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1

FURTHER EVALUATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDE PHYTOEXTRACTION FEASIBILITY USING SOILS FROM THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPLEX  

SciTech Connect

Fiscal Year 98 (FY98) radionuclide phytoextraction studies involved resumption of the radiocesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) investigations at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the total uranium (U{sub t}) investigations at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. This project was a collaborative effort involving scientists and engineers from MSE Technology Applications, Inc.; the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Plant Growth Laboratory at Cornell University; Phytotech, Inc.; BNL; and FEMP. In both cases, the essential goal was to improve bioavailability, uptake, and transport of these contaminants from soil to leaf-and-stalk biomass (LSB). In particular, the practical goal was to demonstrate that about half the radionuclide contaminant mass present in near surface [{le}30 centimeters (cm) below ground surface (bgs)] soils could be transferred into LSB in approximately 5 years. Based on previous (1996) study results, it would require concentration ratios (CRs) of at 5-to-10 to achieve this goal. In addition, the rate of {sup 137}Cs removal must be {ge} 2.3% per year{sup -1} [i.e., (0.693/30.2) {center_dot} 100] to equal or exceed the loss of this radionuclide through natural decay. This report first presents and discusses the results from greenhouse and field evaluations of {sup 137}Cs uptake from rooting zone soils (0-15 cm bgs) located near the Medical/Biological Research Building (No. 490) at BNL. Contamination of this site resulted from the use of near surface soils originating at the former Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF), which served as a source of landscaping materials for erosion control, etc. Project personnel from USDA evaluated various combinations of nonradioactive solutions of cesium chloride (CsCl) and rubidium chloride, ammonium nitrate solution (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}), and humic acid suspensions to enhance and sustain {sup 137}Cs levels in soil solution. Of the plants grown in such amended soils, the highest CRs occurred in the golden pigweed (Amaranthus aureus L.) with an overall CR of 3.0 (and 275 picoCurie/gram {sup 137}Cs in soil). The maximum CR (3.8) was associated with dosing this species with 100 millimole (mM) CsCl solution. However, this treatment was immediately toxic to all the species evaluated. Thus, continued use of ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) (CR=2.9) or humic acid (CR=3.2) and golden pigweed appeared to be the best approach for removing {sup 137}Cs from test site soils.

Jay Cornish

1999-01-01

2

Enhanced phyto-extraction not a feasible option to clean up uranium contaminated soil  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: A greenhouse experiment was set up to evaluate the potential of enhanced phyto-extraction to clean up U contaminated soils. One soil had a naturally high U concentration and the other soil was impacted by effluents from the former radium extraction industry. Enhancement of U solubility and uptake by plants (ryegrass and Indian mustard) was monitored after addition of 5 chemical amendments (5 mmol kg{sup -1} soil dry weight): citric acid, ammonium citrate-citric acid mixture, oxalic acid, EDDS and NTA. Uranium solubilization and uptake were highly influenced by the amendment applied and soil-plant combinations. Citric acid was most effective in increasing U solubility (up to 18-fold increase). Citric acid and the ammonium citrate-citric acid mixture were most effective in increasing U uptake by ryegrass (up to 6-fold). For Indian mustard, EDDS and citric acid were most effective (up to 9- fold). In the optimal scenario only 0.16 % of the total uranium present in the soil could be extracted with one harvest and it would take more than 200 years to reduce the initial uranium content with 10 %. Based on these results, we must conclude that phyto-extraction is not a feasible technique to decrease the uranium concentration of historically contaminated soils. (authors)

Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Duquene, Lise; Wannijn, Jean [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, BE-2400 Mol (Belgium); Filip, Tack [Ghent University (Belgium); Baeten, Joke [Katholieke Hogeschool Kempen (Belgium)

2007-07-01

3

Soil washing of Pb, Zn and Cd using biodegradable chelator and permeable barriers and induced phytoextraction by Cannabis sativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of combined phytoextraction and in situ washing of soil contaminated with Pb (1750 mg kg-1), Zn (1300 mg kg-1), and Cd (7.2 mg kg-1), induced by the addition of biodegradable chelator, [S,S] stereoisomere of ethylenediamine discuccinate ([S,S]-EDDS), was tested in soil columns with hemp (Cannabis sativa) as the phytoextracting plant. The addition of [S,S]-EDDS (10 mmol kg-1 dry soil) yielded concentrations of 1026ą442, 330.3ą114.7 and 3.84ą1.55 mg kg-1

B. Kos; D. Leštan

2004-01-01

4

Transient phytoextraction agents: establishing criteria for the use of chelants in phytoextraction of recalcitrant metals.  

PubMed

The phytoremediation of recalcitrant metals such as lead and uranium rely on soil amendments to enhance metal availability within the rhizosphere. Because these amendments may persist in soils, agents that not only biodegrade rapidly but also are effective in triggering metal uptake in plants are needed for metals phytoextraction to be considered as an accepted practice. In this study, several biodegradable organic acids and chelating agents were assessed to determine if these amendments can be used in an effective manner, and if their activity and use is consistent with a proposed class of soil amendments for phytoextraction, here termed transient phytoextraction agents (TPAs). A TPA is proposed as an agent that would exhibit both effectiveness in triggering plant accumulation of the targeted metal while minimizing the risk of migration through rapid degradation or inactivation of the soluble complex. Eleven candidate TPAs (acetic acid, ascorbic acid, citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, succinic acid, ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid, dicarboxymethylglutamic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, BayPure CX 100, and the siderophore desferrioxamine B) were tested in batch studies to evaluate their complexation behavior using contaminated soils, with uranium and lead as the target metals. A growth chamber study was then conducted with Brassica juncea (Indian mustard), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), and Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue) grown in a lead-contaminated soil that was treated with the candidate TPAs to assess phytoextraction effectiveness. For the soils tested, citric acid, oxalic acid, and succinic acid were found to be effective complexing agents for uranium phytoextraction, whereas Baypure CX 100 and citric acid exhibited effectiveness for lead phytoextraction. PMID:19260223

Parra, R; Ulery, A L; Elless, M P; Blaylock, M J

2008-01-01

5

Transient Phytoextraction Agents: Establishing Criteria for the Use of Chelants in Phytoextraction of Recalcitrant Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytoremediation of recalcitrant metals such as lead and uranium rely on soil amendments to enhance metal availability within the rhizosphere. Because these amendments may persist in soils, agents that not only biodegrade rapidly but also are effective in triggering metal uptake in plants are needed for metals phytoextraction to be considered as an accepted practice. In this study, several

R. Parra; A. L. Ulery; M. P. Elless; M. J. Blaylock

2008-01-01

6

Supernova injection of short-lived radionuclides into the presolar cloud: A feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorite inclusions show that the early solar system was radioactive with species of short lifetimes compared to the formation time of the solar system. Transporting the radioactive material from the creation site to the formation site of the sun was expected to take enough time that these species should have decayed to nonexistence. Some special series of events seems necessary to speed the process along. Cameron & Truran (1977) suggested that the source of these short-lived radionuclides could have been a supernova. Numerical hydrodynamic studies have shown that slow shockwaves can inject material into a small, dense cloud core. Most stars are not born in lone dense cores. Thus any core that might have become the solar system was probably shrouded with an envelope that the ejecta from supernova would have had to penetrate along with the intervening interstellar medium. We present numerical hydrodynamic studies using Zeus-2D investigating how a supernova can inject its material into a moderately dense molecular cloud. We model a self-similar explosion colliding with a spherical cloud and examine the results for injection. We have modified Zeus-2D by adding three tracking dyes and changing the effective adiabatic index of the fluid in response to the shock-cloud collision. We find that if the effective adiabatic index of the gas is less than 5/3 then injection can occur, and we describe the basics of the mechanism by which this occurs.

Davis, Keith W.

7

Predicting the Phytoextraction Duration to Remediate Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the\\u000a duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on\\u000a plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain a reliable estimate of the phytoextraction duration. To simulate the\\u000a decrease in the HM

G. F. Koopmans; P. F. A. M. Römkens; J. Song; E. J. M. Temminghoff; J. Japenga

2007-01-01

8

Quality of life assessment in radionuclide therapy: a feasibility study of the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire in palliative 131 I-lipiodol therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The good tolerance of radionuclide therapy has frequently been proposed as a major advantage. This study explored the feasibility of using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire in palliative iodine-131 lipiodol therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Questionnaires were completed during interviews in which all symptoms, co-morbidity and medication were assessed at baseline within 1 week before 131I-lipiodol therapy, and subsequently after 1 and

B. Brans; B. Lambert; E. De Beule; F. De Winter; S. Van Belle; H. Van Vlierberghe; B. de Hemptinne; R. Dierckx

2002-01-01

9

Phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soil by carambola (Averrhoa carambola) in field trials.  

PubMed

Use of metal-accumulating woody species to extract metals from heavy metal contaminated soil has received more attention. While considerable studies have focused on the phytoextraction potential of willow (Salix spp.) and poplar (Populus spp.), similar information is rare for other woody species. Carambola (Averrhoa carambola) is a high-biomass tree and has been identified as a new Cd-accumulating species. The present study aimed to evaluate the Cd phytoextraction potential of carambola under field condition. After growing in a slightly Cd-contaminated site for about 170 d, the carambola stand initiated by seed-seedling with high planting density (encoded with "HD-1yr") attained a high shoot biomass yield of 18.6 t ha(-1) and extracted 213 g Cdha(-1), resulting in a 1.6-fold higher Cd removal efficiency than that of a contrasting stand established by grafted-seedling with low planting density (5.3% vs. 2%). That is, "HD-1yr" would remove 50% of the total soil Cd with 13yr, assuming that the Cd removal efficiency would not change over time. Further, one crop of "HD-1yr" significantly decreased (63-69%) the Cd uptake by subsequent vegetables. Among the four carambola stands established using grafted-seedling, the 2-yr-old stand exhibited the highest annual Cd removal efficiency (3.7%), which was yet lower than that of "HD-1yr". These results suggested that phytoextraction of Cd by carambola (especially for "HD-1yr" stand) presented a feasible option to clean up agricultural soils slightly contaminated by Cd. PMID:19541343

Li, J T; Liao, B; Dai, Z Y; Zhu, R; Shu, W S

2009-08-01

10

Citric acid-assisted phytoextraction of lead: a field experiment.  

PubMed

Soil contamination with heavy metals has become a serious environmental problem that requires affordable strategies of remediation. This study was carried out to assess the performance of maize and vetiver in the phytoextraction of Pb from a soil contaminated by battery recycling activities. The species were planted with different spacings between rows (0.80, 0.65 and 0.50m). Citric acid (40mmolkg(-1)) was applied on each experimental plot on the 61st d of cultivation in order to solubilize the Pb and assist the phytoextraction. The results showed that the chelating agent promoted a 14-fold increase in the Pb concentration in maize shoots as compared to the control, which accumulated only 111mgkg(-1) of the metal. The citric acid induced a Pb concentration in vetiver shoots that was 7.2-6.7-fold higher than the control at both the 0.65 and 0.50m plant spacing, respectively. The use of citric acid increased substantially the uptake and translocation of Pb to the shoots, regardless of plant spacing. Citric acid was efficient in solubilizing Pb from the soil and inducing its uptake by both species. Environmentally-friendly and cost effective, commercial citric acid is recommended for assisting Pb-phytoextraction in the studied area. Due to the low natural solubility of Pb and a time frame needed of longer than 150yr to accomplish the clean-up, phytoextraction with no chelate assistance is not recommended for the area. PMID:23490185

Freitas, Eriberto Vagner; Nascimento, Clístenes Williams; Souza, Adailson; Silva, Fernando Bruno

2013-06-01

11

Functional diversity as indicator of the recovery of soil health derived from Thlaspi caerulescens growth and metal phytoextraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous phytoextraction has lately drawn a lot of attention due to its potential for the remediation of metal polluted soils. Although when assessing the success of a phytoextraction process, up till now, emphasis has mostly been placed on metal removal, it is important to highlight that the ultimate objective of a phytoextraction process must be to restore soil health. Consequently,

Lur Epelde; José M. Becerril; Javier Hernández-Allica; Oihana Barrutia; Carlos Garbisu

2008-01-01

12

Potential for phytoextraction of PCBs from contaminated soils using weeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive investigation of the potential of twenty-seven different species of weeds to phytoextract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from contaminated soil was conducted at two field sites (Etobicoke and Lindsay) in southern Ontario, Canada. Soil concentrations were 31?g\\/g and 4.7?g\\/g at each site respectively. All species accumulated PCBs in their root and shoot tissues. Mean shoot concentrations at the two sites

Sarah A. Ficko; Allison Rutter; Barbara A. Zeeb

2010-01-01

13

Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soil by Vetiver grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoextraction techniques utilizing a sterile strain of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for removing lead and other elements such as Zn, Cu, and Fe from the soil of a 50-year old active firing range at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Lead-contaminated soil (300–4500ppm\\/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium

E. W. Wilde; R. L. Brigmon; D. L. Dunn; M. A. Heitkamp; D. C. Dagnan

2005-01-01

14

Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soil by Vetiver grass.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction techniques utilizing a sterile strain of Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for removing lead and other elements such as Zn, Cu, and Fe from the soil of a 50-year old active firing range at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Lead-contaminated soil (300-4500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing transplanted Vetiver grass plants in a greenhouse. The uptake of metals by the plants was evaluated in response to various fertilization and pre-harvest treatment schemes. Baseline metal concentrations in the soil of all pots were measured prior to planting and when the plants were harvested. Plants grew better when fertilized with Osmocote fertilizer in comparison to plants fertilized with 10-10-10 (NPK) fertilizer. Application of a chelating agent, EDTA, one week prior to harvest significantly increased the amount of lead that was phytoextracted. Lead concentrations of up to 1390-1450 ppm/kg in tissue samples were detected. Maximum Pb levels were observed in root tissues. The addition of non-lethal doses of a slow-release herbicide in combination with EDTA did not appear to further enhance phytoextraction or the translocation of Pb into shoots. The study indicated that the use of Vetiver grass coupled with the use of chelating soil amendments has considerable potential for use as a remedial strategy for lead-contaminated soils such as those associated with firing ranges. PMID:15964059

Wilde, E W; Brigmon, R L; Dunn, D L; Heitkamp, M A; Dagnan, D C

2005-12-01

15

Phytoextraction of cadmium by Ipomoea aquatica (water spinach) in hydroponic solution: Effects of cadmium speciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoextraction is a promising technique to remediate heavy metals from contaminated wastewater. However, the interactions of multi-contaminants are not fully clear. This study employed cadmium, Triton X-100 (TX-100), and EDTA to investigate their interactions on phytotoxicity and Cd phytoextraction of Ipomoea aquatica (water spinach) in simulated wastewater. The Cd speciation was estimated by a chemical equilibrium model and MINEQL+. Statistic

Kai-Sung Wang; Lung-Chiu Huang; Hong-Shen Lee; Pai-Ye Chen; Shih-Hsien Chang

2008-01-01

16

The effects of exogenous plant growth regulators in the phytoextraction of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term “assisted phytoextraction” usually refers to the process of applying a chemical additive to contaminated soil in order to increase the metal uptake by crop plants. In this study three commercially available plant growth regulators (PGRs) based on cytokinins (CKs) were used to boost the assisted phytoextraction of Pb and Zn in contaminated soil collected from a former manufactured

Eliana Tassi; Joël Pouget; Gianniantonio Petruzzelli; Meri Barbafieri

2008-01-01

17

Phytoextraction of Cd-Contaminated Soils: Current Status and Future Challenges  

PubMed Central

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most toxic and widely distributed pollutants in the environment. Cadmium contamination of soils has posed a serious threat to safe food production in many parts of the world. The authors present a comprehensive review of present status of phytoextraction technology for cleaning up Cd-contaminated soils, based primarily on the data resulting from both laboratory and field-scale studies that have been conducted to assess or improve the Cd phytoextraction potential of various plant species in the past decade. The encouraging results of field-scale studies have provided a fundamental basis to usher phytoextraction technology into practical use to remediate slightly to moderately Cd-contaminated soils in Europe and Asia, although this technology is not yet ready for widespread application. Chelators and microorganisms tested so far seem not to contribute to the applicability of Cd phytoextraction. The major challenges for the large-scale application of Cd phytoextraction are (a) how to further improve the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction, (b) how to cut the overall costs of Cd phytoextraction, and (c) how to get greater stakeholders’ acceptance of Cd phytoextraction as a reliable option.

Li, Jin-Tian; Baker, Alan J. M.; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hong-Bin; Shu, Wen-Sheng

2012-01-01

18

Phytoextraction of lead, zinc and cadmium from soil by selected plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pb, Zn and Cd phytoextraction potential of 14 different plants was assessed in a chelate induced phytoextraction experiment. In the used soil heavy metals mainly reside in carbonate, organic matter, and residual soil fractions. The addition of a chelate, 5 mmol\\/kg ethylenediamine-tetracetic acid (EDTA), increased the proportion of phytoavailable Pb, Zn and Cd in the soil (dissolved in soil

B. Kos; H. Gr?man; D. Leštan

2003-01-01

19

Selection of ectomycorrhizal willow genotype in phytoextraction of heavy metals.  

PubMed

Willow clones are used for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils and are usually mycorrhizal. The receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum varies specific to genotype; however, it is unknown if this might have a significant impact on their efficiency in phytoextraction of heavy metals. Therefore, a model system with mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal willows of two different genotypes--one with usually stronger natural mycorrhizal colonization (Salix dasyclados), and one with lower natural mycorrhizal colonization (S. viminalis)--was investigated for its efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) from contaminated soil. Inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria significantly decreased the biomass of leaves of both inoculated willow clones, and increased or had no effect on the biomass of trunks and roots of S. dasyclados and S. viminalis, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the biomass of S. dasyclados were in general higher than in S. viminalis irrespective of inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation with A. muscaria significantly decreased the concentration of Cu in the trunks of both Salix taxa, but did not affected the concentrations of other heavy metals in the biomass. In conclusion, stronger receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum was correlated with an increased total extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Therefore, this seems to be a suitable criterion for effective willow clone selection for phytoremediation. Increased biomass production with relatively constant metal concentrations seems to be a major advantage of mycorrhizal formation of willows in phytoremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:23530334

Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Baum, Christel

2013-01-01

20

Stimulated phytoextraction of metals from fly ash by microbial interventions.  

PubMed

Various combinations of fly ash tolerant bacteria isolated from the rhizospheric zone of Typha latifolia naturally growing on a fly ash dump site were tested for enhanced metal uptake by Brassica juncea grown in fly ash amended with press mud. After enrichment of the bacteria in a nutrient broth, they were subsequently applied to the rhizospheric zone of B. juncea in different combinations. When the metal analysis was done in the plants at their maturity, it was revealed that out of 11 bacterial consortia prepared from the different combinations of four bacterial strains, Micrococcus roseus NBRFT2 (MTCC 9018), Bacillus endophyticus NBRFT4 (MTCC 9021), Paenibacillus macerans NBRFT5 (MTCC 8912) and Bacillus pumilus NBRFT9 (MTCC 8913), a combination of NBRFT5, NBRFT4 and NBRFT9 (ST3) was found to have induced the highest metal accumulations as compared to other consortia. The bioaugmentation of the ST3 consortium enhanced Fe accumulation by 247%, Ni by 231% and Zn by 223% in B. juncea as compared to control plants. These values were found to be significantly higher than the other bacterial consortia. Bacteria were also found to produce siderophores which could enhance the metal uptake by plants through metal mobilization. Besides siderophores, bacteria are also known to produce protons, organic acids and enzymes which enhance the metal mobilization and boost the phytoextraction process. The translocation of metals from root to stem was invariably higher than from stem to leaf. Hence, ST3 was adjudged the best consortium to be used in the field application to accelerate the phytoextraction of metals from fly ash by B. juncea. PMID:23393983

Tiwari, Sadhna; Singh, S N; Garg, S K

2012-01-01

21

Evaluation of plant growth regulators to increase nickel phytoextraction by Alyssum species.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that application of phytohormones to shoots of Alyssum murale increased biomass production but did not increase Ni shoot concentration. Increased biomass and Ni phytoextraction efficiency is useful to achieve economically viable phytomining. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two types of phytohormones on the Ni phytoextraction capacity of four Alyssum species. Two different commercially available phytohormones (Cytokin and Promalin) based on cytokinins and/or gibberellins were applied on shoot biomass of four Ni hyperaccumulating Alyssum species (A. corsicum, A. malacitanum, A. murale, and A. pintodasilvae). Cytokin was applied in two concentrations and promalin in one concentration. The application of phytohormones had no clear positive effect on biomass production, Ni accumulation and Ni phytoextraction efficiency in the studied Alyssum species. A. malacitanum was the only species in which a significantly negative effect of these treatments was observed (in Ni uptake). A slightly positive response to promalin treatment was observed in the biomass production and Ni phytoextraction efficiency of A. corsicum. Although this effect was not significant it does indicate a potential application of these approaches to improve phytoextraction ability. Further studies will be needed to identify the most adequate phytohormone treatment as well as the appropriate concentrations and application times. PMID:23488002

Cabello-Conejo, M I; Centofanti, T; Kidd, P S; Prieto-Fernández, A; Chaney, R L

2013-01-01

22

Phytoextraction of Zn and Cu from Sewage Sludge and Impact on Agronomic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of elevated concentrations of heavy metals limits the usage of sewage sludge as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Experiments were carried out to examine the extent to which seven plant species phytoextracted Zn and Cu from dewatered sludge. The hyperaccumulators Thlaspi caerulescens and Sedum alfredii showed the greatest removal of Zn, while shoots and tubers of two species

Liu Xiaomel; Wu Qttang; M. K. Banks; S. D. Ebbs

2005-01-01

23

Chelate-Assisted Phytoextraction of Cadmium and Lead using Mustard and Fenugreek  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screen-house experiment was conducted to study cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) phytoextraction using mustard and fenugreek as test crops. Cadmium was applied at a rate of 20 mg kg soil for both crops, and Pb was applied at 160 and 80 mg kg soil for mustard and fenugreek, respectively. The disodium salt of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was applied

Roopinder Singh; I. M. Chhibba

2010-01-01

24

Chemically Assisted Phytoextraction: A Review of Potential Soil Amendments for Increasing Plant Uptake of Heavy Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contamination of soils by trace metals has been an unfortunate sideeffect of industrialization. Some of these contaminants can interfere with vulnerable enduses of soil, such as agriculture or nature, already at relatively low levels of contamination. Reversely, conventional civil–technical soil-remediation techniques are too expensive to remediate extended areas of moderately contaminated soil. Phytoextraction has been proposed as a more

E. Meers; F. M. G. Tack; S. Van Slycken; A. Ruttens; G. Du Laing; J. Vangronsveld; M. G. Verloo

2008-01-01

25

The effects of exogenous plant growth regulators in the phytoextraction of heavy metals.  

PubMed

The term "assisted phytoextraction" usually refers to the process of applying a chemical additive to contaminated soil in order to increase the metal uptake by crop plants. In this study three commercially available plant growth regulators (PGRs) based on cytokinins (CKs) were used to boost the assisted phytoextraction of Pb and Zn in contaminated soil collected from a former manufactured gas-plant site. The effects of EDTA treatment in soil and PGR treatment in leaves of Helianthus annuus were investigated in terms of dry weight biomass, Pb and Zn accumulation in the upper parts of the plants, Pb and Zn phytoextraction efficiency and transpiration rate. Metal solubility in soil and its subsequent accumulation in shoots were markedly enhanced by EDTA. The combined effects of EDTA and cytokine resulted in an increase in the Pb and Zn phytoextraction efficiency (up to 890% and 330%, respectively, compared to untreated plants) and up to a 50% increase in foliar transpiration. Our results indicate that exogenous PGRs based on CKs can positively assist the phytoextraction increasing the biomass production, the metal accumulation in shoots and the plant transpiration. The observed increase in biomass could be related to its action in stimulation of cell division and shoot initiation. On the other hand, the increase in metal accumulation in upper parts of plant could be related to both the role of PGRs in the enhancement of plant resistance to stress (as toxic metals) and the increase in transpiration rate, i.e. flux of water-soluble soil components and contaminants by the regulation of stomatal opening. PMID:18037469

Tassi, Eliana; Pouget, Joël; Petruzzelli, Gianniantonio; Barbafieri, Meri

2008-03-01

26

Phytoextraction of Cd and Zn from agricultural soils by Salix ssp. and intercropping of Salix caprea and Arabidopsis halleri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of agricultural topsoils with Cd above guideline values is of concern in many countries throughout the world.\\u000a Extraction of metals from contaminated soils using high-biomass, metal-accumulating Salix sp. has been proposed as a low-cost, gentle remediation strategy, but reasonable phytoextraction rates remain to be demonstrated.\\u000a In an outdoor pot experiment we assessed the phytoextraction potential for Cd and Zn

Gerlinde Wieshammer; Reinhard Unterbrunner; Teresa Bańares García; Michael F. Zivkovic; Markus Puschenreiter; Walter W. Wenzel

2007-01-01

27

Heavy Metals Phytoextraction from the Polluted Soils of Zakamensk (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining and ore-dressing are one of the most serious causes of environment pollution. Last century in days of active industrialization in Russia a considerable quantity of mineral deposits has been developed. It was not given sufficient attention for ecological safety at that time. After an economic crisis connected with disorder of the USSR and a planned economy, a number of the enterprises became bankrupts and have stopped the activity. As a result the broken landscapes have not been recultivated everywhere, there were numerous wastes. The negative consequences were especially strongly manifested in areas with severe climatic conditions where environmental self-renewal occurred is slowed rather down. The degree of a waste toxicity also acted as the important factor. One of such situations has arisen in Zakamensk - an administrative center of Zakamensky area of Buryat Republic (Russia). Environmental problems of the town have arisen in connection with activity of town-forming enterprise - Dzhidinsky tungsten-molybdenum industrial complex. The enterprise has been organized in 1934 and functioned within 63 years till 1997. During enterprise operating time 3 deposits have been exploited and is created 2 large (more than 40 million tons) tails depository of technogenic sands (TS), located in immediate proximity (less than 1-2 km) from a town residential zone.Sand of tails are rather toxic, the average maintenance of heavy metals in them is (mg/kg): Cd - 42, Pb - 7500, Zn - 3160, Cu - 620, Ni - 34, Co - 44, Mn - 121, Cr - 70, Hg - 0,01, As - 13, Mo - 90. Due to the lack of knowledges on the toxicity of TS in the past century, they were actively used in the road and house construction, during the erection of dams. After scientific studies they were recommended for using as fertilizers. Besides anthropogenic sands movement, there was intensive dispersion of sand by means of water and wind erosion. As a result of natural migration sands got to the subordinated elements of the landscape - Modonkul river flood plain, were transferred by its waters and redeposited in an estuary, forming a cone of carrying out with capacity of up to 2 meters or more. The presence of large number of private houses with garden plots, in which the population grew potatoes, vegetables and fruit-berry trees cultures for food purposes, is the feature of many Siberian towns, including Zakamensk. The biogeochemical assessment of the town territory current status has shown a high level of contamination of soils and plants by heavy metals that poses a threat to the health of townsmen. In this connection search of effective ways of clearing up of the polluted soils by phytoextraction and selection of plants, capable to extract high quantities of heavy metals from soil in concrete ecological conditions, is actual. For this purpose we had been made experiments with 8 species of plants. Modeling of various conditions of pollution carried out by addition of following quantities of TS (%): 0; 25; 33; 50; 67; 75 and 100. In the report results of the experiments and the recommendations on using of plants as extractors on soils polluted by technogenic sand will be presented.

Ubugunov, V.; Dorzhonova, V.; Ubugunov, L.

2012-04-01

28

Effect of mycorrhizal fungi on the phytoextraction of weathered p,p-DDE by Cucurbita pepo.  

PubMed

Field experiments were conducted to assess the impact of inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi on the accumulation of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil by three cultivars of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo cv Costata Romanesco, Goldrush, Raven). Three commercially available mycorrhizal products (BioVam, Myco-Vam, INVAM) were inoculated into the root system of the zucchini seedlings at planting. In agreement with our previous findings, plants not inoculated with fungi accumulated large but variable amounts of contaminant, with root bioconcentration factors (BCFs, ratio of p,p'-DDE, on a dry weight basis, in the root to that in the soil) ranging from 10 to 48 and stem BCFs ranging from 5.5 to 11. The total amount of contaminant phytoextracted during the 62 day growing season ranged from 0.72-2.9%. The effect of fungal inoculation on the release of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil and on the subsequent uptake of the parent compound by zucchini appeared to vary at the cultivar level. For Goldrush, fungal inoculation generally decreased tissue BCFs but because of slightly larger biomass, did not significantly impact the percent contaminant phytoextracted. Alternatively, for Costata, BioVam and Myco-Vam generally enhanced p,p'-DDE accumulation from soil, and increased the amount of contaminant phytoextracted by up to 34%. For Raven, BioVam reduced contaminant uptake whereas Myco-Vam and INVAM increased contaminant phytoextraction by 53 and 60%, respectively. The data show that fungal inoculation may significantly increase the remedial potential of C. pepo ssp. pepo. The apparent cultivar specific response to mycorrhizal inoculation is unexpected and the subject of ongoing investigation. PMID:16777321

White, Jason C; Ross, Daniel W; Gent, Martin P N; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, Maryjane Incorvia

2006-10-11

29

Humic Acid Addition Enhances B and Pb Phytoextraction by Vetiver Grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoremediation is an attractive, economic alternative to soil removal and burial methods to remediate contaminated soil.\\u000a However, it is also a slow process. The effect of humic acid in enhancing B and Pb phytoextraction from contaminated soils\\u000a was studied (pot experiment) using transplanted vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash). Boron was applied at 0, 45, 90 and 180 kg B ha?1

Ilker Angin; Metin Turan; Quirine M. Ketterings; Avni Cakici

2008-01-01

30

Phytoextraction and Accumulation of Lead from Contaminated Soil by Vetiver Grass: Laboratory and Simulated Field Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A soil-culture study was conducted to investigate the phytoextraction of lead (Pb) in two species of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides and V. nemoralis) irrigated with an increasing level of Pb(NO3)2 (5, 7, 9 and 11 g L-1) for 12 weeks. In a laboratory study, the removalof lead from soil was correlated with lead accumulation by roots and shoots of both

S. Chantachon; M. Kruatrachue; P. Pokethitiyook; S. Upatham; S. Tantanasarit; V. Soonthornsarathool

2004-01-01

31

Phytoextraction of Pb and Cu contaminated soil with maize and microencapsulated EDTA.  

PubMed

Chelate-assisted phytoextraction using agricultural crops has been widely investigated as a remediation technique for soils contaminated with low mobility potentially toxic elements. Here, we report the use of a controlled-release microencapsulated EDTA (Cap-EDTA) by emulsion solvent evaporation to phytoremediate soil contaminated with Pb and Cu. Incubation experiments were carried out to assess the effect of Cap- and non-microencapsulated EDTA (Ncap-EDTA) on the mobility of soil metals. Results showed EDTA effectively increased the mobility of Pb and Cu in the soil solution and Cap-EDTA application provided lower and more constant water-soluble concentrations of Pb and Cu in comparison with. Phytotoxicity may be alleviated and plant uptake of Pb and Cu may be increased after the incorporation of Cap-EDTA. In addition phytoextraction efficiencies of maize after Cap- and Ncap-EDTA application were tested in a pot experiment. Maize shoot concentrations of Pb and Cu were lower with Cap-EDTA application than with Ncap-EDTA. However, shoot dry weight was significantly higher with Cap-EDTA application. Consequently, the Pb and Cu phytoextraction potential of maize significantly increased with Cap-EDTA application compared with the control and Ncap-EDTA application. PMID:22908640

Xie, Zhiyi; Wu, Longhua; Chen, Nengchang; Liu, Chengshuai; Zheng, Yuji; Xu, Shengguang; Li, Fangbai; Xu, Yanling

2012-09-01

32

Hydrolysed wool: a novel chelating agent for metal chelant-assisted phytoextraction from soil.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction has revealed great potential, however it is limited by the fact that plants need time and nutrient supply and have a limited metal uptake capacity. Although the use of synthetic chelators, such as EDTA, enhances heavy metal extraction, it also produces the negative side effects of high phytotoxicity, as well as leaching of essential metals. The aim of this research was to investigate the application of wool, in mobilising metals and in improving the phytoextraction of metals-contaminated soil. We performed column experiments with 14 d and 7 d partially hydrolysed wool as chelating agent on a silty-loamy sand agricultural soil. In the column experiment the 14 d wool hydrolysate mobilised 68% of Cu in soil, whereas in the case of Cd it mobilised 5.5%. The model plant selected for the phytoextraction experiments was tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The plant uptake of Cd and Cu, assisted by the application of 6.6 g kg(-1) wool hydrolysate was increased by 30% in comparison to the control plants. The application of 13.3 g kg(-1) wool hydrolysate enhanced the Cu uptake by up to 850%. Moreover, high leaching probability frequently observed when applying chelating agents, such as EDTA or ethylene diamine disuccinate (EDDS), were not detected. The use of hydrolysed wool therefore merits further investigation. PMID:18486182

Evangelou, Michael W H; Ebel, Mathias; Koerner, Andrea; Schaeffer, Andreas

2008-06-01

33

Findings on the phytoextraction and phytostabilization of soils contaminated with heavy metals.  

PubMed

As a result of human activities such as mining, metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. Phytoremediation, an emerging cost-effective, non-intrusive, and aesthetically pleasing technology that uses the remarkable ability of plants to concentrate elements can be potentially used to remediate metal-contaminated sites. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of metal accumulation by plants found in a mining area in Hamedan province with the ultimate goal of finding suitable plants for phytoextraction and phytostabilization (two processes of phytoremediation). To this purpose, shoots and roots of the 12 plant species and the associated soil samples were collected and analyzed by measurement of total concentrations of some elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and then biological absorption coefficient, bioconcentration factor, and translocation factor parameters calculated for each element. Our results showed that none of the plants were suitable for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of Fe, Zn, and Cu, while Chenopodium botrys, Stipa barbata, Cousinia bijarensis, Scariola orientalis, Chondrila juncea, and Verbascum speciosum, with a high biological absorption coefficient for Mn, were suitable for phytoextraction of Mn, and C. bijarensis, C. juncea, V. speciosum, S. orientalis, C. botrys, and S. barbata, with a high bioconcentration factor and low translocation factor for Mn, had the potential for the phytostabilization of this element. PMID:19319488

Cheraghi, M; Lorestani, B; Khorasani, N; Yousefi, N; Karami, M

2011-12-01

34

Phytoextraction and phytostabilisation of metal-contaminated soil in temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research addressed the phytoremediation of roadside soils subjected to multi-component metal solutions. A typical right of way for roads in Canada is around 30 m, and at least 33% of that land in the right of way is unpaved and can support animal life. Thus, land associated with 12,000 km of roads in the province of British Columbia and millions of kilometres around the world represent a substantial quantity of wildlife habitat where metal contamination needs to be remediated. Phytostabilisation, requires least maintenance among different phytoremediation techniques, and it could be a feasible and practical method of remediating in roadside soils along highways and for improving highway runoff drainage. The suitability of five plant species was studied for phytoextraction and phytostabilisation in a region with temperate maritime climate of coastal British Columbia, Canada. Pot experiments were conducted using Lolium perenne L (perennial rye grass), Festuca rubra L (creeping red fescue), Helianthus annuus L (sunflower), Poa pratensis L (Kentucky bluegrass) and Brassica napus L (rape) in soils treated with three different metal (Cu, Pb, Mn and Zn) concentrations. The bio-metric characters of plants in soils with multiple-metal contaminations, their metal accumulation characteristics, translocation properties and metal removal were assessed at different stages of plant growth, 90 and 120 DAS (days after sowing). Lolium was found to be suitable for the phytostabilisation of Cu and Pb, Festuca for Mn and Poa for Zn. Metal removal was higher at 120 than at 90 days after sowing, and metals concentrated more in the underground tissues with less translocation to the above-ground parts. Bioconcentration factors indicate that Festuca had the highest accumulation for Cu, Helianthus for Pb and Zn and Poa for Mn.

