampled seamounts. We report here crystallization ages for these volcanoes, based on 40Ar-39Ar incremental heating of whole rocks, feldspar and groundmass separates. Contrary to the previous work (based on K-Ar whole rock ages) we find a systematic increase in ages from west to east, continuing northeast along the Nazca Ridge, from 2 to 27 Ma, in agreement with the hotspot model. This age progression seems to fit best with a current hotspot location close to Salas y Gomez, rather than Easter Island. We next compare the seamount ages with the age of underlying ocean crust, inferred from seafloor magnetic anomaly identification (Naar et al., this session) to determine the position of the hotspot relative to the spreading ridge through time. With the exception of a short interval around 12 Ma the hotspot lay several hundred km to the east of the East Pacific Rise. Finally, we compare the observed age distribution with those predicted from fixed Pacific basin hotspots (Hawaii, Louisville), and models that predict inter-hotspot motion (Steinberger, 2002). The new age distribution, with hotspot located near Salas y Gomez, is most consistent with fixed (or only very slowly moving) hotspots for the last 27 Ma.

Duncan, R. A.; Naar, D. F.; Pyle, D. G.; Russo, C. J.

2003-04-01

259

Accelerator radiocarbon dating of evidence for prehistoric horticulture in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of direct detection radiocarbon dating, which uses an accelerator as part of a highly selective mass spectrometer, it is now possible to determine the age of milligram samples of organic materials1-5. One application of accelerator dating is in evaluating scanty, sometimes controversial evidence for early horticulture throughout the world. We have now used the technique to date

Nicholas Conard; David L. Asch; Nancy B. Asch; David Elmore; Harry Gove; Meyer Rubin; James A. Brown; Michael D. Wiant; Kenneth B. Farnsworth; Thomas G. Cook

1984-01-01

260

From Romance to Rocket Science: Speed Dating in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the first comprehensive review of speed dating in the tertiary sector. While speed dating has its origins as a networking technique to connect singles, it has only more recently made its way into the academy. Since 2005 universities world-wide have begun to adopt speed dating protocols as a tool for building research culture. An

Muurlink, Olav; Poyatos Matas, Cristina

2011-01-01

261

Fusion of multiple image types for the creation of radiometrically-accurate synthetic scenes  

E-print Network

Fusion of multiple image types for the creation of radiometrically-accurate synthetic scenes Stephen R. Lach,a,b John P. Kerekes,a and Xiaofeng Fana a Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623, Chester F. Carlson Center for Imaging Science, Rochester

Kerekes, John

262

Anomaly Gas Remote Sensing and Tracking Using a Field-Portable Imaging Thermal Radiometric Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a set of radiometric thermal hyperspectral data cubes, we developed an algorithm which detects the formation of an anomalous gas cloud. Once we've established the presence of the cloud in the latter images, we determine the origin of the cloud in the earlier ones and track its propagation. Gas usually expands from point sources and it is difficult to

E. Ohel; S. R. Rotman; D. G. Blumberg; Lior Sagiv

2006-01-01

263

Texture analysis of radiometric signatures of new sea ice forming in Arctic leads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of 33.6-GHz, high-resolution, passive microwave images suggests that new sea ice accumulating in open leads is characterized by a unique textural signature which can be used to discriminate new ice forming in this environment from adjacent surfaces of similar radiometric temperature. Ten training areas were selected from the data set, three of which consisted entirely of first-year ice, four entirely of multilayer ice, and three of new ice in open leads in the process of freezing. A simple gradient operator was used to characterize the radiometric texture in each training region in terms of the degree to which radiometric gradients are oriented. New ice in leads has a sufficiently high proportion of well-oriented features to distinguish it uniquely from first-year ice and multiyear ice. The predominance of well-oriented features probably reflects physical processes by which new ice accumulates in open leads. Banded structures, which are evident in aerial photographs of new ice, apparently give rise to the radiometric signature observed, in which the trend of brightness temperature gradients is aligned parallel to lead trends. First-year ice and multiyear ice, which have been subjected to a more random growth and process history, lack this banded structure and therefore are characterized by signatures in which well-aligned elements are less dominant.

Eppler, Duane T.; Farmer, L. Dennis

1991-01-01

264

RAW MATERIALS USED FOR THE PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA -NEW RADIOMETRIC DATA  

E-print Network

The nature of phosphate fertilizer produced by sulfuric acid attack and the nature of phosphogypsum (phosphorites), represent about 85 % of the phosphate rock used for the production of phosphoric acid (HabashiRAW MATERIALS USED FOR THE PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PRODUCTION IN ROMANIA - NEW RADIOMETRIC DATA Aurora

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

265

RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION OF SPOT-5 SCENES: 6S ATMOSPHERIC MODEL VS. PSEUDO-INVARIANT FEATURES  

E-print Network

RADIOMETRIC NORMALIZATION OF SPOT-5 SCENES: 6S ATMOSPHERIC MODEL VS. PSEUDO-INVARIANT FEATURES grazing) of which the hydrological functioning is increasingly man-made to improve economic yield (Mathevet, 2004). The input of freshwater in these brackish marshes and the modification

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

Geometric and radiometric correction of TM data of mountainous forested areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methodologies to improve Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) forest classifications of alpine regions through the removal of some radiometric and geometric distortions are tested. Besides correcting for sensor and system induced errors, geometric errors are corrected using a digital elevation model. Then scene-related effects such as differences in illumination as well as the height dependent atmospheric influence and adjacency effects are

Klaus I. Itten; Peter Meyer

1993-01-01

267

Radiometric saturation of Landsat7 ETM+ data over the Negev Desert (Israel): problems and solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsuccessful efforts to interpret and analyze several sets of images acquired over Israel by Landsat-7 during the first 2 years of its operation (August 1999August 2001) provided the motivation to examine the hypothesis that image data produced over the desert regions along the climatic transition zone of Israel were subject to radiometric saturation. The objectives of the current study are

Arnon Karnieli; Eyal Ben-Dor; Yunden Bayarjargal; Rachel Lugasi

2004-01-01

268

An explication of the radiometric method for size and albedo determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiometric model for determination of diameters, albedos, and temperatures of asteroids and other airless planets is presented. Integrated photometry of planets is reviewed, and attention is given to problems of stellar calibration, monochromatic corrections, and corrections for the temperature variations across the planetary sphere. A previous model, which assumes that an asteroid emits infrared radiation as a smooth sphere,

O. L. Hansen

1977-01-01

269

Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared. XII. Radiometric Measurements from the Midcourse Space Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the series of absolute stellar irradiance calibration experiments conducted by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). These experiments validate the published absolute irradiances of our primary and secondary standards, namely, alpha CMa and a set of bright K-M giant stars, and confirm their radiometric ``closure'' (relative irradiances). We also validate the absolute spectra of 29 of the fainter calibrators

Martin Cohen; Russell G. Walker; Sumita Jayaraman; Elizabeth Barker; Stephan D. Price

2001-01-01

270

Research on methods of spectral calibration and radiometric calibration of the windowing Fourier transform imaging spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral calibration and radiometric calibration is an important part in the data processing of the windowing Fourier transform imaging spectrometer, it can ensure that the spectral curve output from spectrometer are more closely to target spectrum. The main idea of spectral calibration is using a monochromatic source whose wavelength is known, in the same way, radiometric calibration can be achieved by using radiation source whose radiation characteristic is known. In this paper, we propose a set of methods of spectral calibration and radiometric calibration. In order to carry out spectral calibration, we use monocharomator to scan several sample points near the position of every spectral channel of imaging spectrometer, and then we employ Gaussian fitting function to determine the central wavelength and bandwidth of every spectral channel. In order to carry out radiometric calibration, we employ panchromatic light source and integrating sphere, at the position of every spectral channel of imaging spectrometer, we measure the response ability of spectrometer to radiation. The calibration accuracy is carefully analyzed. Experimental results show that calibration accuracy meet the given requirements.

Zhang, Lei; Gao, Jiao Bo; Zhao, Yu Jie; Luo, Yan Ling; Xiao, Xiang Guo; Zhang, Fang

2013-08-01

271

Spectral and radiometric calibration of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The laboratory spectral and radiometric calibration of the AVIRIS science data collected since 1987 is described. The instrumentation and procedures used in the calibration are discussed and the accuracy achieved in the laboratory as determined by measurement and calculation is compared with the requirements. Instrument performance factors affecting radiometry are described. The paper concludes with a discussion of future plans.

Vane, Gregg; Chrien, Thomas G.; Miller, Edward A.; Reimer, John H.

1987-01-01

272

Plutonium age dating reloaded  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the age determination of plutonium is and has been a pillar of nuclear forensic investigations for many years, additional research in the field of plutonium age dating is still needed and leads to new insights as the present work shows: Plutonium is commonly dated with the help of the 241Pu/241Am chronometer using gamma spectrometry; in fewer cases the 240Pu/236U chronometer has been used. The age dating results of the 239Pu/235U chronometer and the 238Pu/234U chronometer are scarcely applied in addition to the 240Pu/236U chronometer, although their results can be obtained simultaneously from the same mass spectrometric experiments as the age dating result of latter. The reliability of the result can be tested when the results of different chronometers are compared. The 242Pu/238U chronometer is normally not evaluated at all due to its sensitivity to contamination with natural uranium. This apparent 'weakness' that renders the age dating results of the 242Pu/238U chronometer almost useless for nuclear forensic investigations, however turns out to be an advantage looked at from another perspective: the 242Pu/238U chronometer can be utilized as an indicator for uranium contamination of plutonium samples and even help to identify the nature of this contamination. To illustrate this the age dating results of all four Pu/U clocks mentioned above are discussed for one plutonium sample (NBS 946) that shows no signs of uranium contamination and for three additional plutonium samples. In case the 242Pu/238U chronometer results in an older 'age' than the other Pu/U chronometers, contamination with either a small amount of enriched or with natural or depleted uranium is for example possible. If the age dating result of the 239Pu/235U chronometer is also influenced the nature of the contamination can be identified; enriched uranium is in this latter case a likely cause for the missmatch of the age dating results of the Pu/U chronometers.

Sturm, Monika; Richter, Stephan; Aregbe, Yetunde; Wellum, Roger; Mayer, Klaus; Prohaska, Thomas

2014-05-01

273

The Realities of Date Rape.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance

Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

274

Geological Dating by Ar40 - Ar39 method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The isotope K40 is radioactive, it decays to Ar-40 stable. The number of Ar-40 atoms produced from K-40, permits to calculate the date of rocks and minerals. This dating technique is named 'Conventional K-Ar Dating Method'. The Ar-40 - Ar-39 dating method permits to calculate the age of rocks and minerals eliminating the limitation of the K-Ar method by calculating

M. E. Vollbertromero

1992-01-01

275

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT Effective Date  

E-print Network

SUBJECT: EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT Effective Date: 4-7-14 Policy Number: 1.14 Supersedes: Policy 4- made, by implementing appropriate emergency management policies, plans, and procedures designed.001. In the absence of specific regulatory mandates for particular situations, best emergency management practices

Fernandez, Eduardo

276

Confronting Dating Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be safe havens for children, schools cannot address the intellect only. Brattleboro (Vermont) Union High School went beyond academics by sponsoring a performance of "The Yellow Dress," a powerful one-woman play about a teenage victim of dating violence. The production challenged participants to unite school and community, intellect and heart.

McNulty, Raymond J.; Heller, Daniel A.; Binet, Tracy

1997-01-01

277

The Dating Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities to cultivate the tendency to see special qualities in numbers that can be played on certain calendar days. Includes games on the constant of the day, Fibonacci and golden ratio dates, primes, powers, December 25, and the day of the year. (ASK)

Zerger, Monte J.

1998-01-01

278

COUNTRY INSTITUTION SIGNING DATE  

E-print Network

COUNTRY INSTITUTION SIGNING DATE /RENEWAL WEB SITE IRAN Institute of Higher Education of Alaodoleh Semnani 03.10.2011 www.asihe.ac.ir/en IRAN The University of Isfahn 15.03.2011 www.ui.ac.ir IRAN Islamic-Aviv University 04.03.2010 www.tau.ac.il ISRAEL Technion Israel Institute of Technology 03.12.2013 www

Di Pillo, Gianni

279

Date:____________ Graduation Application  

E-print Network

: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Card Issuer: Visa MasterCard Credit/Debit Card Number (16-DigitsDate:____________ Graduation Application Credit/Debit Card Authorization Form Student Information when paying for the Graduation Application processing fee by credit or debit card � Do not use

Wiegner, Tracy N.

280

Name ___KEY_______________ Due Date: __________________  

E-print Network

Name ___KEY_______________ Due Date: __________________ GEOL 106 Writing #1 ­ Intro & Overview 1 with interstellar (between star) dust that came from a supernovae star explosion, briefly explain how we think our solar system formed. Following the Big Bang, some first generation stars became supernovae, spreading

Kirby, Carl S.

281

72 FR 72724 - 2008 Presidential Candidate Matching Fund Submission Dates and Post Date of Ineligibility Dates...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ineligibility Dates To Submit Statements of Net Outstanding Campaign Obligations; (Authority...dates and submission dates for statements of net outstanding campaign obligations for 2008...candidates must submit their statements of net outstanding campaign obligations...

2007-12-21

282

76 FR 77831 - 2012 Presidential Candidate Matching Fund Submission Dates and Post Date of Ineligibility Dates...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: The Federal Election Commission is publishing matching fund submission dates for publicly funded 2012 presidential...per month on the designated date. The Commission is also publishing the dates on which publicly funded 2012 presidential...

2011-12-14

283

Fold dating: A new Ar/Ar illite dating application to constrain the age of deformation in shallow crustal rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a deformation dating method that combines XRD quantification and Ar chronology of submicroscopic illite to determine the absolute ages of folds that contain clay-bearing layers. Two folds in the frontal segment of the Mexican Fold-Thrust Belt (MFTB), which was deformed from Late Cretaceous to Eocene, are used to illustrate the method and its future potential. Variations in mineral composition, illite-polytype, crystallite-size (CS) and Ar total gas ages were analyzed in the limbs and hinge of two mesoscopic folds. This analysis examines potential effects of strain variation on illitization and the Ar isotopic system along folded layers, versus possible regional thermal overprints. The Ar total-gas ages for 9 samples in Fold 1 vary between 48.4 and 43.9 Ma. The % of 2M1 (detrital) illite vs. Ar total-gas ages tightly constrains the age of folding at 43.5 0.3 Ma. Nine ages from three samples in Fold 2 range from 76.2 to 62.7 Ma, which results in a folding age of 63.9 2.2 Ma. Both ages are in excellent agreement with more broadly constrained stratigraphic timing. The method offers a novel approach to radiometric dating of clay-bearing folds formed at very low-grade metamorphic conditions, and has the potential to constrain dates and rates of regional and local deformation along and across foreland orogenic belts.

Fitz-Diaz, Elisa; van der Pluijm, Ben

2013-09-01

284

Fundamentals of gamma-ray measurements and radiometric analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are four primary modes of radioactive decay. All can be measured using various types of detectors and are the basis of many analytical techniques and much of what we know about the nucleus and its structure. Alpha particle emission occurs mostly in heavy nuclei of atomic number, Z, greater than 82 like Po, Ra, Th, and U, etc. Beta

Hochel

1990-01-01

285

Radiometrically accurate scene-based nonuniformity correction for array sensors  

E-print Network

correction (NUC) algorithm is described. The technique combines absolute calibration with a recently reported have led to compactness, cost- effective production, and high performance.1 One of the primary broadband spatial resolution and intensity signal- to-noise ratio is of paramount importance. A few

Hayat, Majeed M.

286

Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings  

SciTech Connect

This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1995-06-20

287

Spring Semester Workshops Save the Date!  

E-print Network

Spring Semester Workshops Save the Date! MSU Faculty Development is pleased to announce many details and to register Using Brain-Based Techniques to Promote Student Engagement in the Classroom Wed Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching are currently full. We may create

Dyer, Bill

288

Improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source for system-level testing of optical sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, development of a fiber-optically coupled, vacuum-compatible, flat plate radiometric source applicable to the characterization and calibration of remote sensing optical sensors in situ in a thermal vacuum chamber is described. The original flat plate radiometric source configuration's performance was presented at the 2009 Berlin SPIE. Following the original effort, design upgrades were incorporated in order to improve radiometric throughput and uniformity. Results of thermal and radiometric performance, with incorporated upgrades, of a flat plate illumination source in a temperature-controlled vacuum chamber operating at liquid nitrogen temperature are presented. Applications, including use with monochromatic tunable laser sources for the end-to-end system-level testing of large aperture sensors, are briefly discussed.

Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Brown, Steven W.; Woodward, John T.; Lin, Chungsan

2014-09-01

289

Improving Ocean Color Data Products using a Purely Empirical Approach: Reducing the Requirement for Radiometric Calibration Accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometric calibration is the foundation upon which ocean color remote sensing is built. Quality derived geophysical products, such as chlorophyll, are assumed to be critically dependent upon the quality of the radiometric calibration. Unfortunately, the goals of radiometric calibration are not typically met in global and large-scale regional analyses, and are especially deficient in coastal regions. The consequences of the uncertainty in calibration are very large in terms of global and regional ocean chlorophyll estimates. In fact, stability in global chlorophyll requires calibration uncertainty much greater than the goals, and outside of modern capabilities. Using a purely empirical approach, we show that stable and consistent global chlorophyll values can be achieved over very wide ranges of uncertainty. Furthermore, the approach yields statistically improved comparisons with in situ data, suggesting improved quality. The results suggest that accuracy requirements for radiometric calibration cab be reduced if alternative empirical approaches are used.

Gregg, Watson

2008-01-01

290

Application of Fourier transforms for microwave radiometric inversions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing microwave radiometer technology now provides a suitable method for remote determination of the ocean surface's absolute brightness temperature. To extract the brightness temperature of the water from the antenna temperature, an unstable Fredholm integral equation of the first kind is solved. Fourier transform techniques are used to invert the integral after it is placed into a cross correlation form. Application and verification of the methods to a two-dimensional modeling of a laboratory wave tank system are included. The instability of the ill-posed Fredholm equation is examined and a restoration procedure is included which smooths the resulting oscillations. With the recent availability and advances of fast Fourier transform (FFT) techniques, the method presented becomes very attractive in the evaluation of large quantities of data.

Holmes, J. J.; Balanis, C. A.; Truman, W. M.

