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1

FURTHER EVALUATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDE PHYTOEXTRACTION FEASIBILITY USING SOILS FROM THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPLEX  

SciTech Connect

Fiscal Year 98 (FY98) radionuclide phytoextraction studies involved resumption of the radiocesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) investigations at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the total uranium (U{sub t}) investigations at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. This project was a collaborative effort involving scientists and engineers from MSE Technology Applications, Inc.; the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Plant Growth Laboratory at Cornell University; Phytotech, Inc.; BNL; and FEMP. In both cases, the essential goal was to improve bioavailability, uptake, and transport of these contaminants from soil to leaf-and-stalk biomass (LSB). In particular, the practical goal was to demonstrate that about half the radionuclide contaminant mass present in near surface [{le}30 centimeters (cm) below ground surface (bgs)] soils could be transferred into LSB in approximately 5 years. Based on previous (1996) study results, it would require concentration ratios (CRs) of at 5-to-10 to achieve this goal. In addition, the rate of {sup 137}Cs removal must be {ge} 2.3% per year{sup -1} [i.e., (0.693/30.2) {center_dot} 100] to equal or exceed the loss of this radionuclide through natural decay. This report first presents and discusses the results from greenhouse and field evaluations of {sup 137}Cs uptake from rooting zone soils (0-15 cm bgs) located near the Medical/Biological Research Building (No. 490) at BNL. Contamination of this site resulted from the use of near surface soils originating at the former Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF), which served as a source of landscaping materials for erosion control, etc. Project personnel from USDA evaluated various combinations of nonradioactive solutions of cesium chloride (CsCl) and rubidium chloride, ammonium nitrate solution (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}), and humic acid suspensions to enhance and sustain {sup 137}Cs levels in soil solution. Of the plants grown in such amended soils, the highest CRs occurred in the golden pigweed (Amaranthus aureus L.) with an overall CR of 3.0 (and 275 picoCurie/gram {sup 137}Cs in soil). The maximum CR (3.8) was associated with dosing this species with 100 millimole (mM) CsCl solution. However, this treatment was immediately toxic to all the species evaluated. Thus, continued use of ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) (CR=2.9) or humic acid (CR=3.2) and golden pigweed appeared to be the best approach for removing {sup 137}Cs from test site soils.

Jay Cornish

1999-01-01

2

Enhanced phyto-extraction not a feasible option to clean up uranium contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: A greenhouse experiment was set up to evaluate the potential of enhanced phyto-extraction to clean up U contaminated soils. One soil had a naturally high U concentration and the other soil was impacted by effluents from the former radium extraction industry. Enhancement of U solubility and uptake by plants (ryegrass and Indian mustard) was monitored after addition of 5 chemical amendments (5 mmol kg{sup -1} soil dry weight): citric acid, ammonium citrate-citric acid mixture, oxalic acid, EDDS and NTA. Uranium solubilization and uptake were highly influenced by the amendment applied and soil-plant combinations. Citric acid was most effective in increasing U solubility (up to 18-fold increase). Citric acid and the ammonium citrate-citric acid mixture were most effective in increasing U uptake by ryegrass (up to 6-fold). For Indian mustard, EDDS and citric acid were most effective (up to 9- fold). In the optimal scenario only 0.16 % of the total uranium present in the soil could be extracted with one harvest and it would take more than 200 years to reduce the initial uranium content with 10 %. Based on these results, we must conclude that phyto-extraction is not a feasible technique to decrease the uranium concentration of historically contaminated soils. (authors)

Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Duquene, Lise; Wannijn, Jean [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, BE-2400 Mol (Belgium); Filip, Tack [Ghent University (Belgium); Baeten, Joke [Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen (Belgium)

2007-07-01

3

PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS  

E-print Network

18/11/08 1 PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS Stephanie Marshall Phytoextraction Hyperaccumulator of phytoextraction as a means for removing heavy metals from contaminated soils The use of plants to remove) Chelating Agents: desorb heavy metals from soil matrix and form water-soluble metal complexes (Shen et al

Blouin-Demers, Gabriel

4

Phytoextraction of metals and metalloids from contaminated soils.  

PubMed

The removal of inorganic contaminants by plants is termed phytoextraction. Recent studies have looked at the feasibility of phytoextraction, and demonstrate that both good biomass yields and metal hyperaccumulation are required to make the process efficient. Adding chelating agents to soil to increase the bioavailability of contaminants can sometimes induce hyperaccumulation in normal plants, but may produce undesirable environmental risks. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the mechanisms responsible for hyperaccumulation, using natural hyperaccumulators as model plant species. Recent advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms responsible for hyperaccumulation of Zn, Cd, Ni and As by plants. Attempts to engineer metal tolerance and accumulation have so far been limited to Hg, As and Cd, and although promising results have been obtained they may be some way from practical application. More fundamental understanding of the traits and mechanisms involved in hyperaccumulation are needed so that phytoextraction can be optimised. PMID:12849780

McGrath, Steve P; Zhao, Fang-Jie

2003-06-01

5

Cadmium phytoextraction potential of different Alyssum species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was planned for providing useful information about the possibility of using serpentine adapted plants for phytoextraction of cadmium, element scarcely represented in such metalliferous environment. To this aim, we investigated variation in cadmium tolerance, accumulation and translocation in three Alyssum plants with different phenotypes: Alyssum bertolonii, that is a serpentine endemic nickel hyperaccumulator, and two populations of Alyssum

R. Barzanti; I. Colzi; M. Arnetoli; A. Gallo; S. Pignattelli; R. Gabbrielli; C. Gonnelli

2011-01-01

6

Phytoextraction of endosulfan a remediation technique.  

PubMed

Endosulfan is a cyclodiene insecticide used all over the world for the control of various insect pests on variety of food and non crop products. Despite judicious use endosulfan has been detected in atmosphere, soil, water, sediment, surface water rain water and food stuffs, which is of concern. In view of the above the use of mustard and maize plants as potential phytoremediation inputs have been evaluated. The potential of mustard (brassica campestris Linn.) and maize (Zea Maize) to remove a organochlorine pesticide endosulfan was investigated. The disappearance rate constants of endosulfan from soil were 0.03684, 0.23490 and 0.17272 day(-1) for unplanted treatment, planted with mustard and maize, respectively, which implied that plant uptake and phytoextraction with maize and mustard contributed 47.2% and 34.5%, respectively and other degradation processes took up 38.7% and 35.9%, respectively to the removal of the applied endosulfan from soil. The accumulated endosulfan decreased by 55%-91% in soil after growing the crop plants in soil, suggesting that plant uptake and phytoextraction might be the dominant process for endosulfan removal by the plant. This plant might be utilized as an efficient, economical and ecological alternative to accelerate the removal and degradation of agro-industrial wastewater polluted with endosulfan. PMID:22052137

Mukherjee, Irani; Kumar, Aman

2012-02-01

7

Towards practical cadmium phytoextraction with noccaea caerulescens.  

PubMed

A series of field trials were conducted to investigate the potential of Noccaea caerulescens F.K. Mey [syn. Thlaspi caerulescens J &C Presl. (see Koch and Al-Shehbaz 2004)] populations (genotypes) derived from southern France to phytoextract localized Cd/Zn contamination in Thailand. Soil treatments included pH variation and fertilization level and application of fungicide. N. caerulescens populations were transplanted to the field plots three months after germination and harvested in May, prior to the onset of seasonal rains. During this period growth was rapid with shoot biomass ranging from 0.93-2.2 g plant(-1) (280-650 kg ha(-1)) DW. Shoot Cd and Zn concentrations for the four populations evaluated ranged from 460-600 and 2600-2900 mg kg(-1) DW respectively. Cadmium and Zn Translocation Factors (shoot/root) for the populations tested ranged from 0.91-1.0 and 1.7-2.1 and Bioaccumulation Factors ranged from 12-15 and 1.2-1.3. We conclude that optimizing the use of fungicidal sprays, acidic soil pH, planting density and increasing the effective cropping period will increase rates of Cd and Zn removal enough to facilitate practical Cd phytoextraction from rice paddy soils in Thailand. PMID:25360891

Simmons, R W; Chaney, R L; Angle, J S; Kruatrachue, M; Klinphoklap, S; Reeves, R D; Bellamy, P

2015-01-01

8

This paper reviews progress in phytoextraction of soil elements and illustrates the key role of hyperaccumulator plant species  

E-print Network

process that allows these plants to achieve hyperaccumulation. Cadmium phytoextraction is needed for rice the elements from the field. Phytoextraction is a subset of phytoremediation which includes phytostabilization

Sparks, Donald L.

9

Phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soil by carambola (Averrhoa carambola) in field trials.  

PubMed

Use of metal-accumulating woody species to extract metals from heavy metal contaminated soil has received more attention. While considerable studies have focused on the phytoextraction potential of willow (Salix spp.) and poplar (Populus spp.), similar information is rare for other woody species. Carambola (Averrhoa carambola) is a high-biomass tree and has been identified as a new Cd-accumulating species. The present study aimed to evaluate the Cd phytoextraction potential of carambola under field condition. After growing in a slightly Cd-contaminated site for about 170 d, the carambola stand initiated by seed-seedling with high planting density (encoded with "HD-1yr") attained a high shoot biomass yield of 18.6 t ha(-1) and extracted 213 g Cdha(-1), resulting in a 1.6-fold higher Cd removal efficiency than that of a contrasting stand established by grafted-seedling with low planting density (5.3% vs. 2%). That is, "HD-1yr" would remove 50% of the total soil Cd with 13yr, assuming that the Cd removal efficiency would not change over time. Further, one crop of "HD-1yr" significantly decreased (63-69%) the Cd uptake by subsequent vegetables. Among the four carambola stands established using grafted-seedling, the 2-yr-old stand exhibited the highest annual Cd removal efficiency (3.7%), which was yet lower than that of "HD-1yr". These results suggested that phytoextraction of Cd by carambola (especially for "HD-1yr" stand) presented a feasible option to clean up agricultural soils slightly contaminated by Cd. PMID:19541343

Li, J T; Liao, B; Dai, Z Y; Zhu, R; Shu, W S

2009-08-01

10

Using hyperaccumulator plants to phytoextract soil Ni and Cd.  

PubMed

Two strategies of phytoextraction have been shown to have promise for practical soil remediation: domestication of natural hyperaccumulators and bioengineering plants with the genes that allow natural hyperaccumulators to achieve useful phytoextraction. Because different elements have different value, some can be phytomined for profit and others can be phytoremediated at lower cost than soil removal and replacement. Ni phytoextraction from contaminated or mineralized soils offers economic return greater than producing most crops, especially when considering the low fertility or phytotoxicity of Ni rich soils. Only soils that require remediation based on risk assessment will comprise the market for phytoremediation. Improved risk assessment has indicated that most Zn + Cd contaminated soils will not require Cd phytoextraction because the Zn limits practical risk from soil Cd. But rice and tobacco, and foods grown on soils with Cd contamination without corresponding 100-fold greater Zn contamination, allow Cd to readily enter food plants and diets. Clear evidence of human renal tubular dysfunction from soil Cd has only been obtained for subsistence rice farm families in Asia. Because of historic metal mining and smelting, Zn + Cd contaminated rice soils have been found in Japan, China, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand. Phytoextraction using southern France populations of Thlaspi caerulescens appears to be the only practical method to alleviate Cd risk without soil removal and replacement. The southern France plants accumulate 10-20-fold higher Cd in shoots than most T. caerulescens populations such as those from Belgium and the UK. Addition of fertilizers to maximize yield does not reduce Cd concentration in shoots; and soil management promotes annual Cd removal. The value of Cd in the plants is low, so the remediation service must pay the costs of Cd phytoextraction plus profits to the parties who conduct phytoextraction. Some other plants have been studied for Cd phytoextraction, but annual removals are much lower than the best T. caerulescens. Improved cultivars with higher yields and retaining this remarkable Cd phytoextraction potential are being bred using normal plant breeding techniques. PMID:15948583

Chaney, Rufus L; Angle, J Scott; McIntosh, Marla S; Reeves, Roger D; Li, Yin-Ming; Brewer, Eric P; Chen, Kuang-Yu; Roseberg, Richard J; Perner, Henrike; Synkowski, Eva Claire; Broadhurst, C Leigh; Wang, S; Baker, Alan J M

2005-01-01

11

Citric acid-assisted phytoextraction of lead: a field experiment.  

PubMed

Soil contamination with heavy metals has become a serious environmental problem that requires affordable strategies of remediation. This study was carried out to assess the performance of maize and vetiver in the phytoextraction of Pb from a soil contaminated by battery recycling activities. The species were planted with different spacings between rows (0.80, 0.65 and 0.50m). Citric acid (40mmolkg(-1)) was applied on each experimental plot on the 61st d of cultivation in order to solubilize the Pb and assist the phytoextraction. The results showed that the chelating agent promoted a 14-fold increase in the Pb concentration in maize shoots as compared to the control, which accumulated only 111mgkg(-1) of the metal. The citric acid induced a Pb concentration in vetiver shoots that was 7.2-6.7-fold higher than the control at both the 0.65 and 0.50m plant spacing, respectively. The use of citric acid increased substantially the uptake and translocation of Pb to the shoots, regardless of plant spacing. Citric acid was efficient in solubilizing Pb from the soil and inducing its uptake by both species. Environmentally-friendly and cost effective, commercial citric acid is recommended for assisting Pb-phytoextraction in the studied area. Due to the low natural solubility of Pb and a time frame needed of longer than 150yr to accomplish the clean-up, phytoextraction with no chelate assistance is not recommended for the area. PMID:23490185

Freitas, Eriberto Vagner; Nascimento, Clístenes Williams; Souza, Adailson; Silva, Fernando Bruno

2013-06-01

12

Potential for phytoextraction of PCBs from contaminated soils using weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive investigation of the potential of twenty-seven different species of weeds to phytoextract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated soil was conducted at two field sites (Etobicoke and Lindsay) in southern Ontario, Canada. Soil concentrations were 31?g\\/g and 4.7?g\\/g at each site respectively. All species accumulated PCBs in their root and shoot tissues. Mean shoot concentrations at the two sites

Sarah A. Ficko; Allison Rutter; Barbara A. Zeeb

2010-01-01

13

Phytoextraction of risk elements by willow and poplar trees.  

PubMed

To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of two clones of willow trees (Salix x smithiana Willd., Salix rubens) and two clones of poplar trees (Populus nigra x maximowiczii, Populus nigra Wolterson) were planted in contaminated soil (0.4-2.0 mg Cd.kg(-1), 78-313 mg Zn.kg(-1), 21.3-118 mg Cu.kg(-1)). Field experiment was carried out in Czech Republic. The study investigated their ability to accumulate heavy metals (Cd, Zn, and Cu) in harvestable plant parts. The poplars produced higher amount of biomass than willows. Both Salix clones accumulated higher amount of Cd, Zn and Cu in their biomass (maximum 6.8 mg Cd.kg(-1), 909 mg Zn.kg(-1), and 17.7 mg Cu.kg(-1)) compared to Populus clones (maximum 2.06 mg Cd.kg(-1), 463 mg Zn.kg(-1), and 11.8 mg Cu.kg(-1)). There were no significant differences between clones of individual species. BCs for Cd and Zn were greater than 1 (the highest in willow leaves). BCs values of Cu were very low. These results indicate that Salix is more suitable plant for phytoextraction of Cd and Zn than Populus. The Cu phytoextraction potential of Salix and Populus trees was not confirmed in this experiment due to low soil availability of this element. PMID:25495931

Kacálková, Lada; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Ji?ina

2015-01-01

14

Phytoextraction from mine spoils: insights from New Caledonia.  

PubMed

Increasing pressure on mineral resources has drawn research efforts into innovative supply and recycling. Metal-rich biomass produced in phytoextraction recently proved an interesting starting material for green chemistry. It allows the production of new catalysts, referred to as ecocatalysts. Ecocatalysts provide increased yields in chemical production and increased regio- and chemo-selectivity, which result in high added value. This new approach to using metal-rich biomass could spur the development of phytoextraction, a technique considered promising for long, yet without credible economic outlets. In this regard, metallophyte biodiversity hotspots, such as New Caledonia, are of particular interest for biomass supply. Potential phytoextraction from mine spoils using two species endemic to New Caledonia is discussed here. Geissois pruinosa, a hypernickelophore, and Grevillea exul, a Mn accumulator, were selected for these original experiments. The results presented here 20 months after plantation of young trees from a nursery show the interest of the approach. Mean Ni concentrations of up to 1513 mg kg(-1) are reported in G. pruinosa, as well as 2000 mg kg(-1) Mn in G. exul. Concentrations of Ni and Mn in the leaves of each species appear to be correlated with leaf age. Plantation of these species may also ensure mine reclamation, and experiments were conducted with the principles of ecological restoration in mind adding a further dimension to the approach. PMID:25427895

Losfeld, Guillaume; Mathieu, Romain; L'Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno; Jaffré, Tanguy; Grison, Claude

2014-11-28

15

Study of the potential valorization of metal contaminated Salix via phytoextraction by combustion  

E-print Network

" and "Björn") was set up on 45,000 m² of a metal contaminated dredged sediment landfill site located: trace elements, phytoextraction, Salix, combustion, dredged sediment landfill site Abstract. In the particular case of dredged sediment landfill sites contaminated with metals, phytoextraction may contribute

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

16

Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola ( Brassica napus) and radish ( Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment;

L Marchiol; S Assolari; P Sacco; G Zerbi

2004-01-01

17

Phytoextraction process optimization: characterization of the soil bacteria flora associated to the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis  

E-print Network

for the treatment of contaminated sites. Among these, phytoextraction based on hyperaccumulator plants Phytoextraction, a microbial-assisted plant technology usable for the treatment of contaminated sites, exploits collected from an industrial site contaminated with Zn and Cd located in Auby (59, France). Each sample

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

18

Phytoextraction of Cd-Contaminated Soils: Current Status and Future Challenges  

PubMed Central

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic and widely distributed pollutants in the environment. Cadmium contamination of soils has posed a serious threat to safe food production in many parts of the world. The authors present a comprehensive review of present status of phytoextraction technology for cleaning up Cd-contaminated soils, based primarily on the data resulting from both laboratory and field-scale studies that have been conducted to assess or improve the Cd phytoextraction potential of various plant species in the past decade. The encouraging results of field-scale studies have provided a fundamental basis to usher phytoextraction technology into practical use to remediate slightly to moderately Cd-contaminated soils in Europe and Asia, although this technology is not yet ready for widespread application. Chelators and microorganisms tested so far seem not to contribute to the applicability of Cd phytoextraction. The major challenges for the large-scale application of Cd phytoextraction are (a) how to further improve the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction, (b) how to cut the overall costs of Cd phytoextraction, and (c) how to get greater stakeholders’ acceptance of Cd phytoextraction as a reliable option. PMID:23335842

Li, Jin-Tian; Baker, Alan J. M.; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hong-Bin; Shu, Wen-Sheng

2012-01-01

19

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction of mercury in biosolids.  

PubMed

Mercury contaminated stockpiles of biosolids (8.4 mg kg?¹ Hg) from Melbourne Water's Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP) were investigated to evaluate the possibility of their Hg chelate-assisted phytoextraction. The effects of ammonium thiosulphate (NH?)?S?O?, cysteine (Cys), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and potassium iodide (KI) were studied to mobilize Hg and to increase its uptake in plant shoots. Three plant species were selected for this study, one herbaceous and two grasses: Atriplex codonocarpa, Austrodanthonia caespitosa and Vetiveria zizanioides. KI proved to be the best candidate for Hg phytostabilization in biosolids because it facilitated the concentration of this metal mainly in roots. (NH?)?S?O? was shown to be the most effective chelating agent among those tested for Hg phytoextraction as it allowed the highest translocation of Hg into the above-ground tissues of the selected plant species. The phytoextraction conditions using A. caespitosa as the best performing plant species were optimized at an (NH?)?S?O? concentration of 27 mmol kg?¹ and contact time with biosolids of seven day. Monitoring of the Hg concentration in biosolids and in leachate water during a 9-day treatment revealed that the biosolids Hg concentration decreased significantly after the first day of treatment and then it decreased only slightly with time reaching a value of 5.6 mg kg?¹ Hg at the end of the 9-day period. From the corresponding results obtained for the leachate water, it was suggested that a relatively large fraction of Hg (0.7 mg kg?¹ Hg) was promptly mobilized and consequently the plants were able to take up the metal and translocate it into shoots. PMID:21514623

Lomonte, Cristina; Doronila, Augustine; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Kolev, Spas D

2011-06-01

20

Radionuclide Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of ? and ? particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

Zalutsky, M. R.

21

Thermal treatment of metal-enriched biomass produced from heavy metal phytoextraction.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction is an environmentally sound method for cleaning up sites that are contaminated with toxic heavy metals. However, the method has been questioned because it produces a biomass-rich secondary waste containing the extracted metals. Therefore, further treatment of this biomass is necessary. In this study, we investigated whether thermal treatment could be a feasible option for evaporatively separating metals from the plant residues. We used a laboratory scale reactor designed to simulate the volatilization behavior of heavy metals in a grate furnace. The evaporation of alkali and heavy metals from plant samples was investigated online, using a thermo-desorption spectrometer (TDS). Experiments were performed in the temperature range of 25-950 degrees C with leaves of the Cd and Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens and of the high biomass plant Salix viminalis (willow), both grown on contaminated soils. Gasification (i.e., pyrolysis), which occurs under reducing conditions, was a better method than incineration under oxidizing conditions to increase volatilization and, hence subsequently recovery, of Cd and Zn from plants. It would also allow the recycling of the bottom ash as fertilizer. Thus, our investigations confirmed that incineration (or co-incineration) is a viable option for the treatment of the heavy metal-enriched plants. PMID:15926590

Keller, Catherine; Ludwig, Christian; Davoli, Frédéric; Wochele, Jörg

2005-05-01

22

Applicability of Phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera to Remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of phytoextraction with a Cd-hyperaccumulator plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera) to remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols. Cd absorption potentials of this plant for Andisols were examined in pot experiments. Sequentially, phytoextraction durations for remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols were calculated from the experimental data. The results were as follows: (1) Cd concentrations in the plant shoots ranged from 170-750 mg?kg-1. (2) Cd absorption of the plant for Andisols with ALC (Autoclaved Lightweight aerated Concrete) was less than for Andisols without ALC. However, the plants absorbed the same amount of soil Cd extracted by 0.01 M HCl with or without ALC. (3) Calculations suggest that the applicability of phytoextraction with this plant is high for slightly contaminated Andisols. Therefore, phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera may be a viable option for the remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols.

Kameyama, Koji; Tani, Shigeru; Sugawara, Reiko; Ishikawa, Yuichi

23

Feasibility of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes into the seabed: Review of laboratory investigations of radionuclide migration through deep-sea sediments  

SciTech Connect

The Sediment Barrier Task Group (SBTG) coordinated laboratory studies of radionuclide migration through deep-sea sediments by investigators in six countries over a period of 12 years. The objectives of these studies were to evaluate the barrier properties of a variety of deep- sea sediments from study locations characterized by the Site Assessment Task Group (SATG), and to obtain site-specific data for use by the Radiological Assessment Task Group (RATG) in models of radionuclide transport through the sediments at the Great Meteor East (GME) and Southern Nares Abyssal Plain (SNAP) study locations in the North Atlantic Ocean. This volume presents a review of these laboratory investigations and the results obtained from them. Although the SBTG also participated in numerous geochemical investigations at the study locations characterized by the SATG, these field studies are not discussed here. For the convenience of the reader, however, this volume contains a brief description of the sediments from GME and SNAP, and the Mid-Plate Mid-Gyre I (MPG I) study location in the North Pacific Ocean. 130 refs., 48 figs., 11 tabs.

Brush, L.H.

1988-08-01

24

Evaluation of plant growth regulators to increase nickel phytoextraction by Alyssum species.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that application of phytohormones to shoots of Alyssum murale increased biomass production but did not increase Ni shoot concentration. Increased biomass and Ni phytoextraction efficiency is useful to achieve economically viable phytomining. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two types of phytohormones on the Ni phytoextraction capacity of four Alyssum species. Two different commercially available phytohormones (Cytokin and Promalin) based on cytokinins and/or gibberellins were applied on shoot biomass of four Ni hyperaccumulating Alyssum species (A. corsicum, A. malacitanum, A. murale, and A. pintodasilvae). Cytokin was applied in two concentrations and promalin in one concentration. The application of phytohormones had no clear positive effect on biomass production, Ni accumulation and Ni phytoextraction efficiency in the studied Alyssum species. A. malacitanum was the only species in which a significantly negative effect of these treatments was observed (in Ni uptake). A slightly positive response to promalin treatment was observed in the biomass production and Ni phytoextraction efficiency of A. corsicum. Although this effect was not significant it does indicate a potential application of these approaches to improve phytoextraction ability. Further studies will be needed to identify the most adequate phytohormone treatment as well as the appropriate concentrations and application times. PMID:23488002

Cabello-Conejo, M I; Centofanti, T; Kidd, P S; Prieto-Fernández, A; Chaney, R L

2013-01-01

25

Enhancement of Cadmium Phytoextraction from Contaminated Soils with Artemisia princeps var. orientalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytoextraction using plants to remove toxic metals from the environment is an emerging technology for contaminated land remediation. The maximum efficiency of phytoextraction is controlled by the availability of metals in the soil. Plant availability of soil metals are often manipulated by additions of chelating agents. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to evaluate the effects of chelator and ligands on phytoextraction of Cd from contaminated soils with an endemic plant, Artemisia princeps var. orientalis. Cadmium content in the plant was highest in (NH4)2SO4 treatment, but sulfur powder had little effect on Cd accumulation in the plant due to low buffering capacity of the soil and slow turnover rate of S° to SO42-. Cadmium content in the plant was slightly increased in oxalic acid and EDTA treatments by accompanying pH decrease in the soil. Phytoremediation Index (PI) increased in the order of control < sulfur powder (S°) < oxalic acid < (NH4)2SO4< EDTA treatments. In addition, Cd content in the plant showed the same trend with PI except for EDTA treatment. It could be postulated that EDTA addition should be avoided for the soil with high Cd availability as it might accelerate a continuous leaching of Cd-EDTA complexes from surface to subsoil during the phytoextraction. Overall results indicated that (NH4)2SO4 can be used to enhance Cd accumulation in the Artemisia princeps var. orientalis during phytoextraction.

Ok, Yong Sik

26

Application of phytoextraction for uranium contaminated soil in korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soils having high concentration of uranium, sampled from Goesan Deokpyungri area in Korea, were identified with the uranium removal efficiency of phytoextraction by using several plants. According to the results of physicochemical properties, uranium concentration from soil was 28.85mg/kg, pH 5.43 and soil texture was "Sand". Results of SEP(Sequential Extraction Procedure) test, uranium concentrations ratio of soil in the status of exchangeable/carbonate was 13.4%. Five plants such as Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.), Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam), Radish (Raphanus sativus), Sesame (Perilla frutescens var. japonica) were cultivated during 56 days in phytotron. All the cultivation processes were conducted in a growth chamber at 25 degrees celsius, 70% relative humidity, 4000 Lux illumination (16 hours/day) and CO2 concentration of 600 ppm. Four times at intervals of 2 weeks leaves and roots collected were analyzed for uranium concentration. Ranges of uranium concentration of the roots and leaves from the five plants were measured to 206.81-721.22?g/kg and 3.45-10.21?g/kg respectively. The majority of uranium was found to accumulate in the roots. Uranium concentration in the leaves, regardless of the type of plants were presented below standard of drinking water(30?g/l) by U.S EPA. Phytoextraction pot experiments with citric acid were conducted. Citric acid as chelating agent was applied to soil to enhance uranium accumulation in five crop plants. 6 days before harvest crops, Each citric acid 25mM and 50mM was injected into the soil by 300ml. After injecting citric acid 25mM , pH of the soil was reduced to 4.95. Uranium concentration of leaves and roots collected from five plants was increased to 2-4times and 7-30times compared to control soil. Injected with citric acid 50mM , pH of the soil was reduced to 4.79. Uranium concentration of leaves and roots collected from five plants was increased to 3-10times and 10-50times compared to control soil. The results of TOC (Total Organic Carbon content), CEC (Cation Exchange Capacity), T-N and T-P analysis of the soil with citric acid 25mM and 50mM were similar to control soil. Finally, the chelating agent was effective to use a citric acid 50mM .

Ryu, Y.; Han, Y.; Lee, M.

2013-12-01

27

Potential for phytoextraction of PCBs from contaminated soils using weeds.  

PubMed

A comprehensive investigation of the potential of twenty-seven different species of weeds to phytoextract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated soil was conducted at two field sites (Etobicoke and Lindsay) in southern Ontario, Canada. Soil concentrations were 31 microg/g and 4.7 microg/g at each site respectively. All species accumulated PCBs in their root and shoot tissues. Mean shoot concentrations at the two sites ranged from 0.42 microg/g for Chenopodium album to 35 microg/g for Vicia cracca (dry weight). Bioaccumulation factors (BAF=[PCB](plant tissue)/[PCB](mean soil)) at the two sites ranged from 0.08 for Cirsium vulgare to 1.1 for V. cracca. Maximum shoot extractions were 420 microg for Solidago canadensis at the Etobicoke site, and 120 microg for Chrysanthemum leucanthemum at the Lindsay site. When plant density was taken into account with a theoretical density value, seventeen species appeared to be able to extract a similar or greater quantity of PCBs into the shoot tissue than pumpkins (Curcurbita pepo ssp. pepo) which are known PCB accumulators. Therefore, some of these weed species are promising candidates for future phytoremediation studies. PMID:20483449

Ficko, Sarah A; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

2010-07-15

28

Phytoextraction and dissipation of lindane by Spinacia oleracea L.  

PubMed

Remediation and management of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) contaminated soil is becoming a global priority as they are listed in the Stockholm list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for global elimination. Lindane is a OCPs candidate recently included in the Stockholm list. However, India has an exemption to produce lindane for malaria control. Because of its widespread use during the last few decades, lindane contaminated soils are found in almost all parts of India. Since phytoremediation is widely acknowledged as an innovative strategy for the clean-up of contaminated soils; the present study was aimed to evaluate the phytoextraction and dissipation of lindane by a leafy vegetable Spinacia oleracea L (Spinach). The test plant was grown in different concentrations of lindane (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg kg(-1)) and harvested at 10, 30 and 45 days. At 45 days, the concentrations of lindane in root and leaf of Spinach growing in four different concentrations were reached up to 3.5, 5.4, 7.6 and 12.3 mg kg(-1) and 1.8, 2.2, 3 and 4.9 mg kg(-1), respectively. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) in the dissipation of lindane in vegetated and non-vegetated soil. Moreover, the residual lindane in four experiments was reduced to 81, 76, 69 and 61 percent, respectively. The experimental results indicate that Spinach can be used for the phytoremediation of lindane. However, more studies are required to prevent the toxicity of harvested parts. PMID:25133347

Dubey, Rama Kant; Tripathi, Vishal; Singh, Nandita; Abhilash, P C

2014-11-01

29

Green waste compost as an amendment during induced phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soils is a new strategy that consists of using the higher plants to make the soil contaminant nontoxic. The main problem that occurs during the process is the low solubility and bioavailability of mercury in soil. Therefore, some soil amendments can be used to increase the efficiency of the Hg phytoextraction process. The aim of the investigation was to use the commercial compost from municipal green wastes to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil by Lepidium sativum L. plants and determine the leaching of Hg after compost amendment. The result of the study showed that Hg can be accumulated by L. sativum L. The application of compost increased both the accumulation by whole plant and translocation of Hg to shoots. Compost did not affect the plant biomass and its biometric parameters. Application of compost to the soil decreased the leaching of mercury in both acidic and neutral solutions regardless of growing medium composition and time of analysis. Due to Hg accumulation and translocation as well as its potential leaching in acidic and neutral solution, compost can be recommended as a soil amendment during the phytoextraction of mercury-contaminated soil. PMID:25245260

Smolinska, Beata

2014-09-24

30

Root development and heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency: comparison of different plant species in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal phytoextraction is a soil remediation technique which implies the optimal use of plants to remove contamination from soil. Plants must thus be tolerant to heavy metals, adapted to soil and climate characteristics and able to take up large amounts of heavy metals. Their roots must also fit the spatial distribution of pollution. Their different root systems allow plants

Catherine Keller; Daniel Hammer; Achim Kayser; Walter Richner; Michèle Brodbeck; Manfred Sennhauser

2003-01-01

31

Phytoextraction by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. from six arsenic-contaminated soils: Repeated harvests  

E-print Network

Phytoextraction by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. from six arsenic-contaminated soils Received 23 May 2007; received in revised form 26 September 2007; accepted 7 October 2007 Pteris vittata This greenhouse experiment evaluated arsenic removal by Pteris vittata and its effects on arsenic redistribution

Ma, Lena

32

Arbuscular mycorrhiza decreases cadmium phytoextraction by transgenic tobacco with inserted metallothionein  

E-print Network

, when metal-accumulating plants are grown on a contaminated site and the HMs are removed within for the exploitation of AM in phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Abbreviations: AM ­ arbuscular contaminated soils. This represents a severe environmental risk as increased amounts of these toxic elements

Janouskova, Martina

33

100-N Area Strontium90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone Field Treatability Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strontium-90 (90Sr) is present both in the aquifer near the river and in the vadose and riparian zones of the rivers shore at 100-NR-2. Phytoextraction of 90Sr is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua). Past studies have shown that willow roots share uptake mechanisms

Robert J. Fellows; Jonathan S. Fruchter; Crystal J. Driver; Calvin C. Ainsworth

2010-01-01

34

Phytoextraction of Cd and Zn from agricultural soils by Salix ssp. and intercropping of Salix caprea and Arabidopsis halleri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of agricultural topsoils with Cd above guideline values is of concern in many countries throughout the world.\\u000a Extraction of metals from contaminated soils using high-biomass, metal-accumulating Salix sp. has been proposed as a low-cost, gentle remediation strategy, but reasonable phytoextraction rates remain to be demonstrated.\\u000a In an outdoor pot experiment we assessed the phytoextraction potential for Cd and Zn

Gerlinde Wieshammer; Reinhard Unterbrunner; Teresa Bañares García; Michael F. Zivkovic; Markus Puschenreiter; Walter W. Wenzel

2007-01-01

35

Effects of phytoextraction on heavy metal concentrations and pH of pore-water of biosolids determined using an in situ sampling technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal concentrations and pH of pore-water in contaminated substrates are important factors in controlling metal uptake by plants. We investigated the effects of phytoextraction on these properties in the solution phase of biosolids and diluted biosolids in a 12-month phytoextraction column experiment. Phytoextraction using Salix and Populus spp. temporarily decreased pore-water pH of the substrates over the experimental period

T. T. Huynh; W. S. Laidlaw; B. Singh; D. Gregory; A. J. M. Baker

2008-01-01

36

Heavy Metals Phytoextraction from the Polluted Soils of Zakamensk (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining and ore-dressing are one of the most serious causes of environment pollution. Last century in days of active industrialization in Russia a considerable quantity of mineral deposits has been developed. It was not given sufficient attention for ecological safety at that time. After an economic crisis connected with disorder of the USSR and a planned economy, a number of the enterprises became bankrupts and have stopped the activity. As a result the broken landscapes have not been recultivated everywhere, there were numerous wastes. The negative consequences were especially strongly manifested in areas with severe climatic conditions where environmental self-renewal occurred is slowed rather down. The degree of a waste toxicity also acted as the important factor. One of such situations has arisen in Zakamensk - an administrative center of Zakamensky area of Buryat Republic (Russia). Environmental problems of the town have arisen in connection with activity of town-forming enterprise - Dzhidinsky tungsten-molybdenum industrial complex. The enterprise has been organized in 1934 and functioned within 63 years till 1997. During enterprise operating time 3 deposits have been exploited and is created 2 large (more than 40 million tons) tails depository of technogenic sands (TS), located in immediate proximity (less than 1-2 km) from a town residential zone.Sand of tails are rather toxic, the average maintenance of heavy metals in them is (mg/kg): Cd - 42, Pb - 7500, Zn - 3160, Cu - 620, Ni - 34, Co - 44, Mn - 121, Cr - 70, Hg - 0,01, As - 13, Mo - 90. Due to the lack of knowledges on the toxicity of TS in the past century, they were actively used in the road and house construction, during the erection of dams. After scientific studies they were recommended for using as fertilizers. Besides anthropogenic sands movement, there was intensive dispersion of sand by means of water and wind erosion. As a result of natural migration sands got to the subordinated elements of the landscape - Modonkul river flood plain, were transferred by its waters and redeposited in an estuary, forming a cone of carrying out with capacity of up to 2 meters or more. The presence of large number of private houses with garden plots, in which the population grew potatoes, vegetables and fruit-berry trees cultures for food purposes, is the feature of many Siberian towns, including Zakamensk. The biogeochemical assessment of the town territory current status has shown a high level of contamination of soils and plants by heavy metals that poses a threat to the health of townsmen. In this connection search of effective ways of clearing up of the polluted soils by phytoextraction and selection of plants, capable to extract high quantities of heavy metals from soil in concrete ecological conditions, is actual. For this purpose we had been made experiments with 8 species of plants. Modeling of various conditions of pollution carried out by addition of following quantities of TS (%): 0; 25; 33; 50; 67; 75 and 100. In the report results of the experiments and the recommendations on using of plants as extractors on soils polluted by technogenic sand will be presented.

Ubugunov, V.; Dorzhonova, V.; Ubugunov, L.

2012-04-01

37

Enhanced phytoextraction of chromium by the aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton pusillus in presence of copper.  

