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1

FURTHER EVALUATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDE PHYTOEXTRACTION FEASIBILITY USING SOILS FROM THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPLEX  

SciTech Connect

Fiscal Year 98 (FY98) radionuclide phytoextraction studies involved resumption of the radiocesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) investigations at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the total uranium (U{sub t}) investigations at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. This project was a collaborative effort involving scientists and engineers from MSE Technology Applications, Inc.; the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Plant Growth Laboratory at Cornell University; Phytotech, Inc.; BNL; and FEMP. In both cases, the essential goal was to improve bioavailability, uptake, and transport of these contaminants from soil to leaf-and-stalk biomass (LSB). In particular, the practical goal was to demonstrate that about half the radionuclide contaminant mass present in near surface [{le}30 centimeters (cm) below ground surface (bgs)] soils could be transferred into LSB in approximately 5 years. Based on previous (1996) study results, it would require concentration ratios (CRs) of at 5-to-10 to achieve this goal. In addition, the rate of {sup 137}Cs removal must be {ge} 2.3% per year{sup -1} [i.e., (0.693/30.2) {center_dot} 100] to equal or exceed the loss of this radionuclide through natural decay. This report first presents and discusses the results from greenhouse and field evaluations of {sup 137}Cs uptake from rooting zone soils (0-15 cm bgs) located near the Medical/Biological Research Building (No. 490) at BNL. Contamination of this site resulted from the use of near surface soils originating at the former Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF), which served as a source of landscaping materials for erosion control, etc. Project personnel from USDA evaluated various combinations of nonradioactive solutions of cesium chloride (CsCl) and rubidium chloride, ammonium nitrate solution (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}), and humic acid suspensions to enhance and sustain {sup 137}Cs levels in soil solution. Of the plants grown in such amended soils, the highest CRs occurred in the golden pigweed (Amaranthus aureus L.) with an overall CR of 3.0 (and 275 picoCurie/gram {sup 137}Cs in soil). The maximum CR (3.8) was associated with dosing this species with 100 millimole (mM) CsCl solution. However, this treatment was immediately toxic to all the species evaluated. Thus, continued use of ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) (CR=2.9) or humic acid (CR=3.2) and golden pigweed appeared to be the best approach for removing {sup 137}Cs from test site soils.

Jay Cornish

1999-01-01

2

The cold pressor test during radionuclide ventriculography: A feasibility study in cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

To monitor the use of cardiotoxic drugs, adequate assessment of myocardial function is required. Although serial radionuclide\\u000a left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) studies allow a simple and rapid assessment of the myocardial function without risk\\u000a or discomfort to the patient, they appear not to be sensitive enough. Determination of the EF during cold application may\\u000a be more sensitive. In this

J. Verwey; A. Van Lingen; J. J. Teule; G. A. K. HEIDENDALt; H. M. Pinedo

1986-01-01

3

Phytoextraction of Zinc: Physiological and Molecular Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc is an essential trace element, necessary for plants, animals, and microorganisms. Zn is required for many enzymes as a catalytic cofactor, for photosynthetic CO2 fixation, and in maintaining the integrity of bio-membranes. However, Zn is potentially toxic when accumulated beyond cellular needs. Phytoextraction technique, which is a part of phytoremediation, has opened new avenues for remediation of Zn-contaminated places.

Rajesh Dhankhar; Poonam Ahlawat Sainger; Manish Sainger

2012-01-01

4

Transient phytoextraction agents: establishing criteria for the use of chelants in phytoextraction of recalcitrant metals.  

PubMed

The phytoremediation of recalcitrant metals such as lead and uranium rely on soil amendments to enhance metal availability within the rhizosphere. Because these amendments may persist in soils, agents that not only biodegrade rapidly but also are effective in triggering metal uptake in plants are needed for metals phytoextraction to be considered as an accepted practice. In this study, several biodegradable organic acids and chelating agents were assessed to determine if these amendments can be used in an effective manner, and if their activity and use is consistent with a proposed class of soil amendments for phytoextraction, here termed transient phytoextraction agents (TPAs). A TPA is proposed as an agent that would exhibit both effectiveness in triggering plant accumulation of the targeted metal while minimizing the risk of migration through rapid degradation or inactivation of the soluble complex. Eleven candidate TPAs (acetic acid, ascorbic acid, citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, succinic acid, ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid, dicarboxymethylglutamic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, BayPure CX 100, and the siderophore desferrioxamine B) were tested in batch studies to evaluate their complexation behavior using contaminated soils, with uranium and lead as the target metals. A growth chamber study was then conducted with Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), and Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) grown in a lead-contaminated soil that was treated with the candidate TPAs to assess phytoextraction effectiveness. For the soils tested, citric acid, oxalic acid, and succinic acid were found to be effective complexing agents for uranium phytoextraction, whereas Baypure CX 100 and citric acid exhibited effectiveness for lead phytoextraction. PMID:19260223

Parra, R; Ulery, A L; Elless, M P; Blaylock, M J

2008-01-01

5

Arbuscular mycorrhiza decreases cadmium phytoextraction by transgenic tobacco with inserted metallothionein  

E-print Network

Arbuscular mycorrhiza decreases cadmium phytoextraction by transgenic tobacco with inserted) on the phytoextraction efficiency of transgenic tobacco with increased ability to tolerate and accumulate cadmium (Cd addition, while the other isolate alleviated the inhibitory effect of cadmium on plant growth

Janouskova, Martina

6

Using hyperaccumulator plants to phytoextract soil Ni and Cd.  

PubMed

Two strategies of phytoextraction have been shown to have promise for practical soil remediation: domestication of natural hyperaccumulators and bioengineering plants with the genes that allow natural hyperaccumulators to achieve useful phytoextraction. Because different elements have different value, some can be phytomined for profit and others can be phytoremediated at lower cost than soil removal and replacement. Ni phytoextraction from contaminated or mineralized soils offers economic return greater than producing most crops, especially when considering the low fertility or phytotoxicity of Ni rich soils. Only soils that require remediation based on risk assessment will comprise the market for phytoremediation. Improved risk assessment has indicated that most Zn + Cd contaminated soils will not require Cd phytoextraction because the Zn limits practical risk from soil Cd. But rice and tobacco, and foods grown on soils with Cd contamination without corresponding 100-fold greater Zn contamination, allow Cd to readily enter food plants and diets. Clear evidence of human renal tubular dysfunction from soil Cd has only been obtained for subsistence rice farm families in Asia. Because of historic metal mining and smelting, Zn + Cd contaminated rice soils have been found in Japan, China, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand. Phytoextraction using southern France populations of Thlaspi caerulescens appears to be the only practical method to alleviate Cd risk without soil removal and replacement. The southern France plants accumulate 10-20-fold higher Cd in shoots than most T. caerulescens populations such as those from Belgium and the UK. Addition of fertilizers to maximize yield does not reduce Cd concentration in shoots; and soil management promotes annual Cd removal. The value of Cd in the plants is low, so the remediation service must pay the costs of Cd phytoextraction plus profits to the parties who conduct phytoextraction. Some other plants have been studied for Cd phytoextraction, but annual removals are much lower than the best T. caerulescens. Improved cultivars with higher yields and retaining this remarkable Cd phytoextraction potential are being bred using normal plant breeding techniques. PMID:15948583

Chaney, Rufus L; Angle, J Scott; McIntosh, Marla S; Reeves, Roger D; Li, Yin-Ming; Brewer, Eric P; Chen, Kuang-Yu; Roseberg, Richard J; Perner, Henrike; Synkowski, Eva Claire; Broadhurst, C Leigh; Wang, S; Baker, Alan J M

2005-01-01

7

The use of NTA for lead phytoextraction from soil from a battery recycling site.  

PubMed

The application of synthetic aminopolycarboxylic acids to soil increases metal solubility, and therefore enhances phytoextraction. However, synthetic chelants degrade poorly in soil, and metal leaching threatens human and animal health. The aim of this study is to assess the use of a biodegradable chelant (NTA) for Pb phytoextraction from a soil contaminated by battery-casing disposal. EDTA was also included in the experiment to assess the behavior of a non-degradable chelant. Each synthetic chelant was applied to soil pots cultivated with maize plants at rates of 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20 mmol kg(-1). Soil samples were extracted with CaCl(2) and by sequential extraction for Pb. In addition, a soil column experiment was set up to study the leaching of Pb from the chelant-amended soil. The results showed that both NTA and EDTA were highly effective in solubilizing Pb from soil. The Pb distribution into soil fractions after chelant addition followed the sequence: Ex (exchangeable)>OM (organic matter)>AFeOx (amorphous iron oxides)>CFeOx (crystalline iron oxides). The 5 mmol kg(-1) dose of EDTA increased the Pb concentration in maize shoots to 1.1%, but it promoted unacceptable Pb leaching rates. On the other hand, the results showed that phytoremediating the site using 5 mmol kg(-1) NTA could be feasible with no environmental effects due to Pb leaching over a five-year period. PMID:19595509

Freitas, Eriberto Vagner de Souza; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo

2009-11-15

8

Citric acid-assisted phytoextraction of lead: a field experiment.  

PubMed

Soil contamination with heavy metals has become a serious environmental problem that requires affordable strategies of remediation. This study was carried out to assess the performance of maize and vetiver in the phytoextraction of Pb from a soil contaminated by battery recycling activities. The species were planted with different spacings between rows (0.80, 0.65 and 0.50m). Citric acid (40mmolkg(-1)) was applied on each experimental plot on the 61st d of cultivation in order to solubilize the Pb and assist the phytoextraction. The results showed that the chelating agent promoted a 14-fold increase in the Pb concentration in maize shoots as compared to the control, which accumulated only 111mgkg(-1) of the metal. The citric acid induced a Pb concentration in vetiver shoots that was 7.2-6.7-fold higher than the control at both the 0.65 and 0.50m plant spacing, respectively. The use of citric acid increased substantially the uptake and translocation of Pb to the shoots, regardless of plant spacing. Citric acid was efficient in solubilizing Pb from the soil and inducing its uptake by both species. Environmentally-friendly and cost effective, commercial citric acid is recommended for assisting Pb-phytoextraction in the studied area. Due to the low natural solubility of Pb and a time frame needed of longer than 150yr to accomplish the clean-up, phytoextraction with no chelate assistance is not recommended for the area. PMID:23490185

Freitas, Eriberto Vagner; Nascimento, Clístenes Williams; Souza, Adailson; Silva, Fernando Bruno

2013-06-01

9

Phytoextraction of Zinc by Indian Mustard and Tall Fescue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment evaluated the capacity of two species, Indian mustard (Brassica juncea Czern.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) to extract zinc (Zn) from soils. Also, this experiment focused on using nitrogen (N) fertilizers to increase the phytoextraction of Zn. Two soils of the Hadley series (Typic Udifluvents) were studied. A treatment array of Zn concentrations in soils was supplied

Gretchen M. Bryson; Allen V. Barker

2007-01-01

10

Potential for phytoextraction of PCBs from contaminated soils using weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive investigation of the potential of twenty-seven different species of weeds to phytoextract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated soil was conducted at two field sites (Etobicoke and Lindsay) in southern Ontario, Canada. Soil concentrations were 31?g\\/g and 4.7?g\\/g at each site respectively. All species accumulated PCBs in their root and shoot tissues. Mean shoot concentrations at the two sites

Sarah A. Ficko; Allison Rutter; Barbara A. Zeeb

2010-01-01

11

Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soil by Vetiver grass.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction techniques utilizing a sterile strain of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for removing lead and other elements such as Zn, Cu, and Fe from the soil of a 50-year old active firing range at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Lead-contaminated soil (300-4500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing transplanted Vetiver grass plants in a greenhouse. The uptake of metals by the plants was evaluated in response to various fertilization and pre-harvest treatment schemes. Baseline metal concentrations in the soil of all pots were measured prior to planting and when the plants were harvested. Plants grew better when fertilized with Osmocote fertilizer in comparison to plants fertilized with 10-10-10 (NPK) fertilizer. Application of a chelating agent, EDTA, one week prior to harvest significantly increased the amount of lead that was phytoextracted. Lead concentrations of up to 1390-1450 ppm/kg in tissue samples were detected. Maximum Pb levels were observed in root tissues. The addition of non-lethal doses of a slow-release herbicide in combination with EDTA did not appear to further enhance phytoextraction or the translocation of Pb into shoots. The study indicated that the use of Vetiver grass coupled with the use of chelating soil amendments has considerable potential for use as a remedial strategy for lead-contaminated soils such as those associated with firing ranges. PMID:15964059

Wilde, E W; Brigmon, R L; Dunn, D L; Heitkamp, M A; Dagnan, D C

2005-12-01

12

This paper reviews progress in phytoextraction of soil elements and illustrates the key role of hyperaccumulator plant species  

E-print Network

of hyperaccumulator plant species in useful phytoextraction technologies. Much research has focused on elements which and are cost prohibitive; and on plant species which offer no useful phytoextraction capability (e.g., Brassica of this review is phytoextraction, a developing technology that uses plants to accumulate elements from

Sparks, Donald L.

13

The use of NTA for lead phytoextraction from soil from a battery recycling site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of synthetic aminopolycarboxylic acids to soil increases metal solubility, and therefore enhances phytoextraction. However, synthetic chelants degrade poorly in soil, and metal leaching threatens human and animal health. The aim of this study is to assess the use of a biodegradable chelant (NTA) for Pb phytoextraction from a soil contaminated by battery-casing disposal. EDTA was also included in

Eriberto Vagner de Souza Freitas; Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento

2009-01-01

14

Phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc by Salix from soil historically amended with sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short rotation coppice (SRC) such as Salix spp. can be grown as an energy crop and offers some potential for economic and practical phytoextraction of marginally contaminated\\u000a arable soil. This study tested various soil amendments intended to increase soil metal availability to Salix, investigated the distribution of metal between different tree fractions and assessed the viability of phytoextraction using\\u000a SRC

A. P. Maxted; C. R. Black; H. M. West; N. M. J. Crout; S. P. Mcgrath; S. D. Young

2007-01-01

15

Stimulated phytoextraction of metals from fly ash by microbial interventions.  

PubMed

Various combinations of fly ash tolerant bacteria isolated from the rhizospheric zone of Typha latifolia naturally growing on a fly ash dump site were tested for enhanced metal uptake by Brassica juncea grown in fly ash amended with press mud. After enrichment of the bacteria in a nutrient broth, they were subsequently applied to the rhizospheric zone of B. juncea in different combinations. When the metal analysis was done in the plants at their maturity, it was revealed that out of 11 bacterial consortia prepared from the different combinations of four bacterial strains, Micrococcus roseus NBRFT2 (MTCC 9018), Bacillus endophyticus NBRFT4 (MTCC 9021), Paenibacillus macerans NBRFT5 (MTCC 8912) and Bacillus pumilus NBRFT9 (MTCC 8913), a combination of NBRFT5, NBRFT4 and NBRFT9 (ST3) was found to have induced the highest metal accumulations as compared to other consortia. The bioaugmentation of the ST3 consortium enhanced Fe accumulation by 247%, Ni by 231% and Zn by 223% in B. juncea as compared to control plants. These values were found to be significantly higher than the other bacterial consortia. Bacteria were also found to produce siderophores which could enhance the metal uptake by plants through metal mobilization. Besides siderophores, bacteria are also known to produce protons, organic acids and enzymes which enhance the metal mobilization and boost the phytoextraction process. The translocation of metals from root to stem was invariably higher than from stem to leaf. Hence, ST3 was adjudged the best consortium to be used in the field application to accelerate the phytoextraction of metals from fly ash by B. juncea. PMID:23393983

Tiwari, Sadhna; Singh, S N; Garg, S K

2012-01-01

16

Chelator induced phytoextraction and in situ soil washing of Cu.  

PubMed

In a soil column experiment, we investigated the effect of 5 mmol kg(-1) soil addition of citric acid, ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA), diethylenetriamine-pentaacetate (DTPA) and [S,S]-stereoisomer of ethylenediamine-disuccinate (EDDS) on phytoextraction of Cu from a vineyard soil with 162.6 mg kg(-1) Cu, into the test plant Brassica rapa var. pekinensis. We also examined the use of a horizontal permeable barrier, composed of layers of nutrient enriched sawdust and apatite, for reduction of chelator induced Cu leaching. The addition of all chelators, except citric acid, enhanced Cu mobility and caused leaching of 19.5-23% of initial total Cu from the soil column. However, Cu plant uptake did not increase accordingly; the most effective was the EDDS treatment, in which plant Cu concentration reached 37.8 +/-1.3 mg kg(-1) Cu and increased by 3.3-times over the control treatment. The addition of none of the chelators in the concentration range from 5 to 15 mmol kg(-1) exerted any toxic effect on respiratory soil microorganisms. When EDDS was applied into the columns with horizontal permeable barriers, only 0.53 +/- 0.32% of the initial total Cu was leached. Cu (36.7%) was washed from the 18 cm soil layer above the barrier and accumulated in the barrier. Our results indicate that rather than for a reduction of Cu leaching during rather ineffective chelate induced Cu phytoextraction, horizontal permeable barriers could be more effective in a new remediation technique of controlled in situ soil washing of Cu with biodegradable chelates. PMID:15312945

Kos, Bostjan; Lestan, Domen

2004-11-01

17

Can ligand addition to soil enhance Cd phytoextraction? A mechanistic model study.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction is a potential method for cleaning Cd-polluted soils. Ligand addition to soil is expected to enhance Cd phytoextraction. However, experimental results show that this addition has contradictory effects on plant Cd uptake. A mechanistic model simulating the reaction kinetics (adsorption on solid phase, complexation in solution), transport (convection, diffusion) and root absorption (symplastic, apoplastic) of Cd and its complexes in soil was developed. This was used to calculate plant Cd uptake with and without ligand addition in a great number of combinations of soil, ligand and plant characteristics, varying the parameters within defined domains. Ligand addition generally strongly reduced hydrated Cd (Cd(2+)) concentration in soil solution through Cd complexation. Dissociation of Cd complex ([Formula: see text]) could not compensate for this reduction, which greatly lowered Cd(2+) symplastic uptake by roots. The apoplastic uptake of [Formula: see text] was not sufficient to compensate for the decrease in symplastic uptake. This explained why in the majority of the cases, ligand addition resulted in the reduction of the simulated Cd phytoextraction. A few results showed an enhanced phytoextraction in very particular conditions (strong plant transpiration with high apoplastic Cd uptake capacity), but this enhancement was very limited, making chelant-enhanced phytoextraction poorly efficient for Cd. PMID:24969429

Lin, Zhongbing; Schneider, André; Nguyen, Christophe; Sterckeman, Thibault

2014-11-01

18

Phytoextraction and dissipation of lindane by Spinacia oleracea L.  

PubMed

Remediation and management of organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) contaminated soil is becoming a global priority as they are listed in the Stockholm list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) for global elimination. Lindane is a OCPs candidate recently included in the Stockholm list. However, India has an exemption to produce lindane for malaria control. Because of its widespread use during the last few decades, lindane contaminated soils are found in almost all parts of India. Since phytoremediation is widely acknowledged as an innovative strategy for the clean-up of contaminated soils; the present study was aimed to evaluate the phytoextraction and dissipation of lindane by a leafy vegetable Spinacia oleracea L (Spinach). The test plant was grown in different concentrations of lindane (5, 10, 15 and 20mgkg(-1)) and harvested at 10, 30 and 45 days. At 45 days, the concentrations of lindane in root and leaf of Spinach growing in four different concentrations were reached up to 3.5, 5.4, 7.6 and 12.3mgkg(-1) and 1.8, 2.2, 3 and 4.9mgkg(-1), respectively. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) in the dissipation of lindane in vegetated and non-vegetated soil. Moreover, the residual lindane in four experiments was reduced to 81, 76, 69 and 61 percent, respectively. The experimental results indicate that Spinach can be used for the phytoremediation of lindane. However, more studies are required to prevent the toxicity of harvested parts. PMID:25133347

Dubey, Rama Kant; Tripathi, Vishal; Singh, Nandita; Abhilash, P C

2014-11-01

19

In situ phytoextraction of polychlorinated biphenyl - (PCB)contaminated soil.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale field trial of phytoextraction of PCBs provides insight into the practical application of this technology, using the plant species Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin), Carex normalis (sedge), and Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue). This in situ trial took place at a historically contaminated field site, in soil contaminated with a mean concentration of 46 microg/g (range of 0.6 - 200 microg/g) total PCBs (Aroclor 1254/1260). Shoot bioaccumulation factors (where BAF(shoot)=[PCB(shoot)]/[PCB(soil)]) of up to 0.29 were achieved in sedge. Pumpkin plants produced shoot BAFs of only 0.15. However, PCB concentrations in pumpkin shoots decreased as the distance above the root increased, suggesting that higher overall pumpkin shoot BAFs might be achieved in shorter, more densely planted plants. A model for estimating the overall PCB concentration in large pumpkin shoots with minimal sampling is proposed. Examination of congener data supports the hypothesis that C. pepo ssp pepo plants exhibit a unique biological uptake mechanism that allows for the accumulation of a significant concentration of PCBs in plant shoots. Although this mechanism is not well understood, the co-eluting IUPAC congeners 93/95 and 105/127 appear to be preferentially mobilized. Presently, all three plant species exhibit potential as PCB phytoextractors, however further research is required to elucidate methods for optimizing this technology. PMID:17258285

Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Zeeb, Barbara A; Rutter, Allison; Reimer, Kenneth J

2007-03-01

20

Potential for phytoextraction of PCBs from contaminated soils using weeds.  

PubMed

A comprehensive investigation of the potential of twenty-seven different species of weeds to phytoextract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated soil was conducted at two field sites (Etobicoke and Lindsay) in southern Ontario, Canada. Soil concentrations were 31 microg/g and 4.7 microg/g at each site respectively. All species accumulated PCBs in their root and shoot tissues. Mean shoot concentrations at the two sites ranged from 0.42 microg/g for Chenopodium album to 35 microg/g for Vicia cracca (dry weight). Bioaccumulation factors (BAF=[PCB](plant tissue)/[PCB](mean soil)) at the two sites ranged from 0.08 for Cirsium vulgare to 1.1 for V. cracca. Maximum shoot extractions were 420 microg for Solidago canadensis at the Etobicoke site, and 120 microg for Chrysanthemum leucanthemum at the Lindsay site. When plant density was taken into account with a theoretical density value, seventeen species appeared to be able to extract a similar or greater quantity of PCBs into the shoot tissue than pumpkins (Curcurbita pepo ssp. pepo) which are known PCB accumulators. Therefore, some of these weed species are promising candidates for future phytoremediation studies. PMID:20483449

Ficko, Sarah A; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

2010-07-15

21

Study of the potential valorization of metal contaminated Salix via phytoextraction by combustion  

E-print Network

with Salix Zn and Cd enriched wood harvested from the SRC and the second one with Salix wood bought at a wood than in ashes. According to current regulation, Salix wood issued from phytoextraction should be used, different energy-recovery- techniques (incineration, combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

Metal uptake by young trees from dredged brackish sediment: limitations and possibilities for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five tree species (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn., Fraxinus excelsior L., Populus alba L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L.) were planted on a mound constructed of dredged sediment. The sediment originated from a brackish river mouth and was slightly polluted with heavy metals. This preliminary study evaluated the use of trees for site reclamation by means of phytoextraction of

Jan Mertens; Pieter Vervaeke; An De Schrijver; Sebastiaan Luyssaert

2004-01-01

23

Phytoextraction by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. from six arsenic-contaminated soils: Repeated harvests  

E-print Network

Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Continuous phytoextraction; Plant arsenic uptake; Arsenic and animal health. It results from the exten- sive use of arsenic compounds such as pesticides, insecticides: lqma@ifas.ufl.edu (L.Q. Ma). 0269-7491/$ - see front matter Ã? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Ma, Lena

24

Enhanced phytoextraction of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd with EDTA and EDDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically enhanced phytoextraction has been proposed as an effective approach to removing heavy metals from contaminated soil through the use of high biomass plants. Using pot experiments, the effects of the application of EDTA, EDDS and citric acid on the uptake of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd by corn (Zea mays L. cv. Nongda 108) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

Chunling Luo; Zhenguo Shen; Xiangdong Li

2005-01-01

25

Phytoextraction process optimization: characterization of the soil bacteria flora associated to the hyperaccumulator Arabidopsis  

E-print Network

halleri's phytoextraction is the inoculation of plant roots by plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB halleri roots. Bacteria effects on plant biomass and/or accumulating yield will be presented. Introduction production and/or plant Zn and Cd accumulation. The effect on selected PGPB bacteria on the A. halleri

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

26

Timing of phosphate application affects arsenic phytoextraction by Pteris vittata L. of different ages  

E-print Network

hyperaccumulators to remove arsenic from contaminated sites. It is considered as a cost-effective and environmental to adverse soil characteristics make it a good candi- date for phytoextraction. P. vittata exhibits.1016/j.envpol.2007.10.012 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Environmental Pollution 154 (2008

Ma, Lena

27

Measurement of in situ phytoextraction of zinc by spontaneous metallophytes growing on a former smelter site.  

PubMed

This work was undertaken to measure the in situ phytoextraction of zinc using a former zinc-smelter site where metallophyte plants have been growing for 30 years. The site exhibited a gradient in the total metal concentration in the upper horizon (from 3230 to 8530 mg Zn kg(-1)). Soils were sampled from four different sectors (I-IV), and plant shoots were harvested, identified, their biomass weighed and analysed for zinc. The results showed that three plant species were dominant on the site, including Arabidopsis halleri (cress), Armeria maritima (seathrift), and Arrhenatherum elatius (fromental). A. maritima was the predominant species according to the biomass production on the most polluted sector 1. As the concentration of metals in soils decreased. A. maritima disappeared and A. halleri increased. The biomass of A. elatius was the highest on the less polluted soils. Concentrations in zinc in the aerial parts of plants varied from 73 (sector IV) to 6269 mg kg(-1) DM (sector 1). The concentration of Zn in A. halleri decreased with the decrease in concentration of zinc in soil. Phytoextraction was calculated from the biomass and its concentration of metal. It was at a maximum in sector III with a high contribution of A. halleri and A. elatius and reached 10 kg Zn ha(-1), a promising amount for phytoextraction considering the absence of any agricultural practices. In sector 1, phytoextraction was four times lower despite a 2.6 times higher concentration of Zn in the upper horizon. In conclusion, phytoextraction was strongly dependent on the concentration of the available metal in soils which may limit the growth of plants, and favour tolerant but low biomass plant species such as A. maritima. PMID:11712599

Schwartz, C; Gérard, E; Perronnet, K; Morel, J L

2001-11-12

28

Phytoextraction of Lead from Soil from a Battery Recycling Site: The Use of Citric Acid and NTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoextraction is a soil remediation technique involving plants that concentrate heavy metals in their shoots, which may\\u000a be removed from the area by harvest. The application of synthetic chelants to soil increases metal solubility, and therefore\\u000a enhances phytoextraction. However, synthetic chelants degrade poorly in soil, and metal leaching poses a threat to human and\\u000a animal health. The aim of this

Josângela do Carmo Trezena de Araújo; Clístenes Williams Araújo do Nascimento

2010-01-01

29

100-N Area Strontium90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone Field Treatability Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strontium-90 (90Sr) is present both in the aquifer near the river and in the vadose and riparian zones of the rivers shore at 100-NR-2. Phytoextraction of 90Sr is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua). Past studies have shown that willow roots share uptake mechanisms

Robert J. Fellows; Jonathan S. Fruchter; Crystal J. Driver; Calvin C. Ainsworth

2010-01-01

30

Enhanced phytoextraction of chromium by the aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton pusillus in presence of copper.  

PubMed

The aquatic macrophyte, Potamogeton pusillus was evaluated for the removal of Cu(2+) and Cr(+6) from aqueous solutions during 15 days phytoextraction experiments. Results show that P. pusillus is capable of accumulating substantial amount of Cu and Cr from individual solutions (either Cu(2+) or Cr(+6)). Significant correlations between metal removal and bioaccumulation were obtained. Roots and leaves accumulated the highest amount of Cu and Cr followed by stems. The bioaccumulation of Cr was significantly enhanced in the presence of Cu, showing a synergic effect on Cr(+6) removal, presenting a good alternative for the removal of these metals from polluted aquifers. To the extent of our knowledge, this is the first report on both enhanced phytoextraction of Cr(+6) in presence of Cu(+2) and bioaccumulation of these heavy metals by P. pusillus. PMID:22230062

Monferrán, Magdalena V; Pignata, María L; Wunderlin, Daniel A

2012-02-01

31

Model evaluation of the phytoextraction potential of heavy metal hyperaccumulators and non-hyperaccumulators.  

PubMed

Evaluation of the remediation ability of zinc/cadmium in hyper- and non-hyperaccumulator plant species through greenhouse studies is limited. To bridge the gap between greenhouse studies and field applications for phytoextraction, we used published data to examine the partitioning of heavy metals between plants and soil (defined as the bioconcentration factor). We compared the remediation ability of the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri and the non-hyperaccumulators Nicotiana tabacum and Brassica juncea using a hierarchical linear model (HLM). A recursive algorithm was then used to evaluate how many harvest cycles were required to clean a contaminated site to meet Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Despite the high bioconcentration factor of both hyperaccumulators, metal removal was still limited because of the plants' small biomass. Simulation with N. tabacum and the Cadmium model suggests further study and development of plants with high biomass and improved phytoextraction potential for use in environmental cleanup. PMID:19268408

Liang, Hong-Ming; Lin, Ting-Hsiang; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Yeh, Kuo-Chen

2009-06-01

32

Phytotoxicity of biosolids and screening of selected plant species with potential for mercury phytoextraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mercury contaminated stockpiles of biosolids (3.5–8.4mgkg?1 Hg) from Melbourne Water's Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP) were investigated to evaluate the possibility for their phytoremediation. Nine plant species (Atriplex codonocarpa, Atriplex semibaccata, Austrodanthonia caespitosa, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Gypsophila paniculata, Sorghum bicolor, Themeda triandra and Trifolium subterraneum) were screened for phytoextraction potential in Hg-contaminated biosolids from MW-WTP. In addition, the same plant

Cristina Lomonte; Augustine I. Doronila; David Gregory; Alan J. M. Baker; Spas D. Kolev

2010-01-01

33

Humic Acid Addition Enhances B and Pb Phytoextraction by Vetiver Grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation is an attractive, economic alternative to soil removal and burial methods to remediate contaminated soil.\\u000a However, it is also a slow process. The effect of humic acid in enhancing B and Pb phytoextraction from contaminated soils\\u000a was studied (pot experiment) using transplanted vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash). Boron was applied at 0, 45, 90 and 180 kg B ha?1

Ilker Angin; Metin Turan; Quirine M. Ketterings; Avni Cakici

2008-01-01

34

Phytoextraction and Accumulation of Lead from Contaminated Soil by Vetiver Grass: Laboratory and Simulated Field Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soil-culture study was conducted to investigate the phytoextraction of lead (Pb) in two species of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides and V. nemoralis) irrigated with an increasing level of Pb(NO3)2 (5, 7, 9 and 11 g L-1) for 12 weeks. In a laboratory study, the removalof lead from soil was correlated with lead accumulation by roots and shoots of both

S. Chantachon; M. Kruatrachue; P. Pokethitiyook; S. Upatham; S. Tantanasarit; V. Soonthornsarathool

2004-01-01

35

Model evaluation of the phytoextraction potential of heavy metal hyperaccumulators and non-hyperaccumulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of the remediation ability of zinc\\/cadmium in hyper- and non-hyperaccumulator plant species through greenhouse studies is limited. To bridge the gap between greenhouse studies and field applications for phytoextraction, we used published data to examine the partitioning of heavy metals between plants and soil (defined as the bioconcentration factor). We compared the remediation ability of the Zn\\/Cd hyperaccumulators Thlaspi

Hong-Ming Liang; Ting-Hsiang Lin; Jeng-Min Chiou; Kuo-Chen Yeh

2009-01-01

36

Effects of humic acids on phytoextraction of Cu and Cd from sediment by Elodea nuttallii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth and metal-accumulation of Elodea nuttallii exposed to Cu and Cd-contaminated sediment were examined and the effects of humic acids on phytoextraction of Cu and Cd were also investigated. The growth of plants were promoted with the increasing concentration of Cu in sediment, while inhibited by Cd during the 21d exposure. The concentrations of Cu in roots and shoots of

Qian Wang; Zhu Li; Shuiping Cheng; Zhenbin Wu

2010-01-01

37

Measurement of in situ phytoextraction of zinc by spontaneous metallophytes growing on a former smelter site  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was undertaken to measure the in situ phytoextraction of zinc using a former zinc-smelter site where metallophyte plants have been growing for 30 years. The site exhibited a gradient in the total metal concentration in the upper horizon (from 3230 to 8530 mg Zn kg?1). Soils were sampled from four different sectors (I–IV), and plant shoots were harvested,

Christophe Schwartz; Emilie Gérard; Karen Perronnet; Jean Louis Morel

2001-01-01

38

Heavy metal phytoextraction by Sedum alfredii is affected by continual clipping and phosphorus fertilization amendment.  

PubMed

Improving the efficacy of phytoextraction is critical for its successful application in metal contaminated soils. Mineral nutrition affects plant growth and metal absorption and subsequently the accumulation of heavy metal through hyper-accumulator plants. This study assessed the effects of di-hydrogen phosphates (KH2PO4, Ca(H2PO4)2, NaH2PO4 and NH4H2PO4) application at three levels (22, 88 and 352 mg P/kg soil) on Sedum alfredii growth and metal uptake by three consecutive harvests on aged and Zn/Cd combined contaminated paddy soil. The addition of phosphates (P) significantly increased the amount of Zn taken up by S. alfredii due to increased shoot Zn concentration and dry matter yield (DMY) (P < 0.05). The highest phytoextraction of Zn and Cd was observed in KH2PO4 and NH4H2PO4 treatment at 352 mg P/kg soil. The amount of Zn removed by phytoextraction increased in the order of 1st clipping < 2nd clipping < 3rd clipping, and for Cd extraction the order was 2nd clipping < 1st clipping < 3rd clipping. These results indicate that the application of P fertilizers coupled with multiple cuttings can enhance the removal of Zn and Cd from contaminated soils by S. alfredii, thus shortening the time needed for accomplishing remediation goals. PMID:22655349

Huang, Huagang; Li, Tingqiang; Gupta, D K; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiao-E; Ni, Bingnan; Li, Mao

2012-01-01

39

RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. uring the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium,...

40

Phytoextraction potential of two Rumex acetosa L. accessions collected from metalliferous and non-metalliferous sites: effect of fertilization.  

PubMed

Metal tolerance and phytoextraction potential of two common sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.) accessions, collected from a Pb/Zn contaminated site (CS, Lanestosa) and an uncontaminated site (UCS, Larrauri), were studied in fertilized and non-fertilized pots prepared by combining soil samples from both sites in different proportions (i.e., 0%, 33%, 66% and 100% of Lanestosa contaminated soil). The original metalliferous mine soil contained 20480, 4950 and 14 mg kg(-1) of Zn, Pb and Cd, respectively. The microcosm experiment was carried out for two months under greenhouse controlled conditions. It was found that fertilization increased mean plant biomass of both accessions as well as their tolerance. However, only the CS accession survived all treatments even though its biomass decreased proportionally according to the percentage of contaminated mine soil present in the pots. This metallicolous accession would be useful for the revegetation and phytostabilization of mine soils. Due to its high concentration and bioavailability in the contaminated soil, the highest values of metal phytoextracted corresponded to Zn. The CS accession was capable of efficiently phytoextracting metal from the 100% mine soil, indeed reaching very promising phytoextraction rates in the fertilized pots (6.8 mg plant(-1) month(-1)), similar to the ones obtained with hyperaccumulator plants. It was concluded that fertilization is certainly worth being considered for phytoextraction and revegetation with native plants from metalliferous soils. PMID:18951609

Barrutia, O; Epelde, L; García-Plazaola, J I; Garbisu, C; Becerril, J M

2009-01-01

41

Phytosiderophore effects on subsurface actinide contaminants: potential for phytostabilization and phytoextraction.  

SciTech Connect

In recognition of the need for a safe, effective technology for long term Pu/Th/Actinide stabilization or removal from soils, we have begun an investigation of the potential for phytoremediation (phytostabilization and/or phytoextraction) of Pu and other actinide soil contaminants at DOE sites using phytosiderophore producing plants, and are investigating the contribution of phytosiderophores to actinide mobility in the subsurface environment. Phytoremediation and Phytostabilization have been proven to be a cost-effective, safe, efficient, and publicly acceptable technology for clean up and/or stabilization of contaminant metals . However, no phyto-based technologies have been developed for stabilization or removal of plutonium from soils and groundwater, and very few have been investigated for other actinides . Current metal-phytostabilization and phytoremediation techniques, predominately based around lead, nickel, and other soft-metal phytoextraction, will almost certainly be inadequate for plutonium due its distinct chemical properties . Phytosiderophore-based phytoremediation may provide technically and financially practical methods for remediation and long-term stewardship of soils that have low to moderate, near surface actinide contamination . We plan to demonstrate potential benefits of phytosiderophore-producing plants for long-term actinide contaminant stabilization by the plant's prevention of soil erosion and actinide migration through hydraulic control and/or through actinide removal through phytoextraction . We may also show possible harm caused by these plants through increased presence of actinide chelators that could increase actinide mobilization and migration in the subsurface environment. This information can then be directly applied by either removal of harmful plants, or be used to develop plant-based soil stabilization/remediation technologies .