1975-01-01

291

________IN/CM % ILE ________ _______LB/KG % ILE _______ ________IN/CM % ILE ________ IMMUNIZATIONS DATE DATE DATE DATE DATE  

E-print Network

. ___________ / ___________ Date of most recent well-child exam: Do not omit any information. This form may be updated by health of the form. Facility Phone: Health history and medical information pertinent to routine child care BLOOD PRESSURE Allergies to food or medicine (describe, if any): NONE Head/Ears/Eyes/Nose/Throat Teeth

292

Prime candidate earth targets for the post-launch radiometric calibration of space-based optical imaging instruments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper provides a comprehensive list of prime candidate terrestrial targets for consideration as benchmark sites for the post-launch radiometric calibration of space-based instruments. The key characteristics of suitable sites are outlined primarily with respect to selection criteria, spatial uniformity, and temporal stability. The establishment and utilization of such benchmark sites is considered an important element of the radiometric traceability of satellite image data products for use in the accurate monitoring of environmental change.

Teillet, P. M.; Barsi, J. A.; Chander, G.; Thome, K. J.

2007-01-01

293

Support technologies involved in the development and implementation of radiometric systems for sensor calibration, characterization, and HWIL testing at AEDC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterization, calibration, and mission simulation testing of space-based, interceptor, and air-borne sensors require a continual involvement in the development and evaluation of radiometric projection technologies. Activities at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) include Hardware in the Loop (HWIL) testing with high-fidelity complex scene-projection technologies as well as improvements in the radiometric source-calibration systems. These technologies are integrated into a

H. S. Lowry; M. F. Breeden; D. H. Crider; S. L. Steely; R. A. Nicholson; J. M. Labello

2009-01-01

294

Improved ground calibration results from Southwest Research Institute Ultraviolet Radiometric Calibration Facility (UV-RCF)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four compact planetary ultraviolet spectrographs have been built by Southwest Research Institute and successfully operated on different planetary missions. These spectrographs underwent a series of ground radiometric calibrations before delivery to their respective spacecraft. In three of the four cases, the in-flight measured sensitivity was approximately 50% lower than the ground measurement. Recent tests in the Southwest Research Institute Ultraviolet Radiometric Calibration Facility (UV-RCF) explain the discrepancy between ground and flight results. Revised ground calibration results are presented for the Rosetta-Alice, New Horizons-Alice, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lyman- Alpha Mapping Project, and Juno-Ultraviolet Spectrograph (UVS) and are then compared to the original ground and flight calibrations. The improved understanding of the calibration system reported here will result in improved ground calibration of the upcoming Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE)-UVS.

Davis, Michael W.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Retherford, Kurt D.; Slater, David C.; Stern, S. Alan; Versteeg, Maarten H.

2014-07-01

295

The effects of vegetation cover on the radar and radiometric sensitivity to soil moisture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The measured effects of vegetation canopies on radar and radiometric sensitivity to soil moisture are compared to emission and scattering models. The models are found to predict accurately the measured emission and backscattering for various crop canopies at frequencies between 1.4 and 5.0 GHz, especially at theta equal to or less than 30 deg. Vegetation loss factors, L(theta), increase with frequency and are found to be dependent upon canopy type and water content. In addition, the radiometric power absorption coefficient of a mature corn canopy is 1.75 times that calculated for the radar. Comparison of an L-band radiometer with a C-band radar shows the two systems to be complementary in terms of accurate soil moisture sensing over the extreme range of naturally occurring soil moisture conditions.

Ulaby, F. T.; Dobson, M. C.; Brunfeldt, D. R.; Razani, M.

1982-01-01

296

Radiometric calibration of frame transfer CCD camera with uniform source system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a radiometric calibration method based on visibility function and uniform source system. The uniform system is mainly comprised of an integrating sphere and a monitoring silicon detector. The current of the silicon detector with a visibility function filter corresponds to the luminance at the exit port of integrating sphere through standard luminance meter transfer. The radiance at the camera entrance pupil is calculated for different solar zenith angles and Earth surface albedos by the MODTRAN atmospheric code. To simplify the calibration process, the radiance at its entrance pupil is integrated by visibility function. The shift smear of the frame transfer CCD is removed by the radiometric calibration and the amending ratio factor is introduced in the retrieving methods. The imaging experiment verifies the reliability of the calibration method and retrieves good quality image.

Zhou, Jiankang; Shi, Rongbao; Chen, Yuheng; Zhou, Yuying; Shen, Weimin

2010-08-01

297

Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS): Inflight radiometric calibration and the determination of surface reflectance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inflight radiometric performance of AVIRIS is presented together with a comparison of methods of recovering surface spectral reflectance from the data. Performance is evaluated by comparing radiance predicted from AVIRIS with radiance generated from the LOWIRAN 6 atmospheric model and measured surface reflectance. Comparisons show apparent agreement to within a few percent between 1800 and 2450 nm. Between 600 and 1800 nm the response of AVIRIS is systematically low by as much as 70 percent, and between 400 and 600 nm it is higher than expected. These problems are traced to thermal distortions of the instrument, and to detachment during flight of optical fibers connecting foreoptics to two of four spectrometers in the instrument. Of three methods studied, an empirical one involving calibration curves constructed from field reflectance measurements returns accurate predictions of the surface reflectance independent of the actual radiometric significance of the flight data.

Conel, J. E.; Vane, G.; Green, R. O.; Alley, R. E.; Carere, V.; Gabell, A.; Bruegge, C. J.

1988-01-01

298

Utility of Radiometricaerodynamic Temperature Relations for Heat Flux Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many land-surface models using bulk transfer (one-source) approaches, the application of radiometric surface temperature\\u000a observations in energy flux computations has given mixed results. This is due in part to the non-unique relationship between\\u000a the so-called aerodynamic temperature, which relates to the efficiency of heat exchange between the land surface and overlying\\u000a atmosphere, and a surface temperature measurement from a

William P. Kustas; Martha C. Anderson; John M. Norman; Fuqin Li

2007-01-01

299

Estimating subpixel surface temperatures and energy fluxes from the vegetation indexradiometric temperature relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Routine (i.e., daily to weekly) monitoring of surface energy fluxes, particularly evapotranspiration (ET), using satellite observations of radiometric surface temperature has not been feasible at high pixel resolution (i.e., ?101102 m) because of the low frequency in satellite coverage over the region of interest (i.e., approximately every 2 weeks). Cloud cover further reduces the number of useable observations of surface

William P. Kustas; John M. Norman; Martha C. Anderson; Andrew N. French

2003-01-01

300

Utility of Radiometric-aerodynamic Temperature Relations for Heat Flux Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many land-surface models using bulk transfer (one-source) approaches, the application of radiometric surface temperature observations in energy flux computations has given mixed results. This is due in part to the non-unique relationship between the so-called aerodynamic temperature, which relates to the efficiency of heat exchange between the land surface and overlying atmosphere, and a surface temperature measurement from a

William P. Kustas; Martha C. Anderson; John M. Norman; Fuqin Li

2007-01-01

301

In-flight radiometric calibration of HYDICE using a reflectance-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reflectance-based method is used to determine an absolute radiometric calibration of the HYDICE sensor. Results are given for data collected at Ivanpah Playa, California on June 20, 1995. This paper describes the reflectance-based method as applied to the hyperspectral case of HYDICE. The method uses a modified version of a Gauss-Seidel radiative transfer code to predict the at- sensor

Kurtis J. Thome; Christine L. Gustafson-Bold; Philip N. Slater; William H. Farrand

1996-01-01

302

Three years of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder radiometric calibration validation using sea surface temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the absolute accuracy and stability of the radiometric calibration of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) by analyzing the difference between the brightness temperatures measured at 2616 cm?1 and those calculated at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), using the Real-Time Global Sea Surface Temperature (RTGSST) for cloud-free night tropical oceans between 30 latitude. The TOA correction is

H. H. Aumann; Steve Broberg; Denis Elliott; Steve Gaiser; Dave Gregorich

2006-01-01

303

A Near Field Focused Microstrip Array for a Radiometric Temperature Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-cost radiometric temperature sensor system is described, with emphasis on the use of a 12.5 GHz near-field focused microstrip array to provide a low-profile compact product suitable for commercial and industrial applications. An overview of the temperature sensor system is given, followed by design details of the focused microstrip array, including near-field patterns and antenna efficiency measurements. Temperature measurements

K. D. Stephan; J. B. Mead; D. M. Pozar; L. Wang; J. A. Pearce

2007-01-01

304

Revised Landsat5 TM radiometric calibration procedures and postcalibration dynamic ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective May 5, 2003, Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center (EDC) will be radiometrically calibrated using a new procedure and revised calibration parameters. This change will improve absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data.

Gyanesh Chander; Brian Markham

2003-01-01

305

A procedure for radiometric recalibration of Landsat 5 TM reflective-band data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From the Landsat program's inception in 1972 to the present, the Earth science user community has been benefiting from a historical record of remotely sensed data. The multispectral data from the Landsat 5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor provide the backbone for this extensive archive. Historically, the radiometric calibration procedure for the L5 TM imagery used the detectors' response to the internal calibrator (IC) on a scene-by-scene basis to determine the gain and offset for each detector. The IC system degraded with time, causing radiometric calibration errors up to 20%. In May 2003, the L5 TM data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science Center through the National Landsat Archive Production System (NLAPS) were updated to use a lifetime lookup-table (LUT) gain model to radiometrically calibrate TM data instead of using scene-specific IC gains. Further modification of the gain model was performed in 2007. The L5 TM data processed using IC prior to the calibration update do not benefit from the recent calibration revisions. A procedure has been developed to give users the ability to recalibrate their existing level-1 products. The best recalibration results are obtained if the work-order report that was included in the original standard data product delivery is available. However, if users do not have the original work-order report, the IC trends can be used for recalibration. The IC trends were generated using the radiometric gain trends recorded in the NLAPS database. This paper provides the details of the recalibration procedure for the following: 1) data processed using IC where users have the work-order file; 2) data processed using IC where users do not have the work-order file; 3) data processed using prelaunch calibration parameters; and 4) data processed using the previous version of the LUT (e.g., LUT03) that was released before April 2, 2007.

Chander, G.; Haque, M.O.; Micijevic, E.; Barsi, J.A.

2010-01-01

306

New method of aerial and surface radiometric prospecting for oil, gas  

SciTech Connect

A new petroleum exploration method has been developed using surface and aerial gamma-ray spectral measurements. Formerly troublesome lithologic and environmental variables are suppressed by correcting potassium and uranium readings using a process of thorium normalization. Normalized potassium shows characteristic low concentrations above petroleum deposits. Normalized uranium shows higher values than normalized potassium over petroleum and generally lower values elsewhere. These anomalies are attributed to effects of microbial consumption of microseeping light hydrocarbons. Preliminary tests in two basins in Australia showed positive correlation between radiometrically favorable areas and known oil and gas regions. Ground-based gamma-ray spectral measurements found the same types of potassium and uranium anomalies over all 12 fields evaluated. Since 1988, research of surface radiometric data coupled with soil gas hydrocarbon and soil magnetic susceptibility surveys has resulted in discovery of three oil and gas fields in Concho County, Tex. The paper describes thorium normalization, the aerial radiometric databases, surface gamma ray spectral measurements, aerial gamma ray data, data processing, results from various fields, and the relation of anomalies to petroleum.

Saunders, D.F.; Burson, K.R.; Branch, J.F.; Thompson, C.K. (Recon Exploration Inc., Dallas, TX (United States))

1993-09-20

307

Simultaneous observations of aerosols, clouds, and radiometric fluxes using light-weight autonomous UAVs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Maldives Air Campaign (MAC) demonstrated a novel application of stacked autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (AUAVs) for atmospheric science research; see abstract by Ramanathan et al. in this session. Simultaneous observations from three AUAVs of aerosols, clouds and radiometric fluxes provide insight into aerosol-cloud interactions and subsequent effects on cloud radiative properties. Ground-based measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) also quantify the cloud-nucleating ability of the boundary layer aerosols. During the experiment, long-range transport of aerosols from the Arabian Peninsula and India was observed and its impact of cloud physical and radiometric properties has been detected. To accomplish this campaign, aerosol, cloud, radiometric instruments, and an integrated data acquisition system have been miniaturized with a total payload weight and power less than 5 kg and 50 W, respectively. The AUAV payloads are mission-specific and outfitted to perform a defined set of measurements depending on the scientific goals. These measurements include aerosol concentration, aerosol size distribution, aerosol absorption, cloud drop concentration and size distribution, solar radiation fluxes (visible and broadband), atmospheric turbulence, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity. The data collected during the MAC campaign has been validated using standard calibration routines in conjunction with comparisons to ground- based instruments in both laboratory and in situ (in aircraft) settings. All instruments have been thoroughly tested and calibrated prior to deployment.

Roberts, G.; Ramanathan, V.; Corrigan, C.; Ramana, M.; Nguyen, H.

2006-12-01

308

Absolute radiometric calibration of the EUNIS-06 170-205 A channel and calibration update for CDS/NIS  

E-print Network

The Extreme-Ultraviolet Normal-Incidence Spectrograph sounding-rocket payload was flown on 2006 April 12 (EUNIS-06), carrying two independent imaging spectrographs covering wave bands of 300-370 A in first order and 170-205 A in second order, respectively. The absolute radiometric response of the EUNIS-06 long-wavelength (LW) channel was directly measured in the same facility used to calibrate CDS prior to the SOHO launch. Because the absolute calibration of the short-wavelength (SW) channel could not be obtained from the same lab configuration, we here present a technique to derive it using a combination of solar LW spectra and density- and temperature-insensitive line intensity ratios. The first step in this procedure is to use the coordinated, cospatial EUNIS and SOHO/CDS spectra to carry out an intensity calibration update for the CDS NIS-1 waveband, which shows that its efficiency has decreased by a factor about 1.7 compared to that of the previously implemented calibration. Then, theoretical insensitive...

Wang, Tongjiang; Thomas, Roger J; Rabin, Douglas M; Davila, Joseph M

2009-01-01

309

Scene correction (precision techniques) of ERTS sensor data using digital image processing techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques have been developed, implemented, and evaluated to process ERTS Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) sensor data using digital image processing techniques. The RBV radiometry has been corrected to remove shading effects, and the MSS geometry and radiometry have been corrected to remove internal and external radiometric and geometric errors. The results achieved show that geometric mapping accuracy of about one picture element RMS and two picture elements (maximum) can be achieved by the use of nine ground control points. Radiometric correction of MSS and RBV sensor data has been performed to eliminate striping and shading effects to about one count accuracy. Image processing times on general purpose computers of the IBM 370/145 to 168 class are in the range of 29 to 3.2 minutes per MSS scene (4 bands). Photographic images of the fully corrected and annotated scenes have been generated from the processed data and have demonstrated excellent quality and information extraction potential.

Bernstein, R.

1974-01-01

310

Opportunities to Intercalibrate Radiometric Sensors From International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highly accurate measurements of Earth's thermal infrared and reflected solar radiation are required for detecting and predicting long-term climate change. We consider the concept of using the International Space Station to test instruments and techniques that would eventually be used on a dedicated mission such as the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory. In particular, a quantitative investigation is performed to determine whether it is possible to use measurements obtained with a highly accurate reflected solar radiation spectrometer to calibrate similar, less accurate instruments in other low Earth orbits. Estimates of numbers of samples useful for intercalibration are made with the aid of year-long simulations of orbital motion. We conclude that the International Space Station orbit is ideally suited for the purpose of intercalibration.

Roithmayr, C. M.; Lukashin, C.; Speth, P. W.; Thome, K. J.; Young, D. F.; Wielicki, B. A.

2012-01-01

311

StarDate Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the longest-running science feature in the United States, StarDate has covered everything from the Big Dipper to super novas. The program serves as the public education and outreach arm of the University of Texas McDonald Observatory, and is broadcast in both Spanish and English. Visitors can listen to their latest radio program, and there is so much more to take in on this fine site. Amateur astronomers will want to look at their daily "Stargazing Tip" which is featured on the homepage, and then can look at the "Featured Image". After that, it's definitely worthwhile to look more closely into the "Stargazing" section. This section includes weekly tips, a stargazing almanac, a beginner's guide, and tips for viewing the planets and meteors. Finally, educators will want to look at the "Teachers" section, as it features lesson plans and classroom activities.

312

Policy No.: Approval Date  

E-print Network

a plant growth regulator, plant defoliator or plant desiccant, but does not include micro Control Background & Purposes: To promote the use of biological techniques for pest control not include a virus, bacteria, fungus or internal parasite that exists on or in humans or animals ­ BC

Laval, Bernard

313

Speed Dating Listing Company Name  

E-print Network

Speed Dating Listing 1 Company Name Absolute Flooring ACE HARDWARE OF SANTA FE Advanced, LLC Centennial Contractors Enterprises, Inc. Chickasaw Nation Industries, Inc. Construction Technology Inc. Eco-Infrastructure Solutions, LLC EEA Consulting Engineers, Inc. #12;Speed Dating Listing 2

314

The 60 GHz radiometric local vertical sensor experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experiment concept involves the use of millimeter wave radiation the atmospheric oxygen to provide vertical sensing information to a satellite-borne radiometer. The radiance profile studies require the calculation of ray brightness temperature as a function of tangential altitude and atmosphere model, and the computer program developed for this purpose is discussed. Detailed calculations have been made for a total of 12 atmosphere models, including some showing severe warning conditions. The experiment system analysis investigates the effect of various design choices on system behavior. Calculated temperature profiles are presented for a wide variety of frequencies, bandwidths, and atmosphere models. System performance is determined by the convolution of the brightness temperature and an assumed antenna pattern. A compensation scheme to account for different plateau temperatures is developed and demonstrated. The millimeter wave components developed for the local vertical sensor are discussed, with emphasis on the antenna, low noise mixer, and solid state local oscillator. It was concluded that a viable sensing technique exists, useful over a wide range of altitude with an accuracy generally on the order of 0.01 degree or better.

Grauling, C. H., Jr.

1973-01-01

315

Date _________________ Name (first middle last)_________________________  

E-print Network

_____Date of Birth___________ Height ________________Weight__________ Marital Status [] Married [] Unmarried Why, chemotherapy, pain medicine) _______ _______Halo vest _______ _______Spinal fixation device

Dhingra, Narender K.