PubMed

The aquatic macrophyte, Potamogeton pusillus was evaluated for the removal of Cu(2+) and Cr(+6) from aqueous solutions during 15 days phytoextraction experiments. Results show that P. pusillus is capable of accumulating substantial amount of Cu and Cr from individual solutions (either Cu(2+) or Cr(+6)). Significant correlations between metal removal and bioaccumulation were obtained. Roots and leaves accumulated the highest amount of Cu and Cr followed by stems. The bioaccumulation of Cr was significantly enhanced in the presence of Cu, showing a synergic effect on Cr(+6) removal, presenting a good alternative for the removal of these metals from polluted aquifers. To the extent of our knowledge, this is the first report on both enhanced phytoextraction of Cr(+6) in presence of Cu(+2) and bioaccumulation of these heavy metals by P. pusillus. PMID:22230062

Monferrán, Magdalena V; Pignata, María L; Wunderlin, Daniel A

2012-02-01

38

Phytotoxicity of biosolids and screening of selected plant species with potential for mercury phytoextraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury contaminated stockpiles of biosolids (3.5–8.4mgkg?1 Hg) from Melbourne Water's Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP) were investigated to evaluate the possibility for their phytoremediation. Nine plant species (Atriplex codonocarpa, Atriplex semibaccata, Austrodanthonia caespitosa, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Gypsophila paniculata, Sorghum bicolor, Themeda triandra and Trifolium subterraneum) were screened for phytoextraction potential in Hg-contaminated biosolids from MW-WTP. In addition, the same plant

Cristina Lomonte; Augustine I. Doronila; David Gregory; Alan J. M. Baker; Spas D. Kolev

2010-01-01

39

PHYTOEXTRACTION: SIMULATING UPTAKE AND TRANSLOCATION OF ARSENIC IN A SOIL–PLANT SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake, transport, and accumulation of metals by plants are functions central to successful phytoextraction. This study investigates the uptake and translocation of arsenic from a contaminated sandy soil by a mature Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittataL.). An existing mathematical model for the coupled transport of water, heat, and solutes in the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum (CTSPAC) was modified to examine the

Ying Ouyang

2005-01-01

40

Model evaluation of the phytoextraction potential of heavy metal hyperaccumulators and non-hyperaccumulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the remediation ability of zinc\\/cadmium in hyper- and non-hyperaccumulator plant species through greenhouse studies is limited. To bridge the gap between greenhouse studies and field applications for phytoextraction, we used published data to examine the partitioning of heavy metals between plants and soil (defined as the bioconcentration factor). We compared the remediation ability of the Zn\\/Cd hyperaccumulators Thlaspi

Hong-Ming Liang; Ting-Hsiang Lin; Jeng-Min Chiou; Kuo-Chen Yeh

2009-01-01

41

Phytoextraction and phytostabilisation of metal-contaminated soil in temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research addressed the phytoremediation of roadside soils subjected to multi-component metal solutions. A typical right of way for roads in Canada is around 30 m, and at least 33% of that land in the right of way is unpaved and can support animal life. Thus, land associated with 12,000 km of roads in the province of British Columbia and millions of kilometres around the world represent a substantial quantity of wildlife habitat where metal contamination needs to be remediated. Phytostabilisation, requires least maintenance among different phytoremediation techniques, and it could be a feasible and practical method of remediating in roadside soils along highways and for improving highway runoff drainage. The suitability of five plant species was studied for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation in a region with temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Pot experiments were conducted using Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue), Helianthus annuus L (sunflower), Poa pratensis L (Kentucky bluegrass) and Brassica napus L (rape) in soils treated with three different metal (Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn) concentrations. The bio-metric characters of plants in soils with multiple-metal contaminations, their metal accumulation characteristics, translocation properties and metal removal were assessed at different stages of plant growth, 90 and 120 DAS (days after sowing). Lolium was found to be suitable for the phytostabilisation of Cu and Pb, Festuca for Mn and Poa for Zn. Metal removal was higher at 120 than at 90 days after sowing, and metals concentrated more in the underground tissues with less translocation to the above-ground parts. Bioconcentration factors indicate that Festuca had the highest accumulation for Cu, Helianthus for Pb and Zn and Poa for Mn.

Padmavathiamma, P. K.; Li, L. Y.

2009-04-01

42

Phytoextraction potential of two Rumex acetosa L. accessions collected from metalliferous and non-metalliferous sites: effect of fertilization.  

PubMed

Metal tolerance and phytoextraction potential of two common sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.) accessions, collected from a Pb/Zn contaminated site (CS, Lanestosa) and an uncontaminated site (UCS, Larrauri), were studied in fertilized and non-fertilized pots prepared by combining soil samples from both sites in different proportions (i.e., 0%, 33%, 66% and 100% of Lanestosa contaminated soil). The original metalliferous mine soil contained 20480, 4950 and 14 mg kg(-1) of Zn, Pb and Cd, respectively. The microcosm experiment was carried out for two months under greenhouse controlled conditions. It was found that fertilization increased mean plant biomass of both accessions as well as their tolerance. However, only the CS accession survived all treatments even though its biomass decreased proportionally according to the percentage of contaminated mine soil present in the pots. This metallicolous accession would be useful for the revegetation and phytostabilization of mine soils. Due to its high concentration and bioavailability in the contaminated soil, the highest values of metal phytoextracted corresponded to Zn. The CS accession was capable of efficiently phytoextracting metal from the 100% mine soil, indeed reaching very promising phytoextraction rates in the fertilized pots (6.8 mg plant(-1) month(-1)), similar to the ones obtained with hyperaccumulator plants. It was concluded that fertilization is certainly worth being considered for phytoextraction and revegetation with native plants from metalliferous soils. PMID:18951609

Barrutia, O; Epelde, L; García-Plazaola, J I; Garbisu, C; Becerril, J M

2009-01-01

43

Effects of phytoextraction on heavy metal concentrations and pH of pore-water of biosolids determined using an in situ sampling technique.  

PubMed

Heavy metal concentrations and pH of pore-water in contaminated substrates are important factors in controlling metal uptake by plants. We investigated the effects of phytoextraction on these properties in the solution phase of biosolids and diluted biosolids in a 12-month phytoextraction column experiment. Phytoextraction using Salix and Populus spp. temporarily decreased pore-water pH of the substrates over the experimental period followed by a return to initial pH conditions. Salixxreichardtii and Populus balsamifera effectively extracted Ni, Zn and Cd and actively mobilized these metals from the solid to the solution phase. S.xreichardtii had the stronger effect on mobilization of metals due to its larger root system. Phytoextraction did not affect Cu in the solution phase of the biosolids. Heavy metals were leached down to lower depths of the columns during the phytoextraction process. PMID:18586368

Huynh, T T; Laidlaw, W S; Singh, B; Gregory, D; Baker, A J M

2008-12-01

44

The role of plant-associated bacteria in the mobilization and phytoextraction of trace elements in contaminated soils  

PubMed Central

Phytoextraction makes use of trace element-accumulating plants that concentrate the pollutants in their tissues. Pollutants can be then removed by harvesting plants. The success of phytoextraction depends on trace element availability to the roots and the ability of the plant to intercept, take up, and accumulate trace elements in shoots. Current phytoextraction practises either employ hyperaccumulators or fast-growing high biomass plants; the phytoextraction process may be enhanced by soil amendments that increase trace element availability in the soil. This review will focus on the role of plant-associated bacteria to enhance trace element availability in the rhizosphere. We report on the kind of bacteria typically found in association with trace element – tolerating or – accumulating plants and discuss how they can contribute to improve trace element uptake by plants and thus the efficiency and rate of phytoextraction. This enhanced trace element uptake can be attributed to a microbial modification of the absorptive properties of the roots such as increasing the root length and surface area and numbers of root hairs, or by increasing the plant availability of trace elements in the rhizosphere and the subsequent translocation to shoots via beneficial effects on plant growth, trace element complexation and alleviation of phytotoxicity. An analysis of data from literature shows that effects of bacterial inoculation on phytoextraction efficiency are currently inconsistent. Some key processes in plant–bacteria interactions and colonization by inoculated strains still need to be unravelled more in detail to allow full-scale application of bacteria assisted phytoremediation of trace element contaminated soils. PMID:23645938

Sessitsch, Angela; Kuffner, Melanie; Kidd, Petra; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Wenzel, Walter W.; Fallmann, Katharina; Puschenreiter, Markus

2013-01-01

45

Growth response and phytoextraction of copper at different levels in soils by Elsholtzia splendens.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation is a promising approach for cleaning up soils contaminated with heavy metals. Information is needed to understand growth response and uptake mechanisms of heavy metals by some plant species with exceptional capability in absorbing and superaccumulating metals from soils. Greenhouse study, field trial, and old mined area survey were conducted to evaluate growth response and Cu phytoextraction of Elsholtzia splendens in contaminated soils, which has been recently identified to be tolerant to high Cu concentration and have great potential in remediating contaminated soils. The results from this study indicate that the plant exhibited high tolerance to Cu toxicity in the soils, and normal growth was attained up to 80 mg kg(-1) available soil Cu (the NH4OAc extractable Cu) or 1000 mg kg(-1) total Cu. Under the field conditions, a biomass yield of 9 ton ha(-1) was recorded at the soil available Cu level of 77 mg kg(-1), as estimated by the NH4OAc extraction method. Concentration-dependent uptake of Cu by the plant occurred mainly at the early growth stage, and at the late stage, there is no difference in shoot Cu concentrations grown at different extractable soil Cu levels. The extractability of Cu from the highly polluted soil is much greater by the roots than that by the shoots. The NH4OAc extractable Cu level in the polluted soil was reduced from 78 to 55 mg kg(-1) in the soil after phytoextraction and removal of Cu by the plant species for one growth season. The depletion of extractable Cu level in the rhizosphere was noted grown in the mined area, even at high Cu levels, the NH4OAc extractable Cu in the rhizosphere was 30% lower than that in the bulk soil. These results indicate that phytoextraction of E. splendens can effectively reduce the plant-available Cu level in the polluted soils. PMID:15081758

Jiang, L Y; Yang, X E; He, Z L

2004-06-01

46

Phytosiderophore effects on subsurface actinide contaminants: potential for phytostabilization and phytoextraction.  

SciTech Connect

In recognition of the need for a safe, effective technology for long term Pu/Th/Actinide stabilization or removal from soils, we have begun an investigation of the potential for phytoremediation (phytostabilization and/or phytoextraction) of Pu and other actinide soil contaminants at DOE sites using phytosiderophore producing plants, and are investigating the contribution of phytosiderophores to actinide mobility in the subsurface environment. Phytoremediation and Phytostabilization have been proven to be a cost-effective, safe, efficient, and publicly acceptable technology for clean up and/or stabilization of contaminant metals . However, no phyto-based technologies have been developed for stabilization or removal of plutonium from soils and groundwater, and very few have been investigated for other actinides . Current metal-phytostabilization and phytoremediation techniques, predominately based around lead, nickel, and other soft-metal phytoextraction, will almost certainly be inadequate for plutonium due its distinct chemical properties . Phytosiderophore-based phytoremediation may provide technically and financially practical methods for remediation and long-term stewardship of soils that have low to moderate, near surface actinide contamination . We plan to demonstrate potential benefits of phytosiderophore-producing plants for long-term actinide contaminant stabilization by the plant's prevention of soil erosion and actinide migration through hydraulic control and/or through actinide removal through phytoextraction . We may also show possible harm caused by these plants through increased presence of actinide chelators that could increase actinide mobilization and migration in the subsurface environment. This information can then be directly applied by either removal of harmful plants, or be used to develop plant-based soil stabilization/remediation technologies .

Ruggiero, C. E. (Christy E.); Twary, S. N. (Scott N.); Deladurantaye, E. (Elise)

2003-01-01

47

A feasibility study of perennial/annual plant species to restore soils contaminated with heavy metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study was carried out to evaluate the application of perennial/annual plant species in a phytoextraction process of a previously washed industrial urban soil contaminated by nickel, arsenic and cupper. The plant species selected for this study were Ipomea (Ipomea variada); grass (Poa pratensis); grass mixture (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum sp.); Monks Cress (Tropaeolum majus); ficus (Ficus benajamina) and fern (Pteris cretica). Soil was characterized and it presented the following heavy metals concentrations (dry weight): 80 mg of Ni/kg, 456-656 mg of As/kg and 1684-3166 mg of Cu/kg. Germination and survival in contaminated soil tests were conducted, from these, P. pratensis was discarded and the rest of plant species tested were used for the phytoextraction selection test. After 4 months of growth, biomass production was determined, and content of Ni, As and Cu was analyzed in plant’s tissue. Metal biological absorption coefficient (BAC), bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were calculated. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, an inhibition of the plant growth compared with blanks sown in a non contaminated soil; inhibition ranged from 22.5% for the Monk cress to 98% for Ipomea. Even though the later presented high BAC, BCF and TF, its growth was severely inhibited, and therefore, due its low biomass generation, it is not recommended for phytoextraction under conditions for this study. Heavy metals concentrations in plant’s tissue (dry weight) were as high as 866 mg Cu/kg and 602 mg As/kg for grass mixture; and 825 mg As/kg was observed for Monks cress. Grass mixture and monks cress had high BAC, BCF and TF, also they had high metal concentrations in its plants tissues and the lowest growth inhibition rates; hence the application in phytoextraction processes of these plants is advisable.

Zacarías, Montserrat; Beltrán, Margarita; Gilberto Torres, Luis; González, Abelardo

48

Effects of Metal Phytoextraction Practices on the Indigenous Community of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi at a Metal-Contaminated Landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoextraction involves use of plants to remove toxic metals from soil. We examined the effects of phyto- extraction practices with three plant species (Silene vulgaris, Thlaspi caerulescens, and Zea mays) and a factorial variation of soil amendments (either an ammonium or nitrate source of nitrogen and the presence or absence of an elemental sulfur supplement) on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi

TERESA E. PAWLOWSKA; RUFUS L. CHANEY; MEL CHIN; IRIS CHARVAT

2000-01-01

49

Citric acid improves lead (pb) phytoextraction in brassica napus L. by mitigating pb-induced morphological and biochemical damages.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction is an environmentally friendly and a cost-effective strategy for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. However, lower bioavailability of some of the metals in polluted environments e.g. lead (Pb) is a major constraint of phytoextraction process that could be overcome by applying organic chelators. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to evaluate the role of citric acid (CA) in enhancing Pb phytoextraction. Brassica napus L. seedlings were grown in hydroponic media and exposed to various treatments of Pb (50 and 100 ?M) as alone or in combination with CA (2.5mM) for six weeks. Pb-induced damage in B. napus toxicity was evident from elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 that significantly inhibited plant growth, biomass accumulation, leaf chlorophyll contents and gas exchange parameters. Alternatively, CA application to Pb-stressed B. napus plants arrested lipid membrane damage by limiting MDA and H2O2 production and by improving antioxidant enzyme activities. In addition, CA significantly increased the Pb accumulation in B. napus plants. The study concludes that CA has a potential to improve Pb phytoextraction without damaging plant growth. PMID:25164201

Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Ali, Shafaqat; Hameed, Amjad; Farid, Mujahid; Hussain, Sabir; Yasmeen, Tahira; Najeeb, Ullah; Bharwana, Saima Aslam; Abbasi, Ghulam Hasan

2014-11-01

50

Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and

U. Najeeb; L. Xu; Shafaqat Ali; Ghulam Jilani; H. J. Gong; W. Q. Shen; W. J. Zhou

2009-01-01

51

Comparison of EDTA and Citric Acid-Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals in Artificially Metal Contaminated Soil by Typha Angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of EDTA and citric acid (CA) addition in improving phytoextraction of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Cr from artificially contaminated soil by T. angustifolia. T. angustifolia showed the remarkable resistance to heavy metal toxicity with no visual toxic symptom including chlorosis and necrosis when exposed to metal stress. EDTA-addition significantly reduced plant

Dawood Muhammad; Fei Chen; Jing Zhao; Guoping Zhang; Feibo Wu

2009-01-01

52

Influence of Rapeseed Cake on Heavy Metal Uptake by a Subsequent Rice Crop After Phytoextraction Using Sedum plumbizincicola.  

PubMed

A glasshouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of phytoextraction by Sedum plumbizincicola and application of rapeseed cake (RSC) on heavy metal accumulation by a subsequent rice (Oryza sativa L.) crop in a contaminated paddy soil collected from east China. After phytoextraction by S. plumbizincicola the soil and brown rice Cd concentrations effectively declined. After phytoextraction, RSC application reduced brown rice Cd concentrations in the subsequent rice crop to 0.23-0.28 mg kg(-1), almost down to the standard limit (0.2 mg kg(-1)). After phytoextraction and then application of RSC, the soil solution pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentrations increased during early stages of rice growth resulting directly and indirectly in lowering the bioavailability of the heavy metals. Thus the grain yield of the subsequent rice crop increased and the heavy metals in the brown rice declined significantly. In this contaminated acid soil, growing the hyperaccumulator S. plumbizincicola and rice in rotation together with RSC application may therefore be regarded as a viable strategy for safe grain production and bioremediation. PMID:25174427

Zhou, Liqiang; Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Yang, Bingfan; Yin, Bin; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

2015-01-01

53

The effect of nitrogen form on rhizosphere soil pH and zinc phytoextraction by Thlaspi caerulescens.  

PubMed

The phytoextraction of Zn may be improved by applying N fertilizers to increase the biomass and Zn content of shoots. Rhizosphere-pH change from uptake of different N forms will affect Zn phyto-availability in the rhizosphere and Zn phytoextraction. This glasshouse study examined the effect of N form on Zn phytoextraction by Thlaspi caerulescens (Prayon). The plants were grown in a Zn-contaminated soil (total Zn 250 mg kg-1 soil; pHwater 5.7) and supplied with (NH4)2SO4, Ca(NO3)2 or urea [(NH2)2CO]. The form was maintained by applying the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide. A biodegradable chelator ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) was included for comparison. The addition of N doubled the shoot biomass. The highest shoot Zn content occurred in the Ca(NO3)2 treatment and was associated with the highest rhizosphere pH. The lowest shoot dry weight occurred in the EDDS treatment. The Zn concentration in the shoots increased as the rhizosphere pH increased. A significant correlation occurred between Ca and Zn concentrations in the shoots. This study demonstrated that Ca(NO3)2 is a more effective treatment than , urea or EDDS for enhancing Zn phytoextraction in a mildly acidic soil. PMID:18752830

Monsant, A C; Tang, C; Baker, A J M

2008-10-01

54

Nickel and cobalt phytoextraction by the hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii: implications for polymetallic phytomining and phytoremediation.  

PubMed

We investigated the potential of the South African high-biomass Ni hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii to phytoextract Co and/or Ni from artificial metalliferous media. Plant accumulation of both metals from single-element substrates indicate that the plant/media metal concentration quotient (bioaccumulation coefficient) increases as total metal concentrations increase. Cobalt was readily taken up by B. coddii with and without the presence of Ni. Nickel uptake was, however, inhibited by the presence of an equal concentration of Co. Bioaccumulation coefficients of Ni and Co for the single element substrates (total metal concentration of 1000 micrograms g-1) were 100 and 50, respectively. Cobalt phytotoxicity was observed above a total Co concentration in plant growth media of 20 micrograms g-1. Elevated Co concentrations significantly decreased the biomass production of B. coddii without affecting the bioaccumulation coefficients. The mixed Ni-Co substrate produced bioaccumulation coefficients of 22 for both Ni and Co. Cobalt phytotoxicity in mixed Ni-Co substrate occurred above a total Co concentration of 15 micrograms g-1. When grown in the presence of both Ni and Co, the bioaccumulation coefficients of each metal were reduced, as compared to single-element substrate. This may indicate competition for binding sites in the root zone. The interference relationship between Ni and Co uptake demonstrated by B. coddii suggests a significant limitation to phytoextraction where both metals are present. PMID:14750431

Keeling, S M; Stewart, R B; Anderson, C W; Robinson, B H

2003-01-01

55

Phytotoxicity of biosolids and screening of selected plant species with potential for mercury phytoextraction.  

PubMed

Mercury contaminated stockpiles of biosolids (3.5-8.4 mg kg(-1) Hg) from Melbourne Water's Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP) were investigated to evaluate the possibility for their phytoremediation. Nine plant species (Atriplex codonocarpa, Atriplex semibaccata, Austrodanthonia caespitosa, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Gypsophila paniculata, Sorghum bicolor, Themeda triandra and Trifolium subterraneum) were screened for phytoextraction potential in Hg-contaminated biosolids from MW-WTP. In addition, the same plant species were germinated and grown in two other substrates (i.e. potting mix and potting mix spiked with mercury(II)). Growth measurements and the mercury uptake for all three substrates were compared. Some plant species grown in potting mix spiked with mercury(II) grew more vigorously than in the other two substrates and showed higher levels of sulphur in their tissues. These results suggested that the mercury stress activated defence mechanisms and it was hypothesised that this was the likely reason for the enhanced production of sulphur compounds in the plant species studied which stimulated their growth. Some species did not grow in biosolids because of the combined effect of high mercury toxicity and high salt content. Atriplex conodocarpa and Australodanthonia caespitose proved to be the most suitable candidates for mercury phytoextraction because of their ability to translocate mercury from roots to the above-ground tissues. PMID:19775810

Lomonte, Cristina; Doronila, Augustine I; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Kolev, Spas D

2010-01-15

56

Combining phytoextraction and biochar addition improves soil biochemical properties in a soil contaminated with Cd.  

PubMed

The main goal of phytoremediation is to improve ecosystem functioning. Soil biochemical properties are considered as effective indicators of soil quality and are sensitive to various environmental stresses, including heavy metal contamination. The biochemical response in a soil contaminated with cadmium was tested after several treatments aimed to reduce heavy metal availability including liming, biochar addition and phytoextraction using Amaranthus tricolor L. Two biochars were added to the soil: eucalyptus pyrolysed at 600°C (EB) and poultry litter at 400°C (PLB). Two liming treatments were chosen with the aim of bringing soil pH to the same values as in the treatments EB and PLB. The properties studied included soil microbial biomass C, soil respiration and the activities of invertase, ?-glucosidase, ?-glucosaminidase, urease and phosphomonoesterase. Both phytoremediation and biochar addition improved soil biochemical properties, although results were enzyme specific. For biochar addition these changes were partly, but not exclusively, mediated by alterations in soil pH. A careful choice of biochar must be undertaken to optimize the remediation process from the point of view of metal phytoextraction and soil biological activity. PMID:25010741

Lu, Huanping; Li, Zhian; Fu, Shenglei; Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge

2015-01-01

57

Plant uptake and the leaching of metals during the hot EDDS-enhanced phytoextraction process.  

PubMed

Using pot experiments, the effect of the application of the biodegradable chelating agent S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) in hot solutions at 90 degrees C on the uptake of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd by corn (Zea mays L. cv. Nongda No. 108) and beans (P vulgaris L. white bean), and the potential leaching of metals from soil, were studied. When EDDS was applied as a hot solution at the rate of 1 mmol kg(-1), the concentrations and total phytoextraction of metals in plant shoots exceeded or approximated those in the shoots of plants treated with normal EDDS at the rate of 5 mmol kg(-1). On the other hand, the leaching of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd after the application of the hot EDDS solution at the rate of 1 mmol kg(-1) was reduced by 46%, 21%, 57%, and 35% in comparison with that from the application of normal EDDS at 5 mmol kg(-1), respectively. For treatment with 1 mmol kg(-1) of EDDS, the leached metals decreased to the levels of the control group (that without EDDS amendment) 14 d after the application of EDDS. The soil amendment with biodegradable EDDS in hot solutions may provide a good alternative to chelate-enhanced phytoextraction in enhancing metal uptake by plants and limiting metals from leaching out of the soil. PMID:18246767

Luo, Chun-Ling; Shen, Zhen-Guo; Li, Xiang-Dong

2007-01-01

58

Phytoextraction of Zn and Cu from sewage sludge and impact on agronomic characteristics.  

PubMed

The presence of elevated concentrations of heavy metals limits the usage of sewage sludge as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Experiments were carried out to examine the extent to which seven plant species phytoextracted Zn and Cu from dewatered sludge. The hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Sedum alfredii showed the greatest removal of Zn, while shoots and tubers of two species of Alocasia showed the greatest Cu removal. Cultivation of plants in the sludge resulted in significant decreases in total Zn and changes in the partitioning of Zn between soil pools. However, Cu levels were largely unchanged and remained associated predominantly with the organic matter pool. Agronomic characteristics of the sludge material, such as pH, organic matter content, and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentrations, did not change significantly during the four-month growth period, indicating that subsequent crops could be sustained by this material. These results suggest that Zn can be phytoextracted from sludge material, provided the rate of metal uptake exceeds the rate of mobilization to the exchangeable fraction. Since there was no appreciable accumulation of Zn and Cu in seeds of Zea mays in this study, some tissues from sludge-grown plants could potentially be used as animal fodder. PMID:15792302

Xiaomei, Liu; Qitang, Wu; Banks, M K; Ebbs, S D

2005-01-01

59

Growth and Cadmium Phytoextraction by Swiss Chard, Maize, Rice, Noccaea caerulescens, and Alyssum murale in Ph Adjusted Biosolids Amended Soils.  

PubMed

Past applications of biosolids to soils at some locations added higher Cd levels than presently permitted. Cadmium phytoextraction would alleviate current land use constraints. Unamended farm soil, and biosolids amended farm and mine soils were obtained from a Fulton Co., IL biosolids management facility. Soils contained 0.16, 22.8, 45.3 mg Cd kg(-1) and 43.1, 482, 812 mg Zn kg(-1) respectively with initial pH 6.0, 6.1, 6.4. In greenhouse studies, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla), a Cd-accumulator maize (inbred B37 Zea mays) and a southern France Cd-hyperaccumulator genotype of Noccaea caerulescens were tested for Cd accumulation and phytoextraction. Soil pH was adjusted from ?5.5-7.0. Additionally 100 rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes and the Ni-hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale were screened for potential phytoextraction use. Chard suffered phytotoxicity at low pH and accumulated up to 90 mg Cd kg(-1) on the biosolids amended mine soil. The maize inbred accumulated up to 45 mg Cd kg(-1) with only mild phytotoxicity symptoms during early growth at pH > 6.0. N. caerulescens did not exhibit phytotoxicity symptoms at any pH, and accumulated up to 235 mg Cd kg(-1) in 3 months. Reharvested N. caerulescens accumulated up to 900 mg Cd kg(-1) after 10 months. Neither Alyssum nor 90% of rice genotypes survived acceptably. Both N. caerulescens and B37 maize show promise for Cd phytoextraction in IL and require field evaluation; both plants could be utilized for nearly continuous Cd removal. Other maize inbreds may offer higher Cd phytoextraction at lower pH, and mono-cross hybrids higher shoot biomass yields. Further, maize grown only for biomass Cd maximum removal could be double-cropped. PMID:25174422

Broadhurst, C Leigh; Chaney, Rufus L; Davis, Allen P; Cox, Albert; Kumar, Kuldip; Reeves, Roger D; Green, Carrie E

2015-01-01

60

Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Main challenge of phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils is developing strategies for efficient and simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediaiton of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons...

61

Task 3: PNNL Visit by JAEA Researchers to Participate in TODAM Code Applications to Fukushima Rivers and to Evaluate the Feasibility of Adaptation of FLESCOT Code to Simulate Radionuclide Transport in the Pacific Ocean Coastal Water Around Fukushima  

SciTech Connect

Four JAEA researchers visited PNNL for two weeks in February, 2013 to learn the PNNL-developed, unsteady, one-dimensional, river model, TODAM and the PNNL-developed, time-dependent, three dimensional, coastal water model, FLESCOT. These codes predict sediment and contaminant concentrations by accounting sediment-radionuclide interactions, e.g., adsorption/desorption and transport-deposition-resuspension of sediment-sorbed radionuclides. The objective of the river and coastal water modeling is to simulate • 134Cs and 137Cs migration in Fukushima rivers and the coastal water, and • their accumulation in the river and ocean bed along the Fukushima coast. Forecasting the future cesium behavior in the river and coastal water under various scenarios would enable JAEA to assess the effectiveness of various on-land remediation activities and if required, possible river and coastal water clean-up operations to reduce the contamination of the river and coastal water, agricultural products, fish and other aquatic biota. PNNL presented the following during the JAEA visit to PNNL: • TODAM and FLESCOT’s theories and mathematical formulations • TODAM and FLESCOT model structures • Past TODAM and FLESCOT applications • Demonstrating these two codes' capabilities by applying them to simple hypothetical river and coastal water cases. • Initial application of TODAM to the Ukedo River in Fukushima and JAEA researchers' participation in its modeling. PNNL also presented the relevant topics relevant to Fukushima environmental assessment and remediation, including • PNNL molecular modeling and EMSL computer facilities • Cesium adsorption/desorption characteristics • Experiences of connecting molecular science research results to macro model applications to the environment • EMSL tour • Hanford Site road tour. PNNL and JAEA also developed future course of actions for joint research projects on the Fukushima environmental and remediation assessments.

Onishi, Yasuo

2013-03-29

62

Variation in copper and zinc tolerance and accumulation in 12 willow clones: implications for phytoextraction.  

PubMed

Willows (Salix spp.) have shown high potential for the phytoextraction of heavy metals. This study compares variations in copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) tolerance and accumulation potential among 12 willow clones grown in a nutrient solution treated with 50 ?mol/L of Cu or Zn, respectively. The results showed differences in the tolerance and accumulation of Cu and Zn with respect to different species/clones. The biomass variation among clones in response to Cu or Zn exposure ranged from the stimulation of growth to inhibition, and all of the clones tested showed higher tolerance to Cu than to Zn. The clones exhibited less variation in Cu accumulation but larger variation in Zn accumulation. Based on translocation factors, it was found that most of the Cu was retained in the roots and that Zn was more mobile than Cu for all clones. It is concluded that most willow clones are good accumulators of Zn and Cu. PMID:25183033

Yang, Wei-dong; Wang, Yu-yan; Zhao, Feng-liang; Ding, Zhe-li; Zhang, Xin-cheng; Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

2014-09-01

63

Variation in copper and zinc tolerance and accumulation in 12 willow clones: implications for phytoextraction*  

PubMed Central

Willows (Salix spp.) have shown high potential for the phytoextraction of heavy metals. This study compares variations in copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) tolerance and accumulation potential among 12 willow clones grown in a nutrient solution treated with 50 ?mol/L of Cu or Zn, respectively. The results showed differences in the tolerance and accumulation of Cu and Zn with respect to different species/clones. The biomass variation among clones in response to Cu or Zn exposure ranged from the stimulation of growth to inhibition, and all of the clones tested showed higher tolerance to Cu than to Zn. The clones exhibited less variation in Cu accumulation but larger variation in Zn accumulation. Based on translocation factors, it was found that most of the Cu was retained in the roots and that Zn was more mobile than Cu for all clones. It is concluded that most willow clones are good accumulators of Zn and Cu. PMID:25183033

Yang, Wei-dong; Wang, Yu-yan; Zhao, Feng-liang; Ding, Zhe-li; Zhang, Xin-cheng; Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

2014-01-01

64

Nitrogen fertilizer improves boron phytoextraction by Brassica juncea grown in contaminated sediments and alleviates plant stress.  

PubMed

In this study we evaluated the effect of different fertilizer treatments on Brassica plants grown on boron-contaminated sediments. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and on the lysimeter scale. At laboratory scale (microcosm), five different fertilizers were tested for a 35-d period. On the lysimeter scale, nitrogen fertilization was tested at three different doses and plants were allowed to grow until the end of the vegetative phase (70 d). Results showed that nitrogen application had effectively increased plant biomass production, while B uptake was not affected. Total B phytoextracted increased three-fold when the highest nitrogen dose was applied. Phytotoxicity on Brassica was evaluated by biochemical parameters. In plants grown in unfertilized B-contaminated sediments, the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and pyrogallol peroxidase (PPX) increased, whereas catalase (CAT) decreased with respect to control plants. Addition of N progressively mitigated the alteration of enzymatic activity, thus suggesting that N can aid in alleviating B-induced oxidative stress. SOD activity was restored to control levels just at the lowest N treatment, whereas the CAT inhibition was partially restored only at the highest one. N application also lowered the B-induced increase in APX and PPX activities. Increased glutathione reductase activity indicated the need to restore the oxidative balance of glutathione. Data also suggest a role of glutathione and phytochelatins in B defense mechanisms. Results suggest that the nitrogen fertilizer was effective in improving B phytoextraction by increasing Brassica biomass and by alleviating B-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22382070

Giansoldati, Virginia; Tassi, Eliana; Morelli, Elisabetta; Gabellieri, Edi; Pedron, Francesca; Barbafieri, Meri

2012-06-01

65

Cover crops influence soil microorganisms and phytoextraction of copper from a moderately contaminated vineyard.  

PubMed

We investigated the ability of summer (Avena sativa [oat], Trifolium incarnatum [crimson clover], Chenopodium [goosefoot]) and winter (Vicia villosa [hairy vetch], Secale Cereale L. [Rye], Brassica napus L. partim [rape]) cover crops, including a mixed species treatment, to extract copper from an organic vineyard soil in situ and the microbial communities that may support it. Clover had the highest copper content (14.3mgCukg(-1) DM). However, it was the amount of total biomass production that determined which species was most effective at overall copper removal per hectare. The winter crop rye produced significantly higher amounts of biomass (3532kgDMha(-1)) and, therefore, removed significantly higher amounts of copper (14,920mgCuha(-1)), despite less accumulation of copper in plant shoots. The maximum annual removal rate, a summation of best performing summer and winter crops, would be 0.033kgCuha(-1)y(-1). Due to this low annual extraction efficiency, which is less than the 6kgCuha(-1)y(-1) permitted for application, phytoextraction cannot be recommended as a general method of copper extraction from vineyards. Copper concentration did not influence aboveground or belowground properties, as indicated by sampling at two distances from the grapevine row with different soil copper concentrations. Soil microorganisms may have become tolerant to the copper levels at this site. Microbial biomass and soil enzyme activities (arylsulfatase and phosphatase) were instead driven by seasonal fluxes of resource pools. Gram+ bacteria were associated with high soil moisture, while fungi seemed to be driven by extractable carbon, which was linked to high plant biomass. There was no microbial group associated with the increased phytoextraction of copper. Moreover, treatment did not influence the abundance, activity or community structure of soil microorganisms. PMID:25217742

Mackie, K A; Schmidt, H P; Müller, T; Kandeler, E

2014-12-01

66

Natural Radionuclides in Ground Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the natural trace radionuclides in ground water. Indicates the geologic origin of these radionuclides. Discusses the importance of these radionuclides. Suggests future uses of a number of additional radionuclides. (CW)

Davis, Stanley N.

1988-01-01

67

Radionuclide deposition control  

DOEpatents

The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA); McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

68

Evaluation of the effect of small organic acids on phytoextraction of Cu and Pb from soil with tobacco Nicotiana tabacum.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation, the use of plants to extract contaminants from soils and groundwater, is a promising approach for cleaning up soils contaminated with heavy metals. However its use is limited by the time required for plant growth, the nutrient supply and, moreover, by the limited metal uptake capacity. Synthetic chelators have shown positive effects in enhancing heavy metal extraction, but they have also revealed several negative side-effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of three natural low molecular weight organic acids (NLMWOA) (citric, oxalic, and tartaric acid) as an alternative to synthetic chelators. Slurry-, column-, toxicity- and phytoextraction experiments were performed. For the phytoextraction experiment the three NLMWOA were applied to a copper- and a lead-contaminated soil respectively. A significant increase in copper uptake was visible only in the citric acid treatment (67 mg kg-1) in comparison to the EDTA treatment (42 mg kg-1). The NLMWOA application showed no enhanced effect concerning the lead phytoextraction. A possible explanation for this lack of significance could be the rate of the degradation of NLMWOA. This rate might well be too high for these heavy metals with low mobility and bioavailability such as lead. The amounts of NLMWOA applied to the soil were very high (62.5 mmol kg-1 of soil) and the effect was too little. In this respect EDTA, which was applied in very small amounts (0.125 mmol kg-1) was more efficient. Thus making NLMWOA unsuitable to enhance phytoextraction of heavy metals from soil. PMID:16337259

Evangelou, Michael W H; Ebel, Mathias; Schaeffer, Andreas

2006-05-01

69

Phytoextraction potential of two Rumex acetosa L. accessions collected from metalliferous and non-metalliferous sites: Effect of fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal tolerance and phytoextraction potential of two common sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.) accessions, collected from a Pb\\/Zn contaminated site (CS, Lanestosa) and an uncontaminated site (UCS, Larrauri), were studied in fertilized and non-fertilized pots prepared by combining soil samples from both sites in different proportions (i.e., 0%, 33%, 66% and 100% of Lanestosa contaminated soil). The original metalliferous mine soil

O. Barrutia; L. Epelde; J. I. García-Plazaola; C. Garbisu; J. M. Becerril

2009-01-01

70

Effect of compost and biodegradable chelate addition on phytoextraction of copper by Oenothera picensis grown in Cu-contaminated acid soils.  

PubMed

Oenothera picensis plants (Fragrant Evening Primrose) grow in the acid soils contaminated by Cu smelting in the coastal region of central Chile. We evaluated the effects of compost, at application rate of 5 kg m(-2), and biodegradable chelate MGDA (methylglycinediacetic acid), at application rate of 6 mmol plant(-1), on Cu phytoextraction by O. picensis, in field plots. No significant differences were found between treatments regarding aboveground biomass, shoot Cu concentrations and Cu phytoextraction of O. picensis. This lack of effects of the treatments was provoked by the large variability of soil properties, prior to applying of the treatments. The shoot Cu concentration in O. picensis positively and significantly correlated to exchangeable Cu concentration in the soil. Likewise, the aboveground biomass of O. picensis positively and significantly correlated to soil organic matter content. The Cu phytoextraction by O. picensis, in turn, positively and significantly correlated to both variables, i.e. exchangeable Cu concentration and organic matter content. The average Cu phytoextraction was 1.1 mg plant(-1), which is equivalent to 90 g ha(-1) at planting rate of 8 plants m(-2). In the chelate treatment, Cu phytoextraction was 2.6±2.1 mg plant(-1), which is equivalent to 212±171 g ha(-1) at planting rate of 8 plants m(-2). PMID:24034893

González, Isabel; Neaman, Alexander; Cortés, Amparo; Rubio, Patricio

2014-01-01

71

Radionuclide bone imaging and densitometry  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclides and the Normal Bone Scan; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Malignant Disease; Pediatric Applications of Radionuclide Bone Imaging; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Arthritis and Metabolic and Miscellaneous Disorders; and Soft Tissue Activity on the Radionuclide Bone Scan.

Mettler, F.A.

