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1

Separations technology development to support accelerator-driven transmutation concepts  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project investigated separations technology development needed for accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) concepts, particularly those associated with plutonium disposition (accelerator-based conversion, ABC) and high-level radioactive waste transmutation (accelerator transmutation of waste, ATW). Specific focus areas included separations needed for preparation of feeds to ABC and ATW systems, for example from spent reactor fuel sources, those required within an ABC/ATW system for material recycle and recovery of key long-lived radionuclides for further transmutation, and those required for reuse and cleanup of molten fluoride salts. The project also featured beginning experimental development in areas associated with a small molten-salt test loop and exploratory centrifugal separations systems.

Venneri, F.; Arthur, E.; Bowman, C. [and others

1996-10-01

2

ACCELERATOR TRANSMUTATION OF WASTE TECHNOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION SCENARIOS  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the U.S. Department of Energy, in conjunction with its nuclear laboratories, a national steering committee, and a panel of world experts, developed a roadmap for research, development, demonstration, and deployment of Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW). The ATW concept that was examined in this roadmap study was based on that developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during the 1990s. The reference deployment scenario in the Roadmap was developed to treat 86,300 tn (metric tonnes initial heavy metal) of spent nuclear fuel that will accumulate through 2035 from existing U.S. nuclear power plants (without license extensions). The disposition of this spent nuclear reactor fuel is an issue of national importance, as is disposition of spent fuel in other nations. The U.S. program for the disposition of this once-through fuel is focused to characterize a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a geological repository for spent fuel and high-level waste. The ATW concept is being examined in the U.S. because removal of plutonium minor actinides, and two very long-lived isotopes from the spent fuel can achieve some important objectives. These objectives include near-elimination of plutonium, reduction of the inventory and mobility of long-lived radionuclides in the repository, and use of the remaining energy content of the spent fuel to produce power. The long-lived radionuclides iodine and technetium have roughly one million year half-lives, and they are candidates for transport into the environment via movement of ground water. The scientists and engineers who contributed to the Roadmap Study determined that the ATW is affordable, doable, and its deployment would support all the objectives. We report the status of the U.S. ATW program describe baseline and alternate technologies, and discuss deployment scenarios to support the existing U.S. nuclear capability and/or future growth with a variety of new fuel cycles.

D. BELLER; G. VAN TUYLE

2000-11-01

3

Definition of Technology Readiness Levels for Transmutation Fuel Development  

SciTech Connect

To quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Transmutation fuel development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the transmutation fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Transuranic Fuel Development Campaign.

Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171)

2008-01-01

4

Fermilab Project X nuclear energy application: Accelerator, spallation target and transmutation technology demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent paper 'Accelerator and Target Technology for Accelerator Driven Transmutation and Energy Production' and report 'Accelerators for America's Future' have endorsed the idea that the next generation particle accelerators would enable technological breakthrough needed for nuclear energy applications, including transmutation of waste. In the Fall of 2009 Fermilab sponsored a workshop on Application of High Intensity Proton Accelerators to

Yousry Gohar; David Johnson; Todd Johnson; Shekhar Mishra

2011-01-01

5

R&D ACTIVITIES FOR PARTITIONING AND TRANSMUTATION IN KOREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the long-term plan of nuclear technology development, KAERI is conducting an R&D project of transmutation with the objective of key technology development in the areas of partitioning and transmutation system. The R&D activities for partitioning and transmutation of long-lived radionuclides are introduced in this work. The studies of partitioning are focused on the electrorefining and electrowinning, which are

Jae-Hyung Yoo; Won-Seok Park

6

U.S. accelerator-driven transmutation of waste (ATW) program objectives, and technology development efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Program to evaluate accelerator-driven systems for transmuting problematic, long-lived nuclear waste stream components was initiated during fiscal year 2000, based largely on the Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW) Technology Development Road Map developed during 1999. The Road Map (DOE\\/RW-0519) effort provided a long-range plan, involving technology development, demonstration, and deployment, as well as a recommended initial effort to

Gregory J. Van Tuyle; Deborah R. Bennett; John W. Herczeg; Edward D. Arthur; David J. Hill; Phillip J. Finck

2002-01-01

7

Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.  