316

Reconstructing level changes and assessing evidence for tectonic and glacial-rebound induced tilting of the Lake Wakatipu basin, New Zealand using novel techniques for correlating and dating paleoshorelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glacial-rebound signals have not previously been identified or isolated from tectonic processes in the New Zealand landscape. This contrasts with other parts of the world where glacial-unloading has caused tens to hundreds of meters of uplift and increased fault activity. The aim of this research was to quantify the magnitude and timing of post-glacial lake-level changes and deformation of the Lake Wakatipu basin, New Zealand. Abandoned shorelines up to 43 m above the modern water-level had previously been suggested to be tilted. Accurate measurement of the magnitude and timing of tilting would provide a unique attempt to extract a glacial-rebound signal from the tectonically-overprinted New Zealand landscape. Paleo-shoreline profiles were surveyed along the lake using GPS and existing air-borne LiDAR datasets. The shoreline profiles were correlated based on elevation and numerically cross-correlated to assess potential progressive offset. The results reveal negligible elevation differences, in conflict with previous suggestions of shoreline tilting. The timing of lake lowering was assessed with Schmidt hammer exposure-age and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of a flight of alluvial terraces directly correlated with the shorelines. The ages suggest formation of the lake by ~17.1 +/- 2.6 ka, which is assumed to be the approximate age for initial formation of the highest and most prominent preserved shoreline. Abandonment of this high-stand shoreline is thought to have commenced at ~12 ka when lake drainage switched to a new outlet, and was followed by gradual lowering (of about 20 m in 8-10 kyr). Lowering accelerated at about 2 ka, rapidly achieving 26-29 m of lowering before then reversing by 3-6 m to attain the present-day level. Glacial-rebound induced uplift or fault activity in the last 18 kyr has not been recorded by paleo-shorelines of Lake Wakatipu. We suggest that a glacial-isostatic signal is not present in the data because either glacial rebound occurred very quickly after ice retreat, or that any uplift was uniformly distributed over the length of the lake. These results invite investigation of other glaciated areas of New Zealand to explore whether this pattern is spatially and temporally consistent.

McColl, S. T.; Stahl, T. A.; Cook, S.

2013-12-01

317

Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning with a definition of dating and dating violence among adolescents, this article explores the factors which impact such violence. It concludes with a review of two school-based prevention/intervention programs (Safe Dates and The Youth Relationships Project). (Contains 1 table.)

Jouriles, Ernest N.; Platt, Cora; McDonald, Renee

2009-01-01

318

Surface Dating of Dynamic Landforms: Young Boulders on Aging Moraines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dating of landforms is crucial to understanding the evolution, history, and stability of landscapes. Cosmogenic isotope analysis has recently been used to determine quantitative exposure ages for previously undatable landform surfaces. A pioneering application of this technique to date moraines illustrated its considerable potential but suggested a chronology partially inconsistent with existing geological data. Consideration of the dynamic nature

Bernard Hallet; Jaakko Putkonen

1994-01-01

319

Z .Geomorphology 29 1999 173185 Quality assurance in luminescence dating  

E-print Network

Z .Geomorphology 29 1999 173­185 Quality assurance in luminescence dating Michele L. Clarke a Recent advances in luminescence dating have led to increasing application of the technique to sediments and deposition under turbid conditions. The complete zeroing of the luminescence signal, by exposure to light

Clarke, Michèle

320

Advances in carbon dating using high energy mass spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of carbon dating being over thirty years old and the fact that in that period many thousands of dates have been produced, the conventional counting technique still suffers from certain drawbacks. Comparatively large samples are required, the time for an analysis is long, and the signal-to-background ratios obtainable are low. Recent work in a number of laboratories has

E. T. Hall

1980-01-01

321

Sexual Coercion on Dates: It's Not Just Rape.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that sexual coercion while dating falls under the umbrella of school-related violence. Discusses acquaintance and date rape, a sexual coercion continuum, and coercion victims. Concludes with a discussion of six techniques to reduce risk of sexual coercion. (CFR)

Waldner-Haugrud, Lisa

1995-01-01

322

Date Attachable Offline Electronic Cash Scheme  

PubMed Central

Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling. PMID:24982931

Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

2014-01-01

323

Microwave thermotherapy of prostatic enlargement--analysis of radiometric thermometry using a hybrid bio-heat equation.  

PubMed

The radiometric temperature measurement included in a commercial device for transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) of the prostate was investigated utilizing both phantom experiments and computer simulations. Two finite element (FE) models were developed. One is in part based on the experimental results, and serves as a complement to the experiments, while the other describes a perfused tissue situation for which the hybrid bio-heat equation was used to model the thermal effects of blood perfusion. The aim of the study was to investigate how the radiometric thermometer is affected by the temperature close to the antenna, and to analyze the relation between blood perfusion, temperature distribution and radiometric temperature measurement. It was found that the radiometric temperature was affected to a greater extent by the temperature very close to the antenna, in contrast to what has been expected in previous studies. The blood perfusion was found to mainly affect the temperature distribution outside the maximum temperature (located 2-3 mm outside the cooled catheter). Thus, the relation between the radiometric temperature and the temperature in the treated area is relatively weak. PMID:15512761

Wren, Joakim

2004-06-01

324

(U-Th)/He Dating of Single Zircon and Apatite Crystals -- A New Tool for Dating Terrestrial Impact Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low temperature (U-Th)/He technique has been utilized to date individual crystals from the Manicouagan, Lake Saint Martin, and Bosumtwi impact structures. New (U-Th)/He zircon ages are in agreement with ages obtained via other dating methods.

van Soest, M. C.; Wartho, J.-A.; Monteleone, B. D.; Hodges, K. V.; Koeberl, C.; Schmieder, M.; Buchner, E.; Spray, J. G.; Bezys, R. K.; Reimold, W. U.

2009-03-01

325

Evaluation of the AIRS and CrIS relative radiometric calibration under cloudy conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The validation of the radiometric calibration of virtually all infrared radiometers has previously been carried out under carefully selected, generally spatially uniform conditions, with the assumption that the radiometric accuracy of the data may be dependent on scene brightness temperature, but is independent of other scene unique conditions, such as scene spatial uniformity. The availability of AIRS and CrIS observations from polar orbits with the identical ascending node presents an opportunity to evaluate the validity of this assumption. For each day between May 2012 and January 2014 we collected 22,000 Random Nadir Spectra (RNS). We then analyzed the time series of the daily differences between AIRS and CrIS Probability Density Function in the 900 cm-1 atmospheric window channel. Under polar conditions the PDF differences between AIRS and CrIS are typically less than 50 mK for the 10%tile, the mean and the 90%tiles values of the PDF. Under area representative global conditions day and night CrIS is about 0.2K colder than AIRS at the 10%tile and mean values. These differences are well within the limits of the instrument requirements specification. However, the difference between AIRS and CrIS have a complicated zonal distribution, particular for the tropical zone. For day tropical land CrIS is 0.3 K warmer in the mean, 1K warmer in the 10%tile value (cold tails of the PDF) than AIRS. The reasons for these differences are still under investigation. A number of modifications to the CrIS radiometric calibration algorithms have been proposed.

Aumann, Hartmut H.; Manning, Evan M.

2014-09-01

326

Segmentation of Heritage Building by Means of Geometric and Radiometric Components from Terrestrial Laser Scanning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the terrestrial laser scanning represents an integral source of data for cultural heritage 3D storage and access through digital communication tools. The achievement of 3D models requires the implementation of several tasks such as segmentation. Segmentation is the key step during the point cloud processing where all homogeneous areas are identified, which describe a building facade. Usually, a large part of the segmentation approach focuses on the geometric information contained in the point cloud data by exploiting mathematical representation of a parametric surface. However, due to the complexity of the architecture, such segmentation does not suffice. Henceforth, other approaches turn to the use of color and laser intensity components. Although a variety of algorithms have been developed in this sense, problems of over-segmentation or under-segmentation are observed. In this context, we propose a new approach for point cloud segmentation aiming at a more accurate result. This approach relies on all the components of a colored point - both geometric and radiometric - combining the RGB values, laser intensity and geometric data. Our process begins with the extraction of homogeneous planar segments using the RANSAC algorithm. Next, the result is subjected to a radiometric-based segmentation, first through color similarity as one of the homogeneity criteria of a region growing algorithm, then through the use of intensity similarity for segment fusion. Experiments are performed on a facade presenting an example of Moroccan classical architecture located in Casablanca's Medina. Results show the importance of integrating all point cloud components, both geometric and radiometric.

Aitelkadi, K.; Tahiri, D.; Simonetto, E.; Sebari, I.; Polidori, L.

2013-07-01

327

A novel solution for car traffic control based on radiometric microwave devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The significant problem of traffic in big cities, connected with huge and building up quantity of automobile cars, demands for novel strategies, based on nonconventional solutions, in order to improve system traffic control, especially at crossroads. As well known, the usual solution is based on the time relay, which requires the installation of a fixed traffic interval (signal light switching) at a crossroad; this solution is low cost, but does not account for the actual traffic conditions. Therefore, in the recent years, attention is towards to new designs, where the monitoring of the and control of traffic is carried out by using various methods including, optical, the infrared, magnetic, radar tracking, acoustical ones. In this work, we discuss the deployment of high sensitivity radiometric systems and radiometers(sensor) in the microwave range [1, 2]. In fact, the radiometer as "sensor" can provide an always updated information about the car traffic in any weather condition and in absence or low visibility conditions. In fact, the radiometric sensor detects the cars thanks to the different behavior of the car roofs which reflect the cold sky whereas the road asphalt is visible as warm object (at around outside temperature). [1] A. G. Denisov, V. P. Gorishnyak, S. E. Kuzmin et al., "Some experiments concerning resolution of 32 sensors passive 8mm wave imaging system," in Proceedings of the International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (ISSTT '09), Charlottesville, Va, USA, April 2009. [2] F. Soldovieri, A. Natale, V. Gorishnyak, A. Pavluchenko, A. Denisov, and L. Chen, "Radiometric Imaging for Monitoring and Surveillance Issues," International Journal of Antennas and Propagation, vol. 2013, Article ID 272561, 8 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/272561.

Soldovieri, Francesco; Denisov, Alexander; Speziale, Victor

2014-05-01

328

An update on the status and performance of the Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Radiometric All-Sky Infrared Camera (RASICAM) has been operating on Cerro Tololo for over two years looking for clouds in the 10 to 12 micron IR band. Every 90 seconds each night RASICAM collects an integrated image of sky conditions and reports them to the Blanco telescope control system (TCS) to be shared with other instruments. We report on the RASICAM design, calibration and performance of the system. Additionally, correlation with conditions as observed in the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) will be presented.

Reil, Kevin; Lewis, Peter; Schindler, Rafe; Zhang, Zhang

2014-08-01

329

PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF LANDSAT-4 THEMATIC MAPPER DATA FOR THEIR GEOMETRIC AND RADIOMETRIC ACCURACIES.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report describes results of some preliminary analyses of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper data for the NASA Landsat Image Quality Analysis program. The work is being done under interagency agreement S-12407-C between the U. S. Geological Survey and NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center. Landsat-4 TM scenes for Washington, D. C. Macon, Georgia (40050-15333, September 4, 1982) and Cape Canaveral, Florida have been examined to determine their geometric and radiometric accuracy. In addition, parts of these scenes are also being analyzed to determine the ability to identify specific rock types with the added near-infrared TM bands.

Podwysoki, M.H.; Falcone, N.; Bender, L.U.; Jones, O.D.

1985-01-01

330

Radiometric calibration of SPOT 2 HRV - A comparison of three methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three methods for determining an absolute radiometric calibration of a spacecraft optical sensor are compared. They are the well-known reflectance-based and radiance-based methods and a new method based on measurements of the ratio of diffuse-to-global irradiance at the ground. The latter will be described in detail and the comparison of the three approaches will be made with reference to the SPOT-2 HRV cameras for a field campaign 1990-06-19 through 1990-06-24 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico.

Biggar, Stuart F.; Dinguirard, Magdeleine C.; Gellman, David I.; Henry, Patrice; Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. S.; Slater, Philip N.

1991-01-01

331

Study on spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress under the LANDSAT-4 and 5 Image Data Quality Assessment program for the Thematic Mapper is described. An initial screening of LANDSAT-5 data is performed. Tools are developed to allow access to TIPS-format data. Analysis of scan direction related signal droop is resumed with detailed analysis of nighttime data. A new mathematical model is developed to describe the effect. Coherent noise of a lower frequency than previously reported is discovered and analyzed. Coincident LANDSAT-4 TM and MSS data are analyzed to improve understanding of radiometric relationships between similar wavebands in the two sensors.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D.

1984-01-01

332

Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress during the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan-ERIM's and 5 image data quality assessment program for the thematic mapper is described. Analyses of LANDSAT 5 TM radiometric characteristics were performed. Effects which had earlier been found in LANDSAT 4 TM data were found to be present in LANDSAT 5 data as well, including: (1) scan direction related signal droop; (2) scan correlated level shifts; and (3) low frequency coherent noise. Coincident LANDSAT 4 and 5 raw TM data were analyzed, and band by band relationships between the two sensors were derived. Earlier efforts which developed an information theoretic measure of multispectral information content were continued, comparing TM and MSS information content.

Malila, W. A. (principal investigator); Metzler, M. D.

1984-01-01

333

Color image processing for date quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many agricultural non-contact visual inspection applications use color image processing techniques because color is often a good indicator of product quality. Color evaluation is an essential step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. Most color spaces such as RGB and HSV represent colors with three-dimensional data, which makes using color image processing a challenging task. Since most agricultural applications only require analysis on a predefined set or range of colors, mapping these relevant colors to a small number of indexes allows simple and efficient color image processing for quality evaluation. This paper presents a simple but efficient color mapping and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time quality evaluation of Medjool dates. In contrast with more complex color image processing techniques, the proposed color mapping method makes it easy for a human operator to specify and adjust color-preference settings for different color groups representing distinct quality levels. Using this color mapping technique, the color image is first converted to a color map that has one color index represents a color value for each pixel. Fruit maturity level is evaluated based on these color indices. A skin lamination threshold is then determined based on the fruit surface characteristics. This adaptive threshold is used to detect delaminated fruit skin and hence determine the fruit quality. The performance of this robust color grading technique has been used for real-time Medjool date grading.

Lee, Dah Jye; Archibald, James K.

2010-01-01

334

Support technologies involved in the development and implementation of radiometric systems for sensor calibration, characterization, and HWIL testing at AEDC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization, calibration, and mission simulation testing of space-based, interceptor, and air-borne sensors require a continual involvement in the development and evaluation of radiometric projection technologies. Activities at Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) include Hardware in the Loop (HWIL) testing with high-fidelity complex scene-projection technologies as well as improvements in the radiometric source-calibration systems. These technologies are integrated into a low cryo-vacuum (~20 K) environment. The latest scene simulation and HWIL projection technologies are being investigated that can produce desired target temperatures and target-to-sensor ranges such that sensor mission performance can be evaluated. These technologies include multiple-band source subsystems and special spectral-tailoring methods, as well as comprehensive analysis and optical properties measurements of the components involved. Emphasis areas include the development of methodologies to test wide field of view (WFOV), polarimetric, and multi/hyperspectral radiometric imaging systems.

Lowry, H. S.; Breeden, M. F.; Crider, D. H.; Steely, S. L.; Nicholson, R. A.; Labello, J. M.

2009-05-01

335

Validation of radiometric standards for the laboratory calibration of reflected-solar Earth-observing satellite instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, the traceability of the laboratory calibration of Earth-observing satellite instruments to a primary radiometric reference scale (SI units) is the responsibility of each instrument builder. For the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS), a program has been developed using laboratory transfer radiometers, each with its own traceability to the primary radiance scale of a national metrology laboratory, to independently validate the radiances assigned to the laboratory sources of the instrument builders. The EOS Project Science Office also developed a validation program for the measurement of onboard diffuse reflecting plaques, which are also used as radiometric standards for Earth-observing satellite instruments. Summarized results of these validation campaigns, with an emphasis on the current state-of-the-art uncertainties in laboratory radiometric standards, will be presented. Future mission uncertainty requirements, and possible enhancements to the EOS validation program to ensure that those uncertainties can be met, will be presented.

Butler, James J.; Johnson, B. Carol; Rice, Joseph P.; Brown, Steven W.; Barnes, Robert A.

2007-09-01

336

Ice Core Dating Software for Interactive Dating of Ice Cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists involved in ice core dating are well familiar with the problem of identification and recording the depth of annual signals using stable isotopes, glaciochemistry, ECM (electrical conductivity), DEP (dielectric properties) and particle counter data. Traditionally all parameters used for ice core dating were plotted as a function of depth, printed and after years were marked on the paper, converted

A. V. Kurbatov; P. A. Mayewski; B. S. Abdul Jawad

2005-01-01

337

Type Policy Title Here Effective Date: [Insert Date  

E-print Network

Type Policy Title Here Effective Date: [Insert Date] Policy Statement [Type Statement Text Here] Reason(s) for the Policy [Type Reason Text Here] Primary Guidance to Which This Policy Responds [Type Primary Policy Here ­ If there is NOT a Primary Policy indicate that] Responsible University Office

Salzman, Daniel

338

Benefits Dept Entry Date: Entered By: QC By: QC Date  

E-print Network

Benefits Dept Use Only: Entry Date: Entered By: QC By: QC Date: 3514 ACCIDENTAL DEATH Work Phone This optional insurance allows employees to insure themselves and eligible family members it to this form.) Certification I wish to enroll in Accidental Death and Dismemberment Insurance through

Provancher, William

339

Human Resources 2014 -2015 Due Dates & Meeting/Approval Dates  

E-print Network

of Governors (BOG) Tue, Jun 17, 2014 Tue, Jun 24, 2014 Fri, Jul 11, 2014 Tue, Jul 8, 2014 Tue, Jul 15, 2014 Thu, 2014 Thu, Jan 15, 2015 Tue, Feb 3, 2015 Tue, Feb 10, 2015 Thu, Feb 26, 2015 Tue, Mar 17, 2015 Tue, MarHuman Resources 2014 - 2015 Due Dates & Meeting/Approval Dates Updated June 5, 2014 Reviewer Campus

Young, R. Michael

340

Human Resources 2013 -2014 Due Dates & Meeting/Approval Dates  

E-print Network

Fri, May 9, 2014 Tue, May 13, 2014 Tue, May 20, 2014 Fri, June 6, 2014 Tue, June 10, 2014 Tue, Jun 17Human Resources 2013 - 2014 Due Dates & Meeting/Approval Dates Reviewer Campus Due to HR** HR Due *then to next BOG Fri, Oct 4, 2013 Fri, Oct 11, 2013 Fri, Nov 22, 2013 Wed, Jan 8, 2014 Fri, Jan 10

Ning, Peng

341

Date Created: March 2008 Date Amended: March 2009  

E-print Network

Date Created: March 2008 Date Amended: March 2009 DYSLEXIA POLICY.doc- 1 - DYSLEXIA POLICY 1 (both written and spoken) reading, memory and organisation associated with the terms dyslexia, dyspraxia this document the term `dyslexia' will be used in a comprehensive way to refer to all of the above. The College

Subramanian, Sriram

342

Date created: July 2008 Date amended: April 2012  

E-print Network

Date created: July 2008 Date amended: April 2012 - 1 ­ Public Interest Disclosure Policy 0412.doc PUBLIC INTEREST DISCLOSURE POLICY 1. Introduction The College is committed to the highest standards malpractice. The policy is intended to cover concerns which are in the public interest

Subramanian, Sriram

343

Microwave radiometric determination of wind speed at the surface of the ocean during BESEX. [Bering Sea Expedition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microwave radiometric measurements were made at wavelengths ranging from 0.8 to 2.8 cm at altitudes from 0.16 to 11 km under well documented meteorological conditions over the Bering Sea. It is shown that determinations of wind speed at the ocean surface and liquid water content of the clouds may be made from such data. Determinations were made from two simultaneous but independent sets of radiometric measurements. The wind speeds and liquid water contents made from these two sets showed remarkable agreement. Independent estimates of these parameters made from in situ measurements showed reasonable agreement as well.