1988-01-01

72

Selection of plants for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Remediation of soil contaminated with radionuclides typically requires that soil be removed from the site and treated with various dispersing and chelating chemicals. Numerous studies have shown that radionuclides are generally not leached from the top 0.4 meters of soil, where plant roots actively accumulate elements. Restoration of large areas of land contaminated with low levels of radionuclides may be feasible using phytoremediation. Criteria for the selection of plants for phytoremediation, molecular approaches to increase radio nuclide uptake, effects of cultural practices on uptake and assessment of environmental effects of phytoremediation will be discussed.

Entry J.A. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Vance, N.C. [PNW Research Station, Corvallis, OR (United States); Watrud, L.S. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1996-12-31

73

Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on phytoextraction by corn (Zea mays) of lead-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in lead (Pb) uptake by corn (Zea mays) grown in soil supplemented with Pb was examined. Plants were subjected to four Pb levels: 0 (control); 10 (low); 100 (medium); and 500 mg L(-1) (high). At each Pb level, plants were grown in soil without and with fungicide (benomyl) (20 mg kg(-1)) to suppress AMF activity. Benomyl significantly reduced AMF colonization at high. medium, and zero Pb exposures. Benomyl application resulted in significantly lower concentrations of phosphorus in leaves at low and medium Pb exposures. The benomyl-treated plants had higher Pb and manganese concentrations in leaves than plants not treated with benomyl. In addition, benomyl-treated plants had generally lower concentrations of zinc and copper in leaves than plants not treated with benomyl. These results suggest that the role of AMF in heavy metal uptake is metal specific. Based on this work, the use of benomyl on soils contaminated with Pb can be recommended in phytoextraction. PMID:15696704

Hovsepyan, A; Greipsson, S

2004-01-01

74

Phytoextraction of heavy metals by willows growing in biosolids under field conditions.  

PubMed

Biosolids produced by sewage treatment facilities can exceed guideline thresholds for contaminant elements. Phytoextraction is one technique with the potential to reduce these elements allowing reuse of the biosolids as a soil amendment. In this field trial, cuttings of seven species/cultivars of Salix(willows) were planted directly into soil and into biosolids to identify their suitability for decontaminating biosolids. Trees were irrigated and harvested each year for three consecutive years. Harvested biomass was weighed and analyzed for the contaminant elements: As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni, and Zn. All Salix cultivars, except S. chilensis, growing in soils produced 10 to 20 t ha(-1) of biomass, whereas most Salix cultivars growing in biosolids produced significantly less biomass (<6 t ha(-1)). Salix matsudana (30 t ha(-1)) and S. × reichardtii A. Kerner (18 t ha(-1)) had similar aboveground biomass production in both soil and biosolids. These were also the most successful cultivars in extracting metals from biosolids, driven by superior biomass increases and not high tissue concentrations. The willows were effectual in extracting the most soluble/exchangeable metals (Cd, 0.18; Ni, 0.40; and Zn, 11.66 kg ha(-1)), whereas Cr and Cu were extracted to a lesser degree (0.02 and 0.11 kg ha(-1)). Low bioavailable elements, As, Hg, and Pb, were not detectable in any of the aboveground biomass of the willows. PMID:22218182

Laidlaw, W S; Arndt, S K; Huynh, T T; Gregory, D; Baker, A J M

2012-01-01

75

Phytoextraction for clean-up of low-level uranium contaminated soil evaluated.  

PubMed

Spills in the nuclear fuel cycle have led to soil contamination with uranium. In case of small contamination just above release levels, low-cost yet sufficiently efficient remedial measures are recommended. This study was executed to test if low-level U contaminated sandy soil from a nuclear fuel processing site could be phytoextracted in order to attain the required release limits. Two soils were tested: a control soil (317 Bq 238U kg(-1)) and the same soil washed with bicarbonate (69 Bq 238U kg(-1)). Ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Melvina) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Vitasso) were used as test plants. The annual removal of soil activity by the biomass was less than 0.1%. The addition of citric acid (25 mmol kg(-1)) 1 week before the harvest increased U uptake up to 500-fold. With a ryegrass and mustard yield of 15,000 and 10,000 kg ha(-1), respectively, up to 3.5% and 4.6% of the soil activity could be removed annually by the biomass. With a desired activity reduction level of 1.5 and 5 for the bicarbonate-washed and control soil, respectively, it would take 10-50 years to attain the release limit. However, citric acid addition resulted in a decreased dry weight production. PMID:15162854

Vandenhove, H; Van Hees, M

2004-01-01

76

Development of an Antioxidant Phytoextract of Lantana grisebachii with Lymphoprotective Activity against In Vitro Arsenic Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Phytochemicals have been presumed to possess prophylactic and curative properties in several pathologies, such as arsenic- (As-) induced immunosuppression. Our aim was to discover a lymphoprotective extract from Lantana grisebachii Stuck. (Verbenaceae) (LG). We assessed its bioactivity and chemical composition using cell-based assays. Fractions produced from a hexane extract acutely induced nitrite formation in T-activated cell cultures (P < 0.0001). Water extraction released a fraction lacking nitrite inducing activity in both lymphocyte types. Aqueous LG was found to be safe in proliferated and proliferating cells. The infusion-derived extract presented better antioxidant capacity in proportion to phenolic amount in lymphocytes (infusive LG-1i at 100??g/mL), which protected them against in vitro As-induced lymphotoxicity (P < 0.0001). This infusive LG phytoextract contained 10.23 ± 0.43?mg/g of phenolics, with 58.46% being flavonoids. Among the phenolics, the only predominant compound was 0.723?mg of chlorogenic acid per gram of dry plant, in addition to 10 unknown minor compounds. A fatty acid profile was assessed. It contained one-third of saturated fatty acids, one-third of ?9, followed by ?6 (~24%) and ?3 (~4%), and scarce ?7. Summing up, L. grisebachii was a source of bioactive and lymphoprotective compounds, which could counteract As-toxicity. This supports its phytomedical use and research in order to reduce As-related dysfunctions. PMID:25002868

Soria, Elio A.; Quiroga, Patricia L.; Albrecht, Claudia; Ramos Elizagaray, Sabina I.; Cantero, Juan J.; Bongiovanni, Guillermina A.

2014-01-01

77

Radionuclide production for therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

A fundamental task within the framework of a project searching for new radiopharmaceuticals for systemic therapy was the evaluation of the capabilities of the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI) for the production of several important radionuclides. The feasibility of producing 64Cu, 77As, 153Sm, 165Dy, 166Ho, 170Tm, 177Lu, 186Re, 199Au and 111Ag in useful quantities was evaluated for the present RPI operation schedule (12 h cycles) and for continuous operation. The main evaluation criteria are expressed in terms of specific activity for continuous irradiation and/or 12 h cycle and the use of natural or enriched targets if necessary. Selected samples were irradiated and a comparison between measured activities and values calculated according to the irradiation schedule and using the same software was performed. PMID:12433039

Neves, M; Kling, A; Lambrecht, R M

2002-11-01

78

Effects of metal phytoextraction practices on the indigenous community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at a metal-contaminated landfill.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction involves use of plants to remove toxic metals from soil. We examined the effects of phytoextraction practices with three plant species (Silene vulgaris, Thlaspi caerulescens, and Zea mays) and a factorial variation of soil amendments (either an ammonium or nitrate source of nitrogen and the presence or absence of an elemental sulfur supplement) on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes) at a moderately metal-contaminated landfill located in St. Paul, Minn. Specifically, we tested whether the applied treatments affected the density of glomalean spores and AM root colonization in maize. Glomalean fungi from the landfill were grouped into two morphotypes characterized by either light-colored spores (LCS) or dark-colored spores (DCS). Dominant species of the LCS morphotype were Glomus mosseae and an unidentified Glomus sp., whereas the DCS morphotype was dominated by Glomus constrictum. The density of spores of the LCS morphotype from the phytoremediated area was lower than the density of these spores in the untreated landfill soil. Within the experimental area, spore density of the LCS morphotype in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal maize was significantly higher than in rhizospheres of nonmycorrhizal S. vulgaris or T. caerulescens. Sulfur supplement increased vesicular root colonization in maize and exerted a negative effect on spore density in maize rhizosphere. We conclude that phytoextraction practices, e.g., the choice of plant species and soil amendments, may have a great impact on the quantity and species composition of glomalean propagules as well as on mycorrhiza functioning during long-term metal-remediation treatments. PMID:10831433

Pawlowska, T E; Chaney, R L; Chin, M; Charvat, I

2000-06-01

79

Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, March 20, 1997--June 19, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This laboratory has been involved in a collaborative project focusing on a range of issues related to the phytoremediation of heavy metal-and radionuclide- contaminated soils. While much of the research has been fundamental in nature, involving physiological and molecular characterizations of the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation in plants, the laboratory is also investigating more practical issues related to phytoremediation. A central issue in this latter research has been the identification of amendments capable of increasing the bioavailability and subsequent phytoextraction of radionuclides. The results described here detail these efforts for uranium and Cs-137. A study was also conducted on a Cs-137 contaminated site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which allowed application of the laboratory and greenhouse results to a field setting.

Kochian, L.

1997-11-01

80

Radionuclides in US coals  

SciTech Connect

The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

1984-03-01

81

ls phytoextraction a suitable green treatment for metal-contaminated Huguet S. 1,2,3, Sarret G.14 Bert V.3 * , Isaure M.P.l,  

E-print Network

of metals. Thèse materials are usually spread on landiïll sites. Phytoremediation couid be a stategy sédiment. Keywords: Arabidopsis halleri, cadmium (Cd), hyperaccumulation, phytoextraction, sédiment on contaminated and uncontaminated soil [9, 17|. Despite thèse numerous studies, the mechanisms of cadmium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

82

Combined effects of cadmium and zinc on growth, tolerance, and metal accumulation in Chara australis and enhanced phytoextraction using EDTA.  

PubMed

Chara australis (R. Br.) is a macrophytic alga that can grow in and accumulate Cd from artificially contaminated sediments. We investigated the effects of Zn independently and in combination with Cd on C. australis growth, metal tolerance, and uptake. Plant growth was reduced at concentrations ? 75 mg Zn (kg soil)?¹. Zn also increased the concentration of glutathione in the plant, suggesting alleviation of stress. Phytotoxic effects were observed at ? 250 mg added Zn (kg soil)?¹. At 1.5mg Zn (kg soil)?¹, the rhizoid bioconcentration factor (BCF) was >1.0 for both Cd and Zn. This is a criterion for hyperaccumulator status, a commonly used benchmark for utility in remediation of contaminated soils by phytoextraction. There was no significant interaction between Cd and Zn on accumulation, indicating that Chara should be effective at phytoextraction of mixed heavy metal contamination in sediments. The effects of the chelator, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), were also tested. Moderate levels of EDTA increased Cd and Zn accumulation in rhizoids and Cd BCF of shoots, enhancing Chara's potential in phytoremediation. This study demonstrates for the first time the potential of macroalgae to remove metals from sediments in aquatic systems that are contaminated with a mixture of metals. PMID:24035462

Clabeaux, Bernadette L; Navarro, Divina A; Aga, Diana S; Bisson, Mary A

2013-12-01

83

Radionuclides in Diagnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

Williams, E. D.

1989-01-01

84

Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides  

DOEpatents

In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

Harp, Richard J. (18746 Viking Way, Cerritos, CA 90701)

1990-01-01

85

Field demonstration of age dependent increase in lead phytoextraction by Pelargonium cultivar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unnecessary for living organisms, lead (Pb) is one of the major widespread toxic metals found in the environment with potential danger to human health and to ecosystems (Shahid et al. 2012). Lead is known to induce a broad range of toxic effects to living organism, including those that are morphological, physiological and biochemical in origin (Pourrut et al. 2011). A field study was carried out in the vicinity of Pb recycling plant near Toulouse-France, and contaminated by atmospheric fallouts to evaluate lead extraction and uptake efficiency of hyperaccumulater Attar of Roses Pelargonium cultivar. It was found that Attar of Roses has ability to accumulate (8644 mgPb/kg DW plant) and survive on highly contaminated acidic soil (39250 mg kg-1 of total Pb) without any morpho-phytotoxicity symptoms. Moreover Attar showed increased extraction of lead from bulk soil to rhizosphere through Pb mobilization and ultimately increased uptake by roots and translocation to shoots. The studied contaminated soil could be cleaned up in few years by planting hyperaccumulater Attar of Rose for longer time period. Under optimum fertlization, irrigation and use of natural or synthetic chelates (EDTA, LMOWA, humic substances etc.) along with old Attar of rose plants, time requires for complete remediation of contaminated site can be reduced to practically applicable time period. Moreover, the use of Pelargonium for remediation has several additional practical, esthetical and economic advantages. The extraction of value-added essential oils from harvested biomass could offset the cost of deploying phytoremediation and renders it as a viable approach for remediating highly contaminated soils, on large scale. Keywords: metal uptake, Pelargonium, phytoremediation, cultivar, soil-plant transfer and kinetic. References Pourrut, B., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., Winterton, P., Pinelli, E., 2011a. Lead uptake, toxicity and detoxification in plants. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 213, 113-136. Shahid, M., Arshad, M., Kaemmerer, M., Pinelli, E., Probst, A., Baque, D., Pradere, P., Dumat, C., 2012a. Long term field metal extraction by pelargonium: Phytoextraction efficiency in relation with plant maturity. Inter. J. Phytorem. 14, 493-505.

Shahid, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric; Alric, Alain; Kaemmerer, Michel; Pradere, Philippe; Dumat, Camille

2013-04-01

86

Phytoremediation of metals, metalloids, and radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation is a developing technology that can potentially address the problems of contaminated agricultural land or more intensely polluted areas affected by urban or industrial activities. Three main strategies currently exist to phytoextract inorganic substances from soils using plants:(1) use of natural hyperaccumulators; (2) enhancement of element uptake of high biomass species by chemical additions to soil and plants; and

S. P. McGrath; J. Zhao; E. Lombi

2002-01-01

87

Phytoextraction and phytoexcretion of Cd by the leaves of Tamarix smyrnensis growing on contaminated non-saline and saline soils  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation and more specifically phytoextraction, is an alternative restoration strategy for the clean up of heavy metal contaminated soils. Phytoextraction can only be successful if suitable plant species colonize the contaminated area, extract the toxic substances and accumulate them in their above ground tissues. In this study, the salt cedar Tamarix smyrnensis that is a widespread salt-tolerant plant in the Mediterranean region has been investigated. A pot experiment is conducted with T. smyrnensis grown in polluted soil with 16 ppm of cadmium and at three different salt concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 3.0% NaCl) for a 10-week period. It took place in an open-air area with natural light, at ambient temperature and humidity in an effort to keep the plants under conditions as similar as possible to those in the field. However, care was taken not to let them be rained on. Temperature ranged from 19 to 50 deg. C with 33 and 21 deg. C being the average day and night temperature, respectively. Humidity ranged from 28% to 87% with a 13-14 h photoperiod. The specific aims of this work are to investigate the accumulation of cadmium via root uptake at different saline conditions and cadmium excretion through salt glands on the surface of the leaves as a probable detoxification mechanism of the plant. Furthermore, measurements of chlorophyll content, biomass, and shoot length are used to evaluate the potential of the plant for the removal of cadmium from contaminated saline and non-saline soils. The experimental data suggest that increased soil salinity results in an increase of the cadmium uptake by T. smyrnensis. Analysis of white salt crystals taken from glandular tissue confirmed the fact that this plant excretes cadmium through its salt glands on the surface of the leaves as a possible detoxification mechanism in order to resist metal toxicity. Excreted cadmium is again released into the environment and it is redeposited on the top soil. Furthermore, increased salinity results in an increased excretion of the metal on Tamarix leaf surface. The presence of metals usually affects negatively the plant health, but T. smyrnensis developed no visible signs of metal toxicity, only salt toxicity symptoms were observed. Cadmium usually decreases the chlorophyll content in plants; however, the amount of photosynthetic pigments of T. smyrnensis was found not to be affected. All the above points to the potential of T. smyrnensis for use in phytoremediation with the metal secretion from the leaves being a unique advantage that may change current phytoextraction practices.

Manousaki, Eleni [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, 73100 Chania (Greece); Kadukova, Jana [Department of Non-Ferrous Metals and Waste Treatment, Technical University of Kosice, Letna 9, 04011 Kosice (Slovakia); Papadantonakis, Nikolaos [Department of Sustainable Agriculture, Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania, Alsyllio Agrokepiou, P.O. Box 85, 73100 Chania (Greece); Kalogerakis, Nicolas [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, 73100 Chania (Greece)], E-mail: nicolas.kalogerakis@enveng.tuc.gr

2008-03-15

88

Initial Radionuclide Inventories  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as 2030 and 2033, depending on the type of waste. TSPA-LA uses the results of this analysis to decay the inventory to the year of repository closure projected for the year of 2060.

H. Miller

2004-09-19

89

Initial Radionuclide Inventories  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as 2030 and 2033, depending on the type of waste. TSPA-LA uses the results of this analysis to decay the inventory to the year of repository closure projected for the year of 2060.

Miller, H

2005-07-12

90

Model evaluation of plant metal content and biomass yield for the phytoextraction of heavy metals by switchgrass.  

PubMed

To better understand the ability of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial grass often relegated to marginal agricultural areas with minimal inputs, to remove cadmium, chromium, and zinc by phytoextraction from contaminated sites, the relationship between plant metal content and biomass yield is expressed in different models to predict the amount of metals switchgrass can extract. These models are reliable in assessing the use of switchgrass for phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated sites. In the present study, linear and exponential decay models are more suitable for presenting the relationship between plant cadmium and dry weight. The maximum extractions of cadmium using switchgrass, as predicted by the linear and exponential decay models, approached 40 and 34 ?g pot(-1), respectively. The log normal model was superior in predicting the relationship between plant chromium and dry weight. The predicted maximum extraction of chromium by switchgrass was about 56 ?g pot(-1). In addition, the exponential decay and log normal models were better than the linear model in predicting the relationship between plant zinc and dry weight. The maximum extractions of zinc by switchgrass, as predicted by the exponential decay and log normal models, were about 358 and 254 ?g pot(-1), respectively. To meet the maximum removal of Cd, Cr, and Zn, one can adopt the optimal timing of harvest as plant Cd, Cr, and Zn approach 450 and 526 mg kg(-1), 266 mg kg(-1), and 3022 and 5000 mg kg(-1), respectively. Due to the well-known agronomic characteristics of cultivation and the high biomass production of switchgrass, it is practicable to use switchgrass for the phytoextraction of heavy metals in situ. PMID:22541831

Chen, Bo-Ching; Lai, Hung-Yu; Juang, Kai-Wei

2012-06-01

91

Comparison of EDTA- and citric acid-enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals in artificially metal contaminated soil by Typha angustifolia.  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of EDTA and citric acid (CA) addition in improving phytoextraction of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Cr from artificially contaminated soil by T. angustifolia. T. angustifolia showed the remarkable resistance to heavy metal toxicity with no visual toxic symptom including chlorosis and necrosis when exposed to metal stress. EDTA-addition significantly reduced plant height and biomass, compared with the control, and stunted plant growth, while 2.5 and 5 mM CA addition induced significant increases in root dry weight. EDTA, and 5 and 10 mM CA significantly increased shoot Cd, Pb, and Cr concentrations compared with the control, with EDTA being more effective. At final harvest, the highest shoot Cd, Cr, and Pb concentrations were recorded in the treatment of 5 mM EDTA addition, while maximal root Pb concentration was found at the 2.5 mM CA treatment. However, shoot Cd accumulation in the 10 mM CA treatment was 36.9% higher than that in 2.5 mM EDTA, and similar with that in 10 mM EDTA. Shoot Pb accumulation was lower in 10 mM CA than that in EDTA treatments. Further, root Cd, Cu, and Pb accumulation of CA treatments and shoot Cr accumulation in 5 or 10 mM CA treatments were markedly higher than that of control and EDTA treatments. The results also showed that EDTA dramatically increased the dissolution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Cd in soil, while CA addition had less effect on water-soluble Cu, Cr, and Cd, and no effect on Pb levels. It is suggested that CA can be a good chelator candidate for T. angustifolia used for environmentally safe phytoextraction of Cd and Cr in soils. PMID:19810355

Muhammad, Dawood; Chen, Fei; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

2009-08-01

92

Assessment of the Efficacy of Chelate-Assisted Phytoextraction of Lead by Coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.)  

PubMed Central

Lead (Pb), depending upon the reactant surface, pH, redox potential and other factors can bind tightly to the soil with a retention time of many centuries. Soil-metal interactions by sorption, precipitation and complexation processes, and differences between plant species in metal uptake efficiency, transport, and susceptibility make a general prediction of soil metal bioavailability and risks of plant metal toxicity difficult. Moreover, the tight binding characteristic of Pb to soils and plant materials make a significant portion of Pb unavailable for uptake by plants. This experiment was conducted to determine whether the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), or acetic acid (HAc) can enhance the phytoextraction of Pb by making the Pb soluble and more bioavailable for uptake by coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.). Also we wanted to assess the efficacy of chelates in facilitating translocation of the metal into the above-ground biomass of this plant. To test the effect of chelates on Pb solubility, 2 g of Pb-spiked soil (1000 mg Pb/kg dry soil) were added to each 15 mL centrifuge tube. Chelates (EDTA, EGTA, HAc) in a 1:1 ratio with the metal, or distilled deionized water were then added. Samples were shaken on a platform shaker then centrifuged at the end of several time periods. Supernatants were filtered with a 0.45 ?m filter and quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to determine soluble Pb concentrations. Results revealed that EDTA was the most effective in bringing Pb into solution, and that maximum solubility was reached 6 days after chelate amendment. Additionally, a greenhouse experiment was conducted by planting Sesbania seeds in plastic tubes containing top soil and peat (2:1, v:v) spiked with various levels (0, 1000, 2000 mg Pb/kg dry soil) of lead nitrate. At six weeks after emergence, aqueous solutions of EDTA and/or HAc (in a 1:1 ratio with the metal) or distilled deionized water were applied to the root zones. Plants were harvested at 6 days after chelate addition to coincide with the duration of maximum metal solubility previously determined in this study. Results of the greenhouse experiment showed that coffeeweed was relatively tolerant to moderate levels of Pb and chelates as shown by very slight reductions in root and no discernable effects on shoot biomass. Root Pb concentrations increased with increasing levels of soil-applied Pb. Further increases in root Pb concentrations were attributed to chelate amendments. In the absence of chelates, translocation of Pb from roots to shoots was minimal. However, translocation dramatically increased in treatments with EDTA alone or in combination with HAc. Overall, the results of this study indicated that depending on the nature and type of Pb-contaminated soil being remediated, the bioavailability and uptake of Pb by coffeeweed can be enhanced by amending the soil with chelates especially after the plants have reached maximum biomass. PMID:19151439

Miller, Gloria; Begonia, Gregorio; Begonia, Maria; Ntoni, Jennifer; Hundley, Oscar

2008-01-01

93

Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We

Q Hu; J Weng; J Wang

2007-01-01

94

A study on genetic variability of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila strains and the varied responses of the strains towards phyto-extracts.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated genetic variation in Aeromonas hydrophila strains using PCR-RAPD and their varied susceptibility to phyto-extract. Four strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from skin infections of common freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio were characterized by various biochemical methods, physiological tests and PCR- RAPD. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of three medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum, Adathoda vasica and Calendula officinalis were tested against the four strains of A. hydrophila by disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. Antagonistic effects of leaf extracts against A. hydrophila strains were assessed by co-culture method. RAPD analysis showed that all the microbes isolated from skin infection belong to the same species but there was no 100% genetic similarity among them Dendrogram constructed by UPGMA clearly supported the PCR pattern of genetic variability among the strains. This study revealed that Aeromonas hydophila exhibits genetic variability and varied susceptibility towards phyto-extracts. Results indicated that phyto-extracts offers a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in controlling Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:24511738

Balasundaram, A; Kumari, P Rathna; Kolanchinathan, P; Masilamani, V; John, George

2013-11-01

95

Sulfur-aided phytoextraction of Cd and Zn by Salix smithiana combined with in situ metal immobilization by gravel sludge and red mud.  

PubMed

As phytoextraction implementation may be limited by metal toxicity and leaching, we investigated the idea of in situ metal immobilization in bulk soil, while increasing metal bioavailability in the rhizosphere. Salix smithiana was grown in a pot experiment on two Cd/Zn polluted soils. Treatments with or without willows included: no additives; gravel sludge + red mud kg(-1); acidification with S to pH 3.5; and metal immobilization combined with soil acidification. Salix smithiana removed up to 0.78 ± 0.06% total Cd and 0.34% (±0.02) total Zn from the non-treated soils. The phytoextraction efficiency in the S treatments was enhanced by up to ~50% in response to metal solubility that was magnified by reductive co-dissolution from Mn (IV) and Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides during microbial S oxidation in the willow rhizosphere. The proposed technique proved to enhance phytoextraction efficiency while controlling the risk of metal leaching from the root zone and phytotoxicity. PMID:22842051

Iqbal, Muhammad; Puschenreiter, Markus; Oburger, Eva; Santner, Jakob; Wenzel, Walter W

2012-11-01

96

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other elements of the TSPA-SR model. The scope of the EBS RT Abstraction also does not include computational or numerical procedures for solving the process-level equations; rather, it identifies the important processes that must then be evaluated with process-level or component-level software using analytical or numerical solutions.

R. Schreiner

2001-06-27

97

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

J. Prouty

2006-07-14

98

Radionuclide voiding cystography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide voiding cystography is a sensitive and accurate method for diagnosing vesicoureteric reflux. This method allows\\u000a for continuous monitoring of bladder filling and emptying, permits detection of reflux at any time during the study, and evaluates\\u000a its dynamics. Since it results in very low amounts of radiation to the patient, it is an ideal method for the diagnosis and\\u000a follow-up

Ulrich Willi; S. Treves

1983-01-01

99

Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and ? particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

Beattie, Bradley J.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Schmidtlein, Charles R.; Pentlow, Keith S.; Humm, John L.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

2012-01-01

100

Quantitative modeling of Cerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides.  

PubMed

There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and ? particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

Beattie, Bradley J; Thorek, Daniel L J; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Pentlow, Keith S; Humm, John L; Hielscher, Andreas H

2012-01-01

101

Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

2005-09-01

102

Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently studied radionuclides. (4) The biokinetics of a radionuclide in the human body typically represents the greatest source of uncertainty or variability in dose per unit intake. (5) Characterization of uncertainty in dose per unit exposure is generally a more straightforward problem for external exposure than for intake of a radionuclide. (6) For many radionuclides the most important outcome of a large-scale critical evaluation of databases and biokinetic models for radionuclides is expected to be the improvement of current models. Many of the current models do not fully or accurately reflect available radiobiological or physiological information, either because the models are outdated or because they were based on selective or uncritical use of data or inadequate model structures. In such cases the models should be replaced with physiologically realistic models that incorporate a wider spectrum of information.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2008-10-01

103

Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging  

PubMed Central

Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis. PMID:25589808

Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

2015-01-01

104

Potential for phytoextraction of copper by Sinapis alba and Festuca rubra cv. Merlin grown hydroponically and in vineyard soils.  

PubMed

The extensive use of copper-bearing fungicides in vineyards is responsible for the accumulation of copper (Cu) in soils. Grass species able to accumulate Cu could be cultivated in the vineyard inter-rows for copper phytoextraction. In this study, the capacity of Festuca rubra cv Merlin and Sinapis alba to tolerate and accumulate copper (Cu) was first investigated in a hydroponic system without the interference of soil chemical-physical properties. After the amendment of Cu (5 or 10 mg Cu l-(1)) to nutrient solution, shoot Cu concentration in F. rubra increased up to 108.63 mg Cu kg(-1) DW, more than three times higher than in S. alba (31.56 mg Cu kg(-1) DW). The relationship between Cu concentration in plants and external Cu was dose-dependent and species specific. Results obtained from the hydroponic experiment were confirmed by growing plants in pots containing soil collected from six Italian vineyards. The content of soil organic matter was crucial to enhance Cu tolerance and accumulation in the shoot tissues of both plant species. Although S. alba produced more biomass than F. rubra in most soils, F. rubra accumulated significantly more Cu (up to threefold to fourfold) in the shoots. Given these results, we recommended that F. rubra cv Merlin could be cultivated in the vineyard rows to reduce excess Cu in vineyard soils. PMID:24234763

Malagoli, Mario; Rossignolo, Virginia; Salvalaggio, Nico; Schiavon, Michela

2014-03-01

105

Radionuclide imaging in morbid obesity  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract have been useful in many gastrointestinal disorders. However, the literature relating to radionuclide techniques in morbid obesity is limited and, at times, controversial. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the use of tracer techniques in this complex disorder. 23 references.

DeRogatis, A.J.

1987-06-01

106

Boosting the Feasibility Pump  

E-print Network

The Feasibility Pump (FP) has proved to be an effective method for finding feasible ... The process attempts to minimise the distance between consecutive iterates ...... In our computational study, we evaluate and compare the performance of the following ..... The success is the result of a combination of innovative ideas and ...

2011-12-13

107

APT radionuclide production experiment  

SciTech Connect

Tritium ({sup 3}H, a heavy isotope of hydrogen) is produced by low energy neutron-induced reactions on various elements. One such reaction is n+{sup 3}He {yields}>{sup 3}H+{sup 1}H in which {sup 3}He is transmuted to tritium. Another reaction, which has been used in reactor production of tritium, is the n+{sup 6}Li {yields}> {sup 3}H+{sup 4}He reaction. Accelerator Production of Tritium relies on a high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy protons reacting with a heavy nucleus produce a shower of low-energy neutrons and a lower-mass residual nucleus. It is important to quantify the residual radionuclides produced in the spallation target for two reasons. From an engineering point of view, one must understand short-lived isotopes that may contribute to decay heat. From a safety viewpoint, one must understand what nuclei and decay gammas are produced in order to design adequate shielding, to estimate ultimate waste disposal problems, and to predict possible effects due to accidental dispersion during operation. The authors have performed an experiment to measure the production of radioisotopes in stopping-length W and Pb targets irradiated by a 800 MeV proton beam, and are comparing the results to values obtained from calculations using LAHET and MCNP. The experiment was designed to pay particular attention to the short half-life radionuclides, which have not been previously measured. In the following, they present details of the experiment, explain how they analyzed the data and obtain the results, how they perform the calculations, and finally, how the experimental data agree with the calculations.

Ullmann, J.L.; Gavron, A.; King, J.D. [and others

1994-07-02

108

Significant Radionuclides Determination  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

Jo A. Ziegler

2001-07-31

109

Phytoextraction of uranium from contaminated soil by Macleaya cordata before and after application of EDDS and CA.  

PubMed

This is the first report on using Macleaya cordata for phytoextraction of uranium from the uranium contaminated soil in the greenhouse. Macleaya M. cordata was found to increase uranium concentration in the soil solution by increasing the dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The amendment experiments with citric acid (CA) and [S,S]-ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) at the rates of 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 mmol kg(-1) dry weight (DW) soil showed that EDDS was more efficient to increase uranium concentration in the shoot than CA when they were applied at the same rate. The applications of 5.0 mmol kg(-1) EDDS and 10.0 mmol kg(-1) CA were most appropriate for increasing uranium concentrations in the shoot of M. cordata. CA was more efficient to increase the solubility of uranium at the same application rates except for 2.5 mmol kg(-1) application rate. There was a linear correlation between the uranium concentration in the shoot and the average uranium concentration of one planted pot during 14 days in soil solution after the application of different rates of EDDS and CA, respectively (r (2)?=?0.972, P?

Li, Chang-Wu; Hu, Nan; Ding, De-Xin; Hu, Jin-Song; Li, Guang-Yue; Wang, Yong-Dong

2014-11-18

110

Phytoextraction of Cadmium and Zinc By Sedum plumbizincicola Using Different Nitrogen Fertilizers, a Nitrification Inhibitor and a Urease Inhibitor.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) phytoavailability and their phytoextraction by Sedum plumbizincicola using different nitrogen fertilizers, nitrification inhibitor (dicyandiamide, DCD) and urease inhibitor (N-(n-Butyl) thiophosphoric triamide, NBPT) were investigated in pot experiments where the soil was contaminated with 0.99 mg kg(-1) of Cd and 241 mg kg(-1) Zn. The soil solution pH varied between 7.30 and 8.25 during plant growth which was little affected by the type of N fertilizer. The (NH4)2SO4+DCD treatment produced higher NH4(+)-N concentrations in soil solution than the (NH4)2SO4 and NaNO3 treatment which indicated that DCD addition inhibited the nitrification process. Shoot Cd and Zn concentrations across all treatments showed ranges of 52.9-88.3 and 2691-4276 mg kg(-1), respectively. The (NH4)2SO4+DCD treatment produced slightly higher but not significant Cd and Zn concentrations in the xylem sap than the NaNO3 treatment. Plant shoots grown with NaNO3 had higher Cd concentrations than (NH4)2SO4+DCD treatment at 24.0 and 15.4 mg kg(-1), respectively. N fertilizer application had no significant effect on shoot dry biomass. Total Cd uptake in the urea+DCD treatment was higher than in the control, urea+NBPT, urea+NBPT+DCD, or urea treatments, by about 17.5, 23.3, 10.7, and 25.1%, respectively. PMID:25409252

Arnamwong, Suteera; Wu, Longhua; Hu, Pengjie; Yuan, Cheng; Thiravetyan, Paitip; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

2015-01-01

111

Bioaugmentation with cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to assist cadmium phytoextraction by Helianthus annuus.  

PubMed

Micrococcus sp. MU1 and Klebsiella sp. BAM1, the cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), produce high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the late stationary phase of their growth. The ability of PGPR to promote root elongation, plant growth and cadmium uptake in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) was evaluated. Both species of bacteria were able to remove cadmium ions from an aqueous solution and enhanced cadmium mobilization in contaminated soil. Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. use aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid as a nitrogen source to support their growth, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cadmium for Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. were 1000 and 800mM, respectively. These bacteria promoted root elongation in H. annuus seedlings in both the absence and presence of cadmium compared to uninoculated seedlings. Inoculation with these bacteria was found to increase the root lengths of H. annuus that had been planted in cadmium-contaminated soil. An increase in dry weight was observed for H. annuus inoculated with Micrococcus sp. Moreover, Micrococcus sp. enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the root and leaf of H. annuus compared to untreated plants. The highest cadmium accumulation in the whole plant was observed when the plants were treated with EDTA following the treatment with Micrococcus sp. In addition, the highest translocation of cadmium from root to the above-ground tissues of H. annuus was found after treatment with Klebsiella sp. in the fourth week after planting. Our results show that plant growth and cadmium accumulation in H. annuus was significantly enhanced by cadmium-resistant PGPRs, and these bacterial inoculants are excellent promoters of phytoextraction for the rehabilitation of heavy metal-polluted environments. PMID:23478127

Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Chanprasert, Maesinee; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

2013-07-01

112

Greenhouse studies on the phyto-extraction capacity of Cynodon nlemfuensis for lead and cadmium under irrigation with treated wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over 30 years, discharge of sewage effluent and sludge on pasturelands has been used in Zimbabwe as a cheap method for secondary treatment of wastewater without any monitoring of accumulation of heavy metals in soils and grasses, let alone in animals grazing on the pastures. Cynodon nlemfuensis (star grass) has been the main grass planted on the wastewater irrigated pasturelands. This study was conducted to assess the capacity of star grass to accumulate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and develop models incorporating grass yield, metal uptake and soil bio-available (EDTA extractable) metal content, that could be used to determine critical grass and soil concentrations at which grass productivity declines. Star grass was planted in 30 fertilized pots containing sandy soil within a greenhouse. The pots consisted of nine treatments of varying levels of added inorganic Pb and Cd subjected to treated wastewater application and one control that had no added metals and received water application only. The elements were applied to the soils once just after planting the grass. Chemical analyses showed that star grass had a relatively high phyto-extraction capacity of Pb and Cd, comparable to that of hyper-accumulating grasses such as Lolium perenne (rye grass). It accumulated Pb and Cd to levels far beyond the recommended maximum limits for pasture grass. Analysis of variance on log-normal transformed data showed that bio-available soil metal concentrations correlated strongly with grass metal content and grass metal content correlated strongly with the yield. There was however a weak correlation between the yield and bio-available soil levels. The yield versus grass metal content models that were developed for the first crop and re-growth predicted similar critical metal concentrations and yields. Using the critical grass metal concentrations in the soil bio-available metal concentration versus grass metal concentration models allowed for the prediction of the corresponding critical soil concentrations.

Madyiwa, S.; Chimbari, M. J.; Schutte, C. F.; Nyamangara, J.