SciTech Connect

In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

1999-08-12

8

Fermilab Project X nuclear energy application: Accelerator, spallation target and transmutation technology demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The recent paper 'Accelerator and Target Technology for Accelerator Driven Transmutation and Energy Production' and report 'Accelerators for America's Future' have endorsed the idea that the next generation particle accelerators would enable technological breakthrough needed for nuclear energy applications, including transmutation of waste. In the Fall of 2009 Fermilab sponsored a workshop on Application of High Intensity Proton Accelerators to explore in detail the use of the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) accelerator technology for Nuclear Energy Applications. High intensity Continuous Wave (CW) beam from the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Linac (Project-X) at beam energy between 1-2 GeV will provide an unprecedented experimental and demonstration facility in the United States for much needed nuclear energy Research and Development. We propose to carry out an experimental program to demonstrate the reliability of the accelerator technology, Lead-Bismuth spallation target technology and a transmutation experiment of spent nuclear fuel. We also suggest that this facility could be used for other Nuclear Energy applications.

Gohar, Yousry; /Argonne; Johnson, David; Johnson, Todd; Mishra, Shekhar; /Fermilab

2011-04-01

9

Pyrochemical separations technologies envisioned for the U. S. accelerator transmutation of waste system  

SciTech Connect

A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The baseline process selected combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to enable the efficient separation of uranium, technetium, iodine, and the transuranic elements from LWR spent fuel. The diversity of processing methods was chosen for both technical and economic factors. A six-year technology evaluation and development program is foreseen, by the end of which an informed decision can be made on proceeding with demonstration of the ATW system.

Laidler, J. J.

2000-02-17

10

1. "A Roadmap for Developing Accelerator Transmutation of Waste Technology," Report to Congress, DOE0RW-0519, U.S.  

E-print Network

1. "A Roadmap for Developing Accelerator Transmutation of Waste Technology," Report to Congress, R. C. Block (RPI) A novel, tunable X-ray source using the 100-MeV electron linear accelerator using the LINAC at Kharkov ~Ukraine!. Com- pared with synchrotrons, linear accelerators offer

Danon, Yaron

11

Prompt nuclear analytical techniques for material research in accelerator driven transmutation technologies: Prospects and quantitative analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerator driven transmutation technology (ADTT) is a promissing way toward liquidation of spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes and weapon grade Pu. The ADTT facility comprises a high current (proton) accelerator supplying a subcritical reactor assembly with spallation neutrons. The reactor part is supposed to be cooled by molten fluorides or metals which serve, at the same time, as a carrier of nuclear fuel. Assumed high working temperature (400-600°C) and high radiation load in the subcritical reactor and spallation neutron source put forward the problem of optimal choice of ADTT construction materials, especially from the point of their radiation and corrosion resistance when in contact with liquid working media. The use of prompt nuclear analytical techniques in ADTT related material research is considered and examples of preliminary analytical results obtained using neutron depth profiling method are shown for illustration.

Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; ?ervená, J.; Pe?ina, V.; Mach, R.; Peka, I.

1998-04-01

12

Partitioning and Transmutation Technology in Japan and its Benefit on High-level Waste Management  

SciTech Connect

In Japan, the partitioning and transmutation (P and T) technology is being studied and developed aiming at the reduction of the burden caused by the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) management. To assess the benefit of the P and T technology in the future nuclear fuel cycles, the repository area necessitated to dispose of the HLW was discussed quantitatively for the spent fuels from UO{sub 2}-LWR, MOX-LWR and MOX-FBR. Four options of the separation process were assumed in the analysis: (1) Conventional PUREX reprocessing, (2) Minor actinide (MA) recycling without partitioning fission product (FP), (3) Partitioning of FP without MA recovery, and (4) Full P and T for both MA and FP. The areas required to emplace waste forms per unit electricity production (m{sup 2}/TWeh) were then compared. The results showed that MA recycling significantly reduced the emplacement area for MOX spent fuels from both LWR and FBR. The full P and T scheme can give further reduction of the emplacement area (i.e. the enhancement of the capacity of a repository site) independently on the fuel type, the reactor type and the cooling period. (authors)

Oigawa, Hiroyuki; Nishihara, Kenji [Japan Atomic Energy Agency: 2-4 Shirane, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yokoo, Takeshi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry: 2-11-1, Iwadokita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)

2007-07-01

13

A beamline systems model for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A beamline systems code, that is being developed for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) facility trade studies, is described. The overall program is a joint Grumman, G. H. Gillespie Associates (GHGA) and Los Alamos National Laboratory effort. The GHGA Accelerator Systems Model (ASM) has been adopted as the framework on which this effort is based. Relevant accelerator and beam transport models from earlier Grumman systems codes are being adapted to this framework. Preliminary physics and engineering models for each ADTT beamline component have been constructed. Examples noted include a Bridge Coupled Drift Tube Linac (BCDTL) and the accelerator thermal system. A decision has been made to confine the ASM framework principally to beamline modeling, while detailed target/blanket, balance-of-plant and facility costing analysis will be performed externally. An interfacing external balance-of-plant and facility costing model, which will permit the performance of iterative facility trade studies, is under separate development. An ABC (Accelerator Based Conversion) example is used to highlight the present models and capabilities.