Wilheit, T. T., Jr.; Fowler, M. G.

1977-01-01

344

Study of spectral/radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper for land use applications: Objectives, accomplishments, conclusions, and recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this investigation are to quantify the performance of the Thematic Mapper, as manifested by the quality of its image data, in order to suggest improvements in data production and to assess the effects of the data quality on its utility for land resources applications. Analyses of radiometric, spatial, spectral, and geometric effects, with primary emphasis on radiometric effects are included. This effort is part of the LANDSAT 4/5 Image Data Quality Analysis (LIDQA) program sponsored by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Malila, W. A.; Metzler, M. D.

1985-01-01

345

Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE) Multiple EUV Grating Spectrographs (MEGS): Radiometric Calibrations and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), scheduled for launch in early 2010, incorporates a suite of instruments including the Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment (EVE). EVE has multiple instruments including the Multiple Extreme ultraviolet Grating Spectrographs (MEGS) A, B, and P instruments, the Solar Aspect Monitor (SAM), and the Extreme ultraviolet SpectroPhotometer (ESP). The radiometric calibration of EVE, necessary to convert the instrument counts to physical units, was performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF III) located in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This paper presents the results and derived accuracy of this radiometric calibration for the MEGS A, B, P, and SAM instruments, while the calibration of the ESP instrument is addressed by Didkovsky et al. ( Solar Phys., 2010, doi:10.1007/s11207-009-9485-8). In addition, solar measurements that were taken on 14 April 2008, during the NASA 36.240 sounding-rocket flight, are shown for the prototype EVE instruments.

Hock, R. A.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Woods, T. N.; Crotser, D.; Eparvier, F. G.; Woodraska, D. L.; Woods, E. C.

2012-01-01

346

The First SIMBIOS Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1), April-September 2001  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the first SIMBIOS (Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies) Radiometric Intercomparison (SIMRIC-1). The purpose of the SIMRIC-1 is to ensure a common radiometric scale of the calibration facilities that are engaged in calibrating in situ radiometers used for ocean color related research and to document the calibration procedures and protocols. SIMBIOS staff visited the seven participating laboratories for at least two days each. The SeaWiFS Transfer Radiometer SXR-II measured the calibration radiances produced in the laboratories. The measured radiances were compared with the radiances expected by the laboratories. Typically, the measured radiances were higher than the expected radiances by 0 to 2%. This level of agreement is satisfactory. Several issues were identified, where the calibration protocols need to be improved, especially the reflectance calibration of the reference plaques and the distance correction when using the irradiance standards at distances greater than the 50 cm. The responsivity of the SXR-II changed between 0.3% (channel 6) and 1.6% (channel 2) from December 2000 to December 2001. Monitoring the SXR-II with a portable light source showed a linear drift of the calibration, except for channel 1, where a 2% drop occurred in summer.

Meister, Gerhard; Abel, Peter; McClain, Charles; Barnes, Robert; Fargion, Giulietta; Cooper, John; Davis, Curtiss; Korwan, Daniel; Godin, Mike; Maffione, Robert

2002-01-01

347

[In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of UAV hyperspectral camera and its validation analysis].  

PubMed

With the data in Urad Front Banner, Inner Mongolia on November 14th, 2010, hyper-spectral camera on UAV was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. During the in-flight absolute radiometric calibration, 6 hyper-spectral radiometric gray-scale targets were arranged in the validation field. These targets' reflectances are 4.5%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 60% separately. To validate the calibration result, four extra hyper-spectral targets with sharp-edge spectrum were arranged to simulate the reflection and absorption peaks in natural objectives. With these peaks, the apparent radiance calculated by radiation transfer model and that calculated through calibration coefficients are much different. The result shows that in the first 15 bands (blue bands), errors are somewhat huge due to the noises of equipment. In the rest bands with quite even spectrum, the errors are small, most of which are less than 10%. For those bands with sharp changes in spectral curves, the errors are quite considerable, varying from 10% to 25%. PMID:22512184

Gou, Zhi-yang; Yan, Lei; Chen, Wei; Jing, Xin; Yin, Zhong-yi; Duan, Yi-ni

2012-02-01

348

Radiometric calibration of ocean color satellite sensors using AERONET-OC data.  

PubMed

Radiometric vicarious calibration of ocean color (OC) satellite sensors is carried out through the full sunlight path radiative transfer (RT) simulations of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system based on the aerosol and water-leaving radiance data from AERONET-OC sites for the visible and near-infrared (NIR) bands. Quantitative evaluation of the potential of such approach for achieving the radiometric accuracies of OC satellite sensors is made by means of direct comparisons between simulated and satellite measured top of atmosphere (TOA) radiances. Very high correlations (R ? 0.96 for all visible channels) are achieved for the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor when this approach is applied with the data from the LISCO and WaveCIS AERONET-OC sites. Vicarious calibration gain factors derived with this approach are highly consistent, with comparisons between the two sites exhibiting around 0.5% discrepancy in the blue and green parts of the spectrum, while their average temporal variability is also within 0.28% - 1.23% permitting the approach to be used, at this stage, for verification of sensor calibration performance. PMID:25321808

Hlaing, Soe; Gilerson, Alexander; Foster, Robert; Wang, Menghua; Arnone, Robert; Ahmed, Sam

2014-09-22

349

Radiometric probe design for the measurement of heat flux within a solid rocket motor nozzle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvements to solid rocket motor (SRM) nozzle designs and material performance is based on the ability to instrument motors during test firings to understand the internal combustion processes and the response of nozzle components to the severe heating environment. Measuring the desired parameters is very difficult because the environment inside of an SRM is extremely severe. Instrumentation can be quickly destroyed if exposed to the internal rocket motor environment. An optical method is under development to quantify the heating of the internal nozzle surface. A radiometric probe designed for measuring the thermal response and material surface recession within a nozzle while simultaneously confining the combustion products has been devised and demonstrated. As part of the probe design, optical fibers lead to calibrated detectors that measure the interior nozzle thermal response. This two color radiometric measurement can be used for a direct determination of the total heat flux impinging on interior nozzle surfaces. This measurement has been demonstrated using a high power CO2 laser to simulate SRM nozzle heating conditions on carbon phenolic and graphite phenolic materials.

Goldey, Charles L.; Laughlin, William T.; Popper, Leslie A.

1996-11-01

350

Thermal Infrared Radiometric Calibration of the Entire Landsat 4, 5, and 7 Archive (1982-2010)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Landsat's continuing record of the thermal state of the earth's surface represents the only long term (1982 to the present) global record with spatial scales appropriate for human scale studies (i.e., tens of meters). Temperature drives many of the physical and biological processes that impact the global and local environment. As our knowledge of, and interest in, the role of temperature on these processes have grown, the value of Landsat data to monitor trends and process has also grown. The value of the Landsat thermal data archive will continue to grow as we develop more effective ways to study the long term processes and trends affecting the planet. However, in order to take proper advantage of the thermal data, we need to be able to convert the data to surface temperatures. A critical step in this process is to have the entire archive completely and consistently calibrated into absolute radiance so that it can be atmospherically compensated to surface leaving radiance and then to surface radiometric temperature. This paper addresses the methods and procedures that have been used to perform the radiometric calibration of the earliest sizable thermal data set in the archive (Landsat 4 data). The completion of this effort along with the updated calibration of the earlier (1985 1999) Landsat 5 data, also reported here, concludes a comprehensive calibration of the Landsat thermal archive of data from 1982 to the present

Schott, John R.; Hook, Simon J.; Barsi, Julia A.; Markham, Brian L.; Miller, Jonathan; Padula, Francis P.; Raqueno, Nina G.

2012-01-01

351

Relation of thorium-normalized surface and aerial radiometric data to subsurface petroleum accumulations  

SciTech Connect

A new exploration method has been developed using surface and aerial gamma-ray spectral measurements in prospecting for petroleum in stratigraphic and structural traps. Formerly troublesome lithologic and environmental variables are suppressed by correcting potassium and uranium readings using a new process of thorium normalization. Normalized potassium shows characteristic low concentrations above petroleum deposits. Normalized uranium shows higher values than normalized potassium over petroleum and generally lower values elsewhere. The authors attribute these anomalies to effects of microbial consumption of microseeping light hydrocarbons. Studies of National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program aerial, gamma-ray, spectral data covering portions of six states have shown characteristic normalized potassium and uranium anomalies above 72.7 percent of 706 oil and gas fields. Additionally, an average of 27 similar untested anomalies were found for each 1,000 square mi (2,600 square km) covered. Similar aerial gamma-ray spectral data are available over large portions of potential petroleum areas of the US including Alaska and Australia. Preliminary tests in two basins in Australia showed positive correlation between radiometrically favorable areas and known oil and gas regions. Ground-based, gamma-ray, spectral measurements found the same types of potassium and uranium anomalies over all twelve fields evaluated. Since 1988, the research of surface radiometric data coupled with soil gas hydrocarbon and soil magnetic susceptibility surveys has resulted in discovery of four oil and gas fields in Concho County, Texas.

Saunders, D.F.; Burson, K.R.; Branch, J.F.; Thompson, C.K. (Recon Exploration Inc., Dallas, TX (United States))

1993-10-01

352

Initial On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration of the Suomi NPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The on-orbit radiometric response calibration of the VISible/Near InfraRed (VISNIR) and the Short-Wave InfraRed (SWIR) bands of the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite is carried out through a Solar Diffuser (SD). The transmittance of the SD screen and the SD's Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) are measured before launch and tabulated, allowing the VIIRS sensor aperture spectral radiance to be accurately determined. The radiometric response of a detector is described by a quadratic polynomial of the detector?s digital number (dn). The coefficients were determined before launch. Once on orbit, the coefficients are assumed to change by a common factor: the F-factor. The radiance scattered from the SD allows the determination of the F-factor. In this Proceeding, we describe the methodology and the associated algorithms in the determination of the F-factors and discuss the results.

Lei, Ning; Wang, Zhipeng; Fulbright, Jon; Lee, Shihyan; McIntire, Jeff; Chiang, Vincent; Xiong, Jack

2012-01-01

353

NIST activities in support of space-based radiometric remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide an historical overview of NIST research and development in radiometry for space-based remote sensing. The applications in this field can be generally divided into two areas: environmental and defense. In the environmental remote sensing area, NIST has had programs with agencies such as the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to verify and improve traceability of the radiometric calibration of sensors that fly on board Earth-observing satellites. These produce data used in climate models and weather prediction. Over the years, the scope of activities has expanded from existing routine calibration services for artifacts such as lamps, diffusers, and filters, to development and off-site deployment of portable radiometers for radiance- and irradiance-scale intercomparisons. In the defense remote sensing area, NIST has had programs with agencies such as the Department of Defense (DOD) for support of calibration of small, low-level infrared sources in a low infrared background. These are used by the aerospace industry to simulate ballistic missiles in a cold space background. Activities have evolved from calibration of point-source cryogenic blackbodies at NIST to measurement of irradiance in off-site calibration chambers by a portable vacuum/cryogenic radiometer. Both areas of application required measurements on the cutting edge of what was technically feasible, thus compelling NIST to develop a state-of-the-art radiometric measurement infrastructure to meet the needs. This infrastructure has led to improved dissemination of the NIST spectroradiometric quantities.

Rice, Joseph P.; Johnson, B. Carol

2001-06-01

354

A multi-frequency radiometric measurement of soil moisture content over bare and vegetated fields  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A USDA Beltsville Agricultural Research Center site was used for an experiment in which soil moisture remote sensing over bare, grass, and alfalfa fields was conducted over a three-month period using 0.6 GHz, 1.4 GHz, and 10.6 GHz Dicke-type microwave radiometers mounted on mobile towers. Ground truth soil moisture content and ambient air and sil temperatures were obtained concurrently with the radiometric measurements. Biomass of the vegetation cover was sampled about once a week. Soil density for each of the three fields was measured several times during the course of the experiment. Results of the radiometric masurements confirm the frequency dependence of moisture sensing sensitivity reduction reported earlier. Observations over the bare, wet field show that the measured brightness temperature is lowest at 5.0 GHz and highest of 0.6 GHz frequency, a result contrary to expectation based on the estimated dielectric permittivity of soil water mixtures and current radiative transfer model in that frequency range.

Wang, J. R.; Schmugge, T. J.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III; Gould, W. I.; Glazar, W. S.; Fuchs, J. E. (principal investigators)

1981-01-01

355

X-ray radiometric determination of lanthanides (praseodymium, neodymium, and samarium) in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure of the modified energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence method (X-ray radiometric analysis using a 241Am radionuclide source) was developed for the identification of praseodymium, neodymium, and samarium. The procedure is based on the exclusion of the disturbing effect of barium and lanthanum on the lines of praseodymium and neodymium, as well as the effect of lanthanum and cerium on the lines of samarium. On the basis of the new method, data were obtained on the geochemistry of three lanthanides in soils of the northern taiga. Praseodymium and neodymium were detected by the X-ray radiometric method even in podzols depleted of heavy metals. The method can detect samarium at the levels of the soil clarke and higher. Positive samarium (or, wider, rare-earth) anomalies can be expected in the soils located not far from the deposits of apatite-nephelines, loparites, and phosphorites and in the soils developed on alkaline granites and carbonate weathering crusts.

Savichev, A. T.; Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.

2011-04-01

356

Recovery, compilation, back-calibration, and standardization of existing radiometric survey data: Namibia, southern Africa  

SciTech Connect

During 1992 and 1993 select portions of existing government airborne radiometric data covering almost 91,000 km{sup 2} of central Namibia were compiled into a master digital data set. This compilation involved the interactive, semi-automated digital recovery of approximately 42,000 line kilometers of original analogue chart traces. A further 49,000 line kilometers of digital data were also reprocessed. Available data represented ten (10) different surveys collected over twelve (12) years with a variety of spectrometers, spectral windows and survey parameters. Preliminary digital grids of each radioelement were compiled, verified and used to select representative sites for ground measurements within each survey block. Results obtained from the ground program were used to back-calibrate the airborne data, standardize the various surveys and convert airborne measurements into equivalent ground concentrations of uranium, thorium and potassium. The quality and consistency of final map products conclusively demonstrates that existing analogue radiometric data, in various states of preservation, can be successfully recovered, combined with ``modern`` digital data, and utilized to assist exploration, mapping and environmental studies.

Duffy, A.; Urquhart, W.E.S. [High-Sense Geophysics Ltd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Eberle, D.G. [Federal Inst. for Geosciences and Natural Resources, Windhoek (Namibia); Grasty, R.L. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Hutchins, D.G. [Geological Survey of Namibia, Windhoek (Namibia)

1994-12-31

357

Non-destructive high-resolution thermal imaging techniques to evaluate wildlife and delicate biological samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal imaging cameras now allows routine monitoring of dangerous yet endangered wildlife in captivity. This study looks at the potential applications of radiometrically calibrated thermal data to wildlife, as well as providing parameters for future materials applications. We present a non-destructive active testing technique suitable for enhancing imagery contrast of thin or delicate biological specimens yielding improved thermal contrast at

C. Lavers; P. Franklin; A. Plowman; G. Sayers; J. Bol; D. Shepard; D. Fields

2009-01-01

358

Dating human cultural capacity using phylogenetic principles  

E-print Network

principles to date this capacity, integrating evidence from archaeology, genetics, paleoanthropology, paleoanthropology, archaeology, and linguistics to date this capacity. Cultural capacity is customarily dated

Lindenfors, Patrik

359

Today's Date __/__/20__ Information Technology -Call Center  

E-print Network

1 Today's Date __/__/20__ Information Technology - Call Center (657) 278-3925 Apply online: http _________________ Email Address _________________________________ Major ______________________ Expected Graduation Date _________________________________________________________________ City ______________________________ State ___________ Zip ___________________ Dates of Employment

de Lijser, Peter

360

Dating as leisure Vronique Flambard (*)  

E-print Network

EA 4272 Dating as leisure Véronique Flambard (*) Nicolas Vaillant (*) François-Charles Wolff-15Oct2010 #12;DATING AS LEISURE Véronique FLAMBARD LEM (UMR 8179 CNRS) and Université Catholique de, to some extent, be a form of leisure. Becker's seminal analysis of marriage (see Grossbard-Shechtman, 1995

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

361

In this issue: Important Dates  

E-print Network

In this issue: Important Dates: All Month NKU Athletics--Click here to see a full schedule March 5--10 Spring Break--No Classes March 14 Second Session Classes Begin March 15 Continuing Student Scholarship Save the Date P. 3 Interested in sharing more of your college student's life? Do you want to get

Boyce, Richard L.