113

Radionuclide imaging of osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

Radionuclide procedures frequently are performed as part of the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. Degenerative joint disease, fracture, and orthopedic hardware decrease the specificity of the bone scan, making it less useful in these situations. Gallium-67 scintigraphy was often used as an adjunct to bone scintigraphy for diagnosing osteomyelitis. However, now it is used primarily for spinal infections when (18)F-FDG imaging cannot be performed. Except for the spine, in vitro-labeled leukocyte imaging is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing complicating osteomyelitis. Leukocytes accumulate in bone marrow as well as in infection. Performing complementary bone marrow imaging with (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid facilitates the differentiation between osteomyelitis and normal marrow and improves test overall accuracy. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments, such as (99m)Tc-besilesomab and (99m)Tc-sulesomab, were developed to eliminate the disadvantages associated with in vitro-labeled leukocytes. These agents, however, have their own shortcomings and are not widely available. As biotin is used as a growth factor by certain bacteria, (111)In-biotin is useful to diagnose spinal infections. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of ubiquicidin, a naturally occurring human antimicrobial peptide that targets bacteria, can differentiate infection from sterile inflammation and may be useful to monitor response to treatment. (18)F-FDG is extremely useful in the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Sensitivity in excess of 95% and specificity ranging from 75%-99% have been reported. (18)F-FDG is the radionuclide test of choice for spinal infection. The test is sensitive, with a high negative predictive value, and reliably differentiates degenerative from infectious vertebral body end-plate abnormalities. Data on the accuracy of (18)F-FDG for diagnosing diabetic pedal osteomyelitis are contradictory, and its role for this indication remains to be determined. Initial investigations suggested that (18)F-FDG accurately diagnoses prosthetic joint infection; more recent data indicate that it cannot differentiate infection from other causes of prosthetic failure. Preliminary data on the PET agents gallium-68 and iodine-124 fialuridine indicate that these agents may have a role in diagnosing osteomyelitis. PMID:25475377

Palestro, Christopher J

2015-01-01

114

Survival of introduced phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and their impact on microbial community structure during the phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate whether or not phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) as a kind of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhance the uptake of Cd by plants. In addition, the effect of PSB augmentation during phytoextraction on the microbial community of indigenous soil bacteria was also studied. In the initial Cd-contaminated soil, the major phyla were Proteobacteria (35%), Actinobacteria (38%) and Firmicutes (8%). While Proteobacteria were dominant at the second and sixth week (41 and 54%, respectively) in inoculated soil, Firmicutes (mainly belonging to the Bacilli class-61%), dramatically increased in the eight-week soil. For the uninoculated soil, the proportion of ?-Proteobacteria increased after eight weeks (32%). Interestingly, Actinobacteria class, which was originally present in the soil (37%), seemed to disappear during phytoremediation, irrespective of whether PSB was inoculated or not. Cluster analysis and Principal Component Analysis revealed that the microbial community of eight-week inoculated soil was completely separated from the other soil samples, due to the dramatic increase of Bacillus aryabhattai. These findings revealed that it took at least eight weeks for the inoculated Bacillus sp. to functionally adapt to the introduced soil, against competition with indigenous microorganisms in soil. An ecological understanding of interaction among augmented bacteria, plant and indigenous soil bacteria is needed, for proper management of phytoextraction. PMID:24231320

Jeong, Seulki; Moon, Hee Sun; Shin, Doyun; Nam, Kyoungphile

2013-12-15

115

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-09-30

116

14-plex Feasibility Report  

SciTech Connect

The Native Village of Unalakleet project was a feasibility study for a retrofit of a “tribally owned” three story, 14 apartment complex located in Unalakleet, Alaska. The program objective and overall goal was to create a plan for retrofitting to include current appraised value and comparable costs of new construction to determine genuine feasibility as low-income multi-family housing for tribal members.

Kotongan, Victoria Hazel [Native Village of Unalakleet

2013-06-21

117

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

118

Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

2007-11-15

119

Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L.  

PubMed

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 microM) alone, Mn (500 microM) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 microM) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed substantial amounts of Mn from the media. The EDTA best enhanced the Mn uptake and translocation, while citric acid best recovered the plant growth. PMID:19541411

Najeeb, U; Xu, L; Ali, Shafaqat; Jilani, Ghulam; Gong, H J; Shen, W Q; Zhou, W J

2009-10-30

120

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2012-09-24

121

Radionuclide injury to the lung.  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

1984-01-01

122

Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods  

DOEpatents

Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-03-08

123

Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

124

Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides (153samarium-ethylenediaminetetrameth-ylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and 89strontium) deliver high radiation doses to bone metastases and micrometastases in the bone marrow, but only negligible doses to the hematopoietic marrow. The response rate regarding pain syndrome is about 75%; about 25% of the patients may even become pain free. The therapy is repeatable, depending on cell counts. Concomitant treatment with modern bisphosphonates does not interfere with the treatment effects. Clinical trials using a new, not yet approved nuclide (223Radium) and/or combinations of chemotherapy and radionuclides are aiming at a more curative approach. PMID:22740795

Fischer, Manfred; Kampen, Willm U.

2012-01-01

125

Extinct radionuclides. [in solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extinct radionuclides, or radioactive isotopes with lifetimes of the order of 1 to 100 Myr that are now extinct in the solar system are discussed. Evidence is presented for the presence of such radionuclides in the early solar system, including Al-26, Mn-53, Pd-107, I-129, Pu-244, and Sm-146. It is suggested that the abundances of these species provide constraints on nucleosynthetic time scales and the history of solar system materials before they became the solar system. The shortest-lived species is Al-26, which may have been sufficiently abundant to be the major heat source for meteorite parent-body metamorphism or igneous differentiation.

Podosek, F. A.; Swindle, T. D.

1988-01-01

126

Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use  

DOEpatents

Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

1983-05-03

127

The use of a biodegradable chelator for enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals by Festuca arundinacea from municipal solid waste compost and associated heavy metal leaching.  

PubMed

In a column experiment with horizontal permeable barriers, the effects of a biodegradable chelator-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) on the uptake of heavy metals from municipal solid waste (MSW) compost by Festuca arundinacea and metal leaching were investigated. The use of NTA was effective in increasing Cu, Pb, and Zn uptakes in shoots of two crops of F. arundinacea. In columns with barriers and treated with 20 mmol NTA per kg MSW compost, metal uptakes by the first and second crop of F. arundinacea were, respectively, 3.8 and 4.0 times for Pb, and 1.8 and 1.7 times for Zn greater with the added NTA than without it. Though NTA application mobilized metals, it caused only slight leaching of metals from MSW compost. Permeable barriers positioned between compost and soil effectively reduced metal leaching. NTA-assisted phytoextraction by turfgrass with permeable barriers to cleanup heavy metal contaminated MSW compost should be environmentally safe. PMID:23247507

Zhao, Shulan; Jia, Lina; Duo, Lian

2013-02-01

128

Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages  

DOEpatents

A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

1984-09-12

129

Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages  

DOEpatents

A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

Brodzinski, Ronald L. (Richland, WA); Perkins, Richard W. (Richland, WA); Rieck, Henry G. (Richland, WA); Wogman, Ned A. (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01

130

RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

We propose a research program directed toward developing novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. In order to meet the requirements for isotope specific detection at ultra-low re...

131

REP Concept Feasibility Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) may have the potential to provide certain advantages, over conventional chemical propulsion, for outer planetary exploration involving small bodies and long term investigations for medium class missions requiring power comparable to past outer planetary exploration missions. This paper describes a study that investigates the concept s feasibility by performing a preliminary conceptual design of an REP-based spacecraft for a design reference mission. The mission utilizes a spacecraft with a radioisotope power supply less than one kilowatt while operating for a minimum of 10-years. A key element of the REP spacecraft is to ensure sustained science return by orbiting or flying in formation with selected targets. Utilizing current and impending technological advances, this study finds that at a conceptual design level a small body REP orbiter/explorer appears to be feasible for the design reference mission selected for this study.

Edwards, Daryl A.; Ensworth, Clinton B. F.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Sheehe, Charles J.; Wiersma, Stephen C.; Adamsen, Paul B., II; Frank, Larry

2004-01-01

132

USE OF BATCH TESTS AS A SCREENING TOOL FOR RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES, HANFORD, WSHINGTON, U.S.A.  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Department of Energy was studying the feasibility of locating a high-level radioactive waste repository in basalt at the Hanford site in south-central Washington. his is a saturated site where ground water transport of radionuclides away from a repository is the mechanis...

133

THE USE OF BATCH TESTS AS A SCREENING TOOL FOR RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES, HANFORD, WASHINGTON, U.S.A.  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Department of Energy was studying the feasibility of locating a high-level radioactive waste repository in basalt at the Hanford site in south-central Washington. This is a saturated site where ground water transport of radionuclides away from a repository is the mechani...

134

Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

Premuzic, E.T.

1983-08-25

135

Radionuclide behavior in the environment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))

1991-09-01

136

Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG  

SciTech Connect

The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.

Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

1985-09-01

137

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1998-09-15

138

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

1998-01-01

139

Alternate shield material feasibility  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility and cost/benefit of using materials other than stainless steel for in-vessel neutron shielding in large LMFBRs were investigated. Canned vibratorally compacted B/sub 4/C powder shields were found to be much more economical than stainless steel (a savings of $1.1M in loop plant designs and $9.4M in pool plant designs). The helium gas pressure buildup in B/sub 4/C shields placed around LMFBR in-vessel components (direct reactor heat exchangers in a loop reactor and intermediate heat exchangers in a pool reactor) would only be 0.04 atm after 40 y of reactor operation (with 80% dense powder). The irradiation-induced swelling of the B/sub 4/C would only be 0.002%. No adverse reactor impact would occur if the B/sub 4/C escaped from the B/sub 4/C shields.

Specht, E.R.; Levitt, L.B.

1984-04-01

140

Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

2009-01-07

141

Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters  

SciTech Connect

In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

1994-04-01

142

Effect of ketogenic mediterranean diet with phytoextracts and low carbohydrates/high-protein meals on weight, cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and diet compliance in Italian council employees  

PubMed Central

Background There has been increased interest in recent years in very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) that, even though they are much discussed and often opposed, have undoubtedly been shown to be effective, at least in the short to medium term, as a tool to tackle obesity, hyperlipidemia and some cardiovascular risk factors. For this reason the ketogenic diet represents an interesting option but unfortunately suffers from a low compliance. The aim of this pilot study is to ascertain the safety and effects of a modified ketogenic diet that utilizes ingredients which are low in carbohydrates but are formulated to simulate its aspect and taste and also contain phytoextracts to add beneficial effects of important vegetable components. Methods The study group consisted of 106 Rome council employees with a body mass index of ? 25, age between 18 and 65 years (19 male and 87 female; mean age 48.49 ± 10.3). We investigated the effects of a modified ketogenic diet based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrate but which mimic their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts (KEMEPHY ketogenic Mediterranean with phytoextracts). Calories in the diet were unlimited. Measurements were taken before and after 6 weeks of diet. Results There were no significant changes in BUN, ALT, AST, GGT and blood creatinine. We detected a significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in BMI (31.45 Kg/m2 to 29.01 Kg/m2), body weight (86.15 kg to 79.43 Kg), percentage of fat mass (41.24% to 34.99%), waist circumference (106.56 cm to 97.10 cm), total cholesterol (204 mg/dl to 181 mg/dl), LDLc (150 mg/dl to 136 mg/dl), triglycerides (119 mg/dl to 93 mg/dl) and blood glucose (96 mg/dl to 91 mg/dl). There was a significant (p < 0.0001) increase in HDLc (46 mg/dl to 52 mg/dl). Conclusions The KEMEPHY diet lead to weight reduction, improvements in cardiovascular risk markers, reduction in waist circumference and showed good compliance. PMID:21992535

2011-01-01

143

Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1991-01-01

144

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

1990-11-13

145

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (GlenEllyn, IL)

1990-01-01

146

Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need  

SciTech Connect

In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

Smith, V.H.

1981-03-01

147

Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations  

DOEpatents

The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

Chen, Xiaoyuan (Syracuse, NY); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Fisher, Darrell R. (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

148

Tribal Utility Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be developed and sold to the wholesale electricity market. • Facility scale, net metered renewable energy systems – These are renewable energy systems that provide power to individual households or facilities that are connected to conventional electric utility grid.

Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

2007-06-30

149

Plant-associated bacteria and their role in the success or failure of metal phytoextraction projects: first observations of a field-related experiment  

PubMed Central

Phytoextraction has been reported as an economically and ecologically sound alternative for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. Willow is a metal phytoextractor of interest because it allows to combine a gradual contaminant removal with production of biomass that can be valorized in different ways. In this work two willow clones growing on a metal-contaminated site were selected: ‘Belgisch Rood’ (BR) with a moderate metal extraction capacity and ‘Tora’ (TO) with a twice as high metal accumulation. All cultivable bacteria associated with both willow clones were isolated and identified using 16SrDNA ARDRA analysis followed by 16SrDNA sequencing. Further all isolated bacteria were investigated for characteristics that might promote plant growth (production of siderophores, organic acids and indol acetic acid) and for their metal resistance. The genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the isolated bacteria showed that the TO endophytic bacterial population is more diverse and contains a higher percentage of metal-resistant plant growth promoting bacteria than the endophytic population associated with BR. We hypothesize that the difference in the metal accumulation capacity between BR and TO clones might be at least partly related to differences in characteristics of their associated bacterial population. PMID:23425076

Weyens, Nele; Beckers, Bram; Schellingen, Kerim; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Croes, Sarah; Janssen, Jolien; Haenen, Stefan; Witters, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

2013-01-01

150

Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis).  

PubMed

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by co-planting a cadmium/zinc (Cd/Zn) hyperaccumulator and lead (Pb) accumulator Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis). Co-planting with castor decreased the shoot biomass of S. alfredii as compared to that in monoculture. Cadmium concentration in S. alfredii shoot significantly decreased when grown with ryegrass or castor as compared to that in monoculture. However, no reduction of Zn or Pb concentration in S. alfredii shoot was detected in co-planting treatments. Total removal of either Cd, Zn, or Pb by plants was similar across S. alfredii monoculture or co-planting with ryegrass or castor, except enhanced Pb removal in S. alfredii and ryegrass co-planting treatment. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor significantly enhanced the pyrene and anthracene dissipation as compared to that in the bare soil or S. alfredii monoculture. This appears to be due to the increased soil microbial population and activities in both co-planting treatments. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor provides a promising strategy to mitigate both metal and PAH contaminants from co-contaminated soils. PMID:23488013

Wang, Kai; Huang, Huagang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Li, Tingqiang; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Alva, Ashok

2013-01-01

151

Pteris vittata continuously removed arsenic from non-labile fraction in three contaminated-soils during 3.5 years of phytoextraction.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effectiveness of arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata to continuously remove As from three contaminated-soils containing 26-126mgkg(-1) As over 7 harvests in 3.5 years. Changes in As speciation in soils, amended with P fertilizer (P-soil) or insoluble phosphate rock (PR-soil), were assessed via sequential fractionation. Arsenic in available (soluble+exchangeable), non-labile (bound to amorphous+crystalline Fe/Al oxides), and residual fractions constituted ?12%, ?80%, and ?8% of soil As. Soluble As declined while exchangeable As was unchanged, likely due to replenishment from non-labile As, which accounted for ?87% of decline in total soil As. Although plant-available As is important, the non-labile As better predicted the frond As concentration in P. vittata, with the correlation being r=0.90 and 0.64 for PR-soils and P-soils. P. vittata removed 44% of soil As from PR-soils compared to 33% from P-soils, suggesting the low-soluble P from PR was more effective than P fertilizer in enhancing As uptake by P. vittata. To facilitate acquisition of P from PR, P. vittata produced larger root biomass to solubilize non-labile As, allowing for more efficient phytoextraction. PMID:25108101

Lessl, Jason T; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Q

2014-08-30

152

Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

1981-10-01

153

Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis and interpretation of the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu in the Caspian Sea water are presented. These radionuclides are shown to be of environmental importance and to be useful for studying water mass dynamics.

B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud; M. K. Pham; P. P. Povinec

2003-01-01

154

Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

2000-01-01

155

Computational methods in radionuclide dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various approaches in radionuclide dosimetry depend on the size and spatial relation of the sources and targets considered in conjunction with the emission range of the radionuclide used. We present some of the frequently reported computational techniques on the basis of the source/target size. For whole organs, or for sources or targets bigger than some centimetres, the acknowledged standard was introduced 30 years ago by the MIRD committee and is still being updated. That approach, based on the absorbed fraction concept, is mainly used for radioprotection purposes but has been updated to take into account the dosimetric challenge raised by therapeutic use of vectored radiopharmaceuticals. At this level, the most important computational effort is in the field of photon dosimetry. On the millimetre scale, photons can often be disregarded, and or electron dosimetry is generally reported. Heterogeneities at this level are mainly above the cell level, involving groups of cell or a part of an organ. The dose distribution pattern is often calculated by generalizing a point source dose distribution, but direct calculation by Monte Carlo techniques is also frequently reported because it allows media of inhomogeneous density to be considered. At the cell level, and electron (low-range or Auger) are the predominant emissions examined. Heterogeneities in the dose distribution are taken into account, mainly to determine the mean dose at the nucleus. At the DNA level, Auger electrons or -particles are considered from a microdosimetric point of view. These studies are often connected with radiobiological experiments on radionuclide toxicity.

Bardiès, M.; Myers, M. J.

1996-10-01

156

Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

157

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva [Div. of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

2008-08-07

158

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

2008-08-01

159

Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux.

Blumhagen, J.D. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle); Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

1980-11-01

160

2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /  

SciTech Connect

The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

Fuehne, David P.

2011-06-01

161

Economic feasibility of anaerobic digesters  

SciTech Connect

Farms which have existing adequate manure utilization, such as storage and field application, would normally only consider an anaerobic digestion system based on its energy producing benefits relative to all costs of the system. This paper presents an economic feasibility analysis of a particular on-farm anaerobic digestion system and assesses the impact on feasibility of varying the oil and electricity prices. (Refs. 2).

Criner, G.K.

1987-01-01

162

Metal partitioning in plant-substrate-water compartments under EDDS-assisted phytoextraction of pyrite waste with Brassica carinata A. Braun.  

PubMed

Soil amendment with chelating agents can increase metal uptake and translocation in biomass species through increased metal bioavailability together with possible increases in metal leaching. In this study, we assessed the efficiency and environmental risk of the fast-degradable [S,S]-EDDS. Cu, Pb and Zn uptake in pot-cultivated Brassica carinata A. Braun, residual substrate metal bioavailability and leaching were investigated after one cycle of EDDS-assisted phytoextraction in mixed metal-contaminated pyrite waste, which is characterised by high Fe content. The chelator was supplied at doses of 2.5 and 5 mmol EDDS kg(-1) waste 1 week before harvest and 1 mmol EDDS kg(-1) waste repeated five times at 5- and 10-day intervals during the growing cycle. Here we demonstrate that EDDS generally increases shoot metal concentrations-especially of Cu-but only seldom improves removals because of markedly impaired growth. Considerable phytotoxicity and Cu leaching occurred under repeated EDDS treatments, although environmental risks may also arise from the single, close-to-harvest applications as Cu bioavailability in waste at plant harvest still remained very high (up to +67 % at 5 mmol EDDS kg(-1) vs. untreated controls). The residual bioavailability of Zn and Pb was instead generally reduced, perhaps due to shifts in cation exchange, whereas Fe mobility was not apparently affected. The amount of metals removed by plants represented a small fraction of the bioavailable pool (<1 %), and mobilised metals quickly reached deep layers in the substrate. We conclude that EDDS assistance can provide only some limited opportunities for improving phytoremediation of pyrite waste, major benefits being achieved by low doses to be traditionally applied shortly before harvest, with due attention to limiting groundwater pollution. PMID:24859698

Vamerali, T; Bandiera, M; Lucchini, P; Mosca, G

2015-02-01

163

Phytoextract of Indian mustard seeds acts by suppressing the generation of ROS against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. & Coss. (Brassicaceae)] is reported to possess diverse pharmacological properties. However, limited information is available concerning its hepatoprotective activity and mechanism of action. Objective: To study the protective mechanism of mustard seed extract against acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line. Materials and methods: Hepatotoxicity models were established using APAP (2.5-22.5?mM) based on the cytotoxicity profile. An antioxidant-rich fraction from mustard seeds was extracted and evaluated for its hepatoprotective potential. The mechanism of action was elucidated using various in vitro antioxidant assays, the detection of intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell cycle analysis. The phytoconstituents isolated via HPLC-DAD were also evaluated for hepatoprotective activity. Results: Hydromethanolic seed extract exhibited hepatoprotective activity in post- and pre-treatment models of 20?mM APAP toxicity and restored the elevated levels of liver indices to normal values (p?phytoextract of mustard seeds acts by suppressing the generation of ROS in response to APAP toxicity. PMID:25489640

Parikh, Harita; Pandita, Nancy; Khanna, Aparna

2014-12-01

164

Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer  

PubMed Central

This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential. PMID:18686778

Sofou, Stavroula

2008-01-01

165

Basic Information about the Radionuclides Rule  

MedlinePLUS

... Top of page What radionuclides are regulated in drinking water and what are their health effects? The regulated radioactive drinking water contaminants are: Contaminant MCL (year promulgated) Source Health ...

166

System and method for assaying a radionuclide  

DOEpatents

A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

2014-12-23

167

(Radiological assessments of radionuclide releases)  

SciTech Connect

As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, data have been obtained throughout the Northern Hemisphere on the concentrations of radionuclides in air, vegetation, soil, water, and foodstuffs that could be important means of human exposure. At the IAEA's invitation, the traveler reviewed recently published data and handbook summaries. The traveler evaluated the need for revising the default values recommended in Chapter 5, Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Chain Transport,'' of IAEA Safety Series No. 57. All attempts at revision were made to keep the mathematical complexity of the models to a minimum without substantial underestimation of dose to critical population subgroups. The traveler also served as chairman of the Multiple Pathways Working Group of the Coordinated Research Program on VAMP. This group has been established to test predictions of models assessing multiple exposure pathways potentially leading to human exposure to {sup 137}Cs. Testing is carried out for major components of assessment models that predict deposition, environmental transport, food chain bioaccumulation, and subsequent uptake and retention in the human body and dose due to exposure to external gamma radiation.

Hoffman, F.O.

1990-12-28

168

Phytoextraction potential of wild type and 35S-gshI transgenic poplar trees (Populus x Canescens) for environmental pollutants herbicide paraquat, salt sodium, zinc sulfate and nitric oxide in vitro.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction potentials of two transgenic (TR) poplar (Populus x canescens) clones TRggs11 and TRlgl6 were compared with that of wild-type (WT) following exposure to paraquat, zinc sulfate, common salt and nitric oxide (NO), using a leaf-disc system incubated for 21 days on EDTA-containing nutritive WPM media in vitro. Glutathione (GSH) contents of leaf discs of TRlgl6 and TRggs11 showed increments to 296% and 190%, respectively, compared with WT. NO exposure led to a twofold GSH content in TRlgl6, which was coupled with a significantly increased sulfate uptake when exposed to 10(-3) M ZnSO4. The highest mineral contents of Na, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Mo was observed in the TRggs11 clone. Salt-induced activity of catalase enzyme increased in both TR clones significantly compared with WT under NaCl (0.75% and 1.5%) exposure. The in silico sequence analyses of gsh1 genes revealed that P. x canadensis and Salix sachalinensis show the closest sequence similarity to that of P. x canescens, which predicted an active GSH production with high phytoextraction potentials of these species with indication for their use where P. x canescens can not be grown. PMID:24912238

Gyulai, G; Bittsánszky, A; Szabó, Z; Waters, L; Gullner, G; Kampfl, G; Heltai, G; Komíves, T

2014-01-01

169

Effective Phytoextraction of Cadmium (Cd) with Increasing Concentration of Total Phenolics and Free Proline in Cannabis sativa (L) Plant Under Various Treatments of Fertilizers, Plant Growth Regulators and Sodium Salt.  

PubMed

The comparative effect of fertilizers (NPK), plant growth regulators (GA3, IAA, Zeatin) and sodium chloride (NaCl) on Cd phytoaccumulation, proline and phenolics production in Cannabis sativa was evaluated. Proline and phenolices were correlated with Cd contents in plant. Cd significantly reduced the plant growth. Fertilizers application (in combination) most significantly increased the growth (19 cm root and 47 cm shoot) on Cd contaminated soil. All treatments increased the Cd contents in plant tissues. This increase was highly significant in fertilizers treated plants (1101, 121 and 544 ppm in roots, stem and leaves respectively). Significantly positive correlation was found between Cd concentration and dry biomass of root (R(2) = 0.7511) and leaves (R(2) = 0.5524). All treatments significantly increased the proline and total phenolics and maximum was recorded in NaCl treated plants followed by fertilizers. Proline was higher in roots while phenolics in leaves. The correlation between proline and phenolics was positive in leaf (R(2) = 0.8439) and root (R(2) = 0.5191). Proline and phenolics showed positive correlation with Cd concentration in plant. Conclusively, fertilizers in combination seem to be the better option for Cd phytoextraction. Further investigation is suggested to study the role of phenolics and proline in Cd phytoextraction. PMID:25174425

Ahmad, Ayaz; Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir

2015-01-01

170

Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

2012-04-01

171

Lower Sioux Wind Feasibility & Development  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process and findings of a Wind Energy Feasibility Study (Study) conducted by the Lower Sioux Indian Community (Community). The Community is evaluating the development of a wind energy project located on tribal land. The project scope was to analyze the critical issues in determining advantages and disadvantages of wind development within the Community. This analysis addresses both of the Community's wind energy development objectives: the single turbine project and the Commerical-scale multiple turbine project. The main tasks of the feasibility study are: land use and contraint analysis; wind resource evaluation; utility interconnection analysis; and project structure and economics.

Minkel, Darin

2012-04-01

172

THE IMPORTANCE OF DEFINING THE FEASIBLE SET  

Microsoft Academic Search

How should we define the feasible set? Even when individuals agree on facts and values, as traditionally construed, different views on feasibility may suffice to produce very different policy conclusions. Focusing on the difficulties in the feasibility concept may help us resolve some policy disagreements, or at least identify the sources of those disagreements. Feasibility is most plausibly a matter

TYLER COWEN

2007-01-01

173

Radionuclide measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry at Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past years, Tandem Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (TAMS) has become established as an important method for radionuclide analysis. In the Arizona system the accelerator is operated at a thermal voltage of 1.8MV for C-14 analysis, and 1.6 to 2MV for Be-10. Samples are inserted into a cesium sputter ion source in solid form. Negative ions sputtered from the target are accelerated to about 25kV, and the injection magnet selects ions of a particular mass. Ions of the 3+ charge state, having an energy of about 9MeV are selected by an electrostatic deflector, surviving ions pass through two magnets, where only ions of the desired mass-energy product are selected. The final detector is a combination ionization chamber to measure energy loss (and hence, Z), and a silicon surface-barrier detector which measures residual energy. After counting the trace iosotope for a fixed time, the injected ions are switched to the major isotope used for normalization. These ions are deflected into a Faraday cup after the first high-energy magnet. Repeated measurements of the isotope ratio of both sample and standards results in a measurement of the concentration of the radionuclide. Recent improvements in sample preparation for C-14 make preparation of high-beam current graphite targets directly from CO2 feasible. Except for some measurements of standards and backgrounds for Be-10 measurements to date have been on C-14. Although most results have been in archaeology and quaternary geology, studies have been expanded to include cosmogenic C-14 in meteorites. The data obtained so far tend to confirm the antiquity of Antarctic meteorites from the Allan Hills site. Data on three samples of Yamato meteorites gave terrestrial ages of between about 3 and 22 thousand years.

Jull, A. J. T.; Donahue, D. J.; Zabel, T. H.

174

Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the oxygen retention of the tissue and the significantly greater retention amounting in hypoxic tissue. This hypothesis was confirmed in a series of animal studies. Cu-64 can be used both as an imaging radionuclide and a therapeutic radionuclide. The therapeutic efficacy of Cu-64 ATSM was proven in hamsters bearing the CW39 human colorectal tumors. The administration of Cu-64 ATSM significantly increased the survival time of tumor-bearing animals with no acute toxicity. This copper agent therefore shows promise for radiotherapy. The flow tracer Cu-64 PTSM also demonstrates therapeutic potential by inhibiting cancer cells implanted in animal models. Again, this inhibition occurred at doses which showed no sign of toxicity to the animals. Cu-ATSM was translated to humans, under other support a series of tumors were investigated; these included head and neck cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer and renal cancer. Another radionuclide that was investigated was titanium 45. This radionuclide was successfully produced by radiation of a scandium foil with 15 MeV protons. The titanium 45 was processed and separated from residual scandium by high exchange chomotrophy. Titanium titanocene has been utilized as a therapeutic agent; this compound was prepared and studied in vitro and in vivo. Another project was the preparation of cyclodextrin dimers as a new pre-targeting approach for tumor uptake. Beta-cyclodextradin and two other dimers were synthesized. These dimers were studied for the in vivo application. Work continued on the application of the radionuclide already discussed. Technetium 94m, a positron emitting radionuclide of the widely used 99m Tc nuclide was also prepared. This allows the quantification of the uptake of technetium radiopharmaceuticals. In collaboration with Professor David Piwnica-Worms, technetium 94m, sestamibi was studied in animal models and in a limited number of human subjects.

Welch, M.J.

2012-02-16

175

STOL ride control feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of developing a ride-smoothing control system for a 20-passenger turboprop STOL transport was assessed. Five different ride-control system configurations with varying degrees of complexity, performance, and cost were investigated. Results indicate that a satisfactory ride-control system can be practically implemented on the aircraft with minimum flight performance degradation.

Gordon, C. K.; Dodson, R. O.

1973-01-01

176

Feasibility Control in Nonlinear Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the properties that optimization algorithms must possess in order toprevent convergence to non-stationary points for the merit function. We show thatdemanding the exact satisfaction of constraint linearizations results in difficulties in awide range of optimization algorithms. Feasibility control is a mechanism that preventsconvergence to spurious solutions by ensuring that sufficient progress towards feasibilityis made, even in the presence

M. Marazzi; Jorge Nocedal

2000-01-01

177

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2013-10-15

178

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2010-09-30

179

Radionuclide migration as a function of mineralogy  

SciTech Connect

The migration of radionuclides is studied as a function of mineralogy utilizing batch sorption and column experiments. The transport behavior of alkaline, alkaline-earth, and transition metals, and actinide species is studied in pure mineral separates. The solid phases utilized for these investigations are silicates, alumino-silicates, carbonates, and metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The results of this effort are utilized to aid in the elucidation of the dominant chemical mechanisms of radionuclide migration, the prediction of radionuclide transport in conditions similar to those expected at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the identification of materials that act as natural geological barriers or that can be utilized as strong sorbers in engineered barriers. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

1991-02-01

180

Therapeutic Radionuclides: Biophysical and Radiobiologic Principles  

PubMed Central

Although the general radiobiologic principles underlying external beam therapy and radionuclide therapy are the same, there are significant differences in the biophysical and radiobiologic effects from the two types of radiation. In addition to the emission of particulate radiation, targeted radionuclide therapy is characterized by (i) extended exposures and, usually, declining dose rates; (ii) nonuniformities in the distribution of radioactivity and, thus, absorbed dose; and (iii) particles of varying ionization density and, hence, quality. This chapter explores the special features that distinguish the biologic effects consequent to the traversal of charged particles through mammalian cells. It also highlights what has been learned when these radionuclides and radiotargeting pharmaceuticals are used to treat cancers. PMID:18662557

Kassis, Amin I.

2008-01-01

181

Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.  

PubMed

An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

2004-12-01

182

Inverse modelling of radionuclide release rates using gamma dose rate observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severe accidents in nuclear power plants such as the historical accident in Chernobyl 1986 or the more recent disaster in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have drastic impacts on the population and environment. The hazardous consequences reach out on a national and continental scale. Environmental measurements and methods to model the transport and dispersion of the released radionuclides serve as a platform to assess the regional impact of nuclear accidents - both, for research purposes and, more important, to determine the immediate threat to the population. However, the assessments of the regional radionuclide activity concentrations and the individual exposure to radiation dose underlie several uncertainties. For example, the accurate model representation of wet and dry deposition. One of the most significant uncertainty, however, results from the estimation of the source term. That is, the time dependent quantification of the released spectrum of radionuclides during the course of the nuclear accident. The quantification of the source terms of severe nuclear accidents may either remain uncertain (e.g. Chernobyl, Devell et al., 1995) or rely on rather rough estimates of released key radionuclides given by the operators. Precise measurements are mostly missing due to practical limitations during the accident. Inverse modelling can be used to realise a feasible estimation of the source term (Davoine and Bocquet, 2007). Existing point measurements of radionuclide activity concentrations are therefore combined with atmospheric transport models. The release rates of radionuclides at the accident site are then obtained by improving the agreement between the modelled and observed concentrations (Stohl et al., 2012). The accuracy of the method and hence of the resulting source term depends amongst others on the availability, reliability and the resolution in time and space of the observations. Radionuclide activity concentrations are observed on a relatively sparse grid and the temporal resolution of available data may be low within the order of hours or a day. Gamma dose rates on the other hand are observed routinely on a much denser grid and higher temporal resolution. Gamma dose rate measurements contain no explicit information on the observed spectrum of radionuclides and have to be interpreted carefully. Nevertheless, they provide valuable information for the inverse evaluation of the source term due to their availability (Saunier et al., 2013). We present a new inversion approach combining an atmospheric dispersion model and observations of radionuclide activity concentrations and gamma dose rates to obtain the source term of radionuclides. We use the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al., 1998; Stohl et al., 2005) to model the atmospheric transport of the released radionuclides. The gamma dose rates are calculated from the modelled activity concentrations. The inversion method uses a Bayesian formulation considering uncertainties for the a priori source term and the observations (Eckhardt et al., 2008). The a priori information on the source term is a first guess. The gamma dose rate observations will be used with inverse modelling to improve this first guess and to retrieve a reliable source term. The details of this method will be presented at the conference. This work is funded by the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz BfS, Forschungsvorhaben 3612S60026. References Davoine, X. and Bocquet, M., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 1549-1564, 2007. Devell, L., et al., OCDE/GD(96)12, 1995. Eckhardt, S., et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 3881-3897, 2008. Saunier, O., et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11403-11421, 2013. Stohl, A., et al., Atmos. Environ., 32, 4245-4264, 1998. Stohl, A., et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2461-2474, 2005. Stohl, A., et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 2313-2343, 2012.

Hamburger, Thomas; Stohl, Andreas; von Haustein, Christoph; Thummerer, Severin; Wallner, Christian

2014-05-01

183

External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax  

SciTech Connect

Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

1989-05-01

184

Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2010-01-04

185

The Feasibility of Folk Science  

PubMed Central

If folk science means individuals having well worked out mechanistic theories of the workings of the world, then it is not feasible. Lay people's explanatory understandings are remarkably coarse, full of gaps and often full of inconsistencies. Even worse, most people underestimate their own understandings. Yet, recent views suggest that formal scientists may not be so different. In spite of these limitations, science somehow works and its success offers hope for the feasibility of folk science as well. The success of science arises from the ways in which scientists learn to leverage understandings in other minds and to outsource explanatory work through sophisticated methods of deference and simplification of complex systems. Three studies ask whether analogous processes might be present not only in lay people, but also in young children and thereby form a foundation for supplementing explanatory understandings almost from the start of our first attempts to make sense of the world. PMID:20625446

Keil, Frank C.

2010-01-01

186

Haltenbanken gas trunkline technically feasible  

SciTech Connect

Installation of a large-diameter subsea gas pipeline over the irregular, iceberg-scoured seabed of the Haltenbanken field in the Norwegian North Sea is technically feasible. That's the conclusion of a major feasibility study of a gas trunkline from Haltenbanken offshore Norway to shore. The study further concludes that considerable cost savings could be obtained by careful routing of the pipeline within a sufficiently wide corridor. Characteristic features of the seabed area are water depths between 250-300 m (820-985 ft) and rugged seabed topography caused by frequent and highly irregular occurrence of iceberg ploughmarks and pockmarks. Crossing these areas with a gas trunkline represents a major pipeline engineering challenge. Outlined here are the strategy for assessing the final route selection, establishing free-span acceptance criteria, and selecting free-span correction methods.

Moshagen, H.; Gjertveit, E.; Rothaug, K.; Sveggen, O.

1988-05-23

187

NTRE extended life feasibility assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of a feasibility analysis of a long life, reusable nuclear thermal rocket engine are presented in text and graph form. Two engine/reactor concepts are addressed: the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) design and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) concept. Engine design, integration, reliability, and safety are addressed by various members of the NTRE team from Aerojet Propulsion Division, Energopool (Russia), and Babcock & Wilcox.

188

NTRE extended life feasibility assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a feasibility analysis of a long life, reusable nuclear thermal rocket engine are presented in text and graph form. Two engine/reactor concepts are addressed: the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) design and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) concept. Engine design, integration, reliability, and safety are addressed by various members of the NTRE team from Aerojet Propulsion Division, Energopool (Russia), and Babcock & Wilcox.

1993-01-01

189

Lunar Analog Feasibility Study Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews a study designed to determine the feasibility of using a 9.5 deg head-up tilt bed rest model to simulate the effects of the 1/6 g load to the human body that exists on the lunar surface. The effect of different types of compression stockings, the pre-bed rest diet, and the use of a specific exercise program were reviewed for comfort, force verification and plasma volume shift

Cromwell, Ronita L.; Neigut, Joe

2009-01-01

190

Radionuclide release from high-level nuclear-waste packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engineered barrier subsystem (EBS) in an important component in limiting the release of radionuclides from a geologic repository for disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the key processes that affect the release of radionuclides from nuclear waste forms and migration of these radionuclides through the nuclear-waste packages of the EBS

M. J. Apted

1990-01-01

191

PROGRESS REPORT. RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors a...

192

Radionuclide bone images in hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy.  

PubMed

Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteoarthropathy (HPO) can be differentiated from osseous metastasis on conventional bone images using technetium 99m radiopharmaceuticals. Periosteal new bone formation appears as symmetric circumferential deposition of radionuclide in the diaphyseal cortex of tubular bones. In contrast, asymmetrical deposits in the medullary canal are indicative of metastatic disease. The etiologies of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy are discussed. PMID:1163719

Terry, D W; Isitman, A T; Holmes, R A

1975-08-01

193

Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.  

PubMed

The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. PMID:24508949

Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

2014-06-01

194

Radionuclide production with > 70-MeV proton accelerators: current and future prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of proton accelerators (i.e. cyclotrons) in the production of medical radionuclides is increasing as a result of new trends in medical research and due to clinical needs associated with the expanding field of positron emission tomography (PET). Accelerators also produced radionuclides needed in single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). Modern high-intensity H - cyclotrons are now commercially available, allowing the use of simultaneous beams, as well as a highly reliable operation. Furthermore, new accelerator-based methods for the production of several useful positron emitters and for the large-scale production of 99mTc and 99Mo, are being investigated. Based on new data, an ample supply for both PET and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals is feasible and may be obtained from centralized regional facilities operating a modern accelerator. For these facilities, an accelerator capable of delivering > 70-MeV protons is, by far, the best overall choice. This rationale is explained here and supported with a summary of radionuclide production data. An increasing role for modern proton accelerators in nuclear medicine and other applications is believed to be scientifically proven and forthcoming although further research and development of the technical and economical basis are required.

Lagunas-Solar, Manuel C.