Todd, Alan M. M.; Paulson, C. C.; Peacock, M. A.; Reusch, M. F.

1995-09-01

14

Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology for Energy Production and Nuclear Waste Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

New concepts recently developed at Los Alamos show that the use of intense particle accelerators affords unique opportunities for electrical power generation, from plentiful fuel such as thorium, with little long term waste legacy. The concept can aLso effectively transmute existing actinide and fission product wastes. The physical processes to be used are different and more advanced than earlier ideas:

R. A. Jameson; G. P. Lawrence; S. O. Schriber

15

Bioremediation: a genuine technology to remediate radionuclides from the environment.  

PubMed

Radionuclides in the environment are a major human and environmental health concern. Like the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 is once again causing damage to the environment: a large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated and dumped into the environment, and if the general population is exposed to it, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Bioremediation has been viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to environmentally destructive physical remediation. Microorganisms carry endogenous genetic, biochemical and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for pollutant remediation in soil and groundwater. Attempts have been made to develop native or genetically engineered (GE) microbes for the remediation of environmental contaminants including radionuclides. Microorganism-mediated bioremediation can affect the solubility, bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides. Therefore, we aim to unveil the microbial-mediated mechanisms for biotransformation of radionuclides under various environmental conditions as developing strategies for waste management of radionuclides. A discussion follows of '-omics'-integrated genomics and proteomics technologies, which can be used to trace the genes and proteins of interest in a given microorganism towards a cell-free bioremediation strategy. PMID:23617701

Prakash, Dhan; Gabani, Prashant; Chandel, Anuj K; Ronen, Zeev; Singh, Om V

2013-07-01

16

Bioremediation: a genuine technology to remediate radionuclides from the environment  

PubMed Central

Summary Radionuclides in the environment are a major human and environmental health concern. Like the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 is once again causing damage to the environment: a large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated and dumped into the environment, and if the general population is exposed to it, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Bioremediation has been viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to environmentally destructive physical remediation. Microorganisms carry endogenous genetic, biochemical and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for pollutant remediation in soil and groundwater. Attempts have been made to develop native or genetically engineered (GE) microbes for the remediation of environmental contaminants including radionuclides. Microorganism-mediated bioremediation can affect the solubility, bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides. Therefore, we aim to unveil the microbial-mediated mechanisms for biotransformation of radionuclides under various environmental conditions as developing strategies for waste management of radionuclides. A discussion follows of ‘-omics’-integrated genomics and proteomics technologies, which can be used to trace the genes and proteins of interest in a given microorganism towards a cell-free bioremediation strategy. PMID:23617701

Prakash, Dhan; Gabani, Prashant; Chandel, Anuj K; Ronen, Zeev; Singh, Om V

2013-01-01

17

Accelerator transmutation of {sup 129}I  

SciTech Connect

Iodine-129 is one of several long-lived reactor products that is being considered for transmutation by the Los Alamos Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program. A reasonable rate of transmutation of 1291 is possible in this system because of the anticipated high neutron flux generated from the accelerator. This report summarizes previous papers dealing with the transmutation of 1291 where reactor technologies have been employed for neutron sources. The transmutation process is considered marginal under these conditions. Presented here are additional information concerning the final products that could be formed from the transmutation process in the ATW blanket. The transmutation scheme proposes the use of solid iodine as the target material and the escape of product xenon from the containers after van Dincklange (1981). Additional developmental plans are considered.

Attrep, M. Jr.

1992-10-01

18

Accelerator transmutation of sup 129 I  

SciTech Connect

Iodine-129 is one of several long-lived reactor products that is being considered for transmutation by the Los Alamos Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program. A reasonable rate of transmutation of 1291 is possible in this system because of the anticipated high neutron flux generated from the accelerator. This report summarizes previous papers dealing with the transmutation of 1291 where reactor technologies have been employed for neutron sources. The transmutation process is considered marginal under these conditions. Presented here are additional information concerning the final products that could be formed from the transmutation process in the ATW blanket. The transmutation scheme proposes the use of solid iodine as the target material and the escape of product xenon from the containers after van Dincklange (1981). Additional developmental plans are considered.