362

Date Rape: Who's to Blame?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study will investigate the effect of alcohol and potential gender differences in the attribution of blame and responsibility in instances of date rape. One hundred and sixty seven undergraduate students at the University of New Hampshire participated in a survey to examine the relationship between perceived intoxication and the attribution of responsibility in a date rape scenario. Participants responded

Carolyn Kaulbach; Nicole Bach

363

Modelling CLPX IOP3 Radiometric Data by Means of the Dense Media Theory: Preliminary Results for the LSOS Test Site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities of the Dense Media Radiative Transfer model using the Quasi Crystalline Approximation with Coherent Potential (QCA-CP) to reproduce measured radiometric data were tested using the University of Tokyo Ground Based Microwave Radiometer (GBMR-7) during the third Intensive Observation Period (IOP3) of the NASA Cold-land Processes Field Experiment (CLPX). The data were collected at the Local-Scale Observation Site (LSOS), a 0.8-ha study site consisting of two open meadows separated by trees. Intensive measurements were also made of snow depth and temperature, density, and grain size profiles. A DMRT model is needed to describe radiative transfer in a medium such as snow because the assumption of independent scattering used in classical radiative transfer theory (CRT) is not valid. Validation of the DMRT approach requires a relationship between measured snow grain size and the DMRT approximation of snow grain radius as spherical particles with a mean radius of the log-normal particle-size distribution. This relationship is very important for a better understanding of snow modelling and for practical applications. DMRT simulations were compared with observations of microwave brightnesses at 18.7, 36.5 and 89-GHz (V and H polarizations) collected on February-1 9-25, 2003. Observation angles ranged from 30\\deg to 70\\deg. Model inputs included measured snow parameters except mean grain size. The average snow temperature, fractional volume and depth were held constant, together with the ice and soil permittivities. The minimum and maximum measured mean grain sizes were used to test the capabilities of the DMRT to reproduce the brightnesses as upper and lower limits. The sensitivity to the largest and smallest measured grain size in the three classes of minimum, medium and maximum observed grain sizes was also investigated. DMRT particle sizes yielding a best-fit to the experimental data for each date were computed. Results show that the measured brightnesses fall within the range of simulated brightnesses using the smallest and largest measured grain size values. The DMRT best-fit radii are comparable to the average radii for the medium observed grain sizes.

Tedesco, Marco; Kim, Edward J.; Cline, Don; Graf, Tobias; Koike, Toshio; Armstrong, Richard; Brodzik, Mary Jo; Hardy, Janet

2003-01-01

364

Reconstruction of Disturbance History in Naples Bay, Florida: A Combined Radiometric/Geochemical Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical reconstructions of aquatic systems have commonly depended on short-lived radioisotopes (e.g. Pb- 210 and Cs-137) to provide a temporal framework for disturbances over the past 100 years. However, applications of these radiotracers to highly variable systems such as estuaries are often problematic. Hydrologic systems prone to rapid shifts in sediment composition and grain size distribution may yield low and erratic isotopic activities with depth in sediment. Additionally, the marine influence on coastal systems and preferential adsorption of radionuclides by organic matter may violate assumptions of the CIC and CRS dating models. Whereas these sediment cores are often deemed "undateable", we propose a modeling technique that accounts for textural and compositional variation, providing insight into the depositional patterns and disturbance records of these dynamic environments. Here, the technique is applied to sediment cores collected from five regions of Naples Bay estuary in southwest Florida. The significant positive correlation between excess Pb-210 activities and organic matter content in each core provides evidence for strong lithologic control on radioisotope scavenging, supporting the use of organic matter- normalized excess Pb-210 activity profiles when modeling sediment accumulation rates in predominantly sandy estuaries. Using this approach, episodes of increased sedimentation rate were established that correspond to periods of heightened anthropogenic disturbance (canal dredging and development) in the Naples Bay watershed during the mid- 1900's.

van Eaton, A. R.; Zimmerman, A.; Brenner, M.; Kenney, W.; Jaeger, J. M.

2006-12-01

365

A Simple Example of Radioactive Dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although nuclear half-life is vital to physics and physical science, and to sensitive societal issues from nuclear waste to the age of the Earth, a true lab on half-life is almost never done at the college or high school level. Seldom are students able to use radioactivity to actually date when an object came into being, as is done in this experiment. The procedure described here uses a radiation monitor and at least two 60Co sources of different ages: the students collect data and are able to calculate how much older one source is than the other. The theory and technique involved make this an easily transferable lesson when studying carbon dating.

Brown, Todd

2014-02-01

366

Date submitted: ______________________ Massachusetts Institute of Technology  

E-print Network

Date submitted: ______________________ Massachusetts Institute of Technology INTERDEPARTMENTAL ID #: Local Address: Phone: MIT Office: (Tel) Current Degree Program: Date of Enrollment in Current. ______________________________________ ____________ Director of Transportation Graduate Program Date General Examination passed on: ____________ Date We hereby

Polz, Martin

367

40 CFR 62.9171 - Effective date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 62.9171 Section 62.9171 Protection...DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Oklahoma Effective Date. 62.9171 Effective date. The effective date for the...

2010-07-01

368

40 CFR 62.4634 - Effective date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 62.4634 Section 62.4634 Protection...DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Louisiana Effective Date 62.4634 Effective date. The effective date for the...

2010-07-01

369

Mapping of local-scale flooding on vegetated floodplains from radiometrically calibrated airborne laser scanning data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The agricultural use of riverine lowlands is often dependent on complex hydrological regimes including localized flooding. Knowledge about spatio-temporal inundation patterns enables a better understanding of the state of agricultural areas in lowlands and provides valuable and objective information on land suitability for land use administration and environmental planning. Data from Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), also referred to as LiDAR, have become one of the most important sources of elevation data during the last two decades. Recently, geometric and radiometric attributes of ALS have also been explored for analysing the extent of water surfaces. Thus, the main objective of this work is to develop a method for mapping the spatial extent of floodplain inundation by means of remote sensing data. Our study focusses on analysing floodwaters partly covered by some vegetation, which is a major challenge in flood mapping. We hypothesize that ALS data due to its high sampling density and high rate of canopy penetration can effectively be used for floodwater detection in such areas. This research utilizes full-waveform ALS data with an average point density of 20 points/m2 obtained for an area of ca. 8 km2 of the Nrre River valley in Jutland, Denmark. The study area is characterised by the presence of improved or semi-improved grasslands (meadows and pasture), few arable fields, irregularly scattered group of trees and bushes, and an extensive ditch network. Our approach is based on an inspection of properties of single laser points with regard to water vs. vegetation coverage within the laser footprint, which is compared with very detailed field reference data. Exploratory analysis and classification of ALS data were preceded by radiometric calibration of point cloud data, utilizing in situ measurements of reference targets reflectance. The resulting calibration derivatives provide very stable estimates of surface characteristics and are used as the main input in the subsequent classification process of point cloud data. A decision tree classifier is being used, which utilizes radiometric calibration derivatives, mainly the backscattering coefficient, and 3D geometric attributes of ALS data. Here we present initial results on developing a floodwater classification procedure, which assigns class information to each point from the 3D point cloud.

Malinowski, Rados?aw; Hfle, Bernhard; Knig, Kristina; Groom, Geoffrey; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin

2014-05-01

370

A Traceable Ground to On-Orbit Radiometric Calibration System for the Solar Reflective Wavelength Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the combination of a Mie scattering spectral BSDF and BTDF albedo standard whose calibration is traceable to the NIST SIRCUS Facility or the NIST STARR II Facility. The Space-based Calibration Transfer Spectroradiometer (SCATS) sensor uses a simple, invariant optical configuration and dedicated narrow band spectral channel modules to provide very accurate, polarization-insensitive, stable measurements of earth albedo and lunar disk albedo. Optical degradation effects on calibration stability are eliminated through use of a common optical system for observations of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. The measurements from space would be traceable to SI units through preflight calibrations of radiance and irradiance at NIST's SIRCUS facility and the invariant optical system used in the sensor. Simultaneous measurements are made in multiple spectral channels covering the solar reflective wavelength range of 300 nm to 2.4 microns. The large dynamic range of signals is handled by use of single-element, highly-linear detectors, stable discrete electronic components, and a non imaging optical configuration. Up to 19 spectral modules can be mounted on a single-axis drive to give direct pointing at the Earth and at least once per orbit view of the Sun and Moon. By observing the Sun on every orbit, the most stringent stability requirements of the system are limited to short time periods. The invariant optical system for both radiance and irradiance measurements also give excellent transfer to-orbit SI traceability. Emerging instrumental requirements for remotely sensing tropospheric trace species have led to a rethinking by some of the paradigm for Systeme International d'Unites (SI) traceability of the spectral irradiance and radiance radiometric calibrations to spectral albedo (sr(exp -1)) which is not a SI unit. In the solar reflective wavelength region the spectral albedo calibrations are tied often to either the spectral albedo of a solar diffuser or the Moon. This new type of Mie scattering diffuser (MSD) is capable of withstanding high temperatures, and is more Lambertian than Spectralon(tm). It has the potential of covering the entire solar reflective wavelength region. Laboratory measurements have shown that the specular reflectance component is negligible, and indicate that internal absorption by multiple scattering is small. This MSD, a true volume diffuser, exhibits a high degree of radiometric stability which suggests that measurements at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) could provide a spectral albedo standard. Measurements have been made of its radiometric stability under a simulated space environment of high energy gamma rays, high energy protons, and UV radiation from ambient down to the vacuum ultraviolet H Lyman alpha at 121.6 nm for its eventual use in space as a solar diffuser.

Heath, Donald F.; Georgiev, Georgi

2012-01-01

371

Miniaturized aerosol, cloud and radiometric payloads for small unmanned aerial vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniaturized aerosol, cloud and radiometric payloads were developed to advance atmospheric observations using small autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (AUAVs). The observing system consisted of three vertically- stacked AUAVs to allow simultaneous sampling of the earth's atmosphere - offering new insights to radiation budgets and aerosol-cloud interactions. To accomplish this campaign, aerosol, cloud, radiometric instruments, and an integrated data acquisition system have been miniaturized with a total payload weight less than 4 kg and power less than 30 W. Due to size and weight limitations of the lightweight AUAV platform, the payloads are mission-specific and outfitted to perform a defined set of measurements depending on the scientific goals. These measurements include aerosol concentration, aerosol size distribution, aerosol absorption, cloud drop concentration and size distribution, solar radiation fluxes (visible and broadband), temperature, pressure, and relative humidity. The data integrity has been validated using standard calibration routines in conjunction with ground-based and laboratory instruments, as well as inter-aircraft comparisons. The instrument suite includes commercially-available instruments that have been repackaged or redesigned to minimize weight and volume and improve their performance. Several instruments have been completely redesigned including an aerosol inlet, absorption photometer based on an aethelometer and cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) counter. Re-engineering of the absorption photometer's optics and electronics improved its performance at three wavelengths. The CCN instrument has been reduced to less than 2kg (compared to 28 kg) without compromising performance utilizing theory and model simulations to optimize design and define operating limits. A shrouded aerosol inlet was specifically designed for the AUAVs to minimize sample biases in aerosol number and size distributions. The radiometric sensors perform well during straight and level portions of the flight as the autopilot maintains a level platform (pitch and roll) to within a degree. An integrated data acquisition system connects to the instruments via a common interface that supplies power and distributes the data signals to the onboard computer. Several integrated circuits are embedded into the interface to increase its functionality as the central data system, including a GPS for time stamping and spatial coordination. The importance of miniaturization, in light of current research needs, will also be discussed.

Roberts, G.; Corrigan, C.; Ramana, M.; Ramanathan, V.

2007-12-01

372

Observation of directional exitance and retrieval of soil and foliage component temperatures: case studies with biangular ATSR radiometric data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mixture of foliage and soil is thermally heterogeneous, so the radiometric temperature of the mixture depends on view direction. A simple linear mixture model was applied to estimate the component surface temperatures of foliage and soil temperatures. The potential of directional observations in the thermal infrared region for land surface studies is a largely uncharted area of research. The

Li Jia; Massimo Menenti; Zhongbo Su; Zhao-Liang Li

2002-01-01

373

In-flight radiometric stability of HYDICE for large and small uniform reflectance targets under various conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in-flight radiometric stability of images formed in a single spectral band of HYDICE has been examined under various conditions. In the first, the stability of the combined response of the on-board calibrator and HYDICE was checked by comparing repeated image acquisitions over small targets, a few pixels in size, and then over a uniform, extended target. For the second

Philip N. Slater; Robert W. Basedow; William S. Aldrich; John E. Colwell

1996-01-01

374

The Imaging and Slitless Spectroscopy Instrument for Surveys (ISSIS): expected radiometric performance, operation modes and data handling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ISSIS is the instrument for imaging and slitless spectroscopy on-board WSO-UV. In this article, a detailed comparison between ISSIS expected radiometric performance and other ultraviolet instruments is shown. In addition, we present preliminary information on the performance verification tests and on the foreseen procedures for in-flight operation and data handling.

Gmez de Castro, Ana I.; Beln Perea, G.; Snchez, Nstor; Santiago, Javier Lpez; Chirivella, Jse; Seijas, Juan

2014-11-01

375

Geometric calibration and radiometric correction of LiDAR data and their impact on the quality of derived products.  

PubMed

LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) systems are capable of providing 3D positional and spectral information (in the utilized spectrum range) of the mapped surface. Due to systematic errors in the system parameters and measurements, LiDAR systems require geometric calibration and radiometric correction of the intensity data in order to maximize the benefit from the collected positional and spectral information. This paper presents a practical approach for the geometric calibration of LiDAR systems and radiometric correction of collected intensity data while investigating their impact on the quality of the derived products. The proposed approach includes the use of a quasi-rigorous geometric calibration and the radar equation for the radiometric correction of intensity data. The proposed quasi-rigorous calibration procedure requires time-tagged point cloud and trajectory position data, which are available to most of the data users. The paper presents a methodology for evaluating the impact of the geometric calibration on the relative and absolute accuracy of the LiDAR point cloud. Furthermore, the impact of the geometric calibration and radiometric correction on land cover classification accuracy is investigated. The feasibility of the proposed methods and their impact on the derived products are demonstrated through experimental results using real data. PMID:22164121

Habib, Ayman F; Kersting, Ana P; Shaker, Ahmed; Yan, Wai-Yeung

2011-01-01

376

Validation of radiometric standards for the laboratory calibration of reflected-solar Earth-observing satellite instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, the traceability of the laboratory calibration of Earth-observing satellite instruments to a primary radiometric reference scale (SI units) is the responsibility of each instrument builder. For the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS), a program has been developed using laboratory transfer radiometers, each with its own traceability to the primary radiance scale of a national metrology laboratory, to independently validate

James J. Butler; B. Carol Johnson; Joseph P. Rice; Steven W. Brown; Robert A. Barnes

2007-01-01

377

Review Article Radiometric correction of visible and infrared remote sensing data at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews experience in radiometric corrections of satellite and airborne remote sensing data at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) during the period 1972 to 1986. It also describes current research areas and recommends areas of future research where high priority is important for global change monitoring and for the derivation of quantitative information from remotely-sensed data in

F. J. Ahern; R. J. Brown; J. Cihlar; R. Gauthier; J. Murphy; R. A. Neville; P. M. Teillet

1987-01-01

378

Numerical end-to-end model of the earth radiation budget experiment: earth-viewing nonscanning radiometric channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment consists of an array of radiometric instruments placed in Earth orbit by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to monitor the longwave and shortwave components of the Earth's radiative budget. Presented is a high-level dynamic electrothermal model of the nonscanning Earth-viewing active cavity radiometers used to measure the Earth's total radiative exitance. High accuracy is

Kory J. Priestley; Martial P. Haeffelin; J. R. Mahan; Nour E. Tira; Robert B. Lee; Robert J. Keynton

1994-01-01

379

A statistical approach for determining radiometric precisions and accuracies in the calibration of synthetic aperture radar imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model that estimates a relative error bound for the radiometric calibration of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery is presented. This model is based on a statistical `Coefficient of Variation of Error Model', which produces a relative error bound by propagating the measured or estimated uncertainties in the radar system parameters utilized to correct digitally processed SAR image intensity values.

E. S. Kasischke; G. W. Fowler

1989-01-01

380

Analysis of airborne radiometric data. Volume 2. Description, listing, and operating instructions for the code DELPHI\\/MAZAS. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The computer code DELPHI is an interactive English language command system for the analysis of airborne radiometric data. The code includes modules for data reduction, data simulation, time filtering, data adjustment and graphical presentation of the results. DELPHI is implemented in FORTRAN on a DEC-10 computer. This volume gives a brief set of operations instructions, samples of the output obtained

M. Sperling; D. C. Shreve

1978-01-01

381

Infrared photothermal radiometric deep-level transient spectroscopy of shallow B dopant states in p-Si  

E-print Network

Infrared photothermal radiometric deep-level transient spectroscopy of shallow B dopant states in p-level transient spectroscopy PTR-DLTS has been applied to noncontact diagnostics of a p-Si wafer. Both negative mirrors and detected using a liquid N2-cooled photoconduc- tive mercury­cadmium­telluride MCT detector

Mandelis, Andreas

382

Radiometric calibration of IR Fourier transform spectrometers - Solution to a problem with the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A calibrated Fourier transform spectrometer, known as the High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS), has been flown on the NASA U-2 research aircraft to measure the infrared emission spectrum of the earth. The primary use - atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding - requires high radiometric precision and accuracy (of the order of 0.1 and 1 C, respectively). To meet these requirements, the

Henry E. Revercomb; William L. Smith; H. Buijs; Hugh B. Howell; D. D. Laporte; L. A. Sromovsky

1988-01-01

383

The 190Pt-186Os Decay System Applied to Dating Platinum-Group Element Mineralization in Layered Intrusions, Ophiolites and Detrital Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discrete platinum-group minerals (PGM) occur as accessory phases in mafic-ultamafic intrusions and ophiolitic chromitites, as well as numerous detrital deposits globally. The 190Pt-186Os decay system, measured by laser ablation MC-ICPMS (LA-MC-ICPMS) provides a useful geochronometric tool for direct dating of PGM. Here we present two examples that verify the accuracy of the technique in geologically well constrained situations and demonstrate the potential for using the 190Pt-186Os PGM method to accurately date layered mafic intrusions, ophiolitic chromitites and detrital PGM deposits. Fifty PGM grains from three different horizons within the Bushveld complex yield a Pt-Os isochron age of 2012 47 Ma (2?, MSWD = 1.19, 186Os/188Osi = 0.119818 0.000006). This is consistent with the published U-Pb zircon age of 2054 Ma (Scoates and Friedman, 2008). The younger PGM isochron age is not likely to be a function of difference in blocking temperatures in the different systems. Pt-Os model ages are possible in high pt grains because initial 186Os/188Os can be well constrained. Using this approach we obtained Pt-Os model ages of 2113 106 Ma and 2042 102 Ma for a Bushveld Pt-Fe alloy and sperrylite respectively. Detrital PGM derived from the Meratus ophiolite, southeast Borneo yield a 190Pt-186Os isochron age of 202.5 Ma 8.3 Ma (2?, n = 260, MSWD = 0.90, 186Os/188Osi = 0.119830 0.000003), consistent with radiometric and biostratigraphic age constraints (Wakita et al., 1998). We interpret this as the age of formation of the PGM grains in during chromitite genesis in the lower oceanic lithosphere. Our combined data demonstrate the utility of the LA-MC-ICPMS method as a tool for accurate Pt-Os dating of detrital PGM as well as their igneous parent bodies. We can constrain Pt/Os fractionation at the ablation site as being < 2.5%, while within-grain heterogeneity is ultimately one of the strongest controls on isochron and single-grain ages given the partial sampling represented by laser ablation. Scoates, J.S. and Friedman, R.M. 2008. Precise age of the platiniferous Merensky reef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa, by the U-Pb zircon chemical abrasion ID-TIMS technique; Economic Geology 103, p. 465-471. Wakita, K., Miyazaki, K., Zulkarnain, I., Sopaheluwakan, J. and Sanyoto, P. 1998. Tectonic implications of new age data for the Meratus complex of south Kalimantan, Indonesia; Island Arc 7, p. 202-222.