Padmavathiamma, P. K.; Li, L. Y.

2009-04-01

35

Radionuclide Generators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide generator systems continue to play a key role in providing both diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides for various applications in nuclear medicine, oncology, and interventional cardiology. Although many parent/daughter pairs have been evaluated as radionuclide generator systems, there are a relatively small number of generators, which are currently in routine clinical and research use. Essentially every conceivable approach has been used for parent/separation strategies, including sublimation, thermochromatographic separation, solvent extraction, and adsorptive column chromatography. The most widely used radionuclide generator for clinical applications is the 99Mo/99mTc generator system, but recent years have seen an enormous increase in the use of generators to provide therapeutic radionuclides, which has paralleled the development of complementary technologies for targeting agents for therapy and in the general increased interest in the use of unsealed therapeutic radioactive sources. More recently, use of the 68Ge/68Ga generator is showing great potential as a source of positron-emitting 68Ga for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. Key advantages for the use of radionuclide generators include reasonable costs, the convenience of obtaining the desired daughter radionuclide on demand, and availability of the daughter radionuclide in high specific activity, no-carrier added form.

Rösch, F.; Knapp, F. F. (Russ)

36

Phytosiderophore effects on subsurface actinide contaminants: potential for phytostabilization and phytoextraction.  

SciTech Connect

In recognition of the need for a safe, effective technology for long term Pu/Th/Actinide stabilization or removal from soils, we have begun an investigation of the potential for phytoremediation (phytostabilization and/or phytoextraction) of Pu and other actinide soil contaminants at DOE sites using phytosiderophore producing plants, and are investigating the contribution of phytosiderophores to actinide mobility in the subsurface environment. Phytoremediation and Phytostabilization have been proven to be a cost-effective, safe, efficient, and publicly acceptable technology for clean up and/or stabilization of contaminant metals . However, no phyto-based technologies have been developed for stabilization or removal of plutonium from soils and groundwater, and very few have been investigated for other actinides . Current metal-phytostabilization and phytoremediation techniques, predominately based around lead, nickel, and other soft-metal phytoextraction, will almost certainly be inadequate for plutonium due its distinct chemical properties . Phytosiderophore-based phytoremediation may provide technically and financially practical methods for remediation and long-term stewardship of soils that have low to moderate, near surface actinide contamination . We plan to demonstrate potential benefits of phytosiderophore-producing plants for long-term actinide contaminant stabilization by the plant's prevention of soil erosion and actinide migration through hydraulic control and/or through actinide removal through phytoextraction . We may also show possible harm caused by these plants through increased presence of actinide chelators that could increase actinide mobilization and migration in the subsurface environment. This information can then be directly applied by either removal of harmful plants, or be used to develop plant-based soil stabilization/remediation technologies .

Ruggiero, C. E. (Christy E.); Twary, S. N. (Scott N.); Deladurantaye, E. (Elise)

2003-01-01

37

Specific Dioscorea Phytoextracts Enhance Potency of TCL-Loaded DC-Based Cancer Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Dioscorea tuber phytoextracts can confer immunomodulatory activities ex vivo and improve regeneration of bone marrow cells in vivo. In present study, we evaluated specific Dioscorea phytoextracts for use ex vivo as a bone-marrow-derived dendritic cell- (DC-) based vaccine adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy. Fractionated Dioscorea extracts (DsII) were assayed for their effect on maturation and functions of DC ex vivo and antimelanoma activity of DC-based vaccine in vivo. The phytoextract from 50–75% ethanol-precipitated fraction of Dioscorea alata var. purpurea Tainung no. 5 tuber, designated as DsII-TN5, showed a strong augmentation of tumor cell lysate- (TCL-) loaded DC-mediated activation of T-cell proliferation. DsII-TN5 stimulated the expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and IL-1? in TCL-loaded DCs and downregulated the expression of TGF-?1. DC vaccines prepared by a specific schema (TCL (2 h) + LPS (22 h)) showed the strongest antitumor activity. DsII-TN5 as a DC vaccine adjuvant showed strong antimelanoma activity and reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) population in tested mice. DsII-TN5 can also activate DCs to enhance Th1- and Th17-related cytokine expressions. Biochemical analysis showed that DsII-TN5 consists mainly of polysaccharides containing a high level (53%) of mannose residues. We suggest that DsII-TN5 may have potential for future application as a potent, cost-effective adjuvant for DC-based cancer vaccines.

Chang, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hui-Ming; Yin, Shu-Yi; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Wen, Chih-Chun; Wei, Wen-Chi; Lai, Phoency; Wang, Cheng-Hsin; Yang, Ning-Sun

2013-01-01

38

Phytotoxicity of biosolids and screening of selected plant species with potential for mercury phytoextraction.  

PubMed

Mercury contaminated stockpiles of biosolids (3.5-8.4 mg kg(-1) Hg) from Melbourne Water's Western Treatment Plant (MW-WTP) were investigated to evaluate the possibility for their phytoremediation. Nine plant species (Atriplex codonocarpa, Atriplex semibaccata, Austrodanthonia caespitosa, Brassica juncea, Brassica napus, Gypsophila paniculata, Sorghum bicolor, Themeda triandra and Trifolium subterraneum) were screened for phytoextraction potential in Hg-contaminated biosolids from MW-WTP. In addition, the same plant species were germinated and grown in two other substrates (i.e. potting mix and potting mix spiked with mercury(II)). Growth measurements and the mercury uptake for all three substrates were compared. Some plant species grown in potting mix spiked with mercury(II) grew more vigorously than in the other two substrates and showed higher levels of sulphur in their tissues. These results suggested that the mercury stress activated defence mechanisms and it was hypothesised that this was the likely reason for the enhanced production of sulphur compounds in the plant species studied which stimulated their growth. Some species did not grow in biosolids because of the combined effect of high mercury toxicity and high salt content. Atriplex conodocarpa and Australodanthonia caespitose proved to be the most suitable candidates for mercury phytoextraction because of their ability to translocate mercury from roots to the above-ground tissues. PMID:19775810

Lomonte, Cristina; Doronila, Augustine I; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Kolev, Spas D

2010-01-15

39

Cadmium accumulation and tolerance of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) seedlings for phytoextraction applications.  

PubMed

Mahogany, a high biomass fast-growing tropical tree, has recently garnered considerable interest for potential use in heavy metal phytoremediation. This study performed hydroponic experiments with Cd concentration gradients at concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, and 30 mg L(-1) to identify Cd accumulation and tolerance of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) seedlings as well as their potential for phytoextraction. Experimental results indicate that Cd inhibited mahogany seedling growth at the highest Cd exposure concentration (30 mg L(-1)). Nevertheless, this woody species demonstrated great potential for phytoextraction at Cd concentrations of 7.5 and 15 mg L(-1). The roots, twigs, and leaves had extremely large bioaccumulation factors at 10.3-65.1, indicating that the plant extracted large amounts of Cd from hydroponic solutions. Mahogany seedlings accumulated up to 154 mg kg(-1) Cd in twigs at a Cd concentration of 15 mg L(-1). Although Cd concentrations in leaves were <100 mg kg(-1), these concentrations markedly exceed the normal ranges for other plants. Due to the high biomass production and Cd uptake capacity of mahogany shoots, this plant is a potential candidate for remediating Cd-contaminated sites in tropical regions. PMID:21741155

Fan, Kui-Chu; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Wei; Lee, Hung-Lin; Hseu, Zeng-Yei

2011-10-01

40

Plant uptake and the leaching of metals during the hot EDDS-enhanced phytoextraction process.  

PubMed

Using pot experiments, the effect of the application of the biodegradable chelating agent S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) in hot solutions at 90 degrees C on the uptake of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd by corn (Zea mays L. cv. Nongda No. 108) and beans (P vulgaris L. white bean), and the potential leaching of metals from soil, were studied. When EDDS was applied as a hot solution at the rate of 1 mmol kg(-1), the concentrations and total phytoextraction of metals in plant shoots exceeded or approximated those in the shoots of plants treated with normal EDDS at the rate of 5 mmol kg(-1). On the other hand, the leaching of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd after the application of the hot EDDS solution at the rate of 1 mmol kg(-1) was reduced by 46%, 21%, 57%, and 35% in comparison with that from the application of normal EDDS at 5 mmol kg(-1), respectively. For treatment with 1 mmol kg(-1) of EDDS, the leached metals decreased to the levels of the control group (that without EDDS amendment) 14 d after the application of EDDS. The soil amendment with biodegradable EDDS in hot solutions may provide a good alternative to chelate-enhanced phytoextraction in enhancing metal uptake by plants and limiting metals from leaching out of the soil. PMID:18246767

Luo, Chun-Ling; Shen, Zhen-Guo; Li, Xiang-Dong

2007-01-01

41

A feasibility study of perennial/annual plant species to restore soils contaminated with heavy metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A feasibility study was carried out to evaluate the application of perennial/annual plant species in a phytoextraction process of a previously washed industrial urban soil contaminated by nickel, arsenic and cupper. The plant species selected for this study were Ipomea (Ipomea variada); grass (Poa pratensis); grass mixture (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum sp.); Monks Cress (Tropaeolum majus); ficus (Ficus benajamina) and fern (Pteris cretica). Soil was characterized and it presented the following heavy metals concentrations (dry weight): 80 mg of Ni/kg, 456-656 mg of As/kg and 1684-3166 mg of Cu/kg. Germination and survival in contaminated soil tests were conducted, from these, P. pratensis was discarded and the rest of plant species tested were used for the phytoextraction selection test. After 4 months of growth, biomass production was determined, and content of Ni, As and Cu was analyzed in plant’s tissue. Metal biological absorption coefficient (BAC), bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF), were calculated. Regarding to biomass generation it was observed, in every case, an inhibition of the plant growth compared with blanks sown in a non contaminated soil; inhibition ranged from 22.5% for the Monk cress to 98% for Ipomea. Even though the later presented high BAC, BCF and TF, its growth was severely inhibited, and therefore, due its low biomass generation, it is not recommended for phytoextraction under conditions for this study. Heavy metals concentrations in plant’s tissue (dry weight) were as high as 866 mg Cu/kg and 602 mg As/kg for grass mixture; and 825 mg As/kg was observed for Monks cress. Grass mixture and monks cress had high BAC, BCF and TF, also they had high metal concentrations in its plants tissues and the lowest growth inhibition rates; hence the application in phytoextraction processes of these plants is advisable.

Zacarías, Montserrat; Beltrán, Margarita; Gilberto Torres, Luis; González, Abelardo

42

Role of plant growth regulators and a saprobic fungus in enhancement of metal phytoextraction potential and stress alleviation in pearl millet.  

PubMed

"Assisted phytoextraction" involving application of chemical additives such as plant growth regulators (PGRs) has become a trend in phytoremediation technology. This study identifies a cost-effective, naturally available crude PGR (PGR1) that produces the same effects as the commercial PGR (PGR2), increasing metal uptake by plants and the reduction of metal stress. Assisted phytoextraction by pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) from a multi-metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Na and Zn) contaminated soil medium with tannery solid waste (TSW) soil amendments of 5 and 10%, was evaluated in a full-factorial pot trial with PGR1, PGR2 and Trichoderma pseudokoningii as factors. The effects of these phytoextraction assistants were measured through dry biomass production, heavy metal uptake, stress tolerance enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), soluble protein content of plant, and phytoextraction efficiency. Dry biomass and multi-metal accumulation were the highest in the soil treatments with a combined application of PGR1, PGR2 and T. pseudokoningii and the lowest in the control. The soluble protein contents and the SOD and CAT values were the highest in the 10% TSW treatment provided with PGR2+T. pseudokoningii, while the lowest were in the control. Thus, application of crude PGR in combination with other phytoextraction assistants can increase biomass production as well as multi-metal accumulation in plants. However, the biochemical properties of the plant depend on the level of TSW stress in the soil treatment as well as the type of phytoextraction assistants. PMID:22959131

Firdaus-e-Bareen; Shafiq, Muhammad; Jamil, Sidra

2012-10-30

43

Performance of bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction applied to metal contaminated soils: a review.  

PubMed

Bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction is a promising method for the cleaning-up of soils contaminated by metals. Bacteria mainly Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and fungi mainly Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) associated with hyperaccumulating or non-hyperaccumulating plants were analyzed on the basis of a bioprocess engineering approach (concentration and amount of metals extracted by plants, translocation and bioconcentration factor, and plant biomass). In average bioaugmentation increased metals accumulated by shoots by a factor of about 2 (metal concentration) and 5 (amount) without any obvious differences between bacteria and fungi. To optimize this process, new relevant microorganism-plant associations and field scale experiments are needed along with a common methodology for the comparison of all experiments on the same basis. Recommendations were suggested concerning both the microbial-plant selection and the implementation of bioaugmentation to enhance the microbial survival. The use of microbial consortia associated with plant was discussed notably for multi-contaminated soils. PMID:17981382

Lebeau, Thierry; Braud, Armelle; Jézéquel, Karine

2008-06-01

44

EDTA and citric acid mediated phytoextraction of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd through marigold (Tagetes erecta).  

PubMed

Phytoextraction is an emerging cost-effective solution for remediation of contaminated soils which involves the removal of toxins, especially heavy metals and metalloids, by the roots of the plants with subsequent transport to aerial plant organs. The aim of the present investigation is to study the effects of EDTA and citric acid on accumulation potential of marigold (Tagetes erecta) to Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd and also to evaluate the impacts of these chelators (EDTA and citric acid) in combination with all the four heavy metals on the growth of marigold. The plants were grown in pots and treated with Zn (7.3 mg l(-1)), Cu (7.5 mg I(-1)), Pb (3.7 mg l(-1)) and Cd (0.2 mg l(-1)) alone and in combination with different doses of EDTA i.e., 10, 20 and 30 mg l(-1). All the three doses of EDTA i.e., 10, 20 and 30 mg l(-1) significantly increased the accumulation of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd by roots, stems and leaves as compared to control treatments. The 30 mg l(-1) concentration of citric acid showed reduced accumulation of these metals by root, stem and leaves as compared to lower doses i.e., 10 and 20 mg l(-1). Among the four heavy metals, Zn accumulated in the great amount (526.34 mg kg(-1) DW) followed by Cu (443.14 mg kg(-1) DW), Pb (393.16 mg kg(-1) DW) and Cd (333.62 mg kg(-1) DW) in leaves with 30 mg l(-1) EDTA treatment. The highest concentration of EDTA and citric acid (30 mg l(-1)) caused significant reduction in growth of marigold in terms of plant height, fresh weight of plant, total chlorophyll, carbohydrate content and protein content. Thus EDTA and citric acid efficiently increased the phytoextractability of marigold which can be used to remediate the soil contaminated with these metals. PMID:21046992

Sinhal, V K; Srivastava, Alok; Singh, V P

2010-05-01

45

Enhancement of Cd phytoextraction by two Amaranthus species with endophytic Rahnella sp. JN27.  

PubMed

Microbe-assisted phytoextraction shows a potential for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The aim of this study was to isolate, characterize, and evaluate the potential of endophytic bacteria in improving plant growth and metal uptake by Cd-hyperaccumulators-Amaranthus hypochondriacus and Amaranthus mangostanus. An endophytic bacterial strain JN27 isolated from roots of Zea mays displayed high tolerance and mobilization to Cd, and was identified as Rahnella sp. based on 16S rDNA sequencing. The strain also exhibited multiple plant growth beneficial features including the production of indole-3-acetic acid, siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase and solubilization of insoluble phosphate. Subsequently, a pot trial was performed to elucidate the effects of inoculation with JN27 on plant growth and Cd uptake by A. hypochondriacus, A. mangostanus, Solanum nigrum and Z. mays grown in soils with different levels of Cd (25, 50, 100 mg Cd kg(-1)). The results revealed that inoculation with JN27 significantly increased the biomasses of all the tested plants and the Cd concentrations of all the tested plants except Z. mays in both above-ground and root tissues. Moreover, strain JN27 could successfully re-colonized in rhizosphere soils of all the tested plants and root interior of A. hypochondriacus and Z. mays. The present results indicated that the symbiont of A. hypochondriacus (or A. mangostanus) and strain JN27 can effectively improve the Cd uptake by plants and would be a new strategy in microbe-assisted phytoextraction for metal-contaminated soils. PMID:24314897

Yuan, Ming; He, Huaidong; Xiao, Li; Zhong, Ting; Liu, Hui; Li, Shubin; Deng, Peiyan; Ye, Zhihong; Jing, Yuanxiao

2014-05-01

46

Cadmium Phytoextraction Efficiency of Arum ( Colocasia antiquorum ), Radish ( Raphanus sativus L.) and Water Spinach ( Ipomoea aquatica ) Grown in Hydroponics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection of a phytoextraction plant with high Cd accumulation potential based on compatibility with mechanized cultivation\\u000a practice and local environmental conditions may provide more benefits than selection based mainly on high Cd tolerance plants.\\u000a In this hydroponics study, the potential of Cd accumulation by three plant species; arum (Colocasia antiquorum), radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) were

Bal Ram Singh; S M Imamul Huq; Shigenao Kawai

2008-01-01

47

Potential of Borago officinalis , Sinapis alba L. and Phacelia boratus for Phytoextraction of Cd and Pb from Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal phytoextraction is a soil remediation technique, which makes use of plants in removing contamination from soil.\\u000a The plants must thus be tolerant to heavy metals, adaptable to soil and climate characteristics, and able to take up large\\u000a amounts of heavy metals. Most of the high biomass productive plants such as, maize, oat and sunflower are plants, which do

Michael W. H. Evangelou; Sandra Kutschinski-Klöss; Mathias Ebel; Andreas Schaeffer

2007-01-01

48

Phytoextraction of Pb and Cd by the Mediterranean saltbush ( Atriplex halimus L.): metal uptake in relation to salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The success of phytoextraction depends upon the identification of suitable plant species that hyperaccumulate heavy metals\\u000a and produce large amounts of biomass using established agricultural techniques. In this study, the Mediterranean saltbush\\u000a Atriplex halimus L., which is a C4 perennial native shrub of Mediterranean basin with an excellent tolerance to drought and salinity, is investigated\\u000a with the

Eleni Manousaki; Nicolas Kalogerakis

2009-01-01

49

Prospective Application of Leucaena Leucocephala for Phytoextraction of Cd and Zn and Nitrogen Fixation in Metal Polluted Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study deals with phytoextraction of Zn and Cd by Leucaena leucocephala grown on effluent fed and low nitrogen soils collected from S1, S2, and S3 sites, representing decreasing metal content with increasing distance from the effluent drain. Plant nitrogen fixation potential and soil micro-biochemical attributes against metal stress were also assessed. Increasing soil metal content and plant growth enhanced

Shweta Saraswat; J. P. N. Rai

2011-01-01

50

Effects of Metal Phytoextraction Practices on the Indigenous Community of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi at a Metal-Contaminated Landfill  

PubMed Central

Phytoextraction involves use of plants to remove toxic metals from soil. We examined the effects of phytoextraction practices with three plant species (Silene vulgaris, Thlaspi caerulescens, and Zea mays) and a factorial variation of soil amendments (either an ammonium or nitrate source of nitrogen and the presence or absence of an elemental sulfur supplement) on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes) at a moderately metal-contaminated landfill located in St. Paul, Minn. Specifically, we tested whether the applied treatments affected the density of glomalean spores and AM root colonization in maize. Glomalean fungi from the landfill were grouped into two morphotypes characterized by either light-colored spores (LCS) or dark-colored spores (DCS). Dominant species of the LCS morphotype were Glomus mosseae and an unidentified Glomus sp., whereas the DCS morphotype was dominated by Glomus constrictum. The density of spores of the LCS morphotype from the phytoremediated area was lower than the density of these spores in the untreated landfill soil. Within the experimental area, spore density of the LCS morphotype in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal maize was significantly higher than in rhizospheres of nonmycorrhizal S. vulgaris or T. caerulescens. Sulfur supplement increased vesicular root colonization in maize and exerted a negative effect on spore density in maize rhizosphere. We conclude that phytoextraction practices, e.g., the choice of plant species and soil amendments, may have a great impact on the quantity and species composition of glomalean propagules as well as on mycorrhiza functioning during long-term metal-remediation treatments.

Pawlowska, Teresa E.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Chin, Mel; Charvat, Iris

2000-01-01

51

Potential phytoextraction and phytostabilization of perennial peanut on copper-contaminated vineyard soils and copper mining waste.  

PubMed

This study sought to evaluate the potential of perennial peanut (Arachis pintoi) for copper phytoremediation in vineyard soils (Inceptisol and Mollisol) contaminated with copper and copper mining waste. Our results showed high phytomass production of perennial peanut in both vineyard soils. Macronutrient uptakes were not negatively affected by perennial peanut cultivated in all contaminated soils. Plants cultivated in Mollisol showed high copper concentrations in the roots and shoots of 475 and 52 mg kg(-1), respectively. Perennial peanut plants showed low translocation factor values for Cu, although these plants showed high bioaccumulation factor (BCF) for both vineyard soils, Inceptisol and Mollisol, with BCF values of 3.83 and 3.24, respectively, being characterized as a copper hyperaccumulator plant in these soils. Copper phytoextraction from Inceptisol soil was the highest for both roots and entire plant biomass, with more than 800 mg kg(-1) of copper in whole plant. The highest potential copper phytoextraction by perennial peanut was in Inceptisol soil with copper removal of 2,500 g ha(-1). Also, perennial peanut showed high potential for copper phytoremoval in copper mining waste and Mollisol with 1,700 and 1,500 g of copper per hectare, respectively. In addition, perennial peanuts characterized high potential for phytoextraction and phytostabilization of copper in vineyard soils and copper mining waste. PMID:21286847

Andreazza, Robson; Bortolon, Leandro; Pieniz, Simone; Giacometti, Marcelo; Roehrs, Dione D; Lambais, Mácio R; Camargo, Flávio A O

2011-12-01

52

Development of an Antioxidant Phytoextract of Lantana grisebachii with Lymphoprotective Activity against In Vitro Arsenic Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Phytochemicals have been presumed to possess prophylactic and curative properties in several pathologies, such as arsenic- (As-) induced immunosuppression. Our aim was to discover a lymphoprotective extract from Lantana grisebachii Stuck. (Verbenaceae) (LG). We assessed its bioactivity and chemical composition using cell-based assays. Fractions produced from a hexane extract acutely induced nitrite formation in T-activated cell cultures (P < 0.0001). Water extraction released a fraction lacking nitrite inducing activity in both lymphocyte types. Aqueous LG was found to be safe in proliferated and proliferating cells. The infusion-derived extract presented better antioxidant capacity in proportion to phenolic amount in lymphocytes (infusive LG-1i at 100??g/mL), which protected them against in vitro As-induced lymphotoxicity (P < 0.0001). This infusive LG phytoextract contained 10.23 ą 0.43?mg/g of phenolics, with 58.46% being flavonoids. Among the phenolics, the only predominant compound was 0.723?mg of chlorogenic acid per gram of dry plant, in addition to 10 unknown minor compounds. A fatty acid profile was assessed. It contained one-third of saturated fatty acids, one-third of ?9, followed by ?6 (~24%) and ?3 (~4%), and scarce ?7. Summing up, L. grisebachii was a source of bioactive and lymphoprotective compounds, which could counteract As-toxicity. This supports its phytomedical use and research in order to reduce As-related dysfunctions.

Soria, Elio A.; Quiroga, Patricia L.; Albrecht, Claudia; Ramos Elizagaray, Sabina I.; Cantero, Juan J.; Bongiovanni, Guillermina A.

2014-01-01

53

Phytosiderophore Effects on Subsurface Actinide Contaminants: Potential for Phytostabilization and Phytoextraction  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to understand the influence of phytosiderophore-producing plants (grasses, including crops such as wheat and barley) on the biogeochemistry of actinide and other metal contaminants in the subsurface environment, and to determine the potential of phytosiderophore-producing plants for phytostabilization and phytoextraction of actinides and some metal soil contaminants. Phytosiderophores are secreted by graminaceous plants such as barley and wheat for the solubilization, mobilization and uptake of Fe and other essential nutrients from soils. The ability for these phytosiderophores to chelate and absorb actinides using the same uptake system as for Fe is being investigated though characterization of actinide-phytosiderophore complexes (independently of plants), and characterization of plant uptake of such complexes. We may also show possible harm caused by these plants through increased chelation of actinides that increase in actinide mobilization & migration in the subsurface environment. This information can then be directly applied by either removal of harmful plants, or can be used to develop plant-based soil stabilization/remediation technologies. Such technologies could be the low-cost, low risk solution to many DOE actinide contamination problems.

Ruggiero, Christy

2005-06-01

54

Phytoextraction of As and Fe using Hibiscus cannabinus L. from soil polluted with landfill leachate.  

PubMed

Terrestrial plants as potential phytoremediators for remediation of surface soil contaminated with toxic metals have gained attention in clean-up technologies. The potential of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) to offer a cost-effective mechanism to remediate Fe and As from landfill leachate-contaminated soil was investigated. Pot experiment employing soil polluted with treatments of Jeram landfill leachate was conducted for 120 days. Plants were harvested after 8th, 12th, and 16th weeks of growth. Accumulation of Fe and As was assessed based on Bioconcentration Factor and Translocation Factor. Results showed sequestration of 0.06-0.58 mg As and 66.82-461.71 mg Fe per g plant dry weight in kenaf root, which implies that kenaf root can be an bioavailable sink for toxic metals. Insignificant amount of Fe and As was observed in the aerial plant parts (< 12% of total bioavailable metals). The ability of kenaf to tolerate these metals and avoid phytotoxicity could be attributed to the stabilization of the metals in the roots and hence reduction of toxic metal mobility (TF < 1). With the application of leachate, kenaf was also found to have higher biomass and subsequently recorded 11% higher bioaccumulation capacity, indicating its suitability for phytoextraction of leachate contaminated sites. PMID:22567704

Meera, M; Agamuthu, P

2012-02-01

55

Options to meet the future global demand of radionuclides for radionuclide therapy.  

PubMed

Nuclear medicine continues to represent one of the important modalities for cancer management. While diagnostic nuclear medicine for cancer management is fairly well established, therapeutic strategies using radionuclides are yet to be utilized to their full potential. Even if 1% of the patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures can benefit from subsequent nuclear therapeutic intervention, the radionuclide requirement for nuclear therapeutics would be expected to be in the multi-million Curie levels. Meeting the demand for such high levels of therapeutic radionuclides at an affordable price is an important task for the success of radionuclide therapy. Although different types of particle emitters (beta, alpha, Auger electron etc.) have been evaluated for treating a wide variety of diseases, the use of ?? emitting radionuclides is most feasible owing to their ease of production and availability. Several ?? emitting radionuclides have been successfully used to treat different kind of diseases. However, many of these radionuclides are not suitable to meet the projected demand owing to the non-availability with sufficiently high specific activity and adequate quantity because of high production costs, relatively short half-lives etc. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages for broader uses of some of the well known therapeutic radionuclides. In addition, radioisotopes which are expected to have the potential to meet the growing demand of therapeutic radionuclides are also discussed. PMID:23116551

Das, Tapas; Pillai, M R A

2013-01-01

56

Bacterially Induced Weathering of Ultramafic Rock and Its Implications for Phytoextraction  

PubMed Central

The bioavailability of metals in soil is often cited as a limiting factor of phytoextraction (or phytomining). Bacterial metabolites, such as organic acids, siderophores, or biosurfactants, have been shown to mobilize metals, and their use to improve metal extraction has been proposed. In this study, the weathering capacities of, and Ni mobilization by, bacterial strains were evaluated. Minimal medium containing ground ultramafic rock was inoculated with either of two Arthrobacter strains: LA44 (indole acetic acid [IAA] producer) or SBA82 (siderophore producer, PO4 solubilizer, and IAA producer). Trace elements and organic compounds were determined in aliquots taken at different time intervals after inoculation. Trace metal fractionation was carried out on the remaining rock at the end of the experiment. The results suggest that the strains act upon different mineral phases. LA44 is a more efficient Ni mobilizer, apparently solubilizing Ni associated with Mn oxides, and this appeared to be related to oxalate production. SBA82 also leads to release of Ni and Mn, albeit to a much lower extent. In this case, the concurrent mobilization of Fe and Si indicates preferential weathering of Fe oxides and serpentine minerals, possibly related to the siderophore production capacity of the strain. The same bacterial strains were tested in a soil-plant system: the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. malacitanum was grown in ultramafic soil in a rhizobox system and inoculated with each bacterial strain. At harvest, biomass production and shoot Ni concentrations were higher in plants from inoculated pots than from noninoculated pots. Ni yield was significantly enhanced in plants inoculated with LA44. These results suggest that Ni-mobilizing inoculants could be useful for improving Ni uptake by hyperaccumulator plants.

Kidd, Petra; Kuffner, Melanie; Prieto-Fernandez, Angeles; Hann, Stephan; Monterroso, Carmela; Sessitsch, Angela; Wenzel, Walter; Puschenreiter, Markus

2013-01-01

57

Bacterially induced weathering of ultramafic rock and its implications for phytoextraction.  

PubMed

The bioavailability of metals in soil is often cited as a limiting factor of phytoextraction (or phytomining). Bacterial metabolites, such as organic acids, siderophores, or biosurfactants, have been shown to mobilize metals, and their use to improve metal extraction has been proposed. In this study, the weathering capacities of, and Ni mobilization by, bacterial strains were evaluated. Minimal medium containing ground ultramafic rock was inoculated with either of two Arthrobacter strains: LA44 (indole acetic acid [IAA] producer) or SBA82 (siderophore producer, PO4 solubilizer, and IAA producer). Trace elements and organic compounds were determined in aliquots taken at different time intervals after inoculation. Trace metal fractionation was carried out on the remaining rock at the end of the experiment. The results suggest that the strains act upon different mineral phases. LA44 is a more efficient Ni mobilizer, apparently solubilizing Ni associated with Mn oxides, and this appeared to be related to oxalate production. SBA82 also leads to release of Ni and Mn, albeit to a much lower extent. In this case, the concurrent mobilization of Fe and Si indicates preferential weathering of Fe oxides and serpentine minerals, possibly related to the siderophore production capacity of the strain. The same bacterial strains were tested in a soil-plant system: the Ni hyperaccumulator Alyssum serpyllifolium subsp. malacitanum was grown in ultramafic soil in a rhizobox system and inoculated with each bacterial strain. At harvest, biomass production and shoot Ni concentrations were higher in plants from inoculated pots than from noninoculated pots. Ni yield was significantly enhanced in plants inoculated with LA44. These results suggest that Ni-mobilizing inoculants could be useful for improving Ni uptake by hyperaccumulator plants. PMID:23793627

Becerra-Castro, Cristina; Kidd, Petra; Kuffner, Melanie; Prieto-Fernández, Ángeles; Hann, Stephan; Monterroso, Carmela; Sessitsch, Angela; Wenzel, Walter; Puschenreiter, Markus

2013-09-01

58

EDTA-assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals by turfgrass from municipal solid waste compost using permeable barriers and associated potential leaching risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

A column experiment with horizontal permeable barriers was conducted to investigate phytoextraction of heavy metals by Lolium perenne L. from municipal solid waste compost following EDTA application, as well as to study the effects of L. perenne and permeable barriers on preventing metal from leaching. In columns with barriers, EDTA addition yielded maximum concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb of

Shulan Zhao; Fei Lian; Lian Duo

2011-01-01

59

The effectiveness and risk comparison of EDTA with EGTA in enhancing Cd phytoextraction by Mirabilis jalapa L.  

PubMed

In the previous study, Mirabilis jalapa L. had revealed the basic Cd hyperaccumulator characteristics, but the accumulation ability was not as strong as that of other known Cd hyperaccumulators. In order to improve the accumulation ability of this ornamental plant, the chelants were used to activate the Cd in soil. As a substitute, ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl) tetraacetic acid (EGTA) was selected to testify whether it has better effectiveness and can bring lesser metal leaching risk than EDTA. The data showed that the growth of M. jalapa was inhibited, while the Cd concentration of the plant was significantly increased under the treatments containing EDTA or EGTA. The Cd translocation ability under the EGTA treatments was higher than that under the EDTA treatments. The available Cd resulted from the application of chelant EGTA to the contaminated soils can be limited to the top 5 cm, while the application of chelant EDTA to the contaminated soils can be limited to the top 10 cm. In a word, EGTA showed better effectiveness than EDTA in enhancing Cd phytoextraction of M. jalapa. As an ornamental plant, M. jalapa has the potential to be used for phytoextraction of Cd-contaminated soils and it can beautify the environment at the same time. PMID:24068285

Wang, Song; Liu, Jianv

2014-02-01

60

The use of maize and poplar in chelant-enhanced phytoextraction of lead from contaminated agricultural soils.  

PubMed

Chelant-enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals is an emerging technological approach for a non-destructive remediation of contaminated soils. The main objectives of this study were (i) to assess the extraction efficiency of two different synthetic chelating agents (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS)) for desorbing Pb from two contaminated agricultural soils originating from a mining and smelting district and (ii) to assess the phytoextraction efficiency of maize (Zea mays) and poplar (Populus sp.) after EDTA application. EDTA was more efficient than EDDS in desorbing and complexing Pb from both soils, removing as much as 60% of Pb. Maize exhibited better results than poplar when extracting Pb from the more acidic (pH approximately 4) and more contaminated (up to 1360 mg Pb kg(-1)) agricultural soil originating from the smelting area. On the other hand, poplars proved to be more efficient when grown on the near-neutral (pH approximately 6) and less contaminated (up to 200 mg Pb kg(-1)) agricultural soil originating from the mining area. Furthermore, the addition of EDTA led to a significant increase of Pb content especially in poplar leaves, proving a strong translocation rate within the poplar plants. PMID:17184814

Komárek, Michael; Tlustos, Pavel; Száková, Jirina; Chrastný, Vladislav; Ettler, Vojtech

2007-03-01

61

Natural Radionuclides in Ground Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the natural trace radionuclides in ground water. Indicates the geologic origin of these radionuclides. Discusses the importance of these radionuclides. Suggests future uses of a number of additional radionuclides. (CW)

Davis, Stanley N.

1988-01-01

62

Potential of Brassic rapa, Cannabis sativa, Helianthus annuus and Zea mays for phytoextraction of heavy metals from calcareous dredged sediment derived soils.  

PubMed

Remediation of soil pollution is one of the many current environmental challenges. Anthropogenic activity has resulted in the contamination of extended areas of land, the remediation of which is both invasive and expensive by conventional means. Phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils has the prospect of being a more economic in situ alternative. In addition, phytoextraction targets ecotoxicologically the most relevant soil fraction of these metals, i.e. the bioavailable fraction. Greenhouse experiments were carried out to evaluate the potential of four high biomass crop species in their potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals, with or without with the use of soil amendments (EDTA or EDDS). A calcareous dredged sediment derived surface soil, with high organic matter and clay content and moderate levels of heavy metal pollution, was used in the experiments. No growth depression was observed in EDTA or EDDS treated pots in comparison to untreated controls. Metal accumulation was considered to be low for phytoextraction purposes, despite the use of chelating agents. The low observed shoot concentrations of heavy metals were attributed to the low phytoavailability of heavy metals in this particular soil substrate. The mobilising effects induced by EDTA in the soil were found to be too long-lived for application as a soil amendment in phytoextraction. Although EDDS was found to be more biodegradable, higher effect half lives were observed than reported in literature or observed in previous experiments. These findings caution against the use of any amendment, biodegradable or otherwise, without proper investigation of its effects and the longevity thereof. PMID:16202810

Meers, E; Ruttens, A; Hopgood, M; Lesage, E; Tack, F M G

2005-10-01

63

Identification and validation of heavy metal and radionuclide hyperaccumulating terrestrial plant species. Quarterly technical progress report, March 20, 1997--June 19, 1997  

SciTech Connect

This laboratory has been involved in a collaborative project focusing on a range of issues related to the phytoremediation of heavy metal-and radionuclide- contaminated soils. While much of the research has been fundamental in nature, involving physiological and molecular characterizations of the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation in plants, the laboratory is also investigating more practical issues related to phytoremediation. A central issue in this latter research has been the identification of amendments capable of increasing the bioavailability and subsequent phytoextraction of radionuclides. The results described here detail these efforts for uranium and Cs-137. A study was also conducted on a Cs-137 contaminated site at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), which allowed application of the laboratory and greenhouse results to a field setting.