Ruggiero, C. E. (Christy E.); Twary, S. N. (Scott N.); Deladurantaye, E. (Elise)

2003-01-01

42

A feasibility study of perennial/annual plant species to restore soils contaminated with heavy metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study was carried out to evaluate the application of perennial/annual plant species in a phytoextraction process of a previously washed industrial urban soil contaminated by nickel, arsenic and cupper. The plant species selected for this study were Ipomea (Ipomea variada); grass (Poa pratensis); grass mixture (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum sp.); Monks Cress (Tropaeolum majus); ficus (Ficus benajamina) and fern (Pteris cretica). Soil was characterized and it presented the following heavy metals concentrations (dry weight): 80 mg of Ni/kg, 456-656 mg of As/kg and 1684-3166 mg of Cu/kg. Germination and survival in contaminated soil tests were conducted, from these, P. pratensis was discarded and the rest of plant species tested were used for the phytoextraction selection test. After 4 months of growth, biomass production was determined, and content of Ni, As and Cu was analyzed in plant’s tissue. Metal biological absorption coefficient (BAC), bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were calculated. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, an inhibition of the plant growth compared with blanks sown in a non contaminated soil; inhibition ranged from 22.5% for the Monk cress to 98% for Ipomea. Even though the later presented high BAC, BCF and TF, its growth was severely inhibited, and therefore, due its low biomass generation, it is not recommended for phytoextraction under conditions for this study. Heavy metals concentrations in plant’s tissue (dry weight) were as high as 866 mg Cu/kg and 602 mg As/kg for grass mixture; and 825 mg As/kg was observed for Monks cress. Grass mixture and monks cress had high BAC, BCF and TF, also they had high metal concentrations in its plants tissues and the lowest growth inhibition rates; hence the application in phytoextraction processes of these plants is advisable.

Zacarías, Montserrat; Beltrán, Margarita; Gilberto Torres, Luis; González, Abelardo

43

Effects of Metal Phytoextraction Practices on the Indigenous Community of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi at a Metal-Contaminated Landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoextraction involves use of plants to remove toxic metals from soil. We examined the effects of phyto- extraction practices with three plant species (Silene vulgaris, Thlaspi caerulescens, and Zea mays) and a factorial variation of soil amendments (either an ammonium or nitrate source of nitrogen and the presence or absence of an elemental sulfur supplement) on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi

TERESA E. PAWLOWSKA; RUFUS L. CHANEY; MEL CHIN; IRIS CHARVAT

2000-01-01

44

Citric acid improves lead (pb) phytoextraction in brassica napus L. by mitigating pb-induced morphological and biochemical damages.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction is an environmentally friendly and a cost-effective strategy for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. However, lower bioavailability of some of the metals in polluted environments e.g. lead (Pb) is a major constraint of phytoextraction process that could be overcome by applying organic chelators. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to evaluate the role of citric acid (CA) in enhancing Pb phytoextraction. Brassica napus L. seedlings were grown in hydroponic media and exposed to various treatments of Pb (50 and 100?M) as alone or in combination with CA (2.5mM) for six weeks. Pb-induced damage in B. napus toxicity was evident from elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 that significantly inhibited plant growth, biomass accumulation, leaf chlorophyll contents and gas exchange parameters. Alternatively, CA application to Pb-stressed B. napus plants arrested lipid membrane damage by limiting MDA and H2O2 production and by improving antioxidant enzyme activities. In addition, CA significantly increased the Pb accumulation in B. napus plants. The study concludes that CA has a potential to improve Pb phytoextraction without damaging plant growth. PMID:25164201

Bilal Shakoor, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Hameed, Amjad; Farid, Mujahid; Hussain, Sabir; Yasmeen, Tahira; Najeeb, Ullah; Aslam Bharwana, Saima; Hasan Abbasi, Ghulam

2014-11-01

45

Comparison of EDTA and Citric Acid-Enhanced Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals in Artificially Metal Contaminated Soil by Typha Angustifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted to study the performance of EDTA and citric acid (CA) addition in improving phytoextraction of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Cr from artificially contaminated soil by T. angustifolia. T. angustifolia showed the remarkable resistance to heavy metal toxicity with no visual toxic symptom including chlorosis and necrosis when exposed to metal stress. EDTA-addition significantly reduced plant

Dawood Muhammad; Fei Chen; Jing Zhao; Guoping Zhang; Feibo Wu

2009-01-01

46

Optimisation de la phytoextraction : caractrisation et slection de bactries PGPB associes une plante hyperaccumulatrice de Zn et  

E-print Network

croissance végétale (PGPB pour Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria). Dans cette étude, nous proposons un to optimize Arabidopsis halleri phytoextraction is the inoculation of plant roots by plant growth promoting preferentially selected to be inoculated to Arabidopsis halleri root system. Bacteria effects on plant biomass

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

47

Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) seedlings for phytoextraction applications.  

PubMed

Mahogany, a high biomass fast-growing tropical tree, has recently garnered considerable interest for potential use in heavy metal phytoremediation. This study performed hydroponic experiments with Cd concentration gradients at concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, and 30 mg L(-1) to identify Cd accumulation and tolerance of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) seedlings as well as their potential for phytoextraction. Experimental results indicate that Cd inhibited mahogany seedling growth at the highest Cd exposure concentration (30 mg L(-1)). Nevertheless, this woody species demonstrated great potential for phytoextraction at Cd concentrations of 7.5 and 15 mg L(-1). The roots, twigs, and leaves had extremely large bioaccumulation factors at 10.3-65.1, indicating that the plant extracted large amounts of Cd from hydroponic solutions. Mahogany seedlings accumulated up to 154 mg kg(-1) Cd in twigs at a Cd concentration of 15 mg L(-1). Although Cd concentrations in leaves were <100 mg kg(-1), these concentrations markedly exceed the normal ranges for other plants. Due to the high biomass production and Cd uptake capacity of mahogany shoots, this plant is a potential candidate for remediating Cd-contaminated sites in tropical regions. PMID:21741155

Fan, Kui-Chu; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Wei; Lee, Hung-Lin; Hseu, Zeng-Yei

2011-10-01

48

Phytotoxicity of biosolids and screening of selected plant species with potential for mercury phytoextraction.  

PubMed

Mercury contaminated stockpiles of biosolids (3.5-8.4 mg kg(-1) Hg) from Melbourne Water's Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP) were investigated to evaluate the possibility for their phytoremediation. Nine plant species (Atriplex codonocarpa, Atriplex semibaccata, Austrodanthonia caespitosa, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Gypsophila paniculata, Sorghum bicolor, Themeda triandra and Trifolium subterraneum) were screened for phytoextraction potential in Hg-contaminated biosolids from MW-WTP. In addition, the same plant species were germinated and grown in two other substrates (i.e. potting mix and potting mix spiked with mercury(II)). Growth measurements and the mercury uptake for all three substrates were compared. Some plant species grown in potting mix spiked with mercury(II) grew more vigorously than in the other two substrates and showed higher levels of sulphur in their tissues. These results suggested that the mercury stress activated defence mechanisms and it was hypothesised that this was the likely reason for the enhanced production of sulphur compounds in the plant species studied which stimulated their growth. Some species did not grow in biosolids because of the combined effect of high mercury toxicity and high salt content. Atriplex conodocarpa and Australodanthonia caespitose proved to be the most suitable candidates for mercury phytoextraction because of their ability to translocate mercury from roots to the above-ground tissues. PMID:19775810

Lomonte, Cristina; Doronila, Augustine I; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Kolev, Spas D

2010-01-15

49

Phytoextraction and uptake patterns of weathered polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soils using three perennial weed species.  

PubMed

Three promising phytoextracting perennial weed species [ L. (ox-eye daisy), L. (curly dock), and L. (Canada goldenrod)] were planted in monoculture plots at two polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sites in southern Ontario and followed over 2 yr to investigate the effects of plant age, contaminant characteristics, and species-specific properties on PCB uptake and accumulation patterns in plant tissues. Results from this study indicate that, for each of these weed species, shoot contaminant concentrations and total biomass are dependent on plant age and life cycle (vegetative and reproductive stages), which affects the total amount of PCBs phytoextracted on a per-plant basis. Even at suboptimal planting densities of 3 to 5 plants m, all three weed species extracted a greater quantity of PCBs per unit area (4800-10,000 ?g m) than the known PCB-accumulator L. ssp (cv Howden pumpkins) (1500-2100 ?g m) at one of the two sites. Calculated PCB extractions based on theoretical optimal planting densities were significantly higher at both sites and illustrate the potential of these weeds for site remediation. This study also demonstrates that plants may accumulate PCBs along the stem length in a similar manner as plants. PMID:22031570

Ficko, Sarah A; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

2011-01-01

50

Symbiotic role of Glomus mosseae in phytoextraction of lead in vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)].  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) has limited solubility in the soil environment owing to complexation with various soil components. Although total soil Pb concentrations may be high at a given site, the fraction of soluble Pb that plants can extract is very small, which is the major limiting factor for Pb phytoremediation. The symbiotic effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus mosseae was examined on growth and phytoextraction of lead (Pb) by vetiver grass [Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.)]. A hydroponic study, Phase I (0, 1, 2, and 4mM Pb) was conducted followed by an incubation pot study, Phase II (0, 400, 800, and 1200 mg kg(-1) Pb) where vetiver plants were colonized with G. mosseae. The results obtained indicate that plants colonized by the AM fungi not only exhibit better growth (increase in plant biomass), but also significantly increase Pb uptake in root and higher translocation to the shoot at all given treatments. Moreover, plants colonized with AM fungi had higher chlorophyll content and reduced levels of low molecular weight thiols, indicating the ability to better tolerate metal-induced stress. Results from this study indicate that vetiver plants in association with AM fungi can be used for improved phytoextraction of Pb from contaminated soil. PMID:20061082

Punamiya, Pravin; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Barber, Summer; Patel, Mandakini; Das, Padmini

2010-05-15

51

Effects of humic acids on phytoextraction of Cu and Cd from sediment by Elodea nuttallii.  

PubMed

Growth and metal-accumulation of Elodea nuttallii exposed to Cu and Cd-contaminated sediment were examined and the effects of humic acids on phytoextraction of Cu and Cd were also investigated. The growth of plants were promoted with the increasing concentration of Cu in sediment, while inhibited by Cd during the 21d exposure. The concentrations of Cu in roots and shoots of E. nuttallii ranged 25-99mgkg(-1) dry weight (DW) and 23-83mgkg(-1)DW under different concentration of Cu treatments in sediment at the end of exposure, and they were 0-6.5mgkg(-1)DW and 0-7.9mgkg(-1)DW for Cd, respectively. With addition of humic acids from 3.0 to 7.8gkg(-1)DW, the bioavailability of heavy metals in the sediment were reduced significantly, therefore, the accumulation of Cd was inhibited and the Cd concentrations in roots and shoots of plants decreased. However, as the result of release Cu from sediment into water column with addition of humic acids, and E. nuttallii could uptake Cu from water directly, the Cu concentrations in roots and shoots in plant increased 26-69% and 40-78%, respectively. In conclusion, E. nuttallii could be suitable for remedying Cu and Cd-contaminated sediment in situ as a pioneer species, but for phytoextraction of Cd, the application of humic acids should be careful. PMID:19959204

Wang, Qian; Li, Zhu; Cheng, Shuiping; Wu, Zhenbin

2010-01-01

52

Influence of a biodegradable ([S,S]-EDDS) and nondegradable (EDTA) chelate and hydrogel modified soil water sorption capacity on Pb phytoextraction and leaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic chelates, such as ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), have been shown to enhance phytoextraction of Pb from contaminated soil but also cause leaching of heavy metal-chelate complexes, posing a groundwater contamination threat. In a soil column study, we examined the effect of EDTA and a biodegradable chelate [S,S] isomere of ethylene diamine disuccinate ([S,S]-EDDS), newly introduced in phytoextraction research,

B. Kos; D. Le tan

2003-01-01

53

Task 3: PNNL Visit by JAEA Researchers to Participate in TODAM Code Applications to Fukushima Rivers and to Evaluate the Feasibility of Adaptation of FLESCOT Code to Simulate Radionuclide Transport in the Pacific Ocean Coastal Water Around Fukushima  

SciTech Connect

Four JAEA researchers visited PNNL for two weeks in February, 2013 to learn the PNNL-developed, unsteady, one-dimensional, river model, TODAM and the PNNL-developed, time-dependent, three dimensional, coastal water model, FLESCOT. These codes predict sediment and contaminant concentrations by accounting sediment-radionuclide interactions, e.g., adsorption/desorption and transport-deposition-resuspension of sediment-sorbed radionuclides. The objective of the river and coastal water modeling is to simulate • 134Cs and 137Cs migration in Fukushima rivers and the coastal water, and • their accumulation in the river and ocean bed along the Fukushima coast. Forecasting the future cesium behavior in the river and coastal water under various scenarios would enable JAEA to assess the effectiveness of various on-land remediation activities and if required, possible river and coastal water clean-up operations to reduce the contamination of the river and coastal water, agricultural products, fish and other aquatic biota. PNNL presented the following during the JAEA visit to PNNL: • TODAM and FLESCOT’s theories and mathematical formulations • TODAM and FLESCOT model structures • Past TODAM and FLESCOT applications • Demonstrating these two codes' capabilities by applying them to simple hypothetical river and coastal water cases. • Initial application of TODAM to the Ukedo River in Fukushima and JAEA researchers' participation in its modeling. PNNL also presented the relevant topics relevant to Fukushima environmental assessment and remediation, including • PNNL molecular modeling and EMSL computer facilities • Cesium adsorption/desorption characteristics • Experiences of connecting molecular science research results to macro model applications to the environment • EMSL tour • Hanford Site road tour. PNNL and JAEA also developed future course of actions for joint research projects on the Fukushima environmental and remediation assessments.

Onishi, Yasuo

2013-03-29

54

Variation in copper and zinc tolerance and accumulation in 12 willow clones: implications for phytoextraction.  

PubMed

Willows (Salix spp.) have shown high potential for the phytoextraction of heavy metals. This study compares variations in copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) tolerance and accumulation potential among 12 willow clones grown in a nutrient solution treated with 50 ?mol/L of Cu or Zn, respectively. The results showed differences in the tolerance and accumulation of Cu and Zn with respect to different species/clones. The biomass variation among clones in response to Cu or Zn exposure ranged from the stimulation of growth to inhibition, and all of the clones tested showed higher tolerance to Cu than to Zn. The clones exhibited less variation in Cu accumulation but larger variation in Zn accumulation. Based on translocation factors, it was found that most of the Cu was retained in the roots and that Zn was more mobile than Cu for all clones. It is concluded that most willow clones are good accumulators of Zn and Cu. PMID:25183033

Yang, Wei-dong; Wang, Yu-yan; Zhao, Feng-liang; Ding, Zhe-li; Zhang, Xin-cheng; Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

2014-09-01

55

Variation in copper and zinc tolerance and accumulation in 12 willow clones: implications for phytoextraction*  

PubMed Central

Willows (Salix spp.) have shown high potential for the phytoextraction of heavy metals. This study compares variations in copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) tolerance and accumulation potential among 12 willow clones grown in a nutrient solution treated with 50 ?mol/L of Cu or Zn, respectively. The results showed differences in the tolerance and accumulation of Cu and Zn with respect to different species/clones. The biomass variation among clones in response to Cu or Zn exposure ranged from the stimulation of growth to inhibition, and all of the clones tested showed higher tolerance to Cu than to Zn. The clones exhibited less variation in Cu accumulation but larger variation in Zn accumulation. Based on translocation factors, it was found that most of the Cu was retained in the roots and that Zn was more mobile than Cu for all clones. It is concluded that most willow clones are good accumulators of Zn and Cu. PMID:25183033

Yang, Wei-dong; Wang, Yu-yan; Zhao, Feng-liang; Ding, Zhe-li; Zhang, Xin-cheng; Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

2014-01-01

56

Chromium phytoextraction from tannery effluent-contaminated soil by Crotalaria juncea infested with Pseudomonas fluorescens.  

PubMed

The aim of present study was to remediate chromium (Cr)-contaminated soil by Crotalaria juncea in the presence of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Inoculation of P. fluorescens in pot soil grown with C. juncea significantly increased (~2-fold) the water-soluble (Ws) and exchangeable (Ex) Cr contents in contaminated soil under greenhouse condition. It also enhanced the chlorophyll content by 92 % and plant biomass by 99 % as compared to the uninoculated C. juncea plant. The analysis showed that root and shoot uptake of Cr in C. juncea inoculated by P. fluorescens was 3.08- and 2.82-fold, respectively. This research showed that the association of C. juncea and P. fluorescens could be a promising technology for increasing the soil Cr bioavailability and plant growth for successful phytoextraction of Cr from the contaminated soil. PMID:24659403

Agarwal, Anamika; Singh, Harminder Pal; Rai, J P N

2014-07-01

57

Chelant-assisted phytoextraction and accumulation of Zn by Zea mays.  

PubMed

Zea mays plants were exposed to soils with concentrations of Zn ranging from 64 to 1800 mg kg(-1) dw, and the efficiency of three selected chelating agents (trisodium citrate (CI), disodium oxalate (OX) and disodium dihydrogen ethylene-diamine-tetraacetate (EDTA)) in enhancing metal phytoextraction was compared. Zn concentration in plant tissues increased in conjunction with the metal concentration of the soil. EDTA was found to be the most efficient chelating amendment, increasing concentrations of Zn in shoots from 88 mg kg(-1) dw, at 64 mg kg(-1) dw soil, to 8026 mg kg(-1) dw at 1800 mg kg(-1) dw soil. The overall orders of BCFs and TFs which resulted from this study are: EDTA > H2O > OX > CI, and EDTANa2 > OX > CI > H2O, respectively. The more effective uptake of Zn by plants for the control treatment (distilled water only) than for CI and OX was attributed to the neutral or slightly alkaline pH of the two chelant irrigation solutions. Instead, EDTA had a favorable effect on Zn uptake from soil due to its additive chelating and acidifying properties. Among the three chelants, only EDTA significantly increased the Zn phytoextraction potential of Z. mays, while CI and OX induced a low metal uptake from soil by plants. Although Z. mays has a lower Zn accumulation capacity than the hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens, it could be considered as a potential phytoremediator of soils with elevated Zn concentrations, especially when metal pollution extends to depths greater than 20 cm. PMID:23845956

Gheju, M; Stelescu, I

2013-10-15

58

Enhancement of Cd phytoextraction by two Amaranthus species with endophytic Rahnella sp. JN27.  

PubMed

Microbe-assisted phytoextraction shows a potential for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The aim of this study was to isolate, characterize, and evaluate the potential of endophytic bacteria in improving plant growth and metal uptake by Cd-hyperaccumulators-Amaranthus hypochondriacus and Amaranthus mangostanus. An endophytic bacterial strain JN27 isolated from roots of Zea mays displayed high tolerance and mobilization to Cd, and was identified as Rahnella sp. based on 16S rDNA sequencing. The strain also exhibited multiple plant growth beneficial features including the production of indole-3-acetic acid, siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase and solubilization of insoluble phosphate. Subsequently, a pot trial was performed to elucidate the effects of inoculation with JN27 on plant growth and Cd uptake by A. hypochondriacus, A. mangostanus, Solanum nigrum and Z. mays grown in soils with different levels of Cd (25, 50, 100 mg Cd kg(-1)). The results revealed that inoculation with JN27 significantly increased the biomasses of all the tested plants and the Cd concentrations of all the tested plants except Z. mays in both above-ground and root tissues. Moreover, strain JN27 could successfully re-colonized in rhizosphere soils of all the tested plants and root interior of A. hypochondriacus and Z. mays. The present results indicated that the symbiont of A. hypochondriacus (or A. mangostanus) and strain JN27 can effectively improve the Cd uptake by plants and would be a new strategy in microbe-assisted phytoextraction for metal-contaminated soils. PMID:24314897

Yuan, Ming; He, Huaidong; Xiao, Li; Zhong, Ting; Liu, Hui; Li, Shubin; Deng, Peiyan; Ye, Zhihong; Jing, Yuanxiao

2014-05-01

59

Phytoextraction potential of two Rumex acetosa L. accessions collected from metalliferous and non-metalliferous sites: Effect of fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal tolerance and phytoextraction potential of two common sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.) accessions, collected from a Pb\\/Zn contaminated site (CS, Lanestosa) and an uncontaminated site (UCS, Larrauri), were studied in fertilized and non-fertilized pots prepared by combining soil samples from both sites in different proportions (i.e., 0%, 33%, 66% and 100% of Lanestosa contaminated soil). The original metalliferous mine soil

O. Barrutia; L. Epelde; J. I. García-Plazaola; C. Garbisu; J. M. Becerril

2009-01-01

60

The effects of arsenic and induced-phytoextraction methods on photosynthesis in Pteris species with different arsenic-accumulating abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) accumulation and photosynthesis occur simultaneously in plants under As exposure. We investigated the effects of As and induced-phytoextraction methods on photosynthesis in two As hyperaccumulators (Pteris vittata and Pteris cretica var. nervosa) and two non-hyperaccumulators (Pteris semipinnata and Pteris ensiformis) under soil culture conditions. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (the maximum [Fv\\/Fm] and actual quantum efficiency [FPSII]) and the activities

Hong-Bin Wang; Fei Xie; Yan-Zhuo Yao; Bin Zhao; Qing-Qing Xiao; Yi-Hong Pan; Hai-Juan Wang

61

Cadmium Phytoextraction Efficiency of Arum ( Colocasia antiquorum ), Radish ( Raphanus sativus L.) and Water Spinach ( Ipomoea aquatica ) Grown in Hydroponics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection of a phytoextraction plant with high Cd accumulation potential based on compatibility with mechanized cultivation\\u000a practice and local environmental conditions may provide more benefits than selection based mainly on high Cd tolerance plants.\\u000a In this hydroponics study, the potential of Cd accumulation by three plant species; arum (Colocasia antiquorum), radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) were

Bal Ram Singh; S M Imamul Huq; Shigenao Kawai

2008-01-01

62

Comparison of EDTA-enhanced phytoextraction and phytostabilisation strategies with Lolium perenne on a heavy metal contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Phytoremediation is a promising and cost-effective strategy to manage heavy metal polluted sites. In this experiment, we compared simultaneously phytoextraction and phytostabilisation techniques on a Cd and Zn contaminated soil, through monitoring of plant accumulation and leaching. Lolium perenne plants were cultivated for 2 months under controlled environmental conditions in a 27.6 dm(3)-pot experiment allowing the collect of leachates. The heavy metal phytoextraction was promoted by adding Na-EDTA (0.5 g kg(-1) of soil) in watering solution. Phytostabilisation was assessed by mixing soil with steel shots (1%) before L. perenne sowing. Presence of plants exacerbated heavy metal leaching, by improving soil hydraulic conductivity. Use of EDTA for phytoextraction led to higher concentration of heavy metal in shoots. However, this higher heavy metal extraction was insufficient to satisfactory reduce the heavy metal content in soil, and led to important heavy metal leaching induced by EDTA. On the other hand, addition of steel shots efficiently decreased both Cd and Zn mobility, according to 0.01 M CaCl(2) extraction, and leaching. However, improvement of growth conditions by steel shots led to higher heavy metal mass in shoot tissues. Therefore, soil heavy metal mobility and plant metal uptake are not systematically positively correlated. PMID:21839490

Lambrechts, Thomas; Gustot, Quentin; Couder, Eléonore; Houben, David; Iserentant, Anne; Lutts, Stanley

2011-11-01

63

Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides  

E-print Network

Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-08-04

64

Effect of compost and biodegradable chelate addition on phytoextraction of copper by Oenothera picensis grown in Cu-contaminated acid soils.  

PubMed

Oenothera picensis plants (Fragrant Evening Primrose) grow in the acid soils contaminated by Cu smelting in the coastal region of central Chile. We evaluated the effects of compost, at application rate of 5 kg m(-2), and biodegradable chelate MGDA (methylglycinediacetic acid), at application rate of 6 mmol plant(-1), on Cu phytoextraction by O. picensis, in field plots. No significant differences were found between treatments regarding aboveground biomass, shoot Cu concentrations and Cu phytoextraction of O. picensis. This lack of effects of the treatments was provoked by the large variability of soil properties, prior to applying of the treatments. The shoot Cu concentration in O. picensis positively and significantly correlated to exchangeable Cu concentration in the soil. Likewise, the aboveground biomass of O. picensis positively and significantly correlated to soil organic matter content. The Cu phytoextraction by O. picensis, in turn, positively and significantly correlated to both variables, i.e. exchangeable Cu concentration and organic matter content. The average Cu phytoextraction was 1.1 mg plant(-1), which is equivalent to 90 g ha(-1) at planting rate of 8 plants m(-2). In the chelate treatment, Cu phytoextraction was 2.6±2.1 mg plant(-1), which is equivalent to 212±171 g ha(-1) at planting rate of 8 plants m(-2). PMID:24034893

González, Isabel; Neaman, Alexander; Cortés, Amparo; Rubio, Patricio

2014-01-01

65

Phytoextraction for clean-up of low-level uranium contaminated soil evaluated.  

PubMed

Spills in the nuclear fuel cycle have led to soil contamination with uranium. In case of small contamination just above release levels, low-cost yet sufficiently efficient remedial measures are recommended. This study was executed to test if low-level U contaminated sandy soil from a nuclear fuel processing site could be phytoextracted in order to attain the required release limits. Two soils were tested: a control soil (317 Bq 238U kg(-1)) and the same soil washed with bicarbonate (69 Bq 238U kg(-1)). Ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Melvina) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Vitasso) were used as test plants. The annual removal of soil activity by the biomass was less than 0.1%. The addition of citric acid (25 mmol kg(-1)) 1 week before the harvest increased U uptake up to 500-fold. With a ryegrass and mustard yield of 15,000 and 10,000 kg ha(-1), respectively, up to 3.5% and 4.6% of the soil activity could be removed annually by the biomass. With a desired activity reduction level of 1.5 and 5 for the bicarbonate-washed and control soil, respectively, it would take 10-50 years to attain the release limit. However, citric acid addition resulted in a decreased dry weight production. PMID:15162854

Vandenhove, H; Van Hees, M

2004-01-01

66

Ammonium thiosulphate enhanced phytoextraction from mercury contaminated soil--results from a greenhouse study.  

PubMed

According to the 'hard and soft' acid-base principle, mercury is a 'soft metal' and will preferentially form soluble chemical complexes with sulphur-containing ligands. In this work mercury uptake by Chenopodium glaucum L. growing on mercury-contaminated soil was promoted using ammonium thiosulphate. The relative geochemical fractionation of mercury in the soil was subsequently investigated as a function of plant growth with and without thiosulphate amendment. The results indicate that the solubility of mercury is significantly increased through the application of thiosulphate to the soil. Substantially higher mercury levels were found in C. glaucum L. treated with 2 g kg(-1) thiosulphate of soil when compared to the non-treated plants. Compared with initial soil, soluble and exchangeable fractions were increased both in planted and planted treated plants. However, no significant difference was observed between the soils of the planted and planted treated plants. The oxide-bound mercury concentration was significantly decreased for the planted soil (treated and non-treated) at the end of the experiment. Moreover, this fraction was highly correlated with the plant tissue mercury concentration. Taken together, thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction could be used to reduce environmental risk apparent for mercury-contaminated soil through reducing the oxide bound fractions, while managing the bioavailable fractions (compared with no treated plant). PMID:21122988

Wang, Jianxu; Feng, Xinbin; Anderson, Christopher W N; Qiu, Guangle; Ping, Li; Bao, Zhengduo

2011-02-15

67

Phytoextraction - thte use of plants to remove heavy metals from soils  

SciTech Connect

A small number of wild plants which grow on metal contaminated soil accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their roots and shoots. This property may be exploited for soil reclamation if an easily cultivated, high biomass crop plant able to accumulate heavy metals is identified. Therefore, the ability of various crop plants to accumulate Pb in shoots and roots was compared. While all crop Brassicas tested accumulated Pb, some cultivars of Brassica juncea (L). Czern. showed a strong ability to accumulate Pb in roots and to transport Pb to the shoots (108.3 mg Pb/g DW in the roots and 34.5 mg Pb/g DW in the shoots). B. juncea was also able to concentrate Cr{sup -6}, Cd, Ni, Zn, and Cu in the shoots 58, 52, 31, 17, and 7 fold, respectively, from a substrate containing sulfates and phosphates as fertilizers. The high metal accumulation by some cultivars of B. juncea suggests that these plants may be used to clean up toxic metal-contaminated sites in a process termed phytoextraction.

Raskin, I.; Kumar, P.B.A.N.; Dushenkov, V.; Motto, H. [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

68

Phytoextraction of As and Fe using Hibiscus cannabinus L. from soil polluted with landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Terrestrial plants as potential phytoremediators for remediation of surface soil contaminated with toxic metals have gained attention in clean-up technologies. The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) to offer a cost-effective mechanism to remediate Fe and As from landfill leachate-contaminated soil was investigated. Pot experiment employing soil polluted with treatments of Jeram landfill leachate was conducted for 120 days. Plants were harvested after 8th, 12th, and 16th weeks of growth. Accumulation of Fe and As was assessed based on Bioconcentration Factor and Translocation Factor. Results showed sequestration of 0.06-0.58 mg As and 66.82-461.71 mg Fe per g plant dry weight in kenaf root, which implies that kenaf root can be an bioavailable sink for toxic metals. Insignificant amount of Fe and As was observed in the aerial plant parts (< 12% of total bioavailable metals). The ability of kenaf to tolerate these metals and avoid phytotoxicity could be attributed to the stabilization of the metals in the roots and hence reduction of toxic metal mobility (TF < 1). With the application of leachate, kenaf was also found to have higher biomass and subsequently recorded 11% higher bioaccumulation capacity, indicating its suitability for phytoextraction of leachate contaminated sites. PMID:22567704

Meera, M; Agamuthu, P

2012-02-01

69

Production of Radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 1896 Henri Becquerel discovered natural radioactivity and in 1934 Frédéric Joliot and Irène Curie-Joliot discovered artificial\\u000a radioactivity. Most natural radionuclides are produced through one of four radioactive decay chains, each chain fed by a long-lived\\u000a and heavy parent radionuclide. The vast majority of currently known radionuclides, however, are man-made and artificially\\u000a produced through a process of nuclear activation which

Ervin B. Podgoršak

70

Effects of Metal Phytoextraction Practices on the Indigenous Community of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi at a Metal-Contaminated Landfill  

PubMed Central

Phytoextraction involves use of plants to remove toxic metals from soil. We examined the effects of phytoextraction practices with three plant species (Silene vulgaris, Thlaspi caerulescens, and Zea mays) and a factorial variation of soil amendments (either an ammonium or nitrate source of nitrogen and the presence or absence of an elemental sulfur supplement) on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes) at a moderately metal-contaminated landfill located in St. Paul, Minn. Specifically, we tested whether the applied treatments affected the density of glomalean spores and AM root colonization in maize. Glomalean fungi from the landfill were grouped into two morphotypes characterized by either light-colored spores (LCS) or dark-colored spores (DCS). Dominant species of the LCS morphotype were Glomus mosseae and an unidentified Glomus sp., whereas the DCS morphotype was dominated by Glomus constrictum. The density of spores of the LCS morphotype from the phytoremediated area was lower than the density of these spores in the untreated landfill soil. Within the experimental area, spore density of the LCS morphotype in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal maize was significantly higher than in rhizospheres of nonmycorrhizal S. vulgaris or T. caerulescens. Sulfur supplement increased vesicular root colonization in maize and exerted a negative effect on spore density in maize rhizosphere. We conclude that phytoextraction practices, e.g., the choice of plant species and soil amendments, may have a great impact on the quantity and species composition of glomalean propagules as well as on mycorrhiza functioning during long-term metal-remediation treatments. PMID:10831433

Pawlowska, Teresa E.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Chin, Mel; Charvat, Iris

2000-01-01

71

Effects of metal phytoextraction practices on the indigenous community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi at a metal-contaminated landfill.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction involves use of plants to remove toxic metals from soil. We examined the effects of phytoextraction practices with three plant species (Silene vulgaris, Thlaspi caerulescens, and Zea mays) and a factorial variation of soil amendments (either an ammonium or nitrate source of nitrogen and the presence or absence of an elemental sulfur supplement) on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes) at a moderately metal-contaminated landfill located in St. Paul, Minn. Specifically, we tested whether the applied treatments affected the density of glomalean spores and AM root colonization in maize. Glomalean fungi from the landfill were grouped into two morphotypes characterized by either light-colored spores (LCS) or dark-colored spores (DCS). Dominant species of the LCS morphotype were Glomus mosseae and an unidentified Glomus sp., whereas the DCS morphotype was dominated by Glomus constrictum. The density of spores of the LCS morphotype from the phytoremediated area was lower than the density of these spores in the untreated landfill soil. Within the experimental area, spore density of the LCS morphotype in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal maize was significantly higher than in rhizospheres of nonmycorrhizal S. vulgaris or T. caerulescens. Sulfur supplement increased vesicular root colonization in maize and exerted a negative effect on spore density in maize rhizosphere. We conclude that phytoextraction practices, e.g., the choice of plant species and soil amendments, may have a great impact on the quantity and species composition of glomalean propagules as well as on mycorrhiza functioning during long-term metal-remediation treatments. PMID:10831433

Pawlowska, T E; Chaney, R L; Chin, M; Charvat, I

2000-06-01

72

Selection of plants for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Remediation of soil contaminated with radionuclides typically requires that soil be removed from the site and treated with various dispersing and chelating chemicals. Numerous studies have shown that radionuclides are generally not leached from the top 0.4 meters of soil, where plant roots actively accumulate elements. Restoration of large areas of land contaminated with low levels of radionuclides may be feasible using phytoremediation. Criteria for the selection of plants for phytoremediation, molecular approaches to increase radio nuclide uptake, effects of cultural practices on uptake and assessment of environmental effects of phytoremediation will be discussed.

Entry J.A. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Vance, N.C. [PNW Research Station, Corvallis, OR (United States); Watrud, L.S. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1996-12-31

73

Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, March 20, 1997--June 19, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This laboratory has been involved in a collaborative project focusing on a range of issues related to the phytoremediation of heavy metal-and radionuclide- contaminated soils. While much of the research has been fundamental in nature, involving physiological and molecular characterizations of the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation in plants, the laboratory is also investigating more practical issues related to phytoremediation. A central issue in this latter research has been the identification of amendments capable of increasing the bioavailability and subsequent phytoextraction of radionuclides. The results described here detail these efforts for uranium and Cs-137. A study was also conducted on a Cs-137 contaminated site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which allowed application of the laboratory and greenhouse results to a field setting.

Kochian, L.

1997-11-01

74

Improvement of phytoextraction and antioxidative defense in Solanum nigrum L. under cadmium stress by application of cadmium-resistant strain and citric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remediation of plant–microorganism–chelates synergy has been proposed as an effective remediation method for enhancing the removal efficiency of heavy metal. Manipulation of the antioxidative system increases plant tolerance, thereby potentially enhancing the uptake capacity to heavy metal. In this study, we investigated the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd and the antioxidative defense of Solanum nigrum L. by application

Yang Gao; Chiyuan Miao; Liang Mao; Pei Zhou; Zhiguo Jin; Wanjun Shi

2010-01-01

75

Inoculation of Ni-Resistant Plant Growth Promoting Bacterium Psychrobacter sp. Strain SRS8 for the Improvement of Nickel Phytoextraction by Energy Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to elucidate effects of inoculating plant growth-promoting bacterium Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 on the growth and phytoextraction potential of energy crops Ricinus communis and Helianthus annuus in artificially Ni contaminated soils. The toxicity symptom in plants under Ni stress expressed as chlorophyll, protein content, growth inhibition, and Fe, P concentrations were studied, and the possible relationship among

Y. Ma; M. Rajkumar; J. A. F. Vicente; H. Freitas

2010-01-01

76

Field demonstration of age dependent increase in lead phytoextraction by Pelargonium cultivar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unnecessary for living organisms, lead (Pb) is one of the major widespread toxic metals found in the environment with potential danger to human health and to ecosystems (Shahid et al. 2012). Lead is known to induce a broad range of toxic effects to living organism, including those that are morphological, physiological and biochemical in origin (Pourrut et al. 2011). A field study was carried out in the vicinity of Pb recycling plant near Toulouse-France, and contaminated by atmospheric fallouts to evaluate lead extraction and uptake efficiency of hyperaccumulater Attar of Roses Pelargonium cultivar. It was found that Attar of Roses has ability to accumulate (8644 mgPb/kg DW plant) and survive on highly contaminated acidic soil (39250 mg kg-1 of total Pb) without any morpho-phytotoxicity symptoms. Moreover Attar showed increased extraction of lead from bulk soil to rhizosphere through Pb mobilization and ultimately increased uptake by roots and translocation to shoots. The studied contaminated soil could be cleaned up in few years by planting hyperaccumulater Attar of Rose for longer time period. Under optimum fertlization, irrigation and use of natural or synthetic chelates (EDTA, LMOWA, humic substances etc.) along with old Attar of rose plants, time requires for complete remediation of contaminated site can be reduced to practically applicable time period. Moreover, the use of Pelargonium for remediation has several additional practical, esthetical and economic advantages. The extraction of value-added essential oils from harvested biomass could offset the cost of deploying phytoremediation and renders it as a viable approach for remediating highly contaminated soils, on large scale. Keywords: metal uptake, Pelargonium, phytoremediation, cultivar, soil-plant transfer and kinetic. References Pourrut, B., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., Winterton, P., Pinelli, E., 2011a. Lead uptake, toxicity and detoxification in plants. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 213, 113-136. Shahid, M., Arshad, M., Kaemmerer, M., Pinelli, E., Probst, A., Baque, D., Pradere, P., Dumat, C., 2012a. Long term field metal extraction by pelargonium: Phytoextraction efficiency in relation with plant maturity. Inter. J. Phytorem. 14, 493-505.