Attrep, M. Jr.

1992-01-01

19

Technologies for destruction of long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste: Overview and requirements  

SciTech Connect

This paper, and this topical session on Nuclear Waste Minimization, Management and Remediation, focuses on two nuclear systems, and their associated technologies, that have the potential to address concerns surrounding long-lived radionuclides in high-level waste. Both systems offer technology applicable to HLW from present light-water reactors (LWR). Additionally these systems represent advanced nuclear power concepts that have important features associated with integrated management of wastes, long-term fuel supplies, and enhanced safety. The first system is the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. This system incorporates a metal-fueled fast reactor coupled with chemical separations based on pyroprocessing to produce power while simultaneously burning long-lived actinide waste. IFR applications include burning of actinides from current LWR spent fuel and energy production in a breeder environment. The second concept, Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW), is based upon an accelerator-induced intense source of thermal neutrons and is aimed at destruction of long-lived actinides and fission products. This concept can be applied to long-lived radionuclides in spent fuel HLW as well as a future fission power source built around use of natural thorium or uranium as fuels coupled with concurrent waste destruction.

Arthur, E.D.

1993-10-01

20

Executive Summary The remediation of radionuclides and heavy metals using current technology is generally  

E-print Network

technological developments or scientific advances. They can also be further enabled by changes in regulatory, is advancing quickly, and is already being applied to radionuclides and heavy metals. Examples of other newvii Executive Summary The remediation of radionuclides and heavy metals using current technology

21

Technologies for destruction of long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste - overview and requirements  

SciTech Connect

A major issue surrounding current nuclear power generation is the management and disposal of long-lived, high-level waste (HLW). The planned and scientifically acceptable destination for this waste is in deep underground, geologically stable, repositories. However, public concerns surrounding such disposal of long-lived nuclear wastes and other issues such as proliferation and safety negatively affect the potential role that nuclear power can play in meeting current and future national energy needs. This paper and this topical session on nuclear waste minimization, management, and remediation focus on two nuclear systems and their associated technologies that have the potential to address concerns surrounding long-lived radionuclides in HLW. Both systems offer technology applicable to HLW from current light water reactors (LWRs). In addition, these systems represent advanced nuclear power concepts that have important features associated with integrated management of wastes long-term fuel supplies, and enhanced safety. The first system is the integral fast reactor (IFR) concept. This system incorporates a metal-fueled fast reactor coupled with chemical separations based on pyroprocessing to produce power while burning long-lived actinide waste. The IFR applications include the burning of actinides from current LWR spent fuel and energy production in a breeder environment. The second concept, accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW), is based on an accelerator-induced intense source of thermal neutrons and is aimed at the destruction of long-lived actinides and fission products. This concept can be applied to long-lived radionuclides in spent-fuel HLW as well as a future fission power source built around use of natural thorium or uranium as fuels coupled with concurrent waste destruction.

Arthur, E.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1993-01-01

22

Evaluation and selection of aqueous-based technology for partitioning radionuclides from ICPP calcine  

SciTech Connect

Early in 1993 Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) chartered a Panel of Nuclear Separations Experts. The purpose of this Panel was to assist WINCO scientists and engineers in selecting, evaluating, and ranking candidate aqueous-based processes and technologies for potential use in partitioning selected radionuclides from nitric acid solutions of retrieved Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcine. Radionuclides of interest are all transuranium elements, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 137}Cs. The six man Panel met for 4 days (February 16--19, 1993) on the campus of the Idaho State University in Pocatello, Idaho. Principal topics addressed included: Available radionuclide removal technology; applicability of separations technology and processes to ICPP calcine; and potential integrated radionuclide partitioning schemes. This report, prepared from contributions from all Panel members, presents a comprehensive account of the proceedings and significant findings of the February, 1993 meeting in Pocatello.

Olson, A.L.; Schulz, W.W.; Burchfield, L.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Swanson, J.L.; Thompson, M.C.

1993-02-01

23

Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or ''getter'' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. ''Getter'' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion ''getters'' is presented. The benefits of the ''getter'' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined.

Hong-Nian Jow; R.C. Moore; K.B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A.R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

2005-01-14

24

Radioanalytical technology for 10 CFR Part 61 and other selected radionuclides: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive literature review and assessment was conducted to identify and evaluate radioanalytical technology and procedures used for measuring 10CFR61 radionuclides and other long-lived isotopes. This review evaluated radiochemical procedures currently in use at a number of laboratories in the US, as well as identifying new advanced methods and techniques which could be adapted for routine radiochemical analyses of low-level radioactive waste. The 10CFR61 radionuclides include {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Cl, {sup 59,63}Ni, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, and TRU isotopes with half lives greater than 5 years. Other low-level radionuclides of interest include {sup 7,10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 109,113m}Cd, and {sup 121m,126}Sn, which may be present in various types of waste streams from nuclear power stations.