Kochian, L.

1997-11-01

64

Field demonstration of age dependent increase in lead phytoextraction by Pelargonium cultivar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unnecessary for living organisms, lead (Pb) is one of the major widespread toxic metals found in the environment with potential danger to human health and to ecosystems (Shahid et al. 2012). Lead is known to induce a broad range of toxic effects to living organism, including those that are morphological, physiological and biochemical in origin (Pourrut et al. 2011). A field study was carried out in the vicinity of Pb recycling plant near Toulouse-France, and contaminated by atmospheric fallouts to evaluate lead extraction and uptake efficiency of hyperaccumulater Attar of Roses Pelargonium cultivar. It was found that Attar of Roses has ability to accumulate (8644 mgPb/kg DW plant) and survive on highly contaminated acidic soil (39250 mg kg-1 of total Pb) without any morpho-phytotoxicity symptoms. Moreover Attar showed increased extraction of lead from bulk soil to rhizosphere through Pb mobilization and ultimately increased uptake by roots and translocation to shoots. The studied contaminated soil could be cleaned up in few years by planting hyperaccumulater Attar of Rose for longer time period. Under optimum fertlization, irrigation and use of natural or synthetic chelates (EDTA, LMOWA, humic substances etc.) along with old Attar of rose plants, time requires for complete remediation of contaminated site can be reduced to practically applicable time period. Moreover, the use of Pelargonium for remediation has several additional practical, esthetical and economic advantages. The extraction of value-added essential oils from harvested biomass could offset the cost of deploying phytoremediation and renders it as a viable approach for remediating highly contaminated soils, on large scale. Keywords: metal uptake, Pelargonium, phytoremediation, cultivar, soil-plant transfer and kinetic. References Pourrut, B., Shahid, M., Dumat, C., Winterton, P., Pinelli, E., 2011a. Lead uptake, toxicity and detoxification in plants. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 213, 113-136. Shahid, M., Arshad, M., Kaemmerer, M., Pinelli, E., Probst, A., Baque, D., Pradere, P., Dumat, C., 2012a. Long term field metal extraction by pelargonium: Phytoextraction efficiency in relation with plant maturity. Inter. J. Phytorem. 14, 493-505.

Shahid, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Pinelli, Eric; Alric, Alain; Kaemmerer, Michel; Pradere, Philippe; Dumat, Camille

2013-04-01

65

Enhancing phytoextraction: the effect of chemical soil manipulation on mobility, plant accumulation, and leaching of heavy metals.  

PubMed

For heavy metal-contaminated agricultural land, low-cost, plant-based phytoextraction measures can be a key element for a new land management strategy. When agents are applied into the soil, the solubility of heavy metals and their subsequent accumulation by plants can be increased, and, therefore, phytoextraction enhanced. An overview is given of the state of the art of enhancing heavy metal solubility in soils, increasing the heavy metal accumulation of several high-biomass-yielding and metal-tolerant plants, and the effect of these measures on the risk of heavy metal leaching. Several organic as well as inorganic agents can effectively and specifically increase solubility and, therefore, accumulation of heavy metals by several plant species. Crops like willow (Salix viminalis L.), Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.], corn (Zea mays L.), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) show high tolerance to heavy metals and are, therefore, to a certain extent able to use the surpluses that originate from soil manipulation. More than 100-fold increases of lead concentrations in the biomass of crops were reported, when ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was applied to contaminated soils. Uranium concentrations could be strongly increased when citric acid was applied. Cadmium and zinc concentrations could be enhanced by inorganic agents like elemental sulfur or ammonium sulfate. However, leaching of heavy metals due to increased mobility in soils cannot be excluded. Thus, implementation on the field scale must consider measures to minimize leaching. So, the application of more than 1 g EDTA kg(-1) becomes inefficient as lead concentration in crops is not enhanced and leaching rate increases. Moreover, for large-scale applications, agricultural measures as placement of agents, dosage splitting, the kind and amount of agents applied, and the soil properties are important factors governing plant growth, heavy metal concentrations, and leaching rates. Effective prevention of leaching, breeding of new plant material, and use of the contaminated biomass (e.g., as biofuels) will be crucial for the acceptance and the economic breakthrough of enhanced phytoextraction. PMID:14674516

Schmidt, Ulrich

2003-01-01

66

Phytoextraction and phytoexcretion of Cd by the leaves of Tamarix smyrnensis growing on contaminated non-saline and saline soils  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation and more specifically phytoextraction, is an alternative restoration strategy for the clean up of heavy metal contaminated soils. Phytoextraction can only be successful if suitable plant species colonize the contaminated area, extract the toxic substances and accumulate them in their above ground tissues. In this study, the salt cedar Tamarix smyrnensis that is a widespread salt-tolerant plant in the Mediterranean region has been investigated. A pot experiment is conducted with T. smyrnensis grown in polluted soil with 16 ppm of cadmium and at three different salt concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 3.0% NaCl) for a 10-week period. It took place in an open-air area with natural light, at ambient temperature and humidity in an effort to keep the plants under conditions as similar as possible to those in the field. However, care was taken not to let them be rained on. Temperature ranged from 19 to 50 deg. C with 33 and 21 deg. C being the average day and night temperature, respectively. Humidity ranged from 28% to 87% with a 13-14 h photoperiod. The specific aims of this work are to investigate the accumulation of cadmium via root uptake at different saline conditions and cadmium excretion through salt glands on the surface of the leaves as a probable detoxification mechanism of the plant. Furthermore, measurements of chlorophyll content, biomass, and shoot length are used to evaluate the potential of the plant for the removal of cadmium from contaminated saline and non-saline soils. The experimental data suggest that increased soil salinity results in an increase of the cadmium uptake by T. smyrnensis. Analysis of white salt crystals taken from glandular tissue confirmed the fact that this plant excretes cadmium through its salt glands on the surface of the leaves as a possible detoxification mechanism in order to resist metal toxicity. Excreted cadmium is again released into the environment and it is redeposited on the top soil. Furthermore, increased salinity results in an increased excretion of the metal on Tamarix leaf surface. The presence of metals usually affects negatively the plant health, but T. smyrnensis developed no visible signs of metal toxicity, only salt toxicity symptoms were observed. Cadmium usually decreases the chlorophyll content in plants; however, the amount of photosynthetic pigments of T. smyrnensis was found not to be affected. All the above points to the potential of T. smyrnensis for use in phytoremediation with the metal secretion from the leaves being a unique advantage that may change current phytoextraction practices.

Manousaki, Eleni [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, 73100 Chania (Greece); Kadukova, Jana [Department of Non-Ferrous Metals and Waste Treatment, Technical University of Kosice, Letna 9, 04011 Kosice (Slovakia); Papadantonakis, Nikolaos [Department of Sustainable Agriculture, Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Chania, Alsyllio Agrokepiou, P.O. Box 85, 73100 Chania (Greece); Kalogerakis, Nicolas [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Polytechneioupolis, 73100 Chania (Greece)], E-mail: nicolas.kalogerakis@enveng.tuc.gr

2008-03-15

67

Radionuclide Ventriculography or Radionuclide Angiography (MUGA Scan)  

MedlinePLUS

... a radionuclide) and a special camera to take pictures of your heart as it pumps blood. The ... called “multi-gated” because a gamma camera takes pictures at specific times during each heartbeat. The test ...

68

Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and ? particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use.

Beattie, Bradley J.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Schmidtlein, Charles R.; Pentlow, Keith S.; Humm, John L.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

2012-01-01

69

Assessment of the Efficacy of Chelate-Assisted Phytoextraction of Lead by Coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.)  

PubMed Central

Lead (Pb), depending upon the reactant surface, pH, redox potential and other factors can bind tightly to the soil with a retention time of many centuries. Soil-metal interactions by sorption, precipitation and complexation processes, and differences between plant species in metal uptake efficiency, transport, and susceptibility make a general prediction of soil metal bioavailability and risks of plant metal toxicity difficult. Moreover, the tight binding characteristic of Pb to soils and plant materials make a significant portion of Pb unavailable for uptake by plants. This experiment was conducted to determine whether the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), or acetic acid (HAc) can enhance the phytoextraction of Pb by making the Pb soluble and more bioavailable for uptake by coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.). Also we wanted to assess the efficacy of chelates in facilitating translocation of the metal into the above-ground biomass of this plant. To test the effect of chelates on Pb solubility, 2 g of Pb-spiked soil (1000 mg Pb/kg dry soil) were added to each 15 mL centrifuge tube. Chelates (EDTA, EGTA, HAc) in a 1:1 ratio with the metal, or distilled deionized water were then added. Samples were shaken on a platform shaker then centrifuged at the end of several time periods. Supernatants were filtered with a 0.45 ?m filter and quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to determine soluble Pb concentrations. Results revealed that EDTA was the most effective in bringing Pb into solution, and that maximum solubility was reached 6 days after chelate amendment. Additionally, a greenhouse experiment was conducted by planting Sesbania seeds in plastic tubes containing top soil and peat (2:1, v:v) spiked with various levels (0, 1000, 2000 mg Pb/kg dry soil) of lead nitrate. At six weeks after emergence, aqueous solutions of EDTA and/or HAc (in a 1:1 ratio with the metal) or distilled deionized water were applied to the root zones. Plants were harvested at 6 days after chelate addition to coincide with the duration of maximum metal solubility previously determined in this study. Results of the greenhouse experiment showed that coffeeweed was relatively tolerant to moderate levels of Pb and chelates as shown by very slight reductions in root and no discernable effects on shoot biomass. Root Pb concentrations increased with increasing levels of soil-applied Pb. Further increases in root Pb concentrations were attributed to chelate amendments. In the absence of chelates, translocation of Pb from roots to shoots was minimal. However, translocation dramatically increased in treatments with EDTA alone or in combination with HAc. Overall, the results of this study indicated that depending on the nature and type of Pb-contaminated soil being remediated, the bioavailability and uptake of Pb by coffeeweed can be enhanced by amending the soil with chelates especially after the plants have reached maximum biomass.

Miller, Gloria; Begonia, Gregorio; Begonia, Maria; Ntoni, Jennifer; Hundley, Oscar

2008-01-01

70

Assessment of the efficacy of chelate-assisted phytoextraction of lead by coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.).  

PubMed

Lead (Pb), depending upon the reactant surface, pH, redox potential and other factors can bind tightly to the soil with a retention time of many centuries. Soil-metal interactions by sorption, precipitation and complexation processes, and differences between plant species in metal uptake efficiency, transport, and susceptibility make a general prediction of soil metal bioavailability and risks of plant metal toxicity difficult. Moreover, the tight binding characteristic of Pb to soils and plant materials make a significant portion of Pb unavailable for uptake by plants. This experiment was conducted to determine whether the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), or acetic acid (HAc) can enhance the phytoextraction of Pb by making the Pb soluble and more bioavailable for uptake by coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.). Also we wanted to assess the efficacy of chelates in facilitating translocation of the metal into the above-ground biomass of this plant. To test the effect of chelates on Pb solubility, 2 g of Pb-spiked soil (1000 mg Pb/kg dry soil) were added to each 15 mL centrifuge tube. Chelates (EDTA, EGTA, HAc) in a 1:1 ratio with the metal, or distilled deionized water were then added. Samples were shaken on a platform shaker then centrifuged at the end of several time periods. Supernatants were filtered with a 0.45 mum filter and quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) to determine soluble Pb concentrations. Results revealed that EDTA was the most effective in bringing Pb into solution, and that maximum solubility was reached 6 days after chelate amendment. Additionally, a greenhouse experiment was conducted by planting Sesbania seeds in plastic tubes containing top soil and peat (2:1, v:v) spiked with various levels (0, 1000, 2000 mg Pb/kg dry soil) of lead nitrate. At six weeks after emergence, aqueous solutions of EDTA and/or HAc (in a 1:1 ratio with the metal) or distilled deionized water were applied to the root zones. Plants were harvested at 6 days after chelate addition to coincide with the duration of maximum metal solubility previously determined in this study. Results of the greenhouse experiment showed that coffeeweed was relatively tolerant to moderate levels of Pb and chelates as shown by very slight reductions in root and no discernable effects on shoot biomass. Root Pb concentrations increased with increasing levels of soil-applied Pb. Further increases in root Pb concentrations were attributed to chelate amendments. In the absence of chelates, translocation of Pb from roots to shoots was minimal. However, translocation dramatically increased in treatments with EDTA alone or in combination with HAc. Overall, the results of this study indicated that depending on the nature and type of Pb-contaminated soil being remediated, the bioavailability and uptake of Pb by coffeeweed can be enhanced by amending the soil with chelates especially after the plants have reached maximum biomass. PMID:19151439

Miller, Gloria; Begonia, Gregorio; Begonia, Maria; Ntoni, Jennifer; Hundley, Oscar

2008-12-01

71

Interactive and Single Effects of Ectomycorrhiza Formation and Bacillus cereus on Metallothionein MT1 Expression and Phytoextraction of Cd and Zn by Willows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single and joint ectomycorrhizal (+ Hebeloma mesophaeum) and bacterial (+ Bacillus cereus) inoculations of willows (Salix viminalis) were investigated for their potential and mode of action in the promotion of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) phytoextraction.\\u000a Dual fungal and bacterial inoculations promoted the biomass production of willows in contaminated soil. Single inoculations\\u000a either had no effect on the plant growth

Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz; Grazyna Dabrowska; Christel Baum; Katarzyna Niedojadlo; Peter Leinweber

72

Comparison of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids in enhancing phytoextraction of heavy metals by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.  

PubMed

Lab scale and pot experiments were conducted to compare the effects of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) on the phytoextraction of multi-contaminated soils by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance. Through lab scale experiments, the treatment dosage of 5 and 10 mM for synthetic chelators and LMWOA, respectively, and the treatment time of 10 days were selected for pot experiment. In pot experiment, the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) was found more tolerant to the metal toxicity compared with the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). EDTA for Pb, EDDS for Cu, and DTPA for Cu and Cd were found more effective to enhance heavy metal accumulation in the shoots of S. alfredii Hance. Compared with synthetic chelators, the phytoextraction ability of LMWOA was lesser. Considering the strong post-harvest effects of synthetic chelators, it is suggested that higher dosage of LMWOA could be practiced during phytoextraction, and some additional measures could also be taken to lower the potential environmental risks of synthetic chelators in the future studies. PMID:17904736

Liu, Dan; Islam, Ejazul; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe; Jin, Xiaofen; Mahmood, Qaisar

2008-05-01

73

Radionuclide Imaging of Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although our understanding of microorganisms has ad- vanced significantly and antimicrobial therapy has become increasingly available, infection remains a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality. The role of radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of the patient suspected of har- boring an infection varies with the situation. For example, in the postoperative patient, radionuclide imaging is comple- mentary to CT

Charito Love; Christopher J. Palestro

74

Radionuclides in US coals  

SciTech Connect

The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

1984-03-01

75

Phytoextraction of weathered p,p'-DDE by zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under different cultivation conditions.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) under field conditions are good and poor accumulators, respectively, of persistent organic pollutants from soil. Here, each species was grown under three cultivation regimes: dense (five plants in 5 kg soil): nondense (one plant in 80 kg soil): and field conditions (two to three plants in approximately 789 kg soil). p,p'-DDE and inorganic element content in roots, stems, leaves, and fruit were determined. In addition. rhizosphere, near-root, and unvegetated soil fractions were analyzed for concentrations of 11 low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOA) and 14 water-extractable inorganic elements. Under field conditions, zucchini phytoextracted 1.3% of the weathered p,p'-DDE with 98% of the contaminant in the aerial tissues. Conversely, cucumber removed 0.09% of the p,p'-DDE under field conditions with 83% in the aerial tissues. Under dense cultivation, cucumber produced a fine and fibrous root system not observed in our previous experiments and phytoextracted 0.78% of the contaminant, whereas zucchini removed only 0.59% under similar conditions. However. cucumber roots translocated only 5.7% of the pollutant to the shoot system, while in zucchini 48% of the p,p'-DDE in the plant was present in the aerial tissue. For each species, the concentrations of LMWOA in soil increased with increasing impact by the root system both within a given cultivation regime (i.e., rhizosphere > near-root > unvegetated) and across cultivation regimes (i.e., dense > nondense > field conditions). Under dense cultivation, the rhizosphere concentrations of LMWOAs were significantly greater for cucumber than for zucchini; no species differences were evident in the other two cultivation regimes. To enable direct comparison across cultivation regimes, total in planta p,p'-DDE and inorganic elements were mass normalized or multiplied by the ratio of plant mass to soil mass. For cucumber, differences in total p,p'-DDE and inorganic element content among the cultivation regimes largely disappear upon mass normalization, indicating that greater uptake of both types of constituents in the dense condition is due to greater plant biomass per unit soil. Conversely, for zucchini the mass normalized content of p,p'-DDE and inorganic elements is up to two orders of magnitude greater under field conditions than under dense cultivation, indicating a unique physiological response of C. pepo in the field. The role of cultivation conditions and nutrient availability in controlling root morphology, organic acid exudation, and contaminant uptake is discussed. PMID:15696707

Wang, Xiaoping; White, Jason C; Gent, Martin P N; Iannucci-Berger, William; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia

2004-01-01

76

Biology of radionuclide therapy  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference entitled Biology of Radionuclide Therapy held in Washington September 29 and 30, 1988. The meeting is part of the Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium Series.

DeNardo, G.L.; Lewis, J.P. (eds.) (University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)); Raventos, A. (ed.) (Veterans Administration Hospital, Martinez, CA (United States)); Burt, R.W. (ed.) (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States))

1989-01-01

77

Radionuclide Small Intestine Imaging  

PubMed Central

The aim of this overview article is to present the current possibilities of radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging. Nuclear medicine has a few methods—scintigraphy with red blood cells labelled by means of 99mTc for detection of the source of bleeding in the small intestine, Meckel's diverticulum scintigraphy for detection of the ectopic gastric mucosa, radionuclide somatostatin receptor imaging for carcinoid, and radionuclide inflammation imaging. Video capsule or deep enteroscopy is the method of choice for detection of most lesions in the small intestine. Small intestine scintigraphies are only a complementary imaging method and can be successful, for example, for the detection of the bleeding site in the small intestine, ectopic gastric mucosa, carcinoid and its metastasis, or inflammation. Radionuclide scintigraphic small intestine imaging is an effective imaging modality in the localisation of small intestine lesions for patients in whom other diagnostic tests have failed to locate any lesions or are not available.

Dolezal, Jiri; Kopacova, Marcela

2013-01-01

78

Distribution of fallout radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depth profiles and cumulative deposition of four fallout radionuclides (7Be, 137Cs, 210Pb and 239,240Pu) were determined in presumably undisturbed soils in Taiwan. Inventories of these radionuclides in different areas correlate significantly with each other (except 7Be) and with mean annual rainfall, providing a necessary condition for the development of soil ero- sion studies in Taiwan. However, the data show very

C.-C. Su

79

Intraspecific variation in cadmium tolerance and accumulation of a high-biomass tropical tree Averrhoa carambola L.: implication for phytoextraction.  

PubMed

Averrhoa carambola L., a high-biomass tropical tree, has recently been shown to be a strong accumulator of cadmium (Cd) and has great potential for Cd phytoextraction. In the present study, field studies and a controlled-environment experiment were combined to establish the extent of variation in Cd tolerance and accumulation at the cultivar level using 14 to 19 cultivars of A. carambola. The results indicated that all cultivars tested could accumulate Cd at high but different levels, and that Cd tolerance also varied greatly between these cultivars. It is confirmed that the high Cd tolerance and accumulation capacity are species-level and constitutional traits in A. carambola. However, no correlation was detected between tolerance index and accumulation of Cd in different cultivars, suggesting that the two traits are independent in this woody Cd accumulator. More importantly, cultivar Wuchuan Sweet (WCT) was shown to have the highest Cd-extraction potential; it yielded a high shoot biomass of 30 t ha(-1) in 230 d, and extracted 330 g ha(-1) Cd in the aerial tissues grown in Cd-contaminated field soil, which accounted for 12.8% of the total soil Cd in the top 20 cm of the soil profile. PMID:21566812

Dai, Zi-yun; Shu, Wen-sheng; Liao, Bin; Wan, Cai-yun; Li, Jin-tian

2011-06-01

80

Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides  

DOEpatents

In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

Harp, Richard J. (18746 Viking Way, Cerritos, CA 90701)

1990-01-01

81

Technical Feasibility Study of Electrolytic Ion Transfer Membranes for Radioactive Liquid Waste Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented of a test program designed to determine the technical feasibility of INNOVA Ion Transfer Membranes (ITM) to separate radionuclides from waste streams at N Reactor. The ITM system was tested using the following test solutions, which e...

1982-01-01

82

Initial Radionuclide Inventories  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as 2030 and 2033, depending on the type of waste. TSPA-LA uses the results of this analysis to decay the inventory to the year of repository closure projected for the year of 2060.

H. Miller

2004-09-19

83

Phytoextraction of Cd and Pb and physiological effects in potato plants (Solanum tuberosum var. Spunta): importance of root temperature.  

PubMed

Three consecutive years of field experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of different root-zone temperatures, induced by the application of mulches, on the concentration and accumulation of Cd and Pb and on bioindicators (chlorophylls, catalase, peroxidase and cell wall fractions) in different organs of potato plants (roots, tubers, stems, and leaflets). Four different plastic covers were employed (T1, transparent polyethylene; T2, white polyethylene; T3, white and black coextruded polyethylene, and T4, black polyethylene), using uncovered plants as the control (T0). The different treatments had a significant effect on the mean root-zone temperatures (T0 = 16 degrees C, T1 = 20 degrees C, T2 = 23 degrees C, T3 = 27 degrees C, and T4 = 30 degrees C) and induced significantly different responses in the Cd and Pb concentrations and phytoaccumulation, with T2 (23 degrees C) and T3 (27 degrees C) giving high concentrations of Cd in the roots and low concentrations in other organs. In relation to Pb, T2 and T3 reached higher levels in the tubers and lower levels in the roots, stems, and leaves. In terms of phytoaccumulation, the roots and tubers were the most effective organs for Cd and Pb. On the other hand, the highest values of peroxidase and catalase activities were obtained for T3. In addition, most of the carbohydrate fractions in both the roots and the tubers were highest for T3. Meanwhile, the lowest pigment values were registered for T1 (20 degrees C). For phytoremediation, it is necessary to ascertain the relevance and control of the thermal regime of the soil to optimize the phytoextraction of pollutant elements (Cd and Pb). PMID:11714328

Baghour, M; Moreno, D A; Víllora, G; Hernández, J; Castilla, N; Romero, L

2001-11-01

84

Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in cultivars of a high-biomass tropical tree (Averrhoa carambola) and its potential for phytoextraction.  

PubMed

Averrhoa carambola is a high-biomass tropical tree that has been identified as a Cd accumulator. In the present study, field survey, pot, and hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of Cd tolerance and accumulation in cultivars of A. carambola as well as its potential for phytoextraction. In the field survey, it was found that concentrations of Cd in aerial tissues of A. carambola varied greatly among sites and cultivars. The Cd bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and Cd removals by the field-grown A. carambola differed significantly among sites but not among cultivars. Nonetheless, all four carambola cultivars investigated were able to accumulate considerably high concentrations of Cd in their shoots, which indicated that the 4-yr-old carambola stands could remove 0.3 to 51.8% of the total Cd content in the top 20-cm soil layer. When cultured in Cd-spiked soils, the carambola cultivar Hua-Di always showed higher Cd tolerance than the other cultivars; however, this tendency was not confirmed by hydroponic experiment. The Cd BCFs of cultivar Thailand grown in soils with 6 and 12 mg Cd kg(-1) were highest among cultivars, whereas this trend was reversed at 120 mg Cd kg(-1) treatment. Nevertheless, the pot- and hydroponics-grown carambola cultivars generally showed higher capacities to tolerate and accumulate Cd, compared with the control species. The present results indicate that a strong ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd seems to be a trait at the species level in A. carambola, although some degree of variances in both Cd tolerance and accumulation exists among cultivars. PMID:20830914

Li, J T; Liao, B; Lan, C Y; Ye, Z H; Baker, A J M; Shu, W S

2010-01-01

85

Greenhouse studies on the phyto-extraction capacity of Cynodon nlemfuensis for lead and cadmium under irrigation with treated wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For over 30 years, discharge of sewage effluent and sludge on pasturelands has been used in Zimbabwe as a cheap method for secondary treatment of wastewater without any monitoring of accumulation of heavy metals in soils and grasses, let alone in animals grazing on the pastures. Cynodon nlemfuensis (star grass) has been the main grass planted on the wastewater irrigated pasturelands. This study was conducted to assess the capacity of star grass to accumulate lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and develop models incorporating grass yield, metal uptake and soil bio-available (EDTA extractable) metal content, that could be used to determine critical grass and soil concentrations at which grass productivity declines. Star grass was planted in 30 fertilized pots containing sandy soil within a greenhouse. The pots consisted of nine treatments of varying levels of added inorganic Pb and Cd subjected to treated wastewater application and one control that had no added metals and received water application only. The elements were applied to the soils once just after planting the grass. Chemical analyses showed that star grass had a relatively high phyto-extraction capacity of Pb and Cd, comparable to that of hyper-accumulating grasses such as Lolium perenne (rye grass). It accumulated Pb and Cd to levels far beyond the recommended maximum limits for pasture grass. Analysis of variance on log-normal transformed data showed that bio-available soil metal concentrations correlated strongly with grass metal content and grass metal content correlated strongly with the yield. There was however a weak correlation between the yield and bio-available soil levels. The yield versus grass metal content models that were developed for the first crop and re-growth predicted similar critical metal concentrations and yields. Using the critical grass metal concentrations in the soil bio-available metal concentration versus grass metal concentration models allowed for the prediction of the corresponding critical soil concentrations.

Madyiwa, S.; Chimbari, M. J.; Schutte, C. F.; Nyamangara, J.

86

Initial Radionuclide Inventories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream

2005-01-01

87

Initial Radionuclide Inventories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream

H. Miller

2004-01-01

88

Assessment of radionuclide retardation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide migration in the unsaturated and saturated rock zones composing the Yucca Mountain site may be retarded compared with groundwater movement. Predicting the potential for retardation by processes that include sorption, dispersion, and diffusion requires a thorough geologic characterization of this candidate site for the disposal of radioactive waste, augmented by geochemical laboratory experiments and modeling. The retardation phenomenon is

R. J. Herbst; J. A. Canepa

1988-01-01

89

Phytoextraction and accumulation of mercury in three plant species: Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), and Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata).  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to screen and search for suitable plant species to phytoextract mercury-contaminated soil. Our effort focused on using some of the known metal-accumulating wild-type plants since no natural plant species with mercury-hyperaccumulat ing properties has yet been identified. Three plant species were evaluated for their uptake efficiency for mercury: Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), beard grass (Polypogon monospeliensis), and Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata). Four sets of experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of these three plant species: a pot study with potting mix where mercury was provided daily as HgCl2 solution; experiments with freshly mercury-spiked soil; and a study with aged soils contaminated with different mercury sources (HgCl2, Hg(NO3)2, and HgS). Homemade sunlit chambers were also used to study foliar uptake of Hg from ambient air. Among the three plant species, Chinese brake fern showed the least stress symptoms resulting from mercury exposure and had the highest mercury accumulation. Our results indicate that Chinese brake fern may be a potential candidate for mercury phytoextraction. We found that mercury contamination is biologically available for plant uptake and accumulation, even if the original and predominating mercury form is HgS, and also after multiple phytoremediation cycles. PMID:19260232

Su, Yi; Han, Fengxiang X; Chen, Jian; Sridhar, B B Maruthi; Monts, David L

2008-01-01

90

Inoculation of Ni-resistant plant growth promoting bacterium Psychrobacter sp. strain SRS8 for the improvement of nickel phytoextraction by energy crops.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to elucidate effects of inoculating plant growth-promoting bacterium Psychrobacter sp. SRS8 on the growth and phytoextraction potential of energy crops Ricinus communis and Helianthus annuus in artificially Ni contaminated soils. The toxicity symptom in plants under Ni stress expressed as chlorophyll, protein content, growth inhibition, and Fe, P concentrations were studied, and the possible relationship among them were also discussed. The PGPB SRS8 was found capable of stimulating plant growth and Ni accumulation in both plant species. Further, the stimulation effect on plant biomass, chlorophyll, and protein content was concomitant with increased Fe and P assimilation from soil to plants. Further, the induction of catalase and peroxidase activities was also involved in the ability of SRS8 to increase the tolerance in both plant species under Ni stress. The findings suggest that strain SRS8 play an important role in promoting the growth and phytoextraction efficiency of R. communis and H. annuus, which may be used for remediation of metal contaminated sites. PMID:21598781

Ma, Y; Rajkumar, M; Vicente, J A F; Freitas, H

2011-02-01

91

AFLP analysis and improved phytoextraction capacity of transgenic gshI-poplar clones (Populus x canescens L.) for copper in vitro.  

PubMed

Clone stability and in vitro phytoextraction capacity of vegetative clones of P. x canescens (2n = 4x = 38) including two transgenic clones (ggs11 and lgl6) were studied as in vitro leaf disc cultures. Presence of the gshI-transgene in the transformed clones was detected in PCR reactions using gshI-specific primers. Clone stability was determined by fAFLP (fluorescent amplified DNA fragment length polymorphism) analysis. In total, 682 AFLP fragments were identified generated by twelve selective primer pairs after EcoRI-MseI digestion. Four fragments generated by EcoAGT-MseCCC were different (99.4% genetic similarity) which proves an unexpectedly low bud mutation frequency in P. x canescens. For the study of phytoextraction capacity leaf discs (8 mm) were exposed to a concentration series of ZnSO4 (10(-1) to 10(-5) M) incubated for 21 days on aseptic tissue culture media WPM containing 1 microM Cu. Zn2+ caused phytotoxicity only at high concentrations (10(-1) to 10(-2) M). The transgenic poplar cyt-ECS (ggs11) clone, as stimulated by the presence of Zn, showed elevated heavy metal (Cu) uptake as compared to the non-transformed clone. These results suggest that gshI-transgenic poplars may be suitable for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with zinc and copper. PMID:15948599

Gyulai, Gábor; Humphreys, Mervyn; Bittsánszky, András; Skřt, Kirsten; Kiss, József; Skřtc, Leif; Gullner, Gábor; Heywood, Sue; Szabó, Zoltán; Lovatt, Alan; Radimszky, László; Roderick, Hywel; Rennenberg, Heinz; Abberton, Michael; Komíves, Tamás; Heszky, László

2005-01-01

92

Efficiency of biodegradable EDDS, NTA and APAM on enhancing the phytoextraction of cadmium by Siegesbeckia orientalis L. grown in Cd-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Chelant assisted phytoextraction has been proposed to enhance the efficiency of remediation. This study evaluated the effects of biodegradable ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDDS), nitrilotriacetic (NTA) and anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) on the tolerance and uptake of Siegesbeckia orientalis L. at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd-contaminated soils. On the 80th and 90th days of transplanting, pots were treated with EDDS and NTA at 0 (control), 1 and 2 mmol kg(-1) soils, and APAM at 0 (control), 0.07 and 0.14 g kg(-1). Generally, the root and shoot biomass of S. orientalis in all treatments reduced not significantly compared with the control, and the activities of peroxidase and catalase in leaves generally increased by the application of chelants (P<0.05). The concentrations of Cd in the shoots were increased significantly by addition of all chelants. As a result, the Cd accumulation of S. orientalis under treatments with higher dosages of the three chelants on the 80th day were 1.40-2.10-fold and 1.12-1.25-fold compared to control at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd, respectively. Under the addition of 2 mmol kg(-1) NTA on the 80th day, the highest metal extraction ratio reached 1.2% and 0.4% at 10 and 100 mg kg(-1) Cd soils, respectively. Therefore, the applications of EDDS, NTA and APAM may provide more efficient choices in chemical-enhanced phytoextraction. PMID:23466280

Lan, Jichuan; Zhang, Shirong; Lin, Haichuan; Li, Ting; Xu, Xiaoxun; Li, Yun; Jia, Yongxia; Gong, Guoshu

2013-05-01

93

Radionuclide Migration: Prediction Experience  

SciTech Connect

Many different methods of calculating radionuclide migration (transfer) with groundwater-from very simple handmade calculations to use of sophisticated computer models, - exist and are in use. There is no doubt whether we can solve a particular problem in this area; the question is how can we find means of doing this in a fast, precise and economical way. According to practical experience of MosSIA 'Radon' specialists it is useful at the first stage to assess the degree to which various parameters affect the final result. Then the relevance of modeling parameters is usually assessed. SUE MosSIA 'Radon' has applied this complex approach to assessing possible radionuclide transfer from the long term storage facilities located within one of the sites in Moscow. Questions of model verification, computer realization, the analysis of obtained results, a role and a place of these calculations in safety assessment and safety case are beyond the scope of this paper. (authors)

Martianov, V.V.; Sheglov, M.Yu.; Guskov, A.V. [State Unitary Enterprise MosSIA 'Radon', 2/14, 7th Rostovsky pereulok, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

2006-07-01

94

Peptides for Radionuclide Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatostatin receptor-targeting peptides are widely being used for imaging and therapy of neuroendocrine tumors. Peptide receptor\\u000a radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with e.g. 177Lu labeled somatostatin analogues in neuroendocrine tumor patients has resulted in symptomatic improvement, prolonged survival\\u000a and enhanced quality of life. Yet, much profit can be gained from improving the receptor-targeting strategies available and\\u000a developing new strategies, e.g. targeting other

Marion de Jong; Suzanne M. Verwijnen; Monique de Visser; Dik J. Kwekkeboom; Roelf Valkema; Eric P. Krenning

95

Radionuclide therapy beyond radioiodine.  

PubMed

For decades, Iodine-131 has been used for the treatment of patients with thyroid cancer. In recent years, increasingly, other radiopharmaceuticals are in clinical use in the treatment of various malignant diseases. Although in principle these therapies-as in all applications of radionuclides-special radiation protection measures are required, a separate nuclear medicine therapy department is not necessary in many cases due to the lower or lack of gamma radiation. In the following article, four different radionuclide therapies are more closely presented which are emerging in the last years. One of them is the "Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy," the so-called PRRT in which radiolabeled somatostatin (SST)-receptor(R) ligands are used in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. On the basis of radiolabeled antibodies against CD20-positive cells, the so-called radioimmunotherapy is used in the treatment of certain forms of malignant lymphoma. In primary or secondary liver tumors, the (90)Y-labeled particles can be administered. Last but not the least, the palliative approach of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals is noted in patients with painful bone metastases. PMID:22815123

Gabriel, Michael

2012-10-01

96

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

J.D. Schreiber

2005-08-25

97

Mass Spectrometric Radionuclide Analyses  

SciTech Connect

Measurement of ionized atoms by mass spectrometry is an alternative to radiation detection for measuring radioactive isotopes. These systems are large and complex; they require trained operators and extensive maintenance. They began as research systems but have been developed commercially for measuring amounts of radioactive isotopes and their atom ratios to other isotopes. Several types of mass spectrometer systems are in use. This chapter covers the basics of mass spectrometry and surveys the application of these instruments for radionuclide detection and discusses the circumstances under which use of mass spectrometers is advantageous, the type of mass spectrometer used for each purpose, and the conditions of sample preparation, introduction and analysis.

Wacker, John F.; Eiden, Greg C.; Lehn, Scott A.

2006-02-01

98

Use of ICP and XAS to determine the enhancement of gold phytoextraction by Chilopsis linearis using thiocyanate as a complexing agent.  