Shahid, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric; Alric, Alain; Kaemmerer, Michel; Pradere, Philippe; Dumat, Camille

2013-04-01

77

Dosimetry of administered radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This volume provides the Proceedings of the Symposium on Dosimetry of Administered Radionuclides held September 21 and 22, 1989 in Washington DC. The sixteen individual presentations are indexed and abstracted separately for the database.

Adelstein, S.J.; Kassis, A.I. (eds.) (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Burt, R.W. (ed.) (Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, IN (United States))

1989-01-01

78

Biology of radionuclide therapy  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference entitled Biology of Radionuclide Therapy held in Washington September 29 and 30, 1988. The meeting is part of the Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium Series.

DeNardo, G.L.; Lewis, J.P. (eds.) (University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)); Raventos, A. (ed.) (Veterans Administration Hospital, Martinez, CA (United States)); Burt, R.W. (ed.) (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States))

1989-01-01

79

Commonly Encountered Radionuclides  

MedlinePLUS

... Which nuclides are radioactive? Unstable nuclides of any element can exist. However, almost all elements that are heavier than bismuth, which has 83 ... found in Superfund Sites. Please note : Where an element is listed rather than an individual radionuclide, the ...

80

Statistical Signal Processing for Radionuclide Alfred O. Hero  

E-print Network

with MRI/CT side information 5. Bounds and feasibility studies 1 #12;9 Single Photon Emission Computed: Lesions in left cortex #12;scintillator gamma rays pre-processing and control electronics 1st position nthStatistical Signal Processing for Radionuclide Tomography Alfred O. Hero Depts. EECS and Bio

Hero, Alfred O.

81

Enhancing phytoextraction: the effect of chemical soil manipulation on mobility, plant accumulation, and leaching of heavy metals.  

PubMed

For heavy metal-contaminated agricultural land, low-cost, plant-based phytoextraction measures can be a key element for a new land management strategy. When agents are applied into the soil, the solubility of heavy metals and their subsequent accumulation by plants can be increased, and, therefore, phytoextraction enhanced. An overview is given of the state of the art of enhancing heavy metal solubility in soils, increasing the heavy metal accumulation of several high-biomass-yielding and metal-tolerant plants, and the effect of these measures on the risk of heavy metal leaching. Several organic as well as inorganic agents can effectively and specifically increase solubility and, therefore, accumulation of heavy metals by several plant species. Crops like willow (Salix viminalis L.), Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.], corn (Zea mays L.), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) show high tolerance to heavy metals and are, therefore, to a certain extent able to use the surpluses that originate from soil manipulation. More than 100-fold increases of lead concentrations in the biomass of crops were reported, when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was applied to contaminated soils. Uranium concentrations could be strongly increased when citric acid was applied. Cadmium and zinc concentrations could be enhanced by inorganic agents like elemental sulfur or ammonium sulfate. However, leaching of heavy metals due to increased mobility in soils cannot be excluded. Thus, implementation on the field scale must consider measures to minimize leaching. So, the application of more than 1 g EDTA kg(-1) becomes inefficient as lead concentration in crops is not enhanced and leaching rate increases. Moreover, for large-scale applications, agricultural measures as placement of agents, dosage splitting, the kind and amount of agents applied, and the soil properties are important factors governing plant growth, heavy metal concentrations, and leaching rates. Effective prevention of leaching, breeding of new plant material, and use of the contaminated biomass (e.g., as biofuels) will be crucial for the acceptance and the economic breakthrough of enhanced phytoextraction. PMID:14674516

Schmidt, Ulrich

2003-01-01

82

Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides  

DOEpatents

In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

Harp, Richard J. (18746 Viking Way, Cerritos, CA 90701)

1990-01-01

83

Method and apparatus for Separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes apparatus for Separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides. It comprises: a reactor vessel including wall members defining a reactor chamber adapted to receive a mixture of the radionuclides and non-radionuclides in a solid or liquid phase; the radionuclides having temperatures of vaporization higher than a first temperature; the non-radionuclides having temperatures of vaporization lower than a second temperature; means for heating the mixture in the chamber to a temperature greater than the second temperature but less than the first temperature to drive the non-radionuclides to a vapor phase while retaining the radionuclides in a solid or liquid phase; and means for removing the vapors of the non-radionuclides from the chamber. Whereby substantially all of the non-radionuclides exist the chamber in a vapor phase while the radionuclides remain within the chamber in a solid or liquid phase. Also described is a method for disposing of radionuclides present in a mixture of non-radionuclides and radionuclides.

Harp, R.J.

1990-01-09

84

Model evaluation of plant metal content and biomass yield for the phytoextraction of heavy metals by switchgrass.  

PubMed

To better understand the ability of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial grass often relegated to marginal agricultural areas with minimal inputs, to remove cadmium, chromium, and zinc by phytoextraction from contaminated sites, the relationship between plant metal content and biomass yield is expressed in different models to predict the amount of metals switchgrass can extract. These models are reliable in assessing the use of switchgrass for phytoremediation of heavy-metal-contaminated sites. In the present study, linear and exponential decay models are more suitable for presenting the relationship between plant cadmium and dry weight. The maximum extractions of cadmium using switchgrass, as predicted by the linear and exponential decay models, approached 40 and 34 ?g pot(-1), respectively. The log normal model was superior in predicting the relationship between plant chromium and dry weight. The predicted maximum extraction of chromium by switchgrass was about 56 ?g pot(-1). In addition, the exponential decay and log normal models were better than the linear model in predicting the relationship between plant zinc and dry weight. The maximum extractions of zinc by switchgrass, as predicted by the exponential decay and log normal models, were about 358 and 254 ?g pot(-1), respectively. To meet the maximum removal of Cd, Cr, and Zn, one can adopt the optimal timing of harvest as plant Cd, Cr, and Zn approach 450 and 526 mg kg(-1), 266 mg kg(-1), and 3022 and 5000 mg kg(-1), respectively. Due to the well-known agronomic characteristics of cultivation and the high biomass production of switchgrass, it is practicable to use switchgrass for the phytoextraction of heavy metals in situ. PMID:22541831

Chen, Bo-Ching; Lai, Hung-Yu; Juang, Kai-Wei

2012-06-01

85

Phytoextraction and phytostabilization potential of plants grown in the vicinity of heavy metal-contaminated soils: a case study at an industrial town site.  

PubMed

With the development of urbanization and industrialization, soils have become increasingly polluted by heavy metals. Phytoremediation, an emerging cost-effective, nonintrusive, and aesthetically pleasing technology that uses the remarkable ability of plants to concentrate elements, can be potentially used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. In this research, two processes of phytoremediation (phytoextraction and phytostabilization) were surveyed in some plant species around an industrial town in the Hamedan Province in the central-western part of Iran. To this purpose, shoots and roots of the seven plant species and the associated soil samples were collected and analyzed by measuring Pb, Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn concentrations using ICP-AES and then calculating the biological absorption coefficient, bioconcentration factor, and translocation factor parameters for each element. The obtained results showed that among the collected plants, Salsola soda is the most effective species for phytoextraction and phytostabilization and Cirsium arvense has the potential for phytostabilization of the measured heavy metals. PMID:23856813

Lorestani, B; Yousefi, N; Cheraghi, M; Farmany, A

2013-12-01

86

Targeted Radionuclide Therapy  

PubMed Central

Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose. PMID:24213114

Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

2011-01-01

87

Evaluation of radionuclide transport: Effect of radionuclide sorption and solubility  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major factors involved in evaluating the suitability of the Columbia River basalts for the siting of a nuclear waste repository is the assessment of the ability of the basalt geohydrologic system to retard the transport of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Solubility limited release of radionuclides and sorption of radionuclides on basalt and its associated secondary minerals

P. F. Salter; G. K. Jacobs

1982-01-01

88

A study on genetic variability of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila strains and the varied responses of the strains towards phyto-extracts.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated genetic variation in Aeromonas hydrophila strains using PCR-RAPD and their varied susceptibility to phyto-extract. Four strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from skin infections of common freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio were characterized by various biochemical methods, physiological tests and PCR- RAPD. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of three medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum, Adathoda vasica and Calendula officinalis were tested against the four strains of A. hydrophila by disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. Antagonistic effects of leaf extracts against A. hydrophila strains were assessed by co-culture method. RAPD analysis showed that all the microbes isolated from skin infection belong to the same species but there was no 100% genetic similarity among them Dendrogram constructed by UPGMA clearly supported the PCR pattern of genetic variability among the strains. This study revealed that Aeromonas hydophila exhibits genetic variability and varied susceptibility towards phyto-extracts. Results indicated that phyto-extracts offers a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in controlling Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:24511738

Balasundaram, A; Kumari, P Rathna; Kolanchinathan, P; Masilamani, V; John, George

2013-11-01

89

Radionuclide imaging of infection.  

PubMed

Although our understanding of microorganisms has advanced significantly and antimicrobial therapy has become increasingly available, infection remains a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality. The role of radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of the patient suspected of harboring an infection varies with the situation. For example, in the postoperative patient, radionuclide imaging is complementary to CT and is used to help differentiate postoperative changes from infection. In the case of the painful joint replacement, in contrast, radionuclide studies are the primary diagnostic imaging modality for differentiating infection from other causes of prosthetic failure. Several tracers are available for imaging infection: (99m)Tc-diphosphonates, (67)Ga-citrate, and (111)In- and (99m)Tc-labeled leukocytes. At the moment, in immunocompetent patients, labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide procedure of choice for detecting most infections. There are, unfortunately, significant limitations to the use of labeled leukocytes. The in vitro labeling process is labor intensive, is not always available, and involves direct handling of blood products. For musculoskeletal infection, the need to frequently perform complementary marrow or bone imaging adds complexity and expense to the procedure and is an inconvenience to patients. Considerable effort has therefore been devoted to the search for alternatives to this procedure, including in vivo methods of labeling leukocytes, (18)F-FDG PET, and radiolabeled antibiotics. This article reviews the current status of nuclear medicine infection imaging and the potential of a murine monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody, fanolesomab, that is currently under investigation. Upon completion of this article, the reader will be familiar with the physical characteristics and uptake mechanisms of tracers currently approved for infection imaging, the indications for the uses of these tracers, and the characteristics and potential indications for a murine monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody under investigation. PMID:15175400

Love, Charito; Palestro, Christopher J

2004-06-01

90

Application of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria for enhancing bioavailability and phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) from polluted soil.  

PubMed

In this study, phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB), Bacillus megaterium, were used to enhance Cd bioavailability and phytoextractability of Cd from contaminated soils. This strain showed a potential for directly solubilizing phosphorous from soils more than 10 folds greater than the control without inoculation. The results of pot experiments revealed that inoculation with B. megaterium significantly increased the extent of Cd accumulation in Brassica juncea and Abutilon theophrasti by two folds relative to the uninoculated control. The maximum Cd concentrations due to inoculation were 1.6 and 1.8 mg Cd g(-1) plant for B. juncea and A. theophrasti after 10 wk, respectively. The total biomass of A. theophrasti was not significantly promoted by the inoculation treatment, yet the total biomass of B. juncea increased from 0.087 to 0.448 g. It is also worth to mention that B. juncea predominantly accumulates Cd in its stems (39%) whereas A. theophrasti accumulates it in its leaves (68%) after 10 wk. The change of the Cd speciation indicated that inoculation of B. megaterium as PSB increased the bioavailabilty of Cd and consequently enhanced its uptake by plants. The present study may provide a new insight for improving phytoremediation using PSB in the Cd-contaminated soils. PMID:22472099

Jeong, Seulki; Moon, Hee Sun; Nam, Kyoungphile; Kim, Jae Young; Kim, Tae Sung

2012-06-01

91

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

J.D. Schreiber

2005-08-25

92

Quantitative modeling of Cerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides.  

PubMed

There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and ? particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

Beattie, Bradley J; Thorek, Daniel L J; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Pentlow, Keith S; Humm, John L; Hielscher, Andreas H

2012-01-01

93

Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and ? particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

Beattie, Bradley J.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Schmidtlein, Charles R.; Pentlow, Keith S.; Humm, John L.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

2012-01-01

94

Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently studied radionuclides. (4) The biokinetics of a radionuclide in the human body typically represents the greatest source of uncertainty or variability in dose per unit intake. (5) Characterization of uncertainty in dose per unit exposure is generally a more straightforward problem for external exposure than for intake of a radionuclide. (6) For many radionuclides the most important outcome of a large-scale critical evaluation of databases and biokinetic models for radionuclides is expected to be the improvement of current models. Many of the current models do not fully or accurately reflect available radiobiological or physiological information, either because the models are outdated or because they were based on selective or uncritical use of data or inadequate model structures. In such cases the models should be replaced with physiologically realistic models that incorporate a wider spectrum of information.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2008-10-01

95

Greenhouse studies on the phyto-extraction capacity of Cynodon nlemfuensis for lead and cadmium under irrigation with treated wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over 30 years, discharge of sewage effluent and sludge on pasturelands has been used in Zimbabwe as a cheap method for secondary treatment of wastewater without any monitoring of accumulation of heavy metals in soils and grasses, let alone in animals grazing on the pastures. Cynodon nlemfuensis (star grass) has been the main grass planted on the wastewater irrigated pasturelands. This study was conducted to assess the capacity of star grass to accumulate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and develop models incorporating grass yield, metal uptake and soil bio-available (EDTA extractable) metal content, that could be used to determine critical grass and soil concentrations at which grass productivity declines. Star grass was planted in 30 fertilized pots containing sandy soil within a greenhouse. The pots consisted of nine treatments of varying levels of added inorganic Pb and Cd subjected to treated wastewater application and one control that had no added metals and received water application only. The elements were applied to the soils once just after planting the grass. Chemical analyses showed that star grass had a relatively high phyto-extraction capacity of Pb and Cd, comparable to that of hyper-accumulating grasses such as Lolium perenne (rye grass). It accumulated Pb and Cd to levels far beyond the recommended maximum limits for pasture grass. Analysis of variance on log-normal transformed data showed that bio-available soil metal concentrations correlated strongly with grass metal content and grass metal content correlated strongly with the yield. There was however a weak correlation between the yield and bio-available soil levels. The yield versus grass metal content models that were developed for the first crop and re-growth predicted similar critical metal concentrations and yields. Using the critical grass metal concentrations in the soil bio-available metal concentration versus grass metal concentration models allowed for the prediction of the corresponding critical soil concentrations.

Madyiwa, S.; Chimbari, M. J.; Schutte, C. F.; Nyamangara, J.

96

Bioaugmentation with cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to assist cadmium phytoextraction by Helianthus annuus.  

PubMed

Micrococcus sp. MU1 and Klebsiella sp. BAM1, the cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), produce high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the late stationary phase of their growth. The ability of PGPR to promote root elongation, plant growth and cadmium uptake in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) was evaluated. Both species of bacteria were able to remove cadmium ions from an aqueous solution and enhanced cadmium mobilization in contaminated soil. Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. use aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid as a nitrogen source to support their growth, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cadmium for Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. were 1000 and 800mM, respectively. These bacteria promoted root elongation in H. annuus seedlings in both the absence and presence of cadmium compared to uninoculated seedlings. Inoculation with these bacteria was found to increase the root lengths of H. annuus that had been planted in cadmium-contaminated soil. An increase in dry weight was observed for H. annuus inoculated with Micrococcus sp. Moreover, Micrococcus sp. enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the root and leaf of H. annuus compared to untreated plants. The highest cadmium accumulation in the whole plant was observed when the plants were treated with EDTA following the treatment with Micrococcus sp. In addition, the highest translocation of cadmium from root to the above-ground tissues of H. annuus was found after treatment with Klebsiella sp. in the fourth week after planting. Our results show that plant growth and cadmium accumulation in H. annuus was significantly enhanced by cadmium-resistant PGPRs, and these bacterial inoculants are excellent promoters of phytoextraction for the rehabilitation of heavy metal-polluted environments. PMID:23478127

Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Chanprasert, Maesinee; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

2013-07-01

97

14-plex Feasibility Report  

SciTech Connect

The Native Village of Unalakleet project was a feasibility study for a retrofit of a “tribally owned” three story, 14 apartment complex located in Unalakleet, Alaska. The program objective and overall goal was to create a plan for retrofitting to include current appraised value and comparable costs of new construction to determine genuine feasibility as low-income multi-family housing for tribal members.

Kotongan, Victoria Hazel [Native Village of Unalakleet

2013-06-21

98

Efficiency of biodegradable EDDS, NTA and APAM on enhancing the phytoextraction of cadmium by Siegesbeckia orientalis L. grown in Cd-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Chelant assisted phytoextraction has been proposed to enhance the efficiency of remediation. This study evaluated the effects of biodegradable ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDDS), nitrilotriacetic (NTA) and anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) on the tolerance and uptake of Siegesbeckia orientalis L. at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd-contaminated soils. On the 80th and 90th days of transplanting, pots were treated with EDDS and NTA at 0 (control), 1 and 2 mmol kg(-1) soils, and APAM at 0 (control), 0.07 and 0.14 g kg(-1). Generally, the root and shoot biomass of S. orientalis in all treatments reduced not significantly compared with the control, and the activities of peroxidase and catalase in leaves generally increased by the application of chelants (P<0.05). The concentrations of Cd in the shoots were increased significantly by addition of all chelants. As a result, the Cd accumulation of S. orientalis under treatments with higher dosages of the three chelants on the 80th day were 1.40-2.10-fold and 1.12-1.25-fold compared to control at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd, respectively. Under the addition of 2 mmol kg(-1) NTA on the 80th day, the highest metal extraction ratio reached 1.2% and 0.4% at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd soils, respectively. Therefore, the applications of EDDS, NTA and APAM may provide more efficient choices in chemical-enhanced phytoextraction. PMID:23466280

Lan, Jichuan; Zhang, Shirong; Lin, Haichuan; Li, Ting; Xu, Xiaoxun; Li, Yun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu

2013-05-01

99

Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees  

SciTech Connect

A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

Doepel, L.K.

1985-02-08

100

Biology of radionuclide therapy. Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference entitled Biology of Radionuclide Therapy held in Washington September 29 and 30, 1988. The meeting is part of the Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium Series.

DeNardo, G.L.; Lewis, J.P. [eds.] [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Raventos, A. [ed.] [Veterans Administration Hospital, Martinez, CA (United States); Burt, R.W. [ed.] [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

1989-12-31

101

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-09-30

102

Determination of radionuclides in environmental test items at CPHR: Traceability and uncertainty calculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information about how the laboratory of Centro de Protección e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Cuba establishes its traceability to the International System of Units for the measurement of radionuclides in environmental test items is presented. A comparison among different methodologies of uncertainty calculation, including an analysis of the feasibility of using the Kragten-spreadsheet approach, is shown. In the specific

J. Carrazana González; I. M. Fernández; E. Capote Ferrera; G. Rodríguez Castro

2008-01-01

103

Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides (153samarium-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and 89strontium) deliver high

Manfred Fischer; Willm U. Kampen

2012-01-01

104

Video instrumentation for radionuclide angiocardiography.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two types of videoscintiscopes for performing radioisotopic angiocardiography with a scintillation camera are described, and use of these instruments in performing clinical studies is illustrated. Radionuclide angiocardiography is a simple, quick and accurate procedure recommended as a screening test for patients with a variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions. When performed in conjunction with coronary arterial catheterization, dynamic radionuclide angiography may provide useful information about regional myocardial perfusion. Quantitative capabilities greatly enhance the potential of this diagnostic tool.

Kriss, J. P.

1973-01-01

105

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

106

Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of manganese and plant growth by alleviating the ultrastructural damages in Juncus effusus L.  

PubMed

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction by high biomass producing plant species enhances the removal of heavy metals from polluted environments. In this regard, Juncus effusus a wetland plant has great potential. This study evaluated the effects of elevated levels of manganese (Mn) on the vegetative growth, Mn uptake and antioxidant enzymes in J. effusus. We also studied the role of citric acid and EDTA on improving metal accumulation, plant growth and Mn toxicity stress alleviation. Three-week-old plantlets of J. effusus were subjected to various treatments in the hydroponics as: Mn (50, 100 and 500 microM) alone, Mn (500 microM) + citric acid (5 mM), and Mn (500 microM) + EDTA (5 mM). After 2 weeks of treatment, higher Mn concentrations significantly reduced the plant biomass and height. Both citric acid and EDTA restored the plant height as it was reduced at the highest Mn level. Only the citric acid (but not EDTA) was able to recover the plant biomass weight, which was also obvious from the microscopic visualization of mesophyll cells. There was a concentration dependent increase in Mn uptake in J. effusus plants, and relatively more deposition in roots compared to aerial parts. Although both EDTA and citric acid caused significant increase in Mn accumulation; however, the Mn translocation was enhanced markedly by EDTA. Elevated levels of Mn augmented the oxidative stress, which was evident from changes in the activities of antioxidative enzymes in plant shoots. Raised levels of lipid peroxidation and variable changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded under Mn stress. Electron microscopic images revealed several modifications in the plants at cellular and sub-cellular level due to the oxidative damage induced by Mn. Changes in cell shape and size, chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli and disruption of thylakoid were noticed. However, these plants showed a high degree of tolerance against Mn toxicity stress, and it removed substantial amounts of Mn from the media. The EDTA best enhanced the Mn uptake and translocation, while citric acid best recovered the plant growth. PMID:19541411

Najeeb, U; Xu, L; Ali, Shafaqat; Jilani, Ghulam; Gong, H J; Shen, W Q; Zhou, W J

2009-10-30

107

Radionuclide injury to the lung.  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

1984-01-01

108

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2012-09-24

109

The use of a biodegradable chelator for enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals by Festuca arundinacea from municipal solid waste compost and associated heavy metal leaching.  

PubMed

In a column experiment with horizontal permeable barriers, the effects of a biodegradable chelator-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) on the uptake of heavy metals from municipal solid waste (MSW) compost by Festuca arundinacea and metal leaching were investigated. The use of NTA was effective in increasing Cu, Pb, and Zn uptakes in shoots of two crops of F. arundinacea. In columns with barriers and treated with 20 mmol NTA per kg MSW compost, metal uptakes by the first and second crop of F. arundinacea were, respectively, 3.8 and 4.0 times for Pb, and 1.8 and 1.7 times for Zn greater with the added NTA than without it. Though NTA application mobilized metals, it caused only slight leaching of metals from MSW compost. Permeable barriers positioned between compost and soil effectively reduced metal leaching. NTA-assisted phytoextraction by turfgrass with permeable barriers to cleanup heavy metal contaminated MSW compost should be environmentally safe. PMID:23247507

Zhao, Shulan; Jia, Lina; Duo, Lian

2013-02-01

110

Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods  

DOEpatents

Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-03-08

111

REP Concept Feasibility Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) may have the potential to provide certain advantages, over conventional chemical propulsion, for outer planetary exploration involving small bodies and long term investigations for medium class missions requiring power comparable to past outer planetary exploration missions. This paper describes a study that investigates the concept s feasibility by performing a preliminary conceptual design of an REP-based spacecraft for a design reference mission. The mission utilizes a spacecraft with a radioisotope power supply less than one kilowatt while operating for a minimum of 10-years. A key element of the REP spacecraft is to ensure sustained science return by orbiting or flying in formation with selected targets. Utilizing current and impending technological advances, this study finds that at a conceptual design level a small body REP orbiter/explorer appears to be feasible for the design reference mission selected for this study.

Edwards, Daryl A.; Ensworth, Clinton B. F.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Sheehe, Charles J.; Wiersma, Stephen C.; Adamsen, Paul B., II; Frank, Larry

2004-01-01

112

Bacteria associated with yellow lupine grown on a metal-contaminated soil: in vitro screening and in vivo evaluation for their potential to enhance Cd phytoextraction.  

PubMed

In order to stimulate selection for plant-associated bacteria with the potential to improve Cd phytoextraction, yellow lupine plants were grown on a metal-contaminated field soil. It was hypothesised that growing these plants on this contaminated soil, which is a source of bacteria possessing different traits to cope with Cd, could enhance colonisation of lupine with potential plant-associated bacteria that could then be inoculated in Cd-exposed plants to reduce Cd phytotoxicity and enhance Cd uptake. All cultivable bacteria from rhizosphere, root and stem were isolated and genotypically and phenotypically characterised. Many of the rhizobacteria and root endophytes produce siderophores, organic acids, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, as well as being resistant to Cd and Zn. Most of the stem endophytes could produce organic acids (73.8%) and IAA (74.3%), however, only a minor fraction (up to 0.7%) were Cd or Zn resistant or could produce siderophores or ACC deaminase. A siderophore- and ACC deaminase-producing, highly Cd-resistant Rhizobium sp. from the rhizosphere, a siderophore-, organic acid-, IAA- and ACC deaminase-producing highly Cd-resistant Pseudomonas sp. colonising the roots, a highly Cd- and Zn-resistant organic acid and IAA-producing Clavibacter sp. present in the stem, and a consortium composed of these three strains were inoculated into non-exposed and Cd-exposed yellow lupine plants. Although all selected strains possessed promising in vitro characteristics to improve Cd phytoextraction, inoculation of none of the strains (i) reduced Cd phytotoxicity nor (ii) strongly affected plant Cd uptake. This work highlights that in vitro characterisation of bacteria is not sufficient to predict the in vivo behaviour of bacteria in interaction with their host plants. PMID:24400887

Weyens, N; Gielen, M; Beckers, B; Boulet, J; van der Lelie, D; Taghavi, S; Carleer, R; Vangronsveld, J

2014-09-01

113

Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

114

Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides (153samarium-ethylenediaminetetrameth-ylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and 89strontium) deliver high radiation doses to bone metastases and micrometastases in the bone marrow, but only negligible doses to the hematopoietic marrow. The response rate regarding pain syndrome is about 75%; about 25% of the patients may even become pain free. The therapy is repeatable, depending on cell counts. Concomitant treatment with modern bisphosphonates does not interfere with the treatment effects. Clinical trials using a new, not yet approved nuclide (223Radium) and/or combinations of chemotherapy and radionuclides are aiming at a more curative approach. PMID:22740795

Fischer, Manfred; Kampen, Willm U.

2012-01-01

115

100 years of radionuclide metrology.  

PubMed

The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. PMID:24398412

Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Toraño, E; Wätjen, U

2014-05-01

116

Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use  

DOEpatents

Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

1983-05-03

117

Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Woodland, WA (United States); Balhiser, B. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Cignetti, N. [Cignetti Associates, North Canton, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

118

Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitoed in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media.

Timothy DeVol

2006-06-30

119

Radionuclide evaluation in childhood injuries  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide techniques serve an important role in evaluating childhood injuries. Frequently, they can be employed as the initial and definitive examination. At times they represent the only modality that will detect specific injuries such as the skeletal system. Familiarity with the advantages and limitations of tracer techniques will insure appropriate management of childhood injuries.

Sty, J.R.; Starshak, R.J.; Hubbard, A.M.

1983-07-01

120

Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))

1990-07-01

121

Crumb rubber feasibility report  

SciTech Connect

The Cumberland County supply region generates approximately 58,000 tons of scrap tires each year, equivalent to 45,000 tons of rubber after processing. Approximately 8,000 tons per year are in concentrated locations and can be easily collected. The costs of collection for the remainder vary significantly. Given current markets, economically feasible processes (ambient technology) can reprocess approximately 65 to 75 percent of the 37,000 tons into a marketable product. A processing plant sized for this supply would process 120 tons per day, a viable plant by industry standards. The end uses for whole tires constitute a negligible market, aside from the retreader market. Crumbed rubber is the major development efforts, there are potentially large opportunities in North Carolina.

NONE

1985-11-01

122

THE USE OF BATCH TESTS AS A SCREENING TOOL FOR RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES, HANFORD, WASHINGTON, U.S.A.  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Department of Energy was studying the feasibility of locating a high-level radioactive waste repository in basalt at the Hanford site in south-central Washington. This is a saturated site where ground water transport of radionuclides away from a repository is the mechani...

123

USE OF BATCH TESTS AS A SCREENING TOOL FOR RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION CHARACTERIZATION STUDIES, HANFORD, WSHINGTON, U.S.A.  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Department of Energy was studying the feasibility of locating a high-level radioactive waste repository in basalt at the Hanford site in south-central Washington. his is a saturated site where ground water transport of radionuclides away from a repository is the mechanis...

124

Hydrogeological modeling of radionuclide transport in low permeability media: a comparison between Boom Clay and Ypresian Clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep low-permeability clay layers are considered as suitable environments for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In Belgium, the Boom Clay is the reference host formation and the Ypresian Clay an alternative host formation for research and safety and feasibility assessment of deep disposal of nuclear waste. In this study, two hydrogeological models are built to calculate the radionuclide fluxes that

Marijke Huysmans; Alain Dassargues

2006-01-01

125

Biomonitoring Radionuclide Deposition with Lichens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aboveground nuclear tests conducted in the fifties and sixties of the 20th century gave rise to large amounts of 137Cs and 90Sr in the environment. Both radionuclides have physical half-lives of approximately 30 years and are still found in parts\\u000a of the ecosystem. The long-lived fission products persist, especially in alpine and circumpolar environments characterised\\u000a by a very slow biological

Georg Heinrich; Klaus Remele

126

Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

Premuzic, E.T.

1983-08-25

127

7 CFR 1980.442 - Feasibility studies.  

...Technical feasibility. Technical feasibility reports shall be prepared by...the application. The technical feasibility reports shall address the suitability...For the purpose of the technical feasibility reports, the project...

2014-01-01

128

Radionuclide behavior in the environment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))

1991-09-01

129

Tribal Utility Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be developed and sold to the wholesale electricity market. • Facility scale, net metered renewable energy systems – These are renewable energy systems that provide power to individual households or facilities that are connected to conventional electric utility grid.

Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

2007-06-30

130

Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG  

SciTech Connect

The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.

Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

1985-09-01

131

Feasibility of Radioimmunotherapy of Experimental Pneumococcal Infection  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia. The problem of pneumococcal disease is exacerbated by increasing drug resistance. Furthermore, patients with impaired immunity are at high risk for invasive pneumococcal infections. Thus, there is an urgent need for new approaches to antimicrobial therapy. Antibody therapies take advantage of the specificity and high affinity of the antigen-antibody interaction to deliver antibacterial compounds to a site of infection in the form of naked or conjugated antibodies. We have recently established that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) can be used to treat experimental fungal infections in mice. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of applying a RIT approach to the treatment of S. pneumoniae infection by evaluating the susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to radiolabeled antibody in vitro and in an animal infection model. For the specific antibody carrier, we used human monoclonal antibody D11, which binds to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide 8. We have selected the alpha particle emitter 213Bi as the radionuclide for conjugation to the antibody. Incubation of serotype 8 S. pneumoniae with 213Bi-D11 resulted in dose-dependent killing of bacteria. RIT of S. pneumoniae infection in C57BL/6 mice showed that 60% more mice survived in the 213Bi-D11-treated group (80 ?Ci) than in the untreated group (P < 0.01). The treatment did not cause hematological toxicity, as demonstrated by platelet counts. This feasibility study establishes that RIT can be applied to the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:15105113

Dadachova, E.; Burns, T.; Bryan, R. A.; Apostolidis, C.; Brechbiel, M. W.; Nosanchuk, J. D.; Casadevall, A.; Pirofski, L.

2004-01-01

132

The MRIS feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microwave Reflectometer Ionization Sensor (MRIS) is an instrument being developed for use in detecting and ranging of electron density layers in the reentry plasma of a space transfer vehicle. The rationale for the selection of the Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) system used in the feasibility study for the MRIS is presented. A 25 GHz single-oscillator system and a 220 GHz double-oscillator system are described. The 25 GHz system was constructed and tested in the laboratory and test results are presented. As developed, the system employs a sideband spacing of 160 MHz. Based on an estimated electromagnetic wave velocity in the plasma, a round-trip phase shift measurement accuracy of +/- 7.6 degrees was required for the desired +/- 1/2 cm distance measurement accuracy. The interaction of parallel ground and reflecting planes produces interference that prevents the basic DSBSC system from meeting the accuracy goal so a frequency modulation was added to the system to allow averaging of the measured phase deviation. With an FM deviation of +/- 1 GHz, laboratory measurements were made for distances from 5 to 61 cm tip free space. Accounting for the plasma velocity factor, 82 percent of the data were equal to or better than the desired accuracy. Based on this measured result a sideband spacing to 250 MHz could be expected to yield data approximately 96 percent within the accuracy goal.

Neece, Robert T.; Cross, Aubrey E.; Schrader, James H.

1993-01-01

133

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1998-09-15

134

Pozzolanic filtration\\/solidification of radionuclides in nuclear reactor cooling water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies to investigate the feasibility of one- and two-step processes for precipitating\\/coprecipitating radionuclides from nuclear reactor cooling water, filtering with pozzolanic filter aid, and solidifying, are reported in this paper. In the one-step process, ferrocyanide salt and excess lime are added ahead of the filter, and the resulting filter cake solidifies by a pozzolanic reaction. The two-step process involves

James D. Englehardt; Chengjun Peng

1995-01-01

135

Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

2009-01-07

136

Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters  

SciTech Connect

In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

1994-04-01

137

The Feasibility of Sustainability Reporting  

E-print Network

and Safety, Dartmouth College Beth DiFrancesco, Dartmouth Dining Services, Dartmouth College. Julie DolanThe Feasibility of Sustainability Reporting At Dartmouth College A report by the members of Environmental Studies 50 Spring 2003 #12;#12;The Feasibility of Sustainability Reporting at Dartmouth College

138

Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1991-01-01

139

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (GlenEllyn, IL)

1990-01-01

140

EDTA ameliorates phytoextraction of lead and plant growth by reducing morphological and biochemical injuries in Brassica napus L. under lead stress.  

PubMed

Brassica species are very effective in remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites. Lead (Pb) as a toxic pollutant causes number of morphological and biochemical variations in the plants. Synthetic chelator such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) improves the capability of plants to uptake heavy metals from polluted soil. In this regard, the role of EDTA in phytoextraction of lead, the seedlings of Brassica napus L. were grown hydroponically. Lead levels (50 and 100 ?M) were supplied alone or together with 2.5 mM EDTA in the nutrient culture. After 7 weeks of stress, plants indicated that toxicity of Pb caused negative effects on plants and significantly reduced growth, biomass, chlorophyll content, gas exchange characteristics, and antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT). Exposure to Pb induced the malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation in both shoots and roots. The addition of EDTA alone or in combination with Pb significantly improved the plant growth, biomass, gas exchange characteristics, chlorophyll content, and antioxidant enzymes activities. EDTA also caused substantial improvement in Pb accumulation in Brassica plants. It can be deduced that application of EDTA significantly lessened the adverse effects of lead toxicity. Additionally, B. napus L. exhibited greater degree of tolerance against Pb toxicity and it also accumulated significant concentration of Pb from media. PMID:24854501

Kanwal, Urooj; Ali, Shafaqat; Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Farid, Mujahid; Hussain, Sabir; Yasmeen, Tahira; Adrees, Muhammad; Bharwana, Saima Aslam; Abbas, Farhat

2014-08-01

141

Pteris vittata continuously removed arsenic from non-labile fraction in three contaminated-soils during 3.5 years of phytoextraction.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effectiveness of arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata to continuously remove As from three contaminated-soils containing 26-126mgkg(-1) As over 7 harvests in 3.5 years. Changes in As speciation in soils, amended with P fertilizer (P-soil) or insoluble phosphate rock (PR-soil), were assessed via sequential fractionation. Arsenic in available (soluble+exchangeable), non-labile (bound to amorphous+crystalline Fe/Al oxides), and residual fractions constituted ?12%, ?80%, and ?8% of soil As. Soluble As declined while exchangeable As was unchanged, likely due to replenishment from non-labile As, which accounted for ?87% of decline in total soil As. Although plant-available As is important, the non-labile As better predicted the frond As concentration in P. vittata, with the correlation being r=0.90 and 0.64 for PR-soils and P-soils. P. vittata removed 44% of soil As from PR-soils compared to 33% from P-soils, suggesting the low-soluble P from PR was more effective than P fertilizer in enhancing As uptake by P. vittata. To facilitate acquisition of P from PR, P. vittata produced larger root biomass to solubilize non-labile As, allowing for more efficient phytoextraction. PMID:25108101

Lessl, Jason T; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Q

2014-08-30

142

Improvement of phytoextraction and antioxidative defense in Solanum nigrum L. under cadmium stress by application of cadmium-resistant strain and citric acid.  