Thomas, C.W.; Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-03-01

25

Master Thesis Transmutation Strategies -a Swedish  

E-print Network

economically and environmentally sustainable scenarios to achieve a net zero or less production of minor. Transmuting all MA in Sweden is found to be unsustainable due to lack of availability of MA fuel. It is found that the utilisation of an ADS in Sweden is only fully sustainable if electrometallurgical pyroprocessing technology

Haviland, David

26

A new approach to nuclear fuel safeguard enhancement through radionuclide profiling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States has led the effort to promote peaceful use of nuclear power amongst states actively utilizing it as well as those looking to deploy the technology in the near future. With the attraction being demonstrated by various countries towards nuclear power comes the concern that a nation may have military aspirations for the use of nuclear energy. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established nuclear safeguard protocols and procedures to mitigate nuclear proliferation. The work herein proposed a strategy to further enhance existing safeguard protocols by considering safeguard in nuclear fuel design. The strategy involved the use of radionuclides to profile nuclear fuels. Six radionuclides were selected as identifier materials. The decay and transmutation of these radionuclides were analyzed in reactor operation environment. MCNPX was used to simulate a reactor core. The perturbation in reactivity of the core due to the loading of the radionuclides was insignificant. The maximum positive and negative reactivity change induced was at day 1900 with a value of 0.00185 +/- 0.00256 and at day 2000 with -0.00441 +/- 0.00249, respectively. The mass of the radionuclides were practically unaffected by transmutation in the core; the change in radionuclide inventory was dominated by natural decay. The maximum material lost due to transmutation was 1.17% in Eu154. Extraneous signals from fission products identical to the radionuclide compromised the identifier signals. Eu154 saw a maximum intensity change at EOC and 30 days post-irradiation of 1260% and 4545%, respectively. Cs137 saw a minimum change of 12% and 89%, respectively. Mitigation of the extraneous signals is cardinal to the success of the proposed strategy. The predictability of natural decay provides a basis for the characterization of the signals from the radionuclide.

Peterson, Aaron Dawon

27

Transmute 1.67  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As January turns into February, some people may be in the market for a new web browser. Of course, some may be wondering: What do I do about my bookmarks? That's easy enough to solve by making use of Transmute 1.67. This tiny program transfers bookmarks from one browser to another. The program is compatible with seven different browsers, including Google Chrome, Opera, and Chromium. The program provides automatic backups and the support site includes screen shots and support suggestions. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 95 and newer.

2010-01-08

28

Historical perspective, economic analysis, and regulatory analysis of the impacts of waste partitioning-transmutation on the disposal of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Partitioning-transmutation, sometimes called actinide burning, is an alternative approach to high-level radioactive waste management. It consists of removing long-lived radionuclides from wastes and destroying those radionuclides, thus reducing the long-term hazards of radioactive waste. It was studied in detail in the 1970's. New developments in technology and other factors are resulting in a reexamination of this waste management option. This report consists of three papers which summarize the historical work, update the analysis of the costs of waste disposal, and describe current regulatory requirements which might be impacted by P-T. The papers provide a starting point for future research on P-T. 152 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

Forsberg, C.W.; Croff, A.G.; Kocher, D.C.

1990-10-01

29

Transmutation and energy-production with high power accelerators  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator-driven transmutation offers attractive new solutions to complex nuclear problems. This paper outlines the basics of the technology, summarizes the key application areas, and discusses designs of and performance issues for the high-power proton accelerators that are required.

Lawrence, G.P.

1995-07-01

30

RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. uring the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium,...

31

Proceedings of Soil Decon `93: Technology targeting radionuclides and heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective for convening this workshop was to exchange ideas and discuss with scientists and engineers methods for removing radionuclides and/or toxic metals from soils. Over the years there have been numerous symposia, conferences, and workshops directed at soil remediation. However, this may be the first where the scope was narrowed to the removal of radionuclides and toxic metals from soils. The intent was to focus on the separation processes controlling the removal of the radionuclide and/or metal from soil. Its purpose was not intended to be a soil washing/leaching workshop, but rather to identify a variety or combination of processes (chemical, physical, and biological) that can be used in concert with the applicable engineering approaches to decontaminate soils of radionuclides and toxic metals. Abstracts and visual aids used by the speakers of the workshop are presented in this document.