PubMed

Under natural conditions gold has low solubility that reduces its bioavailability, a critical factor for phytoextraction. Researchers have found that phytoextraction can be improved by using synthetic chelating agents. Preliminary studies have shown that desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), a common inhabitant of the Chihuahuan Desert, is able to extract gold from a gold-enriched medium. The objective of the present study was to determine the ability of thiocyanate to enhance the gold-uptake capacity of C. linearis. Seedlings of this plant were exposed to the following hydroponics treatment: (1) 5 mg Au L(-1) (2.5x10(-5) mol L(-1)), (2) 5 mg Au L(-1) + 10(-5) mol L(-1) NH4SCN, (3) 5 mg Au L(-1) + 5x10(-5) mol L(-1) NH4SCN, and (4) 5 mg Au L(-1) + 10(-4) mol L(-1) NH4SCN. Each treatment had its respective control. After 2 weeks we determined the effect of the treatment on plant growth and gold content by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). No signs of shoot-growth inhibition were observed at any NH4SCN treatment level. The ICP-OES analysis showed that addition of 10(-4) mol L(-1) NH4SCN increased the concentration of gold by about 595, 396, and 467% in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies showed that the oxidation state of gold was Au(0) and that gold nanoparticles were formed inside the plants. PMID:15719236

Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Rodriguez, Elena; Parsons, Jason G; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Meitzner, George; Cruz-Jimenez, Gustavo

2005-05-01

99

Targeted radionuclide therapy  

SciTech Connect

Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners.

Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F. [Radiology Division, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010 (United States); Internal Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, 1508 Alhambra Boulevard, Suite 3100, Sacramento, California 95816 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wallace Tumor Institute WTI No. 117, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States)

2008-07-15

100

Imaging technologies for radionuclide dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Targeted radionuclide therapy is becoming an increasingly popular treatment modality as an alternative or as an adjunct to external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The present method of dosimetry based on the MIRD system requires measurements of the concentration of the radionuclide in the target and risk tissues and the effective half-life of the radionuclide in these tissues. Radionuclide imaging techniques including planar scintigraphy, rectilinear scanning, single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography have all been used to provide data from which this information can be obtained. Additionally anatomical imaging has been used to aid these estimates. This paper reviews the application of imaging technology and methodology to radionuclide dosimetry.

Ott, R. J.

1996-10-01

101

Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology, and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by ?- emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for the production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

Mirzadeh, S.; Mausner, L. F.; Garland, M. A.

102

Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

Mirzadeh, Saed [ORNL; Mausner, Leonard [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Garland, Marc A [ORNL

2011-01-01

103

Beta-emitting radionuclides for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy.  

PubMed

The paper focuses on the ?-emitting radionuclides which might be useful for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy, PRRT. For the effective design of the radiopharmaceutical, the choice of radionuclide will depend on the purpose for which the radioligand is being used and on the physicochemical properties of the radionuclide. The important factor is also the availability and the cost of production. The physical characteristics of several radionuclides which are currently used or can be considered as potential candidates for PRRT is provided, followed by short description of production methods and chemical aspects of their use in preparation of peptide-based radiopharmaceuticals. Somatostatin analogues labeled with radionuclides have been a successful example of PRRT. For treatment of patients with inoperable or metastasized neuroendocrine tumors, somatostatin analogues labeled with the radioisotopes (111)In, (90)Y and (177)Lu have been used so far. Labeling with (111)In, mainly an Auger electron emitter, resulted in no reduction of tumor size while somatostatin analogues labeled with (90)Y and (177)Lu gave overall positive response and improved the patients' quality of life. These promising results together with the increasing availability of other ?-emitting radionuclides are a good basis for further studies. PMID:23339764

Parus, J L; Mikolajczak, R

2012-01-01

104

Natural radionuclides in groundwaters  

SciTech Connect

The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}} ions and RaCl{sub 2} is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs.

Laul, J.C.

1990-01-01

105

Significant Radionuclides Determination  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

Jo A. Ziegler

2001-07-31

106

Radionuclides in groundwaters: contaminants and tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As groundwaters serve for drinking-water purposes, radionuclides in groundwater are generally considered as contaminants. Some of the radionuclides contributing to natural radioactivity in groundwater and some of the manmade atmospheric radionuclides, however, have become good tracers for the assessment of residence times (groundwater age) and mixing. Controlled experiments with artificial radionuclides, on the other hand, are restricted to a few

EDUARD HOEHN

107

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-09-30

108

Aquaculture Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Klamath Tribes contracted a study to determine the feasibility of tribal members establishing aquaculture ventures in Klamath County, Oregon. An evaluation of five privately owned sites showed three as having potential for Aquaculture. Potential speci...

1995-01-01

109

Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the drift. The reason for introducing the fracture-matrix partitioning model is to broaden the conceptual model for flow beneath waste emplacement drifts in a way that does not rely on the specific flow behavior predicted by a dual continuum model and to ensure that radionuclide transport is not underestimated. The fracture-matrix partitioning model provides an alternative method of computing the partitioning of radionuclide releases from drifts without seepage into rock fractures and rock matrix. Drifts without seepage are much more likely to have a significant fraction of radionuclide releases into the rock matrix, and therefore warrant additional attention in terms of the partitioning model used for TSPA.

J. Houseworth

2004-09-22

110

FTRANS. Radionuclide Transport Fractured Rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

FTRANS (Fractured flow and Transport of RAdioNuclideS) is a two-dimensional finite-element code designed to simulate ground-water flow and transport of radioactive nuclides in a fractured porous return medium. FTRANS takes into account fluid interactions between the fractures and porous matrix blocks, advective-dispersive transport in the fractures and diffusion in the porous matrix blocks, and chain reactions of radionuclide components. It

Golis

1984-01-01

111

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

112

Effect of ketogenic mediterranean diet with phytoextracts and low carbohydrates/high-protein meals on weight, cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and diet compliance in Italian council employees  

PubMed Central

Background There has been increased interest in recent years in very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKD) that, even though they are much discussed and often opposed, have undoubtedly been shown to be effective, at least in the short to medium term, as a tool to tackle obesity, hyperlipidemia and some cardiovascular risk factors. For this reason the ketogenic diet represents an interesting option but unfortunately suffers from a low compliance. The aim of this pilot study is to ascertain the safety and effects of a modified ketogenic diet that utilizes ingredients which are low in carbohydrates but are formulated to simulate its aspect and taste and also contain phytoextracts to add beneficial effects of important vegetable components. Methods The study group consisted of 106 Rome council employees with a body mass index of ? 25, age between 18 and 65 years (19 male and 87 female; mean age 48.49 ą 10.3). We investigated the effects of a modified ketogenic diet based on green vegetables, olive oil, fish and meat plus dishes composed of high quality protein and virtually zero carbohydrate but which mimic their taste, with the addition of some herbal extracts (KEMEPHY ketogenic Mediterranean with phytoextracts). Calories in the diet were unlimited. Measurements were taken before and after 6 weeks of diet. Results There were no significant changes in BUN, ALT, AST, GGT and blood creatinine. We detected a significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in BMI (31.45 Kg/m2 to 29.01 Kg/m2), body weight (86.15 kg to 79.43 Kg), percentage of fat mass (41.24% to 34.99%), waist circumference (106.56 cm to 97.10 cm), total cholesterol (204 mg/dl to 181 mg/dl), LDLc (150 mg/dl to 136 mg/dl), triglycerides (119 mg/dl to 93 mg/dl) and blood glucose (96 mg/dl to 91 mg/dl). There was a significant (p < 0.0001) increase in HDLc (46 mg/dl to 52 mg/dl). Conclusions The KEMEPHY diet lead to weight reduction, improvements in cardiovascular risk markers, reduction in waist circumference and showed good compliance.

2011-01-01

113

Significance of treated agrowaste residue and autochthonous inoculates (Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Bacillus cereus) on bacterial community structure and phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals.  

PubMed

In this study, we analyzed the impact of treatments such as Aspergillus niger-treated sugar beet waste (SB), PO4(3-) fertilization and autochthonous inoculants [arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and Bacillus cereus], on the bacterial community structure in a soils contaminated with heavy metals as well as, the effectiveness on plant growth (Trifolium repens). The inoculation with AM fungi in SB amended soil, increased plant growth similarly to PO4(3-) addition, and both treatments matched in P acquisition but bacterial biodiversity estimated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified 16S rDNA sequences, was more stimulated by the presence of the AM fungus than by PO4(3-) fertilization. The SB amendment plus AM inoculation increased the microbial diversity by 233% and also changed (by 215%) the structure of the bacterial community. The microbial inoculants and amendment used favoured plant growth and the phytoextraction process and concomitantly modified bacterial community in the rhizosphere; thus they can be used for remediation. Therefore, the understanding of such microbial ecological aspects is important for phytoremediation and the recovery of contaminated soils. PMID:19185328

Azcón, Rosario; Medina, Almudena; Roldán, Antonio; Biró, Borbála; Vivas, Astrid

2009-04-01

114

Plant-associated bacteria and their role in the success or failure of metal phytoextraction projects: first observations of a field-related experiment  

PubMed Central

Phytoextraction has been reported as an economically and ecologically sound alternative for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. Willow is a metal phytoextractor of interest because it allows to combine a gradual contaminant removal with production of biomass that can be valorized in different ways. In this work two willow clones growing on a metal-contaminated site were selected: ‘Belgisch Rood’ (BR) with a moderate metal extraction capacity and ‘Tora’ (TO) with a twice as high metal accumulation. All cultivable bacteria associated with both willow clones were isolated and identified using 16SrDNA ARDRA analysis followed by 16SrDNA sequencing. Further all isolated bacteria were investigated for characteristics that might promote plant growth (production of siderophores, organic acids and indol acetic acid) and for their metal resistance. The genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the isolated bacteria showed that the TO endophytic bacterial population is more diverse and contains a higher percentage of metal-resistant plant growth promoting bacteria than the endophytic population associated with BR. We hypothesize that the difference in the metal accumulation capacity between BR and TO clones might be at least partly related to differences in characteristics of their associated bacterial population.

Weyens, Nele; Beckers, Bram; Schellingen, Kerim; Ceulemans, Reinhart; Croes, Sarah; Janssen, Jolien; Haenen, Stefan; Witters, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

2013-01-01

115

Development and validation of a pre-column reversed phase liquid chromatographic method with fluorescence detection for the determination of primary phenethylamines in dietary supplements and phytoextracts.  

PubMed

A sensitive and selective reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method was developed and validated to determine octopamine, tyramine and Tyrosine (Tyr) in complex matrices as formulations and phytoextracts (Citrus aurantium), after pre-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) reagent. The chromatographic separations were performed at room temperature on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column using methanol and sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.5) by varying composition gradient elution as mobile phase and detected flurometrically at ?(em)=455 nm with ?(ex)=340 nm. The results obtained by the proposed method were compared with those achieved by a validated direct RP-LC method with fluorescence detection at ?(em)=310 nm with ?(ex)=275 nm, as reference method, using a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column under isocratic elution conditions with acetonitrile and sodium 1-heptanesulphonate (pH 3), as mobile phase. The higher sensitivity of the derivatization method (detection limit about 0.06 pmol) allowed the sure determination of octopamine present in traces in the examined samples. The repeatability of method (RSD) was ?1.90% and there was no significant difference between repeatability and intermediate precision data. Recovery studies showed good results 99.5-101.3% with RSD ranging from 0.8 to 1.2%. All analyses were performed by mild conditions in absence of preliminary difficult extraction methodologies or laborious step of sample pre-treatment. PMID:21652038

Gatti, Rita; Lotti, Cinzia

2011-07-15

116

Radionuclide injury to the lung  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references.

Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

1984-04-01

117

Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods  

DOEpatents

Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-03-08

118

100 Years of radionuclide metrology.  

PubMed

The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. PMID:24398412

Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Torańo, E; Wätjen, U

2014-05-01

119

Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

120

Wood pellet feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study effort was undertaken to determine the feasibility of using pelletized wood as an alternative fuel supply while retaining the capabilities of returning to the use of coal without interrupting steam production. Pelletized wood fuel was fired in two of four boilers rated at 80,000 pounds of steam per hour each. No modifications to the existing systems were required

Dohrer

1979-01-01

121

A Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A feasibility study has produced a sporozoite-induced rodent malaria test system that is based on the mortality rather than on the morbidity of negative controls. The test is performed with the NK65 strain of Plasmodium berghei, Anopheles stephensi and IC...

D. S. Rane

1975-01-01

122

Artificial and Natural Radionuclides in Marine Life.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Methods of investigation; Karyology of marine fish and the effect of radionuclides on their chromosome apparatus; Accumulation and microdistribution of uranium in marine organisms in nature; Extraction of radionuclides by alginic acid from seawa...

V. G. Tsytsugina N. S. Risik G. E. Lazorenko

1975-01-01

123

Testing For Outliers In Radionuclide Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of monitoring atmospheric radionuclides over time is investigated. Such monitoring is desirable for both natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. The statistical problem is one of testing for a time series outlier, and the problem is complicat...

B. Zhao H. L. Gray M. D. Fisk W. A. Woodward

2000-01-01

124

Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use  

DOEpatents

Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

1983-05-03

125

Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use  

DOEpatents

Lymphocytes labelled with .beta.-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Fawwaz, Rashid A. (Pelham, NY); Richards, Powell (Bayport, NY)

1985-01-01

126

Subclavian steal diagnosed by radionuclide arteriogram.  

PubMed

We report a case of subclavian steal syndrome diagnosed by radionuclide arteriogram and subsequently confirmed by contrast arteriogram. We suggest that radionuclide arteriogram may sometimes be useful as a screening test. PMID:6090049

Cox, W M; Abghari, R

1984-08-01

127

Transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment have been investigated. The thesis is divided into two parts. Part I; Dynamic model for the transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment. The study comprises the development of a com...

M. Oehlenschlaeger

1991-01-01

128

TECHNOLOGIES FOR RADON AND RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper provides a summary of the technologies that are currently being used to remove radionuclides from drinking water. The radionuclides that are featured are the radionuclides currently regulated by EPA; radium, radon and uranium. Tehnologies effective for removal of eac...

129

Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages  

DOEpatents

A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

1984-09-12

130

Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages  

DOEpatents

A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

Brodzinski, Ronald L. (Richland, WA); Perkins, Richard W. (Richland, WA); Rieck, Henry G. (Richland, WA); Wogman, Ned A. (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01

131

Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes

D. E. Fields; R. D. Sharp

1985-01-01

132

(Biogeochemical pathways at artificial radionuclides)  

SciTech Connect

Many of the present computer codes used to assist management decisions on hazardous waste management issues have not been verified or tested and, in many instances, are operated by individuals lacking specific expertise about the overall behavior of radionuclides in the environment. BIOMOVS is an international effort to test such codes. SCOPE-RADPATH has been organized to address the data needs for reliable environmental assessment of radionuclides and the data required for code testing. Concern was expressed at both meetings that computer codes are being inadvertently used as a substitute for scientific expertise and are obscuring rather than identifying needs for further research. Efforts to alleviate this situation are apparent among the scientific community funded by the Commission of the European Communities and the Nordic Liason Committee for Atomic Energy. Attempts are also being made to transfer information about the environmental behavior of radionuclides to other types of trace contaminants in the biosphere, using radionuclides as quantitative tracers of major biospheric transport processes. Of particular importance is the assessment of the transfer of radioactive contaminants from watersheds into surface waters and subsequent bioaccumulation into aquatic food chains as well as the long-term remobilization of contaminants initially immobilized in sediment.

Hoffman, F.O.

1989-06-26

133

REP Concept Feasibility Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) may have the potential to provide certain advantages, over conventional chemical propulsion, for outer planetary exploration involving small bodies and long term investigations for medium class missions requiring power comparable to past outer planetary exploration missions. This paper describes a study that investigates the concept s feasibility by performing a preliminary conceptual design of an REP-based spacecraft for a design reference mission. The mission utilizes a spacecraft with a radioisotope power supply less than one kilowatt while operating for a minimum of 10-years. A key element of the REP spacecraft is to ensure sustained science return by orbiting or flying in formation with selected targets. Utilizing current and impending technological advances, this study finds that at a conceptual design level a small body REP orbiter/explorer appears to be feasible for the design reference mission selected for this study.

Edwards, Daryl A.; Ensworth, Clinton B. F.; Goodnight, Thomas W.; Sheehe, Charles J.; Wiersma, Stephen C.; Adamsen, Paul B., II; Frank, Larry

2004-01-01

134

Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides: long-lived fission products (Tc-99 and I-129), short-lived fission products (Cs-137 and Sr-90), and selective actinides (Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239). These radionuclides were chosen because they are major components of spent nuclear fuel and also because they exist as legacy sources that are being stored pending a decision regarding their ultimate disposition. The four designs include the use of two different devices; a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator (for one design) and a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) neutron generator (for three designs) in configurations which provide different neutron energy spectra for targeting the radionuclide for transmutation. Key parameters analyzed include total fluence and flux requirements; transmutation effectiveness measured as irradiation effective half-life; and activation products generated along with their characteristics: activity, dose rate, decay, and ingestion and inhalation radiotoxicity. From this investigation, conclusions were drawn about the feasibility of the device, the design and technology enhancements that would be required to make transmutation practical, the most beneficial design for each radionuclide, the consequence of the transmutation, and radiation protection issues that are important for the conceptual design of the transmutation device. Key conclusions from this investigation include: (1) the transmutation of long-lived fission products and select actinides can be practical using a small-scale, fusion driven transmutation device; (2) the transmutation of long-lived fission products could result in an irradiation effective half-life of a few years with a three order magnitude increase in the on-target neutron flux accomplishable through a combination of technological enhancements to the source and system design optimization; (3) the transmutation of long-lived fission products requires a thermal-slow energy spectrum to prevent the generation of activation products with half-lives even longer than the original radionuclide; (4) there is no benefit in trying to transmute short-lived fission products due to the ineffectiveness of the transmutation process and the generation of a multiplicity of counterproductive activation products; (5) for actinides, irradiation effective half-lives of < 1 year can be achieved with a four orders magnitude increase in the on-target flux; (6) the ideal neutron energy spectra for transmuting actinides is highly dependent on the particular radionuclide and its fission-to-capture ratio as they determine the generationrate of other actinides; and (7) the methodology developed in this dissertation provides a mechanism that can be used for studying the feasibility of transmuting other radionuclides, and its application can be extended to studying the production of radionuclides of interest in a transmutation process. Although large-scale transmutation technology is presently being researched world-wide for spent fuel management applications, such technology will not be viable for a couple of decades. This dissertation investigated the concept of a small-scale transmutation device using present technology. The results of this research show that with reasonable enhancements, transmutation of specific radionuclides can be practical in the near term.

Sit, Roger Carson

135

Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Woodland, WA (United States); Balhiser, B. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Cignetti, N. [Cignetti Associates, North Canton, OH (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

136

Icebreaker Feasibility Design Computer Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The computer program determines the feasibility of producing an icebreaker having a given set of dimensions (input) which will satisfy given icebreaking requirements and other principal operational requirements. A ship is considered feasible if it can sat...

G. E. Hirschberg J. Meakin

1967-01-01

137

Phytoextraction potential of wild type and 35S-gshI transgenic poplar trees (Populus x Canescens) for environmental pollutants herbicide paraquat, salt sodium, zinc sulfate and nitric oxide in vitro.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction potentials of two transgenic (TR) poplar (Populus x canescens) clones TRggs11 and TRlgl6 were compared with that of wild-type (WT) following exposure to paraquat, zinc sulfate, common salt and nitric oxide (NO), using a leaf-disc system incubated for 21 days on EDTA-containing nutritive WPM media in vitro. Glutathione (GSH) contents of leaf discs of TRlgl6 and TRggs11 showed increments to 296% and 190%, respectively, compared with WT. NO exposure led to a twofold GSH content in TRlgl6, which was coupled with a significantly increased sulfate uptake when exposed to 10(-3) M ZnSO4. The highest mineral contents of Na, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Mo was observed in the TRggs11 clone. Salt-induced activity of catalase enzyme increased in both TR clones significantly compared with WT under NaCl (0.75% and 1.5%) exposure. The in silico sequence analyses of gsh1 genes revealed that P. x canadensis and Salix sachalinensis show the closest sequence similarity to that of P. x canescens, which predicted an active GSH production with high phytoextraction potentials of these species with indication for their use where P. x canescens can not be grown. PMID:24912238

Gyulai, G; Bittsánszky, A; Szabó, Z; Waters, L; Gullner, G; Kampfl, G; Heltai, G; Komíves, T

2014-01-01

138

Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

Premuzic, E.T.

1983-08-25

139

Radionuclide behavior in the environment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))

1991-09-01

140

Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG  

SciTech Connect

The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.

Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

1985-09-01

141

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

1998-01-01

142

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1998-09-15

143

Evaluation of backfill as a barrier to radionuclide migration in a high level waste repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of using highly sorptive synthetic minerals such as zeolites or titanates as backfill in a HLW repository has been evaluated in terms of the NRC 1000 yr containment and 10⁝⁾\\/yr controlled release criteria. The results indicate that for groundwater velocities below 1 ft\\/yr, diffusion and sorption are the dominant processes controlling radionuclide migration in backfill systems. A 3-ft-thick

T. M. Ahn; R. Dayal; R. J. Wilke

1981-01-01

144

Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

2009-01-07

145

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (GlenEllyn, IL)

1990-01-01

146

Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1991-01-01

147

DKPRO: A radionuclide decay and reprocessing code  

SciTech Connect

The DKPRO code solves the general problem of modeling complex nuclear wastes streams using ORIGEN2 radionuclide production files. There is a continuing need for estimates of Hanford radionuclides. Physical measurements are one basis; calculational estimates, the approach represented here, are another. Given a known nuclear fuel history, it is relatively straightforward to calculate radionuclide inventories with codes such as the widely-used Oak Ridge National Laboratory code ORIGEN2.

Wootan, D.; Schmittroth, F.A.

1997-07-14

148

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

1990-11-13

149

Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need  

SciTech Connect

In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

Smith, V.H.

1981-03-01

150

Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations  

DOEpatents

The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

Chen, Xiaoyuan (Syracuse, NY); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Fisher, Darrell R. (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

151

Feasibility of Radioimmunotherapy of Experimental Pneumococcal Infection  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia. The problem of pneumococcal disease is exacerbated by increasing drug resistance. Furthermore, patients with impaired immunity are at high risk for invasive pneumococcal infections. Thus, there is an urgent need for new approaches to antimicrobial therapy. Antibody therapies take advantage of the specificity and high affinity of the antigen-antibody interaction to deliver antibacterial compounds to a site of infection in the form of naked or conjugated antibodies. We have recently established that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) can be used to treat experimental fungal infections in mice. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of applying a RIT approach to the treatment of S. pneumoniae infection by evaluating the susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to radiolabeled antibody in vitro and in an animal infection model. For the specific antibody carrier, we used human monoclonal antibody D11, which binds to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide 8. We have selected the alpha particle emitter 213Bi as the radionuclide for conjugation to the antibody. Incubation of serotype 8 S. pneumoniae with 213Bi-D11 resulted in dose-dependent killing of bacteria. RIT of S. pneumoniae infection in C57BL/6 mice showed that 60% more mice survived in the 213Bi-D11-treated group (80 ?Ci) than in the untreated group (P < 0.01). The treatment did not cause hematological toxicity, as demonstrated by platelet counts. This feasibility study establishes that RIT can be applied to the treatment of bacterial infections.

Dadachova, E.; Burns, T.; Bryan, R. A.; Apostolidis, C.; Brechbiel, M. W.; Nosanchuk, J. D.; Casadevall, A.; Pirofski, L.

2004-01-01

152

Tribal Utility Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be developed and sold to the wholesale electricity market. • Facility scale, net metered renewable energy systems – These are renewable energy systems that provide power to individual households or facilities that are connected to conventional electric utility grid.

Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

2007-06-30

153

The MRIS feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Microwave Reflectometer Ionization Sensor (MRIS) is an instrument being developed for use in detecting and ranging of electron density layers in the reentry plasma of a space transfer vehicle. The rationale for the selection of the Double Sideband Suppressed Carrier (DSBSC) system used in the feasibility study for the MRIS is presented. A 25 GHz single-oscillator system and a 220 GHz double-oscillator system are described. The 25 GHz system was constructed and tested in the laboratory and test results are presented. As developed, the system employs a sideband spacing of 160 MHz. Based on an estimated electromagnetic wave velocity in the plasma, a round-trip phase shift measurement accuracy of +/- 7.6 degrees was required for the desired +/- 1/2 cm distance measurement accuracy. The interaction of parallel ground and reflecting planes produces interference that prevents the basic DSBSC system from meeting the accuracy goal so a frequency modulation was added to the system to allow averaging of the measured phase deviation. With an FM deviation of +/- 1 GHz, laboratory measurements were made for distances from 5 to 61 cm tip free space. Accounting for the plasma velocity factor, 82 percent of the data were equal to or better than the desired accuracy. Based on this measured result a sideband spacing to 250 MHz could be expected to yield data approximately 96 percent within the accuracy goal.

Neece, Robert T.; Cross, Aubrey E.; Schrader, James H.

1993-01-01

154

Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis and interpretation of the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu in the Caspian Sea water are presented. These radionuclides are shown to be of environmental importance and to be useful for studying water mass dynamics.

B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud; M. K. Pham; P. P. Povinec

2003-01-01

155

Feasibility Test of CADD Webmenus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) initiated SPR Project 683: CADD Webmenus Feasibility Study to conduct a proof-of-concept test of Web-based CADD menus for ADOT agency-wide CADD applications. ADOT is currently interested in the feasibility o...

C. Pausch K. Fern

2009-01-01

156

Micro electric propulsion feasibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniature, 50 kg class, strategic satellites intended for extended deployment in space require an on-board propulsion capability to perform needed attitude control adjustments and drag compensation maneuvers. Even on such very small spacecraft, these orbit maintenance functions can be significant and result in a substantial propellant mass requirement. Development of advanced propulsion technology could reduce this propellant mass significantly, and thereby maximize the payload capability of these spacecraft. In addition, spacecraft maneuverability could be enhanced and/or multi-year mission lifetimes realized. These benefits cut spacecraft replacement costs, and reduce services needed to maintain the launch vehicles. For SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, a miniaturized hydrazine propulsion system provides both boost and divert thrust control. This type of propulsion system is highly integrated and is capable of delivering large thrust levels for short time periods. However, orbit maintenance functions such as drag make-up require only very small velocity corrections. Using the boost and/or divert thrusters for these small corrections exposes this highly integrated propulsion system to continuous on/off cycling and thereby increases the risk of system failure. Furthermore, since drag compensation velocity corrections would be orders of magnitude less than these thrusters were designed to deliver, their effective specific impulse would be expected to be lower when operated at very short pulse lengths. The net result of these effects would be a significant depletion of the on-board hydrazine propellant supply throughout the mission, and a reduced propulsion system reliability, both of which would degrade the interceptors usefulness. In addition to SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, comparably small spacecraft can be anticipated for other future strategic defense applications such as surveillance and communication. For such spacecraft, high capability and reliability, minimal detectability and low cost are requirements. All these miniature spacecraft share a common characteristic: because of their on-board electronic equipment they have, by design, solar order 50-100 W. In a relative sense, such spacecraft are power rich when compared to other larger spacecraft. This power rich situation is offset by very tight mass budgets, which make reductions in propellant mass requirements a key issue in meeting overall spacecraft minimum mass goals. In principle, power rich and propellant poor brilliant pebbles class spacecraft can benefit from using high specific impulse electric propulsion to reduce chemical propellant mass requirements. However, at power levels of order 50 W, arcjets cannot be made to function, ion thrusters are too complex and heavy and resistojets have too low a specific impulse. Recognizing these capability limitations in existing electric propulsion technology, the SDIO/IST sponsored the Phase I SBIR Micro Electric Propulsion (MEP) thruster study described in this report. feasibility of developing a very simple, low mass and small volume, electric thruster for operation on hydrazine at less than 100 W of input power. &The feasibility of developing such a MEP thruster was successfully demonstrated by EPL by the discovery of a novel plasma acceleration process. The sections in this report summarize the approach, test results and major accomplishments of this proof-of-concept program.

Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

1992-11-01

157

Micro electric propulsion feasibility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miniature, 50 kg class, strategic satellites intended for extended deployment in space require an on-board propulsion capability to perform needed attitude control adjustments and drag compensation maneuvers. Even on such very small spacecraft, these orbit maintenance functions can be significant and result in a substantial propellant mass requirement. Development of advanced propulsion technology could reduce this propellant mass significantly, and thereby maximize the payload capability of these spacecraft. In addition, spacecraft maneuverability could be enhanced and/or multi-year mission lifetimes realized. These benefits cut spacecraft replacement costs, and reduce services needed to maintain the launch vehicles. For SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, a miniaturized hydrazine propulsion system provides both boost and divert thrust control. This type of propulsion system is highly integrated and is capable of delivering large thrust levels for short time periods. However, orbit maintenance functions such as drag make-up require only very small velocity corrections. Using the boost and/or divert thrusters for these small corrections exposes this highly integrated propulsion system to continuous on/off cycling and thereby increases the risk of system failure. Furthermore, since drag compensation velocity corrections would be orders of magnitude less than these thrusters were designed to deliver, their effective specific impulse would be expected to be lower when operated at very short pulse lengths. The net result of these effects would be a significant depletion of the on-board hydrazine propellant supply throughout the mission, and a reduced propulsion system reliability, both of which would degrade the interceptors usefulness. In addition to SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, comparably small spacecraft can be anticipated for other future strategic defense applications such as surveillance and communication. For such spacecraft, high capability and reliability, minimal detectability and low cost are requirements. All these miniature spacecraft share a common characteristic: because of their on-board electronic equipment they have, by design, solar order 50-100 W. In a relative sense, such spacecraft are power rich when compared to other larger spacecraft. This power rich situation is offset by very tight mass budgets, which make reductions in propellant mass requirements a key issue in meeting overall spacecraft minimum mass goals. In principle, power rich and propellant poor brilliant pebbles class spacecraft can benefit from using high specific impulse electric propulsion to reduce chemical propellant mass requirements. However, at power levels of order 50 W, arcjets cannot be made to function, ion thrusters are too complex and heavy and resistojets have too low a specific impulse. Recognizing these capability limitations in existing electric propulsion technology, the SDIO/IST sponsored the Phase I SBIR Micro Electric Propulsion (MEP) thruster study described in this report. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of developing a very simple, low mass and small volume, electric thruster for operation on hydrazine at less than 100 W of input power. The feasibility of developing such a MEP thruster was successfully demonstrated by EPL by the discovery of a novel plasma acceleration process. The sections in this report summarize the approach, test results and major accomplishments of this proof-of-concept program.

Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

1992-01-01

158

Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

2003-03-27

159

Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

2000-01-01

160

Computational methods in radionuclide dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various approaches in radionuclide dosimetry depend on the size and spatial relation of the sources and targets considered in conjunction with the emission range of the radionuclide used. We present some of the frequently reported computational techniques on the basis of the source/target size. For whole organs, or for sources or targets bigger than some centimetres, the acknowledged standard was introduced 30 years ago by the MIRD committee and is still being updated. That approach, based on the absorbed fraction concept, is mainly used for radioprotection purposes but has been updated to take into account the dosimetric challenge raised by therapeutic use of vectored radiopharmaceuticals. At this level, the most important computational effort is in the field of photon dosimetry. On the millimetre scale, photons can often be disregarded, and or electron dosimetry is generally reported. Heterogeneities at this level are mainly above the cell level, involving groups of cell or a part of an organ. The dose distribution pattern is often calculated by generalizing a point source dose distribution, but direct calculation by Monte Carlo techniques is also frequently reported because it allows media of inhomogeneous density to be considered. At the cell level, and electron (low-range or Auger) are the predominant emissions examined. Heterogeneities in the dose distribution are taken into account, mainly to determine the mean dose at the nucleus. At the DNA level, Auger electrons or -particles are considered from a microdosimetric point of view. These studies are often connected with radiobiological experiments on radionuclide toxicity.

Bardičs, M.; Myers, M. J.

1996-10-01

161

Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

162

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva [Div. of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

2008-08-07

163

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s) (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

2008-08-01

164

Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

1988-01-01

165

Radionuclide analysis using solid phase extraction disks  

SciTech Connect

The use of solid phase extraction disks was studied for the quantification of selected radionuclides in aqueous solutions. The extraction of four radionuclides using six types (two commercial, four test materials) of 3M Empore{trademark} RAD disks was studied. The radionuclides studied were: technetium-99 (two types of disks), cesium-137 (two types), strontium-90 (one type), plutonium-238 (one type). Extractions were tested from DI water, river water and seawater. Extraction efficiency, kinetics (flow rate past the disk), capacity, and potential interferences were studied as well as quantification methods.

Beals, D.M; Britt, W.G.; Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

1996-12-31

166

2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /  

SciTech Connect

The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

Fuehne, David P.

2011-06-01

167

25 CFR 41.7 - Feasibility studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the governing body of one or more Indian Tribes, the Director...shall initiate a feasibility study to determine whether there...requesting another feasibility study, but no more than one feasibility study shall be requested for any...

2010-04-01

168

RADionuclide Transport, Removal, and Dose (RADTRAD) code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The RADionuclide Transport, Removal, And Dose (RADTRAD) code is designed for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) use to calculate the radiological consequences to the offsite population and to control room operators following a design-basis accident ...

L. A. Miller D. I. Chanin J. Lee

1993-01-01

169

Radionuclides and carrier molecules for therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although radionuclide therapy has been around for a long time, this modality of cancer treatment has been limited mainly to the use of []-phosphate and []-sodium iodide. The last few years, however, have seen an increased interest in this area due to new developments of radionuclides and carrier molecules that may provide selective targeting of tumour sites. The potential of this technique can be further realized if the radionuclide is carefully selected to match both the localization of the carrier molecule and tumour morphology. This paper briefly reviews radionuclides in current use and potential candidates for targeted therapy. Decay characteristics, production methods and relevant chemical properties are discussed.

Zweit, Jamal

1996-10-01

170

Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer  

PubMed Central

This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential.

Sofou, Stavroula

2008-01-01

171

Economic efficiency of radionuclide neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

Neutron sources based on various radionuclides are widely used in technological monitoring in many branches of industry, geological prospecting and also in medicine. Factors affecting the efficiency of radionuclide neutron sources (RNS) are discussed. The method considered here enables the formulation of comparative economic estimates at the stages of development and application of RNS in the solution of several problems such as: determining the limits of competitiveness of RNS based on different radionuclides; and also of RNS and other types of NS; determining the efficiency of utilization of specific RNS in comparison with conventional methods of performing the work; justifying the nomenclature of RNS manufacture with specific radionuclides as well as other areas described here.

Kirillov, E.V.; Karelin, E.A.; Klinov, A.V.; Konyashova, G.V.; Kudryashov, L.N.; Toporov, Y.G.

1985-11-01

172

Radionuclide Geomicrobiology of the Deep Biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes research into interactions between microorganisms and radionuclides under conditions typical of a repository for high-level radioactive waste in deep hard rock environments at a depth of approximately 500 m. The cell–radionuclide interactions of strains of two bacterial species (i.e., Shewanella putrefaciens and Desulfovibrio aespoeensis) with Cm, Pm, and Pu were investigated in vitro and the results were

Craig Anderson; Anna Johnsson; Henry Moll; Karsten Pedersen

2011-01-01

173

Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water\\/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption\\/desorption parameters for transport models and

J. C. Laul; M. R. Smith; T. C. Maiti

1988-01-01

174

Copper radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemistry, radiochemistry, radiobiology, and radiopharmacology of radiopharmaceuticals containing copper radionuclides are reviewed. Copper radionuclides offer application in positron emission tomography, targeted radiotherapy, and single photon imaging. The chemistry of copper is relatively simple and well-suited to radiopharmaceutical application. Current radiopharmaceuticals include biomolecules labelled via bifunctional chelators primarily based on cyclic polyaminocarboxylates and polyamines, and pyruvaldehyde-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (PTSM) and its analogues.