PubMed

Remediation of plant-microorganism-chelates synergy has been proposed as an effective remediation method for enhancing the removal efficiency of heavy metal. Manipulation of the antioxidative system increases plant tolerance, thereby potentially enhancing the uptake capacity to heavy metal. In this study, we investigated the possibility of improving the phytoextraction of Cd and the antioxidative defense of Solanum nigrum L. by application of a new isolated strain (Paecilomyces lilacinus NH1) (PLNH1) and citric acid (CA). The results showed that application of CA or PLNH1 significantly promoted S. nigrum's growth under Cd stress, but the synergistic effect of CA and PLNH1 on S. nigrum's growth was more obvious. The coexistence of CA and PLNH1 could enhance about 30% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum compared to the treatment without the addition of CA and PLNH1, whereas single CA or PLNH1 added treatment only enhanced about 10-15% of Cd accumulation in different organs of S. nigrum. The antioxidative defense in S. nigrum under Cd stress was significantly improved as result of application of CA and PLNH1. The responses of antioxidative enzymes to Cd stress significantly decreased following application of CA and PLNH1, and the oxidative stress experienced by the plant due to Cd in the soil was significantly alleviated. PMID:20566243

Gao, Yang; Miao, Chiyuan; Mao, Liang; Zhou, Pei; Jin, Zhiguo; Shi, Wanjun

2010-09-15

143

Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations  

DOEpatents

The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

Chen, Xiaoyuan (Syracuse, NY); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Fisher, Darrell R. (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

144

Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

1984-04-01

145

Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

1981-10-01

146

Model feasibility study of radioactive pathways from atmosphere to surface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feasibility study of the atmosphere to surface-water radionuclide pathways was performed for small catchments, using a physically-based hydro-ecosystem model, Opus. Detailed time-intensity precipitation records from Arizona and Georgia were used as input to drive the model. Tests of model sensitivity to distribution coefficients, Kd, for Cs-137, Cs-134, and Sr-90 illustrated different vegetation-soil-erosion-runoff pathways, in response to agricultural management practices.

R. E. Smith; R. M. Summer; V. A. Ferreira

1990-01-01

147

Sorption of radionuclides on inorganic sorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic sorbents are often used in separation of metals and radionuclides in radioanalytical application and they were also used in technological scale for separation of radionuclides in cleanup of Three Mile Island NPP. Inorganic sorbents become popular in the last years because no problem with organic contamination, there are stable against radiation, sorption efficiency can be tailor made for selective

P. Rajec; L'. Mátel; J. Orechovská; J. Šúcha; I. Novák

1996-01-01

148

UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE APPLICATION FOR RADIONUCLIDE UTILIZATION  

E-print Network

required for each Radionuclides which will be used under the Permit: Radionuclide Experimental Limit (mCi) Possession Limit (mCi) Per Shipment Limit (mCi) Annual Shipment Limit (mCi) #12;List the make, model with atomic number greater than 83, the use of greater than 25mCi in a single experiment, the use

Firestone, Jeremy

149

Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis and interpretation of the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu in the Caspian Sea water are presented. These radionuclides are shown to be of environmental importance and to be useful for studying water mass dynamics.

B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud; M. K. Pham; P. P. Povinec

2003-01-01

150

Anthropogenic radionuclides in Peter the Great bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive investigation of radionuclide distributions in seawater and bottom sediments of Peter the Great bay was conducted in September–October 1994. Sampling sites were chosen close to potential radioactivity sources as well as in fishing and recreational areas. The results have shown that the main sources of radionuclides in Peter the Great bay are still global atmospheric fallout and the

A. V Tkalin; E. L Chaykovskaya

2000-01-01

151

Flathead Renewable Energy Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The study shall assess the feasibility of a commercial wind facility on lands selected and owned by the Salish and Kootenai Tribes and shall examine the potential for the development of solar and biomass resources located on Tribal Lands.

Belvin Pete: Ed McCarthy; Krista Gordon; Chris Bergen; Rhett Good

2006-10-03

152

Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

153

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

2008-08-01

154

Conus Medullaris Syndrome following Radionuclide Cisternography  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide cisternography is generally considered to be a safe procedure without significant neurological complications. However, in this report we present a patient who developed conus medullaris syndrome following radionuclide cisternography. A 46-year-old woman underwent lumbar puncture followed by radionuclide cisternography with the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. After the cisternography, she developed voiding difficulty with perineal sensory loss. Lumbar MRI revealed a high signal intensity lesion on T2-weighted images at the level of conus medullaris. Considering its clinical course and MRI findings, a spinal cord infarction is highly suggested as a cause of the conus medullaris lesion in this patient. PMID:25024857

2014-01-01

155

Radionuclide cisternography in spontaneous intracranial hypotension.  

PubMed

We report a case of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) that was investigated using cranial MRI and radionuclide cisternography. Radionuclide imaging was remarkable, showing direct signs of diffuse asymmetric leakage and indirect signs of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypotension consisting of slow CSF circulation to the convexity and rapid appearance of urinary bladder activity. The MRI appearance was also suggestive of SIH, with diffuse meningeal enhancement. Treatment with autologous blood injection at the level of the radionuclide spinal leakage was useful, resulting in disappearance of SIH symptoms. PMID:9509927

Benamor, M; Tainturier, C; Graveleau, P; Pierot, L

1998-03-01

156

Phytoextraction potential of wild type and 35S-gshI transgenic poplar trees (Populus x Canescens) for environmental pollutants herbicide paraquat, salt sodium, zinc sulfate and nitric oxide in vitro.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction potentials of two transgenic (TR) poplar (Populus x canescens) clones TRggs11 and TRlgl6 were compared with that of wild-type (WT) following exposure to paraquat, zinc sulfate, common salt and nitric oxide (NO), using a leaf-disc system incubated for 21 days on EDTA-containing nutritive WPM media in vitro. Glutathione (GSH) contents of leaf discs of TRlgl6 and TRggs11 showed increments to 296% and 190%, respectively, compared with WT. NO exposure led to a twofold GSH content in TRlgl6, which was coupled with a significantly increased sulfate uptake when exposed to 10(-3) M ZnSO4. The highest mineral contents of Na, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Mo was observed in the TRggs11 clone. Salt-induced activity of catalase enzyme increased in both TR clones significantly compared with WT under NaCl (0.75% and 1.5%) exposure. The in silico sequence analyses of gsh1 genes revealed that P. x canadensis and Salix sachalinensis show the closest sequence similarity to that of P. x canescens, which predicted an active GSH production with high phytoextraction potentials of these species with indication for their use where P. x canescens can not be grown. PMID:24912238

Gyulai, G; Bittsánszky, A; Szabó, Z; Waters, L; Gullner, G; Kampfl, G; Heltai, G; Komíves, T

2014-01-01

157

How We Design Feasibility Studies  

PubMed Central

Public health is moving toward the goal of implementing evidence-based interventions. To accomplish this, there is a need to select, adapt, and evaluate intervention studies. Such selection relies, in part, on making judgments about the feasibility of possible interventions and determining whether comprehensive and multilevel evaluations are justified. There exist few published standards and guides to aid these judgments. This article describes the diverse types of feasibility studies conducted in the field of cancer prevention, using a group of recently funded grants from the National Cancer Institute. The grants were submitted in response to a request for applications proposing research to identify feasible interventions for increasing the utilization of the Cancer Information Service among underserved populations. PMID:19362699

Bowen, Deborah J.; Kreuter, Matthew; Spring, Bonnie; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Linnan, Laura; Weiner, Diane; Bakken, Suzanne; Kaplan, Cecilia Patrick; Squiers, Linda; Fabrizio, Cecilia; Fernandez, Maria

2010-01-01

158

Lower Sioux Wind Feasibility & Development  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process and findings of a Wind Energy Feasibility Study (Study) conducted by the Lower Sioux Indian Community (Community). The Community is evaluating the development of a wind energy project located on tribal land. The project scope was to analyze the critical issues in determining advantages and disadvantages of wind development within the Community. This analysis addresses both of the Community's wind energy development objectives: the single turbine project and the Commerical-scale multiple turbine project. The main tasks of the feasibility study are: land use and contraint analysis; wind resource evaluation; utility interconnection analysis; and project structure and economics.

Minkel, Darin

2012-04-01

159

Annual report, October 1980-September 1981 Multimedia radionuclide exposure assessment modeling.  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are jointly developing a methodology for assessing exposures of the air, water, and plants to radionuclides as part of an overall development effort of a radionuclide disposal site evaluation methodology. Work in FY-1981 continued the development of the Multimedia Contaminant Environmental Exposure Assessment (MCEA) methodology and initiated an assessment of radionuclide migration in Los Alamos and Pueblo Canyons, New Mexico, using the methodology. The AIRTRAN model was completed, briefly tested, and documented. In addition, a literature search for existing validation data for AIRTRAN was performed. The feasibility and advisability of including the UNSAT moisture flow model as a submodel of the terrestrial code BIOTRAN was assessed. A preliminary application of the proposed MCEA methodology, as it related to the Mortandad-South Mortandad Canyon site in New Mexico is discussed. This preliminary application represented a scaled-down version of the methodology in which only the terrestrial, overland, and surface water components were used. An update describing the progress in the assessment of radionuclide migration in Los Alamos and Pueblo Canyons is presented. 38 references, 47 figures, 11 tables.

Whelan, G.; Onishi, Y.; Simmons, C.S.; Horst, T.W.; Gupta, S.K.; Orgill, M.M.; Newbill, C.A.

1982-12-01

160

Improving Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Using Nuclear Nanotechnology  

E-print Network

. The general formulae can be applied to any tumor size, any radionuclide, and any pharmacokinetic nanoparticle distribution throughout the body, ultimately allowing a quick method of approximating the necessary activation time and treatment dosage parameters...

Evans, Jordan Andrew

2013-05-03

161

Migration of radionuclides in the enviroment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of transport and retaidation processes, chemistry and migration behaviour of radionuclides of fission products\\u000a and actinides in engineered barriers, especially bentonites, have been summarised. A “critical group of radionuclides” is\\u000a proposed for thorough investigation of their retardation properties in natural sorbents. The evaluation of accessible data\\u000a of retardation and transport parameters relevant for the conditions of underground deep

V. Jedináková-K?ižová

1998-01-01

162

Radionuclide Geomicrobiology of the Deep Biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes research into interactions between microorganisms and radionuclides under conditions typical of a repository for high-level radioactive waste in deep hard rock environments at a depth of approximately 500 m. The cell–radionuclide interactions of strains of two bacterial species (i.e., Shewanella putrefaciens and Desulfovibrio aespoeensis) with Cm, Pm, and Pu were investigated in vitro and the results were

Craig Anderson; Anna Johnsson; Henry Moll; Karsten Pedersen

2011-01-01

163

Behaviour of the Radionuclides in Peat Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of theoretical and experimental studies a method of assessment and prognosis of the radionuclides migration soils\\u000a has been created.\\u000a \\u000a Experimental methods for the determination of transfer characteristics and their assessment, and also the methods for prediction\\u000a of radionuclide migration in frozen grounds should provide a clear distinction between driving forces and fluxes of the convection\\u000a and diffusion

G. Brovka; I. Dedulya; E. Rovdan

164

(Radiological assessments of radionuclide releases)  

SciTech Connect

As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, data have been obtained throughout the Northern Hemisphere on the concentrations of radionuclides in air, vegetation, soil, water, and foodstuffs that could be important means of human exposure. At the IAEA's invitation, the traveler reviewed recently published data and handbook summaries. The traveler evaluated the need for revising the default values recommended in Chapter 5, Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Chain Transport,'' of IAEA Safety Series No. 57. All attempts at revision were made to keep the mathematical complexity of the models to a minimum without substantial underestimation of dose to critical population subgroups. The traveler also served as chairman of the Multiple Pathways Working Group of the Coordinated Research Program on VAMP. This group has been established to test predictions of models assessing multiple exposure pathways potentially leading to human exposure to {sup 137}Cs. Testing is carried out for major components of assessment models that predict deposition, environmental transport, food chain bioaccumulation, and subsequent uptake and retention in the human body and dose due to exposure to external gamma radiation.

Hoffman, F.O.

1990-12-28

165

Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

1983-07-01

166

Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

2012-04-01

167

Tivoli Brewery: A Feasibility Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on a study made to ascertain the feasibility of preserving and restoring all or part of an existing historical site -- the "Tivoli Brewery" -- as a related and integral part of the Auraria Higher Education Center. After investigation of the building's structural integrity, the condition of electrical and mechanical systems,…

More, Combs, and Burch, Denver, CO.

168

Feasibility of Ipecac Extraction Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

'Brazilian' ipecac is the rhizome and root portions of the low growing vine Cephaelis (Uragoga) ipecacuanha. It is the source of emetine and several other alkaloids. The report presents the results of a study undertaken to determine the feasibility of est...

E. H. Payne

1966-01-01

169

Library Data Processing Feasibility Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To establish the precise effects of using MARC II in West Sussex, and how it could assist the library staff were the goals of this feasibility study. It illustrates the development of the library catalog and associated systems as both realistic and practical. It indicates what kind of repercussions will be felt by the library and how it could…

Mears, M. J.; And Others

170

Hydrogeological Modeling of Radionuclide Transport in Heterogeneous Low-Permeability Media: A Comparison Between Boom Clay and Ieper Clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep low-permeability clay layers are considered as possible suitable environments for disposal of high-level radioactive\\u000a waste. In Belgium, the Boom Clay is the reference host formation and the Ieper Clay an alternative host formation for research\\u000a and safety and feasibility assessment of deep disposal of nuclear waste. In this study, two hydrogeological models are built\\u000a to calculate the radionuclide fluxes

M. Huysmans; A. Dassargues

171

Haltenbanken gas trunkline technically feasible  

SciTech Connect

Installation of a large-diameter subsea gas pipeline over the irregular, iceberg-scoured seabed of the Haltenbanken field in the Norwegian North Sea is technically feasible. That's the conclusion of a major feasibility study of a gas trunkline from Haltenbanken offshore Norway to shore. The study further concludes that considerable cost savings could be obtained by careful routing of the pipeline within a sufficiently wide corridor. Characteristic features of the seabed area are water depths between 250-300 m (820-985 ft) and rugged seabed topography caused by frequent and highly irregular occurrence of iceberg ploughmarks and pockmarks. Crossing these areas with a gas trunkline represents a major pipeline engineering challenge. Outlined here are the strategy for assessing the final route selection, establishing free-span acceptance criteria, and selecting free-span correction methods.

Moshagen, H.; Gjertveit, E.; Rothaug, K.; Sveggen, O.

1988-05-23

172

Lunar Analog Feasibility Study Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews a study designed to determine the feasibility of using a 9.5 deg head-up tilt bed rest model to simulate the effects of the 1/6 g load to the human body that exists on the lunar surface. The effect of different types of compression stockings, the pre-bed rest diet, and the use of a specific exercise program were reviewed for comfort, force verification and plasma volume shift

Cromwell, Ronita L.; Neigut, Joe

2009-01-01

173

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2013-10-15

174

Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

Srivastava, S.C.

1996-08-01

175

Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil  

SciTech Connect

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

2012-04-25

176

Use of therapeutic radionuclides in medicine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to follow the course of historical development in the use of radiopharmaceuticals as a therapeutic tool in nuclear medicine. This chapter is designed to point out the different phases of the development of therapeutic nuclear medicine, pointing out the events which most shaped its history along the way. Those events included the discovery of radioactivity, the development of the cyclotron and nuclear reactor as a method of delivering high specific activity radioactive sources, and a few significant therapeutic radionuclides such as 131I and 32P. The most significant therapeutic radionuclide was radium, which is treated very extensively in this paper from an historical viewpoint. It is only recently that attention of the nuclear medicine community turned to new therapeutic agents, such as bone pain palliation agents, monoclonal antibodies, and others. It may be that the next growth phase of nuclear medicine will revolve around therapy with these radionuclides. PMID:7558861

Early, P J; Landa, E R

1995-11-01

177

Radionuclide sorption on well construction materials  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which trace concentrations of radioactive materials would sorb on well construction materials and to assess the rapidity with which sorption would occur. The radionuclides employed in these studies were tritium, Cs-137, and Co-57. Solutions with trace concentrations of these radionuclides were contacted with casings of PVC, fiber-glass-epoxy, stainless steel, carbon steel, and steel rods coated with epoxy. The PVC showed no interaction with the tritium or Cs-137 during contact times of two hours to three weeks ; however, it did sorb Co-57. The fiber-glass-epoxy also interacted only with the cobalt. The stainless steel sorbed cesium and cobalt. The epoxy-coated steel rods did not interact measurably with any of the radionuclides so long as the coating was intact. The sorption reactions generally were apparent after a few days of contact; in the case of carbon steel, they were detectable in a few hours.

Thompson, J.L.

1996-11-01

178

State of radionuclides in natural waters  

SciTech Connect

This work is devoted to a study of the kinetics of attainment of equilibrium between various forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and to an evaluation of the part played by isotope exchange in this process. The radionuclide mercury-203 was added without a carrier to natural waters of the Syr-Dar'ya and Amu-Dar'ya Rivers and the Aral Sea in the cationic form (3). In order to determine the time of attainment of equilibrium between the forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and the stable nuclide analogs, they used the methods of sorption on L-36 glass, AV-17 anion-exchanger, KU-2 cation-exchanger, extraction with chloroform plus isobutyl alcohol, and filtration.

Kulmatov, R.A.; Rakhmatov, U.; Kist, A.A.; Volkov, A.A.

1987-03-01

179

Scoping analysis for radionuclide migration test  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to conduct an in situ test of radionuclide migration in fractured granite. Radionuclides are to be injected into a fracture in the Climax Stock of the Nevada Test Site, then transported by fluid motion and subsequently withdrawn. The fluid will be injected through a borehole intersecting a near vertical fracture and withdrawn through a second borehole that intersects the fracture directly below the first. The scoping calculations presented here are intended to aid planning this experiment. In the absence of a detailed fracture description, this analysis treats the fracture as the space between parallel flat plates; the flow is a Hele-Shaw flow. The calculations predict the conditions for breakthrough of radionuclides at the outlet hole and describe the subsequent concentration history of fluid flowing from the fracture. The effects of advection, sorption, and geometric dispersion are treated.

Morrison, F.A. Jr.

1982-01-01

180

Therapeutic Radionuclides: Biophysical and Radiobiologic Principles  

PubMed Central

Although the general radiobiologic principles underlying external beam therapy and radionuclide therapy are the same, there are significant differences in the biophysical and radiobiologic effects from the two types of radiation. In addition to the emission of particulate radiation, targeted radionuclide therapy is characterized by (i) extended exposures and, usually, declining dose rates; (ii) nonuniformities in the distribution of radioactivity and, thus, absorbed dose; and (iii) particles of varying ionization density and, hence, quality. This chapter explores the special features that distinguish the biologic effects consequent to the traversal of charged particles through mammalian cells. It also highlights what has been learned when these radionuclides and radiotargeting pharmaceuticals are used to treat cancers. PMID:18662557

Kassis, Amin I.

2008-01-01

181

Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.  

PubMed

An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

2004-12-01

182

Dynamic and static tomographic renal coincidence imaging with a gamma camera using Rb82: a feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rb-82, a positron emitter with a half-life of ?75 s, is a promising radionuclide that can potentially turn the concept of sequential dynamic tomographic renal imaging into reality. In this preliminary investigation, we explored several aspects of renal imaging with Rb-82 on a hybrid single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-positron emission tomography (PET) system, which relate to the feasibility of

P. Hendrik Pretorius; Leo C. T. Fung; Carl P. Schell; K. Nishinaka; Corinne J. Groiselle; Stephen J. Glick; Manoj V. Narayanan; Michael A. King

2002-01-01

183

[Radionuclide therapy for cancer--what's new?].  

PubMed

Radionuclide therapy is radiation therapy, the effect of which is based on radiation damage in cancer cells. The most common radionuclide therapy for cancer is radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. Two new forms of treatment have recently been initiated in Finland: 177lutetium octreotate therapy for neuroendocrine tumors, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma as well as radioembolization (selective internal radiation therapy, SIRT) with 90yttrium-coated resin beads against liver metastases. Still in experimental use, 223radium chloride is a drug prolonging survival in prostate cancer that has metastasized to bone. The treatments require special knowledge and collaboration between several units. PMID:23210283

Hanna, Mäenpää; Mikko, Tenhunen

2012-01-01

184

Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2010-01-04

185

Assessment of Radionuclides in the Savannah River Site Environment Summary  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the impact of radionuclide releases from Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities from 1954 through 1996. The radionuclides reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS.

Carlton, W.H.

1999-01-26

186

Intrathoracic kidney on radionuclide renography. A case report  

SciTech Connect

A child with an asymptomatic mass in the lower right thorax was evaluated with sonography, intravenous urography, and radionuclide renography. High renal ectopia was only diagnosed with radionuclide renography.

Williams, A.G. Jr.; Christie, J.H.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

1983-09-01

187

Fallout sheltering: is it feasible?  

PubMed

The feasibility of sheltering the U.S. population from fallout resulting from a large-scale nuclear attack is assessed using a mathematical model. The model is used to calculate the reduction in cumulative dose received by a sheltered survivor, as a function of five adjustable parameters. Three time periods are postulated: time in the shelter, a transition period during which time out of the shelter increases and a final period in which half the time is spent outside the shelter. The parameters are varied independently, and the resulting dose reduction factor is compared with what seems to be necessary for survival in different regions of the country under the postulated attack. Another model developed by K.S. Gant and C.V. Chester is compared with this one. Similarities and differences are pointed out, and where possible the results of the two are checked for compatibility. An important question addressed in this paper is whether under the conditions of a large-scale nuclear attack sheltering a relatively unprepared population is at all feasible. Sensitivity tests of the various parameters in our model show that relatively low protection factor areas such as basements or inner rooms already existing in homes or other buildings could quite adequately serve as shelters for most of the area of the contiguous United States. Furthermore, continuous stays in these shelters of more than three weeks do not seem to be necessary for these large parts of the United States. PMID:3818292

Ehrlich, R; Ring, J

1987-03-01

188

Hualapai Wind Project Feasibility Report  

SciTech Connect

The Hualapai Department of Planning and Economic Development, with funding assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy, Tribal Energy Program, with the aid of six consultants has completed the four key prerequisites as follows: 1. Identify the site area for development and its suitability for construction. 2. Determine the wind resource potential for the identified site area. 3. Determine the electrical transmission and interconnection feasibility to get the electrical power produced to the marketplace. 4. Complete an initial permitting and environmental assessment to determine the feasibility for getting the project permitted. Those studies indicated a suitable wind resource and favorable conditions for permitting and construction. The permitting and environmental study did not reveal any fatal flaws. A review of the best power sale opportunities indicate southern California has the highest potential for obtaining a PPA that may make the project viable. Based on these results, the recommendation is for the Hualapai Tribal Nation to move forward with attracting a qualified wind developer to work with the Tribe to move the project into the second phase - determining the reality factors for developing a wind project. a qualified developer will bid to a utility or negotiate a PPA to make the project viable for financing.

Davidson, Kevin [Hualapai Tribe] [Hualapai Tribe; Randall, Mark [Daystar Consulting] [Daystar Consulting; Isham, Tom [Power Engineers] [Power Engineers; Horna, Marion J [MJH Power Consulting LLC] [MJH Power Consulting LLC; Koronkiewicz, T [SWCA Environmental, Inc.] [SWCA Environmental, Inc.; Simon, Rich [V-Bar, LLC] [V-Bar, LLC; Matthew, Rojas [Squire Sanders Dempsey] [Squire Sanders Dempsey; MacCourt, Doug C. [Ater Wynne, LLP] [Ater Wynne, LLP; Burpo, Rob [First American Financial Advisors, Inc.] [First American Financial Advisors, Inc.

2012-12-20

189

Lunar escape systems feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented for a study conducted to determine the feasibility of simple lunar escape system concepts, to develop a spectrum of operational data, and to identify techniques and configurations suitable for the emergency escape mission. The study demonstrated the feasibility of the lunar emergency escape-to-orbit system (LESS) designed to provide a means for the two-man crew of a lunar module (LM) or extended-stay LM (ELM) to escape from the lunar surface in the event that the LM/ELM ascent stage becomes unsafe or is otherwise unable to take off. The LESS is to carry the two astronauts to a safe lunar orbit, where the Apollo command and service modules (CSM) are to be used for rendezvous and rescue, all within the lifetime of the backpack life support system (about 4 hr). It is concluded that simple manual control modes are sufficient, that simple boost profiles are acceptable, and that one man can deploy and set up the LESS. Initial guidance data can be calculated for the LESS by Mission Control and transmitted via the LM/ELM uplink.

Matzenauer, J. O.

1976-01-01

190

A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water

Kahook

1992-01-01

191

Radionuclide Cisternography. The Value of Radionuclide Cisternography in the Diagnosis and Management of Hydrocephalus and Possibly Associated Anomalies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cis...

H. H. Song

1980-01-01

192

Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.  

PubMed

The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. PMID:24508949

Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

2014-06-01

193

FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of Metrologia on radionuclide metrology is the first of a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurement, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The idea was first proposed at the 2003 series of CCRI Section meetings, with the general aim of showcasing

Bruce Simpson; Steven Judge

2007-01-01

194

RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

S. Magnuson

2004-11-01

195

REMOVAL OF RADIONUCLIDES BY ELECTROKINETIC SOIL PROCESSING  

EPA Science Inventory

Electrokinetics promises to be an innovative treatment process for in-situ treatment of soils and groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Electrokinetics refers to the movement of ionic liquids and charged particles relative to one another under the action ...

196

LASL models for environmental transport of radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of a project at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for development of a generalized technique for evaluating the adequacy of solid radioactive waste disposal sites is outlined. A major part of the project is the modeling of environmental processes which may result in the release of radionuclides to the environs. The structure of the environmental transport modeling

W. J. II Smith; A. F. Gallegos; L. J. Johnson

1977-01-01

197

Migration of radionuclides following shallow land burial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of radionuclide migration was conducted at a facility used from 1944 to 1949 for the shallow land burial of radwaste produced during operations with two reactors and related nuclear research. It is situated in glacial drift 45 m thick. Underlying the drift is a generally level Silurian dolomite bedrock 60 m thick. The thickness of the drift decreases

J. Sedlet; N. W. Golchert

1980-01-01

198

Radionuclide production with > 70-MeV proton accelerators: current and future prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of proton accelerators (i.e. cyclotrons) in the production of medical radionuclides is increasing as a result of new trends in medical research and due to clinical needs associated with the expanding field of positron emission tomography (PET). Accelerators also produced radionuclides needed in single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). Modern high-intensity H - cyclotrons are now commercially available, allowing the use of simultaneous beams, as well as a highly reliable operation. Furthermore, new accelerator-based methods for the production of several useful positron emitters and for the large-scale production of 99mTc and 99Mo, are being investigated. Based on new data, an ample supply for both PET and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals is feasible and may be obtained from centralized regional facilities operating a modern accelerator. For these facilities, an accelerator capable of delivering > 70-MeV protons is, by far, the best overall choice. This rationale is explained here and supported with a summary of radionuclide production data. An increasing role for modern proton accelerators in nuclear medicine and other applications is believed to be scientifically proven and forthcoming although further research and development of the technical and economical basis are required.

Lagunas-Solar, Manuel C.

1992-07-01

199

Targeted radionuclide therapy--an overview.  

PubMed

Radionuclide therapy (RNT) based on the concept of delivering cytotoxic levels of radiation to disease sites is one of the rapidly growing fields of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, RNT targets diseases at the cellular level rather than on a gross anatomical level. This concept is a blend of a tracer moiety that mediates a site specific accumulation followed by induction of cytotoxicity with the short-range biological effectiveness of particulate radiations. Knowledge of the biochemical reactions taking place at cellular levels has stimulated the development of sophisticated molecular carriers, catalyzing a shift towards using more specific targeting radiolabelled agents. There is also improved understanding of factors of importance for choice of appropriate radionuclides based on availability, the types of emissions, linear energy transfer (LET), and physical half-life. This article discusses the applications of radionuclide therapy for treatment of cancer as well as other diseases. The primary objective of this review is to provide an overview on the role of radionuclide therapy in the treatment of different diseases such as polycythaemia, thyroid malignancies, metastatic bone pain, radiation synovectomy, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and others. In addition, recent developments on the systematic approach in designing treatment regimens as well as recent progress, challenges and future perspectives are discussed. An examination of the progress of radionuclide therapy indicates that although a rapid stride has been made for treating hematological tumors, the development for treating solid tumors has, so far, been limited. However, the emergence of novel tumor-specific targeting agents coupled with successful characterization of new target structures would be expected to pave the way for future treatment for such tumors. PMID:24059327

Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F Russ; Pillai, M R A

2013-09-01

200

Source inversion for the CTBTO radionuclide network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to support its mission of monitoring compliance with the treaty banning nuclear explosions, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) operates four global networks of, respectively, seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic sensors and air samplers accompanied with radionuclide detectors. The role of the International Data Centre (IDC) of CTBTO is to associate the signals detected in the monitoring networks with the physical phenomena which emitted these signals, by forming events. One of the aspects of associating detections with emitters is the problem of inferring the sources of radionuclides from the detections made at CTBTO radionuclide network stations. This task is particularly challenging because the average transport distance between a release point and detectors is large. Complex processes of turbulent diffusion are responsible for efficient mixing and consequently for decreasing the information content of detections with an increasing distance from the source. The problem is generally addressed in a two-step process. In the first step, an atmospheric transport model establishes a link between the detections and the regions of possible source location. In the second step this link is inverted to infer source information from the detections. In this presentation, we will discuss enhancements of the presently used regression-based inversion algorithm to reconstruct a source of radionuclides. To this aim, modern inversion algorithms accounting for prior information and appropriately regularizing an under-determined reconstruction problem will be briefly introduced. Emphasis will be on the CTBTO context and the choice of inversion methods. An illustration of the first tests will be provided using a framework of twin experiments, i.e. fictitious detections in the CTBTO radionuclide network generated with an atmospheric transport model.

Krysta, M.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Nikkinen, M.; Carter, J. A.

2013-12-01

201

Anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere observed at Tsukuba: characteristics of the radionuclides derived from Fukushima.  

PubMed

During a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a huge quantity of radionuclides was released into the atmosphere and ocean. We measured anthropogenic radionuclides in surface air at Tsukuba, about 170 km from the FDNPP. On March 15, 2011, we detected the radioactivity released from the Fukushima accident in air samples at Tsukuba. The major radionuclides that we observed were radioiodine ((131)I, (132)I, (133)I) and radiocesium ((134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs). This radioiodine consisted of gaseous and particulate forms; the percentage of particulate (131)I in the total (131)I ranged from 0 to 86%. The percentage of the particulate (131)I to the total (131)I increased on the arrival of the plumes from major emissions of the FDNPP. After activities of the radionuclides attained the maximum on March 15, 2011, the FDNPP-derived radionuclides decreased rapidly in surface air. The activity median aerodynamic diameter of (131)I-bearing particles was 0.7 ?m, while those of (134)Cs- and (137)Cs-bearing particles were larger than 1 ?m. Large variations of ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (132)Te/(137)Cs, and (99)Mo ((99m)Tc)/(137)Cs (all involving different elements) suggest that the behaviors of these radionuclides in the atmosphere, including the processes of their emission, differed each other. PMID:23542231

Doi, Taeko; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi; Toyoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Hirose, Katsumi

2013-08-01

202

Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

Knight, M.J.

1983-04-01

203

Radionuclide behavior in water saturated porous media: Diffusion and infiltration coupling of thermodynamically and kinetically controlled radionuclide water - mineral interactions  

SciTech Connect

A model is developed describing one dimensional radionuclide transport in porous media coupled with locally reversible radionuclide water-mineral exchange reactions and radioactive decay. Problems are considered in which radionuclide transport by diffusion and infiltration processes occur in cases where radionuclide water-solid interaction are kinetically and thermodynamically controlled. The limits of Sr-90 and Cs-137 migration are calculated over a wide range of the problem variables (infiltration velocity, distribution coefficients, and rate constants of water-mineral radionuclide exchange reactions).

Spasennykh, M.Yu. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Apps, J.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-05-01

204

Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

2013-04-01

205

Radionuclide Sensors and Systems for Environmental Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

We have developed automated sensor and monitoring devices for trace radionuclides in water, using preconcentrating columns and radiometric detection. The preconcentrating minicolumn sensor concept combines selective capture and detection in a single functional unit. We have demonstrated quantification of radionuclides such as technetium-99 to levels below drinking water standards in an equilibration-based process that produces steady state signals, signal proportional to concentration, and easy re-equilibration to new concentration levels. Alternatively, monitors can be developed with separate separation and detection units that are fluidically linked. We have demonstrated detection of strontium-90 to levels below drinking water standards by this approach. We are developing autonomous systems for at-site monitoring on the Hanford Site in Washington State.

Grate, Jay W.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Egorov, Oleg; Burge, Scott R.

2009-05-18

206

Radionuclide transport in the Yenisei River  

E-print Network

Data characterizing the pollution of the Yenisei River (water and bottom sediment) by radionuclide resulting from the use of the river water for cooling industrial reactors in the Mining-Chemical Complex are presented. Studies have been made of the contamination of the river during the period when reactors with direct flow cooling were used and after these were shut down. Distinctive features of the migration of radionuclide in the Yenisei are noted, in particular, their distribution between the solid and liquid phases. The amounts of 137Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 152Eu in the channel are determined from the effluent discharge site to Dudinka port. The rate of continuous self removal of 137Cs is estimated to be 0.19 1/year, corresponding to a half purification time of 3.6 years for a 600 km long segment of the river bed.

Vakulovsky, S M; Kabanov, A I

2012-01-01

207

Radionuclide transport in the Yenisei River  

E-print Network

Data characterizing the pollution of the Yenisei River (water and bottom sediment) by radionuclide resulting from the use of the river water for cooling industrial reactors in the Mining-Chemical Complex are presented. Studies have been made of the contamination of the river during the period when reactors with direct flow cooling were used and after these were shut down. Distinctive features of the migration of radionuclide in the Yenisei are noted, in particular, their distribution between the solid and liquid phases. The amounts of 137Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 152Eu in the channel are determined from the effluent discharge site to Dudinka port. The rate of continuous self removal of 137Cs is estimated to be 0.19 1/year, corresponding to a half purification time of 3.6 years for a 600 km long segment of the river bed.

S. M. Vakulovsky; E. G. Tertyshnik; A. I. Kabanov

2012-11-15

208

Radionuclide partitioning in the modified Unex process  

SciTech Connect

The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of long-lived radionuclides (cesium, strontium, actinides, and lanthanides) from acidic solutions in one extraction cycle. Modification of this organic solvent through the use of diamides of dipicolinic acid instead of CMPO increases the extraction capacity of UNEX solvent toward lanthanides and actinide metals, allowing for the processing of spent nuclear fuel. The possibility of radionuclide group separation using the modified UNEX solvent [HCCD (chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide), TBDPA (tetrabutyl-diamide of dipicolinic acid), PEG in FS-1 3 (phenyl-trifluoromethyl-sulfone)] is being investigated. Individual strip products, including a) actinides and lanthanides, b) strontium, and c) cesium, can be obtained by selective stripping from UNEX solvent. Such partitioning will make it possible to transform the Cs/Sr product into the most stable matrices for long-term storage and to further process the actinide/lanthanide product for recycling to a nuclear reactor. (authors)

Babain, V.; Smirnov, I. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Alyapyshev, M. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Todd, T.A.; Law, J.D.; Herbst, R.S. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Paulenova, A. [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

2008-07-01

209

Radionuclide content of Las Vegas wash sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Las Vegas Wash is an excavated waterway channel which drains all surface water and effluent discharge from sewage-treatment facilities from the greater Las Vegas Metropolitan Area to Lake Mead. Runoff and erosion processes are expected to transport man-made radioactivity that was deposited over the past several decades in the Las Vegas Valley. Additionally, radionuclides disposed of via the city`s

M. J. Rudin; A. M. Meyers; W. H. Johnson

1996-01-01

210

Separation of Radionuclides by Polyurethane Foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 103Pd, 110Ag and 203Hg radionuclides by polyurethane foam (PUF) was investigated and optimized with respect to the selection of appropriate sorptive medium, metal, thiocyanate ions (except for 110Ag) and PUF concentration and equilibration time. The influence of common anions and cations on the sorption of each metal was examined. The sorption data subjected to

S. M. Hasany; M. M. Saeed; M. Ahmed

2000-01-01

211

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

Wahl, Linnea

2009-05-21

212

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

2008-06-13

213

UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

2006-08-28

214

Radionuclide content of Las Vegas wash sediments  

SciTech Connect

The Las Vegas Wash is an excavated waterway channel which drains all surface water and effluent discharge from sewage-treatment facilities from the greater Las Vegas Metropolitan Area to Lake Mead. Runoff and erosion processes are expected to transport man-made radioactivity that was deposited over the past several decades in the Las Vegas Valley. Additionally, radionuclides disposed of via the city`s sanitary system are expected to accumulate in the Wash sediments. Fine and coarse sediment samples were collected at 100 m intervals and analyzed to determine the distribution of alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides in the lower 5,500 in of the Las Vegas Wash. Results indicate little accumulation of long-lived fission products in upstream Wash sediments. However, trace amounts of fission products measured in downstream sediments suggest the resuspension and transport of radioactive particulate matter within the Wash. Levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides found in Wash sediments were found to be consistent with levels typically found in southeast Nevada soils.