1992-07-01

195

Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening  

SciTech Connect

The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and high-level waste (HLW). Average and outlying (high burnup, high initial enrichment, low age, or otherwise exceptional) forms of each waste-form type are considered. This analysis has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (BSC 2002c). In a review of Revision 00 of this radionuclide screening analysis, the NRC found that ''processes that affect transport in the biosphere, such as uptake by plants and bioaccumulation are not accounted for'' and that ''the direct exposure pathway is not accounted for'' (Beckman 2001, Section 5.3.2.1). The NRC also found that the solubility and sorption classes were too broadly defined, noting, for example, that Se is in the same solubility and sorptivity groups as Np and U, yet is ''more soluble than Np and U by several orders of magnitude'' (Beckman 2001, Section 5.3.2.1). This revision seeks to build upon the strengths of the earlier screening method while responding to the specific concerns raised by the NRC and other reviewers. In place of simple inhalation and ingestion dose conversion factors, the revised radionuclide screening uses screening factors that also take into account soil accumulation, uptake by plants, exposure to contaminated ground, and other features of the biosphere that were neglected in the previous screening. Whereas the previous screening analysis allowed only two solubility classes (soluble and insoluble), the revised screening introduces an intermediate solubility class to better segregate the radionuclides into transport groups.

G. Ragan

2002-08-09

196

Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, for quality assurance and determination of the burn-up of fuel material in a nuclear power plant, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control. Inorganic mass spectrometry, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric technique today, possesses excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy for isotope ratio measurements and practically no restriction with respect to the ionization potential of the element investigated—therefore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which has been used as the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides for many decades, is being replaced increasingly by ICP-MS. In the last few years instrumental progress in improving figures of merit for the determination of isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in ICP-MS has been achieved by the application of a multiple ion collector device (MC-ICP-MS) and the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate disturbing argon-based molecular ions, to reduce the kinetic energy of ions and neutralize the disturbing noble gas ions (e.g. of 129Xe + for the determination of 129I). The review describes the state of the art and the progress of different inorganic mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP-MS, laser ablation ICP-MS vs. TIMS, glow discharge mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry for the determination of long-lived radionuclides in quite different materials.

Becker, Johanna Sabine

2003-10-01

197

2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

David P. Fuehne

2007-06-30

198

Interception of dry and wet deposited radionuclides by vegetation.  

PubMed

Interception of dry and wet deposited radionuclides by vegetation is a key process in radioecological models that assess ingestion doses to the population following releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radionuclides may be deposited during precipitation or as dry particles. Interception of wet deposited radionuclides is the result of a complex interaction of the vegetative development of the plant canopy, the amount of rainfall, and the chemical form of radionuclides. For the interception of dry deposits, particle size is a key parameter; interception is more effective for small particles and reactive gases. Due to the dependence on plant development, interception of both dry and wet deposits is subject to pronounced seasonality. PMID:19027204

Pröhl, Gerhard

2009-09-01

199

DPC loading feasibility study report  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a ``Settlement Agreement`` between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This study investigates the feasibility of using the Dry Transfer Cell facility to package waste into Dual Purpose Canisters for interim storage at the adjacent Dry Storage System comprised of an interim storage pad with NUHOMS{reg_sign} storage modules. The wastes would then be road-ready for eventual disposal in a permanent repository. The operating period for these activities is expected to be from 2015 to 2035.

Dafoe, R.E.; Lopez, D.A.; Williams, K.L.

1997-11-01

200

Polarized-interferometer feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using a polarized-interferometer system as a rendezvous and docking sensor for two cooperating spacecraft was studied. The polarized interferometer is a radio frequency system for long range, real time determination of relative position and attitude. Range is determined by round trip signal timing. Direction is determined by radio interferometry. Relative roll is determined from signal polarization. Each spacecraft is equipped with a transponder and an antenna array. The antenna arrays consist of four crossed dipoles that can transmit or receive either circularly or linearly polarized signals. The active spacecraft is equipped with a sophisticated transponder and makes all measurements. The transponder on the passive spacecraft is a relatively simple repeater. An initialization algorithm is developed to estimate position and attitude without any a priori information. A tracking algorithm based upon minimum variance linear estimators is also developed. Techniques to simplify the transponder on the passive spacecraft are investigated and a suitable configuration is determined. A multiple carrier CW signal format is selected. The dependence of range accuracy and ambiguity resolution error probability are derived and used to design a candidate system. The validity of the design and the feasibility of the polarized interferometer concept are verified by simulation.

Raab, F. H.

1983-01-01

201

SYNCHEM feasibility report: Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

Several Czech and US companies have entered into a development agreement for the purposes of determining the technical and economic feasibility and overall financeability of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) regional energy facility to be located adjacent to the Chemopetrol refinery in Litvinov, Czech Republic. The Project would use a feedstock comprised of coal supplied by Doly a upravny Komorany s.p. (DUK) coal mining company and mined from the Most/Litvinov area together with high sulfur residual oils from the Chemopetrol refinery. When gasified together with oxygen from an Air Products air separation plant, and based on an average yearly consumption of 2,100K metric tons per year of coal (as delivered) and 630K tonnes per year of oil, approximately 11 million normal cubic meters per day of syngas will be produced. At its current projected design capacity, when combusted in two General Electric advanced technology Frame 9FA gas turbines, the Project will produce approximately 690MW of electric power; 250 metric tons/hour of steam for process; and 135 thermal equivalent MW of district heat. The Feasibility Phase efforts described in this report indicate the real possibility for a successful and profitable IGCC Project for the Czech Republic. It is therefore incumbent upon all the Project Participants to review and evaluate the information contained herein such that a go/no-go decision can be reached by early next year.

Not Available

1995-01-01

202

A methodology to assess the radionuclide migration parameters through bentonite-sand backfill in a short experimental duration  

SciTech Connect

Bentonite-Sand Backfill is a part of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) widely used in a Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF) to delay migration of radionuclides from the disposed nuclear waste in a geo environment. Laboratory migration experiments have been conducted to understand the advection/diffusion mechanisms of various radionuclides through backfill and to evaluate their migration rates in order to assess the performance of EBS. Migration through backfill is an extremely slow process and the experiments are time consuming. Also, these experiments have limitations to simulate the field stress conditions. Various researchers have experienced the advantages of centrifuge modeling technique to model contaminant transport problems of geo-environment. However, no such studies have been carried out adopting this technique to model the behaviour of bentonite-sand mixture as backfill in NSDF. An attempt has been made in the present study to investigate the validity of this technique to carry out such studies. Significance of geotechnical centrifuge modeling to simulate the prototype radionuclide migration mechanisms through backfill is highlighted. This paper presents the dimensional analysis of various scale factors to construct a physical model for centrifuge tests to monitor online the migration phenomena of radionuclides through bentonite-sand mixture. Studies reveal the feasibility of the technique to evaluate the migration parameters in a short experimental duration. Such studies help in improving EBS design and assessing the long-term performance of EBS in NSDF. (authors)

Gurumoorthy, C.; Kusakabe, O. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Geotechnical Engineering Div., Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)

2007-07-01

203

Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

2013-04-01

204

Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

1992-08-04

205

Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis  

SciTech Connect

The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary vasculature resulting in intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cuntaeous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

1983-05-01

206

Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis  

SciTech Connect

The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggrregated albumin (/sup 99m/Tc MAA) labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cutaneous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

1983-05-01

207

Radionuclide cerebral imaging confirming brain death  

SciTech Connect

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by portable radionuclide cerebral imaging (RCI) and by four-vessel cerebral contrast arteriography in 15 clinically brain-dead patients, including six children. Neither technique showed evidence of CBF, although four RCI scans showed sagittal sinus activity. Portable scanning techniques are therefore considered valid determinants of brain death and may be useful in lieu of contrast cerebral arteriography.

Schwartz, J.A.; Baxter, J.; Brill, D.; Burns, J.R.

1983-01-14

208

[Radionuclides, technologies and quality control in brachytherapy].  

PubMed

Brachytherapy consists in placing radioactive sources directly in contact with the tumoral bed. The type of source, its characteristics and its use will be adapted regarding the kind of treatment foreseen. Modern brachytherapy techniques employ remote afterloading technologies allowing better quality and security in the delivery of treatment. This development of technology goes with an increase need of quality control of equipments, including radionuclides, and procedures. PMID:23474213

Marchesi, V; Gautier, M; Villani, N; Feuillade, J; Dejean, C

2013-04-01

209

Detection of osteoporotic sacral fractures with radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Osteoporotic sacral fractures usually occur in elerly patients as a result of mild trauma. Clinical symptoms range from localized sacral tenderness to neurologic problems attributable to sacral nerve root irritation or cauda equina compression. Although the radiographic diagnosis is difficult to establish, bone scans show a characteristic H-shaped pattern of radionuclide uptake across the sacrum and sacroiliac joints. Four cases of osteoporotic sacral fracture with confirmation by computed tomography are included in this report.

Ries, T.

1983-03-01

210

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

Wahl, Linnea

2010-06-01

211

Sedimentation rate determination by radionuclides mass balances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, uranium mining activity took place in the area around Limoges, France. Even nowadays, this activity results in an increase in the input and availability of radionuclides in aquifer reservoirs, making of this area a suitable site to better understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the surficial environment. Water was sampled monthly over the entire year 2001 in a brook that collects mine water and in a lake fed by this brook. Samples were filtered through 0.45?m filters to remove particles. Activities of 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 228Th and 228Ra were measured on particulate (>0.45?m), dissolved (<0.45?m) and total (unfiltered) fractions by gamma spectrometry in the well of a high efficiency, low background, germanium detector settled in an underground laboratory, protected from cosmic rays by 1700 m of rocks (LSM, CNRS-CEA, French Alps). Activities measured in particulate and dissolved fractions were summed and compared to the one measured in unfiltered water to test the filtration yield. No significant loss or contamination were detected. In the brook water, 70% of 238U, 60% of 226Ra and 80% of 210Pb are associated with particles. Activities associated with particles decrease drastically along with the velocity of current when the stream enters the lake. An annual mass balance of radionuclides carried by particles from the stream to the lake was used to determine the sedimentation rate in the lake. The flux of particles deduced from mass balance calculations based on five isotopes corresponds to the thickness of sediment accumulated since the creation of this artificial lake (that is, 1976). This study emphasises the usefulness of radionuclides as tracers for environmental investigations.

Cazala, C.; Reyss, J. L.; Decossas, J. L.; Royer, A.

2003-04-01

212

UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

2006-08-28

213

Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

2008-10-01

214

Radionuclides in the evaluation of urinary obstruction  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide renography and renal scanning techniques are ideally suited to the initial and follow-up evaluation of patients with obstructive uropathy. While other modalities are superior in their ability to provide anatomic information, the radionuclide study yields functional information for each kidney without the necessity to resort to invasive studies. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine study is well suited to the evaluation of obstruction where serial studies often are required because of a lower radiation burden compared to urography. This lower radiation dose is especially important in obstruction because of the recurrent nature of several kinds of obstructive uropathy and because of the high incidence in the pediatric age group. The ability to control urine flow rate during the procedure through dehydration or administration of diuretics is an additional benefit. Increasing availability of computerization of nuclear medicine procedures as well as interest in studies employing physiologic intervention (including the diuresis renogram) have assured an important place for radionuclide studies in the evaluation of patients with urinary obstruction.

Scharf, S.C.; Blaufox, M.D.

1982-07-01

215

Fukushima's forgotten radionuclides: a review of the understudied radioactive emissions.  

PubMed

In environmental monitoring campaigns for anthropogenic radionuclides released in the course of the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), most focus had been on gamma-emitting radionuclides. More than 99% of the released activity was due to radionuclides of the elements Kr, Te, I, Xe, and Cs. However, little work had been done on the monitoring of radionuclides other than (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (136)Cs, and (137)Cs. Radionuclides such as those of less volatile elements (e.g., (89)Sr, (90)Sr, (103)Ru, (106)Ru, plutonium), pure beta-emitters ((3)H, (14)C, (35)S), gaseous radionuclides ((85)Kr, (133)Xe, (135)Xe) or radionuclides with very long half-lives (e.g., (36)Cl, (99)Tc, (129)I, some actinides such as (236)U) have been understudied by comparison. In this review, we summarize previous monitoring work on these "orphan" radionuclides in various environmental media and outline further challenges for future monitoring campaigns. Some of the understudied radionuclides are of radiological concern, others are promising tracers for environmental, geochemical processes such as oceanic mixing. Unfortunately, the shorter-lived nuclides of radioxenon, (103)Ru, (89)Sr and (35)S will no longer exhibit detectable activities in the environment. Activity concentrations of other radionuclides such as tritium, (14)C, or (85)Kr will become blurred in the significant background of previous releases (nuclear explosions and previous accidents). Isotope ratios such as (240)Pu/(239)Pu will allow for the identification of Fukushima plutonium despite the plutonium background. PMID:24754713

Steinhauser, Georg

2014-05-01

216

Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

217

Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

1989-01-01

218

World Ships - Architectures & Feasibility Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A world ship is a concept for manned interstellar flight. It is a huge, self-contained and self-sustained interstellar vehicle. It travels at a fraction of a per cent of the speed of light and needs several centuries to reach its target star system. The well- known world ship concept by Alan Bond and Anthony Martin was intended to show its principal feasibility. However, several important issues haven't been addressed so far: the relationship between crew size and robustness of knowledge transfer, reliability, and alternative mission architectures. This paper addresses these gaps. Furthermore, it gives an update on target star system choice, and develops possible mission architectures. The derived conclusions are: a large population size leads to robust knowledge transfer and cultural adaptation. These processes can be improved by new technologies. World ship reliability depends on the availability of an automatic repair system, as in the case of the Daedalus probe. Star systems with habitable planets are probably farther away than systems with enough resources to construct space colonies. Therefore, missions to habitable planets have longer trip times and have a higher risk of mission failure. On the other hand, the risk of constructing colonies is higher than to establish an initial settlement on a habitable planet. Mission architectures with precursor probes have the potential to significantly reduce trip and colonization risk without being significantly more costly than architectures without. In summary world ships remain an interesting concept, although they require a space colony-based civilization within our own solar system before becoming feasible.

Hein, A. M.; Pak, M.; Putz, D.; Buhler, C.; Reiss, P.

219

IPNS upgrade: A feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Many of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) scientific staff members were very active in R&D work related to accelerator-based spoliation sources in the 1970s and early 1980s. In 1984, the Seitz/Eastman Panel of the National Academy of Sciences reviewed U.S. materials science research facilities. One of the recommendations of this panel was that the United States build a reactor-based steady-state source, the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Subsequently, R&D activities related to the design of an accelerator-based source assumed a lower priority. The resumption of pulsed-source studies in this country started simultaneously with design activities in Europe aimed at the European Spallation Source (ESS). The European Community funded a workshop in September 1991 to define the parameters of the ESS. Participants in this workshop included both accelerator builders and neutron source users. A consortium of European countries has proposed to build a 5-MW pulsed source, and a feasibility study is currently under way. Soon after the birth of the ESS, a small group at ANL set about bringing themselves up to date on pulsed-source information since 1984 and studied the feasibility of upgrading ANL`s Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) to 1 MW by means of a rapidly cycling synchrotron that could be housed, along with its support facilities, in existing buildings. In early 1993, the Kohn panel recommended that (1) design and construction of the ANS should be completed according to the proposed project schedule and (2) development of competitive proposals for cost-effective design and construction of a 1-MW pulsed spallation source should be authorized immediately.

NONE

1995-04-01

220

Feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository  

SciTech Connect

This report discussed progress made during the second year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Corrosion testing in potentially corrosive irradiated environments received emphasis during the feasibility study. Results of experiments to evaluate the effect of a radiation field on the uniform corrosion rate of the copper-base materials in repository-relevant aqueous environments are given as well as results of an electrochemical study of the copper-base materials in normal and concentrated J-13 water. Results of tests on the irradiation of J-13 water and on the subsequent formation of hydrogen peroxide are given. A theoretical study was initiated to predict the long-term corrosion behavior of copper in the repository. Tests were conducted to determine whether copper would adversely affect release rates of radionuclides to the environment because of degradation of the Zircaloy cladding. A manufacturing survey to determine the feasibility of producing copper containers utilizing existing equipment and processes was completed. The cost and availability of copper was also evaluated and predicted to the year 2000. Results of this feasibility assessment are summarized.

Acton, C.F.; McCright, R.D.

1986-09-30

221

Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in estuaries  

SciTech Connect

The finite element model LFESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment and Contaminant Transport Model) was synthesized under this study to simulate radionuclide transport in estuaries to obtain accurate radionuclide distributions which are affected by these factors: time variance, three-dimensional flow, temperature, salinity, and sediments. Because sediment transport and radionuclide adsorption/desorption depend strongly on sizes or types of sediments, FLESCOT simulates sediment and a sediment-sorbed radionuclide for the total of three sediment-size fractions (or sediment types) of both cohesive and noncohesive sediments. It also calculates changes of estuarine bed conditions, including bed elevation changes due to sediment erosion/deposition, and three-dimensional distributions of three bed sediment sizes and sediment-sorbed radionuclides within the bed. Although the model was synthesized for radionuclide transport, it is general enough to also handle other contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, or toxic chemicals. The model was checked for its capability for flow, water surface elevation change, salinity, sediment and radionuclide transport under various simple conditions first, confirming the general validity of the model's computational schemes. These tests also revealed that FLESCOT can use large aspect ratios of computational cells, which are necessary in handling long estuarine study areas. After these simple tests, FLESCOT was applied to the Hudson River estuary between Chelsea and the mouth of the river to examine how well the model can predict radionuclide transport through simulating tidally influenced three-dimensional flow, salinity, sediment and radionuclide movements with their interactions.

Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

1982-11-01

222

Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M. [and others

1994-04-01

223

Effect of chelating agents on the migration of radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

It has been stated that chelate formation of radionuclides with chelating agents such as decontamination reagents (e.g., ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and natural organic compounds (e.g., fulvic and humic acids) found in groundwater significantly influence the migration behavior of radionuclides. They form extremely strong chelates with radionuclides and mobilizes these radionuclides from the radioactive waste (especially from low-level waste) repository. In this study, a new retardation factor incorporating a chelation effect is introduced. A general convection-dispersion transport equation that includes a degradation of solute caused by various physicochemical reactions in porous medium is used and solved by an analytical method.

Min Hoon Baik; Kun Jai Lee

1991-11-01

224

Feasible optimality implies Hack's Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the elongation (the scaling properties of drainage area with mainstream length) in optimal channel networks (OCNs) obtained through different algorithms searching for the minimum of a functional computing the total energy dissipation of the drainage system. The algorithms have different capabilities to overcome the imprinting of initial and boundary conditions, and thus they have different chances of attaining the global optimum. We find that suboptimal shapes, i.e., dynamically accessible states characterized by locally stationary total potential energy, show the robust type of elongation that is consistently observed in nature. This suggestive and directly measurable property is not found in the so-called ground state, i.e., the global minimum, whose features, including elongation, are known exactly. The global minimum is shown to be too regular and symmetric to be dynamically accessible in nature, owing to features and constraints of erosional processes. Thus Hack's law is seen as a signature of feasible optimality thus yielding further support to the suggestion that optimality of the system as a whole explains the dynamic origin of fractal forms in nature.

Rigon, Riccardo; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea

1998-11-01

225

Chemically feasible hypothetical crystalline networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our systematic enumeration of 4-connected crystalline networks (that is, networks in which each atom is connected to exactly four neighbours) used recent advances in tiling theory to evolve over 900 topologies. The results are relevant to the structures of zeolites and other silicates, aluminophosphates (AlPOs), oxides, nitrides, chalcogenides, halides, carbon networks, and even to polyhedral bubbles in foams. Given their importance as molecular sieves, ion exchangers, catalysts and catalyst supports, we have applied the results to microporous aluminosilicates and aluminophosphates (zeolites). Zeolite chemistry has to date produced 152 distinct types of structure. However, it was always clear that although many further structures can be synthesised, only a fraction of the mathematically generated networks would be chemically feasible (many are 'strained' frameworks requiring unrealistic bond lengths and bond angles), and that an effective 'filtering' process is needed to identify the most plausible frameworks. Here, we describe the use of computational chemistry methods to calculate optimized structural parameters, framework energies relative to ?-quartz, volumes accessible to sorption, and X-ray diffraction patterns for systematically enumerated hypothetical 4-connected crystalline frameworks. Structures were treated as silica polymorphs with the empirical formula SiO2, and their energies were minimized.

Foster, Martin D.; Simperler, Alexandra; Bell, Robert G.; Friedrichs, Olaf Delgado; Paz, Filipe A. Almeida; Klinowski, Jacek

2004-04-01

226

Feasibility and availability of ??Ga-labelled peptides.  

PubMed

(68)Ga has attracted tremendous interest as a radionuclide for PET based on its suitable half-life of 68 min, high positron emission yield and ready availability from (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators, making it independent of cyclotron production. (68)Ga-labelled DOTA-conjugated somatostatin analogues, including DOTA-TOC, DOTA-TATE and DOTA-NOC, have driven the development of technologies to provide such radiopharmaceuticals for clinical applications mainly in the diagnosis of somatostatin receptor-expressing tumours. We summarize the issues determining the feasibility and availability of (68)Ga-labelled peptides, including generator technology, (68)Ga generator eluate postprocessing methods, radiolabelling, automation and peptide developments, and also quality assurance and regulatory aspects. (68)Ge/(68)Ga generators based on SnO(2), TiO(2) or organic matrices are today routinely supplied to nuclear medicine departments, and a variety of automated systems for postprocessing and radiolabelling have been developed. New developments include improved chelators for (68)Ga that could open new ways to utilize this technology. Challenges and limitations in the on-site preparation and use of (68)Ga-labelled peptides outside the marketing authorization track are also discussed. PMID:22388621

Decristoforo, Clemens; Pickett, Roger D; Verbruggen, Alfons

2012-02-01

227

Microbial metabolism of triethylphosphate, a potential phosphate source for radionuclide mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant quantities of metals and radionuclides contaminate unsaturated zones at several sites in the western U.S. In many cases, this contamination has migrated to groundwater, sometimes decades after being released into the subsurface. A potentially useful approach for immobilizing radionuclides such as uranium and strontium in the vadose zone is precipitation with microbially-generated phosphate. Triethylphosphate (TEP) is a low-toxicity organophosphate that can be vaporized and delivered to the vadose zone. Microbes can catalyze TEP degradation, leading to the release of inorganic phosphate that can then lead to the precipitation of phosphate minerals. These minerals are typically highly stable and poorly soluble under environmental conditions. Sequestration in phosphate minerals is a promising strategy for mitigating radionuclide transport in the environment. To examine the feasibility of this strategy, we set up lab-scale incubation experiments with TEP-amended synthetic groundwater inoculated with vadose zone-derived mixed cultures from the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and sediment slurries using solids from the Hanford Reservation in Washington (U.S. Department of Energy facilities with significant radionuclide contamination in the vadose zone). The amount of phosphate released in the cultures was monitored, and the microbial communities were characterized with a high-density microarray (PhyloChip). Significant biodegradation of TEP was observed in the experiments with the synthetic groundwater amended with 5 mM TEP. Phosphate concentrations in live cultures steadily increased to >0.25 mM after 13 months with no phosphate accumulated in killed controls. Surprisingly, no evidence for phosphate mineral precipitation was observed, contrary to expectations based on equilibrium considerations. Studies are underway to investigate potential kinetic inhibition of precipitation under these conditions. Cell counts increased by approximately one order of magnitude during that period. Significant decreases in the d13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon in the live cultures were observed, indicating the microbial community was respiring the carbon in the TEP. In contrast, no significant accumulation of phosphate was observed in the sediment slurries with 5 mM TEP, most likely due to phosphate adsorption to the solids. Microbial community identification indicated that organisms in the families of Xanthomonadaceae, Crenotrichaceae and Comamonadaceae were enriched by the addition of TEP. Further characterization of radionuclide-biota interactions would lead to enhanced understanding of the fate and transport of these contaminants in the subsurface.

Wu, C. H.; Lam, B. R.; Chou, J.; Bill, M.; Henriksen, J.; Wright, K. E.; Brodie, E. L.; Andersen, G. L.; Hazen, T. C.; Fujita, Y.; Conrad, M. E.

2009-12-01

228

Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1999-03-23

229

Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

1999-01-01

230

Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.  

PubMed Central

The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2 x 10(2). Although these are hypothetical risks, they show that the radiologic impact of man-made sources is very small compared to the effects of normal background radiation. PMID:8635444

Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

1995-01-01

231

Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

Welch, M.J.

1992-06-01

232

Sault Tribe Wind Energy Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Sault Tribe conducted a feasibility study on tribal lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to determine the technical and economic feasibility of both small and large-scale wind power development on tribal lands. The study included a wind resource assessment, transmission system analysis, engineering and regulatory analyzes and assessments.

Toni Osterhout; Global Energy Concepts

2005-07-31

233

Test data generation and feasible path analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes techniques used by Test Specifica- tion and Determination Tool (TSDT), an experimental prototype for analysis and testing of critical applica- tions written in Ada. Two problems dominate structural testing of programs: exponential explosion in the num- ber of execution paths and feasible path determination, A path is feasible if there exists some input that will cause the

Robert Jasper; Mike Brennan; Keith E. Williamson; Bill Currier; David Zimmerman

1994-01-01

234

An overview of BORIS: Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils.  

PubMed

The ability to predict the consequences of an accidental release of radionuclides relies mainly on the level of understanding of the mechanisms involved in radionuclide interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems and their formalisation into predictive models. Numerous studies and databases on contaminated agricultural and natural areas have been obtained, but their use to enhance our prediction ability has been largely limited by their unresolved variability. Such variability seems to stem from incomplete knowledge about radionuclide interactions with the soil matrix, soil moisture, and biological elements in the soil and additional pollutants, which may be found in such soils. In the 5th European Framework Programme entitled Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils (BORIS), we investigated the role of the abiotic (soil components and soil structure) and biological elements (organic compounds, plants, mycorrhiza, and microbes) in radionuclide sorption/desorption in soils and radionuclide uptake/release by plants. Because of the importance of their radioisotopes, the bioavailability of three elements, caesium, strontium, and technetium has been followed. The role of one additional non-radioactive pollutant (copper) has been scrutinised in some cases. Role of microorganisms (e.g., K(d) for caesium and strontium in organic soils is much greater in the presence of microorganisms than in their absence), plant physiology (e.g., changes in plant physiology affect radionuclide uptake by plants), and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., interferes with the uptake of radionuclides by plants) have been demonstrated. Knowledge acquired from these experiments has been incorporated into two mechanistic models CHEMFAST and BIORUR, specifically modelling radionuclide sorption/desorption from soil matrices and radionuclide uptake by/release from plants. These mechanistic models have been incorporated into an assessment model to enhance its prediction ability by introducing the concept of bioavailability factor for radionuclides. PMID:18061320

Tamponnet, C; Martin-Garin, A; Gonze, M-A; Parekh, N; Vallejo, R; Sauras-Yera, T; Casadesus, J; Plassard, C; Staunton, S; Norden, M; Avila, R; Shaw, G

2008-05-01

235

Dual-Doppler Feasibility Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When two or more Doppler weather radar systems are monitoring the same region, the Doppler velocities can be combined to form a three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector field thus providing for a more intuitive analysis of the wind field. A real-time display of the 3-D winds can assist forecasters in predicting the onset of convection and severe weather. The data can also be used to initialize local numerical weather prediction models. Two operational Doppler Radar systems are in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS); these systems are operated by the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) and the National Weather Service Melbourne, Fla. (NWS MLB). Dual-Doppler applications were considered by the 45 SW in choosing the site for the new radar. Accordingly, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), NWS MLB and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to investigate the feasibility of establishing dual-Doppler capability using the two existing systems. This study investigated technical, hardware, and software requirements necessary to enable the establishment of a dual-Doppler capability. Review of the available literature pertaining to the dual-Doppler technique and consultation with experts revealed that the physical locations and resulting beam crossing angles of the 45 SW and NWS MLB radars make them ideally suited for a dual-Doppler capability. The dual-Doppler equations were derived to facilitate complete understanding of dual-Doppler synthesis; to determine the technical information requirements; and to determine the components of wind velocity from the equation of continuity and radial velocity data collected by the two Doppler radars. Analysis confirmed the suitability of the existing systems to provide the desired capability. In addition, it is possible that both 45 SW radar data and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data from Orlando International Airport could be used to alleviate any radar geometry issues at the NWS MLB radar, such as the "cone of silence" or beam blockage. In the event of a radar outage at one of the sites, the multi-radar algorithms would provide continuing coverage of the area through use of the data from the remaining operational radar sites. There are several options to collect, edit, synthesize and display dual-Doppler data sets. These options include commercial packages available for purchase and a variety of freeware packages available from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for processing raw radar data. However, evaluation of the freeware packages revealed that they do not have sufficient documentation and configuration control to be certified for 45 SW use. Additionally, a TI data line must be installed/leased from the NWS MLB office and CCAFS to enable the receipt of NWS MLB raw radar data to use in the dual-Doppler synthesis. Integration of the TI data line into the Eastern Range infrastructure that will meet the security requirements necessary for 45 SW use is time-consuming and costly. Overall evaluation indicates that establishment of the dual-Doppler capability using the existing operational radar systems is desirable and feasible with no technical concerns. Installation of such a system represents a significant enhancement to forecasting capabilities at the 45 WS and at NWS MLB. However, data security and cost considerations must be evaluated in light of current budgetary constraints. In any case, gaining the dual-Doppler capability will provide opportunities for better visualization of the wind field and better forecasting of the onset of convection and severe weather events to support space launch operations at KSC and CCAFS.

Huddleston, Lisa L.

2012-01-01

236

Beluga coal gasification feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine the economic feasibility of developing and siting a coal-based integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska for the co-production of electric power and marketable by-products. The by-products, which may include synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids, fertilizers such as ammonia and urea, alcohols, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, would be manufactured for local use or for sale in domestic and foreign markets. This report for Phase 1 summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a specific industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, the Agrium U.S. Inc. ('Agrium') fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, the Agrium is investigating alternatives to gas as feed stock for their plant. This study considered all aspects of the installation and infrastructure, including: coal supply and cost, coal transport costs, delivery routes, feedstock production for fertilizer manufacture, plant steam and power, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) uses, markets for possible additional products, and environmental permit requirements. The Cook Inlet-specific Phase 1 results, reported here, provided insight and information that led to the conclusion that the second study should be for an F-T plant sited at the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, Alaska. This Phase 1 case study is for a very specific IGCC system tailored to fit the chemical and energy needs of the fertilizer manufacturing plant. It demonstrates the flexibility of IGCC for a variety of fuel feedstocks depending on plant location and fuel availability, as well as the available variety of gas separation, gas cleanup, and power and steam generation technologies to fit specific site needs. 18 figs., 37 tabs., 6 apps.

Robert Chaney; Lawrence Van Bibber [Research & Development Solutions (RDS), LLC (United States)

2006-07-15

237

Current status of radionuclide scrotal imaging  

SciTech Connect

Scrotal imaging with technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate consists of a radionuclide angiogram and static scrotal scans. Utilization of this study in patients presenting with an acute scrotum can dramatically reduce the number of surgical explorations for acute epididymitis. It can also aid in other aspects of differential diagnosis in patients presenting with either an acutely enlarged and/or painful scrotum or a scrotal mass. Ambiguities in previous descriptions of perfusion through the spermatic and extraspermatic cord vessels are described and distinguished from scrotal perfusion. The clinical and scintigraphic spectrum of testicular torsion, including spontaneous detorsion, early acute testicular torsion, midphase testicular torsion, and late phase or ''missed testicular torsion,'' is discussed and illustrated. The variety of patterns seen in acute epididymitis, including lateral and medial epididymal location, and focal epididymitis are described, as is the appearance of hydrocele as both a primary and secondary entity. The relationship of scrotal imaging to the overall clinical presentation and evaluation of these patients is emphasized in testicular torsion, torsion of the testicular appendages, epididymitis, abscess, trauma, tumor, spermatocele, and varicocele. The techniques, clinical utility, and relationship to radionuclide imaging of Doppler ultrasound and gray scale ultrasound scanning are reviewed. Doppler ultrasound results in many false negative studies in testicular torsion. Gray scale ultrasound is useful in clarifying the nature of scrotal masses.

Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.; Chen, D.

1981-10-01

238

Reuse of Material Containing Natural Radionuclides - 12444  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of and use of wastes containing natural radioactive material (NORM) or technologically enhanced natural radioactive material (TENORM) with excessive natural background as a building material is very important in the supervision body activity. At the present time, the residents of Octyabrsky village are under resettlement. This village is located just near the Priargunsky mining and chemical combine (Ltd. 'PPGHO'), one of the oldest uranium mines in our country. The vacated wooden houses in the village are demolished and partly used as a building material. To address the issue of potential radiation hazard of the wooden beams originating from demolition of houses in Octyabrsky village, the contents of the natural radionuclides (K-40, Th-232, Ra-226, U- 238) are being determined in samples of the wooden beams of houses. The NORM contents in the wooden house samples are higher, on average, than their content in the reference sample of the fresh wood shavings, but the range of values is rather large. According to the classification of waste containing the natural radionuclides, its evaluation is based on the effective specific activity. At the effective specific activity lower 1.5 kBq/kg and gamma dose rate lower 70 ?R/h, the material is not considered as waste and can be used in building by 1 - 3 classes depending upon A{sub eff} value. At 1.5 kBq/kg < A{sub eff} ? 4 kBq/kg (4 class), the wooden beams might be used for the purpose of the industrial building, if sum of ratios between the radionuclide specific activity and its specific activity of minimum significance is lower than unit. The material classified as the waste containing the natural radionuclides has A{sub eff} higher 1.5 kBq /kg, and its usage for the purpose of house-building and road construction is forbidden. As for the ash classification and its future usage, such usage is unreasonable, because, according to the provided material, more than 50% of ash samples are considered as radioactive waste containing natural radionuclides. All materials originated from demolition of houses in Octyabrsky village are subjected to the obligatory radiation control. The decision to use the wooden beams shall enter into force after agreement with the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision bodies. Conclusions: 1 - The wooden beam originated from the house demolition in Octyabrsky village might be used as the construction material only in case of compliance with the requirements of the regulatory documents, as well as under approval of the authorities responsible for the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision in this area. 2 - The industrial control is introduced to verify the compliance with the current regulations. 3 - The material originated from the house demolition might be used only if such usage does not cause increasing radiation exposure to the public. (authors)

Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.J. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01

239

Preparation of proton rich radionuclides in support of radiochemical analysis.  

PubMed

The production of proton rich radionuclides supports a wide range of radiochemical analyses via radioactive yield tracers ((95m)Tc and (236)Pu). In recent years, NPL and the University of Birmingham cyclotron have collaborated to produce these, and other, radionuclides. PMID:22658338

Jerome, Simon; Larijani, Cyrus; Parker, David

2012-09-01

240

21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...radionuclide brachytherapy source is a device that consists of a radionuclide which may be enclosed in a sealed container made of gold, titanium, stainless steel, or platinum and intended for medical purposes to be placed onto a body surface or into a body cavity...

2011-04-01

241

Containment of Toxic Metals and Radionuclides in Porous and Fractured  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to provide an improved understanding and predictive capability of the mechanisms that allow metal-reducing bacteria to be effective in the bioremediation of subsurface environments contaminated with toxic metals and radionuclides. The study is motivated by the likelihood that subsurface microbial activity can effectively alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides so that

Philip M. Jardine; James Saiers; Scott E. Fendorf

1999-01-01

242

Dosimetry of Heterogeneously Distributed Radionuclides with Applications to Radioimmunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides has been investigated for applications to radioimmunotherapy. The assumptions inherent in the MIRD method of dose calculation are shown to be inappropriate to the task of dosimetry for nonuniformly distributed radionuclides emitting lowly penetrating radiations. A method using the concept of dose point kernels has been developed, expanding the MIRD method to regions of

Douglas John Simpkin

1991-01-01

243

Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior

Qin-Hong Hu; Jian-Qing Weng; Jin-Sheng Wang

2010-01-01

244

Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with low concentrations of radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystems throughout the world have been contaminated with radionuclides by above-ground nuclear testing, nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear power generation. Radioisotopes characteristic of nuclear fission, such as 137Cs and 90Sr, that are released into the environment can become more concentrated as they move up the food chain often becoming human health hazards. Natural environmental processes will redistribute long lived radionuclides

James A. Entry; Nan C. Vance; Melinda A. Hamilton; Darlene Zabowski; Lidia S. Watrud; Domy C. Adriano

1996-01-01

245

Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

2008-08-01

246

Decontamination of Radionuclides from Concrete During and After Thermal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project will determine the effect of heating concrete on its engineering properties and the potential to aid in removal of common DOE radionuclide contaminants including 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, and U. In the chemical properties subtask, effects on direct volatilization of radionuclides during heating, as well as their subsequent extractability behavior, will be established over a range of temperatures up

Brian P. Spalding; Zdenek P. Bazant; Walter P. Murphy

2000-01-01

247

Decontamination of Radionuclides From Concrete During and After Thermal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project will determine the effect of heating concrete on its engineering properties and the potential to aid in removal of common DOE radionuclide contaminants including 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, and U. In the chemical properties subtask, effects on direct volatilization of radionuclides during heating, as well as their subsequent extractability behavior, will be established over a range of temperatures up

Brian P. Spalding; Zdenek P. Bazant; Walter P. Murphy

2000-01-01

248

Decontamination of Radionuclides from Concrete During and After Thermal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project will determine the effect of heating concrete on its engineering properties and the potential to remove common DOE radionuclide contaminants including 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, and U. In the chemical properties subtask, effects on direct volatilization of radionuclides during heating, as well as their subsequent extractability behavior, will be established over a range of temperatures up to the melting

Brian P. Spalding; Zdenek P. Bazant

1999-01-01

249

Selection and manipulation of immunoglobulins for radionuclide delivery  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a collection of monoclonal antibodies that are candidates for use in radioimmunotherapy towards neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, or of astrocytomas. In addition a large series of candidate radionuclides to conjugate to antibodies for therapeutic uses are discussed with respect to potential therapeutic utility and to means of radionuclide production.