Coggon, J. A.; Nowell, G.; Pearson, G.; Oberthr, T.; Lorand, J.; Melcher, F.; Parman, S. W.

2010-12-01

384

Direct radiometric age determination of carbonate diagenesis using U-Pb in secondary calcite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate rocks and corals from the Middle Devonian Lucas formation, Ontario have 238U/ 204Pb (?) values ranging from 132 to 559 and give concordant, apparent 206Pb/ *238U and 207Pb/ *235U ages in approximate agreement with the primary age of sedimentation. A carbonate rock from one part of the section gives an anomalously young age and contains patches of secondary calcite spar. This spar is predominantly pale purple under cathodoluminescence (CL) and contains 250-600 ppb U and 15-22 ppb Pb. The ? values range from 2 10 3-10 4 , making the Pb very radiogenic. Apparent 206Pb/ *238U ages range from 208 to 249 Ma and 232Th/ 238U (?) values are from 0.005 to 0.040. The younger ages are correlated with an increase in orange CL and higher apparent ? values. The age scatter is attributed to mixing of a subordinate calcite spar which infiltrated the older spar. The young calcite is bright orange under CL, has 7200 ppb U, ? of 6.2 10 4 , a ? of 0.23 and is dated at 45 Ma. The age of the older spar has been determined by a sequential dissolution technique. The resulting U-Pb data can be plotted as U-Pb "age spectra" and yield “plateau" dates ranging from 231.5 1.4 to 244.9 1.6 Ma and an integrated 206Pb/ *238U age of 238.2 1.1 Ma. Also, the sequential dissolution increases the ? values progressively to ≈5 10 4 making these ages independent of the initial Pb correction. The occurrence of two young ages of diagenetic calcite in these strata is consistent with the idea of recurrent fluid activity along fracture zones in subsurface sediments in the Michigan Basin. This study shows that it is now possible to date secondary carbonate diagenesis by U-Pb and by inference to determine precisely the timing of activity on ancient fracture zones in carbonate rocks.

Smith, P. E.; Farquhar, R. M.; Hancock, R. G.

1991-08-01

385

February, 2004 DATES TO REMEMBER  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Peanut Varieties for the Green Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Planting Dates for Green Market Peanuts to individuals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex, age, handicap or national

Watson, Craig A.

386

JiTT - Geologic Dating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

1) How are zircons formed? 2) Which of the following statements describes relative geologic dating? a) the Triceratops and Tyrannosaurus rex went extinct at the same time b) dinosaurs came later than horseshoe ...

Guertin, Laura

387

Radiocarbon dating of terrestrial carbonates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Terrestrial carbonates encompass a wide range of materials that potentially could be used for radiocarbon (14C) dating. Biogenic carbonates, including shells and tests of terrestrial and aquatic gastropods, bivalves, ostracodes, and foraminifera, are preserved in a variety of late Quaternary deposits and may be suitable for 14C dating. Primary calcareous deposits (marls, tufa, speleothems) and secondary carbonates (rhizoliths, fracture fill, soil carbonate) may also be targeted for dating when conditions are favorable. This chapter discusses issues that are commonly encountered in 14C dating of terrestrial carbonates, including isotopic disequilibrium and open-system behavior, as well as methods used to determine the reliability of ages derived from these materials. Recent methodological advancements that may improve the accuracy and precision of 14C ages of terrestrial carbonates are also highlighted.

Pigati, Jeffrey S.

2014-01-01

388

Physics principles in radiometric infrared imaging of clouds in the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging the atmosphere with a thermal infrared camera can yield a rich variety of information, ranging from the water-vapour content to the spatial distribution of clouds. Such remote sensing measurements are being used to study climate and to characterize ground-station sites for Earth-space optical communications. The key to turning interesting but qualitative images into the highly accurate quantitative images required for this type of research is careful radiometric calibration. This is especially true when using uncooled microbolometer cameras, which are becoming widely available at relatively low cost. When such cameras are calibrated properly, their images illustrate a variety of important basic principles of optics and atmospheric physics related to thermal emission and absorption by atmospheric gases and clouds.

Shaw, Joseph A.; Nugent, Paul W.

2013-11-01

389

Statistical synthesis of radiometric imaging formation in scanning radiometers with signal weight processing by Kravchenko windows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical optimization of the radiometric images (RMIs) algorithms formation in scanning radiometers with weight correction of the antenna amplitude-phase distribution and synchronous sliding strobing of the received noise-like signal by a function describing the antenna pattern corrected by temporal Kravchenko windows is performed for the first time. The ambiguity function (AF) of the scanning radiometer, which determines the RMI quality, is found. It is established that the AF shape substantially depends on the amplitude field distribution (AFD) in the antenna. It is shown that the use of the AFD in the antenna in the form of weight functions (classic and Kravchenko) makes it possible to correct the AF shape and to increase the RMI quality. A simulation of the RMI formation algorithm is performed. It follows from the analysis of simulation data that the use of the weight Kravchenko functions provides higher accuracy of the RMI restoration compared with classic weight functions.

Volosyuk, V. K.; Kravchenko, V. F.; Pavlikov, V. V.; Pustovoit, V. I.

2014-05-01

390

[Radiometric assessment of wrist angle values, linear parameters of the forearm and wrist ratios].  

PubMed

With the device of our own invention suitable for static X-ray examination of the wrist 12 radiographic parameters were evaluated. 100 radiograms regarded normal were analyzed, obtained as a comparative in unilateral wrist trauma patients group. Age of the patients ranged from 18 to 60 years. No comparative studies in regard to sex were performed. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. Subsequent values of the radiometric parameters were obtained: scaphoid-lunate angle (SL) 48.61 degrees, radio-lunate angle (RL): -0.83 degrees, palmar inclination of the distal radius metaphysis (RI): 25.96. The most significant linear parameters measured: ulnar length 0.18 mm, ulnar transposition (UT): 0.339 mm. PMID:17131729

Baczkowski, Bogus?aw; Mechli?ska-Baczkowska, Janina; Lorczy?ski, Adam

2006-01-01

391

Radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner. [of Thematic Mapper Simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The absolute radiometric calibration of the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator reflective channels was examined based on laboratory tests and in-flight comparisons to ground measurements. The NS001 data are calibrated in-flight by reference to the NS001 internal integrating sphere source. This source's power supply or monitoring circuitry exhibited greater instability in-flight during 1988-1989 than in the laboratory. Extrapolating laboratory behavior to in-flight data resulted in 7-20 percent radiance errors relative to ground measurements and atmospheric modeling. Assuming constancy in the source's output between laboraotry and in-flight resulted in generally smaller errors. Upgrades to the source's power supply and monitoring circuitry in 1990 improved its in-flight stability, though in-flight ground reflectance based calibration tests have not yet been performed.

Markham, Brian L.; Ahmad, Suraiya P.; Jackson, Ray D.; Moran, M. S.; Biggar, Stuart F.; Gellman, David I.; Slater, Philip N.

1991-01-01

392

Radiometric surveying for the assessment of radiation dose and radon specific exhalation in underground environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a radiometric survey for evaluating the natural radioactivity and the related potential hazard level both outdoor and indoor a mine tunnel. The mine is located in a zone of uranium enrichment in the Western Alps (Italy). At first, a ?-ray spectrometry survey of the area surrounding the mine was carried out to define the extent of the ore deposit. Then, spectrometric measurements were performed in the tunnel and rock samples were collected for laboratory analyses. The results point to significant heterogeneity in uranium concentration and consequently in the absorbed dose rate spatial distribution. Spectrometric results in situ and in the laboratory, together with radon air concentration measurements, were used to infer the radon specific exhalation and flow from the mine rocks. The specific exhalation is positively related to the activity concentration of uranium.

Bochiolo, M.; Verdoya, M.; Chiozzi, P.; Pasquale, V.

2012-08-01

393

Radiometric and Geometric Analysis of Hyperspectral Imagery Acquired from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle  

SciTech Connect

In the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energys Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).

Ryan C. Hruska; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Nancy F. Glenn

2012-09-01

394

Preliminary results of radiometric measurements of clear air and cloud brightness (antenna) temperatures at 37GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the results of polarization measurements of clear air and clouds brightness temperatures at 37GHz are presented. The results were obtained during the measurements carried out in Armenia from the measuring complex built under the framework of ISTC Projects A-872 and A-1524. The measurements were carried out at vertical and horizontal polarizations, under various angles of sensing by Ka-band combined scatterometric-radiometric system (ArtAr-37) developed and built by ECOSERV Remote Observation Centre Co.Ltd. under the framework of the above Projects. In the paper structural and operational features of the utilized system and the whole measuring complex will be considered and discussed as well.

Arakelyan, A. K.; Hambaryan, A. K.; Arakelyan, A. A.

2012-05-01

395

In-flight radiometric calibration of HYDICE using a reflectance-based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reflectance-based method is used to determine an absolute radiometric calibration of the HYDICE sensor. Results are given for data collected at Ivanpah Playa, California on June 20, 1995. This paper describes the reflectance-based method as applied to the hyperspectral case of HYDICE. The method uses a modified version of a Gauss-Seidel radiative transfer code to predict the at- sensor radiances used to compute the calibration coefficients. Coefficients were obtained from several overflights of the target area. The results from this work show that calibration coefficients for several of the overflights agreed to better than 10% in all bands not affected by strong gaseous absorption, and better than 5% in portions of the visible and near-infrared.

Thome, Kurtis J.; Gustafson-Bold, Christine; Slater, Philip N.; Farrand, William H.

1996-11-01

396

Effective infrared absorption coefficient for photothermal radiometric measurements in biological tissues.  

PubMed

Although photothermal radiometric (PTR) measurements commonly employ broad-band signal acquisition to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, all reported studies apply a fixed infrared (IR) absorption coefficient to simplify the involved signal analysis. In samples with large spectral variation of micro(lambda) in mid-IR, which includes most biological tissues, the selection of the effective IR absorption coefficient value (micro(eff)) can strongly affect the accuracy of the result. We present a novel analytical approach for the determination of optimal micro(eff) from spectral properties of the sample and radiation detector. In extensive numerical simulations of pulsed PTR temperature profiling in human skin using three common IR radiation detectors and several acquisition spectral bands, we demonstrate that our approach produces viable values micro(eff). Two previously used analytical estimations perform much worse in the same comparison. PMID:18182701

Majaron, Boris; Milanic, Matija

2008-01-01

397

A Liquid-Helium-Cooled Absolute Reference Cold Load forLong-Wavelength Radiometric Calibration  

SciTech Connect

We describe a large (78-cm) diameter liquid-helium-cooled black-body absolute reference cold load for the calibration of microwave radiometers. The load provides an absolute calibration near the liquid helium (LHe) boiling point, accurate to better than 30 mK for wavelengths from 2.5 to 25 cm (12-1.2 GHz). The emission (from non-LHe temperature parts of the cold load) and reflection are small and well determined. Total corrections to the LHe boiling point temperature are {le} 50 mK over the operating range. This cold load has been used at several wavelengths at the South Pole and at the White Mountain Research Station. In operation, the average LHe loss rate was {le} 4.4 l/hr. Design considerations, radiometric and thermal performance and operational aspects are discussed. A comparison with other LHe-cooled reference loads including the predecessor of this cold load is given.

Bensadoun, M.; Witebsky, C.; Smoot, George F.; De Amici,Giovanni; Kogut, A.; Levin, S.

1990-05-01

398

Isothermal thermoluminescence dating of K-feldspar from sediments to determine fault slip rates: development and assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faults in California accommodate most of the relative motion between the Pacific and North American tectonic plates, along either one main strike-slip fault, - the San Andreas fault - or a network of sub-parallel faults (e.g., the San Jacinto, Elsinore and San Andreas faults). Slip is also accommodated along many other associated faults and folds, and the region suffers frequent damaging earthquakes. Contemporary movements of different fault-bounded blocks are relatively well established on decadal timescales using remote sensing and GPS, and on timescales of 106 to 107 years, by dating offset geologic features with radiometric methods. However, on timescales of decades to several hundred thousand years, determining total fault offset and mean slip rate is harder. Critical questions for understanding fault dynamics and improving earthquake risk assessment include the degree to which slip is clustered into episodes of more rapid movement, and how slip is accommodated by different sub-parallel faults. In many cases, streams with offset courses can be recognised, and in some cases offset terrace surfaces can be located, especially when using LiDAR data to complement field mapping. Radiocarbon and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides have been used to date these features, but both have limitations of age range, sample suitability and availability. OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) and IRSL (infra-red stimulated luminescence) have great potential to complement these techniques, though the characteristics of quartz in some parts of southern California are suboptimal, displaying low sensitivity and other limitations. In order to overcome these limitations encountered using quartz OSL, we are developing a new geochronometer based on the isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) signal of K feldspar measured at 250C. Preliminary ITL age estimates from the paleoseismic site of El Paso Peaks on the Central Garlock fault in the Mojave Desert, California, agree well with a well-established radiocarbon chronology based on 29 samples spanning the last 7,000 years (Dawson et al., 2003). We examine the basis of this new ITL approach and assess its potential for application within California and beyond. Reference cited Dawson, T.E., McGill, S.F. and Rockwell, T.K. 2003 Irregular recurrence of paleoearthquakes along the central Garlock fault near El Paso peaks, California. Journal of Geophysical Research 108, No. B7, 2356, doi:10.1029/2001JB001744.

Rhodes, E. J.; Roder, B. J.; Lawson, M. J.; Dolan, J. F.; McGill, S. F.; McAuliffe, L.

2012-04-01

399

Planned HISUI radiometric calibration using the lunar reflectance model from SELENE Spectral Profiler data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperspectral Imager Suite (HISUI) is a Japanese future hyperspectral mission that is composed of a hyperspectral imager and a multispectral imager, which will be launched on Advanced Land Observation Satellite 3 (ALOS-3). HISUI will provide the earth observation data for environmental monitoring and forestry as well as for global energy and resource issues. We developed a method for hyper and multi-spectral radiometric calibration of HISUI using the lunar reflectance model developed from SELENE Spectral Profiler (SP) data. SP surveyed whole Lunar surface and developed Lunar reflectance model with the wavelength of 500 nm - 1600 nm [Yokota et al., 2011], which involves the lunar surface photometric properties depending on incident, emission and phase angles. The information of reflectance and photometric properties enables us to simulate a lunar observation of HISUI from any position around the Earth. The model resolution reaches 0.5 x 0.5 degree in longitude and latitude which is comparable to the resolution of lunar observation by a hyper spectral imager of HISUI. For demonstrating the utilization of the model, we simulated a lunar observation by Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard Terra using its three bands (Band 1: 560nm, Band 2: 660nm and Band 3: 810 nm) conducted on April 13, 2003, and we compared observed and modeled radiance at every pixel. Since correlation coefficients of observed and modeled radiance exceed 0.99 for all bands, we confirmed that the model describes the lunar surface photometric properties correctly, although absolute radiance in Band 1 and 2 show some discrepancy between the observation and the model. This presentation shows the advantage of SP lunar reflectance model for radiometric calibration of earth observation sensors and we will discuss comparisons of other lunar reflectance models for improving the absolute accuracy of the SP model.

Kouyama, T.; Nakamura, R.; Tsuchida, S.; Matsunaga, T.; Sakuma, F.; Yokota, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Ishihara, Y.; Yamamoto, S.

2012-12-01

400

PLEIADES-HR 1A&1B image quality commissioning: innovative radiometric calibration methods and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PLEIADES is an earth observing system conducted by the French National Space Agency, CNES. It consists of two satellites launched on December 2011 (PHR-1A) and December 2012 (PHR-1B), both designed to provide optical pushbroom imagery on five spectral bands to civilian and defense users, with ground sample distance up to 70 cm. During inflight image quality commissioning, radiometric activities included inter-detector normalization coefficients computation, refocusing operations, MTF assessment and estimation of signal to noise ratios. This paper presents inflight results for both satellites. It focuses on several innovative methods that were implemented, taking advantage of the satellite platform great agility. These methods are based on processing images obtained through dedicated exotic guidance. In particular, slow-motion steering enables an efficient estimation of the instrumental noise model, since during acquisition each detector has been viewing a stable ground target along different time samples. Conversely, rotated retina guidance is used to guarantee that all different elementary detectors have successively viewed the same set of landscape samples during acquisition. Non-uniformity of detector sensitivities can then be characterized, and on-board coefficients used prior to compression can be calibrated in order to prevent vertical striping effects on operational images. Defocus control and Point Spread Function estimation can be easily obtained through processing acquisitions of stars associated to various spectral characteristics, for different adjustments of the refocusing system. All these methods allow an accurate estimation of radiometric performance on the whole range of specified spectral radiances, while drastically reducing the number of required acquisitions on natural targets.

Martin, Vincent; Blanchet, Gwendoline; Kubik, Philippe; Lacherade, Sophie; Latry, Christophe; Lebegue, Laurent; Lenoir, Florie; Porez-Nadal, Florence

2013-09-01

401

17 CFR 160.18 - Effective date; compliance date; transition rule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date; compliance date; transition rule. ...FINANCIAL INFORMATION Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date 160.18 Effective date; compliance date; transition rule....