Rudin, M.J.; Meyers, A.M.; Johnson, W.H. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1996-06-01

215

Sorption of radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs  

SciTech Connect

A substantial database of sorption coefficients for important radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs has been obtained by Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past ten years. Current sorption studies are focussed on validation questions and augmentation of the existing database. Validation questions concern the effects of the use of crushed instead of solid rock samples in the batch experiments, the use of oversaturated stock solutions, and variations in water/rock ratios. Sorption mechanisms are also being investigated. Database augmentation activities include determination of sorption coefficients for elements with low sorption potential, sorption on psuedocolloids, sorption on fracture lining minerals, and sorption kinetics. Sorption can provide an important barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the proposed repository within Yucca Mountain to the accessible environment. In order to quantify this barrier, sorption coefficients appropriate for the Yucca Mountain groundwater system must be obtained for each of the important radionuclides in nuclear waste. Los Alamos National Laboratories has conducted numerous batch (crushed-rock) sorption experiments over the past ten years to develop a sorption coefficient database for the Yucca Mountain site. In the present site characterization phase, the main goals of the sorption test program will be to validate critical sorption coefficients and to augment the existing database where important data are lacking. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Meijer, A.; Triay, I.; Knight, S.; Cisneros, M.

1989-11-01

216

A fieldable instrument for waterborne radionuclide detection  

SciTech Connect

In monitoring effluent leaving its sites, US DOE assays for alpha- emitting radionuclides (U, transuranics) to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Because alpha emissions can only by detected over a short range in water ({approximately}40{mu}m), the conventional approach is to collect samples for processing in a central laboratory; a time-consuming and cost procedure ensues to separate and measure the radionuclides. Because of the sporadic nature of sampling processes, there is the possibility that a release may go undetected. We are addressing this issue by a developing a real-time, field- deployable instrument which incorporates a proprietary film that selectively binds radionuclides from dilute aqueous samples. By combining the film with an appropriate alpha spectrometer, we have developed a fieldable system that can operate as an autonomous monitor in a batch or continuous manner. Laboratory results to date have been encouraging. Positive identification of U and Pu has been made by resolving the energy spectrum of emitted alphas. Sensitivity for U is at the 10 part per trillion level (15 femtocuries per liter).

Barshick, C.M.; Turner, M.L.; Smith, D.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Patch, K.D. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States). Tecogen Div.

1996-12-31

217

Lunar surface mine feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a lunar surface mine, and demonstrates the economic feasibility of mining oxygen from the moon. The mine will be at the Apollo 16 landing site. Mine design issues include pit size and shape, excavation equipment, muck transport, and processing requirements. The final mine design will be driven by production requirements, and constrained by the lunar environment. This mining scenario assumes the presence of an operating lunar base. Lunar base personnel will set-up a and run the mine. The goal of producing lunar oxygen is to reduce dependence on fuel shipped from Earth. Thus, the lunar base is the customer for the finished product. The perspective of this paper is that of a mining contractor who must produce a specific product at a remote location, pay local labor, and sell the product to an onsite captive market. To make a profit, it must be less costly to build and ship specialized equipment to the site, and pay high labor and operating costs, than to export the product directly to the site.

Blair, Brad R.

218

Feasibility of utilizing apple pomace  

SciTech Connect

Apple pomace, the solid residue from juice production, is a solid waste problem in the Hudson Valley. This study investigates possibilities for converting it to a resource. The characteristics of the region's apple growing and processing industries are examined at length, including their potential for converting waste biomass. The properties of apple pomace are described. From interviews with Hudson Valley apple processors the following information is presented: quantities of pomace produced; seasonality of production; disposal procedures, costs, and revenues; trends in juice production; and attitudes toward alternatives. Literature research resulted in a list of more than 25 end uses for apple pomace of which eight were selected for analysis. Landfilling, landspreading, composting, animal feed, direct burning, gasification, anaerobic digestion (methane generation), and fermentation (ethanol production) were analyzed with regard to technical availability, regulatory and environmental impact, attitudes toward end use, and energetic and economic feasibility (See Table 19). The study recommends (1) a pilot anaerobic digestion plant be set up, (2) the possibility of extracting methane from the Marlborough landfill be investigated, (3) a study of the mid-Hudson waste conversion potential be conducted, and (4) an education program in alternative waste management be carried out for the region's industrial and agricultural managers.

Stapleton, J.

1983-06-01

219

Is global measles eradication feasible?  

PubMed

Measles is one of most infectious diseases. Before the introduction of the measles vaccine, practically all children in the long run contracted measles. By the end of the 1980s most countries of the world had incorporated measles vaccine into their routine vaccination programs. Globally, some 800,000 deaths due to measles still occur every year, half of them in Africa. Eradication of measles would play an important role in improving child survival. The goal to eradicate measles from the Americas was set by the Pan American Sanitary Conference in 1994. Progress to date has been remarkable. Measles is no longer an endemic disease in the Americas and interruption of transmission has been documented in most countries. As of August 2005, 3 years have elapsed since the detection of the last indigenous case in Venezuela in September 2002. This experience shows that interruption of measles transmission can be achieved and sustained over a long period of time and that global eradication is feasible if appropriate strategy is implemented. Even in a new paradigm in which eradication is not followed by the discontinuation of vaccination, eradication of measles will be a good investment to avoid expensive epidemics and save the almost one million children that die every year to infection with the measles virus. It is not a dream to think that we will se a world free of measles by the year 2015. PMID:16989269

de Quadros, C A

2006-01-01

220

Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters  

SciTech Connect

The study objective of "The Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters" is to synthesize and test radionuclide transport models capable of realistically assessing radionuclide transport in various types of surface water bodies by including the sediment-radionuclide interactions. These interactions include radionuclide adsorption by sediment; desorption from sediment into water; and transport, deposition, and resuspension of sorbed radionuclides controlled by the sediment movements. During FY-1979, the modification of sediment and contaminant (radionuclide) transport model, FETRA, was completed to make it applicable to coastal waters. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral) model that consists of three submodels (for sediment, dissolved-contaminant, and particulate-contaminant transport), coupled to include the sediment-contaminant interactions. In estuaries, flow phenomena and consequent sediment and radionuclide migration are often three-dimensional in nature mainly because of nonuniform channel cross-sections, salinity intrusion, and lateral-flow circulation. Thus, an unsteady, three-dimensional radionuclide transport model for estuaries is also being synthesized by combining and modifying a PNL unsteady hydrothermal model and FETRA. These two radionuclide transport models for coastal waters and estuaries will be applied to actual sites to examine the validity of the codes.

,

1981-04-01

221

Dual-Doppler Feasibility Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When two or more Doppler weather radar systems are monitoring the same region, the Doppler velocities can be combined to form a three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector field thus providing for a more intuitive analysis of the wind field. A real-time display of the 3-D winds can assist forecasters in predicting the onset of convection and severe weather. The data can also be used to initialize local numerical weather prediction models. Two operational Doppler Radar systems are in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS); these systems are operated by the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) and the National Weather Service Melbourne, Fla. (NWS MLB). Dual-Doppler applications were considered by the 45 SW in choosing the site for the new radar. Accordingly, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), NWS MLB and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to investigate the feasibility of establishing dual-Doppler capability using the two existing systems. This study investigated technical, hardware, and software requirements necessary to enable the establishment of a dual-Doppler capability. Review of the available literature pertaining to the dual-Doppler technique and consultation with experts revealed that the physical locations and resulting beam crossing angles of the 45 SW and NWS MLB radars make them ideally suited for a dual-Doppler capability. The dual-Doppler equations were derived to facilitate complete understanding of dual-Doppler synthesis; to determine the technical information requirements; and to determine the components of wind velocity from the equation of continuity and radial velocity data collected by the two Doppler radars. Analysis confirmed the suitability of the existing systems to provide the desired capability. In addition, it is possible that both 45 SW radar data and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data from Orlando International Airport could be used to alleviate any radar geometry issues at the NWS MLB radar, such as the "cone of silence" or beam blockage. In the event of a radar outage at one of the sites, the multi-radar algorithms would provide continuing coverage of the area through use of the data from the remaining operational radar sites. There are several options to collect, edit, synthesize and display dual-Doppler data sets. These options include commercial packages available for purchase and a variety of freeware packages available from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) for processing raw radar data. However, evaluation of the freeware packages revealed that they do not have sufficient documentation and configuration control to be certified for 45 SW use. Additionally, a TI data line must be installed/leased from the NWS MLB office and CCAFS to enable the receipt of NWS MLB raw radar data to use in the dual-Doppler synthesis. Integration of the TI data line into the Eastern Range infrastructure that will meet the security requirements necessary for 45 SW use is time-consuming and costly. Overall evaluation indicates that establishment of the dual-Doppler capability using the existing operational radar systems is desirable and feasible with no technical concerns. Installation of such a system represents a significant enhancement to forecasting capabilities at the 45 WS and at NWS MLB. However, data security and cost considerations must be evaluated in light of current budgetary constraints. In any case, gaining the dual-Doppler capability will provide opportunities for better visualization of the wind field and better forecasting of the onset of convection and severe weather events to support space launch operations at KSC and CCAFS.

Huddleston, Lisa L.

2012-01-01

222

Feasibility Assessment of the Service Delivery Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this component of the evaluation, the Circles of Care grantees assessed the feasibility of their model systems of care. The goal of the Feasibility Assessment was to assure that each model system of care was well designed with careful consideration of project goals, community resources and readiness, cultural competence and measurable outcomes.

Coll, Kenneth M.; Mohatt, Gerald; LeMaster, Pamela L.

2004-01-01

223

A Market Feasibility Study Executive Summary  

E-print Network

A Market Feasibility Study Executive Summary Hawai`i-Grown Tea Pacific Asian Center for Entrepreneurship #12;Overview This report is a feasibility study for developing tea into a viable and sustainable of tea production throughout the world. China is the largestproducer,followedbyIndiaandKenya(FAOSTAT2008

224

Natural radionuclides in groundwater as pollutants and as useful tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series are present at mBq\\/l concentrations up to some Bq\\/l in many aquifers worldwide. Health impact from these radionuclides when present in drinking water results from ingestion, inhalation of outgassing radon and from possible radionuclide accumulation when water is treated. Activity retained in filters may lead to increased dose rates and contamination problems

François Gainon; Heinz Surbeck; François Zwahlen

225

Radionuclide decay data base - index and summary table  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an index and summary table for an extensive data base of evaluated radioactive decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides of potential importance in assessing radiological impacts on the general public or occupationally exposed individuals. For each radionuclide, the summary table gives the radionuclide name, half-life, and the average energy per decay for the emitted alpha particles, electrons, and photons. 8 refs., 1 tab.

Kocher, D C

1980-05-01

226

Multnomah County Hydrokinetic Feasibility Study: Final Feasibility Study Report  

SciTech Connect

HDR has completed a study of the technical, regulatory, and economic feasibility of installing hydrokinetic turbines under the Morrison, Broadway, and Sellwood bridges. The primary objective of installing hydrokinetic turbines is a demonstration of in-stream hydrokinetic technologies for public education and outreach. Due to the low gradient of the Lower Willamette and the effects of the tide, velocities in the area in consideration are simply not high enough to economically support a commercial installation. While the velocities in the river may at times provide enough energy for a commercial turbine to reach capacity, the frequency and duration of high flow events which provide suitable velocities is not sufficient to support a commercial hydrokinetic installation. We have observed that over an 11 year period, daily average velocities in the Lower Willamette exceeded a nominal cut-in speed of 0.75 m/s only 20% of the time, leaving net zero power production for the remaining 80% of days. The Sellwood Bridge site was estimated to have the best hydrokinetic resource, with an estimated average annual production of about 9,000 kWh. The estimated production could range from 2,500 kWh to 15,000 kWh. Based on these energy estimates, the amount of revenue generated through either a power purchase agreement (PPA) or recovered through net metering is not sufficient to repay the project costs within the life of the turbine. The hydrokinetic resource at the Morrison and Broadway Bridges is slightly smaller than at the Sellwood Bridge. While the Broadway and Morrison Bridges have existing infrastructure that could be utilized, the project is not expected to generate enough revenue to repay the investment. Despite low velocities and energy production, the sites themselves are favorable for installation of a demonstration or experimental project. With high public interest in renewable energy, the possibility exists to develop a hydrokinetic test site which could provide developers and scientists a location to temporarily deploy and test hydrokinetic devices, and also function as an educational tool for the general public. Bridge piers provide an excellent pre-existing anchor point for hydrokinetic devices, and existing infrastructure at the Morrison and Broadway Bridges may reduce installation costs. Opportunity exists to partner with local universities with engineering and environmental interest in renewable energy. A partnership with Portland State University�¢����s engineering school could provide students with an opportunity to learn about hydrokinetics through senior design projects. Oregon State University and University of Washington, which are partnered through the Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC) to study and test hydrokinetic technology, are also relatively local to the site. In addition to providing an opportunity for both public and private entities to learn technically about in-stream kinetics, this approach will encourage grant funding for outreach, education, and product development, while also serving as a positive community relations opportunity for the County and its partners.

Stephen Spain

2012-03-15

227

WERF MACT Feasibility Study Report  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to determine the technical feasibility of upgrading the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to meet the offgas emission limits proposed in the Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT)rule. Four practicable offgas treatment processes were identified, which, if installed, would enable the WERF to meet the anticipated MACT emission limits for dioxins and furans (D/F), hydrochloric acid (HCI), and mercury (Hg). Due to the three-year time restraint for MACT compliance, any technology chosen for the upgrade must be performed within the general plant project funding limit of $5 M. The option selected consists of a partial-quench evaporative cooler with dry sorbent injection for HCI removal followed by a sulfur-impregnated activated carbon bed for Hg control. The planning cost estimate for implementing the option is $4.17 M (with 24% contingency). The total estimated cost includes capital costs, design and construction costs, and project management costs. Capital costs include the purchase of a new offgas evaporative cooler, a dry sorbent injection system with reagent storage, a new fabric filter baghouse, a fixed carbon bed absorber, and two offgas induced draft exhaust fans. It is estimated that 21 months will be required to complete the recommended modification to the WERF. The partial-quench cooler is designed to rapidly cool the offgas exiting the secondary combustion chamber to minimize D/F formation. Dry sorbent injection of an alkali reagent into the offgas is recommended. The alkali reacts with the HCI to form a salt, which is captured with the fly ash in the baghouse. A design HCI removal efficiency of 97.2% allows for the feeding 20 lbs/hr of chlorine to the WERF incinerator. The sorbent feed rate can be adjusted to achieve the desired HCI removal efficiency. A fixed bed of sulfur-impregnated carbon was conservatively sized for a total Hg removal capacity when feeding 10 g/hr Hg to the WERF incinerator. An added benefit for using carbon adsorption is that the activated carbon will also capture a large fraction of any residual D/F present in the offgas.

B. Bonnema; D. Moser; J. Riedesel; K. Kooda; K. Liekhus; K. Rebish; S. Poling

1998-11-01

228

Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E. [and others

1994-04-01

229

Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

NONE

1996-11-01

230

Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in estuaries  

SciTech Connect

The finite element model LFESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment and Contaminant Transport Model) was synthesized under this study to simulate radionuclide transport in estuaries to obtain accurate radionuclide distributions which are affected by these factors: time variance, three-dimensional flow, temperature, salinity, and sediments. Because sediment transport and radionuclide adsorption/desorption depend strongly on sizes or types of sediments, FLESCOT simulates sediment and a sediment-sorbed radionuclide for the total of three sediment-size fractions (or sediment types) of both cohesive and noncohesive sediments. It also calculates changes of estuarine bed conditions, including bed elevation changes due to sediment erosion/deposition, and three-dimensional distributions of three bed sediment sizes and sediment-sorbed radionuclides within the bed. Although the model was synthesized for radionuclide transport, it is general enough to also handle other contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, or toxic chemicals. The model was checked for its capability for flow, water surface elevation change, salinity, sediment and radionuclide transport under various simple conditions first, confirming the general validity of the model's computational schemes. These tests also revealed that FLESCOT can use large aspect ratios of computational cells, which are necessary in handling long estuarine study areas. After these simple tests, FLESCOT was applied to the Hudson River estuary between Chelsea and the mouth of the river to examine how well the model can predict radionuclide transport through simulating tidally influenced three-dimensional flow, salinity, sediment and radionuclide movements with their interactions.

Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

1982-11-01

231

Microbial metabolism of triethylphosphate, a potential phosphate source for radionuclide mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant quantities of metals and radionuclides contaminate unsaturated zones at several sites in the western U.S. In many cases, this contamination has migrated to groundwater, sometimes decades after being released into the subsurface. A potentially useful approach for immobilizing radionuclides such as uranium and strontium in the vadose zone is precipitation with microbially-generated phosphate. Triethylphosphate (TEP) is a low-toxicity organophosphate that can be vaporized and delivered to the vadose zone. Microbes can catalyze TEP degradation, leading to the release of inorganic phosphate that can then lead to the precipitation of phosphate minerals. These minerals are typically highly stable and poorly soluble under environmental conditions. Sequestration in phosphate minerals is a promising strategy for mitigating radionuclide transport in the environment. To examine the feasibility of this strategy, we set up lab-scale incubation experiments with TEP-amended synthetic groundwater inoculated with vadose zone-derived mixed cultures from the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and sediment slurries using solids from the Hanford Reservation in Washington (U.S. Department of Energy facilities with significant radionuclide contamination in the vadose zone). The amount of phosphate released in the cultures was monitored, and the microbial communities were characterized with a high-density microarray (PhyloChip). Significant biodegradation of TEP was observed in the experiments with the synthetic groundwater amended with 5 mM TEP. Phosphate concentrations in live cultures steadily increased to >0.25 mM after 13 months with no phosphate accumulated in killed controls. Surprisingly, no evidence for phosphate mineral precipitation was observed, contrary to expectations based on equilibrium considerations. Studies are underway to investigate potential kinetic inhibition of precipitation under these conditions. Cell counts increased by approximately one order of magnitude during that period. Significant decreases in the d13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon in the live cultures were observed, indicating the microbial community was respiring the carbon in the TEP. In contrast, no significant accumulation of phosphate was observed in the sediment slurries with 5 mM TEP, most likely due to phosphate adsorption to the solids. Microbial community identification indicated that organisms in the families of Xanthomonadaceae, Crenotrichaceae and Comamonadaceae were enriched by the addition of TEP. Further characterization of radionuclide-biota interactions would lead to enhanced understanding of the fate and transport of these contaminants in the subsurface.

Wu, C. H.; Lam, B. R.; Chou, J.; Bill, M.; Henriksen, J.; Wright, K. E.; Brodie, E. L.; Andersen, G. L.; Hazen, T. C.; Fujita, Y.; Conrad, M. E.

2009-12-01

232

Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

Wrigley, R. C.

1973-01-01

233

Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

Welch, M.J.

1992-06-01

234

Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

1999-01-01

235

Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1981-01-01

236

Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as 99mTc-nanocolloid, 99mTc-sulphur colloid, 111In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed. PMID:20625724

Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo

2010-01-01

237

Application of radionuclide ventriculography to cardiac screening  

SciTech Connect

Screening asymptomatic individuals for latent coronary disease often requires sequential testing because exercise electrocardiography typically produces more false positive than true positive results in a population with a low prevalence of coronary disease. Cardiac scintigraphy is a technique that may be employed as a confirmatory test in lieu of coronary arteriography to further evaluate the significance of a positive exercise electrocardiogram. Radionuclide ventriculography was employed in 98 asymptomatic individuals who were considered to be at moderate risk of heart disease after risk factor analysis and exercise electrocardiography. Seventeen (17%) patients had an abnormal study and underwent cardiac catheterization. Seven had coronary artery disease, two had cardiomyopathy, and eight were normal. Eighty-one (83%) patients had a normal study. Because the sensitivity of radionuclide ventriculography is 63-80%, it was postulated that 2 to 5 individuals with disease were missed. Thus, from a population with an 11-14% prevalence of disease, two subsets were identified. A large subset in which a prevalence of 2-6% could be estimated was separated from a much smaller one in which a prevalence of approximately 50% was demonstrated.

Lindsay, J. Jr.; Milner, M.R.; Chandeysson, P.L.; Rodman, D.J.; Okin, P.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

1989-05-01

238

[Radionuclide therapy of endocrine-related cancer].  

PubMed

This article gives an overview of the established radionuclide therapies for endocrine-related cancer that already have market authorization or are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Radioiodine therapy is still the gold standard for differentiated iodine-avid thyroid cancer. In patients with bone and lung metastases (near) total remission is seen in approximately 50?% and the 15-year survival rate for these patients is approximately 90?%. In contrast to the USA, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy has market approval in Europe. According to the current literature, in the setting of advanced stage neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, radiological remission can be achieved in >?30?% and symptom control in almost 80?% of the treated patients. Somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapies (e.g. with DOTATATE or DOTATOC) demonstrated promising results in phase 2 trials, reporting progression-free survival in the range of 24-36 months. A first phase 3 pivotal trial for intestinal carcinoids is currently recruiting and another trial for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is planned. Radiopharmaceuticals based on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) or minigastrins are in the early evaluation stage for application in the treatment of insulinomas and medullary thyroid cancer. In general, radiopharmaceutical therapy belongs to the group of so-called theranostics which means that therapy is tailored for individual patients based on molecular imaging diagnostics to stratify target positive or target negative tumor phenotypes. PMID:25269725

Kratochwil, C; Giesel, F L

2014-10-01

239

Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects.

Suer, A.

1996-02-28

240

Geometry of Feasible Spaces of Tensors  

E-print Network

Due to the exponential growth of the dimension of the space of tensors V_(1)?• • •?V_(n), any naive method of representing these tensors is intractable on a computer. In practice, we consider feasible subspaces (subvarieties) which are defined...

Qi, Yang

2013-07-17

241

Nome Waste Heat Feasibility Study: (Final Report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was performed to determine if a district heating system for Nome is feasible both technically and economically. The study considers energy usage factors, including weather, climatic aspects, historical factors, population, and energy conservation,...

1987-01-01

242

7 CFR 1980.442 - Feasibility studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...an exception to the requirement of a feasibility study for loans to existing businesses when the financial history of the business, the current financial condition of the business, and guarantees or other collateral offered for the loan are...

2012-01-01

243

7 CFR 1980.442 - Feasibility studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...an exception to the requirement of a feasibility study for loans to existing businesses when the financial history of the business, the current financial condition of the business, and guarantees or other collateral offered for the loan are...

2011-01-01

244

7 CFR 1980.442 - Feasibility studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...an exception to the requirement of a feasibility study for loans to existing businesses when the financial history of the business, the current financial condition of the business, and guarantees or other collateral offered for the loan are...

2013-01-01

245

Final Report of the Athletics Feasibility  

E-print Network

and Associates for a campus-wide study on University pursuing membership in a NCAA I-A football conference. Based to engage in a feasibility study to examine the future of the athletics department. II. Leadership

Thaxton, Christopher S.

246

Three Affliated Tribes Renewable Energy Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Three Affliated Tribes on the Fort Berthold Reservation studied the feasibility of a commercial wind facility on land selected and owned by the Tribes and examined the potential for the development of renewable energy resources on Tribal Lands.

Belvin Pete; Kent Good; Krista Gordon; Ed McCarthy,

2006-05-26

247

25 CFR 41.7 - Feasibility studies.  

...initiate a feasibility study to determine whether there is justification to encourage and maintain a Community College for such tribe or tribes...shall give consideration to the following factors...opportunities for Indian students. (c) The...

2014-04-01

248

Removal of radionuclides by analcime-bearing rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the removal of radionuclides (uranium, radium and thorium) in static conditions from aqueous solutions by analcime-bearing rocks and pure analcime was carried out. The high removal efficiency of all studied radionuclides by analcime-bearing rocks was determined. Analcime was efficient in removing of thorium only.

Shushkov, D.; Kotova, O.; Shuktomova, I.

2013-12-01

249

Radionuclide site survey report, Melbourne, Florida (RN-72). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The format and content of this report are based on guidance provided by the Preparatory Commission for the CTBT Organization for conducting and documenting radionuclide site surveys (see GTBT/PC/IV/WGB/1) ``Requirements of Site Surveys for Radionuclide Stations``, (30 September 1997). The purpose of this report is to validate that the Melbourne site will fulfill the requirements for treaty compliance.

Walker, F.; Lucas, J.; Owen, M.; McKethan, E.M.; MacCartney, J.

1998-11-16

250

MARSAME Appendix C C. EXAMPLES OF COMMON RADIONUCLIDES  

E-print Network

Th 226 Ra and progeny Thorium series radionuclides Uranium series radionuclides Waste Water Treatment products (e.g., 60 Co) Aircraft Manufacturing and Maintenance Facility 3 H (dials and gauges) Magnesium-thorium alloys Nickel-thorium alloys 147 Pm (lighted dials and gauges) 226 Ra and progeny (radium dials) Depleted

251

Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review.  

PubMed

Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current developments that have lead, or could potentially contribute, to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) uranium mining and milling; (5) commercial fuel reprocessing; (6) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes that include radionuclides might be released in the future, and (7) nuclear accidents. Then, we briefly summarize the inventory of radionuclides (99)Tc and (129)I, as well as geochemical behavior for radionuclides (99)Tc, (129)I, and (237)Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment; biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides. PMID:18819734

Hu, Qin-Hong; Weng, Jian-Qing; Wang, Jin-Sheng

2010-06-01

252

Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides  

E-print Network

Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides Bradley J and models of CR distribution based on Monte- Carlo simulations of photon and b particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied

Hielscher, Andreas

253

Phase chemistry and radionuclide retention of high level radioactive waste tank sludges  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Experimentation on such sludges is both dangerous and prohibitively expensive so there is a great advantage to developing artificial sludges. The US DOE Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) has funded a program to investigate the feasibility of developing such materials. The following text reports on the success of this program, and suggests that much of the radioisotope inventory left in a tank will not move out into the surrounding environment. Ultimately, such studies may play a significant role in developing safe and cost effective tank closure strategies.

KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; BRADY,PATRICK V.; ZHANG,PENGCHU; ARTHUR,SARA E.; HUTCHERSON,SHEILA K.; LIU,J.; QIAN,M.; ANDERSON,HOWARD L.

2000-05-19

254

Radionuclide bone scan in initial staging of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Radionuclide bone scans of 100 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer were retrospectively analysed. The number and topography of increased area of uptake were noted. Diagnosis criterion was defined by at least four foci of increased uptake, outside peripheral articular joints. In case of a number between one and three, the result was considered doubtful and radionuclide bone scan was confronted to available standard X Rays or/and radionuclide bone scan follow-up. Correlations of radionuclide bone scans with T, N and the clinical stage were assessed using chi-square methods. Metastases were present in 9 patients (9%). In five of these cases, the pattern was manifestly metastatic without the need to other investigation. In the other cases, interpretation required complementary investigation. The yield of metastases was very low in localized stages, this pointed out the difficulty in interpretation of radionuclide bone scans for localized stages, probably due to a less skeletal extension. PMID:12793064

Boughattas, Sami; Hassine, Habib; Chatti, Kaouther; Essabbah, Habib

2003-03-01

255

Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ({sup 238}Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

1981-03-01

256

Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ([sup 238]Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

1981-03-01

257

Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

1992-09-01

258

Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

1992-09-01

259

7 CFR 3575.47 - Economic feasibility requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic feasibility requirements. 3575.47...Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.47 Economic feasibility requirements. ...for determining the credit quality and economic feasibility of the proposed...

2010-01-01

260

7 CFR 4280.173 - Grant funding for feasibility studies.  

...for America Program General Renewable Energy System Feasibility Study Grants...Eligible project costs for renewable energy system feasibility studies...Ineligible project costs for renewable energy system feasibility studies...

2014-01-01

261

Accumulation of radionuclides by plants as a monitor system.  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of radionuclides by plants acting as a monitoring system in the environment may occur by two modes; foliar absorption by the leaves and shoot of the plant, or by root uptake from the soil. Data on plant accumulation of radionuclides may be obtained from studies of fission product radionuclides deposited as worldwide fallout, and from tracer studies of plant physiology. The epidermal features of plant foliage may exert an effect upon particle retention by leaves, and subsequent uptake of radionuclides from the surface. The transport of radionuclides across the cuticle and epidermis of plant leaves is determined in part by the anatomy of the leaf, and by physiological factors. The foliar uptake of fallout radionuclides, 99Sr, 131I, and 137Cs, is described with examples from the scientific literature. The environmental half-life of 131I, for example, is considerably shorter than its physical half-life because of physical and biological factors which may produce a half-life as short as 0.23/day. 99Sr and 137Cs are readily taken up by the leaf, but 137Cs undergoes more translocation into fruit and seeds than 99Sr which tends to remain in the plant part in which it was initially absorbed. Soil-root uptake is conditioned primarily by soil chemical and physical factors which may selectively retain a radionuclide, such as 137Cs. The presence of organic matter, inorganic colloids (clay), and competing elements will strongly affect the uptake of 99Sr and 137Cs by plants from the soil. The role of plants as monitors of radionuclides is twofold: as monitors of recent atmospheric releases of radionuclides; and as indicators of the long-term behavior of aged deposits of radionuclides in the soil. PMID:367767

Koranda, J J; Robison, W L

1978-01-01

262

Feasible or Non-Feasible? - That is the Question (Graphing Systems of Linear Inequalities)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn how to use the graph of a system of linear inequalities to determine the feasible region. Students practice solving word problems to find the optimal solution that maximizes profits. Students will use the free application, GeoGebra (see download link under Suggested Technology) to help them create different graphs and to determine the feasible or non-feasible solutions.

2012-11-11

263

Radionuclide based imaging of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men. Early detection of PCa by blood tests for elevated levels of prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) has lead to early treatment and a reduction in death rates. However, PSA level alone does not distinguish between PCa and normal conditions that cause elevated PSA. Furthermore, because PCa can be a very slow growing cancer, even confirmation of PCa cells in a biopsy gives no indication whether the PCa will progress into active disease within the individual's lifetime. As a result many patients receive treatment that they may not need. Imaging is an attractive modality for the detection and characterization of disease because most techniques are non- or minimally invasive, nondestructive, provide dynamic real-time data, and allow for repeat measurements. In PCa, advanced imaging techniques could be useful for accurate staging of primary disease, restaging of recurrent disease, detection of metastatic lesions, and predicting the aggressiveness of the disease. This paper reviews the radionuclide based imaging agents for planar, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging currently used in the clinic and those under development for PCa. The former includes the bone agents technetium diphosphonates and F-18 fluoride, the metabolic agents 2-[¹?F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), and receptor targeted radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies including ProstaScint. The latter agents include C-11 acetate, C-11 and F-18 choline, C-11 and F-18 labeled 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid, radiolabeled androgen receptor binding compounds, radiolabeled peptides and small molecules for receptors over expressed either on prostate cancer itself or on the associated tumor neovasculature. Coregistration of PET or SPECT images with CT or MRI scans, improvements in imaging cameras, and image reconstruction algorithms have improved the quality of the images to the point where dual modality (radionuclide/CT or MRI) imaging with several agents can now be considered for staging of PCa. In addition, the high selectivity and rapid localization of many of the new agents under development portends promise for a greater use of radionuclide imaging for prostate cancer detection, characterization, and treatment monitoring. PMID:20583988

Mease, Ronnie C

2010-01-01

264

Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy: Potential new areas  

SciTech Connect

Radiation oncology is entering an exciting new era with therapies being delivered in a targeted fashion through an increasing number of novel approaches. External beam radiotherapy now integrates functional and anatomic tumor imaging to guide delivery of conformal radiation to the tumor target. Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT) adds an important new dimension by making available to Radiation oncologist biologically targeted radiation therapy. Impressive clinical results with antibody-targeted radiotherapy, leading to the Food and Drug Administration's approval of two anti-CD20 radiolabeled antibodies, highlight the potential of STaRT. Optimization strategies will further improve the efficacy of STaRT by improving delivery systems, modifying the tumor microenvironment to increase targeted dose, and maximizing dose effect. Ultimately, the greatest potential for STaRT will not be as monotherapy, but as therapy integrated into established multimodality regimens and used as adjuvant or consolidative therapy in patients with minimal or micrometastatic disease.

Wong, Jeffrey Y.C. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Research, City of Hope National Medical Center and Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, CA (United States)]. E-mail: jwong@coh.org

2006-10-01

265

Graphene oxide for effective radionuclide removal.  

PubMed

Here we show the efficacy of graphene oxide (GO) for rapid removal of some of the most toxic and radioactive long-lived human-made radionuclides from contaminated water, even from acidic solutions (pH < 2). The interaction of GO with actinides including Am(III), Th(IV), Pu(IV), Np(V), U(VI) and typical fission products Sr(II), Eu(III) and Tc(VII) were studied, along with their sorption kinetics. Cation/GO coagulation occurs with the formation of nanoparticle aggregates of GO sheets, facilitating their removal. GO is far more effective in removal of transuranium elements from simulated nuclear waste solutions than other routinely used sorbents such as bentonite clays and activated carbon. These results point toward a simple methodology to mollify the severity of nuclear waste contamination, thereby leading to effective measures for environmental remediation. PMID:23296256

Romanchuk, Anna Yu; Slesarev, Alexander S; Kalmykov, Stepan N; Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Tour, James M

2013-02-21

266

Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - Cs-137 and Sr-90 in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. Cs-137 level was 3.7...9.2 times higher than Sr-90 one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg).

Marmuleva, N. I.; Barinov, E. Ya.; Petukhov, V. L.

2003-05-01

267

Natural radionuclides in drinking waters in Serbia.  

PubMed

Gross alpha and beta activities, (3)H, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities were measured in bottled mineral water produced in Serbia in order to assess its radiological quality. In 11 samples of tap water and in 1 sample of spring waters gross alpha and beta activity were determined. The natural activity concentration of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides are within the range recommended by World Health Organization. The tritium concentration in bottled mineral waters ranged from 0.023 ± 0.012 to 0.046 ± 0.006 Bq l(-1). The activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were below the minimum detectable activity. In order to evaluate the annual effective dose for different classes of age, a conservative dosimetric calculation was carried out. PMID:23041389

Jankovi?, Marija M; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Todorovi?, Nataša A; Nikolov, Jovana

2012-12-01

268

Radionuclide evaluation of spontaneous femoral osteonecrosis  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle in 40 knees was followed by sequential radiographs and three-phase bone scans using /sup 99//sup m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate. The characteristic bone scan appearance of focal increased uptake by the medial femoral condyle in blood flow, blood pool, and delayed images helped to make the specific diagnosis in 11 knees that had no characteristic radiographic findings at the time of presentation. The three phases of the bone scan demonstrated a pattern that was useful in determining the activity of the process. There was a gradual loss of hyperemia as healing progressed. Late bone scans were normal or showed nonspecific findings. Radionuclide bone scans were able to confirm or exclude this disease and were superior to radiographs in demonstrating the disease in the acute phase.

Greyson, N.D. (St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada); Lotem, M.M.; Gross, A.E.; Houpt, J.B.

1982-03-01

269

Characterization of hydrofracture grouts for radionuclide migration  

SciTech Connect

Detailed characterization of hydrofracture grouts was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. Laboratory-produced samples containing simulated wastes as well as actual radioactive samples of hydrofracture grout sheets obtained by core drilling were examined in this work. X-ray diffraction results revealed that both laboratory-produced samples and a core-drilled sample consisted primarily of calcium carbonate phases. Both sample types contained very small amounts of strontium or cesium wastes, neither of which could be detected by microscopic techniques. The core-drilled sample contained radioactive /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 60/Co that could be detected by ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. The autoradiograph revealed that these radionuclides were still present in the 20-year-old grout and that they had not migrated into the trapped shale fragments.

Stinton, D.P.; McDaniel, E.W.; Weeren, H.O.

1983-01-01

270

Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

1998-07-01

271

Radionuclide localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage  

SciTech Connect

The authors prospectively evaluated the usefulness of abdominal radionuclide scintigraphy using 99mTc-labeled red cells as a means of monitoring for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding over a 24-hour period in both control and actively bleeding populations. Of 32 patients with documented hemorrhage, 29 had positive scintiscans (sensitivity, 91%; 9% false negatives). Of 18 nonbleeding patients, 17 had negative scintiscans (specificity, 95%; 5% false positives). 12 of 29 patients bled from 6 to 24 hours after the study was begun. Scintiscans were positive in patients with transfusion requirements of greater than or equal to 500 ml/24 hr. The authors conclude that abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red cells is an effective method of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding.