Steplewski, Z.; Curtis, P. [The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hainfeld, J.; Mausner, L.; Mease, R.; Srivastava, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1992-12-31

250

Multnomah County Hydrokinetic Feasibility Study: Final Feasibility Study Report  

SciTech Connect

HDR has completed a study of the technical, regulatory, and economic feasibility of installing hydrokinetic turbines under the Morrison, Broadway, and Sellwood bridges. The primary objective of installing hydrokinetic turbines is a demonstration of in-stream hydrokinetic technologies for public education and outreach. Due to the low gradient of the Lower Willamette and the effects of the tide, velocities in the area in consideration are simply not high enough to economically support a commercial installation. While the velocities in the river may at times provide enough energy for a commercial turbine to reach capacity, the frequency and duration of high flow events which provide suitable velocities is not sufficient to support a commercial hydrokinetic installation. We have observed that over an 11 year period, daily average velocities in the Lower Willamette exceeded a nominal cut-in speed of 0.75 m/s only 20% of the time, leaving net zero power production for the remaining 80% of days. The Sellwood Bridge site was estimated to have the best hydrokinetic resource, with an estimated average annual production of about 9,000 kWh. The estimated production could range from 2,500 kWh to 15,000 kWh. Based on these energy estimates, the amount of revenue generated through either a power purchase agreement (PPA) or recovered through net metering is not sufficient to repay the project costs within the life of the turbine. The hydrokinetic resource at the Morrison and Broadway Bridges is slightly smaller than at the Sellwood Bridge. While the Broadway and Morrison Bridges have existing infrastructure that could be utilized, the project is not expected to generate enough revenue to repay the investment. Despite low velocities and energy production, the sites themselves are favorable for installation of a demonstration or experimental project. With high public interest in renewable energy, the possibility exists to develop a hydrokinetic test site which could provide developers and scientists a location to temporarily deploy and test hydrokinetic devices, and also function as an educational tool for the general public. Bridge piers provide an excellent pre-existing anchor point for hydrokinetic devices, and existing infrastructure at the Morrison and Broadway Bridges may reduce installation costs. Opportunity exists to partner with local universities with engineering and environmental interest in renewable energy. A partnership with Portland State University�¢����s engineering school could provide students with an opportunity to learn about hydrokinetics through senior design projects. Oregon State University and University of Washington, which are partnered through the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC) to study and test hydrokinetic technology, are also relatively local to the site. In addition to providing an opportunity for both public and private entities to learn technically about in-stream kinetics, this approach will encourage grant funding for outreach, education, and product development, while also serving as a positive community relations opportunity for the County and its partners.

Stephen Spain

2012-03-15

251

Ecological feasibility studies in restoration decision making.  

PubMed

The restoration of degraded systems is essential for maintaining the provision of valuable ecosystem services, including the maintenance of aesthetic values. However, restoration projects often fail to reach desired goals for a variety of ecologic, financial, and social reasons. Feasibility studies that evaluate whether a restoration effort should even be attempted can enhance restoration success by highlighting potential pitfalls and gaps in knowledge before the design phase of a restoration. Feasibility studies also can bring stakeholders together before a restoration project is designed to discuss potential disagreements. For these reasons, a feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of restoring a tidal freshwater marsh in the Potomac River near Alexandria, Virginia. The study focused on science rather than engineering questions, and thus differed in approach from other feasibility studies that are mostly engineering driven. The authors report the framework they used to conduct a feasibility study to inform other potential restoration projects with similar goals. The seven steps of the framework encompass (1) initiation of a feasibility study, (2) compilation of existing data, (3) collection of current site information, (4) examination of case studies, (5) synthesis of information in a handbook, (6) meeting with selected stakeholders, and (7) evaluation of meeting outcomes. By conducting a feasibility study using the seven-step framework, the authors set the stage for conducting future compliance studies and enhancing the chance of a successful restoration. PMID:17453281

Hopfensperger, Kristine N; Engelhardt, Katharina A M; Seagle, Steven W

2007-06-01

252

Ecological Feasibility Studies in Restoration Decision Making  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The restoration of degraded systems is essential for maintaining the provision of valuable ecosystem services, including the maintenance of aesthetic values. However, restoration projects often fail to reach desired goals for a variety of ecologic, financial, and social reasons. Feasibility studies that evaluate whether a restoration effort should even be attempted can enhance restoration success by highlighting potential pitfalls and gaps in knowledge before the design phase of a restoration. Feasibility studies also can bring stakeholders together before a restoration project is designed to discuss potential disagreements. For these reasons, a feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of restoring a tidal freshwater marsh in the Potomac River near Alexandria, Virginia. The study focused on science rather than engineering questions, and thus differed in approach from other feasibility studies that are mostly engineering driven. The authors report the framework they used to conduct a feasibility study to inform other potential restoration projects with similar goals. The seven steps of the framework encompass (1) initiation of a feasibility study, (2) compilation of existing data, (3) collection of current site information, (4) examination of case studies, (5) synthesis of information in a handbook, (6) meeting with selected stakeholders, and (7) evaluation of meeting outcomes. By conducting a feasibility study using the seven-step framework, the authors set the stage for conducting future compliance studies and enhancing the chance of a successful restoration.

Hopfensperger, Kristine N.; Engelhardt, Katharina A. M.; Seagle, Steven W.

2007-06-01

253

Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

1992-09-01

254

Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

1992-09-01

255

Radionuclide migration in groundwater. Annual progress report for 1982  

SciTech Connect

Research has continued at a low-level waste disposal facility to characterize the physicochemical species of radionuclides migrating in groundwater. This facility consists of an unlined basin and connecting trench which receives effluent water containing low levels of a wide variety of fission and activation products and trace amounts of transuranic radionuclides. The effluent water percolates through the soil and a small fraction of it emerges at seepage springs located some 260 meters from the trench. The disposal basin and trench are very efficient in retaining most of the radionuclides, but trace amounts of a number of radionuclides existing in mobile chemical forms migrate in the groundwater from the trench to the springs. This facility provides the opportunity for characterizing the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration in groundwaters, identifying retardation processes, and validating geochemical models. 13 references, 25 figures, 23 tables.

Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.

1984-01-01

256

Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ({sup 238}Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

1981-03-01

257

Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ([sup 238]Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

1981-03-01

258

Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction

Y. Onishi; S. B. Yabusaki; C. T. Kincaid; R. L. Skaggs; W. H. Walters

1982-01-01

259

Natural radionuclides in drinking waters in Serbia.  

PubMed

Gross alpha and beta activities, (3)H, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities were measured in bottled mineral water produced in Serbia in order to assess its radiological quality. In 11 samples of tap water and in 1 sample of spring waters gross alpha and beta activity were determined. The natural activity concentration of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides are within the range recommended by World Health Organization. The tritium concentration in bottled mineral waters ranged from 0.023 ± 0.012 to 0.046 ± 0.006 Bq l(-1). The activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were below the minimum detectable activity. In order to evaluate the annual effective dose for different classes of age, a conservative dosimetric calculation was carried out. PMID:23041389

Jankovi?, Marija M; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Todorovi?, Nataša A; Nikolov, Jovana

2012-12-01

260

Radionuclide localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage  

SciTech Connect

The authors prospectively evaluated the usefulness of abdominal radionuclide scintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells as a means of monitoring for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding over a 24-hour period in both control and actively bleeding populations. Of 32 patients with documented hemorrhage, 29 had positive scintiscans (sensitivity, 91%; 9% false negatives). Of 18 nonbleeding patients, 17 had negative scintiscans (specificity, 95%; 5% false positives). 12 of 29 patients bled from 6 to 24 hours after the study was begun. Scintiscans were positive in patient with transfusion requirements of greater than or equal to 500 ml/24 hr. The authors conclude that abdominal scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells is an effective method of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding.

Winzelberg, G.G.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Waltman, A.C.; Greenfield, A.J.; Athanasoulis, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

1981-05-01

261

Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

1998-07-01

262

The investigation of renal disease using radionuclides  

PubMed Central

The use of radioactive labels for tracers is an important part of the investigation of renal disease. These techniques seldom replace, but often complement radiographic techniques. Generally, the radionuclide methods provide functional and dynamic information in a non-invasive, non-traumatic type of examination. The examinations usually are relatively simple to perform and carry a very low risk of untoward reaction. The past decade has seen significant advances in radiopharmaceutical design and instrumentation. It is expected that the next decade will produce an even greater advance in this field. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 PMID:4602129

Atkins, Harold L.; Freeman, Leonard M.

1973-01-01

263

Radioimmunotherapy of malignancy using antibody targeted radionuclides.  

PubMed Central

Antibodies directed against tumour associated antigens provide a means for delivering preferentially cytotoxic radionuclides to the cells of primary and secondary tumours. The factors that influence the effectiveness of the radiation in the tumour compared with its effect on the radiosensitive normal tissues include the specificity of the antibody, the distribution of targeted energy within the tumour and the host's response to the injected foreign antibody. Recently some encouraging results from clinical trials of radioimmunotherapy have been reported in the literature. There is a continual search for more avid and specific antibodies, and the techniques of genetic engineering are being applied to the problem of reducing the antigenicity and mass of the carrier antibody. The improved efficiency of the labelled antibody needs to be supplemented by an identification of those tumours most likely to respond to this form of therapy. PMID:3542006

Cobb, L. M.; Humm, J. L.

1986-01-01

264

Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - Cs-137 and Sr-90 in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. Cs-137 level was 3.7...9.2 times higher than Sr-90 one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg).

Marmuleva, N. I.; Barinov, E. Ya.; Petukhov, V. L.

2003-05-01

265

7 CFR 1781.18 - Feasibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.18 Feasibility. (a) Before WS loan, WS advance, or RCD loan is...

2011-01-01

266

7 CFR 1781.18 - Feasibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.18 Feasibility. (a) Before WS loan, WS advance, or RCD loan is...

2012-01-01

267

7 CFR 1781.18 - Feasibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.18 Feasibility. (a) Before WS loan, WS advance, or RCD loan is...

2014-01-01

268

7 CFR 1781.18 - Feasibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.18 Feasibility. (a) Before WS loan, WS advance, or RCD loan is...

2013-01-01

269

7 CFR 1781.18 - Feasibility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RESOURCE CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT (RCD) LOANS AND WATERSHED (WS) LOANS AND ADVANCES § 1781.18 Feasibility. (a) Before WS loan, WS advance, or RCD loan is...

2010-01-01

270

Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton  

SciTech Connect

Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

2000-06-01

271

Chancellor Water Colloids: Characterization and Radionuclide Association  

SciTech Connect

Concluding remarks about this paper are: (1) Gravitational settling, zeta potential, and ultrafiltration data indicate the existence of a colloidal phase of both the alpha and beta emitters in the Chancellor water; (2) The low activity combined with high dispersion homogeneity of the Chancellor water indicate that both alpha and beta emitters are not intrinsic colloids; (3) Radionuclides in the Chancellor water, particularly Pu, coexist as dissolved aqueous and sorbed phases - in other words the radionuclides are partitioned between the aqueous phase and the colloidal phase; (4) The presence of Pu as a dissolved species in the aqueous phase, suggests the possibility of Pu in the (V) oxidation state - this conclusion is supported by the similarity of the k{sub d} value of Pu determined in the current study to that determined for Pu(V) sorbed onto smectite colloids, and the similar electrokinetic behavior of the Chancellor water colloids to smectite colloids; (5) About 50% of the Pu(V) is in the aqueous phase and 50% is sorbed on colloids (mass concentration of colloids in the Chancellor water is 0.12 g/L); (6) The k{sub d} of the Pu and the beta emitters (fission products) between aqueous and colloidal phases in the Chancellor water is {approx}8.0 x 10{sup 3} mL/g using two different activity measurement techniques (LSC and alpha spectroscopy); (7) The gravitational settling and size distributions of the association colloids indicate that the properties (at least the physical ones) of the colloids to which the alpha emitters are associated with seem to be different that the properties of the colloids to which the beta emitters are associated with - the beta emitters are associated with very small particles ({approx}50 - 120 nm), while the alpha emitters are associated with relatively larger particles; and (8) The Chancellor water colloids are extremely stable under the natural pH and ionic strength conditions, indicating high potential for transport in the subsurface.

Abdel-Fattah, Amr I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18

272

7 CFR 1779.47 - Economic feasibility requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic feasibility requirements. 1779.47...PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.47 Economic feasibility requirements. ...for determining the credit quality and economic feasibility of the proposed...

2010-01-01

273

7 CFR 4280.173 - Grant funding for feasibility studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for America Program General Renewable Energy System Feasibility Study Grants...Eligible project costs for renewable energy system feasibility studies...Ineligible project costs for renewable energy system feasibility studies...

2012-01-01

274

UNC Charlotte Football Feasibility Committee Committee Charge and Assumptions  

E-print Network

UNC Charlotte Football Feasibility Committee Committee Charge and Assumptions UNC Charlotte Football Feasibility Committee Charge The UNC Charlotte Football Feasibility Committee, made up for NCAA football, the dynamics of the regional sports and entertainment market and fundraising potential

Xie,Jiang (Linda)

275

Identification of radionuclides of concern in Hanford Site environmental cleanup  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to consider which radionuclides should be included in conducting environmental surveys relative to site remediation at Hanford. During the operation of the Hanford site, the fission product radionuclides and a large number of activation products including the transuranic radionuclides were formed. The reactor operations and subsequent chemical processing and metallurgical operations resulted in the environmental release of gaseous and liquid effluents containing some radionuclides; however, the majority of the radionuclides were stored in waste tanks or disposed to trenches and cribs. Since some contamination of both soils and subsurface waters occurred, one must decide which radionuclides still remain in sufficient amounts to be of concern at the time when site remediation is to be complete. Many of the radionuclides which have constituted the principal hazard during site operation have half-lives on the order of a year or less; therefore, they will have decayed to insignificant amounts by the year 2030, a possible date for completion of the remediation process.

Perkins, R.W.; Jenquin, U.P.

1994-08-01

276

Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects  

PubMed Central

The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

2014-01-01

277

Dynamics and transformations of radionuclides in soils and ecosystem health  

SciTech Connect

The chemical behavior of radionuclides can vary widely in soil and sediment environments. Equally important, for a given radionuclide the physico-chemical properties of the solids and aqueous phase can greatly influence a radionuclides behavior. Radionuclides can conceivably occur in soils as soluble-free, inorganic-soluble-complexed, organic-soluble, complexed, adsorbed, precipitated, coprecipitated, or solid structural species. While it is clear that an assessment of a radionuclide?s soil chemistry and potential shifts in speciation will yield a considerable understanding of its behavior in the natural environment, it does not directly translate to bioavailability or its impact on ecosystems health. The soil chemical factors have to be linked to food chain considerations and other ecological parameters that directly tie to an analysis of ecosystem health. In general, the movement of radionuclides from lower to higher trophic levels diminishes with each trophic level in both aqua tic and terrestrial systems. In some cases, transfer is limited because of low absorption/assimilation by successive trophic organisms (Pu, U); for other radionuclides (Tc, H) assimilation may be high but rapid metabolic turnover and low retention greatly reduce tissue concentrations available to predator species. Still others are chemical analogs of essential elements whose concentrations are maintained under strict metabolic control in tissues (Cs) or are stored in tissues seldom consumed by other organisms (Sr storage in exoskeleton, shells, and bone). Therefore, the organisms that receive the greatest ingestion exposures are those in lower trophic positions or are in higher trophic levels but within simple, short food chains. Food source, behavior, and habitat influence the accumulation of radionuclides in animals.

Fellows, Robert J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Ainsworth, Calvin C. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Driver, Crystal J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Cataldo, Dominic A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

1998-12-01

278

Feasible or Non-Feasible? - That is the Question (Graphing Systems of Linear Inequalities)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn how to use the graph of a system of linear inequalities to determine the feasible region. Students practice solving word problems to find the optimal solution that maximizes profits. Students will use the free application, GeoGebra (see download link under Suggested Technology) to help them create different graphs and to determine the feasible or non-feasible solutions.

2012-11-11

279

Radionuclide transport through engineered barrier system alteration products  

SciTech Connect

The primary rationale for studying the transport behavior of radionuclides through the Engineered Barrier system / Near Field Environment (EBS/NFE) is to ascertain whether the material properties of the introduced and altered host rock can significantly affect the transport of radionuclides from the waste container to the far field. The intent of this report is to present data and modeling results that can be used to assess the importance of canister corrosion products and cementitious materials to transport of radionuclides to the far field.

Viani, B.E.; Torretto, P.C.; Matzen, S.L.

1997-12-01

280

Characteristics of airborne radionuclides concentration in a coastal environment.  

PubMed

Airborne radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011 were measured in 12 regional monitoring stations in Korea. The Gangneung (GN) monitoring station located in a coastal region almost always has a higher radioactivity concentration of airborne radionuclides than any other station. The possible cause of this higher concentration was analysed in terms of the local meteorology and topography. The increase in surface concentrations of radionuclides at the GN region might be attributed to the downslope windstorm, temperature inversion and coupled sea breeze and mountain flows. PMID:23531558

Lee, Dong-Myung; Kim, Byoung-Jik; Choi, Hee-Yeoul

2013-09-01

281

Field testing at the Climax Stock on the Nevada Test Site: spent fuel test and radionuclide migration experiments  

SciTech Connect

Two field tests in the Climax Stock are being conducted. The Climax Stock, a granitic instrusive, has been administratively excluded from consideration as a full-scale repository site. However, it provides a readily available facility for field testing with high-level radioactive materials at a depth (420 m) approaching that of a repository. The major test activity in the 1980 fiscal year has been initiation of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C). This test, which was authorized in June 1978, is designed to evaluate the generic feasibility of geologic storage and retrievability of commercial power reactor spent fuel assemblies in a granitic medium. In addition, the test is configured and instrumented to provide thermal and thermomechanical response data that will be relevant to the design of a repository in hard crystalline rock. The other field activity in the Climax Stock is a radionuclide migration test. It combines a series of field and laboratory migration experiments with the use of existing hydrologic models for pretest predictions and data interpretation. Goals of this project are to develop: (1) field measurement techniques for radionuclide migration studies in a hydrologic regime where the controlling mechanism is fracture permeability; (2) field test data on radionuclide migration; and (3) a comparison of laboratory- and field-measured retardation factors. This radionuclide migration test, which was authorized in the middle of the 1980 fiscal year, is in the preliminary design phase. The detailed program plan was prepared and subjected to formal peer review in August. In September/October researchers conducted preliminary flow tests with water in selected near-vertical fractures intersected by small horizontal boreholes. These tests were needed to establish the range of pressures, flow rates, and other operating parameters to be used in conducting the nuclide migration tests. 21 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

Ballou, L.B.; Isherwood, D.J.; Patrick, W.C.

1982-12-31

282

Using environmental radionuclides as fingerprints to study streambank erosion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The identification of sediment source areas in the watershed is a key component for designing management strategies to reduce sediment and chemical loads from the watershed. Potential sediment sources in a watershed can be characterized (fingerprinted) using diagnostic environmental radionuclides, ...

283

40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for beta particle and photon radioactivity. (1) The average annual...of beta particle and photon radioactivity from man-made radionuclides...gross beta particle and photon radioactivity, and uranium:...

2014-07-01

284

Modeling the Dispersal and Deposition of Radionuclides: Lessons from Chernobyl.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are theoretical models that simulate the dispersion of radionuclides on local and global scales following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Discusses the application of these results to nuclear weapons fallout. (CW)

ApSimon, H. M.; And Others

1988-01-01

285

Monitored natural attenuation forum: MNA of metals and radionuclides  

EPA Science Inventory

While the natural attenuation of many organic compounds is established and accepted by the regulated and regulatory communities, there is some debate whether monitored natural attenuation (MNA) of metals and radionuclides is a reasonable remedial alternative to consider. Do you...

286

PERSONAL DOSE-EQUIVALENT CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS FOR 1252 RADIONUCLIDES.  

PubMed

Dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides are useful for routine calculations in radiation protection in industry, medicine and research. They give a simple and often sufficient estimate of dose rates during production, handling and storage of radionuclide sources, based solely on the source's activity. The latest compilation of such conversion coefficients dates from 20 y ago, based on nuclear decay data published 30 y ago. The present publication provides radionuclide-specific conversion coefficients to personal dose based on the most recent evaluations of nuclear decay data for 1252 radionuclides and fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for monoenergetic radiations. It contains previously unknown conversion coefficients for >400 nuclides and corrects those conversion coefficients that were based on erroneous decay schemes. For the first time, estimates for the protection quantity Hp(3) are included. PMID:25349458

Otto, Thomas

2014-10-26

287

Biomolecular Mechanisms Controlling Metal and Radionuclide Transformations in Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans  

SciTech Connect

Microbiological reduction and immobilization of U(VI) and Tc(VII) has been proposed as a strategy for remediating radionuclide-contaminated environments. Numerous studies focusing on the reduction kinetics and speciation of these metals have been carried out using contaminated sediment samples, microbial consortia, and pure bacterial cultures. While previous work with model organisms has increased the general understanding of radionuclide transformation processes, fundamental questions regarding radionuclide reduction mechanisms by indigenous microorganisms are poorly understood, especially under the commonly encountered scenario where multiple electron acceptors are present. Therefore, the overall goal of the proposed research is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of radionuclide biotransformation by Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans, a predominant member of indigenous microorganism commonly found in contaminated subsurface environments, and to assess the effects of relevant environmental factors affecting these transformation reactions.

Beliaev, Alexander S.; Fredrickson, James K.; Loeffler, Frank E.; Sanford, Robert A.

2006-06-01

288

Numerical modeling of radionuclide migration through a borehole disposal site.  

PubMed

The migration of radionuclides from a borehole repository located about 20 km from the Akwapim fault line which lies in an area of high seismicity was analyzed for some selected radionuclides. In the event of a seismic activity, fractures and faults could be rejuvenated or initiated resulting in container failure leading to the release of radionuclides. A numerical model was solved using a two-dimensional finite element code (Comsol Multiphysics) by taking into account the effect of heterogeneities. Results showed that, the fractured medium created preferential pathways indicating that, fault zones generated potential paths for released radionuclides from a radioactive waste repository. The results obtained showed that variations in hydraulic conductivity as a result of the heterogeneity considered within the domain significantly affected the direction of flow. PMID:24790811

Yeboah, Serwaa; Akiti, Thomas T; Fletcher, John J

2014-01-01

289

Natural and Artificial Radionuclides in Seafoods and Marine Protein Concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of various radionuclides in seafoods have been measured, and the results indicate that if marine protein concentrates are used as human food the 210Pb-210Po pair may become the principal source of the skeletal radiation dose.

Thomas M. Beasley; Charles L. Osterberg

1969-01-01

290

Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program: the Galileo area  

SciTech Connect

The Galileo area is the first region of the Nevada Test Site to be surveyed by the Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP). This report describes in detail the use of soil sampling and in situ spectrometry to estimate radionuclide activities at selected sampling locations; the descriptions of these methods will be used as a reference for future RIDP reports. The data collected at Galileo were analyzed by kriging and the polygons of influence method to estimate the total inventory and the distribution of six man-made radionuclides. The results of the different statistical methods agree fairly well, although the data did not give very good estimates of the variogram for kriging, and further study showed the results of kriging to be highly dependent on the variogram parameters. The results also showed that in situ spectrometry gives better estimates of radionuclide activity than soil sampling, which tends to miss highly radioactive particles associated with vegetation. 18 references, 28 figures, 11 tables.

McArthur, R.D.; Kordas, J.F.

1983-12-28

291

Site Characterization for MNA of Radionuclides in Ground Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitored natural attenuation is often evaluated as a component of the remedy for ground water contaminated with radionuclides. When properly employed, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may provide an effective knowledge-based remedy where a thorough engineering analysis inform...

292

Subsurface Characterization To Support Evaluation Of Radionuclide Transport And Attenuation  

EPA Science Inventory

Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

293

Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.

Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B

2005-09-28

294

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

295

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

296

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2012-04-01

297

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

298

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

299

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

300

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

301

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

302

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

303

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

304

21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

305

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

306

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

307

21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

308

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

309

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

310

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

311

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

312

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

313

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

314

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

315

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

316

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

317

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2014-04-01

318

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

319

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

320

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2013-04-01

321

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

322

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2010-04-01

323

21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

324

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

325

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

326

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

327

21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

328

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

329

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2011-04-01

330

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

331

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

332

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

333

COLLABORATION: INTERFACIAL SOIL CHEMISTRY OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

Mobility of radionuclides (Cs+, Sr2+) in the vadose zone is controlled by sorptive interactions with natural soil particles. Weathering of silicates and intercalation of clay minerals with hydroxy -aluminum and -aluminosilicate species under the intense geochemical conditions in...

334

Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Chondrite Shower from Otway Massif, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmogenic radionuclides in ordinary chondrites from the first strewnfield identified in Antarctica indicate that the strewnfield was preserved since its fall ~15 kyr ago, while cautioning that not all meteorites in the strewnfield area represent the same fall.

Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Leclerc, M. D.; Jull, A. J. T.

2009-03-01

335

Noble gas radionuclides in RBMK-1500-type reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of noble gas and other short-lived radionuclides in air borne effluents from RBMK-1500-type reactor has been investigated using experimental and theoretical instrumentation for detection purposes. Activity concentrations of 85mKr, 87Kr, 88Kr, 135mXe, 135Xe, 133Xe and 41Ar were measured in air emissions from Ignalina NPP using a special method and special equipment. Theoretical detection of reactor-borne radionuclides and investigation

Rimvydas Jasiulionis; Gediminas Adlys; Diana Adliene; Linas Vy?inas

2007-01-01

336

Short-lived radionuclides in the early Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Short-lived radionuclides are radioactive elements with half-lives <= 100 Myr. They have all decayed away from their initial abundances, but their presence in the early Solar System could be inferred from radiogenic excesses of daughter products in meteoritic components. A detailed understanding of the initial abundance and distribution of short-lived radionuclides can shed light on the formation condition and immediate astrophysical environment of the early Solar System.

Liu, Ming-Chang

2012-11-01

337

Theoretical approach to explore the production routes of astatine radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

To fulfill the recent thrust of astatine radionuclides in the field of nuclear medicine, various production routes have been explored in the present work. The possible production routes of At209-211 comprise both light- and heavy-ion-induced reactions at the bombarding energy range starting from threshold to a maximum of 100 MeV. Excitation functions of those radionuclides, produced through various production routes,

Moumita Maiti; Susanta Lahiri

2009-01-01

338

Seepage basin radionuclide transport in sediments and vegetation. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide concentrations were measured in soil and vegetation growing adjacent to and in the Savannah River Laboratory Seepage Basins as part of the plan for closure of the basin system. The results of the measurements provide some information about the mobility of the radionuclides introduced into the basins. {sup 90}Sr is the most mobile of the radionuclides in soil. Its high mobility and high relative uptake by vegetation cause {sup 90}Sr to be distributed throughout the basin system. {sup 137}Cs is not as mobile in the basin soil, limiting its uptake by vegetation growing on the edge of the seepage basins; however, it is readily taken up by the vegetation growing in the basins. Soil mobility and vegetation uptake is relatively low for all of the transuranic radionuclides. For the most part these radionuclides remain near the surface of the basin soils where they were absorbed from the waste-water. The relative role of soil mobility and vegetation uptake on the distribution of radionuclide at the basins was futher evaluated by comparing the vegetation concentration ratio and the half-depth of penetration of the radionuclides in the basin soil. The results suggest that vegetation processes dominate in determining the concentration of {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs in the vegetation. The influences of soil and vegetation are more balanced for {sup 90}Sr. The other radionuclides exhibit both low soil mobility and low vegetation uptake. The lack of soil mobility is seen in the lower concentrations found in vegetation growing on the edge of the basin compared to those growing in the basin.

Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Jerome, K.M.

1993-12-31

339

Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.  

PubMed

Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

2011-06-01

340

Natural chelating agents for radionuclide decorporation  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the production of metal-binding compounds useful for the therapy of heavy metal poisoning, for biological mining and for decorporation of radionuclides. The present invention deals with an orderly and effective method of producing new therapeutically effective chelating agents. This method uses challenge biosynthesis for the production of chelating agents that are specific for a particular metal. In this approach, the desired chelating agents are prepared from microorganisms challenged by the metal that the chelating agent is designed to detoxify. This challenge induces the formation of specific or highly selective chelating agents. The present invention involves the use of the challenge biosynthetic method to produce new complexing/chelating agents that are therapeutically useful to detoxify uranium, plutonium, thorium and other toxic metals. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa family of organisms is the referred family of microorganisms to be used in the present invention to produce the new chelating agent because this family is known to elaborate strains resistant to toxic metals.

Premuzic, E.T.

1985-06-11

341

Radionuclides' Content Speciation and Fingerprinting of Nigerian Tin Mining Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment and process-waste samples rich in cassiterite, monazite and zircon, which are of industrial interest, were analysed for the natural series radionuclides, 232Th and 238U and the non-series radionuclide, 40K using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. The natural radionuclides' radioactivity in the samples from the tin-rich areas of Jos, Nigeria was determined using K0-INAA. The obtained results have a high degree of reliability judging from the techniqués accuracy, precision and its non-dependence on secular equilibrium and density correction problems inherent in gamma spectrometry as well as rigorous contamination-prone sample preparation requirements of other methods. Radionuclides speciation and ratios, giving radionuclide fingerprinting of the tin mining tailings is reported. The measured radionuclides activity levels are several orders of magnitude higher than UNSCEAR reference values, revealing the pollution potential of the tin mining and process activities on the surrounding areas, vis-à-vis heavy particulate matter load, leaching into various water channels and direct exposure to gamma rays emitted from the houses and facilities built from the generated wastes. The observed activity levels reflects possible worst scenario situation and the data would not only be of use to the government in its remediation plan for the study area but will also serve as important information for the nuclear science and technology programme about to be embarked upon. Methods of checking exposure have also been suggested.

Olise, F. S.; Oladejo, O. F.; Owoade, O. K.; Almeida, S. M.; Ho, M. D.; Olaniyi, H. B.

2012-04-01

342

Natural radionuclides and plutonium in sediments from the western Arctic Ocean: sedimentation rates and pathways of radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores collected during R. V. Polar Sea AOS94 expedition from the Chukchi Shelf to the North Pole were analyzed for several decay-series natural radionuclides and Pu isotopes to study sedimentation rates and pathways of radionuclides in the western Arctic Ocean. The measured sedimentation rates vary by more than three orders of magnitude along the transect, from 210Pb-based rates of

Chin-An Huh; Nicklas G. Pisias; James M. Kelley; Tapas C. Maiti; Art Grantz

1997-01-01

343

Flow Liner Slot Edge Replication Feasibility Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surface replication has been proposed as a method for crack detection in space shuttle main engine flowliner slots. The results of a feasibility study show that examination of surface replicas with a scanning electron microscope can result in the detection of cracks as small as 0.005 inch, and surface flaws as small as 0.001 inch, for the flowliner material.

Newman, John A.; Willard, Scott A.; Smith, Stephen W.; Piascik, Robert S.

2006-01-01

344

Feasibility of micro power supplies for MEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) designed today use macroscopic power supplies, thereby placing limits on the functionality of MEMS in many applications. An alternative to this approach is to design MEMS with integral microscopic distributed power supplies. This paper examines the feasibility of creating micro power supplies by considering three functions common to MEMS power systems: (1) capture energy; (2) store

Paul B. Koeneman; Ilene J. Busch-Vishniac; Kristin L. Wood

1997-01-01

345

Alaska Challenger Learning Center Feasibility Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Challenger Center for Space Science Education uses space exploration as a theme to create a positive learning experience that raises students' expectations of success; fosters in them a long-term interest in math, science, and technology; and motivates them to pursue studies in these areas. This document is a feasibility report for…

Alaska State Library, Juneau.

346

Microbiomic Signatures of Psoriasis: Feasibility and Methodology  

E-print Network

Microbiomic Signatures of Psoriasis: Feasibility and Methodology Comparison Alexander Statnikov1 York. Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the skin. We sought to use bacterial of psoriasis result in significant accuracy ranging from 0.75 to 0.89 AUC, depending on the classification task

Statnikov, Alexander

347

A Biomimetic Flying Silicon Microchip: Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a feasibility analysis of developing an ultra-small biomimetic flying machine using the most advanced engineering technologies that exist today. Without regard for the cost and potential applications of such a machine, our motivation is driven entirely by a curiosity to know if it is possible to built a controllable flying machine using very leading-edge but available technologies

Ho-Yin Chan; Josh Hiu Man Lam; W. J. Li

2004-01-01

348

Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC or the Community) contracted the ANTARES Group, Inc. (“ANTARES”) to assess the feasibility of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. A solar energy project could provide a number of benefits to the Community in terms of potential future energy savings, increased employment, environmental benefits from renewable energy generation and usage, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The study addresses a number of facets of a solar project’s overall feasibility, including: ? Technical appropriateness; ? Solar resource characteristics and expected system performance; ? Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) economic assessment. The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC or the Community) contracted the ANTARES Group, Inc. (“ANTARES”) to prepare a biomass resource assessment study and evaluate the feasibility of a bioenergy project on Community land. A biomass project could provide a number of benefits to the Community in terms of increased employment, environmental benefits from renewable energy generation and usage, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The study addresses a number of facets of a biomass project’s overall feasibility, including: ? Resource analysis and costs; ? Identification of potential bioenergy projects; ? Technical and economic (levelized cost of energy) modeling for selected project configuration.

Rooney, Tim [Antares Group Inc.] [Antares Group Inc.

2013-10-30

349

On feasibility based bounds tightening0  

E-print Network

Jan 24, 2012 ... Intelligence) community first, and later within the CP, MILP and GO (Global Optimization) ...... branching, standard heuristics for finding feasible solutions, and convexification cuts for creating a linear ..... Artificial Intelligence 32, 281–331 (1987) ... Technology and Medicine, University of London (1996).

2012-01-24

350

The feasible solution in signal restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasible solution to the signal restoration problem is defined as the one which satisfies all constraints which can be imposed on the true solution. A very important set of constraints can be obtained by examining the statistics of the noise. These and other constraints can be described as closed convex sets. Thus, projection onto closed convex sets is the

H. Trussell; M. Civanlar

1984-01-01

351

Artemis: Results of the engineering feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in viewgraph form for the Engineering Feasibility Study of the Artemis Project, a plan to establish a permanent base on the Moon. Topics covered include the Common Lunar Lander (CLL), lunar lander engineering study results, lunar lander trajectory analysis, lunar lander conceptual design and mass properties, the lunar lander communication subsystem design, and product assurance.

1991-01-01

352

State Space Sampling of Feasible Motions for  

E-print Network

-speed navigation in highly constrained and/or partially known environments such as trails, roadways, and dense off-road in the area far from the vehicle. mobile robot navigation leads to a difficult trade-off between the severe constraints of vehicle dynamic feasibility. The paper presents an effective algorithm for state

Kelly, Alonzo

353

FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR AN ASBESTOS AEROSOL MONITOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The feasibility of discriminating and counting asbestos-fiber aerosol particles by means of their shapes, using a two-detector, optical, aerosol counter was determined. The assymmetry of their optical diffraction patterns would distinguish fibers from other, more regular aerosol ...

354

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION.  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of waste streams containing radionuclides, the remediation of contaminated materials, soils, and water, and the safe and economical disposal of radionuclides and toxic metals containing wastes is a major concern. Radionuclides may exist in various oxidation states and may be present as oxide, coprecipitates, inorganic, and organic complexes depending on the process and waste stream. Unlike organic contaminants, the metals cannot be destroyed, but must either be converted to a stable form or removed. Microorganisms present in the natural environment play a major role in the mobilization and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metals by direct enzymatic or indirect non-enzymatic actions and could affect the chemical nature of the radionuclides by altering the speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of microbiological transformations of various chemical forms of uranium present in wastes and contaminated soils and water has led to the development of novel bioremediation processes. One process uses anaerobic bacteria to stabilize the radionuclides by reductive precipitation from higher to lower oxidation state with a concurrent reduction in volume due to the dissolution and removal of nontoxic elements from the waste matrix. In an another process, uranium and other toxic metals are removed from contaminated surfaces, soils, and wastes by extracting with the chelating agent citric acid. Uranium is recovered from the citric acid extract after biodegradation followed by photodegradation in a concentrated form as UO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O for recycling or appropriate disposal. These processes use all naturally occurring materials, common soil bacteria, naturally occurring organic compound citric acid and sunlight.

FRANCIS, A.J.

2006-09-29

355

Monte Carlo modeling provides accurate calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters.  

PubMed

Accurate determination of calibration factors for radionuclide activity meters is crucial for quantitative studies and in the optimization step of radiation protection, as these detectors are widespread in radiopharmacy and nuclear medicine facilities. In this work we developed the Monte Carlo model of a widely used activity meter, using the Geant4 simulation toolkit. More precisely the "PENELOPE" EM physics models were employed. The model was validated by means of several certified sources, traceable to primary activity standards, and other sources locally standardized with spectrometry measurements, plus other experimental tests. Great care was taken in order to accurately reproduce the geometrical details of the gas chamber and the activity sources, each of which is different in shape and enclosed in a unique container. Both relative calibration factors and ionization current obtained with simulations were compared against experimental measurements; further tests were carried out, such as the comparison of the relative response of the chamber for a source placed at different positions. The results showed a satisfactory level of accuracy in the energy range of interest, with the discrepancies lower than 4% for all the tested parameters. This shows that an accurate Monte Carlo modeling of this type of detector is feasible using the low-energy physics models embedded in Geant4. The obtained Monte Carlo model establishes a powerful tool for first instance determination of new calibration factors for non-standard radionuclides, for custom containers, when a reference source is not available. Moreover, the model provides an experimental setup for further research and optimization with regards to materials and geometrical details of the measuring setup, such as the ionization chamber itself or the containers configuration. PMID:25195174

Zagni, F; Cicoria, G; Lucconi, G; Infantino, A; Lodi, F; Marengo, M

2014-12-01

356

Baculovirus as an Ideal Radionuclide Reporter Gene Vector: A New Strategy for Monitoring the Fate of Human Stem Cells In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Purpose Radionuclide reporter gene imaging holds promise for non-invasive monitoring of transplanted stem cells. Thus, the feasibility of utilizing recombinant baculoviruses carrying the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) reporter gene in monitoring stem cell therapy by radionuclide imaging was explored in this study. Methods Recombinant baculoviruses carrying NIS and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes (Bac-NIS and Bac-GFP) were constructed and used to infect human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs). Infection efficiency, total fluorescence intensity and duration of transgene expression were determined by flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity/proliferative effects of baculovirus on hUCB-MSCs were assessed using CCK-8 assays. 125I uptake and perchlorate inhibition assays were performed on Bac-NIS-infected hUCB-MSCs. Radionuclide imaging of mice transplanted with Bac-NIS-infected hUCB-MSCs was performed by NanoSPECT/CT imaging. Results Infection efficiencies of recombinant baculovirus in hESCs, hiPSCs and hUCB-MSCs increased with increasing MOIs (27.3%, 35.8% and 95.6%, respectively, at MOI?=?800). Almost no cytotoxicity and only slight effects on hUCB-MSCs proliferation were observed. Obvious GFP expression (40.6%) remained at 8 days post-infection. The radioiodide was functionally accumulated by NIS gene products and specifically inhibited by perchlorate (ClO4-). Radioiodide uptake, peaking at 30 min and gradually decreasing over time, significantly correlated with hUCB-MSCs cell number (R2?=?0.994). Finally, radionuclide imaging showed Bac-NIS-infected hUCB-MSCs effectively accumulated radioiodide in vivo, which gradually weakened over time. Conclusion Baculovirus as transgenic vector of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technology is a promising strategy for monitoring stem cell transplantation therapy. PMID:23596521

Wu, Haifei; Lv, Jing; Xu, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yifan

2013-01-01

357

Bioremediation: a genuine technology to remediate radionuclides from the environment.  