Not Available

1993-09-01

32

Neutron transmutation doped Ge bolometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some conclusions reached are as follow. Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) of high quality Ge single crystals provides perfect control of doping concentration and uniformity. The resistivity can be tailored to any given bolometer operating temperature down to 0.1 K and probably lower. The excellent uniformity is advantaged for detector array development.

Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.; Palaio, N. P.; Richards, P. L.; Rodder, M.

1983-01-01

33

Industrial research for transmutation scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the results of research scenarios for americium transmutation in a 22nd century French nuclear fleet, using sodium fast breeder reactors. We benchmark the americium transmutation benefits and drawbacks with a reference case consisting of a hypothetical 60 GWe fleet of pure plutonium breeders. The fluxes in the various parts of the cycle (reactors, fabrication plants, reprocessing plants and underground disposals) are calculated using EDF's suite of codes, comparable in capabilities to those of other research facilities. We study underground thermal heat load reduction due to americium partitioning and repository area minimization. We endeavor to estimate the increased technical complexity of surface facilities to handle the americium fluxes in special fuel fabrication plants, americium fast burners, special reprocessing shops, handling equipments and transport casks between those facilities.

Camarcat, Noel; Garzenne, Claude; Le Mer, Joël; Leroyer, Hadrien; Desroches, Estelle; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

2011-04-01

34

ACCELERATED SITE TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT COMPARABILITY OF ISOCS INSTRUMENT IN RADIONUCLIDE CHARACTERICATION AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a DOE Accelerated Site Technology Deployment project being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to deploy innovative, radiological, in situ analytical techniques. The technologies are being deployed in support of efforts to characterize the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) facility, which is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning. This report focuses on the deployment of the Canberra Industries In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) and assesses its data comparability to baseline methods of sampling and laboratory analysis. The battery-operated, field deployable gamma spectrometer provides traditional spectra of counts as a function of gamma energy. The spectra are then converted to radionuclide concentration by applying innovative efficiency calculations using monte carlo statistical methods and pre-defined geometry templates in the analysis software. Measurement of gamma emitting radionuclides has been accomplished during characterization of several BGRR components including the Pile Fan Sump, Above Ground Ducts, contaminated cooling fans, and graphite pile internals. Cs-137 is the predominant gamma-emitting radionuclide identified, with smaller quantities of Co-60 and Am-241 detected. The Project used the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual guidance and the Data Quality Objectives process to provide direction for survey planning and data quality assessment. Analytical results have been used to calculate data quality indicators (DQI) for the ISOCS measurements. Among the DQIs assessed in the report are sensitivity, accuracy, precision, bias, and minimum detectable concentration. The assessment of the in situ data quality using the DQIs demonstrates that the ISOCS data quality can be comparable to definitive level laboratory analysis when the field instrument is supported by an appropriate Quality Assurance Project Plan. A discussion of the results obtained by ISOCS analysis of objects that could not be analyzed readily by conventional methods demonstrates a powerful application of the instrument. In conclusion, a comparison of costs associated with the analysis on the ISOCS instrument to the costs of conventional sampling and laboratory analysis is presented.

KALB,P.; LUCKETT,L.; MILLER,K.; GOGOLAK,C.; MILIAN,L.

2001-03-01

35

Radiological indices of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides: a PIXE approach.  

PubMed

This paper reports an assessment of the level of the radionuclides (40)K, (232)Th and (238)U in environmental soil samples (process waste), and hence their calculated dose rates. For this purpose, the radioactivity from three natural radionuclides was determined in tin process-waste samples in Jos, Nigeria. This work is based on the particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) approach, devoid of the secular equilibrium, and most of the resolution, interference, self-absorption, geometrical and density correction problems inherent in gamma spectrometry. Many potential environmental hazards have been observed and the data would be of use to the government in its remediation plan for the study area. The high hazard indices require taking adequate measures to check exposures, and an underground lining in the waste ponds to prevent direct contact with the waste pile is recommended. The use of the wastes as building materials should be stopped and use of soils around this area in any development projects should be discouraged until detailed studies on indoor radiation doses and the effects on the inhabitants of prolonged exposures have been carried out. PMID:21617293

Olise, Felix Samuel; Owoade, Oyediran Kayode; Olaniyi, Hezekiah Bamidele

2011-06-01

36

The enrichment of natural radionuclides in oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia--the impact of new circulating fluidized bed technology.  