2010-04-01

402

Review on dating methods: Numerical dating in the quaternary geology of High Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, OSL and TCN datings of glacial material from High Asia have come into fashion. To this day, however,\\u000a these techniques do not permit safe calibration. The intensity of the cosmic ray flux is being modulated by the solar and\\u000a terrestrial magnetic fields and their secular fluctuations in the past. So far, these variations cannot be

Matthias Kuhle; Sabine Kuhle

2010-01-01

403

Assessing screening criteria for the radiocarbon dating of bone mineral  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon dating reliability are still lacking. Systematic research was undertaken to identify optimal preservation criteria for bone mineral in archeological bones. Six human long bones, originating from a single site, were radiocarbon-dated both for collagen and apatite, with the level of agreement between the dates providing an indication of exogenous carbon contamination. Several techniques (Histology, FTIR, TEM, LA-ICP-MS) were employed to determine the preservation status of each sample. Research results highlight the importance of a micro-scale approach in establishing bone preservation, in particular the use of trace element concentration profiles demonstrated its potential use as a viable sample selection criterion for bone carbonate radiocarbon dating.

Fernandes, Ricardo; Hls, Matthias; Nadeau, Marie-Jose; Grootes, Pieter M.; Garbe-Schnberg, C.-Dieter; Hollund, Hege I.; Lotnyk, Andriy; Kienle, Lorenz

2013-01-01

404

Dating  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ... the Experts Common diabetes questions answered by doctors, nurses, nutritionists, and more. GET ANSWERS We Can Help - ...

405

Change detection in the amazon rainforest with radiometric rotation technique RCEN multi-spectral case study: Guarayos - Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A working group of three institutions was set up to develop this study: University of Applied Sciences Eberswalde (Germany), National Institute for Space Research (INPE, Brazil) and National Institute for Amazon Research (INPA, Brazil). The main task is to apply in the Guarayos region (Bolivia), the multi- temporal change detection algorithm \\

H. Ferrufino Ugarte; T. Zawila-Niedzwiecki; J. R. Santos; F. D. Maldonado

2007-01-01

406

a Low Energy Cyclotron for Radiocarbon Dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of naturally occurring radioisotopes whose half lives are less than a few hundred million years but more than a few years provides information about the temporal behavior of geologic and climatic processes, the temporal history of meteoritic bodies as well as the production mechanisms of these radioisotopes. A new extremely sensitive technique for measuring these radioisotopes at tandem Van de Graaff and cyclotron facilities has been very successful though the high cost and limited availability have been discouraging. We have built and tested a low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar in size to a conventional mass spectrometer. These tests clearly show that with the addition of a conventional ion source, the low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity ('14)C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. We found that no significant background is present when the cyclotron is tuned to accelerate ('14)C negative ions and the transmission efficiency is adequate to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. The internal ion source used did not produce sufficient current to detect ('14)C directly at modern concentrations. We show how a conventional carbon negative ion source located outside the cyclotron magnet, would produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sample changing to make radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument feasible.

Welch, James Joseph

407

A low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of abundances of naturally occurring radioisotopes whose half lives are between a few years and a few hundred million years, provides information about the temporal behavior of human activity and geologic and climatic processes, the history of meteoritic bodies, and the production mechanisms of such radioisotopes. An extremely sensitive technique for measuring these radioisotopes at tandem Van de Graaff and cyclotron facilities has been very successful, though not without high cost and limited availability. We have built and tested a 35 keV cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar in size to a conventional mass spectrometer. We found no significant background present when the cyclotron was tuned to accelerate 14C negative ions, and adequate transmission efficiency to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. These tests clearly show that a low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity 14C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. The internal ion source used did not produre sufficient current to detect 14C directly at the present atmospheric 14C/ 12C concentration of 1.310 -12. A conventional carbon negative ion source located outside the cyclotron magnet could produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sample changing to make feasible radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument.

Welch, J. J.; Bertsche, K. J.; Friedman, P. G.; Morris, D. E.; Muller, R. A.; Tans, P. P.

408

Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating supports central Arctic Ocean cm-scale sedimentation rates  

E-print Network

Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating supports central Arctic Ocean cm-scale sedimentation rates the crest of the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean. There has been much debate about dating sediment cores from the central Arctic Ocean and by using an independent absolute dating technique we aim

Jakobsson, Martin

409

A COMPARISON OF RADIOCARBON AND ARCHAEOMAGNETIC DATING FROM AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE IN SPAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference archaeomagnetic secular variation (SV) curves recently have been proposed for the Iberian Penin- sula and may now be used for archaeomagnetic dating. Archaeomagnetic dating is a relative dating technique that is strongly dependent on the age control of the data used to construct the reference curves. In order to test the method, an archaeological structure from central Spain has

G Catanzariti; G McIntosh; M L Osete; T Nakamura; A Z Rakowski; I Ramrez Gonzlez; Ph Lanos

2007-01-01

410

Dating silk by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A new capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) technique is introduced for age estimation of silk textiles based on amino acid racemization rates. With an L to D conversion half-life of ~2500 years for silk (B. mori) aspartic acid, the technique is capable of dating silk textiles ranging in age from several decades to a few-thousand-years-old. Analysis required only ~100 ?g or less of silk fiber. Except for a 2 h acid hydrolysis at 110 C, no other sample preparation is required. The CE-MS analysis takes ~20 min, consumes only nanoliters of the amino acid mixture, and provides both amino acid composition profiles and D/L ratios for ~11 amino acids. PMID:21913691

Moini, Mehdi; Klauenberg, Kathryn; Ballard, Mary

2011-10-01

411

Date Rape: A Hidden Crime  

E-print Network

t r e n d s i s s u e s in crime and criminal justice Despite an increasing awareness of the problem of sexual violence, there is still reluctance in some quarters for date rape to be considered criminal or even unacceptable behaviour. This is due partly to the hidden nature of the crime and the complicated issue of sexual consent. Numerous Australian women have experienced date rape. This paper outlines the main issues underlying date rape. Because of low-reporting, it is difficult to establish an accurate measure of the extent of the problem, thus reducing the possibility of identifying appropriate responses for prevention and for treatment of victims and perpetrators. Victims who do not recognise forced sex as unacceptable are unlikely to seek help, despite the potential impact of date rape being just as severe and traumatic as other types of rape. This paper discusses prevention measures that range from a change in the formulation of Rohypnol, which has been misused as a date rape drug, through to a description of school and community activities concerned with the prevention of violence.

Laura Russo; Adam Graycar

412

Gondwanaland from 650-500 Ma assembly through 320 Ma merger in Pangea to 185-100 Ma breakup: supercontinental tectonics via stratigraphy and radiometric dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gondwanaland lasted from the 650-500 Ma (late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian) amalgamation of African and South American terranes to Antarctica-Australia-India through 320 Ma (mid-Carboniferous) merging with Laurussia in Pangea to breakup from 185 to 100 Ma (Jurassic and Early Cretaceous). Gondwanaland straddled the equator at 540 Ma, lay wholly in the Southern Hemisphere by 350 Ma, and then rotated clockwise so that at 250 Ma Australia reached the S pole and Africa the equator. By initial breakup of Pangea at 185 Ma, Gondwanaland had moved northward such that North Africa reached 35N. The first clear picture of Gondwanaland, in the Cambrian, shows the assembly of continents with later Laurentian, European and Asian terranes along the "northern" margin, and with a trench along the "western" and "southern" margins, reflected by a 10,000-km-long chain of 530-500 Ma granites. The interior was crossed by the Prydz-Leeuwin and Mozambique Orogenic Belts. The shoreline lapped the flanks of uplifts generated during this complex terminal Pan-Gondwanaland (650-500 Ma) deformation, which endowed Gondwanaland with a thick, buoyant crust and lithosphere and a nonmarine siliciclastic facies. During the Ordovician, terranes drifted from Africa as the first of many transfers of material to the "northern" continents. Central Australia was crossed by the sea, and the eastern margin and ocean floor were flooded by grains of quartz (and 600-500 Ma zircon) from Antarctica. Ice centres in North Africa and southern South America/Africa waxed and waned in the latest Ordovician, Early Silurian, latest Devonian, and Early Carboniferous. In the mid-Carboniferous, Laurussia and Gondwanaland merged in the composite called Pangea by definitive right-lateral contact along the Variscan suture, with collisional stress and subsequent uplift felt as far afield as Australia. Ice sheets developed on the tectonic uplands of Gondwanaland south of 30S. In the Early Permian, the self-induced heat beneath Pangea drove the first stage of differential subsidence of the Gondwanaland platform to intercept sediment from the melting ice, then to accumulate coal measures with Glossopteris, and subsequently Early Triassic redbeds. An orogenic zone along the Panthalassan margin propagated from South America to Australia and was terminally deformed in the mid-Triassic. Coal deposition resumed during Late Triassic relaxation in the second stage of Pangean extension. In the Early Jurassic, the vast 200 Ma Central Atlantic magmatic province of tholeiite anticipated the 185 Ma breakup in the Central Atlantic. Another magmatic province was erupted at this time between southern Africa and southeastern Australia. The northeastern Indian Ocean opened from 156 Ma, and the western Indian Ocean from 150 Ma. By the 100 Ma mid-Cretaceous, the Gondwanaland province of Pangea had split into its five constituents, and the Earth had entered the thalassocratic state of dispersed continents. The 650-500 Ma "Pan-Gondwanaland" events (? by mafic underplating) rendered Gondwanaland permanently geocratic. Pangean (320-185 Ma) tectonics, driven by pulses of self-induced heat, promoted widespread subsidence at 300 Ma Early Permian and 230 Ma Late Triassic. Pangea initially broke up at 185 Ma and the five continental pieces of Gondwanaland had broken apart by the 100 Ma mid-Cretaceous. Another long-lasting feature of Gondwanaland was subduction beneath the "southern" margin and export of terranes from the "northern" and "northwestern" margins. Export of terranes was promoted by Gondwanaland-induced heat, and internal breakup by Pangea-induced heat.

Veevers, J. J.

2004-12-01

413

Luminescence techniques: instrumentation and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes techniques, instruments and methods used in luminescence dating and environmental dosimetry in many laboratories around the world. These techniques are based on two phenomena thermally stimulated luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence. The most commonly used luminescence stimulation and detection techniques are reviewed and information is given on recent developments in instrument design and on the state

Lars Btter-Jensen

1997-01-01

414

Primary endosymbiosis events date to the later Proterozoic with cross-calibrated phylogenetic dating of duplicated ATPase proteins  

PubMed Central

Chloroplasts and mitochondria descended from bacterial ancestors, but the dating of these primary endosymbiosis events remains very uncertain, despite their importance for our understanding of the evolution of both bacteria and eukaryotes. All phylogenetic dating in the Proterozoic and before is difficult: Significant debates surround potential fossil calibration points based on the interpretation of the Precambrian microbial fossil record, and strict molecular clock methods cannot be expected to yield accurate dates over such vast timescales because of strong heterogeneity in rates. Even with more sophisticated relaxed-clock analyses, nodes that are distant from fossil calibrations will have a very high uncertainty in dating. However, endosymbiosis events and gene duplications provide some additional information that has never been exploited in dating; namely, that certain nodes on a gene tree must represent the same events, and thus must have the same or very similar dates, even if the exact date is uncertain. We devised techniques to exploit this information: cross-calibration, in which node date calibrations are reused across a phylogeny, and cross-bracing, in which node date calibrations are formally linked in a hierarchical Bayesian model. We apply these methods to proteins with ancient duplications that have remained associated and originated from plastid and mitochondrial endosymbionts: the ? and ? subunits of ATP synthase and its relatives, and the elongation factor thermo unstable. The methods yield reductions in dating uncertainty of 1426% while only using date calibrations derived from phylogenetically unambiguous Phanerozoic fossils of multicellular plants and animals. Our results suggest that primary plastid endosymbiosis occurred ?900 Mya and mitochondrial endosymbiosis occurred ?1,200 Mya. PMID:23776247

Shih, Patrick M.; Matzke, Nicholas J.

2013-01-01

415

Date: June 2010 West Return  

E-print Network

#12;Date: June 2010 West Return Floodwall Bayou Trepagnier Control Structure and Pump Station St. Rose Control Structure London Outfall Canal Closure Structure 17th St. Outfall Canal Closure Structure Floodwall Bayou Trepagnier Control Structure and Pump Station St. Rose Control Structure Company Canal

Wang, Yuhang

416

Daytona Beach Fall 2012 Dates  

E-print Network

Highlights Daytona Beach Fall 2012 Dates Birthdays Manners TheELIWeekly Daytona Beach Fun in the sun! Join us for a day of surf, sun, and sand at Daytona Beach. We will be going to the beach to Gainesville around 10:30pm. Transportation: Bus passes for Daytona Beach are now sold out! If you bought

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

417

Teen-Age Dating Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been estimated that one out of three teenage girls will be involved in an abusive relationship or experience violence in their relationships. Given the fact that studies are showing higher incidence of dating violence reported among teenagers, the importance and usefulness of this topic for anyone who works with adolescents cannot be

Kyle, Karla J.

418

Number Transaction Date Department Name  

E-print Network

: 3-2655; Fax 3-2920 Daily Credit Card Sales Report Instructions: Prepare a report for each business amount of sales reported must equal net credit card transactions. Fax the report and the batch settlement report printed from the credit card terminal to General Accounting by close of business on the date

419

Internet dating: a British survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose An online survey was carried out with the purpose of finding out the extent to which internet users subscribe to online dating services. The paper aims to assess users' experiences of such services and their eventual outcomes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Data were obtained through a self-completion online questionnaire survey posted on the website of a leading internet research agency,

Barrie Gunter

2008-01-01

420

Online Dating and Conjugal Bereavement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined self-presentation in the online dating profiles of 241 widowed and 280 divorced individuals between 18 and 40 years old. A content analysis of open-ended user-generated profiles assessed the presence or absence of various themes, including the user's marital status, the backstory of their lost relationship, and whether they

Young, Dannagal Goldthwaite; Caplan, Scott E.

2010-01-01

421

77 FR 30928 - Target Date Disclosure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration 29 CFR Part 2550 RIN 1210-AB38 Target Date Disclosure AGENCY: Employee Benefits...relating to enhanced disclosure concerning target date or similar investments, originally...20210, Attention: RIN 1210-AB38; Target Date Disclosure. Comments received...

2012-05-24

422

7 CFR 953.120 - Nomination date.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nomination date. 953.120 Section 953...Regulations Change in Date for Completing Nominations, Term of Office, and Fiscal Period 953.120 Nomination date. The names of...

2010-01-01

423

Gravity, magnetic, and radiometric data for Newberry Volcano, Oregon, and vicinity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Newberry Volcano in central Oregon is a 3,100-square-kilometer (1,200-square-mile) shield-shaped composite volcano, occupying a location east of the main north-south trend of the High Cascades volcanoes and forming a transition between the High Lava Plains subprovince of the Basin and Range Province to the east and the Cascade Range to the west. Magnetic, gravity, and radiometric data have been gathered and assessed for the region around the volcano. These data have widely varying quality and resolution, even within a given dataset, and these limitations are evaluated and described in this release. Publicly available gravity data in general are too sparse to permit detailed modeling except along a few roads with high-density coverage. Likewise, magnetic data are also unsuitable for all but very local modeling, primarily because available data consist of a patchwork of datasets with widely varying line-spacing. Gravity data show only the broadest correlation with mapped geology, whereas magnetic data show moderate correlation with features only in the vicinity of Newberry Caldera. At large scales, magnetic data correlate poorly with both geologic mapping and gravity data. These poor correlations are largely due to the different sensing depths of the two potential fields methods, which respond to physical properties deeper than the surficial geology. Magnetic data derive from rocks no deeper than the Curie-point isotherm depth (10 to 15 kilometers, km, maximum), whereas gravity data reflect density-contrasts to 100 to 150 km depths. Radiometric data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) surveys of the 1980s have perhaps the coarsest line-spacing of all (as much as 10 km between lines) and are extremely noisy for several reasons inherent to this kind of data. Despite its shallow-sensing character, only a few larger anomalies in the NURE data correlate well with geologic mapping. The purpose of this data series release is to collect and place the available geophysical data in the hands of other investigators in a readily comprehensible form. All data-compilation, splicing, filtering, and overlay-map displays were accomplished with the commercial Geosoft system, Advanced Option. Images are provided in both JPG and PDF formats.

Wynn, Jeff

2014-01-01

424

Radiometric Cross-Calibration of the HJ-1B IRS in the Thermal Infrared Spectral Band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The natural calamities occur continually, environment pollution and destruction in a severe position on the earth presently, which restricts societal and economic development. The satellite remote sensing technology has an important effect on improving surveillance ability of environment pollution and natural calamities. The radiometric calibration is precondition of quantitative remote sensing; which accuracy decides quality of the retrieval parameters. Since the China Environment Satellite (HJ-1A/B) has been launched successfully on September 6th, 2008, it has made an important role in the economic development of China. The satellite has four infrared bands; and one of it is thermal infrared. With application fields of quantitative remote sensing in china, finding appropriate calibration method becomes more and more important. Many kinds of independent methods can be used to do the absolute radiometric calibration. In this paper, according to the characteristic of thermal infrared channel of HJ-1B thermal infrared multi-spectral camera, the thermal infrared spectral band of HJ-1B IRS was calibrated using cross-calibration methods based on MODIS data. Firstly, the corresponding bands of the two sensors were obtained. Secondly, the MONDTRAN was run to analyze the influences of different spectral response, satellite view zenith angle, atmosphere condition and temperature on the match factor. In the end, their band match factor was calculated in different temperature, considering the dissimilar band response of the match bands. Seven images of Lake Qinghai in different time were chosen as the calibration data. On the basis of radiance of MODIS and match factor, the IRS radiance was calculated. And then the calibration coefficients were obtained by linearly regressing the radiance and the DN value. We compared the result of this cross-calibration with that of the onboard blackbody calibration, which consistency was good.The maximum difference of brightness temperature between HJ-1B IRS band4 and MODIS band 31 is less than 1 K. Therefore cross-calibration is a rapid and financial way to get calibration coefficients of HJ-1B, however, the matched factor calculation method need further research in order to further improve cross-calibration precision.

Sun, K.