PubMed

Radionuclides in the environment are a major human and environmental health concern. Like the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 is once again causing damage to the environment: a large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated and dumped into the environment, and if the general population is exposed to it, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Bioremediation has been viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to environmentally destructive physical remediation. Microorganisms carry endogenous genetic, biochemical and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for pollutant remediation in soil and groundwater. Attempts have been made to develop native or genetically engineered (GE) microbes for the remediation of environmental contaminants including radionuclides. Microorganism-mediated bioremediation can affect the solubility, bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides. Therefore, we aim to unveil the microbial-mediated mechanisms for biotransformation of radionuclides under various environmental conditions as developing strategies for waste management of radionuclides. A discussion follows of '-omics'-integrated genomics and proteomics technologies, which can be used to trace the genes and proteins of interest in a given microorganism towards a cell-free bioremediation strategy. PMID:23617701

Prakash, Dhan; Gabani, Prashant; Chandel, Anuj K; Ronen, Zeev; Singh, Om V

2013-07-01

358

Radionuclides, radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive tracers for in vivo clinical diagnosis fall within a narrow, strictly-defined set of specifications in respect of their physical properties, chemical and biochemical characteristics, and (approved) medical applications. The type of radioactive decay and physical half-life of the radionuclide are immutable properties which, along with the demands of production and supply, limit the choice of radionuclides used in medicine to only a small fraction of those known to exist. In use, the biochemical and physiological properties of a radiotracer are dictated by the chemical form of the radionuclide. This chemical form may range from elemental, molecular or ionic, to complex compounds formed by coordinate or covalent bonding of the radionuclide to either simple organic or inorganic molecules, or complex macromolecules. Few of the radiotracers which are tested in model systems ever become radiopharmaceuticals in the strictest sense. Radionuclides, radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals in use are reviewed. Drug legislation and regulations concerning drug manufacture, as well as hospital ethical constraints and legislation concerning unsealed sources of radiation must all be satisfied in order to translate a radiopharmaceutical from the laboratory to clinical use.

Wiebe, Leonard I.

359

Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, ?-, ?-, and ?-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients. PMID:20811605

Ting, Gann; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Lee, Te-Wei

2010-01-01

360

A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water system to the environment via evaporation to the atmosphere and blow-down to the Savannah River. The developed model allows for delay times associated with the transport of the cooling water radioactivity through cooling water system components. Additionally, this model simulates the time-dependent behavior of radionuclides levels in various CWS components. The developed model is incorporated into the K-reactor Cooling Tower Activity (KCTA) code. KCTA allows the accident (heat exchanger leak rate) and the cooling tower blow-down and evaporation rates to be described as time-dependent functions. Thus, the postulated leak and the consequence of the assumed leak can be modelled realistically. This model is the first of three models to be ultimately assembled to form a comprehensive Liquid Pathway Activity System (LPAS). LPAS will offer integrated formation, transport, deposition, and release estimates for radionuclides formed in a SRS facility. Process water and river water modules are forthcoming as input and downstream components, respectively, for KCTA.

Kahook, S.D.

1992-08-01

361

Three-dimensional radiobiological dosimetry of kidneys for treatment planning in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) delivers high absorbed doses to kidneys and may lead to permanent nephropathy. Reliable dosimetry of kidneys is thus critical for safe and effective PRRT. The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of planning PRRT based on 3D radiobiological dosimetry (3D-RD) in order to optimize both the amount of activity to administer and the fractionation scheme, while limiting the absorbed dose and the biological effective dose (BED) to the renal cortex. Methods: Planar and SPECT data were available for a patient examined with {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide at 0.5 (planar only), 4, 24, and 48 h post-injection. Absorbed dose and BED distributions were calculated for common therapeutic radionuclides, i.e., {sup 111}In, {sup 90}Y and {sup 177}Lu, using the 3D-RD methodology. Dose-volume histograms were computed and mean absorbed doses to kidneys, renal cortices, and medullae were compared with results obtained using the MIRD schema (S-values) with the multiregion kidney dosimetry model. Two different treatment planning approaches based on (1) the fixed absorbed dose to the cortex and (2) the fixed BED to the cortex were then considered to optimize the activity to administer by varying the number of fractions. Results: Mean absorbed doses calculated with 3D-RD were in good agreement with those obtained with S-value-based SPECT dosimetry for {sup 90}Y and {sup 177}Lu. Nevertheless, for {sup 111}In, differences of 14% and 22% were found for the whole kidneys and the cortex, respectively. Moreover, the authors found that planar-based dosimetry systematically underestimates the absorbed dose in comparison with SPECT-based methods, up to 32%. Regarding the 3D-RD-based treatment planning using a fixed BED constraint to the renal cortex, the optimal number of fractions was found to be 3 or 4, depending on the radionuclide administered and the value of the fixed BED. Cumulative activities obtained using the proposed simulated treatment planning are compatible with real activities administered to patients in PRRT. Conclusions: The 3D-RD treatment planning approach based on the fixed BED was found to be the method of choice for clinical implementation in PRRT by providing realistic activity to administer and number of cycles. While dividing the activity in several cycles is important to reduce renal toxicity, the clinical outcome of fractionated PRRT should be investigated in the future.

Baechler, Sebastien; Hobbs, Robert F.; Boubaker, Ariane; Buchegger, Franz; He Bin; Frey, Eric C.; Sgouros, George [Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne University Hospital, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States)

2012-10-15

362

Central Station DHC Phase 1 feasibility  

SciTech Connect

This project assisted a private real estate developer in technically assessing the feasibility of integrating a central DHC system into a proposed 72 acre area mixed-use Planned Development (Central Station) just south of the Chicago Central Business District (Loop). The technical assessment concluded that a district heating and cooling system for Central Station will be feasible, provided that a major anchor load can be connected to the system. The system conceived for the site employs a modular approach that adjusts production capacity to actual load growth. The design concept includes gas-fired boilers for heating, gas turbine driven chillers for base loading, electric motor driven chillers for peaking, steam turbines for peak power and back pressure operation, and chilled water storage. Energy will be supplied to the users in the form of steam or low temperature hot water for heating, and low temperature chilled water for cooling.

Henderson, H.L.

1992-03-01

363

Feasibility and Desirability of Mandatory Subordinated Debt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A report from the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Secretary of the US Department of Treasury, The Feasibility and Desireability of Mandatory Subordinated Debt considers the possibility of using "subordinated debt to increase market discipline at depository institutions and to protect the deposit insurance funds." Along with a clearly written introduction and conclusion, this report concentrates on answering the question "Is a Mandatory Subordinated Debt Requirement of Large Banking Organizations Feasible and Appropriate?" The authors reach three major conclusions: 1) that there is sufficient evidence to continue to use subordinated debt to encourage market discipline, 2) that there is a good possibility that mandatory subordinated debt insurance policies may help market discipline and safety, and 3) that the FRB BOG and the Secretary of the US Department of Treasury will continue to analyze research about subordinated debt gathered from market practices, research, and supervisory experience and will suggest new legislation as needed.

364

Fetal magnetocardiography: clinical relevance and feasibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the feasibility of a high- Tc SQUID system for fetal magnetocardiography (fetal MCG) aiming at a system without a magnetically shielded room and cooled by a cryocooler. The targeted SQUID resolution was 50 fT/?Hz (1-100 Hz). The research was performed along three lines: environmental noise suppression, cooling and low- Tc experiments. Environmental noise can be suppressed by forming second-order gradiometers from individual magnetometers. Concerning cooling, we investigated the applicability of commercially available coolers. In the low- Tc experiments, the medical relevance of fetal MCG was clearly shown. However, they also indicated that, in order to fully exploit the medical potential, the targeted resolution has to be 10 fT/?Hz. This increased resolution, in combination with the required high reliability of the sensors, will be hard to realize in high- Tc technology. This paper describes the results of the project and discusses the feasibility of a clinical system.

ter Brake, H. J. M.; Rijpma, A. P.; Stinstra, J. G.; Borgmann, J.; Holland, H. J.; Krooshoop, H. J. G.; Peters, M. J.; Flokstra, J.; Quartero, H. W. P.; Rogalla, H.

2002-03-01

365

Radionuclides in plankton from the South Pacific Basin  

SciTech Connect

We have initiated an investigation of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review has shown that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10/sup 4/. We participated in Operations Deepfreeze 1981 and 1982, collecting a total of 48 plankton samples from the USCGC Glacier on its Antarctic cruises. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories sampled air, water, rain, and fallout. We were able to measure concentrations in plankton of the naturally-occurring radionuclides /sup 7/Be, /sup 40/K, and the U and Th series, and we believe that we have detected low levels of /sup 144/Ce and /sup 95/Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68/sup 0/. Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and the protozoa content of the samples. 7 references, 5 figures.

Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

1984-03-23

366

High-Precision Mass Measurements of Radionuclides with Penning Traps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass of an atom is directly related to the binding energy of all its constituents. Thus, it provides information about all the interactions inside the atom. High-precision mass measurements hence allow studies of fundamental interactions and are of great importance in many different fields in physics. The masses of radionuclides provide information on their stability and their structure and are therefore of particular interest for nuclear structure investigations and as input for nucleosynthesis models in nuclear astrophysics. Penning trap mass spectrometry provides masses of radionuclides with unprecedented accuracies on the order of 10^{-8} and can nowadays be applied even to nuclides with short half-lives and low production rates. Utilizing advanced ion manipulation techniques radionuclides from essentially all elements produced in a broad range of nuclear reactions can be accessed. In this chapter the standard procedures of on-line Penning trap mass spectrometry are introduced and some representative examples of recent mass measurements are given.

Block, Michael

367

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

FRANCIS,A.J.

2006-10-18

368

ROOTS: a program to generate radionuclide decay chains  

SciTech Connect

A set of algorithms has been developed to support dosimetric and transport calculations. These subroutines read a radionuclide data file and prepare a decay chain showing branching fractions and radioactive half-lives of each member. One application of these subroutines has been their implementation as a set of FORTRAN subroutines for application in the PREREM code (Ryan and Fields, 1981). Recent use of these subroutines in stand-alone form required their expansion to print branching fractions. An expanded data set based on ICRP-38 radionuclide data (ICRP, 1983) was also prepared. This subroutine package is called Radionuclide Origin and Ontogeny Tracing Subroutines (ROOTS). The package is intended for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 Computer System, and may require modification to run on other machines. 6 refs.

Fields, D.E.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

1985-11-01

369

Feasibility of an equipment qualification data bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this technical planning study was to determine the feasibility of a large-scale, centrally-located, comprehensive data system (EQDB) that references and describes the status of all environmental qualification work for safety-related (Class 1E) equipment in both operational and not-yet-operational nuclear plants. Specific objectives of the study were to determine the true size and nature of existing environmental qualification

J. E. Houghtaling; W. E. Carson

1980-01-01

370

Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

1987-01-01

371

Feasibility of kangaroo mother care in Mumbai  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and acceptability of kangaroo care in a tertiary care hospital\\u000a in India.Methods: A randomized controlled trial was performed over one year period in which 89 neonates were randomized into two groups kangaroo\\u000a mother care (KMC) and conventional method of care (CMC).Results: Forty-four babies were randomized into KMC group and

Sandeep Kadam; S. Binoy; Wasundhara Kanbur; J. A. Mondkar; Armida Fernandez

2005-01-01

372

Therapeutic Experience of Maximum Feasible Participation  

E-print Network

Therapeutic Experience of Maximum Feasible Participation George Pierre Castile In 1965 a number of scholars looked about them at the state of Native Americans, among them was Henry Dobyns, whose contribution to the collec tion, "The American... Indian Today," was titled "Therapeutic Experience of Re sponsible Democracy" (Dobyns 1968). This phrase was taken from a statement by John Collier, Commissioner of Indian affairs from 1933-45. Collier had de clared "The experience of responsible...

Castile, George Pierre

2006-03-01

373

Fetal magnetocardiography: clinical relevance and feasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the feasibility of a high-Tc SQUID system for fetal magnetocardiography (fetal MCG) aiming at a system without a magnetically shielded room and cooled by a cryocooler. The targeted SQUID resolution was 50 fT\\/?Hz (1–100 Hz). The research was performed along three lines: environmental noise suppression, cooling and low-Tc experiments. Environmental noise can be suppressed by forming second-order gradiometers

H. J. M ter Brake; A. P. Rijpma; J. G. Stinstra; J. Borgmann; H. J. Holland; H. J. G. Krooshoop; M. J. Peters; J. Flokstra; H. W. P. Quartero; H. Rogalla

2002-01-01

374

Feasibility of Magnetostrictive Sensor Inspection of Containments  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a study on the feasibility of using guided waves for long-range global inspection of containment metallic pressure boundaries (i.e., steel containments and liners of reinforced concrete containments) in nuclear power plants. Of particular concern in this study was the potential of the guided-wave approach for remotely inspecting the regions that are inaccessible; for example, regions where the metallic pressure boundary is backed by concrete on one or both sides. The study includes a literature review on long-range guided-wave inspection techniques, a modeling study of the behavior of guided waves in plates with different boundary conditions (e.g., freestanding and backed by concrete on one or both sides), and an experimental investigation of the feasibility of a guided-wave technique called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for (1) generating and detecting guided waves in plates and (2) detecting a defect over a long range. Results of the study showed (1) that it is feasible to achieve long-range global inspection of plates, including regions that are inaccessible, using low-frequency guided waves and (2) that the MsS technique is well suited for this application. Recommendations are made to further test and develop the MsS technique for practical implementation for containment inspection in nuclear power plants.

Kwun, H.

1999-03-01

375

Concentration of selected radionuclides in seawater from Kuwait.  

PubMed

No baseline existed for the radionuclides in Kuwait territorial water. With changing trend in the region to embrace nuclear energy, the baseline study is imperative to create a reference and to record the influence-functioning of upcoming power plants. The first one in Bushehr, Iran is ready to start and several more are likely to come-up in UAE, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The present baseline concentration of the four considered radionuclide's show low concentration of tritium, polonium, strontium and cesium; their concentration is comparable to most oceanic waters. PMID:22444480

Uddin, Saif; Al Ghadban, Abdul Nabi; Aba, Abdulaziz; Behbehani, Montaha

2012-06-01

376

Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes our continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections during the next year. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

1993-11-01

377

Chest radionuclide angiography in the evaluation of pulmonary masses  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective analysis of 104 chest radionuclide angiography (CRNA) studies establishes the utility of this procedure in the evaluation of pulmonary malignancies and benign masses. Remarkable abnormalities in the perfusion of the lungs were identified in 36 (58%) of 62 cases that were not predictably normal or predictably abnormal from the clinical setting. While 60 of these 62 cases involved malignancy being evaluated for metastases, only 21 (34%) had metastases identified by radionuclide bone or liver-spleen scintigraphy. In addition to diagnosis of superior vena cava obstruction, the CRNA may have a more frequent application as an adjunct to routine scintigraphic studies directed to the identification of metastatic disease.

Hartshorne, M.F.; Bauman, J.M.; Telepak, R.J.; Karl, R.D.; Cawthon, M.A.; Howard, W.H.; Bunker, S.R.

1984-09-01

378

Radionuclide releases from natural analogues of spent nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

Measures of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 239}Pu and U concentrations in rock samples from uranium deposits at Cigar Lake and Koongarra have been used to study processes of radionuclide release from uranium minerals. Rates of release have been immeasurably slow at Cigar Lake. At Koongarra release rates appear to have been faster, producing small deficiencies of {sup 99}Tc, and larger ones of {sup 129}I. The inferred differences in radionuclide release rates are consistent with expected differences in uranium mineral degradation rates produced by the differing hydrogeochemical environments at the two sites.

Curtis, D.B.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Dixon, P.; Aguilar, R.; Rokop, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Cramer, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

1993-12-31

379

U.S. DOE 2004 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Amendments to the Clean Air Act, which added radionuclides to the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), went into effect in 1990. Specifically, a subpart (H) of 40 CFR 61 established an annual limit on the impact to the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides from U.S. Department of Energy facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). As part of the new NESHAP regulations, LANL must submit an annual report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency headquarters and the regional office in Dallas by June 30. This report includes results of monitoring at LANL and the dose calculations for the calendar year 2004.

K.W. Jacobson

2005-08-12

380

40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Level Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.55 Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides. MCLGs for radionuclides are as...

2010-07-01

381

ITE CHARACTERIZATION TO SUPPORT CONCEPTUAL MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR SUBSURFACE RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

Remediation of radionuclide contaminants in ground water often begins with the development of conceptual and analytical models that guide our understanding of the processes controlling radionuclide transport. The reliability of these models is often predicated on the collection o...

382

40 CFR 141.55 - Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Maximum Contaminant Level Goals and Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goals § 141.55 Maximum contaminant level goals for radionuclides. MCLGs for radionuclides are as...

2013-07-01

383

Cosmogenic Radionuclides in the Kosice H5 and Chelyabinsk LL5 Chondrites and Cosmic Ray Modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmogenic radionuclides of different half-lives are measured in the Kosice and Chelyabinsk chondrites. Using these radionuclides as natural detectors of cosmic rays allowed us to estimate integral cosmic ray gradients in the 23 and 24 solar cycles.

Alexeev, V.; Laubenstein, M.; Povinec, P.; Ustinova, G.

2014-09-01

384

7 CFR 1942.116 - Economic feasibility requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... true Economic feasibility requirements. 1942.116 Section 1942.116 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...Other Small Community Facilities Projects § 1942.116 Economic feasibility requirements....

2010-01-01

385

7 CFR 4280.182 - Servicing feasibility study grants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for America Program General Renewable Energy System Feasibility Study Grants...grantee; and (2) The type of renewable energy technology and the scope of...reimbursements. (5) For renewable energy system feasibility...

2013-01-01

386

7 CFR 4280.182 - Servicing feasibility study grants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for America Program General Renewable Energy System Feasibility Study Grants...grantee; and (2) The type of renewable energy technology and the scope of...reimbursements. (5) For renewable energy system feasibility...

2012-01-01

387

7 CFR 4280.182 - Servicing feasibility study grants.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...for America Program General Renewable Energy System Feasibility Study Grants...grantee; and (2) The type of renewable energy technology and the scope of...reimbursements. (5) For renewable energy system feasibility...

2014-01-01

388

Feasibility of Starting a Waterjet Fabrication Plant in Amman, Jordan  

E-print Network

This project is an attempt to investigate the feasibility of starting a waterjet fabrication plant in Amman, Jordan to precisely cut marble, granite, and ceramics. The frame work of the feasibility study included analyzing ...

Ahmad, Khaled A.

2010-05-14

389

The effects of radionuclides on animal behavior.  

PubMed

Concomitant with the expansion of the nuclear industry, the concentrations of several pollutants, radioactive or otherwise, including uranium, caesium, cadmium and cobalt, have increased over the last few decades. These elemental pollutants do exist in the environment and are a threat to many organisms. Behavior represents the integration of all the anatomical adaptations and physiological processes that occur within an organism. Compared to other biological endpoints, the effects of pollutants on animal behavior have been the focus of only a few studies. However, behavioral changes appear to be ideal for assessing the effects of pollutants on animal populations, because behavior links physiological functions with ecological processes. The alteration of behavioral responses can have severe implications for survival of individuals and of population of some species. Behavioral disruptions may derive from several underlying mechanisms: disruption of neuro-sensorial activity and of endocrines, or oxidative and metabolic disruptions. In this review, we presented an overview of the current literature in which the effects of radioactive pollutants on behavior in humans, rodents, fish and wildlife species are addressed. When possible, we have also indicated the potential underlying mechanisms of the behavioral alterations and parameters measured. In fried, chronic uranium contamination is associated with behavior alterations and mental disorders in humans, and cognitive deficits in rats. Comparative studies on depleted and enriched uranium effects in rats showed that chemical and radiological activities of this metal induced negative effects on several behavioral parameters and also produced brain oxidative stress. Uranium exposure also modifies feeding behavior of bivalves and reproductive behavior of fish. Studies of the effects of the Chernobyl accident shows that chronic irradiation to 137Cs induces both nervous system diseases and mental disorders in humans leading to increased suicides, as well as modification of preferred nesting sites, reduced hatching success and fecundity in birds that live in the Chernobyl zone. No significant effect from caesium exposure was shown in laboratory experiments with rats, but few studies were conducted. Data on radioactive cadmium are not available in the literature, but the effects of its metallic form have been well studied. Cadmium induces mental retardation and psychomotor alterations in exposed populations and increases anxiety in rats, leading to depression. Cadmium exposure also results in well-documented effects on feeding and burrowing behavior in several invertebrate species (crustaceans, gastropods, annelids, bivalves) and on different kinds of fish behavior (swimming activity, fast-start response, antipredatory behavior). Cobalt induces memory deficits in humans and may be involved in Alzheimer's disease; gamma irradiation by cobalt also decreases fecundity and alters mating behavior in insects. Collectively, data are lacking or are meagre on radionuclide pollutants, and a better knowledge of their actions on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control animal behavior is needed. PMID:21170702

Gagnaire, Beatrice; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Bouron, Alexandre; Lestaevel, Philippe

2011-01-01

390

Radionuclide behaviour in forest soils of Russian Federation and Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behaviour of radionuclides in soil determines to a great extent the radionuclide root uptake and their further migration in food chains. The radionuclide fate in the soil is determined by a wide spectrum of simultaneously running, often competitive elementary processes, such as adsorption-desorption, diffusion-mass transport, retention-migration, etc. The intensity of each elementary process depends, in turn, on a combination of several factors such as nature of the radionuclide, physicochemical features of the fallout, soil properties, environmental regimes, etc. Radionuclide deposition in soils is known to be a basic criterion of the radioecological situation in the contaminated territory. Our long-term investigations performed in contaminated forests (30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP; Tula, Kaluga and Bryansk regions of the Russian Federation) had shown that radionuclide migration in the forest landscapes was determined primarily by the forest litter presence. The key factors of radionuclide redistribution within the soil litter are (i) permanent addition of the low-contaminated organic matter ("clean" litterfall), and (ii) high rate of transformation. The dynamics and intensity of decontamination processes depends on the forest litter sub-horizon. Leaf (A0l) layer exhibits the highest rate of decontamination: 137Cs content in this layer decreased twofold by the second year after the accident and reached its equilibrium value (about 1% of the total deposition) by the 4-5th year after the fallout. The corresponding quasi-equilibrium radionuclide content in A0f layer (10-20%) is reached by the 8-9th year after the accident. The corresponding equilibrium in A0h layer is not reached yet. Thus, the effective half-life of radionuclides in soils should be calculated for each sub-horizon separately, taking into account the above-discussed features of the radionuclide dynamics. The rate of annual radionuclide replacement from the forest litter to mineral layers depends on the following factors: (i) soil properties and regimes. In hydromorphic areas, the rate is much higher than in the automorphic areas. This is due to the above-discussed specific features of hydromorphic and automorphic soils, on the one hand, and different pedogenetic processes running under the coniferous and mixed stand, on the other hand; (ii) distance from the accidental unit. The rate of 137Cs migration from forest litter to the mineral soil layers in the territory of the Russian Federation is higher than in the exclusion zone by a factor of 1.5; (iii) weather conditions. Annual rate of 137Cs migration from the forest litter to the mineral horizons varies by 0.5-11%. The variation is well agreed with the dynamics of rainfall during the vegetative season: the migration rate increases drastically in the wet years.

Shcheglov, A. I.; Tsvetnova, O. B.

2012-04-01

391

7 CFR 1737.70 - Description of feasibility study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...period. In the latter case, if a borrower is not...estimates for the feasibility study generally will be based...used in the feasibility study, the estimates generally...documented. (i) In cases where these per-subscriber...accompany the feasibility study. (j) When it is...

2013-01-01

392

7 CFR 1737.70 - Description of feasibility study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...period. In the latter case, if a borrower is not...estimates for the feasibility study generally will be based...used in the feasibility study, the estimates generally...documented. (i) In cases where these per-subscriber...accompany the feasibility study. (j) When it is...

2012-01-01

393

7 CFR 1737.70 - Description of feasibility study  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...period. In the latter case, if a borrower is not...estimates for the feasibility study generally will be based...used in the feasibility study, the estimates generally...documented. (i) In cases where these per-subscriber...accompany the feasibility study. (j) When it is...

2010-01-01

394

7 CFR 1737.70 - Description of feasibility study  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...period. In the latter case, if a borrower is not...estimates for the feasibility study generally will be based...used in the feasibility study, the estimates generally...documented. (i) In cases where these per-subscriber...accompany the feasibility study. (j) When it is...

2011-01-01

395

7 CFR 1737.70 - Description of feasibility study.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...period. In the latter case, if a borrower is not...estimates for the feasibility study generally will be based...used in the feasibility study, the estimates generally...documented. (i) In cases where these per-subscriber...accompany the feasibility study. (j) When it is...

2014-01-01

396

Development and demonstration of solvent extraction processes for the separation of radionuclides from acidic radioactive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of long-lived radionuclides presents a challenge to the management of radioactive wastes. Immobilization of these radionuclides must be accomplished prior to long-term, permanent disposal. Separation of the radionuclides from the waste solutions has the potential of significantly decreasing the costs associated with the immobilization and disposal of the radioactive waste by minimizing waste volumes. Several solvent extraction processes

J. D. Law; K. N. Brewer; R. S. Herbst; T. A. Todd; D. J. Wood

1999-01-01

397

Pathway: a dynamic food-chain model to predict radionuclide ingestion after fallout deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript describes the structure and basis for parameter values of a computerized food-chain transport model for radionuclides. The model, called PATHWAY, estimates the time-integrated ingestion intake by humans of 20 radionuclides after a single deposition from the atmosphere to the landscape. The model solves a set of linear, coupled differential equations to estimate the inventories and concentrations of radionuclides

F. Ward Whicker; T. B. Kirchner

1987-01-01

398

Executive Summary The remediation of radionuclides and heavy metals using current technology is generally  

E-print Network

vii Executive Summary The remediation of radionuclides and heavy metals using current technology stages of development of nanotechnology applications for remediation of radionuclides and heavy metals radionuclides and heavy metals is a promising development. Though a recently-emerged technology, the LOC device

399

Estimation of apparent rate coefficients for radionuclides interacting with marine sediments from Novaya Zemlya  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the impact of radionuclides entering the marine environment from dumped nuclear waste, information on the physico-chemical forms of radionuclides and their mobility in seawater–sediment systems is essential. Due to interactions with sediment components, sediments may act as a sink, reducing the mobility of radionuclides in seawater. Due to remobilisation, however, contaminated sediments may also act as a potential

Peer Børretzen; Brit Salbu

2000-01-01

400

Concentrations of Natural Radionuclides in Municipal Supply Drinking Water and Evaluation of Radiological Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring radionuclides are always present in groundwater used for drinking and cultivation purposes. Intake of these radionuclides through ingestion of drinking water results in radiation doses to humans, which may cause radiological health hazards. This article presents the results of measured concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides of Ra, Th, and K in municipal supply drinking water in metropolitan Lahore

S. N. A. Tahir; A. S. Alaamer

2009-01-01

401

4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

402

Portal monitor characterization for internally and externally deposited radionuclides.  

PubMed

In this evaluation, both the internal and external radionuclide detection efficiencies for a portal monitor were evaluated as a function of photon energy using an anthropomorphic phantom. Pass-through and static measurements were completed using 241Am, 57Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, 60Co, 109Cd, and 54Mn in various locations both external and internal to the phantom. Other parameters, such as single detector uniformity, total detector uniformity, background linearity, and activity linearity have been analyzed. It was found that the minimum detectable activity for internally deposited 137Cs in the abdomen was approximately ten times higher for pass-through versus static measurements. Additionally, it was found that the minimum detectable activity for 137Cs in the abdominal region for both internal and external pass-through scenarios are nearly equivalent. In general, if the expected radionuclide source term is primarily non-transuranic, the pass-through mode offers sufficient sensitivity to identify potential overexposures while providing much greater personnel throughput. However, minimum detectable committed effective doses for transuranics such as 241Am, show potential for personnel over exposure if the radionuclide mixture contains a significant fraction of transuranics. It is therefore recommended that nuclear facilities evaluate their radionuclide source term in order to bound potential personnel doses. PMID:25272029

Carey, Matthew; Kryskow, Adam; Straccia, Fred; Tries, Mark

2014-11-01

403

Simulation Research on Radionuclide Transport Under Severe Accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the behavior of fission product is studied for 900 MW PWR. Especially, the radionuclide released from core under severe accident is simulated. The program is based on models in MELCOR, elements with similar chemical behavior in the reactor are treated as one class, 15 classes are used in the program. The core is divided into 33 cells

Guo Feng; Cao Xinrong

2009-01-01

404

Radionuclide Transport Behavior in a Generic Geological Radioactive Waste Repository.  

PubMed

We performed numerical simulations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport to study the influence of several factors, including the ambient hydraulic gradient, groundwater pressure anomalies, and the properties of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ), on the prevailing transport mechanism (i.e., advection or molecular diffusion) in a generic nuclear waste repository within a clay-rich geological formation. By comparing simulation results, we show that the EDZ plays a major role as a preferential flowpath for radionuclide transport. When the EDZ is not taken into account, transport is dominated by molecular diffusion in almost the totality of the simulated domain, and transport velocity is about 40% slower. Modeling results also show that a reduction in hydraulic gradient leads to a greater predominance of diffusive transport, slowing down radionuclide transport by about 30% with respect to a scenario assuming a unit gradient. In addition, inward flow caused by negative pressure anomalies in the clay-rich formation further reduces transport velocity, enhancing the ability of the geological barrier to contain the radioactive waste. On the other hand, local high gradients associated with positive pressure anomalies can speed up radionuclide transport with respect to steady-state flow systems having the same regional hydraulic gradients. Transport behavior was also found to be sensitive to both geometrical and hydrogeological parameters of the EDZ. Results from this work can provide useful knowledge toward correctly assessing the post-closure safety of a geological disposal system. PMID:24571606

Bianchi, Marco; Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens T

2014-02-24

405

New Catalytic DNA Biosensors for Radionuclides and Metal ion  

SciTech Connect

We aim to develop new DNA biosensors for simultaneous detection and quantification of bioavailable radionuclides, such as uranium, technetium, and plutonium, and metal contaminants, such as lead, chromium, and mercury. The sensors will be highly sensitive and selective. They will be applied to on-site, real-time assessment of concentration, speciation, and stability of the individual contaminants before and during bioremediation, and for long-term monitoring of DOE contaminated sites. To achieve this goal, we have employed a combinatorial method called “in vitro selection” to search from a large DNA library (~ 1015 different molecules) for catalytic DNA molecules that are highly specific for radionuclides or other metal ions through intricate 3-dimensional interactions as in metalloproteins. Comprehensive biochemical and biophysical studies have been performed on the selected DNA molecules. The findings from these studies have helped to elucidate fundamental principles for designing effective sensors for radionuclides and metal ions. Based on the study, the DNA have been converted to fluorescent or colorimetric sensors by attaching to it fluorescent donor/acceptor pairs or gold nanoparticles, with 11 part-per-trillion detection limit (for uranium) and over million fold selectivity (over other radionuclides and metal ions tested). Practical application of the biosensors for samples from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Field Research Center (FRC) at Oak Ridge has also been demonstrated.

Yi Lu

2008-03-01

406

Detection of varicocele by radionuclide blood-pool scanning  

SciTech Connect

Varicocele is a common and treatable cause of male subfertility. The authors describe a new technique for varicocele detection using radionuclide blood-pool imaging of the scrotum. The results indicate that this technique detects unilateral varicoceles with high sensitivity, including some which are subclinical. There may be significant implications for treatment of infertility.

Freund, J.; Handelsman, D.J.; Bautovich, G.J.; Conway, A.J.; Morris, J.G.

1980-10-01

407

Anthropogenic radionuclides in seawater of the Far Eastern Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been dumped in the Far Eastern Seas by the former Soviet Union and the Russian Federation, and small amounts of radioactive wastes have been dumped by Japan and the Republic of Korea. In order to investigate the concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides in the nine dumping areas, a second expedition was conducted in 1995 by

Y. Ikeuchi; H. Amano; M. Aoyama; V. I. Berezhnov; E. Chaykovskaya; V. B. Chumichev; C. S. Chung; J. Gastaud; K. Hirose; G. H. Hong; C. K. Kim; S. H. Kim; T. Miyao; T. Morimoto; A. Nikitin; K. Oda; H. B. L. Pettersson; P. P. Povinec; A. Tkalin; O. Togawa; N. K. Veletova

1999-01-01

408

Containment of Toxic Metals and Radionuclides in Porous and Fractured  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to provide an improved understanding and predictive capability of the mechanisms that allow metal-reducing bacteria to be effective in the bioremediation of subsurface environments contaminated with toxic metals and radionuclides. The study is motivated by the likelihood that subsurface microbial activity can effectively alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides so that they are immobilized for long time periods. Our objectives are to (1) develop an improved understanding of the rates and mechanisms of competing geochemical oxidation and microbiological reduction reactions that govern the fate and transport of redox-sensitive metals and radionuclides in the subsurface, and (2) quantify the conditions that optimize the microbial reduction of toxic metals and radionuclides, for the purpose of contaminant containment and remediation in heterogeneous systems that have competing geochemical oxidation, sorption, and organic ligands. The overall goal of this project is to use basic research to develop a cost effective remediation strategy that employs in situ contaminant immobilization. Specifically, we will develop active biowall technologies to contain priority EM contaminant plumes in groundwater.

Jardine, Philip M.; Saiers, James; Fendorf, Scott E.

1999-06-01

409

Cosmogenic radionuclides as a synchronisation tool - present status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the flux of galactic cosmic rays into Earth's atmosphere produce variations in the production rates of cosmogenic radionuclides. The resulting globally synchronous signal in cosmogenic radionuclide records can be used to compare time scales and synchronise climate records. The most prominent example is the 14C wiggle match dating approach where variations in the atmospheric 14C concentration are used to match climate records and the tree-ring based part of the 14C calibration record. This approach can be extended to other cosmogenic radionuclide records such as 10Be time series provided that the different geochemical behaviour of 10Be and 14C is taken into account. Here we will present some recent results that illustrate the potential of using cosmogenic radionuclide records for comparing and synchronising different time scales. The focus will be on the last 50000 years where we will show examples how geomagnetic field, solar activity and unusual short-term cosmic ray changes can be used for comparing ice core, tree ring and sediment time scales. We will discuss some unexpected offsets between Greenland ice core and 14C time scale and we will examine how far back in time solar induced 10Be and 14C variations presently can be used to reliably synchronise ice core and 14C time scales.

Muscheler, Raimund; Adolphi, Florian; Mekhaldi, Florian; Mellström, Anette; Svensson, Anders; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran

2014-05-01

410

Normalised radionuclide measures of left ventricular diastolic function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal left ventricular diastolic function is being increasingly recognised in patients with clinical heart failure and normal systolic function. A simple routine radionuclide measure of diastolic function would therefore be useful. To establish this, the relationship of peak diastolic filling rate (normalized for either end diastolic volume, stroke volume, or peak systolic emptying rate), and heart rate, age, and left

Kenneth J. Lee; Andrew E. Southee; George J. Bautovich; Ben Freedman; Andrew F. McLaughlin; Monica A. Rossleigh; Brian F. Hutton; John G. Morris

1989-01-01

411

Sorption of radionuclides on cerium(IV) molybdophosphate ion exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of a new inorganic ion exchanger cerium(IV) molybdophosphate have been prepared under varying conditions. Ion exchange\\u000a capacity, I.R, thermogravimetry and sorption of radionuclides have been studied. Separations of Sr?Rb and Cd?Ag have been\\u000a developed on column of this ion exchanger.

M. G. Marageh; S. Waqif-Husain; A. R. Khanchi

1999-01-01

412

Analytical methods for radionuclides in liquid and solid media  

SciTech Connect

This lecture describes in vitro techniques for the radiochemical determination and dosimetry of radionuclides in the body that have been metabolized and are in the circulatory system. Measurements are made in the excretions and other body specimens such as blood, perspiration, hair, exhaled air, and tissue. 13 references, 4 tables. (ACR)

Sedlet, J.