Winzelberg, G.G.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Waltman, A.C.; Greenfield, A.J.; Athanasoulis, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

1981-05-01

272

Radionuclide localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage  

SciTech Connect

The authors prospectively evaluated the usefulness of abdominal radionuclide scintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells as a means of monitoring for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding over a 24-hour period in both control and actively bleeding populations. Of 32 patients with documented hemorrhage, 29 had positive scintiscans (sensitivity, 91%; 9% false negatives). Of 18 nonbleeding patients, 17 had negative scintiscans (specificity, 95%; 5% false positives). 12 of 29 patients bled from 6 to 24 hours after the study was begun. Scintiscans were positive in patient with transfusion requirements of greater than or equal to 500 ml/24 hr. The authors conclude that abdominal scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells is an effective method of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding.

Winzelberg, G.G.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Waltman, A.C.; Greenfield, A.J.; Athanasoulis, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

1981-05-01

273

Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction

Y. Onishi; S. B. Yabusaki; C. T. Kincaid; R. L. Skaggs; W. H. Walters

1982-01-01

274

Removal of radionuclides at a waterworks.  

PubMed

A waterworks with an average production rate of 1.3 m3 s(-1), providing several large cities in the province of Scania with drinking water has been studied regarding its capacity to remove several natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. The raw water is surface water from lake Bolmen which is transported through an 80 km long tunnel in the bedrock before it enters the waterworks. The method used for purification is a combination of coagulation-flocculation and filtration in sand filters. Two different purification lines are currently in use, one using Al2(SO4)3 as a coagulant and one using FeCl3. After coagulation and flocculation the precipitate is removed and the water is passed through two different sand filters (rapid filtration and slow filtration). Water samples were collected at the lake, the inlet to the waterworks, after each of the flocculation basins (Al2(SO4)3 and FeCl3), after rapid filtration and from the municipal distribution network. The samples were analysed with respect to their content of uranium, thorium, polonium, radium, plutonium and caesium. The results show a high removal capacity for uranium (about 85%), thorium (>90%), plutonium (>95%) and polonium (>90% in the coagulation-flocculation process) while caesium, strontium and radium pass through the purification process with almost unchanged activity concentrations. During transportation of the water in the tunnel it was also observed that infiltration of groundwater leads to a change in isotopic ratios and/or activity concentrations for the naturally occurring radionuclides and plutonium. PMID:12363265

Gäfvert, T; Ellmark, C; Holm, E

2002-01-01

275

Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton  

SciTech Connect

Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

2000-06-01

276

Chancellor Water Colloids: Characterization and Radionuclide Association  

SciTech Connect

Concluding remarks about this paper are: (1) Gravitational settling, zeta potential, and ultrafiltration data indicate the existence of a colloidal phase of both the alpha and beta emitters in the Chancellor water; (2) The low activity combined with high dispersion homogeneity of the Chancellor water indicate that both alpha and beta emitters are not intrinsic colloids; (3) Radionuclides in the Chancellor water, particularly Pu, coexist as dissolved aqueous and sorbed phases - in other words the radionuclides are partitioned between the aqueous phase and the colloidal phase; (4) The presence of Pu as a dissolved species in the aqueous phase, suggests the possibility of Pu in the (V) oxidation state - this conclusion is supported by the similarity of the k{sub d} value of Pu determined in the current study to that determined for Pu(V) sorbed onto smectite colloids, and the similar electrokinetic behavior of the Chancellor water colloids to smectite colloids; (5) About 50% of the Pu(V) is in the aqueous phase and 50% is sorbed on colloids (mass concentration of colloids in the Chancellor water is 0.12 g/L); (6) The k{sub d} of the Pu and the beta emitters (fission products) between aqueous and colloidal phases in the Chancellor water is {approx}8.0 x 10{sup 3} mL/g using two different activity measurement techniques (LSC and alpha spectroscopy); (7) The gravitational settling and size distributions of the association colloids indicate that the properties (at least the physical ones) of the colloids to which the alpha emitters are associated with seem to be different that the properties of the colloids to which the beta emitters are associated with - the beta emitters are associated with very small particles ({approx}50 - 120 nm), while the alpha emitters are associated with relatively larger particles; and (8) The Chancellor water colloids are extremely stable under the natural pH and ionic strength conditions, indicating high potential for transport in the subsurface.

Abdel-Fattah, Amr I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18

277

Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility  

SciTech Connect

This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

1998-06-01

278

Underground radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This document reviews results from a number of studies concerning underground migration of radionuclides from nuclear test cavities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Discussed are all cases known to the Department of Energy's Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program where radionuclides have been detected outside of the immediate vicinity of nuclear test cavities that are identifiable as the-source of the nuclides, as well as cases where radionuclides might have been expected and were intentionally sought but not fixed. There are nine locations where source-identifiable radionuclide migration has been detected, one where migration was purposely induced by pumping, and three where migration might be expected but was not found. In five of the nine cases of non-induced migration, the inferred migration mechanism is prompt fracture injection during detonation. In the other four cases, the inferred migration mechanism is water movement. In only a few of the reviewed cases can the actual migration mechanism be stated with confidence, and the attempt has been made to indicate the level of confidence for each case. References are cited where more information may be obtained. As an aid to future study, this document concludes with a brief discussion of the aspects of radionuclide migration that, as the present review indicates, are not yet understood. A course of action is suggested that would produce a better understanding of the phenomenon of radionuclide migration.

Nimz, G.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Thompson, J.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1992-06-22

279

Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects.  

PubMed

The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 ((131)I), phosphorous-32 ((32)P), strontium-90 ((90)Sr), and yttrium-90 ((90)Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-Hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

2014-10-01

280

Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects  

PubMed Central

The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

2014-01-01

281

Cape Blanco wind farm feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cape Blanco Wind Farm (CBWF) Feasibility Study was undertaken as a prototype for determining the feasibility of proposals for wind energy projects at Northwest sites. It was intended to test for conditions under which wind generation of electricity could be commercially feasible, not by another abstract survey of alternative technologies, but rather through a site-specific, machine-specific analysis of one proposal. Some of the study findings would be most pertinent to the Cape Blanco site - local problems require local solutions. Other findings would be readily applicable to other sites and other machines, and study methodologies would be designed to be modified for appraisal of other proposals. This volume discusses environmental, economic, and technical issues of the Wind Farm.

1987-11-01

282

Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.  

PubMed

Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

2011-06-01

283

Ultrasonic flow imaging system: A feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the feasibility and potential problems in developing a real-time ultrasonic flow imaging instrument for on-line monitoring of mixed-phased flows such as coal slurries. State-of-the-art ultrasonic imaging techniques are assessed for this application. Reflection and diffraction tomographies are proposed for further development, including image-reconstruction algorithms and parallel processing systems. A conventional ultrasonic C-scan technique is used to demonstrate the feasibility of imaging the particle motion in a solid/water flow. 13 refs., 11 figs.

Sheen, S.H.; Lawrence, W.P.; Chien, H.T.; Raptis, A.C.

1991-09-01

284

Emission of Radionuclides from the Destroyed Unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of radionuclide emission resulting from the Chernobyl accident are briefly reviewed. Three ways to estimate emission are examined: direct investigations of radionuclides emitted from the destroyed unit; study of the quantity and composition of radionuclides emitted on the territory after the active stage of the accident was over; study of the quantity and composition of radionuclides remaining in the

A. A. Borovoi; A. Yu. Gagarinskii

2001-01-01

285

Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and to determine the processes, mechanisms, and geologic features that have a significant effect on it. They evaluate the contributions of daughter products of radioactive decay to transport from the bottom of the potential repository to the water table. The effect of the various conceptual models of perched water bodies on transport is also evaluated. Note that a more thorough study of perched water bodies can be found in another AMR (CRWMS M and O 1999d, Sections 6.2 and 6.6). The primary caveat for using the modeling results documented here is that the input transport parameters were based on limited site data. For some input parameters, best estimates were used because no specific data were available. An additional caveat is that the RTM is based on the conceptual models and numerical approaches used for developing the flow fields and infiltration maps, and thus they share the same limitations.

G. Moridis; Q. Hu

2000-03-12

286

Monitoring release of disposable radionuclides in the Kara sea: Bioaccumulation of long-lived radionuclides in echinoderms and molluscs  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present proposal is to continue and extend our research on the trophic transfer of important radionuclides in benthic fauna of the Kara Sea. This project is assessing the extent to which select species of seastars, brittle stars, and clams typical of the Kara Sea concentrate and retain a variety of long-lived radionuclides known to be (or suspected to be) present in the disposed wastes in the Russian Arctic. The rates and routes of uptake and depuration of isotopes in the same or in closely related species are being quantified so that endemic benthic organisms can be assessed as potential bioindicators of released radionuclides in Arctic waters.

Fisher, N.S.

1994-01-01

287

Developments in Bioremediation of Soils and Sediments Pollutedwith Metals and Radionuclides: 2. Field Research on Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides has had manyfield tests, demonstrations, and full-scale implementations in recentyears. Field research in this area has occurred for many different metalsand radionuclides using a wide array of strategies. These strategies canbe generally characterized in six major categories: biotransformation,bioaccumulation/bisorption, biodegradation of chelators, volatilization,treatment trains, and natural attenuation. For all field applicationsthere are a number of critical biogeochemical issues that most beaddressed for the successful field application. Monitoring andcharacterization parameters that are enabling to bioremediation of metalsand radionuclides are presented here. For each of the strategies a casestudy is presented to demonstrate a field application that uses thisstrategy.

Hazen, Terry C.; Tabak, Henry H.

2007-03-15

288

Feasibility study of silicon nitride regenerators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of silicon nitride as a regenerator matrix material for applications requiring inlet temperatures above 1000 C is examined. The present generation oxide ceramics are used as a reference to examine silicon nitride from a material characteristics, manufacturing, thermal stress and aerothermodynamic viewpoint.

Fucinari, C. A.; Rao, V. D. N.

1979-01-01

289

Combustion synthesis of thoria – a feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to prepare a thoria powder feed that can be compacted and sintered at lower temperatures, the feasibility of the combustion synthesis was studied. Here, preparations using thorium nitrate as oxidant and urea or citric acid as fuel were studied. The powders thus prepared were characterized for surface area and crystallite size and were compacted into pellets and

V. Chandramouli; S. Anthonysamy; P. R. Vasudeva Rao

1999-01-01

290

Artemis: Results of the engineering feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in viewgraph form for the Engineering Feasibility Study of the Artemis Project, a plan to establish a permanent base on the Moon. Topics covered include the Common Lunar Lander (CLL), lunar lander engineering study results, lunar lander trajectory analysis, lunar lander conceptual design and mass properties, the lunar lander communication subsystem design, and product assurance.

1991-01-01

291

Adult Skills Training Center: Feasibility Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 4-phase project, this study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a bilingual vocational skill training program for out-of-school youth and adults of the Perth Amboy Hispanic community. Sampled were 494 out-of-school youth and adults in the area. Findings include: (1) There is a significant need for an adult vocational skills training…

Skalski, John M.; Baratta, Anthony N.

292

Feasibility of warm drawing of aluminium products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is carried out on the feasibility of using warm forming at temperatures from 100 to 250°C in order to improve the makeability of aluminium sheet components. Drawing tests are performed on 1050, 5754 and 6016 series aluminium sheets. Both box shaped and conical rectangular products are made with a tool with heated die and blankholder. The effect of

P. J Bolt; N. A. P. M Lamboo; P. J. C. M Rozier

2001-01-01

293

Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC or the Community) contracted the ANTARES Group, Inc. (“ANTARES”) to assess the feasibility of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. A solar energy project could provide a number of benefits to the Community in terms of potential future energy savings, increased employment, environmental benefits from renewable energy generation and usage, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The study addresses a number of facets of a solar project’s overall feasibility, including: ? Technical appropriateness; ? Solar resource characteristics and expected system performance; ? Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) economic assessment. The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC or the Community) contracted the ANTARES Group, Inc. (“ANTARES”) to prepare a biomass resource assessment study and evaluate the feasibility of a bioenergy project on Community land. A biomass project could provide a number of benefits to the Community in terms of increased employment, environmental benefits from renewable energy generation and usage, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The study addresses a number of facets of a biomass project’s overall feasibility, including: ? Resource analysis and costs; ? Identification of potential bioenergy projects; ? Technical and economic (levelized cost of energy) modeling for selected project configuration.

Rooney, Tim [Antares Group Inc.] [Antares Group Inc.

2013-10-30

294

Feasibility study of UCL and Hull students  

E-print Network

provided and choices of the students. · Understand the impact of availability of healthy and unhealthy food their eating as "fairly healthy " ­ see Map 2 · Economics is the key driver of food choice ·UCL students spendFeasibility study of UCL and Hull students food networks Nikkita Henshall nikkita.henshall.09@ucl

295

FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR AN ASBESTOS AEROSOL MONITOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The feasibility of discriminating and counting asbestos-fiber aerosol particles by means of their shapes, using a two-detector, optical, aerosol counter was determined. The assymmetry of their optical diffraction patterns would distinguish fibers from other, more regular aerosol ...

296

Feasibility Study for Commercial Production of  

E-print Network

1 Feasibility Study for Commercial Production of Biodiesel in the Treasure Valley of Idaho Consultant respectively University of Idaho #12;2 Biodiesel As An Alternative to Diesel Fuel · Invention · Meal · Biodiesel Plant site Requirements · Constraints for Biodiesel Plant · Economic · Environmental

Kyte, Michael

297

Technological feasibility of alternative energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. energy shortage is discussed. The technology of coal gasification or liquefication, shale oil from oil shale, and geothermal energy recovery is presented in sufficient detail to show feasibility of these as energy source alternatives to petroleum crude. Technical trade publications data show that essentially all necessary process technology is known, although important improvements are possible, and have been

M. L. Zweigle

1974-01-01

298

A cask maintenance facility feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a transportation system for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and defense high level waste (HLW) as a part of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS). In early 1988, a feasibility study was undertaken to design a stand-alone, ''green field'' facility for maintaining the FWMS casks. The feasibility study provided an initial layout facility design, an estimate of the construction cost, and an acquisition schedule for a Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF). The study also helped to define the interfaces between the transportation system and the waste generators, the repository, and a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility. The data, design, and estimated costs resulting from the study have been organized for use in the total transportation system decision-making process. Most importantly, the feasibility study also provides a foundation for continuing design and planning efforts. Fleet servicing facility studies, operational studies from current cask system operators, a definition of the CMF system requirements, and the experience of others in the radioactive waste transportation field were used as a basis for the feasibility study. In addition, several cask handling facilities were visited to observe and discuss cask operations to establish the functions and methods of cask maintenance expected to be used in the facility. Finally, a peer review meeting was held at Oak Ridge, Tennessee in August, 1988, in which the assumptions, design, layout, and functions of the CMF were significantly refined. Attendees included representatives from industry, the repository and transportation operations.

Rennich, M.J.; Medley, L.G.; Attaway, C.R.

1989-01-01

299

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

300

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

301

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

302

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

303

21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

304

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

305

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2012-04-01

306

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

307

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

308

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

309

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

310

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

311

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

312

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

313

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

314

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

315

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

316

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2011-04-01

317

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2013-04-01

318

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

319

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2014-04-01

320

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2010-04-01

321

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

322

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

323

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

324

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

325

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

326

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

327

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

328

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

329

Monitored Natural Attenuation For Radionuclides In Ground Water - Technical Issues  

EPA Science Inventory

Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attentuation) within the subsurface. In gen...

330

COLLABORATION: INTERFACIAL SOIL CHEMISTRY OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

Mobility of radionuclides (Cs+, Sr2+) in the vadose zone is controlled by sorptive interactions with natural soil particles. Weathering of silicates and intercalation of clay minerals with hydroxy -aluminum and -aluminosilicate species under the intense geochemical conditions in...

331

Colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport in fractured porous rock  

E-print Network

-equilibrium model was developed to describe the transport and fate of the radionuclides in the fracture. Sorption onto rock matrix, fracture surface and sorption into mobile and immobile colloids are included. The effect of colloidal particle size was also...

Baek, Inseok

2012-06-07

332

Site Characterization for MNA of Radionuclides in Ground Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitored natural attenuation is often evaluated as a component of the remedy for ground water contaminated with radionuclides. When properly employed, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may provide an effective knowledge-based remedy where a thorough engineering analysis inform...

333

Subsurface Characterization To Support Evaluation Of Radionuclide Transport And Attenuation  

EPA Science Inventory

Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

334

National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series  

SciTech Connect

The National Low Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has published a report containing key information about selected radionuclides that are most likely to contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility. The information includes physical and chemical characteristics, production means, waste forms, behavior of the radionuclide in soils, plants, groundwater, and air, and biological effects in animals and humans. The radionuclides included in this study comprise all of the nuclides specifically listed in 10CFR61.55, Tables 1 and 2, 3 H, 14 C, 59 Ni, 60 Co, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 241 Pu, and 242 Cm. Other key radionuclides addressed in the report include 237 Np, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. This paper summarizes key information contained within this report.

Adams, James Paul; Carboneau, Michael Leonard; Allred, William Edgar

1999-03-01

335

National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series  

SciTech Connect

The National Low Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has published a report containing key information about selected radionuclides that are most likely to contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility. The information includes physical and chemical characteristics, production means, waste forms, behavior of the radionuclide in soils, plants, groundwater, and air, and biological effects in animals and humans. The radionuclides included in this study comprise all of the nuclides specifically listed in 10CFR61.55, Tables 1 and 2, 3 H, 14 C, 59 Ni, 60 Co, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 241 Pu, and 242 Cm. Other key radionuclides addressed in the report include 237 Np, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. This paper summarizes key information contained within this report.

J.P. Adams; M.L. Carboneau; W.E. Allred

1999-02-01

336

Biologically mediated reductive dissolution and precipitation of metals and radionuclides  

E-print Network

-reac- tion studies to formulate two-dimensional numerical models of reactive transport in a heterogeneous remedial strategy). Keywords: reactive transport, heterogeneity, modeling, groundwater, uranium. BACKGROUNDABSTRACT Biologically mediated reductive dissolution and precipitation of metals and radionuclides

Roden, Eric E.

337

Biomolecular Mechanisms Controlling Metal and Radionuclide Transformations in Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans  

SciTech Connect

Microbiological reduction and immobilization of U(VI) and Tc(VII) has been proposed as a strategy for remediating radionuclide-contaminated environments. Numerous studies focusing on the reduction kinetics and speciation of these metals have been carried out using contaminated sediment samples, microbial consortia, and pure bacterial cultures. While previous work with model organisms has increased the general understanding of radionuclide transformation processes, fundamental questions regarding radionuclide reduction mechanisms by indigenous microorganisms are poorly understood, especially under the commonly encountered scenario where multiple electron acceptors are present. Therefore, the overall goal of the proposed research is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of radionuclide biotransformation by Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans, a predominant member of indigenous microorganism commonly found in contaminated subsurface environments, and to assess the effects of relevant environmental factors affecting these transformation reactions.

Beliaev, Alexander S.; Fredrickson, James K.; Loeffler, Frank E.; Sanford, Robert A.

2006-06-01

338

Compositions and methods for removal of toxic metals and radionuclides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to compositions and methods for the removal of toxic metals or radionuclides from source materials. Toxic metals may be removed from source materials using a clay, such as attapulgite or highly cationic bentonite, and chitin or chitosan. Toxic metals may also be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan. Radionuclides may be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan.

Cuero, Raul G. (Inventor); McKay, David S. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

339

Wet deposition of radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chernobyl radioactivity in precipitation was measured at Tsukuba, Japan, as were both surface-air concentrations and particle-size distributions of Chernobyl-released radionuclides. To understand the wet removal processes of the Chernobyl radionuclides, i.e.137Cs,103Ru, and90Sr, wet deposition velocities were calculated. The wet deposition velocities of the Chernobyl radioactivity for individual rainfall events varied largely. The wet deposition velocity is given as the product

Katsumi Hirose; Sukeyoshi Takatani; Michio Aoyama

1993-01-01

340

Transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere during complex meteorological conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclides from various sources (nuclear and fossil fuel power plants, nuclear facilities, medical facilities, etc.) are being released to the atmosphere. The meteorological conditions determine the atmospheric turbulence, dispersion, and removal processes of the radionuclides. A two-dimensional version of the cloud model based on the Klemp-Wilhelmson dynamic and Lin et al.'s microphysics and thermodynamics has been adapted and used to

D. Antic; B. Telenta

1991-01-01

341

Genetic effects from internally deposited radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

It was learned in the late 1920's that ionizing radiation could produce genetic effects such as gene mutations and chromosome aberrations. However, at least until 1945, the focus on interest in radiation protection was primarily on somatic effects manifested in the individual exposed. Studies of the genetic effects of radiation using drosophila, however, refocused attention on effects transmitted to the exposed individuals offspring and concern over fallout in the 1950's resulted in efforts to estimate the genetic effects from exposure of human populations to internally deposited radionuclides. No human populations have been identified with burdens of internally deposited radioactive materials which have been shown to produce evidence of transmissible genetic damage. As a result, the research approach has been one in which macromolecular, cellular, and whole animal genetic studies have been combined to estimate genetic effects on humans following the deposition of radioactive materials in the body. The purpose of this report is to update the information available from animal and cellular experiments that relates genetic effects to deposited activity and dose from internally deposited radioactive materials.

Not Available

1987-01-01

342

Biosorption of radionuclides by fungal biomass.  

PubMed

Four kinds of bioreactor were evaluated for thorium removal by fungal biomass. Static-bed or stirred-bed bioreactors did not give satisfactory thorium removal probably because of poor mixing. An air-lift bioreactor removed approximately 90-95% of the thorium supplied over extended time periods and exhibited a well-defined breakthrough point after biosorbent saturation. The air-lift bioreactor promoted efficient circulation and effective contact between the thorium solution and the mycelial pellets. Of several fungal species tested, Rhizopus arrhizus and Aspergillus niger were the most effective biosorbents with loading capacities of 0.5 and 0.6 mmol g-1 respectively (116 and 138 mg g-1) at an inflow thorium concentration of 3 mmol dm-3. The efficiency of thorium biosorption by A. niger was markedly reduced in the presence of other inorganic solutes while thorium biosorption by R. arrhizus was relatively unaffected. Air-lift bioreactors containing R. arrhizus biomass could effectively remove thorium from acidic solution (1 mol dm-3 HNO3) over a wide range of initial thorium concentrations (0.1-3 mmol dm-3). The biotechnological application and significance of these results are discussed in the wider context of fungal biosorption of radionuclides. PMID:1366965

White, C; Gadd, G M

1990-01-01

343

Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolite{trademark} NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900{trademark}, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material.

Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

1999-04-02

344

Natural chelating agents for radionuclide decorporation  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the production of metal-binding compounds useful for the therapy of heavy metal poisoning, for biological mining and for decorporation of radionuclides. The present invention deals with an orderly and effective method of producing new therapeutically effective chelating agents. This method uses challenge biosynthesis for the production of chelating agents that are specific for a particular metal. In this approach, the desired chelating agents are prepared from microorganisms challenged by the metal that the chelating agent is designed to detoxify. This challenge induces the formation of specific or highly selective chelating agents. The present invention involves the use of the challenge biosynthetic method to produce new complexing/chelating agents that are therapeutically useful to detoxify uranium, plutonium, thorium and other toxic metals. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa family of organisms is the referred family of microorganisms to be used in the present invention to produce the new chelating agent because this family is known to elaborate strains resistant to toxic metals.

Premuzic, E.T.

1985-06-11

345

Radionuclide imaging of soft tissue neoplasms  

SciTech Connect

Two classes of radiopharmaceuticals may be used for imaging tumors of the musculoskeletal system. The first is comprised of soft tissue or tumor specific agents such as gallium-67, bleomycin, and radionuclide-labeled antibodies, which may be useful for detecting and localizing these tumors. The other class of tracer is comprised of those with avidity for bone. The 99mTc-labeled-phosphate skeletal imaging compounds have been found to localize in a variety of soft tissue lesions, including benign and malignant tumors. In 1972, Enneking began to include bone scans in the preoperative evaluation of soft tissue masses. Later, he and his associates reported that these scans were useful in planning operative treatment of sarcomas by detecting involvement of bone by the tumors. Nearly all malignant soft tissue tumors take up bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, and bone involvement was indicated in two-thirds of the scans we reviewed. About half of benign soft tissue lesions had normal scans, but the other half showed uptake within the lesion and a few also showed bone involvement. Careful, thorough imaging technique is essential to proper evaluation. Multiple, high-resolution static gamma camera images in different projections are necessary to adequately demonstrate the presence or absence of soft tissue abnormality and to define the precise relationship of the tumor to the adjacent bone.

Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.; Enneking, W.F.

1981-10-01

346

Radionuclides' Content Speciation and Fingerprinting of Nigerian Tin Mining Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment and process-waste samples rich in cassiterite, monazite and zircon, which are of industrial interest, were analysed for the natural series radionuclides, 232Th and 238U and the non-series radionuclide, 40K using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. The natural radionuclides' radioactivity in the samples from the tin-rich areas of Jos, Nigeria was determined using K0-INAA. The obtained results have a high degree of reliability judging from the techniqués accuracy, precision and its non-dependence on secular equilibrium and density correction problems inherent in gamma spectrometry as well as rigorous contamination-prone sample preparation requirements of other methods. Radionuclides speciation and ratios, giving radionuclide fingerprinting of the tin mining tailings is reported. The measured radionuclides activity levels are several orders of magnitude higher than UNSCEAR reference values, revealing the pollution potential of the tin mining and process activities on the surrounding areas, vis-à-vis heavy particulate matter load, leaching into various water channels and direct exposure to gamma rays emitted from the houses and facilities built from the generated wastes. The observed activity levels reflects possible worst scenario situation and the data would not only be of use to the government in its remediation plan for the study area but will also serve as important information for the nuclear science and technology programme about to be embarked upon. Methods of checking exposure have also been suggested.

Olise, F. S.; Oladejo, O. F.; Owoade, O. K.; Almeida, S. M.; Ho, M. D.; Olaniyi, H. B.

2012-04-01

347

Simulation of radionuclide transport in U. S. agriculture  

SciTech Connect

Because of the recent concern about the impact of energy technologies on man and related health effects, there has emerged a need for models to calculate or predict the effects of radionuclides on man. A general overview is presented of a model that calculates the ingrowth of radionuclides into man's food chain. The FORTRAN IV computer program TERRA, Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides in Agriculture, simulates the build-up of radionuclides in soil, four plant food compartments, in meat and milk from beef, and in the livestock food compartments that cause radionuclide build-up in milk and meat from beef. A large data set of spatially oriented parameters has been developed in conjunction with TERRA. This direct-access data set is called SITE, Specific Information on the Terrestrial Environment, and contains 35 parameters for each of 3525 half-degree longitude-latitude cells which define the lower 48 states. TERRA and SITE are used together as a package for determining radionuclide concentrations in man's food anywhere within the conterminous 48 states due to atmospheric releases.

Sharp, R.D.; Baes, C.F. III

1982-01-01

348

Radionuclides in United States commercial nuclear power reactors  

SciTech Connect

In the next ten to twenty years, many of the commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States will be reaching their projected lifetime of forty years. As these power plants are decommissioned, it seems prudent to consider the recycling of structural materials such as stainless steel. Some of these materials and components have become radioactive through either nuclear activation of the elements within the components or surface contamination with radioactivity form the operational activities. In order to understand the problems associated with recycling stainless steel from decommissioned nuclear power reactors, it is necessary to have information on the radionuclides expected on or in the contaminated materials. A study has been conducted of radionuclide contamination information that is available for commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States. There are two types of nuclear power reactors in commercial use in the United States, pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs). Before presenting radionuclide activities information, a brief discussion is given on the major components and operational differences for the PWRs and BWRs. Radionuclide contamination information is presented from 11 PWRs and over 8 BWRs. These data include both the radionuclides within the circulating reactor coolant water as well as radionuclide contamination on and within component parts.

Bechtold, T.E. [ed.] [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dyer, N.C. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)

1994-01-01

349

49 CFR 173.433 - Requirements for determining basic radionuclide values, and for the listing of radionuclides on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...into consideration. (2) A single radioactive decay chain in...days or longer than that of the parent nuclide, will be considered as a single radionuclide, and the activity...be those corresponding to the parent nuclide of that chain....

2013-10-01

350

49 CFR 173.433 - Requirements for determining basic radionuclide values, and for the listing of radionuclides on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...435: (1) Where the chemical form of each radionuclide is known, it is permissible to use the A2 value related to its solubility class as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, if the chemical forms under both...

2011-10-01

351

49 CFR 173.433 - Requirements for determining basic radionuclide values, and for the listing of radionuclides on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...435: (1) Where the chemical form of each radionuclide is known, it is permissible to use the A2 value related to its solubility class as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, if the chemical forms under both...

2012-10-01

352

49 CFR 173.433 - Requirements for determining basic radionuclide values, and for the listing of radionuclides on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...435: (1) Where the chemical form of each radionuclide is known, it is permissible to use the A2 value related to its solubility class as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, if the chemical forms under both...

2010-10-01

353

Natural radionuclides and plutonium in sediments from the western Arctic Ocean: sedimentation rates and pathways of radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores collected during R. V. Polar Sea AOS94 expedition from the Chukchi Shelf to the North Pole were analyzed for several decay-series natural radionuclides and Pu isotopes to study sedimentation rates and pathways of radionuclides in the western Arctic Ocean. The measured sedimentation rates vary by more than three orders of magnitude along the transect, from 210Pb-based rates of

Chin-An Huh; Nicklas G. Pisias; James M. Kelley; Tapas C. Maiti; Art Grantz

1997-01-01

354

Central Station DHC Phase 1 feasibility  

SciTech Connect

This project assisted a private real estate developer in technically assessing the feasibility of integrating a central DHC system into a proposed 72 acre area mixed-use Planned Development (Central Station) just south of the Chicago Central Business District (Loop). The technical assessment concluded that a district heating and cooling system for Central Station will be feasible, provided that a major anchor load can be connected to the system. The system conceived for the site employs a modular approach that adjusts production capacity to actual load growth. The design concept includes gas-fired boilers for heating, gas turbine driven chillers for base loading, electric motor driven chillers for peaking, steam turbines for peak power and back pressure operation, and chilled water storage. Energy will be supplied to the users in the form of steam or low temperature hot water for heating, and low temperature chilled water for cooling.

Henderson, H.L.

1992-03-01

355

Long life feasibility study for SIRTF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Phase A baseline for the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) consists of an 85-cm diameter Cassegrain telescope, cooled to temperatures in the range from 10 to 20 K to provide background limited imaging for up to six instruments contained within a multiple instrument chamber (MIC). Colder temperature zones are also provided. A cryogenics system for a 15-day mission lifetime was first considered. In another study, the feasibility was assessed to extend the lifetime of the baseline SIRTF concept to at least six months, taking into account a mission involving the use of a space platform or a free-flyer configuration. According to the considered requirements, the optics temperature is to be kept below 10 K for at least 30 days. The temperatures are not to exceed 20 K at the end of the six months mission. It is shown that by using solid hydrogen, long-life operation is feasible with present technology.

Naes, L. G.; Nast, T. C.

1985-01-01

356

COLD-SAT feasibility study safety analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cryogenic On-orbit Liquid Depot-Storage, Acquisition, and Transfer (COLD-SAT) satellite presents some unique safety issues. The feasibility study conducted at NASA-Lewis desired a systems safety program that would be involved from the initial design in order to eliminate and/or control the inherent hazards. Because of this, a hazards analysis method was needed that: (1) identified issues that needed to be addressed for a feasibility assessment; and (2) identified all potential hazards that would need to be controlled and/or eliminated during the detailed design phases. The developed analysis method is presented as well as the results generated for the COLD-SAT system.

Mchenry, Steven T.; Yost, James M.

1991-01-01

357

Feasibility and Desirability of Mandatory Subordinated Debt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A report from the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Secretary of the US Department of Treasury, The Feasibility and Desireability of Mandatory Subordinated Debt considers the possibility of using "subordinated debt to increase market discipline at depository institutions and to protect the deposit insurance funds." Along with a clearly written introduction and conclusion, this report concentrates on answering the question "Is a Mandatory Subordinated Debt Requirement of Large Banking Organizations Feasible and Appropriate?" The authors reach three major conclusions: 1) that there is sufficient evidence to continue to use subordinated debt to encourage market discipline, 2) that there is a good possibility that mandatory subordinated debt insurance policies may help market discipline and safety, and 3) that the FRB BOG and the Secretary of the US Department of Treasury will continue to analyze research about subordinated debt gathered from market practices, research, and supervisory experience and will suggest new legislation as needed.

358

Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and contaminant mixing in an exhaust system and may be useful to identify potential sampling locations in an exhaust system that are likely to meet criteria in the revised standard.

Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2002-12-16

359

Cape Blanco wind farm feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cape Blanco Wind Farm Feasibility Study investigated the engineering, economic, environmental and meteorological aspects of a proposed 80 MW wind energy project on a 1600-acre site southeast of Cape Blanco, Oregon. Study sponsors evaluated the potential impacts of large (2500 kW) MOD-2 and intermediate (170 kW) FloWind turbines. This volume is a summary of the study and its conclusions.

1987-11-01

360

Laminar flow control SPF\\/08 feasibility demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of applying superplastic forming\\/diffusion bonding (SPF\\/DB) technology to laminar flow control (LFC) system concepts was demonstrated. Procedures were developed to produce smooth, flat titanium panels, using thin -0.016 inch sheets, meeting LFC surface smoothness requirements. Two large panels 28 x 28 inches were fabricated as final demonstration articles. The first was flat on the top and bottom sides

R. C. Ecklund; N. R. Williams

1981-01-01

361

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION.  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of waste streams containing radionuclides, the remediation of contaminated materials, soils, and water, and the safe and economical disposal of radionuclides and toxic metals containing wastes is a major concern. Radionuclides may exist in various oxidation states and may be present as oxide, coprecipitates, inorganic, and organic complexes depending on the process and waste stream. Unlike organic contaminants, the metals cannot be destroyed, but must either be converted to a stable form or removed. Microorganisms present in the natural environment play a major role in the mobilization and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metals by direct enzymatic or indirect non-enzymatic actions and could affect the chemical nature of the radionuclides by altering the speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of microbiological transformations of various chemical forms of uranium present in wastes and contaminated soils and water has led to the development of novel bioremediation processes. One process uses anaerobic bacteria to stabilize the radionuclides by reductive precipitation from higher to lower oxidation state with a concurrent reduction in volume due to the dissolution and removal of nontoxic elements from the waste matrix. In an another process, uranium and other toxic metals are removed from contaminated surfaces, soils, and wastes by extracting with the chelating agent citric acid. Uranium is recovered from the citric acid extract after biodegradation followed by photodegradation in a concentrated form as UO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O for recycling or appropriate disposal. These processes use all naturally occurring materials, common soil bacteria, naturally occurring organic compound citric acid and sunlight.

FRANCIS, A.J.

2006-09-29

362

Inferring Hillslope Hydrology from the Distribution of Fallout Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Be-7, excess Pb-210, Cs-137, and Am-241 are short-lived (half-life < 500 yr) particle-reactive radionuclides with well-defined atmospheric source terms. Previous studies show that the redistribution of these radionuclides on agricultural fields is by particle transport, not via the dissolved phase. We use the distribution of short-lived atmospheric fallout on forested hillslopes to infer the hydrological processes governing local sediment transport. Here, we present radionuclide activities from soil samples collected at different depths along hillslope profiles in a forested watershed in New Hampshire. Radionuclide activities in stream sediment, water, and soil samples were determined by gamma spectroscopy. Sites with fallout radionuclide inventories consistent with the theoretical deposition flux can be assumed to be stable and undergoing little or no erosion. However, near-stream portions of the watershed which could be subject to saturated overland flow show a depletion of Be-7 and excess Pb-210 relative to the more stable locations. Sediment collected from the bottom of stream channels showed significant activities of short-lived radionuclides, particularly Be-7. This suggests that saturated overland flow is an important process eroding soil from certain parts of the hillslope and in-channel deposition occurs. By comparing the distribution of Be-7 (half-life ca. 53 days) with Cs-137 (half-life ca. 30 yr) we can identify the timescales of sediment transport processes. A hydrological model is presented to explain the distribution of radionuclides on hillslopes at our study site. The results from this study will help us better predict the fate of atmospherically deposited contaminants in watersheds.

Kaste, J. M.; Heimsath, A. M.; Friedland, A. J.