PubMed

Burning oil shale to produce electricity has a dominant position in Estonia's energy sector. Around 90% of the overall electric energy production originates from the Narva Power Plants. The technology in use has been significantly renovated - two older types of pulverized fuel burning (PF) energy production units were replaced with new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. Additional filter systems have been added to PF boilers to reduce emissions. Oil shale contains various amounts of natural radionuclides. These radionuclides concentrate and become enriched in different boiler ash fractions. More volatile isotopes will be partially emitted to the atmosphere via flue gases and fly ash. To our knowledge, there has been no previous study for CFB boiler systems on natural radionuclide enrichment and their atmospheric emissions. Ash samples were collected from Eesti Power Plant's CFB boiler. These samples were processed and analyzed with gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations (Bq/kg) and enrichment factors were calculated for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides and for (40)K in different CFB boiler ash fractions. Results from the CFB boiler ash sample analysis showed an increase in the activity concentrations and enrichment factors (up to 4.5) from the furnace toward the electrostatic precipitator block. The volatile radionuclide ((210)Pb and (40)K) activity concentrations in CFB boilers were evenly distributed in finer ash fractions. Activity balance calculations showed discrepancies between input (via oil shale) and output (via ash fractions) activities for some radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb). This refers to a situation where the missing part of the activity (around 20% for these radionuclides) is emitted to the atmosphere. Also different behavior patterns were detected for the two Ra isotopes, (226)Ra and (228)Ra. A part of (226)Ra input activity, unlike (228)Ra, was undetectable in the solid ash fractions of the boiler. Most probably it is released to the surrounding environment. PMID:24462922

Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

2014-03-01

37

Transmutation doping of silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Normal isotopic silicon contains 3.05% of Si-30 which transmutes to P-31 after thermal neutron absorption, with a half-life of 2.6 hours. This reaction is used to introduce extremely uniform concentrations of phosphorus into silicon, thus eliminating the areal and spatial inhomogeneities characteristic of chemical doping. Annealing of the lattice damage in the irradiated silicon does not alter the uniformity of dopant distribution. Transmutation doping also makes it possible to introduce phosphorus into polycrystalline silicon without segregation of the dopant at the grain boundaries. The use of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) silicon in solar cell research and development is discussed.

Wood, R. F.; Westbrook, R. D.; Young, R. T.; Cleland, J. W.

1977-01-01

38

Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation and breeder applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work consists of design power plant studies for four types of reactor systems: uranium plasma core breeder, uranium plasma core actinide transmuter, UF6 breeder and UF6 actinide transmuter. The plasma core systems can be coupled to MHD generators to obtain high efficiency electrical power generation. A 1074 MWt UF6 breeder reactor was designed with a breeding ratio of 1.002 to guard against diversion of fuel. Using molten salt technology and a superheated steam cycle, an efficiency of 39.2% was obtained for the plant and the U233 inventory in the core and heat exchangers was limited to 105 Kg. It was found that the UF6 reactor can produce high fluxes (10 to the 14th power n/sq cm-sec) necessary for efficient burnup of actinide. However, the buildup of fissile isotopes posed severe heat transfer problems. Therefore, the flux in the actinide region must be decreased with time. Consequently, only beginning-of-life conditions were considered for the power plant design. A 577 MWt UF6 actinide transmutation reactor power plant was designed to operate with 39.3% efficiency and 102 Kg of U233 in the core and heat exchanger for beginning-of-life conditions.

Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

1978-01-01

39

Alchemy: Transmuting Base Alloy Specifications into Implementations  

E-print Network

Alchemy: Transmuting Base Alloy Specifications into Implementations Shriram Krishnamurthi Brown University Daniel J. Dougherty WPI Kathi Fisler WPI Daniel Yoo WPI ABSTRACT Alloy specifications are used to define lightweight models of systems. We present Alchemy, which compiles Alloy specifi- cations

Krishnamurthi, Shriram

40

Nuclear Waste Transmutation in Subcritical Reactors Driven by Target-Distributed Accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radioactive waste transmutation system based extensively on existing nuclear power technology is presented. By replacing the control rods with neutron sources, we could maintain good power distribution and perform long-lived waste burning in high flux subcritical reactors. The design is based on a small pressurized water reactor, fission electric cell (FEC), target-distributed accelerator (TDA) and power monitoring system with

Anatoly Blanovsky

2004-01-01

41

Vol. 31 (2000) ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA B No 1 TRANSMUTATION OF ISOTOPES ECOLOGICAL AND ENERGY PRODUCTION  