Philip J. Blower; Jason S. Lewis; Jamal Zweit

1996-01-01

175

Radionuclide transport in fractured granite interface zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study migration paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, a micro-scale mapping technique was applied by interfacing laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to detect the small scale

Q. H. Hu; A. Möri

2008-01-01

176

Migration of radionuclides in the enviroment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of transport and retaidation processes, chemistry and migration behaviour of radionuclides of fission products\\u000a and actinides in engineered barriers, especially bentonites, have been summarised. A “critical group of radionuclides” is\\u000a proposed for thorough investigation of their retardation properties in natural sorbents. The evaluation of accessible data\\u000a of retardation and transport parameters relevant for the conditions of underground deep

V. Jedináková-K?ižová

1998-01-01

177

Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

2012-04-01

178

Hydrogeological Modeling of Radionuclide Transport in Heterogeneous Low-Permeability Media: A Comparison Between Boom Clay and Ieper Clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep low-permeability clay layers are considered as possible suitable environments for disposal of high-level radioactive\\u000a waste. In Belgium, the Boom Clay is the reference host formation and the Ieper Clay an alternative host formation for research\\u000a and safety and feasibility assessment of deep disposal of nuclear waste. In this study, two hydrogeological models are built\\u000a to calculate the radionuclide fluxes

M. Huysmans; A. Dassargues

179

Lower Sioux Wind Feasibility & Development  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the process and findings of a Wind Energy Feasibility Study (Study) conducted by the Lower Sioux Indian Community (Community). The Community is evaluating the development of a wind energy project located on tribal land. The project scope was to analyze the critical issues in determining advantages and disadvantages of wind development within the Community. This analysis addresses both of the Community's wind energy development objectives: the single turbine project and the Commerical-scale multiple turbine project. The main tasks of the feasibility study are: land use and contraint analysis; wind resource evaluation; utility interconnection analysis; and project structure and economics.

Minkel, Darin

2012-04-01

180

Radionuclide Mobility at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are characterized by abundant fission product and actinide source terms. Included are {sup 99}Tc and other soluble radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in groundwater and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors. NTS provides the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an analog of the release of these radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository in the absence of engineered barriers. The investigation described in this report synthesizes a substantial body of data collected on the identity and distribution of soluble radionuclides at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters, for durations up to 40 years, and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This body of data is complemented by laboratory transport studies and a synthesis of recent modeling investigations from the NTS, with an emphasis on the ongoing Yucca Mountain Program (YMP) efforts. Overall, understanding the controls of radionuclide mobility associated with these nuclear tests will provide insight into the repository's future performance as well as bounds and calibrations for the numerical predictions of long-term radionuclide releases and migration.

Hu, Q; Smith, D; Rose, T; Glascoe, L; Steefel, C; Zavarin, M

2003-11-13

181

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2010-09-30

182

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2013-10-15

183

1963 Sugar Beet Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1963 study had the broad objectives of determining the feasibility of growing sugar beets on selected soils in Central New York and to determine the extent of resources available in this proposed sugar beet growing area. More specific objectives relat...

N. C. Brady

1964-01-01

184

Aluminum Smelter (Venezuela). Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents the findings of a study conducted for Aleaciones Ligeras ALISA S.A. The study assessed the feasibility of building an aluminum smelter, utilizing AP-30 technology, to supply the Asian markets with 25 Kg ingots. The report of the stud...

1990-01-01

185

The Space Elevator Feasibility Condition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper ties together parameters pertaining to tetherspecific strength and to power system mass density to arrive at an inequality that determines whether a Space Elevator system is viable. The principle for the feasibility condition (FC) is that a Space Elevator must be able to lift its own weight fast enough – fast enough to grow by bootstrapping, fast

Ben Shelef

186

Library Data Processing Feasibility Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To establish the precise effects of using MARC II in West Sussex, and how it could assist the library staff were the goals of this feasibility study. It illustrates the development of the library catalog and associated systems as both realistic and practical. It indicates what kind of repercussions will be felt by the library and how it could…

Mears, M. J.; And Others

187

Energy From Waste Is Feasible  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A possible energy source is the utilization of solid waste as fuel for power production. Although this is only a partial solution to the problem, it will provide some energy while research continues. The economic feasibility of using wastes depends upon a greater amount of energy being produced than expended. (MA)

Culham, William B.

1975-01-01

188

Radionuclide migration as a function of mineralogy  

SciTech Connect

The migration of radionuclides is studied as a function of mineralogy utilizing batch sorption and column experiments. The transport behavior of alkaline, alkaline-earth, and transition metals, and actinide species is studied in pure mineral separates. The solid phases utilized for these investigations are silicates, alumino-silicates, carbonates, and metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The results of this effort are utilized to aid in the elucidation of the dominant chemical mechanisms of radionuclide migration, the prediction of radionuclide transport in conditions similar to those expected at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the identification of materials that act as natural geological barriers or that can be utilized as strong sorbers in engineered barriers. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

1991-02-01

189

Radionuclide sorption on well construction materials  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which trace concentrations of radioactive materials would sorb on well construction materials and to assess the rapidity with which sorption would occur. The radionuclides employed in these studies were tritium, Cs-137, and Co-57. Solutions with trace concentrations of these radionuclides were contacted with casings of PVC, fiber-glass-epoxy, stainless steel, carbon steel, and steel rods coated with epoxy. The PVC showed no interaction with the tritium or Cs-137 during contact times of two hours to three weeks ; however, it did sorb Co-57. The fiber-glass-epoxy also interacted only with the cobalt. The stainless steel sorbed cesium and cobalt. The epoxy-coated steel rods did not interact measurably with any of the radionuclides so long as the coating was intact. The sorption reactions generally were apparent after a few days of contact; in the case of carbon steel, they were detectable in a few hours.

Thompson, J.L.

1996-11-01

190

Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil  

SciTech Connect

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

2012-04-25

191

Inverse modelling of radionuclide release rates using gamma dose rate observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severe accidents in nuclear power plants such as the historical accident in Chernobyl 1986 or the more recent disaster in the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have drastic impacts on the population and environment. The hazardous consequences reach out on a national and continental scale. Environmental measurements and methods to model the transport and dispersion of the released radionuclides serve as a platform to assess the regional impact of nuclear accidents - both, for research purposes and, more important, to determine the immediate threat to the population. However, the assessments of the regional radionuclide activity concentrations and the individual exposure to radiation dose underlie several uncertainties. For example, the accurate model representation of wet and dry deposition. One of the most significant uncertainty, however, results from the estimation of the source term. That is, the time dependent quantification of the released spectrum of radionuclides during the course of the nuclear accident. The quantification of the source terms of severe nuclear accidents may either remain uncertain (e.g. Chernobyl, Devell et al., 1995) or rely on rather rough estimates of released key radionuclides given by the operators. Precise measurements are mostly missing due to practical limitations during the accident. Inverse modelling can be used to realise a feasible estimation of the source term (Davoine and Bocquet, 2007). Existing point measurements of radionuclide activity concentrations are therefore combined with atmospheric transport models. The release rates of radionuclides at the accident site are then obtained by improving the agreement between the modelled and observed concentrations (Stohl et al., 2012). The accuracy of the method and hence of the resulting source term depends amongst others on the availability, reliability and the resolution in time and space of the observations. Radionuclide activity concentrations are observed on a relatively sparse grid and the temporal resolution of available data may be low within the order of hours or a day. Gamma dose rates on the other hand are observed routinely on a much denser grid and higher temporal resolution. Gamma dose rate measurements contain no explicit information on the observed spectrum of radionuclides and have to be interpreted carefully. Nevertheless, they provide valuable information for the inverse evaluation of the source term due to their availability (Saunier et al., 2013). We present a new inversion approach combining an atmospheric dispersion model and observations of radionuclide activity concentrations and gamma dose rates to obtain the source term of radionuclides. We use the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al., 1998; Stohl et al., 2005) to model the atmospheric transport of the released radionuclides. The gamma dose rates are calculated from the modelled activity concentrations. The inversion method uses a Bayesian formulation considering uncertainties for the a priori source term and the observations (Eckhardt et al., 2008). The a priori information on the source term is a first guess. The gamma dose rate observations will be used with inverse modelling to improve this first guess and to retrieve a reliable source term. The details of this method will be presented at the conference. This work is funded by the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz BfS, Forschungsvorhaben 3612S60026. References Davoine, X. and Bocquet, M., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 1549-1564, 2007. Devell, L., et al., OCDE/GD(96)12, 1995. Eckhardt, S., et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 3881-3897, 2008. Saunier, O., et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11403-11421, 2013. Stohl, A., et al., Atmos. Environ., 32, 4245-4264, 1998. Stohl, A., et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 2461-2474, 2005. Stohl, A., et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 2313-2343, 2012.

Hamburger, Thomas; Stohl, Andreas; von Haustein, Christoph; Thummerer, Severin; Wallner, Christian

2014-05-01

192

Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 on Cu and Cd uptake by different rice varieties grown on contaminated soils with two levels of metals: implication for phytoextraction and food safety.  

PubMed

A pot experiment in six open-top chambers with two levels of CO(2) and two multi-metal contaminated soils was conducted to investigate combined effects of elevated CO(2) levels and metals (Cu and Cd) on rice. Elevated CO(2) significantly increased the total dry weight biomass of six Chinese rice by 20-108 and 32-142% for low and high levels of contaminated soils, respectively. We observed dilution/little varied phenomena in grain Cu concentration in six rice varieties grown on both contaminated soils under elevated CO(2). We found significantly higher Cd concentrations in the parts of three rice varieties under elevated CO(2), but lower levels for the others. Two major conclusions can be drawn from our study: (1) rice varieties with significantly increased biomass and metal uptake under elevated CO(2) exhibit greater potential for phytoextraction and (2) given expected global increases in CO(2) concentration, CO(2)-induced accumulation of metals in rice might be a component contributing to the potential health risk in the future, with Cd being a more important threat to human health than Cu. PMID:20047795

Li, Zhongyang; Tang, Shirong; Deng, Xiaofang; Wang, Ruigang; Song, Zhengguo

2010-05-15

193

Dosimetric Considerations Relative to Radionuclides for Thyroid Diagnosis and Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent changes have occurred in the radionuclidic approach to the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. These changes have been directed toward reduction of radiation dose by the use of short-lived radionuclides for imaging and toward better control ...

H. L. Atkins

1976-01-01

194

Assessment of Radionuclides in the Savannah River Site Environment Summary  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the impact of radionuclide releases from Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities from 1954 through 1996. The radionuclides reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS.

Carlton, W.H.

1999-01-26

195

The Feasibility of Folk Science  

PubMed Central

If folk science means individuals having well worked out mechanistic theories of the workings of the world, then it is not feasible. Lay people's explanatory understandings are remarkably coarse, full of gaps and often full of inconsistencies. Even worse, most people underestimate their own understandings. Yet, recent views suggest that formal scientists may not be so different. In spite of these limitations, science somehow works and its success offers hope for the feasibility of folk science as well. The success of science arises from the ways in which scientists learn to leverage understandings in other minds and to outsource explanatory work through sophisticated methods of deference and simplification of complex systems. Three studies ask whether analogous processes might be present not only in lay people, but also in young children and thereby form a foundation for supplementing explanatory understandings almost from the start of our first attempts to make sense of the world.

Keil, Frank C.

2010-01-01

196

Muon Muon Collider: Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feasibility study is presented of a 2 + 2 TeV muon collider with a luminosity of L = 10³⁾ cm⁝²s⁝š. The resulting design is not optimized for performance, and certainly not for cost; however, it does suffice - we believe - to allow us to make a credible case, that a muon collider is a serious possibility for particle

J. C. Gallardo; R. B. Palmer; A. V. Tollestrup; A. M. Sessler; A. N. Skrinsky; C. Ankenbrandt; S. Geer; J. Griffin; C. Johnstone; P. Lebrun; A. McInturff; Frederick E. Mills; N. Mokhov; A. Moretti; D. Neuffer; K. Y. Ng; R. Noble; I. Novitski; M. Popovic; C. Qian; A. Van Ginneken

2012-01-01

197

NTRE extended life feasibility assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a feasibility analysis of a long life, reusable nuclear thermal rocket engine are presented in text and graph form. Two engine/reactor concepts are addressed: the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) design and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) concept. Engine design, integration, reliability, and safety are addressed by various members of the NTRE team from Aerojet Propulsion Division, Energopool (Russia), and Babcock & Wilcox.

1993-01-01

198

Lunar Analog Feasibility Study Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews a study designed to determine the feasibility of using a 9.5 deg head-up tilt bed rest model to simulate the effects of the 1/6 g load to the human body that exists on the lunar surface. The effect of different types of compression stockings, the pre-bed rest diet, and the use of a specific exercise program were reviewed for comfort, force verification and plasma volume shift

Cromwell, Ronita L.; Neigut, Joe

2009-01-01

199

Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wobber, F.J. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-01-01

200

Thermal-hydraulic modeling and severe accident radionuclide transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of radionuclide transport within a nuclear reactor plant and then to the external environment after an accident that involves severe damage to the fuel rods requires an appropriate evaluation of the thermal-hydraulic conditions that influence both the chemical equilibria among the involved species and the radionuclide retention phenomena. The ENEL Code for the Analysis of Radionuclide Transport (ECART)

F. Oriolo; W. Ambrosini; G. Fruttuoso; F. Parozzi; R. Fontana

1995-01-01

201

Predictions of radionuclide migration rates for a subseabed repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from studies of high temperature interactions between sediments and porewater (seawater), and of sorption and diffusion of radionuclides in oxidized, deep sea sediments were used, along with results from heat transfer studies, to predict migration rates of radionuclides in a subseabed repository. Preliminary results for most radionuclides in oxidized sediments are very encouraging fission products with moderate values of

L. H. Brush

1981-01-01

202

Assessment of radionuclide vapor-phase transport in unsaturated tuff  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes bounding calculations performed to investigate the possibility of radionuclide migration in a vapor phase associated with the emplacement of high-level waste canister in unsaturated tuff formations. Two potential radionuclide transport mechanisms in the vapor phase were examined: aerosol migration and convection\\/diffusion of volatile species. The former may have significant impact on the release of radionuclides to the

D. M. Smith; C. D. Updegraff; E. J. Bonano; J. D. Randall

1986-01-01

203

Colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport in fractured porous rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical methods have been applied for the prediction of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport through water-saturated fractured porous rock. The presence of colloids may enhance the transport of radionuclides in groundwater by reducing retardation effects. The colloids existing in the groundwater act as carriers, adsorbing radionuclides in their large surface area and moving faster than the average water velocity. With colloids present,

I. Baek; W. W. Jr. Pitt

1996-01-01

204

Radionuclide Transport in Fractured Tuff under Episodic Flow Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current conceptual model of radionuclide transport in unsaturated fractured rock includes water movement in fractures, with migration of the entrained radionuclides being retarded by diffusion into and sorption within the rock matrix. Water infiltration and radionuclide transport through low-permeability unsaturated fractured rock are episodic and intermittent in nature, at least at local scales. Under episodic flow conditions, the matrix

Q. Hu; Y. Sun; R. P. Ewing

2005-01-01

205

Characterization of radionuclide behavior in low level waste sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This laboratory is investigating the subsurface migration of radionuclides in groundwater at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky, shallow land burial site and at a low-level aqueous waste disposal facility. At Maxey Flats, radionuclide and tracer data indicate groundwater communication between a waste trench and an adjacent experimental study area. Areal distributions of radionuclides in surface soil confirm that contamination at Maxey

A. P. Toste; K. H. Abel; L. J. Kirby; R. W. Perkins; D. E. Robertson

1983-01-01

206

Lichens as biomonitors of geothermal radionuclide pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The epiphytic lichen Parmelia caperata was used systematically as a bioaccumulator of radionuclides in the Travale-Radicondoli geothermal field (central Italy). The results showed that radioactivity in this area is not different from that of other non-geothermal areas and that the exploitation of geothermal resources should not cause an enrichment in radioactivity. However, the survey also revealed a negative association between

Stefano Loppi; Alberto Malfatti; Mauro Sani; Neil E. Whitehead

1997-01-01

207

[Targeted radionuclide therapy - where should we go ?].  

PubMed

Treatment with radiopharmaceuticals which selectively target lesions is called targeted radionuclide therapy(TRT). These days, the requirement for TRTs such as treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer with radioactive iodine, is on the increase. In addition, a new TRT agent is currently in a clinical trial. Here, current issues regarding TRT and its possible future use are discussed. PMID:23411948

Kinuya, Seigo

2013-02-01

208

RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

S. Magnuson

2004-11-01

209

Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This new DOE proposal appropriately builds on past developments. The development and application of radionuclides for diagnosis, treatment and research has been a continuing concern for more than the past three decades. A brief description of this development and previous achievements was considered important in order to provide a frame of reference for the evolving program here. Earlier, the use of certain radionuclides, radon progeny and I-131 in particular, and also x-rays, had been developed by the work of such pioneers as Failla, Quimby and Marinelli. In 1952, at the instigation of Dr. C.P. Rhoads, Director of both Memorial Hospital and Sloan-Kettering Institute, the restoration of the Department of Physics and Biophysics was undertaken in response to a perceived need to promote the utilization of radionuclides and of high energy radiations for therapeutic, diagnostic and research purposes. This resulted in several research and developmental projects with close clinical collaboration in areas of radiation treatment; medical studies with radionuclides and labeled compounds; the diagnostic uses of x-rays; and some projects in surgery and other clinical areas. Aspects of some of these projects that have had some relevance for the evolving AEC-DOE projects are outlined briefly. 34 refs.

Laughlin, J.S.; Larson, S.M.

1988-01-01

210

Radionuclide Imaging in Renal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, a space-occupying lesion in the kidney is usually discovered with ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen. The benign or malignant nature of the lesion can usually accurately be assessed with these radiological procedures. Radionuclide imaging techniques do not play a major role in diagnosing kidney cancer, as currently there are no radiopharmaceuticals routinely

A. H. Brouwers; P. L. Jager

211

The IMS radionuclide network of the CTBT  

Microsoft Academic Search

A world-wide radionuclide network consisting of 80 stations is under establishment in the framework of the comprehensive nuclear test-ban treaty (CTBT). These monitoring stations are essential for the verification regime of the treaty and they will be able to monitor the airborne particulate as well as xenon isotopes that are produced by nuclear tests. The equipment, the operation and the

Fausto Medici

2001-01-01

212

Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York  

SciTech Connect

SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

1982-12-01

213

Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (USA))

1989-07-01

214

Source inversion for the CTBTO radionuclide network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to support its mission of monitoring compliance with the treaty banning nuclear explosions, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) operates four global networks of, respectively, seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic sensors and air samplers accompanied with radionuclide detectors. The role of the International Data Centre (IDC) of CTBTO is to associate the signals detected in the monitoring networks with the physical phenomena which emitted these signals, by forming events. One of the aspects of associating detections with emitters is the problem of inferring the sources of radionuclides from the detections made at CTBTO radionuclide network stations. This task is particularly challenging because the average transport distance between a release point and detectors is large. Complex processes of turbulent diffusion are responsible for efficient mixing and consequently for decreasing the information content of detections with an increasing distance from the source. The problem is generally addressed in a two-step process. In the first step, an atmospheric transport model establishes a link between the detections and the regions of possible source location. In the second step this link is inverted to infer source information from the detections. In this presentation, we will discuss enhancements of the presently used regression-based inversion algorithm to reconstruct a source of radionuclides. To this aim, modern inversion algorithms accounting for prior information and appropriately regularizing an under-determined reconstruction problem will be briefly introduced. Emphasis will be on the CTBTO context and the choice of inversion methods. An illustration of the first tests will be provided using a framework of twin experiments, i.e. fictitious detections in the CTBTO radionuclide network generated with an atmospheric transport model.

Krysta, M.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Nikkinen, M.; Carter, J. A.

2013-12-01

215

2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

David P. Fuehne

2007-06-30

216

Feasibility studies of aquifer thermal energy storage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Determining the feasibility of using aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for a particular heating or cooling application is an interdisciplinary effort, requiring (at a minimum) expertise in engineering and hydrology. The feasibility study should procee...

S. H. Hall

1993-01-01

217

Feasibility Evaluation Model for Toll Highways.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development of a Feasibility Evaluation Model for Toll Highways (FEMTH). FEMTH is a financial feasibility and risk analysis computer model developed to assess the degree of financial risk associated with a toll highway project in...

B. F. McCullough R. L. Tucker R. M. A. Sanchez

2005-01-01

218

Underwriter's Laboratory (UL) Certification Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Underwriter's Laboratory (UL) certification feasibility study was undertaken to address the feasibility of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to provide certification of the Explosive Detection Systems (EDS) to UL Standards. This study was prop...

D. Wilson

2000-01-01

219

Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through geomorphic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant acciden, fallout radionuclides on the ground surface will transfer through geomorphic processes. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers, and entrainment from trees and soils should be confirmed. We (FMWSE group) was funded by MEXT, Japanese government, and 1 year following monitoring has been conducted about 1 year. 1 Migration study of radionuclides in natural environment including forests and rivers 1) Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland. 2) Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests. 3) Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use. 4) Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils. 2 Migration study of radionuclides through hydrological cycle such as soil water, rivers, lakes and ponds, ground water. 1) Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use. 2) Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediment. 3) Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediment. 4) Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs. We will present how and where the fallout radionulides transfter through geomorphic processes.

Onda, Y.; Kato, H.; Fukushima, T.; Wakahara, T.; Kita, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Sakaguchi, A.; Tanaka, K.; Yamashiki, Y.; Yoshida, N.

2012-12-01

220

Sludge source term (PUREX process radionuclide dose impact)  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the radionuclide dose impact of the PUREX process waste stream. The radionuclide ingestion and inhalation pathways are analyzed. Two spent fuel assemblies processed in the Separation facilities are analyzed, the Mark 31A and Mark 31B. The individual radionuclide significance to dose is evaluated in terms of dose percentage. Comparing the radionuclide individual dose value allows the determination of those radionuclides whose dose impact is significant. The results of this analysis demonstrate that a limited number of radionuclides contribute 1% or more to the total dose and that the major contributor to the sludge source dose is strontium. The results obtained permit reducing the list of radionuclides to be considered in the development of source terms to support the High Level Waste Safety Analysis Report.

Aponte, C.I.

1994-06-28

221

Hualapai Wind Project Feasibility Report  

SciTech Connect

The Hualapai Department of Planning and Economic Development, with funding assistance from the U.S. Department of Energy, Tribal Energy Program, with the aid of six consultants has completed the four key prerequisites as follows: 1. Identify the site area for development and its suitability for construction. 2. Determine the wind resource potential for the identified site area. 3. Determine the electrical transmission and interconnection feasibility to get the electrical power produced to the marketplace. 4. Complete an initial permitting and environmental assessment to determine the feasibility for getting the project permitted. Those studies indicated a suitable wind resource and favorable conditions for permitting and construction. The permitting and environmental study did not reveal any fatal flaws. A review of the best power sale opportunities indicate southern California has the highest potential for obtaining a PPA that may make the project viable. Based on these results, the recommendation is for the Hualapai Tribal Nation to move forward with attracting a qualified wind developer to work with the Tribe to move the project into the second phase - determining the reality factors for developing a wind project. a qualified developer will bid to a utility or negotiate a PPA to make the project viable for financing.

Davidson, Kevin [Hualapai Tribe] [Hualapai Tribe; Randall, Mark [Daystar Consulting] [Daystar Consulting; Isham, Tom [Power Engineers] [Power Engineers; Horna, Marion J [MJH Power Consulting LLC] [MJH Power Consulting LLC; Koronkiewicz, T [SWCA Environmental, Inc.] [SWCA Environmental, Inc.; Simon, Rich [V-Bar, LLC] [V-Bar, LLC; Matthew, Rojas [Squire Sanders Dempsey] [Squire Sanders Dempsey; MacCourt, Doug C. [Ater Wynne, LLP] [Ater Wynne, LLP; Burpo, Rob [First American Financial Advisors, Inc.] [First American Financial Advisors, Inc.

2012-12-20

222

SYNCHEM feasibility report: Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

Several Czech and US companies have entered into a development agreement for the purposes of determining the technical and economic feasibility and overall financeability of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) regional energy facility to be located adjacent to the Chemopetrol refinery in Litvinov, Czech Republic. The Project would use a feedstock comprised of coal supplied by Doly a upravny Komorany s.p. (DUK) coal mining company and mined from the Most/Litvinov area together with high sulfur residual oils from the Chemopetrol refinery. When gasified together with oxygen from an Air Products air separation plant, and based on an average yearly consumption of 2,100K metric tons per year of coal (as delivered) and 630K tonnes per year of oil, approximately 11 million normal cubic meters per day of syngas will be produced. At its current projected design capacity, when combusted in two General Electric advanced technology Frame 9FA gas turbines, the Project will produce approximately 690MW of electric power; 250 metric tons/hour of steam for process; and 135 thermal equivalent MW of district heat. The Feasibility Phase efforts described in this report indicate the real possibility for a successful and profitable IGCC Project for the Czech Republic. It is therefore incumbent upon all the Project Participants to review and evaluate the information contained herein such that a go/no-go decision can be reached by early next year.

Not Available

1995-01-01

223

Fallout sheltering: is it feasible  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of sheltering the U.S. population from fallout resulting from a large-scale nuclear attack is assessed using a mathematical model. The model is used to calculate the reduction in cumulative dose received by a sheltered survivor, as a function of five adjustable parameters. Three time periods are postulated: time in the shelter, a transition period during which time out of the shelter increases and a final period in which half the time is spent outside the shelter. The parameters are varied independently, and the resulting dose reduction factor is compared with what seems to be necessary for survival in different regions of the country under the postulated attack. Another model developed by K.S. Gant and C.V. Chester is compared with this one. Similarities and differences are pointed out, and where possible the results of the two are checked for compatibility. An important question addressed in this paper is whether under the conditions of a large-scale nuclear attack sheltering a relatively unprepared population is at all feasible. Sensitivity tests of the various parameters in our model show that relatively low protection factor areas such as basements or inner rooms already existing in homes or other buildings could quite adequately serve as shelters for most of the area of the contiguous United States. Furthermore, continuous stays in these shelters of more than three weeks do not seem to be necessary for these large parts of the United States.

Ehrlich, R.; Ring, J.

1987-03-01

224

Polarized-interferometer feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using a polarized-interferometer system as a rendezvous and docking sensor for two cooperating spacecraft was studied. The polarized interferometer is a radio frequency system for long range, real time determination of relative position and attitude. Range is determined by round trip signal timing. Direction is determined by radio interferometry. Relative roll is determined from signal polarization. Each spacecraft is equipped with a transponder and an antenna array. The antenna arrays consist of four crossed dipoles that can transmit or receive either circularly or linearly polarized signals. The active spacecraft is equipped with a sophisticated transponder and makes all measurements. The transponder on the passive spacecraft is a relatively simple repeater. An initialization algorithm is developed to estimate position and attitude without any a priori information. A tracking algorithm based upon minimum variance linear estimators is also developed. Techniques to simplify the transponder on the passive spacecraft are investigated and a suitable configuration is determined. A multiple carrier CW signal format is selected. The dependence of range accuracy and ambiguity resolution error probability are derived and used to design a candidate system. The validity of the design and the feasibility of the polarized interferometer concept are verified by simulation.

Raab, F. H.

1983-01-01

225

A methodology to assess the radionuclide migration parameters through bentonite-sand backfill in a short experimental duration  

SciTech Connect

Bentonite-Sand Backfill is a part of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) widely used in a Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF) to delay migration of radionuclides from the disposed nuclear waste in a geo environment. Laboratory migration experiments have been conducted to understand the advection/diffusion mechanisms of various radionuclides through backfill and to evaluate their migration rates in order to assess the performance of EBS. Migration through backfill is an extremely slow process and the experiments are time consuming. Also, these experiments have limitations to simulate the field stress conditions. Various researchers have experienced the advantages of centrifuge modeling technique to model contaminant transport problems of geo-environment. However, no such studies have been carried out adopting this technique to model the behaviour of bentonite-sand mixture as backfill in NSDF. An attempt has been made in the present study to investigate the validity of this technique to carry out such studies. Significance of geotechnical centrifuge modeling to simulate the prototype radionuclide migration mechanisms through backfill is highlighted. This paper presents the dimensional analysis of various scale factors to construct a physical model for centrifuge tests to monitor online the migration phenomena of radionuclides through bentonite-sand mixture. Studies reveal the feasibility of the technique to evaluate the migration parameters in a short experimental duration. Such studies help in improving EBS design and assessing the long-term performance of EBS in NSDF. (authors)

Gurumoorthy, C.; Kusakabe, O. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Geotechnical Engineering Div., Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)

2007-07-01

226

Radionuclide partitioning in the modified Unex process  

SciTech Connect

The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of long-lived radionuclides (cesium, strontium, actinides, and lanthanides) from acidic solutions in one extraction cycle. Modification of this organic solvent through the use of diamides of dipicolinic acid instead of CMPO increases the extraction capacity of UNEX solvent toward lanthanides and actinide metals, allowing for the processing of spent nuclear fuel. The possibility of radionuclide group separation using the modified UNEX solvent [HCCD (chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide), TBDPA (tetrabutyl-diamide of dipicolinic acid), PEG in FS-1 3 (phenyl-trifluoromethyl-sulfone)] is being investigated. Individual strip products, including a) actinides and lanthanides, b) strontium, and c) cesium, can be obtained by selective stripping from UNEX solvent. Such partitioning will make it possible to transform the Cs/Sr product into the most stable matrices for long-term storage and to further process the actinide/lanthanide product for recycling to a nuclear reactor. (authors)

Babain, V.; Smirnov, I. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Alyapyshev, M. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Todd, T.A.; Law, J.D.; Herbst, R.S. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Paulenova, A. [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

2008-07-01

227

Radionuclide production using a fast flux reactor  

PubMed

The production of 89Sr, (32,33)P, 35S via the (n, p)-reaction, and 117mSn, 153Gd via the (n, gamma)-reaction using the BOR-60 fast flux reactor was experimentally studied. Test samples were irradiated in the active core of the BOR-60 reactor with fast neutron flux of 1 x 10(15) cm(-2) s(-1) for 40-100 effective days. Gadolinium-153 was produced in a radial blanket cell, characterized by a modified ("softened") neutron spectrum. Data on target materials, procedure of irradiated target reprocessing, radionuclide yield, and specific activity are summarized in the report. The results of the experiment showed that large-scale production of the radionuclides listed above is possible using a fast-flux reactor. PMID:11003527

Karelin; Efimov; Filimonov; Kuznetsov; Revyakin; Andreev; Zhemkov; Bukh; Lebedev; Spiridonov

2000-10-01

228

Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

1992-08-04

229

FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Metrologia on radionuclide metrology is the first of a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurement, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The idea was first proposed at the 2003 series of CCRI Section meetings, with the general aim of showcasing the relevance and importance of metrology in ionizing radiation to a broader metrological audience. After the 2005 meeting of Section II (measurement of radionuclides), the radioactivity aspect of the project began to move forward in earnest. A working group was set up with the brief that the special issue should be of use by experienced metrologists as an overview of the 'state of the art' to compare progress and scientific content with those in other fields of metrology, as a resource for new metrologists joining the field and as a guide for users of radioactivity to explain how traceability to the international measurement system may be achieved. Since mankind first became aware of the existence of radioactivity just over a century ago (due to its discovery by Becquerel and further work by the Curies), much has been learnt and understood in the interim period. The field of radionuclide metrology that developed subsequently is broad-based and encompasses, amongst others, nuclear physics (experimental and theory), chemistry, mathematics, mathematical statistics, uncertainty analysis and advanced computing for data analysis, simulation and modelling. To determine the activity of radionuclides accurately requires elements of all of these subjects. In more recent decades the focus has been on the practical applications of radioactivity in industry and the health field in particular. In addition, low-level environmental radioactivity monitoring has taken on ever greater importance in the nuclear power era. These developments have required new detection instrumentation and techniques on an ongoing basis to ensure the improvement in accuracy and precision of measurement as demanded by the stringent requirements of the user community, such as the correct calibration of nuclear instrumentation. This leads into the need for traceability to national measurement standards maintained by the national metrology institutes. As part of the radioactivity traceability chain, as for all areas of metrology, it is vital that systems are in place to ensure that national standards can be checked for worldwide uniformity and measurement equivalence. Many of the resulting areas are covered by the topics in this special issue, although specifically excluded from the scope of the publication are topics that are widely covered in other publications due to their application in applied metrology—for example, radiochemistry, environmental gamma spectrometry and alpha spectrometry. There are three sections to this issue, starting with papers on how the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement has been implemented for radionuclide metrology, following into the bulk of the publication with articles on the `state of the art' in radionuclide metrology and ending with traceability to national/international standards in nuclear medicine, environmental monitoring, radiation protection and decommissioning. This special issue in essence follows on from earlier BIPM Monographies that were published in order to provide the base information for radionuclide metrology. In many respects they complement the special issue since much of their content is still valid today, particularly those published more recently as an aid to ensuring consistency of method and data. The BIPM Monographies are freely available to download from the BIPM website at http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/monographies-ri.html. The papers in the special issue draw on the experience of radionuclide metrologists who have been involved in their area of expertise for many years. The authors give readers an insightful account of the selected topics through in-depth review articles. We are indeed indebted to them for accepting this difficult and t

Simpson, Bruce; Judge, Steven

2007-08-01

230

Radionuclide ventriculography to evaluate myocardial function  

SciTech Connect

Developments over the past decade have allowed one to visualize the right and left ventricles using radionuclide techniques and to study the influence of a wide range of physiologic, pharmacologic and surgical interventions on global and regional ventricular function thereby providing important diagnostic insight and improved therapeutic capabilities. These tests are relatively non-invasive, they can be performed serially, they may be performed in patients that are seriously ill, and they have no recognized risk other than low level radiation exposure. With continued improvement in noninvasive imaging and processing and in the sophistication of associated computer systems, one may expect significant and wide ranging additional contributions in the assessment of myocardial function using radionuclide ventriculographic techniques.

Huxley, R.L.; Corbett, J.R.; Lewis, S.E.; Willerson, J.T.

1983-01-01

231

Interactions of Fungi and Radionuclides in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the development of nuclear weapons and the subsequent evolution of nuclear energy-generating industries, there has\\u000a been considerable concern regarding the safe storage of radionuclide waste. Widescale release, in the aftermath of nuclear\\u000a detonations or as the result of malfunction of atomic energy plants and reprocessing facilities, has also been a preoccupation.\\u000a The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations on

John Dighton; Tatyana Tugay; Nelli Zhdanova

232

Quantification of renal haemodynamics with radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive quantification of renal function with radionuclides is an important role of nuclear medicine. With modern commercial preparations of technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA), glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can be measured accurately either from the rate of disappearance of the tracer from plasma or from its rate of uptake into the kidneys. Determination of the latter with the gamma

A. M. Peters

1991-01-01

233

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

Wahl, Linnea

2010-06-01

234

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

2008-06-13

235

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

Wahl, Linnea

2009-05-21

236

Radionuclide transport in fractured granite interface zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study migration paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, a micro-scale mapping technique was applied by interfacing laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to detect the small scale (micron-range) distribution of actinides in the interface zones between fractures and the granitic rock matrix. Long-lived 234U, 235U, and 237Np were detected in flow channels, as well as in the diffusion accessible rock matrix, using the sensitive, feature-based mapping of the LA-ICP-MS technique. The retarded actinides are mainly located at the fracture walls and in the fine grained fracture filling material as well as within the immediately adjacent wallrock. The water-conducting fracture studied in this work is bounded on one side by mylonite and the other by granitic matrix regions. Actinides studied in this work did not penetrate into the mylonite side as much as into the granite matrix, most likely due to the lower porosity, the enhanced sorption capacity and the disturbed diffusion paths of the mylonite region itself. Overall, the maximum penetration depth detected with this technique for 237Np and uranium isotopes over the field experimental time scale of about 60 days was about 10 mm in the granitic matrix, illustrating the importance of matrix diffusion in retarding radionuclide transport from the advective fractures. Laboratory tests and numerical modelling of radionuclide diffusion into granitic matrix was conducted to complement and help interpret the field results.

Hu, Q. H.; Möri, A.

237

UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

2006-08-28

238

Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

2008-10-01

239

Fukushima's Forgotten Radionuclides: A Review of the Understudied Radioactive Emissions.  