2012-12-01

425

Signature modelling and radiometric rendering equations in infrared scene simulation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and optimisation of modern infrared systems necessitates the use of simulation systems to create radiometrically realistic representations (e.g. images) of infrared scenes. Such simulation systems are used in signature prediction, the development of surveillance and missile sensors, signal/image processing algorithm development and aircraft self-protection countermeasure system development and evaluation. Even the most cursory investigation reveals a multitude of factors affecting the infrared signatures of realworld objects. Factors such as spectral emissivity, spatial/volumetric radiance distribution, specular reflection, reflected direct sunlight, reflected ambient light, atmospheric degradation and more, all affect the presentation of an object's instantaneous signature. The signature is furthermore dynamically varying as a result of internal and external influences on the object, resulting from the heat balance comprising insolation, internal heat sources, aerodynamic heating (airborne objects), conduction, convection and radiation. In order to accurately render the object's signature in a computer simulation, the rendering equations must therefore account for all the elements of the signature. In this overview paper, the signature models, rendering equations and application frameworks of three infrared simulation systems are reviewed and compared. The paper first considers the problem of infrared scene simulation in a framework for simulation validation. This approach provides concise definitions and a convenient context for considering signature models and subsequent computer implementation. The primary radiometric requirements for an infrared scene simulator are presented next. The signature models and rendering equations implemented in OSMOSIS (Belgian Royal Military Academy), DIRSIG (Rochester Institute of Technology) and OSSIM (CSIR & Denel Dynamics) are reviewed. In spite of these three simulation systems' different application focus areas, their underlying physics-based approach is similar. The commonalities and differences between the different systems are investigated, in the context of their somewhat different application areas. The application of an infrared scene simulation system towards the development of imaging missiles and missile countermeasures are briefly described. Flowing from the review of the available models and equations, recommendations are made to further enhance and improve the signature models and rendering equations in infrared scene simulators.

Willers, Cornelius J.; Willers, Maria S.; Lapierre, Fabian

2011-11-01

426

Review of Terra MODIS thermal emissive band L1B radiometric performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Earth Observing System Terra satellite, launched into orbit on 18 December 1999, will have a "first light" 15th anniversary on 24 February 2015. For nearly 15 years the MODIS instrument has provided radiances in all spectral bands. Though some detectors have fallen below SNR thresholds, the vast majority of spectral bands continue to provide high quality L1B measurements for use in L2 science algorithms supporting global climate research. Radiometric accuracy of the Terra MODIS thermal emissive bands (TEBs) in the C6 L1B product has been assessed using various approaches over the nearly 15 year Terra MODIS data record, including comparisons with instruments on the ground, in aircraft under-flights, and on other satellites. All of these approaches contribute to the understanding of the Terra MODIS radiometric L1B performance. Early in the lifetime of Terra, ground-based measurements and NASA ER-2 aircraft under-flights revealed that TEBs in the infrared window ("window" bands) are well calibrated and performing within accuracy specifications. The ER-2 under-flights also suggested that many atmospheric bands may be performing outside of specification, especially LWIR CO2 sensitive bands that are subject to optical crosstalk, although analysis uncertainties are larger for atmospheric bands. Beginning in 2007, MetOp-A IASI observations were used to evaluate Terra MODIS TEB performance through Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) comparisons. These inter-satellite comparisons largely affirm the early aircraft and ground-based evaluations, showing that all Terra MODIS window bands have small biases, minimal trending, and minor detector and mirror side striping over the 2007-2013 timeframe. Most atmospheric bands are performing satisfactorily near to specification; however, biases, striping and trending are large and significantly out of specification in the water vapor sensitive band 27 and ozone sensitive band 30 while the CO2 sensitive band 36 bias significantly exceeds specification. The investigation has found that an effective spectral shift significantly reduces biases and scene temperature dependence (but not trends) in most atmospheric bands, bringing them closer to, if not within, specification.

Moeller, Chris; Menzel, W. P.; Quinn, Greg

2014-09-01

427

The marine optical buoy (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past decade, the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY), a radiometric buoy stationed in the waters off Lanai, Hawaii, has been the primary in-water oceanic observatory for the vicarious calibration of U. S. satellite ocean color sensors, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometers (MODIS) instruments on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's)

Steven W. Brown; Stephanie J. Flora; Michael E. Feinholz; Mark A. Yarbrough; Terrence Houlihan; Darryl Peters; Yong Sung Kim; James L. Mueller; B. Carol Johnson; Dennis K. Clark

2007-01-01

428

Radiometric cross-calibration of the Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ using an invariant desert site  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methodology for long-term radiometric cross-calibration between the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat 7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors was developed. The approach involves calibration of near-simultaneous surface observations between 2000 and 2007. Fifty-seven cloudfree image pairs were carefully selected over the Libyan desert for this study. The Libyan desert site (+28.55, +23.39), located in

Taeyoung Choi; Amit Angal; Gyanesh Chander; Xiaoxiong Xiong

2008-01-01

429

Magnetostratigraphic dating of the uplifted atoll of Mar: Geodynamics of the Loyalty Ridge, SW Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Loyalty Islands (SW Pacific) are uplifted as they are progressively affected by the lithospheric flexure of the Australian plate, before its subduction under the New Hebrides Arc. These geodynamic changes are constrained by magnetostratigraphically dating two sections from Mar Island, where mineral extractions coupled with rock-magnetic experiments suggest that the magnetic remanence is mostly carried by a mixture of single-domain to multidomain magnetite/maghemite. With the help of faunal determinations and radiometric dating, the sequences of polarity reversals, correlated to the geomagnetic polarity timescale, range from the top of Chron C4n (late Miocene) to the top of the Gauss Chron (late Pliocene). This new chronostratigraphy refines the timing of two distinctive carbonate units (rhodolith platform/coral reefs) separated by a hardground whose transition is known to coincide approximately with a regional event around the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. The magnetostratigraphic dating indicates that the hardground represents about a 1.9 m.y. hiatus and suggests variable sedimentation rates ranging from 4.7 to 65.4 m/m.y. during the atoll construction. The lithospheric bulge seems to have influenced the evolution of Mar Island some 3.1 m.y. ago, leading to a diachronous emersion of the northeast and southwest rim of the atoll with a mean uplift rate of the order of 4 cm/kyr.

Guyomard, T. S.; ASsaoui, D. M.; McNeill, D. F.

1996-01-01

430

FOR OFFICE USE ONLY Effective Date  

E-print Network

Physician Code Section. Dental Office No: Add Spouse - Date of marriage: _______ /_______ /_______ Add Family Member - Effective Date: _______ /_______ /_______ Reason: _______ /_______ /________ Name(s): _____________________________________ Reason: ____________________ I understand that if I

Gleeson, Joseph G.

431

Radiometric calibration of GOSAT TANSO-FTS SWIR bands: comparison of vicarious to on-orbit results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation - Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) aboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) has been providing global, space-based measurements of solar reflected radiances since early 2009. Several operational or semi-operational algorithms exist to invert the measured radiances, producing column-averaged carbon dioxide (CO2) dry air mole fraction (XCO2). The resulting XCO2 are used as inputs to flux inversion models to determine sources and sinks of CO2. An accurate radiometric calibration of the TANSO-FTS short wave infrared (SWIR) channels is required in order to yield results with high accuracy. In this work we summarize the latest estimation of ground-based vicarious calibration coefficients (VCC) from four separate field campaigns conducted at the Railroad Valley playa in June of 2009-2012. We then provide a comparison of the time-dependent VCC with the results from the radiometric calibration performed using on-orbit solar observations. While both approaches indicate some radiometric degradation in the SWIR bands, with the strongest decay in the Oxygen-A band, the magnitude of the changes disagree.

Taylor, T. E.; O'Dell, C.; O'Brien, D. M.; Kataoka, F.; Kuze, A.; Bruegge, C.

2012-12-01

432

Retrieval of total precipitable water over high-latitude regions using radiometric measurements near 90 and 183 GHz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiometric measurements at 90 GHz and three sideband frequencies near the peak water vapor absorption line of 183.3 GHz were made with Advanced Microwave Moisture Sounder (AMMS) aboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Global Aerosol Backscatter Experiment (GLOBE) mission over the Pacific Ocean in November 1989. Some of the measurements over the high-latitude regions (greater than 50 deg N or 50 deg S) were analyzed for the retrieval of total precipitable water less than 0.5 g/sq cm both over land and ocean surfaces. The results show that total precipitable water from a relatively dry atmosphere could be estimated with high sensitivity from these radiometric measurements. The retrieved values over ocean surface show a decrease toward the polar region as expected. The retrieved total precipitable water over land correlates positively with the aircraft radar altitude. This positive correlation is expected because the aircraft radar altitude provides a measure of atmospheric water vapor burden above the surface. Retrieved high reflectivities over land surface at 90 GHz and 183 GHz are presumably related to snow cover on the ground. This suggests that radiometric measurements at these frequencies could be used to map snow at high-latitude regions.

Wang, J. R.; Boncyk, W. C.; Dod, L. R.; Sharma, A. K.

1992-01-01

433

Saalian supercycle, Mindel/Riss interglacial and Milankovitch's dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are five Pleistocene glacial/interglacial cycles recorded in deep-sea sediments from the last half million years, but only two classic interglacials are recognized on land. The dilemma stems from the different understanding and identification of glacials and interglacials in the geologic records on land and in the ocean. Only those intervals of warm climate that followed a major southward ice sheet advance and were accompanied by a deep penetrating oceanic transgression were recognized in their type areas of Northern Europe as true interglacials. Only those ice advances which left moraines farther south than younger ones were recognized as glacials. In contrast, all intervals reflecting exceptionally low global ice volume, high sea level and warm sea surface are taken as interglacials in the deep-sea record. Classic subdivisions are aligned with the glacial/interglacial cycles of marine isotope stage stratigraphies by proposed higher order units called supercycles (SC), bracketed by superterminations (ST). The Saalian supercycle (SC2) includes glacial cycles C, D and E composed of marine isotope stages MIS 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11. The units MIS 7 to MIS 11 correspond to the Great (Gross) Interglacial, estimated from the early geologic considerations to be about 240 millennia long [Penck and Brckner, 1909. Die Alpen im Eiszeitalter, vols. 1-3. Christian-Herman Tauchnitz, Leipzig] and determined from astronomic computations to last 235 millennia [Milankovitch, 1941. Kanon der Erdbestrahlung und seine Anwendung auf das Eiszeitenproblem. Acadmie Royale Serbe Editions Speciales Section des Sciences Mathmatiques et Naturelles, Tome CXXXIII. Stamparija Mihaila Curcica, Beograd, 633pp.). The current high precision radiometric dating fully confirms the accuracy of Milankovitch's determination and the pivotal role of orbital mechanisms in Pleistocene climate change.

Kukla, George

2005-08-01

434

Can we settle with single-band radiometric temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatment of chestwall recurrence of breast cancer using a dual-mode transceiving applicator?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The total thermal dose that can be delivered during hyperthermia treatments is frequently limited by temperature heterogeneities in the heated tissue volume. Reliable temperature information on the heated area is thus vital for the optimization of clinical dosimetry. Microwave radiometry has been proposed as an accurate, quick and painless temperature sensing technique for biological tissue. Advantages include the ability to sense volume-averaged temperatures from subsurface tissue non-invasively, rather than with a limited set of point measurements typical of implanted temperature probes. We present a procedure to estimate the maximum tissue temperature from a single radiometric brightness temperature which is based on a numerical simulation of 3D tissue temperature distributions induced by microwave heating at 915 MHz. The temperature retrieval scheme is evaluated against errors arising from unknown variations in thermal, electromagnetic and design model parameters. Whereas realistic deviations from base values of dielectric and thermal parameters have only marginal impact on performance, pronounced deviations in estimated maximum tissue temperature are observed for unanticipated variations of the temperature or thickness of the bolus compartment. The need to pay particular attention to these latter applicator construction parameters in future clinical implementation of the thermometric method is emphasized.

Jacobsen, Svein; Stauffer, Paul R.

2007-02-01

435

Applications of high spectral resolution FTIR observations demonstrated by the radiometrically accurate ground-based AERI and the scanning HIS aircraft instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development in the mid 80s of the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) for the high altitude NASA ER2 aircraft demonstrated the capability for advanced atmospheric temperature and water vapor sounding and set the stage for new satellite instruments that are now becoming a reality [AIRS (2002), CrIS (2006), IASI (2006), GIFTS (2005/6)]. Follow-on developments at the University of Wisconsin-Madison that employ interferometry for a wide range of Earth observations include the ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Scanning HIS aircraft instrument (S-HIS). The AERI was developed for the US DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, primarily to provide highly accurate radiance spectra for improving radiative transfer models. The continuously operating AERI soon demonstrated valuable new capabilities for sensing the rapidly changing state of the boundary layer and properties of the surface and clouds. The S-HIS is a smaller version of the original HIS that uses cross-track scanning to enhance spatial coverage. S-HIS and its close cousin, the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed (NAST) operated by NASA Langley, are being used for satellite instrument validation and for atmospheric research. The calibration and noise performance of these and future satellite instruments is key to optimizing their remote sensing products. Recently developed techniques for improving effective radiometric performance by removing noise in post-processing is a primary subject of this paper.

Revercomb, Henry E.; Knuteson, Robert O.; Best, Fred A.; Tobin, David C.; Smith, William L.; Feltz, Wayne F.; Petersen, Ralph A.; Antonelli, Paolo; Olson, Erik R.; LaPorte, Daniel D.; Ellington, Scott D.; Werner, Mark W.; Dedecker, Ralph G.; Garcia, Raymond K.; Ciganovich, Nick N.; Howell, H. Benjamin; Vinson, Kenneth; Ackerman, Steven A.

2003-06-01

436

Sensible heat flux - Radiometric surface temperature relationship for eight semiarid areas  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of sensible heat flux, radiometric surface temperature, air temperature, and wind speed made at eight semiarid rangeland sites were used to investigate the sensible heat flux-aerodynamic resistance relationship. The individual sites covered a wide range of vegetation (0.1-4 m tall) and cover (3%-95% bare soil) conditions. Mean values of k/B, a quantity related to the resistance of heat versus momentum transfer at the surface, for the individual sites varied between 3.5 and 12.5. A preliminary test of the utility of an excess resistance based on the mean value of k/B showed that the difference between the mean estimated and measured sensible heat fluxes varied +/- 60 W/sq m for the eight semiarid sites. For the eight sites the values of k/B were plotted against the roughness Reynolds number. The plot showed considerable scatter with values ranging between and beyond the theoretical curves for bluff rough and permeable rough surfaces.

Stewart, J.B.; Kustas, W.P.; Humes, K.S.; Nichols, W.D.; Moran, M.S.; De Bruin, H.A.R. [Inst. of Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)] [Inst. of Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); [USDA-ARS, Beltsville, MD (United States); [USGS Water Resources Division, Carson City, NV (United States); [USDA-ARS, Phoenix, AZ (United States); [Agricultural Univ., Wageningen (Netherlands)

1994-09-01

437

Inter-Annual Comparison of Satellite Passive Microwave Data With Ground based Radiometric Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The snowpack properties greatly affect the climate and environment of planet Earth. For example, in high mountain ranges and other cold places, snowpack builds up in the winter and melts in the spring and summer. However, some place receive more rain instead of snow due to the increasing warmth of Earth, therefore the snowpack won't be as deep. The properties of a snowpack are density, depth, grain size, temperature, melting-refreezing cycles, surface wetness and vegetation. The comprehension of snow properties and snow seasonal variations provide useful information for various hydrological and meteorological applications. Snow is one of the many factors that take a significantly role in the seasonal flooding and water resource management. For this reason, accurate information of snow characteristics is required to increase the accuracy of hydrological forecast. The objective of this long term field experiment was to improve understanding of the effect of changing snow characteristics (grain size, density, temperature) under various meteorological conditions on the microwave emission of snow and hence to improve retrievals of snow cover properties from satellite observations. In this presentation, inter-annual comparison of satellite passive microwave data with ground based radiometric measurements; with the objective of understand the effect of wet snow on microwave emission will be presented. Furthermore, this study concentrates on increasing the accuracy of the models during the melting and refreezing period.

Zeng, G.; Choi, H.; Thelusma, K.; Muoz, J.; Lakhankar, T.

2013-12-01

438

Interlaboratory drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by a radiometric procedure and two conventional methods  

SciTech Connect

A total of 224 recent isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from 163 patients selected to have multidrug resistance were tested against streptomycin (SM), isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol (EMB) by the rapid radiometric BACTEC method and two conventional proportion methods: the World Health Organization (WHO) method, using Lowenstein-Jensen medium; and the Veterans Administration reference laboratory for mycobacteria (VA) method, using Middlebrook 7H10 agar medium. The results were compared, focusing on the concentrations of the drugs in all three methods. Among the four drugs tested, most of the discrepancies in measured activity were observed with SM and EMB, generally because of differences in the drug concentrations used by the three methods. A 4-micrograms amount of SM in the BACTEC method was found to be slightly less active than 10 micrograms in the VA method and significantly more active than 4 micrograms of dihydrostreptomycin in the WHO method. With EMB, 2.5 micrograms in BACTEC was similar to 5 micrograms in the VA method and 2 micrograms in the WHO method, while 10 micrograms in the BACTEC method was found to be more active than 10 and 2 micrograms in the VA and WHO methods, respectively. To attain close agreement, drug concentrations used in the BACTEC method should be carefully selected when a comparison is to be made with any conventional method employed in a laboratory. Standardization of in vitro susceptibility testing is greatly needed to achieve uniformity among the test methods used to evaluate tuberculosis therapeutics.

Siddiqi, S.H.; Hawkins, J.E.; Laszlo, A.

1985-12-01

439

New radiometric ages on gneisses of the Oliverian domes in New Hampshire and Massachusetts  

SciTech Connect

Gneissic plutons of the Oliverian domes, mantled by Ammonoosuc Volcanics, are located along the axis of the Bronson Hill anticlinorium from New Hampshire to Connecticut. The contacts between the plutonic and volcanic rocks appear to be concordant on a regional scale, but gneiss intrudes the volcanics in several domes. Available radiometric and fossil evidence suggests that the Ammonoosuc Volcanics have a Middle Ordovician age but are somewhat older than the Oliverian gneisses. New U-Pb zircon data from Oliverian gneisses of six domes plot on a concordia diagram as an almost colinear array that yields an upper intercept age of about 444 m.y. The plotted data vary from nearly concordant to moderately discordant, the degree of discordance, correlating with /sup 207/Pb//sup 206/Pb ages that range from 459 to 415 m.y. The pattern of discordance does not relate to the uranium contents of the zircons nor to the geographic distribution of the domes. If /sup 207/Pb//sup 206/Pb ages are considered individually without an assumed consanguinity of the units, however, they do not find particular support in geologic relationships. Thus, they prefer the concordia intercept age of 444 +/- 8 m.y. for the suite as the best estimate for the time of cr