2001-05-01

363

Feasibility of Magnetostrictive Sensor Inspection of Containments  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a study on the feasibility of using guided waves for long-range global inspection of containment metallic pressure boundaries (i.e., steel containments and liners of reinforced concrete containments) in nuclear power plants. Of particular concern in this study was the potential of the guided-wave approach for remotely inspecting the regions that are inaccessible; for example, regions where the metallic pressure boundary is backed by concrete on one or both sides. The study includes a literature review on long-range guided-wave inspection techniques, a modeling study of the behavior of guided waves in plates with different boundary conditions (e.g., freestanding and backed by concrete on one or both sides), and an experimental investigation of the feasibility of a guided-wave technique called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for (1) generating and detecting guided waves in plates and (2) detecting a defect over a long range. Results of the study showed (1) that it is feasible to achieve long-range global inspection of plates, including regions that are inaccessible, using low-frequency guided waves and (2) that the MsS technique is well suited for this application. Recommendations are made to further test and develop the MsS technique for practical implementation for containment inspection in nuclear power plants.

Kwun, H.

1999-03-01

364

Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR.

NONE

1995-03-01

365

Artificial radionuclides database in the Pacific Ocean: HAM database.  

PubMed

The database "Historical Artificial Radionuclides in the Pacific Ocean and its Marginal Seas", or HAM database, has been created. The database includes 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu concentration data from the seawater of the Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas with some measurements from the sea surface to the bottom. The data in the HAM database were collected from about 90 literature citations, which include published papers; annual reports by the Hydrographic Department, Maritime Safety Agency, Japan; and unpublished data provided by individuals. The data of concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu have been accumulating since 1957-1998. The present HAM database includes 7737 records for 137Cs concentration data, 3972 records for 90Sr concentration data, and 2666 records for 239,240Pu concentration data. The spatial variation of sampling stations in the HAM database is heterogeneous, namely, more than 80% of the data for each radionuclide is from the Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, while a relatively small portion of data is from the South Pacific. This HAM database will allow us to use these radionuclides as significant chemical tracers for oceanographic study as well as the assessment of environmental affects of anthropogenic radionuclides for these 5 decades. Furthermore, these radionuclides can be used to verify the oceanic general circulation models in the time scale of several decades. PMID:15105960

Aoyama, Michio; Hirose, Katsumi

2004-03-15

366

Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, ?-, ?-, and ?-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients. PMID:20811605

Ting, Gann; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Lee, Te-Wei

2010-01-01

367

Bioremediation: a genuine technology to remediate radionuclides from the environment.  

PubMed

Radionuclides in the environment are a major human and environmental health concern. Like the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 is once again causing damage to the environment: a large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated and dumped into the environment, and if the general population is exposed to it, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Bioremediation has been viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to environmentally destructive physical remediation. Microorganisms carry endogenous genetic, biochemical and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for pollutant remediation in soil and groundwater. Attempts have been made to develop native or genetically engineered (GE) microbes for the remediation of environmental contaminants including radionuclides. Microorganism-mediated bioremediation can affect the solubility, bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides. Therefore, we aim to unveil the microbial-mediated mechanisms for biotransformation of radionuclides under various environmental conditions as developing strategies for waste management of radionuclides. A discussion follows of '-omics'-integrated genomics and proteomics technologies, which can be used to trace the genes and proteins of interest in a given microorganism towards a cell-free bioremediation strategy. PMID:23617701

Prakash, Dhan; Gabani, Prashant; Chandel, Anuj K; Ronen, Zeev; Singh, Om V

2013-07-01

368

Radionuclides, radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive tracers for in vivo clinical diagnosis fall within a narrow, strictly-defined set of specifications in respect of their physical properties, chemical and biochemical characteristics, and (approved) medical applications. The type of radioactive decay and physical half-life of the radionuclide are immutable properties which, along with the demands of production and supply, limit the choice of radionuclides used in medicine to only a small fraction of those known to exist. In use, the biochemical and physiological properties of a radiotracer are dictated by the chemical form of the radionuclide. This chemical form may range from elemental, molecular or ionic, to complex compounds formed by coordinate or covalent bonding of the radionuclide to either simple organic or inorganic molecules, or complex macromolecules. Few of the radiotracers which are tested in model systems ever become radiopharmaceuticals in the strictest sense. Radionuclides, radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals in use are reviewed. Drug legislation and regulations concerning drug manufacture, as well as hospital ethical constraints and legislation concerning unsealed sources of radiation must all be satisfied in order to translate a radiopharmaceutical from the laboratory to clinical use.

Wiebe, Leonard I.

369

Studying the anthropogenic radionuclides in Puerto Rico: Preliminary Result  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local introduction of anthropogenic radionuclides to Puerto Rico's terrestrial and aquatic environments began in 1962 as a result of US government-sponsored research activities. Some of the earlier experiments examined the effects of radiation in tropical rainforests and the potential of superheated boiling nuclear reactor technology. More recent activities involved the use of depleted uranium during military exercises on Vieques. While the presence of radionuclides in Puerto Rico is documented, little research has been done to assess the environmental impact of this anthropogenic material. After entering Puerto Rico's environment, it is likely that some radionuclides are transported away from initial introduction sites. It is important that the distributions and behavior of radionuclides in Puerto Rico be determined. As such an investigation of this material throughout Puerto Rico was initiated. Sediment Cs-137 and Pb-210 activities, as well as ancillary geochemistry data are presented. These preliminary findings will be utilized as part of an ongoing study to determine radionuclide distributions and behaviors, with respect to aquatic geochemistry and dominant transport processes.

Ithier-Guzmán, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Smoak, J.

2004-12-01

370

Bioremediation: a genuine technology to remediate radionuclides from the environment  

PubMed Central

Summary Radionuclides in the environment are a major human and environmental health concern. Like the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 is once again causing damage to the environment: a large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated and dumped into the environment, and if the general population is exposed to it, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Bioremediation has been viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to environmentally destructive physical remediation. Microorganisms carry endogenous genetic, biochemical and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for pollutant remediation in soil and groundwater. Attempts have been made to develop native or genetically engineered (GE) microbes for the remediation of environmental contaminants including radionuclides. Microorganism-mediated bioremediation can affect the solubility, bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides. Therefore, we aim to unveil the microbial-mediated mechanisms for biotransformation of radionuclides under various environmental conditions as developing strategies for waste management of radionuclides. A discussion follows of ‘-omics’-integrated genomics and proteomics technologies, which can be used to trace the genes and proteins of interest in a given microorganism towards a cell-free bioremediation strategy. PMID:23617701

Prakash, Dhan; Gabani, Prashant; Chandel, Anuj K; Ronen, Zeev; Singh, Om V

2013-01-01

371

Three-dimensional radiobiological dosimetry of kidneys for treatment planning in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) delivers high absorbed doses to kidneys and may lead to permanent nephropathy. Reliable dosimetry of kidneys is thus critical for safe and effective PRRT. The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of planning PRRT based on 3D radiobiological dosimetry (3D-RD) in order to optimize both the amount of activity to administer and the fractionation scheme, while limiting the absorbed dose and the biological effective dose (BED) to the renal cortex. Methods: Planar and SPECT data were available for a patient examined with {sup 111}In-DTPA-octreotide at 0.5 (planar only), 4, 24, and 48 h post-injection. Absorbed dose and BED distributions were calculated for common therapeutic radionuclides, i.e., {sup 111}In, {sup 90}Y and {sup 177}Lu, using the 3D-RD methodology. Dose-volume histograms were computed and mean absorbed doses to kidneys, renal cortices, and medullae were compared with results obtained using the MIRD schema (S-values) with the multiregion kidney dosimetry model. Two different treatment planning approaches based on (1) the fixed absorbed dose to the cortex and (2) the fixed BED to the cortex were then considered to optimize the activity to administer by varying the number of fractions. Results: Mean absorbed doses calculated with 3D-RD were in good agreement with those obtained with S-value-based SPECT dosimetry for {sup 90}Y and {sup 177}Lu. Nevertheless, for {sup 111}In, differences of 14% and 22% were found for the whole kidneys and the cortex, respectively. Moreover, the authors found that planar-based dosimetry systematically underestimates the absorbed dose in comparison with SPECT-based methods, up to 32%. Regarding the 3D-RD-based treatment planning using a fixed BED constraint to the renal cortex, the optimal number of fractions was found to be 3 or 4, depending on the radionuclide administered and the value of the fixed BED. Cumulative activities obtained using the proposed simulated treatment planning are compatible with real activities administered to patients in PRRT. Conclusions: The 3D-RD treatment planning approach based on the fixed BED was found to be the method of choice for clinical implementation in PRRT by providing realistic activity to administer and number of cycles. While dividing the activity in several cycles is important to reduce renal toxicity, the clinical outcome of fractionated PRRT should be investigated in the future.

Baechler, Sebastien; Hobbs, Robert F.; Boubaker, Ariane; Buchegger, Franz; He Bin; Frey, Eric C.; Sgouros, George [Institute of Radiation Physics, Lausanne University Hospital, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States)

2012-10-15

372

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

FRANCIS,A.J.

2006-10-18

373

Recent research involving the transfer of radionuclides to milk  

SciTech Connect

The radionuclides in milk, which result from exposure of dairy cows to radioactive fallout, are a major factor in assessment of internal radiation of humans. To evaluate the radionuclide intake of people from fallout-contaminated milk requires information about feed sources and milk distribution. Pasture intake and the shelf-life of milk are important factors in the case of a short-lived radionuclide like /sup 131/I. Large-scale human radiation assessment studies are underway, all of which consider the dairy food chain as a critical component. These include retrospective studies of fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada site in the 1950s and the impact of the Chernobyl accident on April 26, 1986.

Ward, G.M.

1989-01-01

374

Recovery of enriched stable isotopes in radionuclide production  

SciTech Connect

The wide application of radionuclides in different fields of science and industry demanded an increase of their production. One of the ways to increase the radionuclide production on present cyclotrons is the use of the targets from enriched stable isotopes. This allows one to raise the productivity in some cases by two or more times and to increase radionuclidic purity. It should be noted, however, that enriched stable isotopes are very expensive. Therefore it is advisable to use such raw materials more than once. In the last ten years, The authors have used stable isotopes extensively for making of targets. Zinc-67 and zinc-68, cadmium-111 and cadmium-112, nickel-58, silver-109, thallium-203 have been employed for the production of gallium-67, indium-111, cobalt-57, cadmium-109 and thallium-201, respectively. The technique for the recovery of enriched stable isotopes has been developed. In this report the schemes of the recovering processes are presented.

Razbash, A.A.; Sevastyanov, Yu.G.; Polyakov, O.N.; Krasnov, N.N.; Konyakhin, N.A.; Tolstouhov, Yu.V.; Maklachkov, A.G. [Cyclotron Co. Ltd., Obninsk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31

375

Radionuclide data bases available for bioaccumulation factors for freshwater biota  

SciTech Connect

Aquatic models currently in use for dose assessment simulate the transfer of radionuclides in aquatic environments and the transfer to man. In these models the assimilation of a radionuclide in aquatic biota is calculated by using a simple empirical relationship known as the bioaccumulation factor (BF) to represent the transfer of the radionuclide from water to organism. The purpose of this article is to review data bases that are available for BFs for freshwater biota and to identify the uncertainties associated with them. Data bases for raidoisotopes of Co, Cs, C, H, I, Pu, Ra, Ru, Sr, and U are reviewed. With the exception of ruthenium and carbon, the review is restricted to BFs determined for natural freshwater systems. Factors influencing the variability of BFs are identified, uncertainties associated with the validation of BFs are discussed, and some guidance is given for collecting data and measuring BFs.

Blaylock, B.G.

1982-07-01

376

Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores  

SciTech Connect

Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally acceptable levels remain to be reported. The present studies were performed to determine the specificity of spores of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the adsorption of dissolved metals and radionuclides from aqueous waste. The spores effectively adsorbed eight heavy metals from a prepared metal mix and from a plating rinse waste to EPA acceptable levels for waste water. These results suggest that spores have multiple binding sites for the adsorption of heavy metals. Spores were also effective in adsorbing the radionuclides {sup 85}strontium and {sup 197}cesium. The presence of multiple sites in spores for the adsorption of heavy metals and radionuclides makes this biosorbent a good candidate for the treatment of aqueous wastes associated with the plating and nuclear industries. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

Revis, N.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Edenborn, H. [and others

1997-11-01

377

Radionuclides in plankton from the South Pacific Basin  

SciTech Connect

We have initiated an investigation of the utility of marine plankton as bioconcentrating samplers of low-level marine radioactivity in the southern hemisphere. A literature review has shown that both freshwater and marine plankton have trace element and radionuclide concentration factors (relative to water) of up to 10/sup 4/. We participated in Operations Deepfreeze 1981 and 1982, collecting a total of 48 plankton samples from the USCGC Glacier on its Antarctic cruises. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories sampled air, water, rain, and fallout. We were able to measure concentrations in plankton of the naturally-occurring radionuclides /sup 7/Be, /sup 40/K, and the U and Th series, and we believe that we have detected low levels of /sup 144/Ce and /sup 95/Nb in seven samples ranging as far south as 68/sup 0/. Biological identification of the plankton suggests a possible correlation between radionuclide concentration and the protozoa content of the samples. 7 references, 5 figures.

Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

1984-03-23

378

Geomorphic control of radionuclide diffusion in desert soils  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Diffusion is a standard model for the vertical migration of radionuclides in soil profiles. Here we show that diffusivity values inferred from fallout 137CS profiles in soils on the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan, Nye County, Nevada, have a strong inverse correlation with the age of the geomorphic surface. This result suggests that radionuclide-bound particles are predominantly transported by infiltration rather than by bulk-mixing processes such as wetting/ drying, freeze/thaw, and bioturbation. Our results provide a preliminary basis for using soil-geomorphic mapping, point-based calibration data, and the diffusion model to predict radionuclide trans desert soils within a pedotransfer-function approach. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

Pelletier, J. D.; Harrington, C. D.; Whitney, J. W.; Cline, M.; DeLong, S. B.; Keating, G.; Ebert, T. K.

2005-01-01

379

7 CFR 1737.70 - Description of feasibility study  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...estimates used in the feasibility study, the estimates generally may...will accompany the feasibility study. (j) When it is reasonably...service, a second feasibility study will be prepared, for comparison...a loan or loan guarantee to verify income, assets, and...

2010-01-01

380

The feasibility of silicon on garnet technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of combining silicon and magnetic bubble technologies is demonstrated. Functional MOSFETs have been fabricated on top of bubble films coated with 1-micron thick SiO2 layers. The large grain silicon necessary for these devices is obtained by laser recrystallization of polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon). The laser-recrystallization process causes changes in the magnetic properties of the bubble film; however, these changes can be reversed by subsequent thermal anneals. The required temperature treatments after laser annealing are compatible with the MOSFET fabrication process.

Rasky, P. H. L.; Greve, D. W.; Kryder, M. H.; Dutta, S.

1985-01-01

381

Atmospheric Science Field Laboratory - A feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plans are underway to transfer the technology represented by the lightning and atmospheric science research facilities and capabilities at the Kennedy Space Center to outside users in other government agencies, private industry, and the academic community. Rocket triggered lightning is being used to demonstrate the feasibility of establishing an Atmospheric Science Field Laboratory as a permanent facility and long-term cost sharing. Results from previous programs and data from a lightning event which occurred during the STS-7 flight are presented to demonstrate the adequacy of the present lightning protection and measuring system to protect personnel, vehicle, and ground equipment, as well as to rapidly assess damage due to a lightning event.

Jafferis, William

1987-01-01

382

Updating the OMERACT filter: discrimination and feasibility.  

PubMed

The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs, and interpretability of the question(s) included in the instrument. Both the Discrimination and Reliability parts of the filter have been helpful but were agreed on primarily by consensus of OMERACT participants rather than through explicit evidence-based guidelines. In Filter 2.0 we wanted to improve this definition and provide specific guidance and advice to participants. PMID:24692522

Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E; Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John R; Bingham, Clifton O; Boonen, Annelies; Brooks, Peter; Conaghan, Philip G; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Dougados, Maxime; Furst, Daniel E; Gossec, Laure; Guillemin, Francis; Helliwell, Philip; Hewlett, Sarah; Kvien, Tore K; Landewé, Robert B; March, Lyn; Mease, Philip J; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Simon, Lee; Singh, Jasvinder A; Strand, Vibeke; van der Heijde, Désirée M

2014-05-01

383

GENESIS ; a feasibility manager for electronic circuits  

E-print Network

the project is needed before more time and money are spent. An evaluation on the expected performance of the Journal model is IEEE Transactions on . 4utomatic Control. circuit once the preliminary design has been completed would be used to get the project... research in the area of CAD tools for analog circuits; It has been proved that the task is feasible and that the results are at this point comparable in performance and accuracy with the results a designer would obtain if he were to do it without the aid...

Fossati, Humberto Mario

2012-06-07

384

Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

Sisk, R. C.

2001-01-01

385

F-8 oblique wing structural feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of fitting a rotating oblique wing on an F-8 aircraft to produce a full scale manned prototype capable of operating in the transonic and supersonic speed range was investigated. The strength, aeroelasticity, and fatigue life of such a prototype are analyzed. Concepts are developed for a new wing, a pivot, a skewing mechanism, control systems that operate through the pivot, and a wing support assembly that attaches in the F-8 wing cavity. The modification of the two-place NTF-8A aircraft to the oblique wing configuration is discussed.

Koltko, E.; Katz, A.; Bell, M. A.; Smith, W. D.; Lauridia, R.; Overstreet, C. T.; Klapprott, C.; Orr, T. F.; Jobe, C. L.; Wyatt, F. G.

1975-01-01

386

Technical feasibility of the Diamex process  

SciTech Connect

The DIAMEX process was developed at the CEA as the first of the two-step strategy to separate trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides. It consists of co-extracting trivalent actinides and lanthanides using a diamide extractant, dimethyl-dioctyl-hexyl-ethoxy-malonamide (DMDOHEMA). To demonstrate the technical feasibility of this process, a test has been successfully carried out with a PUREX raffinate solution in pulsed columns and mixer settlers, which are representative of the solvent-extraction contactors that could be used at the industrial scale. At the end of the trial, the americium and curium recovery yield exceeded 99.9% with high decontamination factors. (authors)

Sorel, C.; Montuir, M.; Espinoux, D.; Lorrain, B.; Baron, P. [CEA Va/rho, DEN/DRCP, BP 17171, Bagnols-sur-Ceze, 30207 (France)

2008-07-01

387

Volumetric Hall Effect Tomography - A Feasibility Study  

PubMed Central

Hall effect imaging is an ultrasound-based method of mapping spatial variations in the dielectric constants of an acoustically-uniform sample. This paper presents three-dimensional Hall effect images of phantoms obtained by scanning a single transducer across a two-dimensional grid, effectively simulating two-dimensional phased-array signal reception. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility of volumetric Hall effect tomography and show the advantage of volumetric scans over planar scans. The images reflect several limitations of the current scanning method and point to directions for further hardware development. The inherent limitations of Hall effect imaging are also discussed in light of these results. PMID:10604800

Wen, Han

2010-01-01

388

Value of radionuclide imaging techniques in assessing cardiomyopathy  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide imaging techniques add an important dimension to the diagnosis, classification and management of myocardial disease. The gated blood pool scan provides information allowing determination of the functional type of cardiomyopathy (congestive, restrictive or hypertrophic) as well as evaluation of ventricular performance. Myocardial perfusion imaging with thallium-201 is useful in distinguishing congestive cardiomyopathy from severe coronary artery disease and also in depicting septal abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Radionuclide techniques also prove useful in following progression of disease and in evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

Goldman, M.R. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Mass.); Boucher, C.A. (Harvard University, Boston, Mass.)

1980-12-18

389

Method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide source distribution  

DOEpatents

A method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide distributions. Its particular embodiment is for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of awake animals, though its techniques are general enough to be applied to other moving radionuclide distributions as well. The invention eliminates motion and blurring artifacts for image reconstructions of moving source distributions. This opens new avenues in the area of small animal brain imaging with radiotracers, which can now be performed without the perturbing influences of anesthesia or physical restraint on the biological system.

Stolin, Alexander V.; McKisson, John E.; Lee, Seung Joon; Smith, Mark Frederick

2012-12-18

390

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for advanced neuroendocrine tumors.  

PubMed

Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) consists of the systemic administration of a synthetic peptide, labeled with a suitable ?-emitting radionuclide, able to irradiate tumors and their metastases via internalization through a specific receptor (usually somatostatin S2), over-expressed on the cell membrane. After almost 2 decades of experience, PRRT, with either (90)Y-octreotide or (177)Lu-octreotate, has established itself to be an efficient and effective therapeutic modality. As a treatment, it is relatively safe up to the known thresholds of absorbed and bio-effective isotope dosages and the renal and hematological toxicity profiles are acceptable if adequate protective measures are undertaken. PMID:25065935

Bodei, Lisa; Cremonesi, Marta; Kidd, Mark; Grana, Chiara M; Severi, Stefano; Modlin, Irvin M; Paganelli, Giovanni

2014-08-01

391

Role of radionuclide studies in pediatric gastrointestinal disorders  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide techniques are currently used to fully evaluate many congenital and acquired abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract of children. Frequently, the anatomic and functional data provided by the nuclear examination are definitive. In the study of many disease entities, tracer techniques have replaced more cumbersome or invasive procedures. Although the radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation are similar as applied to both children and adults, the uniqueness of children and their disease entities requires special consideration when performing and interpreting their studies. In this review, the principle radionuclide examinations used in the evaluation of pediatric gastrointestinal disorders are detailed and examples are illustrated.

Sty, J.R.; Starshak, R.J.

1982-04-01

392

RADIONUCLIDE DISPERSION RATES BY AEOLIAN, FLUVIAL, AND POROUS MEDIA TRANSPORT  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide transport was measured from high grade uranium ore boulders near the Nopal I Site, Chihuahua, Mexico. High grade uranium ore boulders were left behind after removal of a uranium ore stockpile at the Prior High Grade Stockpile (PHGS). During the 25 years when the boulder was present, radionuclides were released and transported by sheetflow during precipitation events, wind blown resuspension, and infiltration into the unsaturated zone. In this study, one of the boulders was removed, followed by grid sampling of the surrounding area. Measured gamma radiation levels in three dimensions were used to derive separate dispersion rates by the three transport mechanisms.

J. Walton; P. Goodell; C. Brashears; D. French; A. Kelts

2005-07-11

393

LWR spent fuel approved testing materials for radionuclide release studies  

SciTech Connect

Criteria are defined for the selection of light water reactor (LWR) spent fuels for use as MCC-Approved Testing Materials (ATMs) in radionuclide dissolution and interaction studies. Fuel-related characteristics affecting the release of radionuclides from spent fuel are reviewed and their pertinency evaluated. ATM spent fuel criteria are defined and classes of ATM spent fuels are determined. The available inventory of government-owned LWR spent fuel is identified and current plans for acquisition by the MCC are summarized. The characterization data to be supplied with the spent fuel ATMs are also described. 11 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

Barner, J.O.

1984-01-01

394

Colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport: a regulatory perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What hydrogeologic-geochemical-microbial conditions and processes affect migration of radionuclides sorbed onto microparticles or native colloid-sized radionuclide particles? The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for protecting public health, safety, and the environment at numerous nuclear facilities including a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site. To fulfill these obligations, NRC needs to understand the mechanisms controlling radionuclide release and transport and their importance to performance. The current focus of NRC staff reviews and technical interactions dealing with colloid-facilitated transport relates to the potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. NRC staff performed bounding calculations to quantify radionuclide releases available for ground-water transport to potential receptors from a Yucca Mountain repository. Preliminary analyses suggest insignificant doses of plutonium and americium colloids could be derived from spent nuclear fuel. Using surface complexation models, NRC staff found that colloids can potentially lower actinide retardation factors by up to several orders of magnitude. Performance assessment calculations, in which colloidal transport of plutonium and americium was simulated by assuming no sorption or matrix diffusion, indicated no effect of colloids on human dose within the 10,000 year compliance period due largely to long waste-package lifetimes. NRC staff have identified information gaps and developed technical agreements with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to ensure sufficient information will be presented in any potential future Yucca Mountain license application. DOE has agreed to identify which radionuclides could be transported via colloids, incorporate uncertainties in colloid formation, release and transport parameters, and conceptual models, and address the applicability of field data using synthetic microspheres as colloid analogs. NRC is currently investigating approaches to colloid modeling in order to help evaluate DOE's approach. One alternative approach uses DOE laboratory data to invoke kinetic controls on reversible radionuclide attachment to colloids. A kinetic approach in which desorption from colloids is slow may help assess whether DOE's instantaneous equilibrium approach for reversible attachment, as well as their application of irreversible attachment to only a small portion of the radionuclide inventory, are reasonable and conservative. An approach to examine microbial processes would also contribute to considerations of leaching of radionuclides and colloid formation. Reducing uncertainties in colloid transport processes should help in better understanding their importance to repository performance. This work is an independent product and does not necessarily reflect the views or regulatory position of the NRC. CNWRA participation was funded under contract No. NRC-02-97-009.

Dam, W. L.; Pickett, D. A.; Codell, R. B.; Nicholson, T. J.

2001-12-01

395

Radionuclide releases from natural analogues of spent nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

Measures of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 239}Pu and U concentrations in rock samples from uranium deposits at Cigar Lake and Koongarra have been used to study processes of radionuclide release from uranium minerals. Rates of release have been immeasurably slow at Cigar Lake. At Koongarra release rates appear to have been faster, producing small deficiencies of {sup 99}Tc, and larger ones of {sup 129}I. The inferred differences in radionuclide release rates are consistent with expected differences in uranium mineral degradation rates produced by the differing hydrogeochemical environments at the two sites.

Curtis, D.B.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Dixon, P.; Aguilar, R.; Rokop, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Cramer, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

1993-12-31

396

Outpatient coronary angioplasty: feasible and safe.  

PubMed

This study tested the safety and feasibility of coronary angioplasty on an outpatient basis. The purpose of this approach includes cost-effectiveness and patient comfort. Six hundred forty-four patients were randomized to either transradial or transfemoral PTCA using 6 Fr equipment. Patients were triaged to outpatient management based on a predefined set of predictors of an adverse outcome in the first 24 hr after initially successful coronary angioplasty. Three hundred seventy-five patients (58%) were discharged 4-6 hr after PTCA; 42% stayed in hospital overnight. In the outpatient group, one adverse event occurred (subacute stent thrombosis 7 hr postdischarge, nonfatal myocardial infarction). There were no major vascular complications. In the hospital group, 19 patients (7%) sustained an adverse cardiac even in the first 24 hr; 1 patient died. Patients treated via the femoral route had more (minor) bleeding complications (19 patients; 6%); in 17 of these, this was the sole reason that discharge was delayed. PTCA on an outpatient basis, performed via the radial or the femoral artery with low-profile equipment, is safe and feasible in a considerable part of a routine PTCA population. A larger proportion of transradial patients can be discharged due to a reduction in (minor) bleeding complications. PMID:15789393

Slagboom, Ton; Kiemeneij, Ferdinand; Laarman, Gert Jan; van der Wieken, Ron

2005-04-01

397

Hoopa Valley Small Scale Hydroelectric Feasibility Project  

SciTech Connect

This study considered assessing the feasibility of developing small scale hydro-electric power from seven major tributaries within the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation of Northern California (http://www.hoopa-nsn.gov/). This study pursued the assessment of seven major tributaries of the Reservation that flow into the Trinity River. The feasibility of hydropower on the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation has real potential for development and many alternative options for project locations, designs, operations and financing. In order to realize this opportunity further will require at least 2-3 years of intense data collection focusing on stream flow measurements at multiple locations in order to quantify real power potential. This also includes on the ground stream gradient surveys, road access planning and grid connectivity to PG&E for sale of electricity. Imperative to this effort is the need for negotiations between the Hoopa Tribal Council and PG&E to take place in order to finalize the power rate the Tribe will receive through any wholesale agreement that utilizes the alternative energy generated on the Reservation.

Curtis Miller

2009-03-22

398

Safety and Feasibility of Transulnar Cardiac Catheterization  

PubMed Central

Recently, ulnar artery cannulation has been described as an alternative to the transfemoral and radial approaches to vascular access for cardiac catheterization. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of the ulnar approach. From September 2004 through September 2006, 28 patients in a cohort study underwent cardiac catheterization by the transulnar approach. Patients were eligible if they had scheduled an elective cardiac catheterization or angioplasty procedure and displayed a palpable ulnar pulse and a positive reverse Allen's test (< 10 sec). Further, we enrolled only patients who had stable angina. After cannulation, a 5F or 6F introducer was placed inside the vessel, and cardiac catheterization or angioplasty was performed. The patients underwent clinical examination when discharged from the hospital and again at the 1-week follow up. Mean age, weight, and height of the patients were 60 ± 14 years, 78 ± 14 kg, and 148 ± 55 cm, respectively, and 69% were men. Successful puncture was achieved in 93% (26/28), and in all 26 of these patients the procedure could be completed by the ulnar approach. The femoral approach was used for the remaining 2 patients. No cases of arterial spasm or loss of pulse were observed. Two patients had minor hematoma at the entry site. There were no cases of pseudoaneurysm, bleeding episodes requiring transfusion, or vascular perforation. We conclude that the transulnar approach is a safe and feasible alternative for diagnostic and therapeutic coronary intervention. PMID:18941595

Knebel, Alexis Vasiluk; Cardoso, Cristiano Oliveira; Correa Rodrigues, La Hore; Sarmento-Leite, Rogerio Eduardo Gomes; de Quadros, Alexandre Schaan; Mascia Gottschall, Carlos Antonio

2008-01-01

399

Feasibility study for convertible engine torque converter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility study has shown that a dump/fill type torque converter has excellent potential for the convertible fan/shaft engine. The torque converter space requirement permits internal housing within the normal flow path of a turbofan engine at acceptable engine weight. The unit permits operating the engine in the turboshaft mode by decoupling the fan. To convert to turbofan mode, the torque converter overdrive capability bring the fan speed up to the power turbine speed to permit engagement of a mechanical lockup device when the shaft speed are synchronized. The conversion to turbofan mode can be made without drop of power turbine speed in less than 10 sec. Total thrust delivered to the aircraft by the proprotor, fan, and engine during tansient can be controlled to prevent loss of air speed or altitude. Heat rejection to the oil is low, and additional oil cooling capacity is not required. The turbofan engine aerodynamic design is basically uncompromised by convertibility and allows proper fan design for quiet and efficient cruise operation. Although the results of the feasibility study are exceedingly encouraging, it must be noted that they are based on extrapolation of limited existing data on torque converters. A component test program with three trial torque converter designs and concurrent computer modeling for fluid flow, stress, and dynamics, updated with test results from each unit, is recommended.

1985-01-01

400

Cosmogenic Radionuclides in the Kosice H5 and Chelyabinsk LL5 Chondrites and Cosmic Ray Modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cosmogenic radionuclides of different half-lives are measured in the Kosice and Chelyabinsk chondrites. Using these radionuclides as natural detectors of cosmic rays allowed us to estimate integral cosmic ray gradients in the 23 and 24 solar cycles.

Alexeev, V.; Laubenstein, M.; Povinec, P.; Ustinova, G.

2014-09-01

401

A geostatistical modeling study of the effect of heterogeneity on radionuclide transport in the  

E-print Network

A geostatistical modeling study of the effect of heterogeneity on radionuclide transport the transport of radionuclides through zeolitically altered areas. In this study, we incorporate mineralogical information into an unsaturated zone transport model using geostatistical techniques to correlate zeolitic

Gable, Carl W.

402

Radionuclide behaviour in forest soils of Russian Federation and Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behaviour of radionuclides in soil determines to a great extent the radionuclide root uptake and their further migration in food chains. The radionuclide fate in the soil is determined by a wide spectrum of simultaneously running, often competitive elementary processes, such as adsorption-desorption, diffusion-mass transport, retention-migration, etc. The intensity of each elementary process depends, in turn, on a combination of several factors such as nature of the radionuclide, physicochemical features of the fallout, soil properties, environmental regimes, etc. Radionuclide deposition in soils is known to be a basic criterion of the radioecological situation in the contaminated territory. Our long-term investigations performed in contaminated forests (30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP; Tula, Kaluga and Bryansk regions of the Russian Federation) had shown that radionuclide migration in the forest landscapes was determined primarily by the forest litter presence. The key factors of radionuclide redistribution within the soil litter are (i) permanent addition of the low-contaminated organic matter ("clean" litterfall), and (ii) high rate of transformation. The dynamics and intensity of decontamination processes depends on the forest litter sub-horizon. Leaf (A0l) layer exhibits the highest rate of decontamination: 137Cs content in this layer decreased twofold by the second year after the accident and reached its equilibrium value (about 1% of the total deposition) by the 4-5th year after the fallout. The corresponding quasi-equilibrium radionuclide content in A0f layer (10-20%) is reached by the 8-9th year after the accident. The corresponding equilibrium in A0h layer is not reached yet. Thus, the effective half-life of radionuclides in soils should be calculated for each sub-horizon separately, taking into account the above-discussed features of the radionuclide dynamics. The rate of annual radionuclide replacement from the forest litter to mineral layers depends on the following factors: (i) soil properties and regimes. In hydromorphic areas, the rate is much higher than in the automorphic areas. This is due to the above-discussed specific features of hydromorphic and automorphic soils, on the one hand, and different pedogenetic processes running under the coniferous and mixed stand, on the other hand; (ii) distance from the accidental unit. The rate of 137Cs migration from forest litter to the mineral soil layers in the territory of the Russian Federation is higher than in the exclusion zone by a factor of 1.5; (iii) weather conditions. Annual rate of 137Cs migration from the forest litter to the mineral horizons varies by 0.5-11%. The variation is well agreed with the dynamics of rainfall during the vegetative season: the migration rate increases drastically in the wet years.

Shcheglov, A. I.; Tsvetnova, O. B.

2012-04-01

403

Estimation of apparent rate coefficients for radionuclides interacting with marine sediments from Novaya Zemlya  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the impact of radionuclides entering the marine environment from dumped nuclear waste, information on the physico-chemical forms of radionuclides and their mobility in seawater–sediment systems is essential. Due to interactions with sediment components, sediments may act as a sink, reducing the mobility of radionuclides in seawater. Due to remobilisation, however, contaminated sediments may also act as a potential

Peer Børretzen; Brit Salbu

2000-01-01

404

Bioremediation of soils, sludges, and materials contaminated with toxic metals or radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation stabilizes and reclaims radionuclide or toxic metal-contaminated materials, soils, sediments, or wastes; it then recovers the contaminating radionuclides and metals. Waste materials are stabilized and reduced in volume using anaerobic bacteria; or alternatively, materials are treated with citric acid before bioremediation begins. Photolysis is used after bioremediation to release radionuclides.

Francis, A.J.

1993-04-01

405

Concentrations of Natural Radionuclides in Municipal Supply Drinking Water and Evaluation of Radiological Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring radionuclides are always present in groundwater used for drinking and cultivation purposes. Intake of these radionuclides through ingestion of drinking water results in radiation doses to humans, which may cause radiological health hazards. This article presents the results of measured concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides of Ra, Th, and K in municipal supply drinking water in metropolitan Lahore

S. N. A. Tahir; A. S. Alaamer

2009-01-01

406

Modeling of radionuclide transport at inactive material disposal Area T, TA21  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing Area T data are used to extract information on radionuclide movement to assist in design of future characterization studies. Spatial moment estimation was used in conjunction with the one-dimensional convective-dispersive solute transport equation to describe radionuclide transport. With available data and conservative assumptions, we obtained gross estimates of radionuclide movement rates. Recommendations are made on how this information could

Devaurs

1989-01-01

407

APPROACHES FOR REGULATING MANAGEMENT OF LARGE VOLUMES OF WASTE CONTAINING NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES IN ENHANCED CONCENTRATIONSa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new Basic Safety Standards (BSS) of the European Union for protection of the public against the dangers of ionising radiation contain nuclide specific exemption levels on reporting. These exemption levels are much lower for the natural radionuclides (10 or even 1 Bq\\/g, depending on the radionuclide) than under the old directive (500 Bq\\/g for natural radionuclides). As a consequence,

L. C. Scholten; J. van der Steen

408

Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIA's role as project coordinator, to expand the communication network quality between all participants and with other wind interest groups in the state and to provide continued education and training opportunities for regional participants. This DOE project began 09/01/2005. We completed the economic and technical feasibility studies for Adak. These were funded by the Alaska Energy Authority. Both wind and hydro appear to be viable renewable energy options for Adak. In False Pass the wind resource is generally good but the site has high turbulence. This would require special care with turbine selection and operations. False Pass may be more suitable for a tidal project. APIA is funded to complete a False Pass tidal feasibility study in 2012. Nikolski has superb potential for wind power development with Class 7 wind power density, moderate wind shear, bi-directional winds and low turbulence. APIA secured nearly $1M from the United States Department of Agriculture Rural Utilities Service Assistance to Rural Communities with Extremely High Energy Costs to install a 65kW wind turbine. The measured average power density and wind speed at Sand Point measured at 20m (66ft), are 424 W/m2 and 6.7 m/s (14.9 mph) respectively. Two 500kW Vestas turbines were installed and when fully integrated in 2012 are expected to provide a cost effective and clean source of electricity, reduce overall diesel fuel consumption estimated at 130,000 gallons/year and decrease air emissions associated with the consumption of diesel fuel. St. George Island has a Class 7 wind resource, which is superior for wind power development. The current strategy, led by Alaska Energy Authority, is to upgrade the St. George electrical distribution system and power plant. Avian studies in Nikolski and Sand Point have allowed for proper wind turbine siting without killing birds, especially endangered species and bald eagles. APIA continues coordinating and looking for funding opportunities for regional renewable energy projects. An important goal for APIA has been, and will continue to be, to involve community members with renewable energy projects and energy conservation efforts.