PubMed

In environmental monitoring campaigns for anthropogenic radionuclides released in the course of the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), most focus had been on gamma-emitting radionuclides. More than 99% of the released activity was due to radionuclides of the elements Kr, Te, I, Xe, and Cs. However, little work had been done on the monitoring of radionuclides other than (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (136)Cs, and (137)Cs. Radionuclides such as those of less volatile elements (e.g., (89)Sr, (90)Sr, (103)Ru, (106)Ru, plutonium), pure beta-emitters ((3)H, (14)C, (35)S), gaseous radionuclides ((85)Kr, (133)Xe, (135)Xe) or radionuclides with very long half-lives (e.g., (36)Cl, (99)Tc, (129)I, some actinides such as (236)U) have been understudied by comparison. In this review, we summarize previous monitoring work on these "orphan" radionuclides in various environmental media and outline further challenges for future monitoring campaigns. Some of the understudied radionuclides are of radiological concern, others are promising tracers for environmental, geochemical processes such as oceanic mixing. Unfortunately, the shorter-lived nuclides of radioxenon, (103)Ru, (89)Sr and (35)S will no longer exhibit detectable activities in the environment. Activity concentrations of other radionuclides such as tritium, (14)C, or (85)Kr will become blurred in the significant background of previous releases (nuclear explosions and previous accidents). Isotope ratios such as (240)Pu/(239)Pu will allow for the identification of Fukushima plutonium despite the plutonium background. PMID:24754713

Steinhauser, Georg

2014-05-01

240

Shuttle seated extraction feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the Space Shuttle Challenger accident, serious attention has turned to in-flight escape. Prior to the resumption of flight, a manual bailout system was qualified and installed. For the long term, a seated extraction system to expand the escape envelope is being investigated. This paper describes a 1987 study, conducted jointly by NASA/Johnson Space Center and Langley Research Center, to determine the feasibility of modifying the Space Shuttle Orbiters to incorporate the seated extraction system. Results of the study are positive, indicating retrofit opportunity and high probability of escape for early ascent, late entry, and even for uncontrolled flight such as the Challenger breakup. The system, as envisioned, can extract seven crewmembers within two seconds.

Onagel, Steven R.; Bement, Laurence J.

241

Preliminary guided rocket feasibility study.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of actively guiding sounding rockets to reduce impact dispersion has been investigated. The theoretical probability of Range Safety thrust termination for several high performance rockets was combined with the cost of acquiring the extended range at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) to establish a guidance system price ceiling of $20K per flight. Guiding the Black Brant VC for the first five seconds of flight results in sufficient dispersion reduction to impact within the standard range boundaries at WSMR. The guidance system thrust level required to statically control the vehicle to a nominal-wind weighted trajectory for five seconds is between 150-200 pounds. A six-degree-of-freedom trajectory program with guidance simulation capability has been developed and the equations are delineated in this paper.

Nolan, M. B.; Celmer, J. J.

1973-01-01

242

Preliminary guided rocket feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of actively guiding sounding rockets to reduce impact dispersion has been investigated. The theoretical probability of range safety thrust termination for several high performance rockets was combined with the cost of acquiring the extended range at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) to establish a guidance system price ceiling of $20K per flight. Guiding the Black Brant VC (BBVC) for the first five seconds of flight results in sufficient dispersion reduction to impact within the standard range boundaries at WSMR. The guidance system thrust level required to statically control the vehicle to a nominal-wind weighted trajectory for five seconds is between 150-200 pounds. A six-degree-of-freedom trajectory program with guidance simulation capability has been developed and the equations are presented.

Nolan, M. B.; Celmer, J. J.

1973-01-01

243

World Ships - Architectures & Feasibility Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A world ship is a concept for manned interstellar flight. It is a huge, self-contained and self-sustained interstellar vehicle. It travels at a fraction of a per cent of the speed of light and needs several centuries to reach its target star system. The well- known world ship concept by Alan Bond and Anthony Martin was intended to show its principal feasibility. However, several important issues haven't been addressed so far: the relationship between crew size and robustness of knowledge transfer, reliability, and alternative mission architectures. This paper addresses these gaps. Furthermore, it gives an update on target star system choice, and develops possible mission architectures. The derived conclusions are: a large population size leads to robust knowledge transfer and cultural adaptation. These processes can be improved by new technologies. World ship reliability depends on the availability of an automatic repair system, as in the case of the Daedalus probe. Star systems with habitable planets are probably farther away than systems with enough resources to construct space colonies. Therefore, missions to habitable planets have longer trip times and have a higher risk of mission failure. On the other hand, the risk of constructing colonies is higher than to establish an initial settlement on a habitable planet. Mission architectures with precursor probes have the potential to significantly reduce trip and colonization risk without being significantly more costly than architectures without. In summary world ships remain an interesting concept, although they require a space colony-based civilization within our own solar system before becoming feasible.

Hein, A. M.; Pak, M.; Putz, D.; Buhler, C.; Reiss, P.

244

Colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport: a regulatory perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

What hydrogeologic-geochemical-microbial conditions and processes affect migration of radionuclides sorbed onto microparticles or native colloid-sized radionuclide particles? The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for protecting public health, safety, and the environment at numerous nuclear facilities including a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site. To fulfill these obligations, NRC needs to understand the mechanisms controlling radionuclide release and transport

W. L. Dam; D. A. Pickett; R. B. Codell; T. J. Nicholson

2001-01-01

245

Feasibility assessment of copper-base waste package container materials in a tuff repository  

SciTech Connect

This report discussed progress made during the second year of a two-year study on the feasibility of using copper or a copper-base alloy as a container material for a waste package in a potential repository in tuff rock at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. Corrosion testing in potentially corrosive irradiated environments received emphasis during the feasibility study. Results of experiments to evaluate the effect of a radiation field on the uniform corrosion rate of the copper-base materials in repository-relevant aqueous environments are given as well as results of an electrochemical study of the copper-base materials in normal and concentrated J-13 water. Results of tests on the irradiation of J-13 water and on the subsequent formation of hydrogen peroxide are given. A theoretical study was initiated to predict the long-term corrosion behavior of copper in the repository. Tests were conducted to determine whether copper would adversely affect release rates of radionuclides to the environment because of degradation of the Zircaloy cladding. A manufacturing survey to determine the feasibility of producing copper containers utilizing existing equipment and processes was completed. The cost and availability of copper was also evaluated and predicted to the year 2000. Results of this feasibility assessment are summarized.

Acton, C.F.; McCright, R.D.

1986-09-30

246

Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in estuaries  

SciTech Connect

The finite element model LFESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment and Contaminant Transport Model) was synthesized under this study to simulate radionuclide transport in estuaries to obtain accurate radionuclide distributions which are affected by these factors: time variance, three-dimensional flow, temperature, salinity, and sediments. Because sediment transport and radionuclide adsorption/desorption depend strongly on sizes or types of sediments, FLESCOT simulates sediment and a sediment-sorbed radionuclide for the total of three sediment-size fractions (or sediment types) of both cohesive and noncohesive sediments. It also calculates changes of estuarine bed conditions, including bed elevation changes due to sediment erosion/deposition, and three-dimensional distributions of three bed sediment sizes and sediment-sorbed radionuclides within the bed. Although the model was synthesized for radionuclide transport, it is general enough to also handle other contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, or toxic chemicals. The model was checked for its capability for flow, water surface elevation change, salinity, sediment and radionuclide transport under various simple conditions first, confirming the general validity of the model's computational schemes. These tests also revealed that FLESCOT can use large aspect ratios of computational cells, which are necessary in handling long estuarine study areas. After these simple tests, FLESCOT was applied to the Hudson River estuary between Chelsea and the mouth of the river to examine how well the model can predict radionuclide transport through simulating tidally influenced three-dimensional flow, salinity, sediment and radionuclide movements with their interactions.

Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

1982-11-01

247

Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E. [and others

1994-04-01

248

Colloidal forms of radionuclides and their separation from water solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colloidal properties of144Ce(III),147Pm(III),91Y(III), and other, radionuclides were determined from the course of their self-diffusion. A reduced self-diffusion indicated\\u000a the formation of colloidal radionuclides. The decrease in the self-diffusion coefficient began from a certain value of pH,\\u000a and a pH region of slowest self-diffusion existed for each of the radionuclides studies. The maximum formation of colloidal\\u000a radionuclides may be assumed to

F. Kepák

1974-01-01

249

Special Analysis: Radionuclides Screening Analysis for E Area  

SciTech Connect

It was recently discovered that waste being disposed of onsite contained radionuclides that had not been analyzed by the Performance Assessment (PA). These radionuclides had been eliminated from the PA in an earlier screening evaluation because they were not expected to be contained in SRS-generated waste or that received from offsite generators. This Special Analysis (SA) is being prepared to establish the screening criteria and level of evaluation for all radionuclides potentially significant to a Low Level Waste PA or Composite Analysis (CA). The screening methodology recommended by the National Council on Radiological Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has been used to identify those radionuclides that require detailed analysis to derive disposal limits. Of the approximately 2800 radionuclides, a total of 826 were considered by the NCRP to be potentially significant. Approximately 686 radionuclides were eliminated from this analysis due to their short half-life or other properties. Approximately 40 of the 140 remaining radionuclides have been analyzed in the existing PA and waste acceptance criteria established. This SA develops the screening criteria and establishes trigger values to be used to determine the level of analysis required for those radionuclides not analyzed in PA. The results of the SA identified 20 radionuclides that will require more detailed groundwater and intruder analysis. This analysis will be documented in a SA for trench disposal.

COOK, JAMES

2004-07-22

250

Effect of chelating agents on the migration of radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

It has been stated that chelate formation of radionuclides with chelating agents such as decontamination reagents (e.g., ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and natural organic compounds (e.g., fulvic and humic acids) found in groundwater significantly influence the migration behavior of radionuclides. They form extremely strong chelates with radionuclides and mobilizes these radionuclides from the radioactive waste (especially from low-level waste) repository. In this study, a new retardation factor incorporating a chelation effect is introduced. A general convection-dispersion transport equation that includes a degradation of solute caused by various physicochemical reactions in porous medium is used and solved by an analytical method.

Min Hoon Baik; Kun Jai Lee

1991-11-01

251

Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M. [and others

1994-04-01

252

Protection from radioaerosols and volatile radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Increasing the safety of nuclear power plants is a problem of the utmost importance in the nuclear energy industry. Particular attention is given to severe accidents at nuclear reactors. Although the probability of these accidents is low (< 10{sup {minus}5}), their consequences are the most disastrous. Severe accidents result in the release of tens of thousands of curies of radioactive products into the area under the containment. Modern protective systems for the localization of radioactive aerosols and volatile radionuclides are based mainly on the filtration of gas flow, using various solid and liquid sorbents. The main principle of these filters is based on the precipitation of suspended particles on any surface (grids, liquid drops, or film, fiber, and electrode surfaces). In these processes, physical phenomena such as gravitation, inertia, diffusion, electricity, magnetism, and supersonics are used. A disadvantage of the available systems is that they may not trap radioaerosols present in the vapor-gas mixture in the form of finely dispersed (much smaller than 0.1 {micro}m) hydrophobic particles. A new concept of protection from radioaerosols and volatile radionuclides has been suggested. A basically new method of the localization of radioactive aerosols and volatile radionuclides is based on the physicochemical process occurring in the gas phase. The proposed concept of protection from radioaerosols and volatile fission products uses unconventional approaches based not on the filtration of vapor-gas flow but on the extraction of radioaerosols and radioiodine from them by the formation of mixed micelles with manufactured hydrophilic aerosols, such as MoO{sub 3} and NH{sub 4}Cl-(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 3}, and the cocrystallization of ionic iodine with them. The new concept may be used for protection from radioaerosols at various types of nuclear reactors.

Mikheev, N.B.; Kulyukhin, S.A.; Kamenskaya, A.N.; Rumer, I.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

1996-04-01

253

Microbial metabolism of triethylphosphate, a potential phosphate source for radionuclide mineralization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant quantities of metals and radionuclides contaminate unsaturated zones at several sites in the western U.S. In many cases, this contamination has migrated to groundwater, sometimes decades after being released into the subsurface. A potentially useful approach for immobilizing radionuclides such as uranium and strontium in the vadose zone is precipitation with microbially-generated phosphate. Triethylphosphate (TEP) is a low-toxicity organophosphate that can be vaporized and delivered to the vadose zone. Microbes can catalyze TEP degradation, leading to the release of inorganic phosphate that can then lead to the precipitation of phosphate minerals. These minerals are typically highly stable and poorly soluble under environmental conditions. Sequestration in phosphate minerals is a promising strategy for mitigating radionuclide transport in the environment. To examine the feasibility of this strategy, we set up lab-scale incubation experiments with TEP-amended synthetic groundwater inoculated with vadose zone-derived mixed cultures from the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and sediment slurries using solids from the Hanford Reservation in Washington (U.S. Department of Energy facilities with significant radionuclide contamination in the vadose zone). The amount of phosphate released in the cultures was monitored, and the microbial communities were characterized with a high-density microarray (PhyloChip). Significant biodegradation of TEP was observed in the experiments with the synthetic groundwater amended with 5 mM TEP. Phosphate concentrations in live cultures steadily increased to >0.25 mM after 13 months with no phosphate accumulated in killed controls. Surprisingly, no evidence for phosphate mineral precipitation was observed, contrary to expectations based on equilibrium considerations. Studies are underway to investigate potential kinetic inhibition of precipitation under these conditions. Cell counts increased by approximately one order of magnitude during that period. Significant decreases in the d13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon in the live cultures were observed, indicating the microbial community was respiring the carbon in the TEP. In contrast, no significant accumulation of phosphate was observed in the sediment slurries with 5 mM TEP, most likely due to phosphate adsorption to the solids. Microbial community identification indicated that organisms in the families of Xanthomonadaceae, Crenotrichaceae and Comamonadaceae were enriched by the addition of TEP. Further characterization of radionuclide-biota interactions would lead to enhanced understanding of the fate and transport of these contaminants in the subsurface.

Wu, C. H.; Lam, B. R.; Chou, J.; Bill, M.; Henriksen, J.; Wright, K. E.; Brodie, E. L.; Andersen, G. L.; Hazen, T. C.; Fujita, Y.; Conrad, M. E.

2009-12-01

254

SALTSTONE AND RADIONUCLIDE INTERACTIONS: RADIONUCLIDE SORPTION AND DESORPTION, AND SALTSTONE REDUCTION CAPACITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this study was to measure a number of key input parameters quantifying geochemical processes in the subsurface environment of the Savannah River Site's (SRS's) Saltstone Facility. For the first time, sorption (K{sub d}) values of numerous radionuclides were measured with Saltstone and Vault 2 concrete. Particular attention was directed at understanding how Tc adsorbs and desorbs

D Kaplan; K Kimberly Roberts; S Steven Serkiz; M Matthew Siegfried

2008-01-01

255

Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1999-03-23

256

Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

Welch, M.J.

1992-06-01

257

Unilateral breast uptake on radionuclide ventriculography.  

PubMed

Gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography is frequently used to measure the left ventricular ejection fraction. We report a case of unilateral breast activity resulting in significant underestimation of the left ventricular ejection fraction, which mimicked a left ventricular aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm, or an intrathoracic vascular mass. Unilateral breast uptake, in the absence of gastric activity, was presumed because of increased blood pool in the lactating breast, a finding not previously reported in the literature. This case is also presented to emphasize the importance of localizing abnormalities based on a review of tomographic images or images taken in at least 2 orthogonal projections. PMID:24662654

Pelletier-Galarneau, Matthieu; Sogbein, Oyebola O; Pham, Xuan H; Zuckier, Lionel S

2014-07-01

258

Subtraction of simultaneously acquired dual radionuclide images  

SciTech Connect

The physical aspects of a simultaneous dual radionuclide technique incorporating computer subtraction for the diagnosis of infection using /sup 67/Ga citrate and /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate (MDP) or sulfur colloid are considered. The efficacy of the data acquisition protocol and the interpretation of the subtracted images are shown to depend significantly on fundamental imaging system parameters. Measurement of these parameters using simple phantoms and their role in elucidating the technique is detailed. Subtracted images produced by three variations of the basic method arising from different normalization algorithms in current usage are compared. Simple phantoms are again used in assessing the accuracy of each variation. Clinical results are reported elsewhere.

Sloboda, R.S.

1986-09-01

259

Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1981-01-01

260

The effect of gravel size fraction on the distribution coefficients of selected radionuclides radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This manuscript addresses the consequences of the common practice of assuming that the gravel fraction of sediments does not participate in sorption reactions and thus sorption quantified by the distribution coefficient (Kd) construct can be estimated from laboratory tests on < 2mm fraction of sediments. As shown within the use of this common assumption can lead to inaccurate estimates of the mobility and sorption capacity of key radionuclides (Tc, U, and Np) at the Hanford Site where gravel dominates the lower Hanford formation and upper Ringold Formation. Batch sorption and column experiments showed that the distribution coefficient measured using only < 2mm fraction were not in agreement with those obtained from the bulk sediments depending on the radionuclide. The least reactive radionuclide, Tc showed the lowest effects from the presence of gravel. However, differences between measured Kds using < 2mm fractions of the sediment and the Kds measured on the bulk sediment were significant for strongly reactive radionuclides such as Np, especially on the sediment with gravel fractions that contained highly reactive sites. Highly reactive sites in the gravel fraction were attributed to the presence of Fe oxides coatings and/or reactive fracture faces on the gravel surfaces. Gravel correction factors that use the sum of the Kd,<2 mm and Kd,>2 mm values to estimate the Kd for the bulk sediment were found to best describe Kds for radionuclides on the bulk sediment. However, more detailed characterization of gravel surfaces should be also conducted to identify those gravels with higher reactive sorbents, if present. Gravel correction factors should be considered to predict precisely the sorption capacity of bulk sediments that contain more than 10% gravel and to estimate the mobility of contaminants in subsurface environments.

Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Glossbrenner, Ellwood T.

2009-06-26

261

Feasibility Assessment of the Service Delivery Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this component of the evaluation, the Circles of Care grantees assessed the feasibility of their model systems of care. The goal of the Feasibility Assessment was to assure that each model system of care was well designed with careful consideration of project goals, community resources and readiness, cultural competence and measurable outcomes.

Coll, Kenneth M.; Mohatt, Gerald; LeMaster, Pamela L.

2004-01-01

262

Sault Tribe Wind Energy Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

The Sault Tribe conducted a feasibility study on tribal lands in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to determine the technical and economic feasibility of both small and large-scale wind power development on tribal lands. The study included a wind resource assessment, transmission system analysis, engineering and regulatory analyzes and assessments.

Toni Osterhout; Global Energy Concepts

2005-07-31

263

Beluga coal gasification feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the study was to determine the economic feasibility of developing and siting a coal-based integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska for the co-production of electric power and marketable by-products. The by-products, which may include synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids, fertilizers such as ammonia and urea, alcohols, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, would be manufactured for local use or for sale in domestic and foreign markets. This report for Phase 1 summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a specific industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, the Agrium U.S. Inc. ('Agrium') fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, the Agrium is investigating alternatives to gas as feed stock for their plant. This study considered all aspects of the installation and infrastructure, including: coal supply and cost, coal transport costs, delivery routes, feedstock production for fertilizer manufacture, plant steam and power, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) uses, markets for possible additional products, and environmental permit requirements. The Cook Inlet-specific Phase 1 results, reported here, provided insight and information that led to the conclusion that the second study should be for an F-T plant sited at the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, Alaska. This Phase 1 case study is for a very specific IGCC system tailored to fit the chemical and energy needs of the fertilizer manufacturing plant. It demonstrates the flexibility of IGCC for a variety of fuel feedstocks depending on plant location and fuel availability, as well as the available variety of gas separation, gas cleanup, and power and steam generation technologies to fit specific site needs. 18 figs., 37 tabs., 6 apps.

Robert Chaney; Lawrence Van Bibber [Research & Development Solutions (RDS), LLC (United States)

2006-07-15

264

Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as 99mTc-nanocolloid, 99mTc-sulphur colloid, 111In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed.

Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo

2010-01-01

265

Radionuclide release from research reactor spent fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous investigations with respect to LWR fuel under non oxidizing repository relevant conditions were performed. The results obtained indicate slow corrosion rates for the UO 2 fuel matrix. Special fuel-types (mostly dispersed fuels, high enriched in 235U, cladded with aluminium) are used in German research reactors, whereas in German nuclear power plants, UO 2-fuel (LWR fuel, enrichment in 235U up to 5%, zircaloy as cladding) is used. Irradiated research reactor fuels contribute less than 1% to the total waste volume. In Germany, the state is responsible for fuel operation and for fuel back-end options. The institute for energy research (IEF-6) at the Research Center Jülich performs investigation with irradiated research reactor spent fuels under repository relevant conditions. In the study, the corrosion of research reactor spent fuel has been investigated in MgCl 2-rich salt brine and the radionuclide release fractions have been determined. Leaching experiments in brine with two different research reactor fuel-types were performed in a hot cell facility in order to determine the corrosion behaviour and the radionuclide release fractions. The corrosion of two dispersed research reactor fuel-types (UAl x-Al and U 3Si 2-Al) was studied in 400 mL MgCl 2-rich salt brine in the presence of Fe 2+ under static and initially anoxic conditions. Within these experimental parameters, both fuel types corroded in the experimental time period of 3.5 years completely, and secondary alteration phases were formed. After complete corrosion of the used research reactor fuel samples, the inventories of Cs and Sr were quantitatively detected in solution. Solution concentrations of Am and Eu were lower than the solubility of Am(OH) 3(s) and Eu(OH) 3(s) solid phases respectively, and may be controlled by sorption processes. Pu concentrations may be controlled by Pu(IV) polymer species, but the presence of Pu(V) and Pu(IV) oxyhydroxides species due to radiolytic effects cannot completely be ruled out. Solution concentrations of U were within the range of the solubility limits of the solid phase U(OH) 4(am). The determined concentrations of U and Am in solution were about one order of magnitude higher for the U 3Si 2-Al fuel sample. Here, the formation of U/Si containing secondary phase components and their influence on radionuclide solubility cannot be ruled out. Results of this work show that the U 3Si 2-Al and UAl x-Al dispersed research reactor spent fuel samples dissolved completely within the test period of 3.5 years in MgCl 2-rich brine in the presence of Fe 2+. In view of final disposal this means that these fuel matrices represent no barrier. The radionuclides will be released instantaneously. Cs (the long-lived isotope 135Cs is of special concern with respect to final disposal) and Sr were classified as mobile radionuclide species. For U, Am, Pu and Eu, a reimmobilization was observed. Sorption is the process which is assumed to be responsible for the reimmobilization of the long-lived actinide Am and the lanthanide Eu. Solution concentrations of U and Pu seem to be controlled by their solubility controlling solid phases.

Curtius, H.; Kaiser, G.; Müller, E.; Bosbach, D.

2011-09-01

266

Activity Estimates of Various Radionuclides in Saltstone Vapor Phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Savannah River National Laboratory estimated activities of various radionuclides in vapor phase associated with saltstone. These radionuclides, as well as the estimated activity and concentration of each in the gases phase are listed. Some of the activities are so low they should be considered zero. In particular, activity of the antimony and tin isotopes in the gas phase correspond to

2005-01-01

267

Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Bs. As. (1429) (Argentina)

2008-08-07

268

Selection and manipulation of immunoglobulins for radionuclide delivery  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a collection of monoclonal antibodies that are candidates for use in radioimmunotherapy towards neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, or of astrocytomas. In addition a large series of candidate radionuclides to conjugate to antibodies for therapeutic uses are discussed with respect to potential therapeutic utility and to means of radionuclide production.

Steplewski, Z.; Curtis, P. [The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hainfeld, J.; Mausner, L.; Mease, R.; Srivastava, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1992-12-31

269

Geomorphic control of radionuclide diffusion in desert soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion is a standard model for the vertical migration of radionuclides in soil profiles. Here we show that diffusivity values inferred from fallout 137Cs profiles in soils on the Fortymile Wash alluvial fan, Nye County, Nevada, have a strong inverse correlation with the age of the geomorphic surface. This result suggests that radionuclide-bound particles are predominantly transported by infiltration rather

Jon D. Pelletier; Charles D. Harrington; John W. Whitney; Michael Cline; Stephen B. DeLong; Gordon Keating; K. Teryn Ebert

2005-01-01

270

Radionuclide correlations at TMI2 for 10 CFR 61 compliance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed review and evaluation of all radionuclide analysis results from the TMl-2 waste has helped develop scaling factors for difficult to measure radionuclides. Analytic procedures and results from this research are applicable to waste classification for other sites involving higher-than-normal fuel leakage. Individual utilities and industry organizations, including EPRI, are developing waste classification programs to comply with NRC regulation

C. P. Deltete; K. J. Hofstetter

1989-01-01

271

Artificial Radionuclides in the Western North Pacific: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial radionuclides in the marine environment pose a significant concern along various political, health and environmental aspects since they were introduced as a by-product from the nuclear weapon testing, particularly in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. While radiological concern is confined only in special cases, the introduction of artificial radionuclides has been proven to be very useful tracers for the ocean

G. H. HONG; M. BASKARAN; P. P. POVINEC

2004-01-01

272

Preliminary assessment of radionuclide vapor phase transport in unsaturated tuff  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of radionuclide migration in the vapor phase for unsaturated tuff has been investigated. Radionuclide movement could be the result of either aerosol migration or convection\\/diffusion of volatile species. A diffusion model for supersaturation of air in tuff groundwater indicates that there is no possibility of aerosol formation under expected repository conditions. An assessment of migration due to convection\\/diffusion

D. M. Smith; C. D. Updegraff; E. J. Bonano

1985-01-01

273

Diffusion of sorbing and non-sorbing radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion is considered one of the most important retardation mechanisms in fractured media. The diffusion experiments conducted involved solid tuff and groundwater from Yucca Mountain. The uptake of radionuclides by the tuff was studied utilizing containers made of tuff in the form of beakers. The solution containing the radionuclides of interest was placed in the tuff beaker cavity and the

I. R. Triay; K. H. Birdsell; A. J. Mitchell; M. A. Ott

1993-01-01

274

Diffusion of radionuclide chains through an adsorbing medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diffusion of radionuclide chains from an underground nuclear waste disposal site through the surrounding geologic medium to the surface is investigated for impulse and band releases. Numerical calculation of the analytical solutions shows that differences in adsorption characteristics among chain members and radioactive decay during transit reduce radionuclide discharges to the biosphere. Results suggest that molecular diffusion is unlikely

H. C. Burkholder; C. DeFigh-Price

1977-01-01

275

21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.  

...radionuclide brachytherapy source is a device that consists of a radionuclide which may be enclosed in a sealed container made of gold, titanium, stainless steel, or platinum and intended for medical purposes to be placed onto a body surface or into a...

2014-04-01

276

Radionuclide site survey report, Melbourne, Florida (RN-72). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The format and content of this report are based on guidance provided by the Preparatory Commission for the CTBT Organization for conducting and documenting radionuclide site surveys (see GTBT/PC/IV/WGB/1) ``Requirements of Site Surveys for Radionuclide Stations``, (30 September 1997). The purpose of this report is to validate that the Melbourne site will fulfill the requirements for treaty compliance.

Walker, F.; Lucas, J.; Owen, M.; McKethan, E.M.; MacCartney, J.

1998-11-16

277

First experience using peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in a patient with urothelial carcinoma.  

PubMed

A 78-year-old man with urothelial carcinoma metastasis after surgical resection of the right kidney, part of the ureter, and urinary bladder in May 2003 and 3 cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin-gemcitabine was referred for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Somatostatin-receptor profile was assessed by 68Ga-labeled lanreotide PET, and PRRT was performed using 3738 MBq (101 mCi) of 90Y-DOTA-lanreotide. Because of adequate PRRT response confirmed with MRI and 18F-FDG PET, surgical resection of the solitary cervical metastasis was feasible. Treatment was well tolerated, and the patient remains in complete remission from his urothelial carcinoma. PMID:23579972

Putzer, Daniel; Gabriel, Michael; Prommegger, Rupert; Kendler, Dorota; Virgolini, Irene Johanna

2013-10-01

278

A Coincidence Signature Library for Multicoincidence Radionuclide Analysis Systems  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is currently developing multicoincidence systems to perform trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point, for applications that include emergency response, nuclear forensics, and environmental monitoring. Quantifying radionuclide concentrations with these systems requires a library of accurate emission intensities for each detected signature, for all candidate radionuclides. To meet this need, a Coincidence Lookup Library (CLL) is being developed to calculate the emission intensities of coincident signatures from a user-specified radionuclide, or conversely, to determine the radionuclides that may be responsible for a specific detected coincident signature. The algorithms used to generate absolute emission intensities and various query modes for our developmental CLL are described.

Smith, Leon E.; Ellis, J E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Miley, Harry S.

2003-10-01

279

Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ({sup 238}Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

1981-03-01

280

Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ([sup 238]Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

1981-03-01

281

Accumulation of radionuclides by plants as a monitor system.  

PubMed

The accumulation of radionuclides by plants acting as a monitoring system in the environment may occur by two modes; foliar absorption by the leaves and shoot of the plant, or by root uptake from the soil. Data on plant accumulation of radionuclides may be obtained from studies of fission product radionuclides deposited as worldwide fallout, and from tracer studies of plant physiology. The epidermal features of plant foliage may exert an effect upon particle retention by leaves, and subsequent uptake of radionuclides from the surface. The transport of radionuclides across the cuticle and epidermis of plant leaves is determined in part by the anatomy of the leaf, and by physiological factors. The foliar uptake of fallout radionuclides, 99Sr, 131I, and 137Cs, is described with examples from the scientific literature. The environmental half-life of 131I, for example, is considerably shorter than its physical half-life because of physical and biological factors which may produce a half-life as short as 0.23/day. 99Sr and 137Cs are readily taken up by the leaf, but 137Cs undergoes more translocation into fruit and seeds than 99Sr which tends to remain in the plant part in which it was initially absorbed. Soil-root uptake is conditioned primarily by soil chemical and physical factors which may selectively retain a radionuclide, such as 137Cs. The presence of organic matter, inorganic colloids (clay), and competing elements will strongly affect the uptake of 99Sr and 137Cs by plants from the soil. The role of plants as monitors of radionuclides is twofold: as monitors of recent atmospheric releases of radionuclides; and as indicators of the long-term behavior of aged deposits of radionuclides in the soil. PMID:367767

Koranda, J J; Robison, W L

1978-12-01

282

Radionuclide Decay and In-growth Technical Basis Document  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to assess the decay and in-growth of radionuclides from the radionuclide source term (RST) deposited by underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at the NTS from 1951 through 1992. A priority of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project, administered by the Environmental Restoration Division of NNSA/NV, was to determine as accurately as possible a measure of the total radionuclide inventory for calculation of the RST deposited in the subsurface at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The motivation for the development of a total radionuclide inventory is driven by a need to calculate the amount of radioactivity that will move away from the nuclear test cavities over time, referred to as the hydrologic source term (HST). The HST is a subset of the RST and must be calculated using knowledge of the geochemistry and hydrology of the subsurface environment. This will serve the regulatory process designed to protect human health from exposures to contaminated groundwater. Following the detonation of an underground nuclear test, and depending on the presence of water at the location of the detonation, the residual radionuclides may be found in aqueous or gaseous states, precipitated or chemically sorbed states, or incorporated in melt glass produced by the nuclear test. The decay and in-growth of radionuclides may have geochemical implications for the migration of radionuclides away from underground nuclear test cavities. For example, in the case of a long-lived mobile parent decaying to a shorter-lived and less mobile daughter, the geochemical properties of the parent element may control the migration potential of the daughter nuclide. It becomes important to understand the evolution of the RST in terms of effects on the mobility, solubility, or abundance of radionuclides in the HST that are created by decay and in-growth processes. The total radionuclide inventory and thus the RST changes with time due to radioactive decay. The abundance of a specific radionuclide at any given time is a function of the initial amount of radioactivity, the decay rate and in-growth from parent radionuclides. The in-growth of radioactivity is the additional amount of radioactivity for a given radionuclide that comes from the decay of the parent isotopes. In this report, decay and in-growth of radionuclides from the RST are evaluated over the 1000-year time frame in order to determine whether coupled in-growth and decay affect the relative abundance of any RST radionuclide. In addition, it is also necessary to identify whether any new derivative radionuclides not initially produced by the nuclear test but exist now as a result of in-growth from a parent radionuclide One of the major goals of this report is to simplify the transport modeler's task by pointing out where in-growth is unimportant and where it needs to be considered. The specific goals of this document are to evaluate radionuclide decay chains and provide specific recommendations for incorporating radionuclide daughters of concern in the calculation of the radionuclide inventory.

Kersting, A B; Finnegan, D L; Tompson, A F B; Esser, B K; Smith, D K; Zavarin, M; Bruton, C J; Pawloski, G A

2003-07-01

283

Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction

Y. Onishi; S. B. Yabusaki; C. T. Kincaid; R. L. Skaggs; W. H. Walters

1982-01-01

284

Radioimmunotherapy of malignancy using antibody targeted radionuclides.  

PubMed Central

Antibodies directed against tumour associated antigens provide a means for delivering preferentially cytotoxic radionuclides to the cells of primary and secondary tumours. The factors that influence the effectiveness of the radiation in the tumour compared with its effect on the radiosensitive normal tissues include the specificity of the antibody, the distribution of targeted energy within the tumour and the host's response to the injected foreign antibody. Recently some encouraging results from clinical trials of radioimmunotherapy have been reported in the literature. There is a continual search for more avid and specific antibodies, and the techniques of genetic engineering are being applied to the problem of reducing the antigenicity and mass of the carrier antibody. The improved efficiency of the labelled antibody needs to be supplemented by an identification of those tumours most likely to respond to this form of therapy.

Cobb, L. M.; Humm, J. L.

1986-01-01

285

Radionuclide localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage  

SciTech Connect

The authors prospectively evaluated the usefulness of abdominal radionuclide scintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells as a means of monitoring for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding over a 24-hour period in both control and actively bleeding populations. Of 32 patients with documented hemorrhage, 29 had positive scintiscans (sensitivity, 91%; 9% false negatives). Of 18 nonbleeding patients, 17 had negative scintiscans (specificity, 95%; 5% false positives). 12 of 29 patients bled from 6 to 24 hours after the study was begun. Scintiscans were positive in patient with transfusion requirements of greater than or equal to 500 ml/24 hr. The authors conclude that abdominal scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells is an effective method of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding.

Winzelberg, G.G.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Waltman, A.C.; Greenfield, A.J.; Athanasoulis, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

1981-05-01

286

Radionuclide localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage  

SciTech Connect

The authors prospectively evaluated the usefulness of abdominal radionuclide scintigraphy using 99mTc-labeled red cells as a means of monitoring for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding over a 24-hour period in both control and actively bleeding populations. Of 32 patients with documented hemorrhage, 29 had positive scintiscans (sensitivity, 91%; 9% false negatives). Of 18 nonbleeding patients, 17 had negative scintiscans (specificity, 95%; 5% false positives). 12 of 29 patients bled from 6 to 24 hours after the study was begun. Scintiscans were positive in patients with transfusion requirements of greater than or equal to 500 ml/24 hr. The authors conclude that abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red cells is an effective method of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding.

Winzelberg, G.G.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Waltman, A.C.; Greenfield, A.J.; Athanasoulis, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

1981-05-01

287

Graphene oxide for effective radionuclide removal.  

PubMed

Here we show the efficacy of graphene oxide (GO) for rapid removal of some of the most toxic and radioactive long-lived human-made radionuclides from contaminated water, even from acidic solutions (pH < 2). The interaction of GO with actinides including Am(III), Th(IV), Pu(IV), Np(V), U(VI) and typical fission products Sr(II), Eu(III) and Tc(VII) were studied, along with their sorption kinetics. Cation/GO coagulation occurs with the formation of nanoparticle aggregates of GO sheets, facilitating their removal. GO is far more effective in removal of transuranium elements from simulated nuclear waste solutions than other routinely used sorbents such as bentonite clays and activated carbon. These results point toward a simple methodology to mollify the severity of nuclear waste contamination, thereby leading to effective measures for environmental remediation. PMID:23296256

Romanchuk, Anna Yu; Slesarev, Alexander S; Kalmykov, Stepan N; Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Tour, James M

2013-02-21

288

Natural radionuclides in drinking waters in Serbia.  