1983-01-01

413

Waste site reclamation with recovery of radionuclides and metals  

DOEpatents

A method for decontaminating radionuclides and other toxic metal-contaminate The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016 between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities, Inc.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

1994-03-08

414

The fate of radionuclides in sewage sludge applied to land  

SciTech Connect

Municipal sewage sludge containing up to 12 pCi/g {sup 137}Cs, 20 pCi/g {sup 60}Co, and 300 ppm U was injected in a pasture (43 Mg/ha) and sprayed over a young pine plantation (34 Mg/ha). In the pasture, radionuclides were largely retained in the upper 15 cm of the soil, and only about 15% moved below 15 cm. Sludge rapidly infiltrated the soil on the pine plantation. One year after application, at least 85% of the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, and U were found in the upper 7 cm of the pine plantation, with only about 15% moving into the 7- to 15-cm strata. On-site total added radiation dose was 2 to 6 mrem/year. Radionuclides were not detected above background in soil solutions at {approximately}50 cm depth or in shallow down-gradient groundwater wells. Surface runoff from application areas did not have elevated radionuclide concentrations. Concentrations of these radionuclides increased slightly in vegetation on treated sites, and uranium was notably higher in earthworms. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

Boston, H.L.; Van Miegroet, H.; Larsen, I.L.; Walzer, A.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Carlton, J.E. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA))

1990-01-01

415

Program Plan: field radionuclide migration studies in Climax granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Program Plan describes the field radionuclide migration studies we plan to conduct in the Climax granite at the Nevada Test Site. Laboratory support studies are included to help us understand the geochemical and hydrologic processes involved in the field. The Program Plan begins with background information (Section 1) on how this program fits into the National Waste Terminal Storage

D. Isherwood; E. Raber; D. Coles; R. Stone

1980-01-01

416

Parametric study of radionuclide characterization -- Low-level waste. Draft  

Microsoft Academic Search

The criteria and guidance given in this addendum specifically address the classification of low-level waste at the Hanford Reservation into Category 1, Category 3, and Greater Than Category 3 (GTC3). These categories are developed based on the performance assessment (PA) being conducted for the Hanford Site. The radionuclides and their concentration for each category are listed in the revised Table

Amir

1993-01-01

417

DECONTAMINATION OF RADIONUCLIDES FROM CONCRETE DURING AND AFTER THERMAL TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The total area of contaminated concrete within all DOE facilities is estimated at 7.9 x 108 ft2 or approximately 18,000 acres with the major contaminating radionuclides being U, 90Sr, 60Co, and 137Cs (Dickerson et al. 1995). Techniques to decontaminate concrete through the appli...

418

Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS No. 472  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the approach taken to present the information on fruits in the IAEA report TRS No. 472, supported by the IAEA-TECDOC-1616, which describes the key transfer processes, concepts and conceptual models regarded as important for dose assessment, as well as relevant parameters for modelling radionuclide transfer in fruits. Information relate to fruit plants grown in agricultural ecosystems of temperate regions. The relative significance of each pathway after release of radionuclides depends upon the radionuclide, the kind of crop, the stage of plant development and the season at time of deposition. Fruit intended as a component of the human diet is borne by plants that are heterogeneous in habits, and morphological and physiological traits. Information on radionuclides in fruit systems has therefore been rationalised by characterising plants in three groups: woody trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. Parameter values have been collected from open literature, conference proceedings, institutional reports, books and international databases. Data on root uptake are reported as transfer factor values related to fresh weight, being consumption data for fruits usually given in fresh weight.

Carini, F.; Pellizzoni, M.; Giosuè, S.

2012-04-01

419

Clinical radionuclide therapy dosimetry: the quest for the “Holy Gray”  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radionuclide therapy has distinct similarities to, but also profound differences from external radiotherapy. Review This review discusses techniques and results of previously developed dosimetry methods in thyroid carcinoma, neuro-endocrine tumours, solid tumours and lymphoma. In each case, emphasis is placed on the level of evidence and practical applicability. Although dosimetry has been of enormous value in the preclinical phase of radiopharmaceutical development, its clinical use to optimise administered activity on an individual patient basis has been less evident. In phase I and II trials, dosimetry may be considered an inherent part of therapy to establish the maximum tolerated dose and dose–response relationship. To prove that dosimetry-based radionuclide therapy is of additional benefit over fixed dosing or dosing per kilogram body weight, prospective randomised phase III trials with appropriate end points have to be undertaken. Data in the literature which underscore the potential of dosimetry to avoid under- and overdosing and to standardise radionuclide therapy methods internationally are very scarce. Developments In each section, particular developments and insights into these therapies are related to opportunities for dosimetry. The recent developments in PET and PET/CT imaging, including micro-devices for animal research, and molecular medicine provide major challenges for innovative therapy and dosimetry techniques. Furthermore, the increasing scientific interest in the radiobiological features specific to radionuclide therapy will advance our ability to administer this treatment modality optimally. PMID:17268773

Bodei, L.; Giammarile, F.; Linden, O.; Luster, M.; Oyen, W. J. G.; Tennvall, J.

2007-01-01

420

Maximum entropy component recovery: a numerical investigation for radionuclide angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors extend their previous computer simulation for radionuclide cardiac studies to eight components. The eight components correspond to the superior vena cava, the right atrium, the right ventricle, the pulmonary artery, the lung, the left atrium, the left ventricule, and the aorta. The ability and limitations of the method to recover exact components are discussed.<>

Masahiko Nakamura; Tohru Nagasawa; Yutaka Suzuki; Shin Kobayashi

1988-01-01

421

Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides  

E-print Network

propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imagingQuantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides Bradley J There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications

Hielscher, Andreas

422

Estimates of potential radionuclide migration at the Bullion site  

SciTech Connect

The Bullion site in Area 20 of the Nevada Test Site has been selected for an intensive study of the hydrologic consequences of underground testing, including subsequent radionuclide migration. The bulk of the chimney and cavity lie in zeolitized tuffs of low hydraulic conductivity, while the base of the cavity may extend downward into more conductive rhyolite flows. A mathematical analog to the Bullion setting is used here to estimate expected radionuclide migration rates and concentrations. Because of a lack of hydrologic data at the site, two contrasting scenarios are considered. The first is downward-transport, in which downward hydraulic gradients flush chimney contents into the conductive underlying units, enhancing migration. The other is upward-transport, in which upward gradients tend to drive chimney contents into the low-conductivity zeolitized tuffs, discouraging migration. In the downward-transport scenario, radionuclide travel times and concentrations are predicted to be similar to those encountered at Cheshire, requiring approximately 10 years to reach a proposed well 300 m downgradient. The upward transport scenario yields predicted travel times on the order of 2,000 years to the downgradient well. The most likely scenario is a combination of these results, with vertical movement playing a limited role. Radionuclides injected directly into the rhyolites should migrate laterally very quickly, with travel times as in the downward-transport scenario. Those in the zeolitized tuff-walled portion of the chimney should migrate extremely slowly, as in the upward-transport scenario.

Brikowski, T.H.

1992-04-01

423

Confirmation of Brain Death Using Brain Radionuclide Perfusion Imaging Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the reliability of radionuclide cerebral blood perfusion imaging in confirming brain death irrespective of continued heartbeat. Subjects and Methods: Twenty-eight patients (19 male and 9 female, aged 17–63 years) with severe brain injury and fully supported until the final cardiac asystole were included in the study. Two sets of clinical tests aimed at ascertaining brain death in

S. Al-Shammri; M. Al-Feeli

2004-01-01

424

The Gemini Instrument Feasibilities Studies project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gemini Instrument Feasibilities Studies (GIFS) project is part of a program that will provide a number of community-created science-driven instrumentation design study reports and presentations to the observatory, conforming to a number of desired principles.By the time of the AAS, Gemini will have received a number of proposals and will be evaluating them shortly afterwards with the expectation of placing 3 or more feasibility study contracts based on a facility instrument costing between USD 8,000,000 and USD 12,000,000. These instrument studies will provide synergies with new capabilities coming online (e.g. LSST, JWST, ALMA, etc)Following the project, Gemini together with the Gemini Science and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) and input from the wider community will decide on the top-level instrument requirements for the next facility instrument (Gen4#3) and launch a targeted Request for Proposals to design, build, test and deliver a suitable instrument. Gemini expects to release an RfP for Gen4#3 in Q4 2015.Each feasibility study will include fully developed science case(s), optical, mechanical, electronic and software design elements at the conceptual level as needed to demonstrate the technical viability. In particular, each design study will thoroughly identify and mitigate key risks.Each study team will present a status summary presentation at the 2015 Meeting on the Science and Future of Gemini held in Toronto in June 2015. The final GIFS reports and presentations are expected in Sept 2015.We will discuss the status of GIFS and the currently plans for Gen4#3.

Hibon, Pascale; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Hardie, Kayla

2015-01-01

425

Understanding Regulation of Metabolism through Feasibility Analysis  

PubMed Central

Understanding cellular regulation of metabolism is a major challenge in systems biology. Thus far, the main assumption was that enzyme levels are key regulators in metabolic networks. However, regulation analysis recently showed that metabolism is rarely controlled via enzyme levels only, but through non-obvious combinations of hierarchical (gene and enzyme levels) and metabolic regulation (mass action and allosteric interaction). Quantitative analyses relating changes in metabolic fluxes to changes in transcript or protein levels have revealed a remarkable lack of understanding of the regulation of these networks. We study metabolic regulation via feasibility analysis (FA). Inspired by the constraint-based approach of Flux Balance Analysis, FA incorporates a model describing kinetic interactions between molecules. We enlarge the portfolio of objectives for the cell by defining three main physiologically relevant objectives for the cell: function, robustness and temporal responsiveness. We postulate that the cell assumes one or a combination of these objectives and search for enzyme levels necessary to achieve this. We call the subspace of feasible enzyme levels the feasible enzyme space. Once this space is constructed, we can study how different objectives may (if possible) be combined, or evaluate the conditions at which the cells are faced with a trade-off among those. We apply FA to the experimental scenario of long-term carbon limited chemostat cultivation of yeast cells, studying how metabolism evolves optimally. Cells employ a mixed strategy composed of increasing enzyme levels for glucose uptake and hexokinase and decreasing levels of the remaining enzymes. This trade-off renders the cells specialized in this low-carbon flux state to compete for the available glucose and get rid of over-overcapacity. Overall, we show that FA is a powerful tool for systems biologists to study regulation of metabolism, interpret experimental data and evaluate hypotheses. PMID:22808034

Nikerel, Emrah; Berkhout, Jan; Hu, Fengyuan; Teusink, Bas; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; de Ridder, Dick

2012-01-01

426

Utilization and recycling of industrial magnesite refractory waste material for removal of certain radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Increased industrialization over the last years in Egypt has resulted in an increased and uncontrolled generation of industrial hazardous waste. The current lack of management of the solid waste in Egypt has created a situation where large parts of the land (especially industrial areas) are covered by un-planned dumps of industrial wastes. Consequently, in the present work, industrial magnesite waste produced in large quantities after production process of magnesium sulfate in Zinc Misr factory, Egypt, was tried to be recycled. Firstly, this material has been characterized applying different analytical techniques such as infrared spectroscopy (IR), surface analyzer (BET), particle size distribution (PSD), elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The magnesite material has been used as a source of producing aluminum, chromium, and magnesium oxides that has better chemical stability than conventional metal oxides. Secondly, utilization of magnesite material for removal of certain radionuclides was applied. Different factors affecting the removal capability such as pH, contacting time, metal concentration, particle size were systematically investigated. The overall objective was aimed at determining feasible and economic solution to the environmental problems related to re-use of the industrial solid waste for radioactive waste management. (authors)

Morcos, T.N.; Tadrous, N.A.; Borai, E.H. [Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

2007-07-01

427

Implementation of a national metrology network of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine.  

PubMed

The Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS) in Brazil routinely use dose calibrators to measure the activity of solutions containing radiopharmaceuticals. These solutions are administered to patients with the intention to diagnose or treat illnesses. However, for optimal results, the activity of these radiopharmaceuticals must be determined as accurately as possible. The National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI) led, since 1998, a comparison program for activity measurements of radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in the NMS with the purpose promoting quality control. This program has been carried out successfully in Rio de Janeiro, but there is a need to implement it around the country. This can be resolved through the implementation of a network of regional laboratories at various locations throughout the national territory. Currently, such a network is active at a second site, located in Brasília, covering the needs of the Center-West Region, and at a third site, located in Porto Alegre, in the South Region. This work presents the results of comparisons for the radiopharmaceuticals nuclides 131I and 99Tcm and proves that the implementation of a radionuclide metrology network is feasible and viable. PMID:16549360

dos Santos, Joyra A; Iwahara, Akira; Nícoli, Iêda G; Corrêa, Rosângela S; Alabarse, Frederico G; dos Santos, Carlos E L; Xavier, Ana M; Garcia, Eloy J; Tauhata, Luiz; Lopes, Ricardo T

2006-01-01

428

A feasibility study of nuclear superfluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theory of nuclear superfluorescence (SF) based on the Haake-Reibold model for the atomic case is presented. Certain modifications of the model make it possible to take into account some effects that are more important in nuclear than in atomic SF: attenuation, competing transitions, finite pumping times, and both homogeneous and inhomogeneous line broadening. Results of some explicit calculations illustrate the influence of these effects on the radiated pulse. Similar calculations are used to examine the feasibility of observing SF using the 58.6 keV transition in Co-60.

Balko, B.; Kay, I. W.; Neuberger, J. W.

429

Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

Sisk, R. C.

2001-01-01

430

Feasibility study of robotic neural controllers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are given of a feasibility study performed to establish if an artificial neural controller could be used to achieve joint space trajectory tracking of a two-link robot manipulator. The study is based on the results obtained by Hecht-Nielsen, who claims that a functional map can be implemented to a desired degree of accuracy with a three layer feedforward artificial neural network. Central to this study is the assumption that the robot model as well as its parameters values are known.

Magana, Mario E.

1990-01-01

431

Feasibility of Bioethanol Production From Lignocellulosic Biomass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the paper is to discuss the potential of cellulosic ethanol production processes and compare them, to find the most appropriate production method for Latvia's situation, to perform theoretical calculations and to determine the potential ethanol price. In addition, price forecasts for future cellulosic and grain ethanol are compared. A feasibility estimate to determine the price of cellulosic ethanol in Latvia, if production were started in 2010, was made. The grain and cellulosic ethanol price comparison (future forecast) was made through to the year 2018.

Aunina, Zane; Bazbauers, Gatis; Valters, Karlis

2010-01-01

432

F-8 oblique wing structural feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of fitting a rotating oblique wing on an F-8 aircraft to produce a full scale manned prototype capable of operating in the transonic and supersonic speed range was investigated. The strength, aeroelasticity, and fatigue life of such a prototype are analyzed. Concepts are developed for a new wing, a pivot, a skewing mechanism, control systems that operate through the pivot, and a wing support assembly that attaches in the F-8 wing cavity. The modification of the two-place NTF-8A aircraft to the oblique wing configuration is discussed.

Koltko, E.; Katz, A.; Bell, M. A.; Smith, W. D.; Lauridia, R.; Overstreet, C. T.; Klapprott, C.; Orr, T. F.; Jobe, C. L.; Wyatt, F. G.

1975-01-01

433

Feasibility investigation of allogeneic endometrial regenerative cells  

PubMed Central

Endometrial Regenerative Cells (ERC) are a population of mesenchymal-like stem cells having pluripotent differentiation activity and ability to induce neoangiogenesis. In vitro and animal studies suggest ERC are immune privileged and in certain situations actively suppress ongoing immune responses. In this paper we describe the production of clinical grade ERC and initial safety experiences in 4 patients with multiple sclerosis treated intravenously and intrathecally. The case with the longest follow up, of more than one year, revealed no immunological reactions or treatment associated adverse effects. These preliminary data suggest feasibility of clinical ERC administration and support further studies with this novel stem cell type. PMID:19232091

Zhong, Zhaohui; Patel, Amit N; Ichim, Thomas E; Riordan, Neil H; Wang, Hao; Min, Wei-Ping; Woods, Erik J; Reid, Michael; Mansilla, Eduardo; Marin, Gustavo H; Drago, Hugo; Murphy, Michael P; Minev, Boris

2009-01-01

434

Feasibility investigation of allogeneic endometrial regenerative cells.  

PubMed

Endometrial Regenerative Cells (ERC) are a population of mesenchymal-like stem cells having pluripotent differentiation activity and ability to induce neoangiogenesis. In vitro and animal studies suggest ERC are immune privileged and in certain situations actively suppress ongoing immune responses. In this paper we describe the production of clinical grade ERC and initial safety experiences in 4 patients with multiple sclerosis treated intravenously and intrathecally. The case with the longest follow up, of more than one year, revealed no immunological reactions or treatment associated adverse effects. These preliminary data suggest feasibility of clinical ERC administration and support further studies with this novel stem cell type. PMID:19232091

Zhong, Zhaohui; Patel, Amit N; Ichim, Thomas E; Riordan, Neil H; Wang, Hao; Min, Wei-Ping; Woods, Erik J; Reid, Michael; Mansilla, Eduardo; Marin, Gustavo H; Drago, Hugo; Murphy, Michael P; Minev, Boris

2009-01-01

435

Technical feasibility of the Diamex process  

SciTech Connect

The DIAMEX process was developed at the CEA as the first of the two-step strategy to separate trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides. It consists of co-extracting trivalent actinides and lanthanides using a diamide extractant, dimethyl-dioctyl-hexyl-ethoxy-malonamide (DMDOHEMA). To demonstrate the technical feasibility of this process, a test has been successfully carried out with a PUREX raffinate solution in pulsed columns and mixer settlers, which are representative of the solvent-extraction contactors that could be used at the industrial scale. At the end of the trial, the americium and curium recovery yield exceeded 99.9% with high decontamination factors. (authors)

Sorel, C.; Montuir, M.; Espinoux, D.; Lorrain, B.; Baron, P. [CEA Va/rho, DEN/DRCP, BP 17171, Bagnols-sur-Ceze, 30207 (France)

2008-07-01

436

Volumetric Hall Effect Tomography – A Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Hall effect imaging is an ultrasound-based method of mapping spatial variations in the dielectric constants of an acoustically-uniform sample. This paper presents three-dimensional Hall effect images of phantoms obtained by scanning a single transducer across a two-dimensional grid, effectively simulating two-dimensional phased-array signal reception. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility of volumetric Hall effect tomography and show the advantage of volumetric scans over planar scans. The images reflect several limitations of the current scanning method and point to directions for further hardware development. The inherent limitations of Hall effect imaging are also discussed in light of these results. PMID:10604800

Wen, Han

2010-01-01

437

Feasibility Study & Design of Brightfield Solar Farm  

SciTech Connect

This Congressionally Directed Project originally provided funds to the Township of Lower Providence, Pennsylvania for the purpose of investigating the potential for a renewable energy generation facility to make beneficial reuse of a closed landfill located within the Township, known as Moyer Landfill. Early in the course of the project, it was determined through collaboration and discussion with DOE to alter the scope of the project to include a feasibility assessment of a landfill solar project, as well as to construct a demonstration solar project at the municipal facilities to provide an educational and community outreach opportunity for the Township to offer regarding solar photovoltaic (“PV”) electricity generation.

Law, Susan

2014-09-28

438

The feasibility of silicon on garnet technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of combining silicon and magnetic bubble technologies is demonstrated. Functional MOSFETs have been fabricated on top of bubble films coated with 1-micron thick SiO2 layers. The large grain silicon necessary for these devices is obtained by laser recrystallization of polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon). The laser-recrystallization process causes changes in the magnetic properties of the bubble film; however, these changes can be reversed by subsequent thermal anneals. The required temperature treatments after laser annealing are compatible with the MOSFET fabrication process.

Rasky, P. H. L.; Greve, D. W.; Kryder, M. H.; Dutta, S.

1985-01-01

439

Discrimination of Radionuclides in High-Resolution Spectral Gamma Logging  

SciTech Connect

Since 1995, the Hanford Geophysical Logging Project has been performing high-resolution spectral gamma logging in steel-cased boreholes at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project has established a baseline of contamination conditions in the vicinity of the single-shell tank farms and recently began collecting data in boreholes associated with liquid waste disposal sites. Detection and quantification of gamma-emitting radionuclides in the subsurface is based on specific gamma energy lines between 185 and 2615 keV. Liquid waste sites in the vicinity of the Plutonium Finishing Plant are known to contain various transuranic radionuclides, primarily plutonium isotopes, Np-237, and Am-241. These are generally characterized as alpha emitters, but they do emit detectable gamma rays within the energy range of the spectral gamma logging system. The co-existence of several transuranic radionuclides presents analysis challenges because many gamma rays have similar energies (i.e., within 3 keV). Neutron activity may also be observed as a result of ({alpha}, n) interactions. Assessment of neutron activity and gamma energy spectra can provide information on the presence and concentration of transuranic radionuclides and may provide clues as to the chemical state of the waste. The presence of Am-241 presents a special problem in that shielding effects of the relatively thick steel borehole casing preclude detection of the characteristic gamma ray at 59.6 keV. A secondary gamma ray at 662.40 keV may be mistaken for Cs-137 (661.62 keV), which is commonly detected as a fission product or as an indicator of fallout from atmospheric weapons tests. Because of the large difference in gamma yields, this can lead to significant errors in contamination assessment. Strategies and lessons learned for the accurate identification and quantification of man-made radionuclides are presented. (authors)

Henwood, P.D.; McCain, R.G. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, 1100 Jadwin Avenue, Suite 300, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

2006-07-01

440

Arctic Ocean sea ice drift origin derived from artificial radionuclides.  

PubMed

Since the 1950s, nuclear weapon testing and releases from the nuclear industry have introduced anthropogenic radionuclides into the sea, and in many instances their ultimate fate are the bottom sediments. The Arctic Ocean is one of the most polluted in this respect, because, in addition to global fallout, it is impacted by regional fallout from nuclear weapon testing, and indirectly by releases from nuclear reprocessing facilities and nuclear accidents. Sea-ice formed in the shallow continental shelves incorporate sediments with variable concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides that are transported through the Arctic Ocean and are finally released in the melting areas. In this work, we present the results of anthropogenic radionuclide analyses of sea-ice sediments (SIS) collected on five cruises from different Arctic regions and combine them with a database including prior measurements of these radionuclides in SIS. The distribution of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu activities and the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in SIS showed geographical differences, in agreement with the two main sea ice drift patterns derived from the mean field of sea-ice motion, the Transpolar Drift and Beaufort Gyre, with the Fram Strait as the main ablation area. A direct comparison of data measured in SIS samples against those reported for the potential source regions permits identification of the regions from which sea ice incorporates sediments. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in SIS may be used to discern the origin of sea ice from the Kara-Laptev Sea and the Alaskan shelf. However, if the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio is similar to global fallout, it does not provide a unique diagnostic indicator of the source area, and in such cases, the source of SIS can be constrained with a combination of the (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu activities. Therefore, these anthropogenic radionuclides can be used in many instances to determine the geographical source area of sea-ice. PMID:20434194

Cámara-Mor, P; Masqué, P; Garcia-Orellana, J; Cochran, J K; Mas, J L; Chamizo, E; Hanfland, C

2010-07-15

441

Hydrogeological interpretation of natural radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES) stores comprehensive data sets of radionuclide contents in Austrian groundwater. There are several analyses concerning Rn-222, Ra-226, gross alpha and gross beta as well as selected analyses of Ra-228, Pb-210, Po-210, Uranium and U-234/U-238. In a current project financed by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, AGES and the Geological Survey of Austria (GBA) are evaluating these data sets with regard to the geological backgrounds. Several similar studies based on groundwater monitoring have been made in the USA (for instance by Focazio, M.J., Szabo, Z., Kraemer, T.F., Mullin, A.H., Barringer, T.H., De Paul, V.T. (2001): Occurrence of selected radionuclides in groundwater used for drinking water in the United States: a reconnaissance survey, 1998. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 00-4273). The geological background for the radionuclide contents of groundwater will be derived from geological maps in combination with existing Thorium and Uranium analyses of the country rocks and stream-sediments and from airborne radiometric maps. Airborne radiometric data could contribute to identify potential radionuclide hot spot areas as only airborne radiometric mapping could provide countrywide Thorium and Uranium data coverage in high resolution. The project will also focus on the habit of the sampled wells and springs and the hydrological situation during the sampling as these factors can have an important influence on the Radon content of the sampled groundwater (Schubert, G., Alletsgruber, I., Finger, F., Gasser, V., Hobiger, G. and Lettner, H. (2010): Radon im Grundwasser des Mühlviertels (Oberösterreich) Grundwasser. - Springer (in print). Based on the project results an overview map (1:500,000) concerning the radionuclide potential should be produced. The first version should be available in February 2011.

Schubert, Gerhard; Berka, Rudolf; Hörhan, Thomas; Katzlberger, Christian; Landstetter, Claudia; Philippitsch, Rudolf

2010-05-01

442

SALTSTONE AND RADIONUCLIDE INTERACTIONS: RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION AND DESORPTION, AND SALTSTONE REDUCTION CAPACITY  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this study was to measure a number of key input parameters quantifying geochemical processes in the subsurface environment of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) Saltstone Facility. For the first time, sorption (K{sub d}) values of numerous radionuclides were measured with Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete. Particular attention was directed at understanding how Tc adsorbs and desorbs from these cementitious materials with the intent to demonstrate that desorption occurs at a much slower rate than adsorption, thus permitting the use of kinetic terms instead of (or along with) the steady state K{sub d} term. Another very important parameter measured was the reduction capacity of these materials. This parameter is used to estimate the duration that the Saltstone facility remains in a reduced chemical state, a condition that maintains several otherwise mobile radionuclides in an immobile form. Key findings of this study follow. K{sub d} values for Am, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Hg, I, Np, Pa, Pu, Se, Sn, Tc, U, and Y for Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete were measured under oxidized and reduced conditions. Precipitation of several of the higher valence state radionuclides was observed. There was little evidence that the Vault 2 and Saltstone K{sub d} values differed from previous SRS K{sub d} values measured with reducing grout (Kaplan and Coates 2007). These values also supported a previous finding that K{sub d} values of slag-containing cementitious materials, tend to be greater for cations and about the same for anions, than regular cementitious materials without slag. Based on these new findings, it was suggested that all previous reducing concrete K{sub d} values be used in future PAs, except Np(V) and Pu(IV) K{sub d} values, which should be increased, and I values, which should be slightly decreased in all three stages of concrete aging. The reduction capacity of Saltstone, consisting of 23 wt-% blast furnace slag, was 821.8 microequivalents per gram ({micro}eq/g). This value was approximately the same value as the one measured for 100% blast furnace slag. The cause for this approximately four-fold greater reduction capacity than anticipated is not known, but may be the result of the higher pH of Saltstone (pH {approx}11) compared to blast furnace slag (pH {approx}8), the presence of reducing minerals in the fly ash used to make the Saltstone, or to the Saltstone possibly having semi-conductor properties. These reduction capacity values will result in a near four-fold increase in the estimated duration that the Saltstone facility will remain in a reduced chemical state. The implication of this result is that oxidation-state-sensitive contaminants, such as Pu, Np, and Tc, will remain for a longer duration in a much less mobile form than previously believed. The reduction capacity of vault concrete, which consisted of 10 wt-% blast furnace slag, was 240 {micro}eq/g. Essentially all Am, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Hg, Sr, and Y was (ad)sorbed within four hours, whereas <3% of the adsorbed metals desorbed from these solids after 90 hours of continuous leaching. In particular, desorption of Tc (under oxidizing conditions) was >10{sup 3} fold slower than (ad)sorption (under reducing conditions). An important implication of this finding is that if groundwater by-passes or short-circuits the reduction capacity of the Saltstone by flowing along a crack, the ability of the oxygenated water to promote Tc desorption is appreciably less than that predicted based on the K{sub d} value. Relatively low Tc K{sub d} values, 6 to 91 mL/g, were measured in these studies indicating that little if any of the Tc(VII) introduced into the Saltstone or Vault 2 concrete suspensions was reduced to Tc(IV). Such a reduction results in apparent K{sub d} values on the order of 10{sup 4} mL/g. As such, these Tc sorption/desorption experiments need additional investigation to fully represent Saltstone environmental conditions. It is important to understand the limits of these data. They do not provide insight into how radionuclides cured and immobilize

Kaplan, D; Kimberly Roberts, K; Steven Serkiz, S; Matthew Siegfried, M

2008-10-30

443

INSTRUCTIONS FOR ORDERING RADIONUCLIDES Only the Department of Environmental Health and Safety (DEHS) may place orders for radionuclides. Researchers  

E-print Network

INSTRUCTIONS FOR ORDERING RADIONUCLIDES Only the Department of Environmental Health and Safety vendors provide the university with discount pricing that is less than the catalog or on-line price until the Purpose Approver opens the form and approves. This could be a source of delayed orders. If you

Firestone, Jeremy

444

Feasibility study for convertible engine torque converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility study has shown that a dump/fill type torque converter has excellent potential for the convertible fan/shaft engine. The torque converter space requirement permits internal housing within the normal flow path of a turbofan engine at acceptable engine weight. The unit permits operating the engine in the turboshaft mode by decoupling the fan. To convert to turbofan mode, the torque converter overdrive capability bring the fan speed up to the power turbine speed to permit engagement of a mechanical lockup device when the shaft speed are synchronized. The conversion to turbofan mode can be made without drop of power turbine speed in less than 10 sec. Total thrust delivered to the aircraft by the proprotor, fan, and engine during tansient can be controlled to prevent loss of air speed or altitude. Heat rejection to the oil is low, and additional oil cooling capacity is not required. The turbofan engine aerodynamic design is basically uncompromised by convertibility and allows proper fan design for quiet and efficient cruise operation. Although the results of the feasibility study are exceedingly encouraging, it must be noted that they are based on extrapolation of limited existing data on torque converters. A component test program with three trial torque converter designs and concurrent computer modeling for fluid flow, stress, and dynamics, updated with test results from each unit, is recommended.

1985-01-01

445

Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project  

SciTech Connect

This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

Curtis Miller

2009-03-22

446

Safety and Feasibility of Transulnar Cardiac Catheterization  

PubMed Central

Recently, ulnar artery cannulation has been described as an alternative to the transfemoral and radial approaches to vascular access for cardiac catheterization. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of the ulnar approach. From September 2004 through September 2006, 28 patients in a cohort study underwent cardiac catheterization by the transulnar approach. Patients were eligible if they had scheduled an elective cardiac catheterization or angioplasty procedure and displayed a palpable ulnar pulse and a positive reverse Allen's test (< 10 sec). Further, we enrolled only patients who had stable angina. After cannulation, a 5F or 6F introducer was placed inside the vessel, and cardiac catheterization or angioplasty was performed. The patients underwent clinical examination when discharged from the hospital and again at the 1-week follow up. Mean age, weight, and height of the patients were 60 ± 14 years, 78 ± 14 kg, and 148 ± 55 cm, respectively, and 69% were men. Successful puncture was achieved in 93% (26/28), and in all 26 of these patients the procedure could be completed by the ulnar approach. The femoral approach was used for the remaining 2 patients. No cases of arterial spasm or loss of pulse were observed. Two patients had minor hematoma at the entry site. There were no cases of pseudoaneurysm, bleeding episodes requiring transfusion, or vascular perforation. We conclude that the transulnar approach is a safe and feasible alternative for diagnostic and therapeutic coronary intervention. PMID:18941595

Knebel, Alexis Vasiluk; Cardoso, Cristiano Oliveira; Correa Rodrigues, La Hore; Sarmento-Leite, Rogério Eduardo Gomes; de Quadros, Alexandre Schaan; Mascia Gottschall, Carlos Antonio

2008-01-01

447

Outpatient coronary angioplasty: feasible and safe.  

PubMed

This study tested the safety and feasibility of coronary angioplasty on an outpatient basis. The purpose of this approach includes cost-effectiveness and patient comfort. Six hundred forty-four patients were randomized to either transradial or transfemoral PTCA using 6 Fr equipment. Patients were triaged to outpatient management based on a predefined set of predictors of an adverse outcome in the first 24 hr after initially successful coronary angioplasty. Three hundred seventy-five patients (58%) were discharged 4-6 hr after PTCA; 42% stayed in hospital overnight. In the outpatient group, one adverse event occurred (subacute stent thrombosis 7 hr postdischarge, nonfatal myocardial infarction). There were no major vascular complications. In the hospital group, 19 patients (7%) sustained an adverse cardiac even in the first 24 hr; 1 patient died. Patients treated via the femoral route had more (minor) bleeding complications (19 patients; 6%); in 17 of these, this was the sole reason that discharge was delayed. PTCA on an outpatient basis, performed via the radial or the femoral artery with low-profile equipment, is safe and feasible in a considerable part of a routine PTCA population. A larger proportion of transradial patients can be discharged due to a reduction in (minor) bleeding complications. PMID:15789393

Slagboom, Ton; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand; Laarman, Gert Jan; van der Wieken, Ron

2005-04-01

448

A novel hybrid baculovirus-adeno-associated viral vector-mediated radionuclide reporter gene imaging system for stem cells transplantation monitoring.  

PubMed

Hybrid baculovirus-adeno-associated virus (BV-AAV) containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) reporter gene or human sodium-iodide symporter (hNIS) reporter gene flanked by inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) derived from AAV (BV-CMV-eGFP-ITR and BV-CMV-hNIS-ITR) were constructed and used to investigate the feasibility of using hybrid BV-AAV transgenic vector to mediate hNIS reporter gene imaging for monitoring bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) transplantation therapy as a novel biotechnological platform in radionuclide reporter gene imaging. The results showed that the infection efficiency of BV-CMV-eGFP-ITR in BM-MSCs reached 84.25?±?1.38 %, and there were no obvious adverse effects on BM-MSCs. The (125)I(-) and (99m)TcO4 (-) uptake assays showed that the radionuclide accumulation induced by BA-AAV-mediated hNIS was highly efficient in infected BM-MSCs. Furthermore, there was a robust correlation between the infected BM-MSCs cell number and the (125)I(-) accumulation amount (R (2)?=?0.9026). The micro-SPECT/CT imaging showed that BV-CMV-hNIS-ITR-infected BM-MSCs accumulated radioiodine efficiently in vivo, exhibiting obvious radiotracer accumulation in transplantation sites. Further quantitative analysis revealed that 30 min might be the optimal imaging time point. Moreover, the revealed high target/individual organ background ratios also supported the feasibility of BV-AAV-mediated hNIS reporter gene imaging for monitoring BM-MSCs transplantation in most of commonly used transplantation sites, thus highlighting this promise biotechnological platform in radionuclide reporter gene imaging for stem cell transplantation therapy. PMID:25345809

Pan, Yu; Yin, Hongyan; Lv, Jing; Ju, Huijun; Zhou, Xiang; Zhang, Yifan

2015-02-01

449

Modeling radionuclide transport and uptake in an integrated lysimeter experiment: I. Model development  

SciTech Connect

A model of a set of integrated lysimeters used to study radionuclide transport and uptake in vegetated soils is described. The experimental facility is conceptualized as a network of linked compartments. Observed water fluxes provide the basis for simulating the movement and distribution of radionuclides throughout the entire experimental system. The model incorporates a simplified representation of upward migration of radionuclides into an unsaturated soil followed by leaching. The transfer of radionuclides from the soil to the crop is represented using a dynamic root uptake submodel. The application of the lysimeter system model to data for the radionuclide {sup 22}Na is presented in an accompanying paper.

Butler, A.P.; Wheater, H.S.

1999-12-01

450

Radionuclide Inventory Distribution Project Data Evaluation and Verification White Paper  

SciTech Connect

Testing of nuclear explosives caused widespread contamination of surface soils on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Atmospheric tests produced the majority of this contamination. The Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP) was developed to determine distribution and total inventory of radionuclides in surface soils at the NTS to evaluate areas that may present long-term health hazards. The RIDP achieved this objective with aerial radiological surveys, soil sample results, and in situ gamma spectroscopy. This white paper presents the justification to support the use of RIDP data as a guide for future evaluation and to support closure of Soils Sub-Project sites under the purview of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Use of the RIDP data as part of the Data Quality Objective process is expected to provide considerable cost savings and accelerate site closures. The following steps were completed: - Summarize the RIDP data set and evaluate the quality of the data. - Determine the current uses of the RIDP data and cautions associated with its use. - Provide recommendations for enhancing data use through field verification or other methods. The data quality is sufficient to utilize RIDP data during the planning process for site investigation and closure. Project planning activities may include estimating 25-millirem per industrial access year dose rate boundaries, optimizing characterization efforts, projecting final end states, and planning remedial actions. In addition, RIDP data may be used to identify specific radionuclide distributions, and augment other non-radionuclide dose rate data. Finally, the RIDP data can be used to estimate internal and external dose rates. The data quality is sufficient to utilize RIDP data during the planning process for site investigation and closure. Project planning activities may include estimating 25-millirem per industrial access year dose rate boundaries, optimizing characterization efforts, projecting final end states, and planning remedial actions. In addition, RIDP data may be used to identify specific radionuclide distributions, and augment other non-radionuclide dose rate data. Finally, the RIDP data can be used to estimate internal and external dose rates.

NSTec Environmental Restoration

2010-05-17

451

Basalt-radionuclide distribution coefficient determinations. FY-1979 annual report  

SciTech Connect

Experimental radionuclide distribution coefficients (Kd') were determined for Pomona, Flow E, Umtanum basalts, and secondary mineralization associated with Pomona basalt at 23/sup 0/, 60/sup 0/ and 150/sup 0/C. Radionuclides used were /sup 75/Se, /sup 85/Sr, /sup 99/Tc, /sup 125/I, /sup 135/Cs, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 237/Np, /sup 238/U, /sup 241/Am, and /sup 241/Pu. Solution oxygen contents were controlled by the basalt/groundwater system (Eh = 600 to 700 mV), and were high (8.2 to 8.4 mg/l) at 23/sup 0/C. Oxygen contents and pH changed little in contact with basalt. The effects of temperature changes on radionuclide Kd' results varied depending upon the radionuclide involved, solution-solid reactions, and the relationship of the radionuclide to these reactions. For example, cesium Kd' values decreased from 3100 ml/g for Umtanum basalt at 23/sup 0/C to 120 ml/g at 150/sup 0/C. At the same time, strontium Kd' values increased for Umtanum basalt from 105 ml/g at 23/sup 0/C to complete removal at 150/sup 0/C and 40 days. Radionuclide adsorption coefficient measurements at higher temperatures and pressures were made in addition to the 23/sup 0/C, solution-solid contact time-conditional Kd (Kd') measurements. These include Kd' measurements with Umtanum basalt, Pomona basalt, Flow E basalt and secondary mineralization and radioisotopes of americium, cesium, iodine, neptunium, plutonium, radium, selenium, strontium, technetium and uranium. The additional temperatures involved were 60/sup 0/C, 150/sup 0/C, and 300/sup 0/C. At 150/sup 0/C, argon pressures of 6.9, 13.8, 20.7, and 27.6 MPa will be used to ascertain the effects of pressure changes on Kd' values. So far only the 6.9 MPa argon pressure has been investigated. The upper temperature of 250/sup 0/C is where thermal