Bruce A. Wright

2012-03-27

409

Waste site reclamation with recovery of radionuclides and metals  

DOEpatents

A method for decontaminating radionuclides and other toxic metal-contaminate The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016 between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities, Inc.

Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

1994-03-08

410

Waste site reclamation with recovery of radionuclides and metals  

DOEpatents

A method for decontaminating radionuclides and other toxic metal-contaminate The U.S. government has certain rights in this invention pursuant to Contract Number DE-AC02-76CH00016 between the U.S. Department of Energy and Associated Universities, Inc.

Francis, Arokiasamy J. (Middle Island, NY); Dodge, Cleveland J. (Wading River, NY)

1994-01-01

411

Hydrology and radionuclide migration program 1987 progress report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's participation in the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the fiscal year 1987. The report discussed initial data from a new well (UE20n-1) drilled at the Cheshire site; presents a description of a proposed laboratory study of migration of colloids in fractured media; lists data collected during the drilling and initial sampling of UE20n-1; and describes a tentative proposal for work to be performed in FY88 by Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory. Groundwater sampled from the new well at the Cheshire site contains tritium concentrations comparable to those measured in previous years from locations above and within the Cheshire cavity. This presence of tritium, as well as several other radionuclides, in a well 100 m away from the cavity region indicates transport of radionuclides, validates a proposed model of the flow path, and provides data on rates of groundwater flow. Previous work at the Cheshire site has shown that radionuclides are transported by colloids through fractured media. However, we have no data that can be used for predictive modeling, and existing theories are not applicable. While physical transport mechanisms of sub-micrometer colloids to defined mineral surfaces are well known, predictions based on well-defined conditions differ from experimental observations by orders of magnitude. The U.C. Berkeley group has designed a laboratory experiment to quantify colloid retention and permeability alteration by the retained colloids.

Marsh, K.V. (comp.)

1991-03-01

412

A recycling systemic model for the biokinetics of molybdenum radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the available data on molybdenum biokinetics and metabolism in humans is presented, with special emphasis on the results of stable tracer studies conducted in recent years, after the publication of the systemic model for incorporated radionuclides of molybdenum recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). On the basis of the presented information, a new structure

Augusto Giussani

2008-01-01

413

Radionuclide methods validation with FSV [Fort St. Vrain] data  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the radionuclide methods verification program at GA, a fuel performance analysis of the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) core was performed using the reference fuel performance and fission gas release models. The purpose of the analysis was to predict the fuel and graphite temperature distributions, fuel particle failure, and fission gas release as a function of time, and

Jovanovic

1989-01-01

414

21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.  

...source is a device that consists of a radionuclide which may be enclosed in a sealed container made of gold, titanium, stainless steel, or platinum and intended for medical purposes to be placed onto a body surface or into a body cavity or...

2014-04-01

415

Radionuclide annular single crystal scintillator camera with rotating collimator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radionuclide emission tomography camera is described for sensing gamma ray emissions from a source within the field of view consisting of: a fixed, position-sensitive detector means, responsive to the gamma ray emissions and surrounding the field of view for detecting the contact position and the trajectory from which a gamma ray emission originates, the fixed, position-sensitive detector including a

S. Genna; S.-C. Pang

1986-01-01

416

Sorption of radionuclides onto cement materials altered by hydrothermal reaction  

SciTech Connect

The sorption of radionuclides onto cement materials is a very important parameter when considering the release of radionuclides from radioactive wastes. Once the composition or crystallinity of the constituent minerals of a cement material is changed by alteration in the disposal environment, its sorption ability might be affected. In this study, the effect of hydrothermal alteration on the sorption properties of two cement grouts and Calcium Silicate Hydrogels (CSH-gels) is investigated by using the batch sorption technique. In the case of strontium (a model cation) sorption, the distribution ratio for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and OPC/Blast Furnace Slag blended cement (OPC/BFS) decreased as the alteration temperature increased. This is mainly caused by the decrease of sorption onto CSH-gel which is a constituent of cement materials. In the case of selenium (selenite, a model anion) sorption, the distribution ratio decreased as the alteration temperature increased for OPC treated in both distilled water and groundwater, and for OPC/BFS in groundwater. This is attributed to the decomposition of ettringite which sorbs anions. The distribution ratio for OPC/BFS in distilled water increased as the alteration temperature increased, although ettringite decomposed. This is attributed to the formation of monosulfate which also sorbs anions. These results show that the hydrothermal alteration of cement mineral phases in a disposal environment may cause changes which could increase or decrease the sorption of radionuclides onto cements depending on the cement composition and radionuclide speciation.

Sugiyama, D.; Fujita, T.

1999-07-01

417

External exposure to radionuclides in air, water, and soil  

SciTech Connect

Federal Guidance Report No. 12 tabulates dose coefficients for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides distributed in air, water, and soil. The dose coefficients are intended for use by Federal Agencies in calculating the dose equivalent to organs and tissues of the body.

Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C.

1996-05-01

418

Status of ceramic waste form degradation and radionuclide release modeling.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the spent fuel treatment program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), a ceramic waste form is being developed for disposition of the salt waste stream generated during the treatment process. Ceramic waste form (CWF) degradation and radionuclide release modeling is being carried out for the purpose of estimating the impact of the CWF on the performance of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. The CWF is composed of approximately 75 wt% salt-loaded sodalite encapsulated in 25 wt% glass binder. Most radionuclides are present as small inclusion phases in the glass. Since the release of radionuclides can only occur as the glass and sodalite phases dissolve, the dissolution rates of the glass and sodalite phases are modeled to provide an upper bound to radionuclide release rates from the CWF. Transition-state theory for the dissolution of aluminosilicate minerals provides a mechanistic basis for the CWF degradation model, while model parameters are obtained by experimental measurements. Performance assessment calculations are carried out using the engineered barrier system model from the Total System Performance Assessment--Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. The analysis presented herein suggests that the CWF will perform in the repository environment in a manner that is similar to other waste forms destined for the repository.

Fanning, T. H.; Ebert, W. L.; Frank, S. M.; Hash, M. C.; Morris, E. E.; Morss, L. R.; O'Holleran, T. P.; Wigeland, R. A.

2003-02-26

419

Sources of secondary radionuclide releases from Hanford Operations  

SciTech Connect

This report considers Hanford facilities and operations with the potential to be secondary radionuclide release sources. Facilities that produced radionuclides or processed products of fission reactions and were not covered in previous source term reports are included in this report. The following facilities are described and any potentially significant releases from them are estimated: PUREX (1956--1972, 1983--1988) and REDOX (1952--1967)--campaigns with non-standard feed material (materials other than fuel from single-pass reactors); C PLANT (Hot Semi-Works)--pilot plant and strontium recovery; Z Plant--plutonium finishing; U and UO{sub 3} Plants--uranium recovery; 108 B Plant--tritium extraction; 300 Area Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR); 300 Area Low Power Test Reactors; Criticality Accidents; and 400 Area Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The method of analysis was to examine each facility, give a brief description of its purpose and operations, and describe the types of material the facility processed as an indication of the radionuclides it had the potential to release. Where possible, specific radionuclides are estimated and values from the original documents are reported.

Heeb, C.M.; Gydesen, S.P.

1994-05-01

420

Detection of varicocele by radionuclide blood-pool scanning  

SciTech Connect

Varicocele is a common and treatable cause of male subfertility. The authors describe a new technique for varicocele detection using radionuclide blood-pool imaging of the scrotum. The results indicate that this technique detects unilateral varicoceles with high sensitivity, including some which are subclinical. There may be significant implications for treatment of infertility.

Freund, J.; Handelsman, D.J.; Bautovich, G.J.; Conway, A.J.; Morris, J.G.

1980-10-01

421

Health risks from radionuclides released into the Clinch River  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to estimate off-site radiation doses and health risks (with uncertainties) associated with the release of radionuclides from the X-10 site. Following an initial screening analysis, the exposure pathways of interest included fish ingestion, drinking water ingestion, the ingestion of milk and meat, and external exposure from shoreline sediment. Four representative locations along the Clinch

B. A. Thomas; F. O. Hoffman; L. F. Miller

1999-01-01

422

Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS No. 472  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the approach taken to present the information on fruits in the IAEA report TRS No. 472, supported by the IAEA-TECDOC-1616, which describes the key transfer processes, concepts and conceptual models regarded as important for dose assessment, as well as relevant parameters for modelling radionuclide transfer in fruits. Information relate to fruit plants grown in agricultural ecosystems of temperate regions. The relative significance of each pathway after release of radionuclides depends upon the radionuclide, the kind of crop, the stage of plant development and the season at time of deposition. Fruit intended as a component of the human diet is borne by plants that are heterogeneous in habits, and morphological and physiological traits. Information on radionuclides in fruit systems has therefore been rationalised by characterising plants in three groups: woody trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. Parameter values have been collected from open literature, conference proceedings, institutional reports, books and international databases. Data on root uptake are reported as transfer factor values related to fresh weight, being consumption data for fruits usually given in fresh weight.

Carini, F.; Pellizzoni, M.; Giosuè, S.

2012-04-01

423

Radionuclides in sediments and seawater at Rongelap Atoll  

SciTech Connect

The present concentrations and distributions of long-lived, man-made radionuclides in Rongelap Atoll lagoon surface sediments, based on samples collected and analyzed in this report. The radionuclides were associated with debris generated with the 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test at Bikini Atoll. Presently, only {sup 90}Sr and the transuranic radionuclides are found associated with the surface sediments in any quantity. Other radionuclides, including {sup 60}Co and {sup 137} Cs, are virtually absent and have either decayed or migrated from the deposits to the overlying seawater. Present inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 249+240}Pu in the surface layer at Rongelap are estimated to be 3% of the respective inventories in surface sediments from Bikini Atoll. There is a continuous slow release of the transuranics from the sediments back to the water column. The inventories will only slowly change with time unless the chemical-physical processes that now regulate this release to the water column are changed or altered.

Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.

1998-03-01

424

Portal monitor characterization for internally and externally deposited radionuclides.  

PubMed

In this evaluation, both the internal and external radionuclide detection efficiencies for a portal monitor were evaluated as a function of photon energy using an anthropomorphic phantom. Pass-through and static measurements were completed using Am, Co, Ba, Cs, Co, Cd, and Mn in various locations both external and internal to the phantom. Other parameters, such as single detector uniformity, total detector uniformity, background linearity, and activity linearity have been analyzed. It was found that the minimum detectable activity for internally deposited Cs in the abdomen was approximately ten times higher for pass-through versus static measurements. Additionally, it was found that the minimum detectable activity for Cs in the abdominal region for both internal and external pass-through scenarios are nearly equivalent. In general, if the expected radionuclide source term is primarily non-transuranic, the pass-through mode offers sufficient sensitivity to identify potential overexposures while providing much greater personnel throughput. However, minimum detectable committed effective doses for transuranics such as Am, show potential for personnel over exposure if the radionuclide mixture contains a significant fraction of transuranics. It is therefore recommended that nuclear facilities evaluate their radionuclide source term in order to bound potential personnel doses. PMID:25272029

Carey, Matthew; Kryskow, Adam; Straccia, Fred; Tries, Mark

2014-11-01

425

Role of radionuclide studies in pediatric gastrointestinal disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide techniques are currently used to fully evaluate many congenital and acquired abnormalities of the gastrointestinal tract of children. Frequently, the anatomic and functional data provided by the nuclear examination are definitive. In the study of many disease entities, tracer techniques have replaced more cumbersome or invasive procedures. Although the radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation are similar as applied to both children

J. R. Sty; R. J. Starshak

1982-01-01

426

New Catalytic DNA Biosensors for Radionuclides and Metal ion  

SciTech Connect

We aim to develop new DNA biosensors for simultaneous detection and quantification of bioavailable radionuclides, such as uranium, technetium, and plutonium, and metal contaminants, such as lead, chromium, and mercury. The sensors will be highly sensitive and selective. They will be applied to on-site, real-time assessment of concentration, speciation, and stability of the individual contaminants before and during bioremediation, and for long-term monitoring of DOE contaminated sites. To achieve this goal, we have employed a combinatorial method called “in vitro selection” to search from a large DNA library (~ 1015 different molecules) for catalytic DNA molecules that are highly specific for radionuclides or other metal ions through intricate 3-dimensional interactions as in metalloproteins. Comprehensive biochemical and biophysical studies have been performed on the selected DNA molecules. The findings from these studies have helped to elucidate fundamental principles for designing effective sensors for radionuclides and metal ions. Based on the study, the DNA have been converted to fluorescent or colorimetric sensors by attaching to it fluorescent donor/acceptor pairs or gold nanoparticles, with 11 part-per-trillion detection limit (for uranium) and over million fold selectivity (over other radionuclides and metal ions tested). Practical application of the biosensors for samples from the Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (ERSP) Field Research Center (FRC) at Oak Ridge has also been demonstrated.

Yi Lu

2008-03-01

427

Mass transfer and transport of radionuclides in fractured porous rock  

SciTech Connect

Analytical studies are made to predict space-time dependent concentrations of radionuclides transported through water-saturated fractured porous rock. A basic model, which is expected to generate conservative results when used in long-term safety assessment of geologic repositories for radioactive waste, is established. Applicability and limitations of the model are investigated. 67 refs., 54 figs., 3 tabs.

Ahn, Joonhong

1988-04-01

428

Anthropogenic radionuclides in seawater of the Far Eastern Seas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been dumped in the Far Eastern Seas by the former Soviet Union and the Russian Federation, and small amounts of radioactive wastes have been dumped by Japan and the Republic of Korea. In order to investigate the concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides in the nine dumping areas, a second expedition was conducted in 1995 by

Y. Ikeuchi; H. Amano; M. Aoyama; V. I. Berezhnov; E. Chaykovskaya; V. B. Chumichev; C. S. Chung; J. Gastaud; K. Hirose; G. H. Hong; C. K. Kim; S. H. Kim; T. Miyao; T. Morimoto; A. Nikitin; K. Oda; H. B. L. Pettersson; P. P. Povinec; A. Tkalin; O. Togawa; N. K. Veletova

1999-01-01

429

Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides through the Vadose Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this project was to advance the basic scientific understanding of colloid and colloid-facilitated Cs transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone. We focused our research on the hydrological and geochemical conditions beneath the leaking waste tanks at the USDOE Hanford reservation. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the lability and thermodynamic stability of colloidal materials, which

Markus Flury; James B. Harsh; John F. McCarthy; Peter C. Lichtner; John M. Zachara

2006-01-01

430

www.VadoseZoneJournal.org Simula on of Radionuclide  

E-print Network

www.VadoseZoneJournal.org Simula on of Radionuclide Transport through Unsaturated, Fractured Rock general applicability for modeling contaminant transport through deep vadose zones. Using a dual-permeability solu on for fluid flow as a basis, the transport model represents contaminant transport with a cell

Lu, Zhiming

431

Transport processes of radionuclides through a porous medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equation is proposed that serves as a model for the transport of radionuclides in a crack filled with a porous medium by means of a diffusion mechanism that accounts for porosity, tortuosity, equilibrium sorption, and radioactive decay. An analytical solution of this equation is given when one practically impermeable wall is present. The effective diffusion coefficient has been calculated

V. P. Bolgarev; Yu. M. Rogozin; R. V. Bryzgalova

1988-01-01

432

Flow and transport of radionuclides in unsaturated fractured basalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modeling analysis of radionuclide transport in the vadose zone is described. The central focus of the modeling is to develop an understanding of the nature of flow and transport at the site of concern. Characterization of the site is still incomplete, including the presence of perched water, and observed contaminant migration. The problem of modeling fluid flow and transport

J. C. Walton; R. G. Baca; T. L. Rasmussen

1989-01-01

433

Cosmogenic radionuclides as a synchronisation tool - present status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in the flux of galactic cosmic rays into Earth's atmosphere produce variations in the production rates of cosmogenic radionuclides. The resulting globally synchronous signal in cosmogenic radionuclide records can be used to compare time scales and synchronise climate records. The most prominent example is the 14C wiggle match dating approach where variations in the atmospheric 14C concentration are used to match climate records and the tree-ring based part of the 14C calibration record. This approach can be extended to other cosmogenic radionuclide records such as 10Be time series provided that the different geochemical behaviour of 10Be and 14C is taken into account. Here we will present some recent results that illustrate the potential of using cosmogenic radionuclide records for comparing and synchronising different time scales. The focus will be on the last 50000 years where we will show examples how geomagnetic field, solar activity and unusual short-term cosmic ray changes can be used for comparing ice core, tree ring and sediment time scales. We will discuss some unexpected offsets between Greenland ice core and 14C time scale and we will examine how far back in time solar induced 10Be and 14C variations presently can be used to reliably synchronise ice core and 14C time scales.

Muscheler, Raimund; Adolphi, Florian; Mekhaldi, Florian; Mellström, Anette; Svensson, Anders; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran

2014-05-01

434

Studying the anthropogenic radionuclides in Puerto Rico: Preliminary Result  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local introduction of anthropogenic radionuclides to Puerto Rico's terrestrial and aquatic environments began in 1962 as a result of US government-sponsored research activities. Some of the earlier experiments examined the effects of radiation in tropical rainforests and the potential of superheated boiling nuclear reactor technology. More recent activities involved the use of depleted uranium during military exercises on Vieques. While

W. Ithier-Guzmán; A. J. Pyrtle; J. Smoak

2004-01-01

435

Isonitrile radionuclide complexes for labelling and imaging agents  

DOEpatents

A coordination complex of an isonitrile ligand and radionuclide such as Tc, Ru, Co, Pt, Fe, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Pd, Nb and Ta, is useful as a diagnostic agent for labelling liposomes or vesicles, and selected living cells containing lipid membranes, such as blood clots, myocardial tissue, gall bladder tissue, etc.

Jones, Alun G. (Newton Centre, MA); Davison, Alan (Needham, MA); Abrams, Michael J. (Allston, MA)

1984-06-04

436

Clinical radionuclide therapy dosimetry: the quest for the "Holy Gray"  

PubMed Central

Introduction Radionuclide therapy has distinct similarities to, but also profound differences from external radiotherapy. Review This review discusses techniques and results of previously developed dosimetry methods in thyroid carcinoma, neuro-endocrine tumours, solid tumours and lymphoma. In each case, emphasis is placed on the level of evidence and practical applicability. Although dosimetry has been of enormous value in the preclinical phase of radiopharmaceutical development, its clinical use to optimise administered activity on an individual patient basis has been less evident. In phase I and II trials, dosimetry may be considered an inherent part of therapy to establish the maximum tolerated dose and dose–response relationship. To prove that dosimetry-based radionuclide therapy is of additional benefit over fixed dosing or dosing per kilogram body weight, prospective randomised phase III trials with appropriate end points have to be undertaken. Data in the literature which underscore the potential of dosimetry to avoid under- and overdosing and to standardise radionuclide therapy methods internationally are very scarce. Developments In each section, particular developments and insights into these therapies are related to opportunities for dosimetry. The recent developments in PET and PET/CT imaging, including micro-devices for animal research, and molecular medicine provide major challenges for innovative therapy and dosimetry techniques. Furthermore, the increasing scientific interest in the radiobiological features specific to radionuclide therapy will advance our ability to administer this treatment modality optimally. PMID:17268773

Bodei, L.; Giammarile, F.; Linden, O.; Luster, M.; Oyen, W. J. G.; Tennvall, J.

2007-01-01

437

Osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption: CT and radionuclide imaging  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to compare CT and radionuclide imaging of osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption, and to develop a quantitative method for imaging osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption and to see if iopamidol could be safety given intravenously in conjunction with blood-brain barrier disruption. Forty-five blood-brain barrier disruption procedures were imaged with CT and radionuclide scans. The scans were evaluated with visual and quantitative scales. Patients were observed for adverse effects after blood-brain barrier disruption. There was a 4% rate of seizures in this study. There was good agreement between visual CT and radionuclide grading systems. Quantitative disruption did not add useful information to visual interpretations. Nonionic iodine-based contrast medium has a lower incidence of seizures when injected intravenously in conjunction with osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption than ionic contrast material. Contrast-enhanced CT is the preferred method to image disruption because it has better spatial resolution than radionuclide techniques. 34 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Roman-Goldstein, S.; Clunie, D.A.; Stevens, J.; Hogan, R.; Monard, J.; Ramsey, F.; Neuwelt, E.A.

1994-03-01

438

Analytical methods for radionuclides in liquid and solid media  

SciTech Connect

This lecture describes in vitro techniques for the radiochemical determination and dosimetry of radionuclides in the body that have been metabolized and are in the circulatory system. Measurements are made in the excretions and other body specimens such as blood, perspiration, hair, exhaled air, and tissue. 13 references, 4 tables. (ACR)

Sedlet, J.

1983-01-01

439

Assessment of spatial distribution of fallout radionuclides through geostatistics concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

After introducing geostatistics concept and its utility in environmental science and especially in Fallout Radionuclide (FRN) spatialisation, a case study for cesium-137 (137Cs) redistribution at the field scale using geostatistics is presented. On a Canadian agricultural field, geostatistics coupled with a Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to test three different techniques of interpolation [Ordinary Kriging (OK), Inverse Distance Weighting

L. Mabit; C. Bernard

2007-01-01

440

Use of thermodynamic sorption models to derive radionuclide Kd values for performance assessment: Selected results and recommendations of the NEA sorption project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For the safe final disposal and/or long-term storage of radioactive wastes, deep or near-surface underground repositories are being considered world-wide. A central safety feature is the prevention, or sufficient retardation, of radionuclide (RN) migration to the biosphere. To this end, radionuclide sorption is one of the most important processes. Decreasing the uncertainty in radionuclide sorption may contribute significantly to reducing the overall uncertainty of a performance assessment (PA). For PA, sorption is typically characterised by distribution coefficients (Kd values). The conditional nature of Kd requires different estimates of this parameter for each set of geochemical conditions of potential relevance in a RN's migration pathway. As it is not feasible to measure sorption for every set of conditions, the derivation of Kd for PA must rely on data derived from representative model systems. As a result, uncertainty in Kd is largely caused by the need to derive values for conditions not explicitly addressed in experiments. The recently concluded NEA Sorption Project [1] showed that thermodynamic sorption models (TSMs) are uniquely suited to derive K d as a function of conditions, because they allow a direct coupling of sorption with variable solution chemistry and mineralogy in a thermodynamic framework. The results of the project enable assessment of the suitability of various TSM approaches for PA-relevant applications as well as of the potential and limitations of TSMs to model RN sorption in complex systems. ?? by Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag.

Ochs, M.; Davis, J.A.; Olin, M.; Payne, T.E.; Tweed, C.J.; Askarieh, M.M.; Altmann, S.

2006-01-01

441

Pozzolanic filtration/solidification of radionuclides in nuclear reactor cooling water  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory studies to investigate the feasibility of one- and two-step processes for precipitation/coprecipitating radionuclides from nuclear reactor cooling water, filtering with pozzolanic filter aid, and solidifying, are reported in this paper. In the one-step process, ferrocyanide salt and excess lime are added ahead of the filter, and the resulting filter cake solidifies by a pozzolanic reaction. The two-step process involves addition of solidifying agents subsequent to filtration. It was found that high surface area diatomaceous synthetic calcium silicate powders, sold commercially as functional fillers and carriers, adsorb nickel isotopes from solution at neutral and slightly basic pH. Addition of the silicates to cooling water allowed removal of the tested metal isotopes (nickel, iron, manganese, cobalt, and cesium) simultaneously at neutral to slightly basic pH. Lime to diatomite ratio was the most influential characteristic of composition on final strength tested, with higher lime ratios giving higher strength. Diatomaceous earth filter aids manufactured without sodium fluxes exhibited higher pozzolanic activity. Pozzolanic filter cake solidified with sodium silicate and a ratio of 0.45 parts lime to 1 part diatomite had compressive strength ranging from 470 to 595 psi at a 90% confidence level. Leachability indices of all tested metals in the solidified waste were acceptable. In light of the typical requirement of removing iron and desirability of control over process pH, a two-step process involving addition of Portland cement to the filter cake may be most generally applicable.

Englehardt, J.D.; Peng, C. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Architectural Engineering] [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Architectural Engineering

1995-12-31

442

Radionuclide detection of blood-retinal barrier disruption in diabetes mellitus  

SciTech Connect

Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes of blindness in the United States today. Because early treatment of proliferative retinopathy offers the best chance for visual salvation, there is an essential need for methods of identifying eyes at high risk. Recent research has shown that subclinical leakage from retinal blood vessels is one of the earliest signs of retinopathy. The feasibility of using radionuclide techniques to quantitate blood-retinal barrier disruption is demonstrated by a study in which 23 diabetics and 7 nondiabetics were imaged with an Anger camera in the anterior Waters projection at 2 hours after the administration of Tc-99m DTPA. In the digitized images, regions of interest were placed over each orbit and over one of the cerebral hemispheres. Orbital counts were then compared to cerebral counts on a per pixel basis. Eye to brain ratios were found to be lowest for nondiabetics and highest for patients with proliferative retinopathy. Additionally, the dynamic analysis of the same radiopharmaceutical may allow investigators to further study the pathophysiology of the diabetic eye.

Freeman, M.L.; Barnes, W.E.; Eastman, G.; Evans, L.; Gergans, G.; Kelertas, A.; Emanuele, N.; Kaplan, E.

1984-01-01

443

Laminar flow control SPF/08 feasibility demonstration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of applying superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) technology to laminar flow control (LFC) system concepts was demonstrated. Procedures were developed to produce smooth, flat titanium panels, using thin -0.016 inch sheets, meeting LFC surface smoothness requirements. Two large panels 28 x 28 inches were fabricated as final demonstration articles. The first was flat on the top and bottom sides demonstrating the capability of the tooling and the forming and diffusion bonding procedures to produce flat, defect free surfaces. The second panel was configurated for LFC porous panel treatment by forming channels with dimpled projections on the top side. The projections were machined away leaving holes extending into the panel. A perforated titanium sheet was adhesively bonded over this surface to complete the LFC demonstration panel. The final surface was considered flat enough to meet LFC requirements for a jet transport aircraft in cruising flight.

Ecklund, R. C.; Williams, N. R.

1981-01-01

444

Battery energy storage market feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

1997-07-01

445

Feasibility study of a 200 ampere battery  

SciTech Connect

The results of a Sandia National Laboratories program to design and develop a high-current thermal battery for the Hypersonic Weapons Technology Program are presented. The feasibility of a 200 A, 150 s, 12 Vdc primary battery was demonstrated under ambient conditions. New header feedthrough design concepts were used, and new internal current collectors and internal power leads were considered. The Li(Si)/LiBr-LiCl-LiF/FeS{sub 2} electrochemical system has shown exceptional performance at the high-current operation conditions. A high-rate Zinc/Silver Oxide secondary cell was also evaluated, and the results are presented in this report. These cells exhibited excellent high-rate discharge performance. 5 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

Baldwin, A.R.

1991-06-01

446

Substituting telecommunications for travel - Feasible or desirable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews recent advances in telecommunications and examines the detailed structure of travel to estimate the feasibility of substituting telecommunications for various travel objectives. The impact of travel is analyzed from a social, economic, energy, and pollution standpoint to assess the desirability of substitution. Perhaps 35-50% of the nation's travel could, in theory, be replaced by very advanced telecommunications (such as a much improved large-screen teleconferencing network), but public resistance would be massive. Much economic dislocation would result since, for example, over 25% of retail sales are travel-related. The energy savings would be modest since only 25% of the nation's energy is consumed by transportation. However, all pollution would be reduced substantially since transportation accounts for 75% of the carbon monoxide, 60% of the hydrocarbon, and 55% of the nitrogen oxide pollution in the nation. Problems related to the implementation of large-scale substitution are discussed.

Van Vleck, E. M.

1974-01-01

447

Trailing Ballute Aerocapture: Concept and Feasibility Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trailing Ballute Aerocapture offers the potential to obtain orbit insertion around a planetary body at a fraction of the mass of traditional methods. This allows for lower costs for launch, faster flight times and additional mass available for science payloads. The technique involves an inflated ballute (balloon-parachute) that provides aerodynamic drag area for use in the atmosphere of a planetary body to provide for orbit insertion in a relatively benign heating environment. To account for atmospheric, navigation and other uncertainties, the ballute is oversized and detached once the desired velocity change (Delta V) has been achieved. Analysis and trades have been performed for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of the technique including aerophysics, material assessments, inflation system and deployment sequence and dynamics, configuration trades, ballute separation and trajectory analysis. Outlined is the technology development required for advancing the technique to a level that would allow it to be viable for use in space exploration missions.

Miller, Kevin L.; Gulick, Doug; Lewis, Jake; Trochman, Bill; Stein, Jim; Lyons, Daniel T.; Wilmoth, Richard G.

2003-01-01

448

Feasible mitigation actions in developing countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy use is not only crucial for economic development, but is also the main driver of greenhouse-gas emissions. Developing countries can reduce emissions and thrive only if economic growth is disentangled from energy-related emissions. Although possible in theory, the required energy-system transformation would impose considerable costs on developing nations. Developed countries could bear those costs fully, but policy design should avoid a possible 'climate rent curse', that is, a negative impact of financial inflows on recipients' economies. Mitigation measures could meet further resistance because of adverse distributional impacts as well as political economy reasons. Hence, drastically re-orienting development paths towards low-carbon growth in developing countries is not very realistic. Efforts should rather focus on 'feasible mitigation actions' such as fossil-fuel subsidy reform, decentralized modern energy and fuel switching in the power sector.

Jakob, Michael; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Klasen, Stephan; Lay, Jann; Grunewald, Nicole; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Renner, Sebastian; Edenhofer, Ottmar

2014-11-01

449

Feasibility study of a 200 ampere battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a Sandia National Laboratories program to design and develop a high-current thermal battery for the Hypersonic Weapons Technology Program are presented. The feasibility of a 200 A, 150 s, 12 Vdc primary battery was demonstrated under ambient conditions. New header feedthrough design concepts were used, and new internal current collectors and internal power leads were considered. The Li(Si)/LiBr-LiCl-LiF/FeS2 electrochemical system has shown exceptional performance at the high-current operation conditions. A high-rate Zinc/Silver Oxide secondary cell was also evaluated, and the results are presented in this report. These cells exhibited excellent high-rate discharge performance.

Baldwin, A. R.

1991-06-01

450

Clustered Lance Booster (CLB) feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loral Vought (LV) was requested to investigate the feasibility of clustering four Lance propulsion systems as the first stage of a two-stage target vehicle. Two vehicle configurations were considered, both using the Clustered Lance Booster (CLB) as the first stage. On one configuration, the second stage will be the 40-inch diameter Liquid Fueled Target (LFT-40), which was the subject of an LTV Aerospace and Defense Company study in 1991. This configuration is designated as the CLB/LFT-40. The second stage of the other configuration will be a modified Lance having the same external shape as the Lance missile (22-inch diameter). This configuration is designated as the CLB/LFT-22.

1993-01-01

451

[Agricultural products handling: methods of feasibility evaluation].  

PubMed

Post-harvest problems are important constraints to the expansion of production of food in many Latin American countries. Besides problems of bulkiness, perishability and seasonal production patterns, the necessity of reducing transportation costs, increasing rural employment, and finding new markets for processed products, requires the development of processing technologies. Possible processed products include a vast range of alternatives. Given limited time and resources, it is not always feasible to carry out detailed studies. Hence a practical, low-cost methodology is needed to evaluate the available options. This paper presents a series of methods to evaluate different processing possibilities. It describes in detail each method including a rapid initial assessment, market and consumer research, farm-oriented research, costs and returns analysis and finally, some marketing and promotion strategies. PMID:7826183

Scott, G J; Herrera, J E

1993-06-01

452

Feasibility of cohort studies in Estonia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe the methodology and feasibility of follow up for vital status in retrospective cohort studies in Estonia. METHODS: A cohort of 7412 workers who had been employed at two factories in Tallinn between 1946 and 1988 was followed up for vital status from the date of first employment until death, emigration, or the end of the study, 31 December 1995, whichever occurred first. The cohort was electronically linked with the National Population Registry of Estonia that was created in 1992 and includes personal identification numbers of Estonian citizens and residents, and the Mortality Database that contains information from death certificates issued in 1983-95. A manual search was carried out on several non-computerised population data sources and archives. RESULTS: By 31 December 1995, the vital status of 6780 (91.5%) subjects could be traced (4495 (60.6%) subjects were alive, 1993 (26.9%) had died, and 292 (3.9%) had emigrated). Analysis by calendar period of leaving work showed that the proportion of subjects traced was lowest in the group of workers who had left work between 1946 and 1955 (58.4%), especially those whose age at leaving work was < 30 (53.2%) or > 60 years (42.3%). Among subjects who left work in 1956-65, 1966-75, and 1976-88, the follow up rate was 84.7%, 94.6%, and 98.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings, which are especially important for occupational epidemiology, confirm the feasibility of conducting retrospective cohort studies in Estonia. Most of the issues discussed in the paper apply to other former Soviet countries.   PMID:10472323

Innos, K.; Rahu, M.; Rahu, K.

1999-01-01

453

SALTSTONE AND RADIONUCLIDE INTERACTIONS: RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION AND DESORPTION, AND SALTSTONE REDUCTION CAPACITY  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this study was to measure a number of key input parameters quantifying geochemical processes in the subsurface environment of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) Saltstone Facility. For the first time, sorption (K{sub d}) values of numerous radionuclides were measured with Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete. Particular attention was directed at understanding how Tc adsorbs and desorbs from these cementitious materials with the intent to demonstrate that desorption occurs at a much slower rate than adsorption, thus permitting the use of kinetic terms instead of (or along with) the steady state K{sub d} term. Another very important parameter measured was the reduction capacity of these materials. This parameter is used to estimate the duration that the Saltstone facility remains in a reduced chemical state, a condition that maintains several otherwise mobile radionuclides in an immobile form. Key findings of this study follow. K{sub d} values for Am, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Hg, I, Np, Pa, Pu, Se, Sn, Tc, U, and Y for Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete were measured under oxidized and reduced conditions. Precipitation of several of the higher valence state radionuclides was observed. There was little evidence that the Vault 2 and Saltstone K{sub d} values differed from previous SRS K{sub d} values measured with reducing grout (Kaplan and Coates 2007). These values also supported a previous finding that K{sub d} values of slag-containing cementitious materials, tend to be greater for cations and about the same for anions, than regular cementitious materials without slag. Based on these new findings, it was suggested that all previous reducing concrete K{sub d} values be used in future PAs, except Np(V) and Pu(IV) K{sub d} values, which should be increased, and I values, which should be slightly decreased in all three stages of concrete aging. The reduction capacity of Saltstone, consisting of 23 wt-% blast furnace slag, was 821.8 microequivalents per gram ({micro}eq/g). This value was approximately the same value as the one measured for 100% blast furnace slag. The cause for this approximately four-fold greater reduction capacity than anticipated is not known, but may be the result of the higher pH of Saltstone (pH {approx}11) compared to blast furnace slag (pH {approx}8), the presence of reducing minerals in the fly ash used to make the Saltstone, or to the Saltstone possibly having semi-conductor properties. These reduction capacity values will result in a near four-fold increase in the estimated duration that the Saltstone facility will remain in a reduced chemical state. The implication of this result is that oxidation-state-sensitive contaminants, such as Pu, Np, and Tc, will remain for a longer duration in a much less mobile form than previously believed. The reduction capacity of vault concrete, which consisted of 10 wt-% blast furnace slag, was 240 {micro}eq/g. Essentially all Am, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Hg, Sr, and Y was (ad)sorbed within four hours, whereas <3% of the adsorbed metals desorbed from these solids after 90 hours of continuous leaching. In particular, desorption of Tc (under oxidizing conditions) was >10{sup 3} fold slower than (ad)sorption (under reducing conditions). An important implication of this finding is that if groundwater by-passes or short-circuits the reduction capacity of the Saltstone by flowing along a crack, the ability of the oxygenated water to promote Tc desorption is appreciably less than that predicted based on the K{sub d} value. Relatively low Tc K{sub d} values, 6 to 91 mL/g, were measured in these studies indicating that little if any of the Tc(VII) introduced into the Saltstone or Vault 2 concrete suspensions was reduced to Tc(IV). Such a reduction results in apparent K{sub d} values on the order of 10{sup 4} mL/g. As such, these Tc sorption/desorption experiments need additional investigation to fully represent Saltstone environmental conditions. It is important to understand the limits of these data. They do not provide insight into how radionuclides cured and immobilize

Kaplan, D; Kimberly Roberts, K; Steven Serkiz, S; Matthew Siegfried, M

2008-10-30

454