PubMed

Gross alpha and beta activities, (3)H, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities were measured in bottled mineral water produced in Serbia in order to assess its radiological quality. In 11 samples of tap water and in 1 sample of spring waters gross alpha and beta activity were determined. The natural activity concentration of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides are within the range recommended by World Health Organization. The tritium concentration in bottled mineral waters ranged from 0.023 ą 0.012 to 0.046 ą 0.006 Bq l(-1). The activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were below the minimum detectable activity. In order to evaluate the annual effective dose for different classes of age, a conservative dosimetric calculation was carried out. PMID:23041389

Jankovi?, Marija M; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Todorovi?, Nataša A; Nikolov, Jovana

2012-12-01

289

Radionuclide evaluation of spontaneous femoral osteonecrosis  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle in 40 knees was followed by sequential radiographs and three-phase bone scans using /sup 99//sup m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate. The characteristic bone scan appearance of focal increased uptake by the medial femoral condyle in blood flow, blood pool, and delayed images helped to make the specific diagnosis in 11 knees that had no characteristic radiographic findings at the time of presentation. The three phases of the bone scan demonstrated a pattern that was useful in determining the activity of the process. There was a gradual loss of hyperemia as healing progressed. Late bone scans were normal or showed nonspecific findings. Radionuclide bone scans were able to confirm or exclude this disease and were superior to radiographs in demonstrating the disease in the acute phase.

Greyson, N.D. (St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada); Lotem, M.M.; Gross, A.E.; Houpt, J.B.

1982-03-01

290

Anthropogenic radionuclides in sediment in the Japan Sea: distribution and transport processes of particulate radionuclides.  

PubMed

Distributions of anthropogenic radionuclides ((90)Sr, (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu) in seabed sediment in the Japan Sea were collected during the period 1998-2002. Concentration of (90)Sr, (137)Cs and (239+240)Pu in seabed sediment was 0.07-1.6 Bq kg(-1), 0.4-9.1 Bq kg(-1) and 0.002-1.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In the northern basin of the sea (Japan Basin), (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs ratios in seabed sediment were higher and their variation was smaller compared to that in the southeastern regions of the sea. The higher (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs ratios throughout the Japan Basin were considered to reflect production of Pu-enriched particles in the surface layer and substantial sinking of particulate materials in this region. In the southern regions of the Japan Sea (<38 degrees N), both inventories and (239+240)Pu/(137)Cs ratios in sediment were larger than those in the other regions. In the southern Japan Sea, observations suggested that supply of particulate radionuclides by the Tsushima Warm Current mainly enhanced accumulation of the radionuclides in this region. PMID:17049416

Otosaka, S; Amano, H; Ito, T; Kawamura, H; Kobayashi, T; Suzuki, T; Togawa, O; Chaykovskaya, E L; Lishavskaya, T S; Novichkov, V P; Karasev, E V; Tkalin, A V; Volkov, Y N

2006-01-01

291

Log Sort Yard Economics, Planning, and Feasibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication discusses basic marketing and economic concepts, planning approach, and feasibility methodology for assessing log sort yard operations. Special attention is given to sorting small-diameter and underutilized logs from forest restoration, f...

J. R. Dramm R. Govett T. Bilek G. L. Jackson

2004-01-01

292

Nuts and Bolts of Conducting Feasibility Studies  

PubMed Central

Many factors can affect the successful implementation and validity of intervention studies. A primary purpose of feasibility and pilot studies is to assess the potential for successful implementation of the proposed main intervention studies and to reduce threats to the validity of these studies. This article describes a typology to guide the aims of feasibility and pilot studies designed to support the development of randomized controlled trials and provides an example of the studies underlying the development of one rehabilitation trial. The purpose of most feasibility and pilot studies should be to describe information and evidence related to the successful implementation and validity of a planned main trial. Null hypothesis significance testing is not appropriate for these studies unless the sample size is properly powered. The primary tests of the intervention effectiveness hypotheses should occur in the main study, not in the studies that are serving as feasibility or pilot studies.

2013-01-01

293

Feasibility Study on Training Infantry Multipurpose Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 1-year feasibility study was conducted to train German Shepherds to detect simulated mines, trip wires, caches, tunnel openings, and ambushes while working off leash and to track and to attack on command. Selection criteria and special food reinforcemen...

E. E. Dean

1972-01-01

294

Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects.

Suer, A.

1996-02-28

295

Lunar Wireless Power Transfer Feasibility Study  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines the feasibility of a multi-kilowatt wireless radio frequency (RF) power system to transfer power between lunar base facilities. Initial analyses, show that wireless power transfer (WPT) systems can be more efficient and less expensive ...

S. Freid

2008-01-01

296

Feasibility Analysis of Gravitational Experiments in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments on gravitation and general relativity suggested by different workers in the past ten or more years are reviewed, their feasibility examined, and the advantages of performing them in space were studied. The experiments include: (1) the gyro rel...

C. W. F. Everitt

1977-01-01

297

7 CFR 1980.442 - Feasibility studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the availability of short-term credit for seasonal business and the adequacy of raw material and supplies. (e) Management feasibility. Evidence that continuity and adequacy of management has been evaluated and documented as being...

2010-01-01

298

Feasibility of an Equipment Qualification Data Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this technical planning study was to determine the feasibility of a large-scale, centrally-located, comprehensive data system (EQDB) that references and describes the status of all environmental qualification work for safety-related (Class ...

J. E. Houghtaling W. E. Carson

1980-01-01

299

Feasibility Study of Chemical Sealing of Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chemical sealing of brine evaporation ponds at Roswell, New Mexico, is technologically feasible. Permeability cell tests have shown that several formulations of soil have Casagrande permeabilities of 0.1 foot per year or less. The cheapest of these formul...

W. T. Gooding A. D. Bergmann C. G. Vinson

1967-01-01

300

Flagler County Airport Industrial Subdivision Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In development of this feasibility study, the impact of economic and environmental considerations that are important to the community and to the region have been researched. Additionally, site development was considered for the utilities necessary to affo...

1978-01-01

301

Technological Feasibility of Alternative Energy Sources.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The US energy shortage is discussed. The technology of coal gasification or liquefication, shale oil from oil shale, and geothermal energy recovery is presented in sufficient detail to show feasibility of these as energy source alternatives to petroleum c...

M. L. Zweigle

1974-01-01

302

Aleutian Pribilof Islands Wind Energy Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under this project, the Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association (APIA) conducted wind feasibility studies for Adak, False Pass, Nikolski, Sand Point and St. George. The DOE funds were also be used to continue APIAs role as project coordinator, to expand the...

B. Wright

2012-01-01

303

Identification of radionuclides of concern in Hanford Site environmental cleanup  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to consider which radionuclides should be included in conducting environmental surveys relative to site remediation at Hanford. During the operation of the Hanford site, the fission product radionuclides and a large number of activation products including the transuranic radionuclides were formed. The reactor operations and subsequent chemical processing and metallurgical operations resulted in the environmental release of gaseous and liquid effluents containing some radionuclides; however, the majority of the radionuclides were stored in waste tanks or disposed to trenches and cribs. Since some contamination of both soils and subsurface waters occurred, one must decide which radionuclides still remain in sufficient amounts to be of concern at the time when site remediation is to be complete. Many of the radionuclides which have constituted the principal hazard during site operation have half-lives on the order of a year or less; therefore, they will have decayed to insignificant amounts by the year 2030, a possible date for completion of the remediation process.

Perkins, R.W.; Jenquin, U.P.

1994-08-01

304

[Dependence of uniformity on the radionuclide in SPECT: test methods].  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate test methods to clarify whether the non-uniformity of a gamma camera depends on individual radionuclides, and whether it is necessary to measure a separate correction matrix for each radionuclide used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Two methods were devised to verify the nuclide-dependence of the gamma camera. In order to test the energy correction of the detectors, the first approach was based on the evaluation of the intrinsic non-uniformity and on the production of images with asymmetrical energy window. The second method was based on the production of correction matrices for different radionuclides, as well as on the subsequent application to phantom data that were also generated with different radionuclides. The investigation of a dualhead gamma camera produced the same results with both methods. One detector head was found to be weakly dependent on the radionuclide, due to the insufficient quality of energy correction. In this case, the phantom or patient data should be corrected using a uniformity correction matrix measured with the same radionuclide. The second detector remained nuclide-independent; in this case the uniformity correction matrix acquired for only one radionuclide was sufficient. PMID:15462416

Kalnischke, Heiko; Grebe, Gerhard; Zander, Andreas; Munz, Dieter Ludwig; Geworski, Lilli

2004-01-01

305

40 CFR 52.579 - Economic feasibility considerations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Economic feasibility considerations. 52.579...IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Georgia § 52.579 Economic feasibility considerations. Section...is disapproved, since consideration of economic feasibility could, in some...

2013-07-01

306

7 CFR 4280.173 - Grant funding for feasibility studies.  

...for America Program General Renewable Energy System Feasibility Study Grants...Eligible project costs for renewable energy system feasibility studies...Ineligible project costs for renewable energy system feasibility studies...

2014-01-01

307

Radionuclide transport through engineered barrier system alteration products  

SciTech Connect

The primary rationale for studying the transport behavior of radionuclides through the Engineered Barrier system / Near Field Environment (EBS/NFE) is to ascertain whether the material properties of the introduced and altered host rock can significantly affect the transport of radionuclides from the waste container to the far field. The intent of this report is to present data and modeling results that can be used to assess the importance of canister corrosion products and cementitious materials to transport of radionuclides to the far field.

Viani, B.E.; Torretto, P.C.; Matzen, S.L.

1997-12-01

308

Combination of dosimetry for targeted radionuclide and external beam therapies  

SciTech Connect

In this thesis, issues relevant to the combined use and dosimetry of external beam radiotherapy (EBT) and targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) are addressed. Methodology was developed to allow a combination of dose information from these two modalities, employing the biologically effective dose (BED) to address the inequivalence of biological effect. It was found that use of this combined modality radiotherapy (CMRT) could result in increased conformality of treatments and reduced doses to normal tissues compared with dose delivery by EBT alone. A model was developed to investigate the radiobiological effects that may arise if the two therapies were delivered concurrently. It was found that under most clinical conditions, the relative temporal delivery of these two therapies is unlikely to significantly influence the overall radiobiological effect to the tumour at the cellular level. Synergistic effects may be more significant in normal tissues and for tumours with low values of {alpha}/{beta}. The accuracy with which single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be quantified for TRT dosimetry applied to CMRT was assessed via an {sup 131}I phantom imaging study. Good agreement was found between the modeled and experimental data, but recovery of the object by deconvolution was found to be unsuccessful due to the limited spatial resolution of the system and noise content in the image. {sup 131}I may therefore be unsuitable for this application. The incorporation of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) into CMRT was investigated, exploring both physically and biologically based methods of prescribing a nonuniform EBT dose distribution according to the distribution of TRT uptake. This approach was found to be feasible with IMRT providing sufficient dose modulation. The nonuniform EBT prescription can often be reduced to the simpler uniform case if planned as a component of CMRT and the effects of delivery errors are taken into account. In general, it has been found that a combination of EBT and TRT allows normal tissue doses to be reduced compared with dose delivery by EBT alone, and more satisfactory doses in the target to be reached. Methodology developed is applicable both to biologically based radiotherapy planning and to the wider concepts of combined modality therapies.

Bodey, Rachel K. [Joint Department of Physics, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

2005-04-01

309

Compositions and Methods for Removal of Toxic Metals and Radionuclides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to compositions and methods for the removal of toxic metals or radionuclides from source materials. Toxic metals may be removed from source materials using a clay, such as attapulgite or highly cationic bentonite, and chitin ...

D. S. McKay R. G. Cuero

2007-01-01

310

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

311

21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

312

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

313

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

314

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2014-04-01

315

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

316

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

317

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

318

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

319

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

320

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

321

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

322

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2010-04-01

323

21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

324

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2011-04-01

325

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

326

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

327

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

328

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

329

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2012-04-01

330

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

331

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

332

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

333

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

334

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

335

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

336

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

337

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

338

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

339

COLLABORATION: INTERFACIAL SOIL CHEMISTRY OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

Mobility of radionuclides (Cs+, Sr2+) in the vadose zone is controlled by sorptive interactions with natural soil particles. Weathering of silicates and intercalation of clay minerals with hydroxy -aluminum and -aluminosilicate species under the intense geochemical conditions in...

340

Some Data Reduction and Evaluation Methods for Environmental Radionuclide Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper gives some practical statistical methods for the analysis and evaluation of environmental radionuclide data. The methods discussed here include several for: (1) relating objectives to statistical design; (2) testing for normal and lognormal dis...

R. O. Gilbert

1987-01-01

341

Verification and Improvement of Predictive Algorithms for Radionuclide Migration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research addresses issues relevant to numerical simulation and prediction of migration of radionuclides in the environment of nuclear waste repositories. Specific issues investigated are the adequacy of current numerical codes in simulating geochemic...

C. L. Carnahan C. W. Miller J. S. Remer

1984-01-01

342

Numerical modeling of radionuclide migration through a borehole disposal site.  

PubMed

The migration of radionuclides from a borehole repository located about 20 km from the Akwapim fault line which lies in an area of high seismicity was analyzed for some selected radionuclides. In the event of a seismic activity, fractures and faults could be rejuvenated or initiated resulting in container failure leading to the release of radionuclides. A numerical model was solved using a two-dimensional finite element code (Comsol Multiphysics) by taking into account the effect of heterogeneities. Results showed that, the fractured medium created preferential pathways indicating that, fault zones generated potential paths for released radionuclides from a radioactive waste repository. The results obtained showed that variations in hydraulic conductivity as a result of the heterogeneity considered within the domain significantly affected the direction of flow. PMID:24790811

Yeboah, Serwaa; Akiti, Thomas T; Fletcher, John J

2014-01-01

343

Quantitative Dual Radionuclide Imaging of Acute Myocardial Infarction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project involves the development of a quantitative dual radionuclide imaging approach for defining regions of infarction, ischemia and scar. Studies proceed in a parallel fashion in both animal and patient laboratories. Thus far the authors have defin...

B. L. Zaret

1976-01-01

344

Site Characterization for MNA of Radionuclides in Ground Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitored natural attenuation is often evaluated as a component of the remedy for ground water contaminated with radionuclides. When properly employed, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may provide an effective knowledge-based remedy where a thorough engineering analysis inform...

345

Subsurface Characterization To Support Evaluation Of Radionuclide Transport And Attenuation  

EPA Science Inventory

Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

346

Surface-Complexation Modeling of Radionuclide Adsorption in Subsurface Environments,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Requirements for applying the surface-complexation modeling approach to simulating radionuclide adsorption onto geologic materials are discussed. Accurate description of adsorption behavior requires that chemical properties of both adsorbent and adsorbate...

D. B. Kent V. S. Tripathi N. B. Ball J. O. Leckie M. D. Siegel

1988-01-01

347

Biomolecular Mechanisms Controlling Metal and Radionuclide Transformations in Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans  

SciTech Connect

Microbiological reduction and immobilization of U(VI) and Tc(VII) has been proposed as a strategy for remediating radionuclide-contaminated environments. Numerous studies focusing on the reduction kinetics and speciation of these metals have been carried out using contaminated sediment samples, microbial consortia, and pure bacterial cultures. While previous work with model organisms has increased the general understanding of radionuclide transformation processes, fundamental questions regarding radionuclide reduction mechanisms by indigenous microorganisms are poorly understood, especially under the commonly encountered scenario where multiple electron acceptors are present. Therefore, the overall goal of the proposed research is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of radionuclide biotransformation by Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans, a predominant member of indigenous microorganism commonly found in contaminated subsurface environments, and to assess the effects of relevant environmental factors affecting these transformation reactions.

Beliaev, Alexander S.; Fredrickson, James K.; Loeffler, Frank E.; Sanford, Robert A.

2006-06-01

348

Monitored Natural Attenuation For Radionuclides In Ground Water - Technical Issues  

EPA Science Inventory

Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attentuation) within the subsurface. In gen...

349

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

350

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2013-04-01

351

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

352

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

353

21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

354

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

355

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

356

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

357

Radionuclide Migration in Groundwater. Annual Progress Report for 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research has continued at a low-level waste disposal facility to characterize the physicochemical species of radionuclides migrating in groundwater. This facility consists of an unlined basin and connecting trench which receives effluent water containing ...

D. E. Robertson A. P. Toste K. H. Abel R. L. Brodzinski

1984-01-01

358

Transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere during complex meteorological conditions  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides from various sources (nuclear and fossil fuel power plants, nuclear facilities, medical facilities, etc.) are being released to the atmosphere. The meteorological conditions determine the atmospheric turbulence, dispersion, and removal processes of the radionuclides. A two-dimensional version of the cloud model based on the Klemp-Wilhelmson dynamic and Lin et al.'s microphysics and thermodynamics has been adapted and used to simulate the transport of radionuclides emitted from a power plant or other source to the atmosphere. Calculations of the trajectories and radii for a few puffs are included in this paper. These numerical investigations show that the presented model can be used for the transport simulation of radionuclides and for the assessment of the radiological impact of power plants and other sources in safety assessments and comparative studies. Because it can simulate puff trajectories, this model is especially valuable in the presence of complex meteorological conditions.

Antic, D. (Boris Kidric Inst. (Yugoslavia)); Telenta, B. (Fed Hydromet Inst. (Yugoslavia))

1991-01-01

359

SRNL RADIONUCLIDE FIELD LYSIMETER EXPERIMENT: BASELINE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to compile information regarding experimental design, facility design, construction, radionuclide source preparation, and path forward for the ten year Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radionuclide Field Lysimeter Experiment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This is a collaborative effort by researchers at SRNL and Clemson University. The scientific objectives of this study are to: Study long-term radionuclide transport under conditions more representative of vadose zone conditions than laboratory experiments; Provide more realistic quantification of radionuclide transport and geochemistry in the vadose zone, providing better information pertinent to radioactive waste storage solutions than presently exists; Reduce uncertainty and improve justification for geochemical models such as those used in performance assessments and composite analyses.

Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Bagwell, L.; Powell, B.; Almond, P.; Emerson, H.; Hixon, A.; Jablonski, J.; Buchanan, C.; Waterhouse, T.

2012-10-17

360

Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.

Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B

2005-09-28

361

Monitored natural attenuation forum: MNA of metals and radionuclides  

EPA Science Inventory

While the natural attenuation of many organic compounds is established and accepted by the regulated and regulatory communities, there is some debate whether monitored natural attenuation (MNA) of metals and radionuclides is a reasonable remedial alternative to consider. Do you...

362

Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility  

SciTech Connect

This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

1998-06-01

363

Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified.

Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

1980-04-01

364

Radionuclide Transport in Fracture-Granite Interface Zones  

Microsoft Academic Search

In situ radionuclide migration experiments, followed by excavation and sample characterization, were conducted in a water-conducting shear zone at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) in Switzerland to study diffusion paths of radionuclides in fractured granite. In this work, we employed a micro-scale mapping technique that interfaces laser ablation sampling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA\\/ICP-MS) to measure the fine-scale (micron-range)

Q Hu; A Mori

2007-01-01

365

Effect of Concrete Waste Form Properties on Radionuclide Migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation) the mechanism of contaminant release, the significance of contaminant release pathways, how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility, the process of waste form aging

Shas V. Mattigod; Chase C. Bovaird; Dawn M. Wellman; DeChauna J. Skinner; Elsa A. Cordova; Marcus I. Wood

2009-01-01

366

Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolite{trademark} NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900{trademark}, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material.

Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

1999-04-02

367

Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Our goal is to improve the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The grant includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. The radiochemistry group seeks to develop innovative cyclotron targetry, radiopharmaceuticals, and radiolabeled antibodies, which are then used to assess important unanswered questions in tumor pharmacology and immunology. Examples include selected positron emitting radionuclides, such as Iodine-124, and Ga-66; I-124, I-123, I-131 labeled iododeoxyuridine, C-11 colchicine, and antimetabolites, like C-11 methotrexate; and radiolabeled antibodies, 3F8, M195, A33, and MRK16 for application in the pharmacology and immunology projects. The pharmacology program studies tumor resistance to chemotherapy, particularly the phenomenon of multidrug resistance and the relationship between tumor uptake and retention and the tumor response for anti-metabolite drugs. The immunology program studies the physiology of antibody localization at the tissue level as the basis for novel approaches to improving tumor localization such as through the use of an artificial lymphatic system which mechanically reduces intratumoral pressures in tumors in vivo. Quantitative imaging approaches based on PET and SPECT in radioimmunotherapy are studied to give greater insight into the physiology of tumor localization and dosimetry.

Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

1992-08-04

368

Hanford defined wastes: Chemical and radionuclide compositions  

SciTech Connect

This report is a key part of a three part strategy for estimating the contents of the waste tanks at Hanford. Chemical inventories are estimated based on overall chemicals used in a process versus the actual waste that the process produced, and flowsheet information is used to tie various species together. Using this concentration of input chemicals, each ion is precipitated until it reaches a solubility limit. This solubility limit is typical for that ion as derived from analytical data for supernatant from Hanford waste tanks that have been reported over the years. The solids that precipitate are packed according to a solids volume per cent that is also typical for the type of waste in the Hanford waste tanks. Radionuclides estimated in this report are restricted to plutonium, uranium, thorium, cesium-137, and strontium-90. Total amounts produced are estimated based on tons of fuel processed versus an average exposure rate for the fuel in MWD/Ton. Once the total amounts of Pu, U and Th are estimated, the residual amounts within the wasted are calculated based on process efficiencies. Waste concentrates are estimated based on one of nine evaporator campaigns. Each evaporator campaign involved a supernatant feed volume averaged for the entire campaign and a waste reduction factor, producing saltcake precipitate and supernatant.

Agnew, S.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-09-01

369

Natural chelating agents for radionuclide decorporation  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the production of metal-binding compounds useful for the therapy of heavy metal poisoning, for biological mining and for decorporation of radionuclides. The present invention deals with an orderly and effective method of producing new therapeutically effective chelating agents. This method uses challenge biosynthesis for the production of chelating agents that are specific for a particular metal. In this approach, the desired chelating agents are prepared from microorganisms challenged by the metal that the chelating agent is designed to detoxify. This challenge induces the formation of specific or highly selective chelating agents. The present invention involves the use of the challenge biosynthetic method to produce new complexing/chelating agents that are therapeutically useful to detoxify uranium, plutonium, thorium and other toxic metals. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa family of organisms is the referred family of microorganisms to be used in the present invention to produce the new chelating agent because this family is known to elaborate strains resistant to toxic metals.

Premuzic, E.T.

1985-06-11

370

Continuous vent sampler for monitoring radionuclide emissions  

SciTech Connect

A prototype continuous vent gas sampler for monitoring uranium and technetium emissions from the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant has been developed and extensively tested. Based on the results of laboratory tests and field use, a sampler of the prototype design will provide: acceptable accuracy for the continuous and automatic sampling of radionuclide emissions for vent monitoring purpose; capability to significantly extend detection limits for uranium and /sup 99/Tc concentrations in plant vent gases using existing, well-established analytical methods; and reliable operation and minimal maintenance. In addition, the continuous sampler is an attractive alternative to replace grab sampling since it: offers a potential cost savings estimated at 200K/year; allows more convenient storage of samples for archival purposes and retrieval, if necessary; and is a more flexible means of meeting alternative monitoring needs with the requisite accuracy and frequency of results. Design criteria have been established by this work and are being used for engineering continuous samplers for permanent installations. 3 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Orlett, M.J.

1984-10-19

371

Radionuclide therapy of painful bone metastases--a comparative study between consecutive radionuclide infusions, combination with chemotherapy, and radionuclide infusions alone: an in vivo comparison of their effectiveness.  

PubMed

Radionuclides have been long used for the palliation of skeletal-related metastatic pain. They are almost invariably used as the last resource for pain palliation. Their use as single agents with dose escalations, in combination with biphosphonates or chemotherapy is well known in the peer-reviewed literature; however, little is known about the combination between different agents. In our study, we used consecutive administration of 2 different radionuclides such as (186)Re-1,1-hydroxyethylidenediphosphonate ((186)Re-HEDP) and (89)Strontium Chloride ((89)Sr-Cl) separated by adequate period of time to allow bone marrow recovery in patients with high chance of bone pain relapse and compared it with (89)Sr-Cl and chemotherapy group and (186)Re-HEDP with bisphosphonates. The end result was that treatment with consecutive radionuclides was much more effective and safe than the other 2 groups. PMID:23264663

Sideras, Panagiotis A; Stavraka, Anastasia; Gouliamos, Athanasios; Limouris, Georgios S

2013-12-01

372

Radionuclide correlations at TMI-2 for 10 CFR 61 compliance  

SciTech Connect

A detailed review and evaluation of all radionuclide analysis results from the TMl-2 waste has helped develop scaling factors for difficult to measure radionuclides. Analytic procedures and results from this research are applicable to waste classification for other sites involving higher-than-normal fuel leakage. Individual utilities and industry organizations, including EPRI, are developing waste classification programs to comply with NRC regulation 10 CFR 61, implemented in December 1983. Much of this effort has focused on the use of scaling factors to correlate the presence of difficult-to-measure radionuclides (Tc-99, C-14, Ni-63, I-129, and transuranics) with nuclides more readily measured in power reactor waste streams (such as Co-60 and Cs-137). Researchers have invariably concluded that the quantifiable results are insufficient to establish defensible scaling factors for some radionuclides, such as I-129 and Tc-99. The TMI-2 cleanup operations have yielded more data, with more observable radionuclide, than previous waste classification efforts. The additional data on 10 CFR 61 radionuclide correlations provided through characterizations of the TMI-2 waste may prove beneficial to a broad sector of the industry. 22 figs., 9 tabs.

Deltete, C.P.; Hofstetter, K.J.

1989-07-01

373

Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.  

PubMed

Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

2011-06-01

374

Methanol engine conversion feasibility study: Phase 1  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the selection of the surface-assisted ignition technique to convert two-stroke Diesel-cycle engines to methanol fuel. This study was the first phase of the Florida Department of Transportation methanol bus engine development project. It determined both the feasibility and technical approach for converting Diesel-cycle engines to methanol fuel. State-of-the-art conversion options, associated fuel formulations, and anticipated performance were identified. Economic considerations and technical limitations were examined. The surface-assisted conversion was determined to be feasible and was recommended for hardware development.

Not Available

1983-03-01

375

Natural radionuclides and plutonium in sediments from the western Arctic Ocean: sedimentation rates and pathways of radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores collected during R. V. Polar Sea AOS94 expedition from the Chukchi Shelf to the North Pole were analyzed for several decay-series natural radionuclides and Pu isotopes to study sedimentation rates and pathways of radionuclides in the western Arctic Ocean. The measured sedimentation rates vary by more than three orders of magnitude along the transect, from 210Pb-based rates of

Chin-An Huh; Nicklas G. Pisias; James M. Kelley; Tapas C. Maiti; Art Grantz

1997-01-01

376

Contaminated soils salinity, a threat for phytoextraction?  

PubMed

Phytoremediation, given the right choice of plant, may be theoretically applicable to multi-contamination. Laboratory and some field trials have proven successful, but this ideal technique is in all cases dependent on plant growth ability on (generally) low-fertility soil or media. While contaminant concentration has often been proposed as an explanation for plant growth limitation, other factors, commonly occurring in industrial soils, such as salinity, should be considered. The present work highlights the fact that besides contaminants (trace elements and PAH), soil salinity may strongly affect germination and growth of the hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens. Elevated concentrations of nitrate proved highly toxic for seed germination. At the growth stage the salt effect (sulfate) seemed less significant and the limited biomass production observed could be attributed mostly to organic contamination. PMID:23245576

Sirguey, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie

2013-04-01

377

Hijacking membrane transporters for arsenic phytoextraction  

PubMed Central

Arsenic is a toxic metalloid and recognized carcinogen. Arsenate and arsenite are the most common arsenic species available for uptake by plants. As an inorganic phosphate (Pi) analog, arsenate is acquired by plant roots through endogenous Pi transport systems. Inside the cell, arsenate is reduced to the thiol-reactive form arsenite. Glutathione (GSH)-conjugates of arsenite may be extruded from the cell or sequestered in vacuoles by members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters. In the present study we sought to enhance both plant arsenic uptake through Pi transporter overexpression, and plant arsenic tolerance through ABC transporter overexpression. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing the high-affinity Pi transporter family members, AtPht1;1 or AtPht1;7, are hypersensitive to arsenate due to increased arsenate uptake. These plants do not exhibit increased sensitivity to arsenite. Co-overexpression of the yeast ABC transporter YCF1 in combination with AtPht1;1 or AtPht1;7 suppresses the arsenate-sensitive phenotype while further enhancing arsenic uptake. Taken together, our results support an arsenic transport mechanism in which arsenate uptake is increased through Pi transporter overexpression, and arsenic tolerance is enhanced through YCF1-mediated vacuolar sequestration. This work substantiates the viability of coupling enhanced uptake and vacuolar sequestration as a means for developing a prototypical engineered arsenic hyperaccumulator.

LeBlanc, Melissa S.; McKinney, Elizabeth C.; Meagher, Richard B.; Smith, Aaron P.

2012-01-01

378

Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and contaminant mixing in an exhaust system and may be useful to identify potential sampling locations in an exhaust system that are likely to meet criteria in the revised standard.

Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2002-12-16

379

Activity size distribution of some natural radionuclides.  

PubMed

In this study, the results concerning the activity size distribution of the long-lived ((210)Pb) radon decay product aerosols and the thoron decay product aerosols ((212)Pb) and ((7)Be) of the outdoor atmosphere are presented. Also, the mass size distribution of the aerosol particles is determined. The low-pressure Berner cascade impactor Model 20/0.015 was used as a sampling device. The activity size distribution of these radionuclides was determined by one log-normal distribution (accumulation mode) whereas the mass size distribution was by two log-normal distributions (accumulation and coarse mode). The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of (212)Pb was found to be 305 nm with a geometric standard deviation (?g) of 2.41. The specific air activity concentration of (212)Pb was found to be 0.14 ą 0.012 Bq m(-3). An AMAD of (210)Pb of 610 nm with ?g of 1.8 was determined, whereas that of 550 nm with ?g of 1.97 was determined for (7)Be. The specific air activity concentration of (210)Pb and (7)Be was found to be 0.0016ą2.5×10(-4) and 0.00348 ą 4×10(-4) Bq m(-3), respectively. Using a dosimetric model, the total deposition fraction as well as the total equivalent dose has been evaluated considering the observed parameters of the activity size distribution of (212)Pb. At a total deposition fraction of ?21 %, the total equivalent dose was found to be 0.41 ľSv. PMID:24106329

Mohery, M; Abdallah, A M; Al-Amoudi, Z M; Baz, S S

2014-03-01

380

FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR AN ASBESTOS AEROSOL MONITOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The feasibility of discriminating and counting asbestos-fiber aerosol particles by means of their shapes, using a two-detector, optical, aerosol counter was determined. The assymmetry of their optical diffraction patterns would distinguish fibers from other, more regular aerosol ...

381

Adriamycin Cardiotoxicity: A Feasibility Study in Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Adriamycin (NSC No. 123127) was injected IV into mice of both sexes of BDF1, CDF and Swiss CD strains to determine if the mouse was a feasible model for anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Following range finding and LD50 determinations, 4 dosage levels (per se...

J. A. Will G. A. Splitter A. Rademakers L. Regel S. R. de Dennis

1981-01-01

382

Cherokee Nation Enterprises Wind Energy Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cherokee Nation Enterprises (CNE) has conducted a feasibility study on the Chilocco property in north-central Oklahoma since the grant award on July 20, 2003. This study has concluded that there is sufficient wind for a wind farm and that with the Product...

2006-01-01

383

Government Communications Network Engineering Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Government of the Philippines (GOP) conducted a feasibility study of a Government Communications Network (GCN). The purpose of the study is to provide the GOP with sufficient data to prove the concept of a GCN and then implement the system. The ultima...

1992-01-01

384

Feasibility of micro power supplies for MEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) designed today use macroscopic power supplies, thereby placing limits on the functionality of MEMS in many applications. An alternative to this approach is to design MEMS with integral microscopic distributed power supplies. This paper examines the feasibility of creating micro power supplies by considering three functions common to MEMS power systems: (1) capture energy; (2) store

Paul B. Koeneman; Ilene J. Busch-Vishniac; Kristin L. Wood

1997-01-01

385

Renewable Energy Feasibility Study Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC or the Community) contracted the ANTARES Group, Inc. (“ANTARES”) to assess the feasibility of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. A solar energy project could provide a number of benefits to the Community in terms of potential future energy savings, increased employment, environmental benefits from renewable energy generation and usage, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The study addresses a number of facets of a solar project’s overall feasibility, including: ? Technical appropriateness; ? Solar resource characteristics and expected system performance; ? Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) economic assessment. The Gila River Indian Community (GRIC or the Community) contracted the ANTARES Group, Inc. (“ANTARES”) to prepare a biomass resource assessment study and evaluate the feasibility of a bioenergy project on Community land. A biomass project could provide a number of benefits to the Community in terms of increased employment, environmental benefits from renewable energy generation and usage, and increased energy self-sufficiency. The study addresses a number of facets of a biomass project’s overall feasibility, including: ? Resource analysis and costs; ? Identification of potential bioenergy projects; ? Technical and economic (levelized cost of energy) modeling for selected project configuration.

Rooney, Tim [Antares Group Inc.] [Antares Group Inc.

2013-10-30

386

Digital Silk Road Backbone Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The USTDA funded a backbone feasibility study to find out if it is possible to install a fiber optic backbone network linking the major towns in Afghanistan and providing links to the neighboring countries. The study was awarded in July 2003 and expected ...

2004-01-01

387

Water Management Modernization Feasibility Study. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report, conducted by Millennium Science and Engineering, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. This feasibility study was conducted on the request of the MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company to examine the modernization of the water manag...

2000-01-01

388

Feasibility of a Spin Decoherence Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, the author studies the feasibility of making a turn-by-turn spin measurement to extract the spin tune from a polarized beam injected perpendicular to the stable spin direction. For the ideal case of a zero-emittance beam with no spin-tune s...

W. W. MacKay

2006-01-01

389

Lunar Wireless Power Transfer Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the feasibility of a multi-kilowatt wireless radio frequency (RF) power system to transfer power between lunar base facilities. Initial analyses, show that wireless power transfer (WPT) systems can be more efficient and less expensive than traditional wired approaches for certain lunar and terrestrial applications. The study includes evaluations of the fundamental limitations of lunar WPT systems, the

Sheldon Freid

2008-01-01

390

Feasibility of humanoid robots stepping over obstacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is believed that humanoid robots have better mobility than other mobile robots. However, little work has been reported on this mobility for nontrivial motion such as walking on rough terrains and overcoming obstacles. In this paper, we address the problem of obstacle overcoming by stepping-over, focusing on the feasibility analysis. That is, given an obstacle to overcome, we determine

Yisheng Guan; K. Yokoi; Neo Ee Sian; K. Tanie

2004-01-01

391

A Feasibility Study Model for Pedestrian Malls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model for performing feasibility studies of pedestrian mall proposals is presented. The model is based upon the systems approach to solving large-scale decision problems. It is designed to determine which, if any, of a set of possible mall configuration...

T. J. Stone

1974-01-01

392

25 CFR 41.7 - Feasibility studies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION GRANTS TO TRIBALLY CONTROLLED COMMUNITY COLLEGES AND NAVAJO COMMUNITY...Community Colleges § 41.7 Feasibility studies. (a) Grants under § 41.8 of this subpart may be made to a...

2011-04-01

393

Artemis: Results of the engineering feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in viewgraph form for the Engineering Feasibility Study of the Artemis Project, a plan to establish a permanent base on the Moon. Topics covered include the Common Lunar Lander (CLL), lunar lander engineering study results, lunar lander trajectory analysis, lunar lander conceptual design and mass properties, the lunar lander communication subsystem design, and product assurance.

1991-01-01

394

Feasibility of landmine detection using transgenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified plants that detect TNT and its degradation products are potentially powerful aids in humanitarian demining and detection of unexploded ordnance. Although the feasibility of TNT detection by plants and microorganisms has been demonstrated by several research teams world wide, thus far, none of these previously demonstrated systems has the sensitivity and specificity to be effective under field conditions.

Michael Deyholos; Anthony A. Faust; Minmin Miao; Rebecca Montoya; D. Aaron Donahue

2006-01-01

395

Aerostat for electrical power generation –concept feasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paper examines the feasibility of using a high altitude tethered aerostat as a platform for producing a substantial quantity of electric energy and transmitting it to Earth using the mooring cable. Based on realistic values for the relevant engineering parameters that describe the technical properties of the materials and subsystems, a static analysis of the aerostat in its

G S Aglietti; T Markvart; A R Tatnall; S J Walker

2008-01-01

396

New York Offshore Airport Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an offshore airport for the New York metropolitan region. The study included analyses of a series of major tasks and subtasks which affect airport planning including air t...

1972-01-01

397

New York Offshore Airport Feasibility Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an offshore airport for the New York metropolitan region. The study included analyses of a series of major tasks and substasks which affect airport planning including air ...

L. Lerner M. A. Graham

1973-01-01

398

Feasibility of warm drawing of aluminium products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study is carried out on the feasibility of using warm forming at temperatures from 100 to 250°C in order to improve the makeability of aluminium sheet components. Drawing tests are performed on 1050, 5754 and 6016 series aluminium sheets. Both box shaped and conical rectangular products are made with a tool with heated die and blankholder. The effect of

P. J Bolt; N. A. P. M Lamboo; P. J. C. M Rozier

2001-01-01

399

Experimental Evaluation of Methane Fuel Reformation Feasibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a preliminary experimental study to investigate the feasibility of reformation of hydrocar- bon fuels into hydrogen and carbon by high-power, electric arc pyrolysis are presented. The goal is to obtain the high energy density of gaseous hydrogen fuel for combustion while still achieving the volumetric efficiency of much denser hydrocarbon fuels. A 1.6 MW arc heater was modified

C. M. Roseberry; J. M. Meyers; F. K. Lu; D. R. Wilson; Y. M. Lee; P. A. Czysz

2003-01-01

400

D-21B RBCC Modification Feasibility Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a feasibility study on the modifications required to re-engine the Lockheed D-21 Drone for use as a NASA RBCC engine. An introduction, background information, engine configuration and performance, propulsion system integration, loads/thermal analysis, avionics/systems, flight test results, costs and work schedule, and some conclusions are presented.

1999-01-01

401

Exploring the Feasibility of Seeking Copyright Permissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In July 1999 the Carnegie Mellon University Libraries began a study to determine the feasibility of acquiring permission to digitize copyrighted material and make it available via the Internet. The goal of the study was to determine a realistic estimation of time, complexity, and issues related to acquiring permission to digitize entire works in the collection. Using a random sample

Carole A. George

402

Robot Workspace Geometry For Trajectory Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the physical constraints of a robot manipulator, the successful- ness of robot executing a planned Cartesian trajectory depends on the fea- sibility of this planned trajectory. As the constraints of robot's workspace, Configuration and singularity can be described by the geometry of robot's workspace, the kinematic feasibility of a planned trajectory can be tested through workspace's geometry. Due

Chi-haur Wu; Kuu-Young Young

1988-01-01

403

A Biomimetic Flying Silicon Microchip: Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a feasibility analysis of developing an ultra-small biomimetic flying machine using the most advanced engineering technologies that exist today. Without regard for the cost and potential applications of such a machine, our motivation is driven entirely by a curiosity to know if it is possible to built a controllable flying machine using very leading-edge but available technologies

Ho-Yin Chan; Josh Hiu Man Lam; W. J. Li

2004-01-01

404

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION.  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of waste streams containing radionuclides, the remediation of contaminated materials, soils, and water, and the safe and economical disposal of radionuclides and toxic metals containing wastes is a major concern. Radionuclides may exist in various oxidation states and may be present as oxide, coprecipitates, inorganic, and organic complexes depending on the process and waste stream. Unlike organic contaminants, the metals cannot be destroyed, but must either be converted to a stable form or removed. Microorganisms present in the natural environment play a major role in the mobilization and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metals by direct enzymatic or indirect non-enzymatic actions and could affect the chemical nature of the radionuclides by altering the speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of microbiological transformations of various chemical forms of uranium present in wastes and contaminated soils and water has led to the development of novel bioremediation processes. One process uses anaerobic bacteria to stabilize the radionuclides by reductive precipitation from higher to lower oxidation state with a concurrent reduction in volume due to the dissolution and removal of nontoxic elements from the waste matrix. In an another process, uranium and other toxic metals are removed from contaminated surfaces, soils, and wastes by extracting with the chelating agent citric acid. Uranium is recovered from the citric acid extract after biodegradation followed by photodegradation in a concentrated form as UO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O for recycling or appropriate disposal. These processes use all naturally occurring materials, common soil bacteria, naturally occurring organic compound citric acid and sunlight.

FRANCIS, A.J.

2006-09-29

405

MOLECULAR GENETICS OF METAL DETOXIFICATION: PROSPECTS FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Unlike compounds that can be broken down, the remediation of most heavy metals and radionuclides requires physical extraction from contaminated sources. Plants can extract inorganics, but effective phytoextraction requires plants that produce high biomass, grow rapidly and posses...

406

REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES IN DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8)  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that the waste producer 'shall report the curie inventory of radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115.' As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type all radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and contribute greater than 0.01 percent of the total curie inventory from the time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial list of radionuclides to be reported is based on the design-basis glass identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report. However, it is required that the list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the 'greater than 0.01% of the curie inventory' criterion. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, and U-238; and Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete list of reportable radionuclides must also include these sets of U and Pu isotopes - and the U and Pu isotopic mass distributions must be identified. The DWPF receives HLW sludge slurry from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 40. For Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), the waste in Tank 40 contained a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) material transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. This sludge blend is also referred to as Macrobatch 8. Laboratory analyses of a Tank 40 sludge sample were performed to quantify the concentrations of pertinent radionuclides in the SB7a waste. Subsequently, radiological decay and in-growth were calculated over the time period from 2015 to 3115. This provided a basis for characterizing the radionuclide content of SB7a over time and for identifying the 'reportable radionuclides.' Details of the characterization methodology and the analytical results are the focus of this report. This work was performed at the request of the Waste Solidification Engineering Department of Savannah River Remediation, initiated via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0031. A minor revision in the reporting requirements was requested via a subsequent email communication. The work was conducted in accordance with the protocols identified in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan SRNL-RP-2010-01218 and Analytical Study Plan SRNL-RP-2010-01219. All of the raw data related to this scope have been recorded in laboratory notebook SRNL-NB-2011-00061. The overall goal of this task was to characterize the radionuclide content of the SB7a waste sufficiently to meet the WAPS and DWPF reporting requirements. The specific objectives were: (1) Quantify the current concentrations of all radionuclides impacting (or potentially-impacting) the total curie content between calendar years 2011 and 3115. Also quantify the current concentrations of other radionuclides specifically requested in the TTR or required by the WAPS. (2) Calculate future concentrations of decayed and in-grown radionuclides impacting the total curie content between calendar years 2015 and 3115; (3) Identify as 'reportable' all radionuclides contributing {ge} 0.01% of the total curie content from 2015 to 3115 and having half-lives {ge} 10 years.

Reboul, S.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.; Bannochie, C.

2011-12-20

407

Baculovirus as an Ideal Radionuclide Reporter Gene Vector: A New Strategy for Monitoring the Fate of Human Stem Cells In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Purpose Radionuclide reporter gene imaging holds promise for non-invasive monitoring of transplanted stem cells. Thus, the feasibility of utilizing recombinant baculoviruses carrying the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) reporter gene in monitoring stem cell therapy by radionuclide imaging was explored in this study. Methods Recombinant baculoviruses carrying NIS and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter genes (Bac-NIS and Bac-GFP) were constructed and used to infect human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs). Infection efficiency, total fluorescence intensity and duration of transgene expression were determined by flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity/proliferative effects of baculovirus on hUCB-MSCs were assessed using CCK-8 assays. 125I uptake and perchlorate inhibition assays were performed on Bac-NIS-infected hUCB-MSCs. Radionuclide imaging of mice transplanted with Bac-NIS-infected hUCB-MSCs was performed by NanoSPECT/CT imaging. Results Infection efficiencies of recombinant baculovirus in hESCs, hiPSCs and hUCB-MSCs increased with increasing MOIs (27.3%, 35.8% and 95.6%, respectively, at MOI?=?800). Almost no cytotoxicity and only slight effects on hUCB-MSCs proliferation were observed. Obvious GFP expression (40.6%) remained at 8 days post-infection. The radioiodide was functionally accumulated by NIS gene products and specifically inhibited by perchlorate (ClO4-). Radioiodide uptake, peaking at 30 min and gradually decreasing over time, significantly correlated with hUCB-MSCs cell number (R2?=?0.994). Finally, radionuclide imaging showed Bac-NIS-infected hUCB-MSCs effectively accumulated radioiodide in vivo, which gradually weakened over time. Conclusion Baculovirus as transgenic vector of radionuclide reporter gene imaging technology is a promising strategy for monitoring stem cell transplantation therapy.

Wu, Haifei; Lv, Jing; Xu, Xiaoqian; Zhang, Yifan

2013-01-01

408

Three-dimensional radiobiological dosimetry of kidneys for treatment planning in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) delivers high absorbed doses to kidneys and may lead to permanent nephropathy. Reliable dosimetry of kidneys is thus critical for safe and effective PRRT. The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of planning PRRT based on 3D radiobiological dosimetry (3D-RD) in order to optimize both the amount of activity to administer and the fractionation scheme, while limiting the absorbed dose and the biological effective dose (BED) to the renal cortex. Methods: Planar and SPECT data were available for a patient examined with 111In-DTPA-octreotide at 0.5 (planar only), 4, 24, and 48 h post-injection. Absorbed dose and BED distributions were calculated for common therapeutic radionuclides, i.e., 111In, 90Y and 177Lu, using the 3D-RD methodology. Dose-volume histograms were computed and mean absorbed doses to kidneys, renal cortices, and medullae were compared with results obtained using the MIRD schema (S-values) with the multiregion kidney dosimetry model. Two different treatment planning approaches based on (1) the fixed absorbed dose to the cortex and (2) the fixed BED to the cortex were then considered to optimize the activity to administer by varying the number of fractions. Results: Mean absorbed doses calculated with 3D-RD were in good agreement with those obtained with S-value-based SPECT dosimetry for 90Y and 177Lu. Nevertheless, for 111In, differences of 14% and 22% were found for the whole kidneys and the cortex, respectively. Moreover, the authors found that planar-based dosimetry systematically underestimates the absorbed dose in comparison with SPECT-based methods, up to 32%. Regarding the 3D-RD-based treatment planning using a fixed BED constraint to the renal cortex, the optimal number of fractions was found to be 3 or 4, depending on the radionuclide administered and the value of the fixed BED. Cumulative activities obtained using the proposed simulated treatment planning are compatible with real activities administered to patients in PRRT. Conclusions: The 3D-RD treatment planning approach based on the fixed BED was found to be the method of choice for clinical implementation in PRRT by providing realistic activity to administer and number of cycles. While dividing the activity in several cycles is important to reduce renal toxicity, the clinical outcome of fractionated PRRT should be investigated in the future.

Baechler, Sebastien; Hobbs, Robert F.; Boubaker, Ariane; Buchegger, Franz; He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.; Sgouros, George

2012-01-01

409

Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit  

SciTech Connect

This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR.

NONE

1995-03-01

410

Gastrointestinal fractional absorption of radionuclides in adult domestic ruminants.  

PubMed

Information has been complied on the fractional absorption of a range of radionuclides by adult domestic ruminants. Critical analysis of these data has enabled the derivation of recommended values for fractional absorption which will form part of the new handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in terrestrial and freshwater environments to be published by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Whilst most data considered were for caesium, strontium and iodine, values for 23 other radionuclides are also given. The recommended fractional absorption values are presented here, together with descriptions of the literature used to derive them. The values for domestic ruminants are compared with those derived by the International Commission for Radiological Protection for adult humans. PMID:19477565

Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Fesenko, S

2009-12-01

411

Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores  

SciTech Connect

Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally acceptable levels remain to be reported. The present studies were performed to determine the specificity of spores of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the adsorption of dissolved metals and radionuclides from aqueous waste. The spores effectively adsorbed eight heavy metals from a prepared metal mix and from a plating rinse waste to EPA acceptable levels for waste water. These results suggest that spores have multiple binding sites for the adsorption of heavy metals. Spores were also effective in adsorbing the radionuclides {sup 85}strontium and {sup 197}cesium. The presence of multiple sites in spores for the adsorption of heavy metals and radionuclides makes this biosorbent a good candidate for the treatment of aqueous wastes associated with the plating and nuclear industries. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

Revis, N.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Edenborn, H. [and others

1997-11-01

412

Radionuclide bone scanning in subtalar coalitions: differential considerations  

SciTech Connect

The radionuclide bone scan is a noninvasive screening procedure which can help in identifying or confirming subtalar coalitions in patients with foot and/or ankle pain of unknown origin in whom routine plain film studies are inconclusive. Five patients (seven symptomatic feet) with clinical and plain film findings suggesting a subtalar coalition are presented. The radionuclide bone scans in four patients (six feet) with documented subtalar coalitions demonstrated augmented uptake in the subtalar joint in all six feet and a secondary area of augmented concentration in the superior aspect of the talus or talonavicular joint in five feet. The radionuclide bone scan was normal in the one patient who was later proved not to have a coalition. The scans of 100 patients with foot pain of other etiologies were reviewed, and in no instance did the scan demonstrate the combination of subtalar and talus or talonavicular uptake observed in the patients with coalitions.

Goldman, A.B.; Pavlov, H.; Schneider, R.

1982-03-01

413

Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

1997-01-01

414

Radionuclide partitioning coefficient in soils and plants and their correlation  

SciTech Connect

A major objective of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (NFWMP) is to show that nuclear fuel wastes can be safely and permanently disposed of by immobilizing them inside corrosion resistant containers, and burying the latter deep underground in stable rock formation. The only way that radioactivity could return to the biosphere from such a waste repository would be via dissolution in ground water which might eventually migrate to the earth's surface. If this were to occur, the soil would retard the movement of any radionuclides released from the ground water. This retardation must be quantified to predict the consequent radiation dose to man. Furthermore, the absorption and transport of radionuclides in plants must be considered, especially the edible plants. A useful parameter for describing radionuclide migration in soil is the distribution coefficient, K/sub d/. The use of the distribution coefficient assumes a linear relationship between solute concentration in the solid and liquid phases.

Sheppard, M.I.

1985-07-01

415

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

FRANCIS,A.J.

2006-10-18

416

Distribution of artificial radionuclides in lacustrine sediments in China.  

PubMed

Establishing accurate historical records of the distribution, inventory and source of artificial radionuclides in the environment is important for environmental monitoring and radiological health protection due to their potential toxicity, and is also useful for identification and risk assessment of possible future environmental inputs of radionuclides from nuclear weapons tests and accidental release from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities or nuclear power reactors. A sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer was used to study the recent sedimentation of Pu isotopes in 11 lakes in China. The distribution of (137)Cs was investigated using the conventional radiometric analytical methods. Based on the isotopic compositions of Pu and the activity ratio of (137)Cs/(239+240)Pu, the sources of artificial radionuclides were identified. The potential applications of Pu isotopes for sediment dating and for regional and global environmental change studies were discussed. PMID:21498412

Wu, Fengchang; Zheng, Jian; Liao, Haiqing; Yamada, Masatoshi

2011-07-01

417

Long life feasibility study for SIRTF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Phase A baseline for the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) consists of an 85-cm diameter Cassegrain telescope, cooled to temperatures in the range from 10 to 20 K to provide background limited imaging for up to six instruments contained within a multiple instrument chamber (MIC). Colder temperature zones are also provided. A cryogenics system for a 15-day mission lifetime was first considered. In another study, the feasibility was assessed to extend the lifetime of the baseline SIRTF concept to at least six months, taking into account a mission involving the use of a space platform or a free-flyer configuration. According to the considered requirements, the optics temperature is to be kept below 10 K for at least 30 days. The temperatures are not to exceed 20 K at the end of the six months mission. It is shown that by using solid hydrogen, long-life operation is feasible with present technology.

Naes, L. G.; Nast, T. C.

1985-01-01

418

Numerical aerodynamic simulation facility feasibility study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There were three major issues examined in the feasibility study. First, the ability of the proposed system architecture to support the anticipated workload was evaluated. Second, the throughput of the computational engine (the flow model processor) was studied using real application programs. Third, the availability reliability, and maintainability of the system were modeled. The evaluations were based on the baseline systems. The results show that the implementation of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility, in the form considered, would indeed be a feasible project with an acceptable level of risk. The technology required (both hardware and software) either already exists or, in the case of a few parts, is expected to be announced this year. Facets of the work described include the hardware configuration, software, user language, and fault tolerance.

1979-01-01

419

Feasibility and Desirability of Mandatory Subordinated Debt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A report from the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Secretary of the US Department of Treasury, The Feasibility and Desireability of Mandatory Subordinated Debt considers the possibility of using "subordinated debt to increase market discipline at depository institutions and to protect the deposit insurance funds." Along with a clearly written introduction and conclusion, this report concentrates on answering the question "Is a Mandatory Subordinated Debt Requirement of Large Banking Organizations Feasible and Appropriate?" The authors reach three major conclusions: 1) that there is sufficient evidence to continue to use subordinated debt to encourage market discipline, 2) that there is a good possibility that mandatory subordinated debt insurance policies may help market discipline and safety, and 3) that the FRB BOG and the Secretary of the US Department of Treasury will continue to analyze research about subordinated debt gathered from market practices, research, and supervisory experience and will suggest new legislation as needed.

420

Feasibility of an internet physical activity intervention.  

PubMed

The Internet is a relatively new method of delivering strategies for health behavior change. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of delivering a physical activity intervention by the Internet to improve outcomes in adults with the metabolic syndrome. Twenty-two participants (16 males; 6 females) were recruited from a cardiology clinic database, age range 32-66 years. Participants were randomly assigned to the Internet intervention (n = 12) or the usual care ( n = 10) group. The mean total dose, in terms of the time the intervention Web site was accessed was 2 hours over 6 weeks, which was greater than the time spent delivering usual care. Overall, participants' evaluations of the Internet intervention were positive. The costs of development and delivery of the Internet intervention were less than that of a consultation and follow-up in the cardiology clinic for this sample. The Internet intervention appears feasible for testing in a larger study. PMID:19420280

Bosak, Kelly A; Yates, Bernice; Pozehl, Bunny

2009-08-01

421

Feasibility of an equipment qualification data bank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this technical planning study was to determine the feasibility of a large-scale, centrally-located, comprehensive data system (EQDB) that references and describes the status of all environmental qualification work for safety-related (Class 1E) equipment in both operational and not-yet-operational nuclear plants. Specific objectives of the study were to determine the true size and nature of existing environmental qualification

J. E. Houghtaling; W. E. Carson

1980-01-01

422

B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

Howden, G.F.

1996-02-07

423

Feasibility of solar-pumped dye lasers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dye laser gains were measured at various pump-beam irradiances on a dye cell in order to evaluate the feasibility of solar pumping. Rhodamine 6G dye was considered as a candidate for the solar-pumped laser because of its high utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. Measurements show that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye.

Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

1987-01-01

424

EOS7R: Radionuclide transport for TOUGH2  

SciTech Connect

EOS7R provides radionuclide transport capability for TOUGH2. EOS7R extends the EOS7 module (water, brine, and optional air) to model water, brine, parent component, daughter component, and optional air and heat. The radionuclide components follow a first-order decay law, and may adsorb onto the solid grains. Volatilization of the decaying components is modeled by Henry`s Law. The decaying components are normally referred to as radionuclides, but they may in fact by any trace components that decay, adsorb, and volatilize. The decay process need not be radioactive decay, but could be any process that follows a first-order decay law, such as biodegradation. EOS7R includes molecular diffusion for all components in gaseous and aqueous phases using a simplified binary diffusion model. When EOS7R is used with standard TOUGH2, transport occurs by advection and molecular diffusion in all phases. When EOS7R is coupled with the dispersion module T2DM, one obtains T2DMR, the radionuclide transport version of T2DM. T2DMR models advection, diffusion, and hydrodynamic dispersion in rectangular two-dimensional regions. Modeling of radionuclide transport requires input parameters specifying the half-life for first-order decay, distribution coefficients for each rock type for adsorption, and inverse Henry`s constants for volatilization. Options can be specified in the input file to model decay in inactive grid blocks and to read from standard EOS7 INCON files. The authors present a number of example problems to demonstrate application and accuracy of TOUGH2/EOS7R. One-dimensional simulation results agree well with analytical solutions. For a two-dimensional salt-dome flow problem, the final distribution of daughter radionuclide component is complicated by the presence of weak recirculation caused by density effects due to salinity.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

1995-11-01

425

Feasibility of Magnetostrictive Sensor Inspection of Containments  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a study on the feasibility of using guided waves for long-range global inspection of containment metallic pressure boundaries (i.e., steel containments and liners of reinforced concrete containments) in nuclear power plants. Of particular concern in this study was the potential of the guided-wave approach for remotely inspecting the regions that are inaccessible; for example, regions where the metallic pressure boundary is backed by concrete on one or both sides. The study includes a literature review on long-range guided-wave inspection techniques, a modeling study of the behavior of guided waves in plates with different boundary conditions (e.g., freestanding and backed by concrete on one or both sides), and an experimental investigation of the feasibility of a guided-wave technique called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for (1) generating and detecting guided waves in plates and (2) detecting a defect over a long range. Results of the study showed (1) that it is feasible to achieve long-range global inspection of plates, including regions that are inaccessible, using low-frequency guided waves and (2) that the MsS technique is well suited for this application. Recommendations are made to further test and develop the MsS technique for practical implementation for containment inspection in nuclear power plants.

Kwun, H.

1999-03-01

426

Radionuclide releases from natural analogues of spent nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect

Measures of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 239}Pu and U concentrations in rock samples from uranium deposits at Cigar Lake and Koongarra have been used to study processes of radionuclide release from uranium minerals. Rates of release have been immeasurably slow at Cigar Lake. At Koongarra release rates appear to have been faster, producing small deficiencies of {sup 99}Tc, and larger ones of {sup 129}I. The inferred differences in radionuclide release rates are consistent with expected differences in uranium mineral degradation rates produced by the differing hydrogeochemical environments at the two sites.

Curtis, D.B.; Fabryka-Martin, J.; Dixon, P.; Aguilar, R.; Rokop, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Cramer, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

1993-12-31

427

[Biological effects and risks of accidental radionuclide uptake].  

PubMed

This review presents the actual state of knowledge about medical dangers of a radioactive fall-out. Concepts for the estimation of accidental incorporation, as well as effects and risks that are known to occur after incorporation of radionuclides are discussed. Special attention is paid to the following topics: effect of radioiodine on the thyroid gland, effect of radio-cesium on whole body burden, alpha-emitting particles (plutonium) with deposition in the airways, association of osteotrope radionuclides (strontium) with malignomas of the skeleton and finally prophylaxis with iodine to prevent damage of the thyroid. PMID:3554876

Fueger, G F

1986-01-01

428

Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes our continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis, treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program includes 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry/Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections during the next year. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

Larson, S.M.; Finn, R.D.

1993-11-01

429

Method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide source distribution  

DOEpatents

A method for image reconstruction of moving radionuclide distributions. Its particular embodiment is for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of awake animals, though its techniques are general enough to be applied to other moving radionuclide distributions as well. The invention eliminates motion and blurring artifacts for image reconstructions of moving source distributions. This opens new avenues in the area of small animal brain imaging with radiotracers, which can now be performed without the perturbing influences of anesthesia or physical restraint on the biological system.

Stolin, Alexander V.; McKisson, John E.; Lee, Seung Joon; Smith, Mark Frederick

2012-12-18

430

Migration of radionuclides through sorbing media analytical solutions--II  

SciTech Connect

This report presents analytical solutions, and the results of such solutions, for the migration of radionuclides in geologic media. Volume 1 contains analytical solutions for one-dimensional equilibrium transport in infinite media and multilayered media. One-dimensional non-equilibrium transport solutions are also included. Volume 2 contains analytical solutions for transport in a one-dimensional field flow with transverse dispersion as well as transport in multi-dimensional flow. A finite element solution of the transport of radionuclides through porous media is discussed. (DMC)

Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Albert, M.

1980-10-01

431

Colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport: a regulatory perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What hydrogeologic-geochemical-microbial conditions and processes affect migration of radionuclides sorbed onto microparticles or native colloid-sized radionuclide particles? The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for protecting public health, safety, and the environment at numerous nuclear facilities including a potential high-level nuclear waste disposal site. To fulfill these obligations, NRC needs to understand the mechanisms controlling radionuclide release and transport and their importance to performance. The current focus of NRC staff reviews and technical interactions dealing with colloid-facilitated transport relates to the potential nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. NRC staff performed bounding calculations to quantify radionuclide releases available for ground-water transport to potential receptors from a Yucca Mountain repository. Preliminary analyses suggest insignificant doses of plutonium and americium colloids could be derived from spent nuclear fuel. Using surface complexation models, NRC staff found that colloids can potentially lower actinide retardation factors by up to several orders of magnitude. Performance assessment calculations, in which colloidal transport of plutonium and americium was simulated by assuming no sorption or matrix diffusion, indicated no effect of colloids on human dose within the 10,000 year compliance period due largely to long waste-package lifetimes. NRC staff have identified information gaps and developed technical agreements with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to ensure sufficient information will be presented in any potential future Yucca Mountain license application. DOE has agreed to identify which radionuclides could be transported via colloids, incorporate uncertainties in colloid formation, release and transport parameters, and conceptual models, and address the applicability of field data using synthetic microspheres as colloid analogs. NRC is currently investigating approaches to colloid modeling in order to help evaluate DOE's approach. One alternative approach uses DOE laboratory data to invoke kinetic controls on reversible radionuclide attachment to colloids. A kinetic approach in which desorption from colloids is slow may help assess whether DOE's instantaneous equilibrium approach for reversible attachment, as well as their application of irreversible attachment to only a small portion of the radionuclide inventory, are reasonable and conservative. An approach to examine microbial processes would also contribute to considerations of leaching of radionuclides and colloid formation. Reducing uncertainties in colloid transport processes should help in better understanding their importance to repository performance. This work is an independent product and does not necessarily reflect the views or regulatory position of the NRC. CNWRA participation was funded under contract No. NRC-02-97-009.

Dam, W. L.; Pickett, D. A.; Codell, R. B.; Nicholson, T. J.

2001-12-01

432

Applicability of Gaussian plume dispersion parameters to acute radionuclide releases  

SciTech Connect

The Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model is one of the most widely used models for assessing the impact of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. This model is a statistical solution to the basic atmospheric diffusion equation. As a result, the Gaussian model should give more accurate results when used to calculate average air concentrations from long-term releases rather than for short-term concentrations from acute releases. However, the Gaussian model is routinely applied to such short-term radionuclide releases. The purpose of this paper is to examine the applicability of standard plume dispersion parameters for calculations of air concentrations resulting from such acute releases.

Miller, C.W.; Fields, D.E.

1980-01-01

433

Molecular and cellular radiobiological effects of Auger emitting radionuclides  

PubMed Central

Although the general radiobiologic principles underlying external beam therapy and radionuclide therapy are similar, significant differences in the biophysical and radiobiologic effects from the two types of radiation continue to accumulate. Here, I will address the unique features that distinguish the molecular and cellular radiobiological effects of Auger electron-emitting radionuclides consequent to (1) the physical characteristics of the decaying atom and its subcellular localisation, (2) DNA topology and (3) the bystander effect. Based on these experimental findings, I postulate that the ability of track structural simulations as primary tools in modelling DNA damage and cellular survival at the molecular level would be greatly enhanced when these contributions are factored in.

Kassis, Amin I.

2011-01-01

434

Atmospheric Trace Gases, Carbon Isotopes, Radionuclides, and Aerosols: Radionuclides Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer

(Scroll down to Radionuclides, a subheading under the broader heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases, etc.) CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to radionuclides includes: • EML's Stratospheric Radionuclide (RANDAB) and Trace Gas (TRACDAB) Databases (1997) (Specialized Interface)

435

Detection of radionuclides originating from a nuclear power plant in sewage sludge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sewage sludge is a sensitive indicator of radionuclides entering the environment. Radionuclides originating in nuclear power stations have been detected in sludge found at wastewater treatment plants in communities near the power plants (NPP). The main co...

M. Puhakainen M. Suomela

1999-01-01

436

40 CFR Appendix D to Part 61 - Methods for Estimating Radionuclide Emissions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1âAdjustment to Emission Factors for Effluent...Adjustment factor to emissions Comments and conditions...radionuclides; periodic testing is prudent to ensure...ensure effectiveness. Fume hoods All 1 Provides...Standards for Radionuclides Emissions from...

2013-07-01

437

40 CFR Appendix D to Part 61 - Methods for Estimating Radionuclide Emissions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1âAdjustment to Emission Factors for Effluent...Adjustment factor to emissions Comments and conditions...radionuclides; periodic testing is prudent to ensure...ensure effectiveness. Fume hoods All 1 Provides...Standards for Radionuclides Emissions from...

2010-07-01

438

40 CFR Appendix D to Part 61 - Methods for Estimating Radionuclide Emissions  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1âAdjustment to Emission Factors for Effluent...Adjustment factor to emissions Comments and conditions...radionuclides; periodic testing is prudent to ensure...ensure effectiveness. Fume hoods All 1 Provides...Standards for Radionuclides Emissions from...

2009-07-01

439

Radionuclide getters in the near-field chemistry of repositories. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ultimate release of radionuclides from a radioactive waste repository will depend upon the natural and man-made barriers surrounding the site. An opportunity exists to enhance natural radionuclide retention through improved sorption, by the use of sui...

T. R. Holland D. J. Lee

1993-01-01

440

Approximate Methods to Calculate Radionuclide Discharges for Performance Assessment of HLW Repositories in Fractured Rock.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three approximate methods appear useful for calculating radionuclide discharges in fractured, porous rock: (1) a semi-infinite-medium approximation where radionuclide diffusion rates into the matrix are calculated assuming a semi-infinite matrix; (2) a li...

K. L. Erickson M. S. Y. Chu M. D. Siegel W. Beyeler

1986-01-01

441

Los Alamos National Laboratory accelerator production of tritium project. Topical report, Radionuclide production experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The accelerator production of tritium relies on a high-energy proton beam to produce spallation neutrons and lower mass residual nuclei. Radionuclide production over a wide energy range must be considered. The calculation of radionuclide production in a t...

J. L. Ullmann A. Gavron J. King

1993-01-01

442

Radionuclide behaviour in forest soils of Russian Federation and Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Behaviour of radionuclides in soil determines to a great extent the radionuclide root uptake and their further migration in food chains. The radionuclide fate in the soil is determined by a wide spectrum of simultaneously running, often competitive elementary processes, such as adsorption-desorption, diffusion-mass transport, retention-migration, etc. The intensity of each elementary process depends, in turn, on a combination of several factors such as nature of the radionuclide, physicochemical features of the fallout, soil properties, environmental regimes, etc. Radionuclide deposition in soils is known to be a basic criterion of the radioecological situation in the contaminated territory. Our long-term investigations performed in contaminated forests (30-km zone of Chernobyl NPP; Tula, Kaluga and Bryansk regions of the Russian Federation) had shown that radionuclide migration in the forest landscapes was determined primarily by the forest litter presence. The key factors of radionuclide redistribution within the soil litter are (i) permanent addition of the low-contaminated organic matter ("clean" litterfall), and (ii) high rate of transformation. The dynamics and intensity of decontamination processes depends on the forest litter sub-horizon. Leaf (A0l) layer exhibits the highest rate of decontamination: 137Cs content in this layer decreased twofold by the second year after the accident and reached its equilibrium value (about 1% of the total deposition) by the 4-5th year after the fallout. The corresponding quasi-equilibrium radionuclide content in A0f layer (10-20%) is reached by the 8-9th year after the accident. The corresponding equilibrium in A0h layer is not reached yet. Thus, the effective half-life of radionuclides in soils should be calculated for each sub-horizon separately, taking into account the above-discussed features of the radionuclide dynamics. The rate of annual radionuclide replacement from the forest litter to mineral layers depends on the following factors: (i) soil properties and regimes. In hydromorphic areas, the rate is much higher than in the automorphic areas. This is due to the above-discussed specific features of hydromorphic and automorphic soils, on the one hand, and different pedogenetic processes running under the coniferous and mixed stand, on the other hand; (ii) distance from the accidental unit. The rate of 137Cs migration from forest litter to the mineral soil layers in the territory of the Russian Federation is higher than in the exclusion zone by a factor of 1.5; (iii) weather conditions. Annual rate of 137Cs migration from the forest litter to the mineral horizons varies by 0.5-11%. The variation is well agreed with the dynamics of rainfall during the vegetative season: the migration rate increases drastically in the wet years.

Shcheglov, A. I.; Tsvetnova, O. B.

2012-04-01

443

Feasibility study of work group monitoring for Hanford.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Present Hanford internal dosimetry policy recommends placing a worker on a routine bioassay monitoring program if the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) in a single calendar year may exceed 100 mrem for all radionuclides. Nearly all Hanfor...

J. A. MacLellan

1994-01-01

444

Radionuclide transport coupled with bentonite extrusion in a saturated fracture system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study in this dissertation focuses on the characterization of radionuclide migration in a water saturated fracture. The near field of a high level radioactive waste repository contains the engineered barrier system, which provides manufactured components designed to limit radionuclide releases to the environment. A major component in this system involves the utilization of bentonite as a buffer to protect the degraded waste package and limit release of radionuclides into intersecting fractures that pose possible pathways for transport to the environment. A model is derived for radionuclide migration through this fracture. The model incorporates the features of bentonite: extrusion into the fracture, sorption, and the effect of bentonite swelling on groundwater flow. The resulting derivation of this model is a coupled system of differential equations. The differential equation describing the mass conservation of radionuclides is coupled to the equation system for bentonite extrusion. The models are coupled through the parameters in the radionuclide transport model, which are dependent on the spatial distribution of solid material in the domain. Numerical evaluations of the solution to this radionuclide transport model were conducted for neptunium, a weakly sorbing radionuclide and americium, a strongly sorbing radionuclide. Results were presented in terms normalized spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration in the fluid phase and normalized radionuclide release rate in the fluid phase. Major findings of the study conducted for this dissertation are provided. (1) Bentonite extrusion affects fluid phase advection resulting in groundwater flow countercurrent to the direction of extrusion to the direction of radionuclide migration. (2) The sorption distribution coefficient is the most important parameter affecting radionuclide behavior in this system for this model. (3) Simulations of the model for americium, a highly sorbing radionuclide, indicate that radionuclide concentration in the fluid phase exceeds the constant source concentration prescribed on the boundary. (4) Results for the americium simulations also indicate that radionuclides remain contained in the region of extruding bentonite and that containment is also affected by the countercurrent water flow.

Borrelli, Robert Angelo

445

CESIUM137 DISTRIBUTIONS AND TRENDS AT CTBT RADIONUCLIDE MONITORING STATIONS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS ON CTBT MONITORING  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the development support for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), the prototype International Data Center (pIDC) has been processing radionuclide data since 1995. Radionuclide data received from field stations includes gamma-ray spectra, meteorological data, and state of health (SOH) information. To date over 20 radionuclide monitoring stations have transmitted data to the pIDC. The radionuclide monitoring system collects

S. R. Biegalski; J. Bohner; L. R. Mason

446

Feasibility Study of In-Mine Coal Preparation Facilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work examined the feasibility of in-mine coal preparation. The work included a survey of previous investigations and a preliminary analysis of the economic and technical feasibility on a selection of representative sites and degrees of cleaning. The ...

1982-01-01

447

A Regional Recreation Feasibility Study (Okefenokee Theme Park).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document analyzes the Okefenokee region in terms of potential and feasibility for development of a commercial recreation facility in the form of a theme park related to the environment. Finding such a facility feasible, the study further analyzes and ...

1971-01-01

448

7 CFR 4280.182 - Servicing feasibility study grants.  

...for America Program General Renewable Energy System Feasibility Study Grants...grantee; and (2) The type of renewable energy technology and the scope of...reimbursements. (5) For renewable energy system feasibility...