E-print Network

Vol. 31 (2000) ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA B No 1 TRANSMUTATION OF ISOTOPES ­ ECOLOGICAL AND ENERGY PRODUCTION ASPECTS Waclaw Gudowski Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden e. An assessment of the potential impact of ATW on a future of nuclear energy is also given. Nuclear reactors based

42

Accelerator transmutation of waste economics  

SciTech Connect

A parametric systems model of the accelerator transmutation of (nuclear) waste (ATW) is used to examine key system trade-offs and design drivers on the basis of unit costs. This model is applied primarily to a fluid-fuel blanket concept for an ATW that generates net electric power from the fissioning of spent commercial reactor fuel. An important goal of this study is the development of essential parametric trade-offs to aid in any future conceptual engineering design of an ATW that would burn spent commercial fuel and generate net electric power. As such, costing procedures and methodologies used to estimate and compare advanced nuclear power generation systems are applied. The cost of electricity required by an electrical power-generating ATW fueled with spent commercial fuels is generally found to be above that projected for other advanced fission power plants. The accelerator and the chemical plant equipment cost accounts are quantitatively identified as main cost drivers, with the capital cost of radio-frequency power dominating the former. Significant reductions of this cost differential are possible by increased blanket neutron multiplication, increased plant capacity, or increased thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency. The benefits of reduced long-lived fission products and spent commercial fuel actinides provided by the ATW approach translate into a less tangible source of revenue to be provided by a charge that must be levied on the client fission power plants being serviced. The main goal of this study, however, is not a direct cost comparison but is instead a quantitative determination of cost-based sensitivity of key cost drivers and operational modes for an ATW concept that would address the growing spent commercial fuel problem; parametric results presented focus on this goal, and a specific ATW ``straw man`` is given to achieve this main objective.

Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-06-01

43

The physics design of accelerator-driven transmutation systems  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear systems under study in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology program (ADTT) will allow the destruction of nuclear spent fuel and weapons-return plutonium, as well as the production of nuclear energy from the thorium cycle, without a long-lived radioactive waste stream. The subcritical systems proposed represent a radical departure from traditional nuclear concepts (reactors), yet the actual implementation of ADTT systems is based on modest extrapolations of existing technology. These systems strive to keep the best that the nuclear technology has developed over the years, within a sensible conservative design envelope and eventually manage to offer a safer, less expensive and more environmentally sound approach to nuclear power.

Venneri, F.

1995-02-01

44

Brief overview of the long-lived radionuclide separation processes developed in france in connection with the spin program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce the long-term potential hazards associated with the management of nuclear wastes generated by nuclear fuel reprocessing, one alternative is the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides into short-lived radionuclides by nuclear means (P & T strategy). In this context, according to the law passed by the French Parliament on 30 December 1991, the CEA launched the SPIN program for the design of long-lived radionuclide separation and nuclear incineration processes. The research in progress to define separation processes focused mainly on the minor actinides (neptunium, americium and curium) and some fission products, like cesium and technetium. To separate these long-lived radionuclides, two strategies were developed. The first involves research on new operating conditions for improving the PUREX fuel reprocessing technology. This approach concerns the elements neptunium and technetium (iodine and zirconium can also be considered). The second strategy involves the design of new processes; DIAMEX for the co-extraction of minor actinides from the high-level liquid waste leaving the PUREX process, An(III)/Ln(III) separation using tripyridyltriazine derivatives or picolinamide extracting agents; SESAME for the selective separation of americium after its oxidation to Am(IV) or Am(VI) in the presence of a heteropolytungstate ligand, and Cs extraction using a new class of extracting agents, calixarenes, which exhibit exceptional Cs separation properties, especially in the presence of sodium ion. This lecture focuses on the latest achievements in these research areas.

Madic, Charles; Bourges, Jacques; Dozol, Jean-François

1995-09-01

45

Photoluminescence from transmuted impurities in neutron-transmutation-doped semi-insulating GaP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transmuted impurities Ge and S in neutron-transmutation-doped (NTD) semi-insulating GaP were studied by a photoluminescence method. A broad emission was observed at 1.65 eV accompanied by a hump at ˜1.87 eV in samples annealed above 640°C. These emissions are attributed to Ge Ga-Ge P complex and S donor-Ge acceptor pair recombination, respectively, indicating the presence of the transmuted impurities. The formation of the complex defect was examined using a configuration coordinate model. The presence of the complex defects restricted the electrical activation of the transmuted impurities in NTD-GaP, forming a localized state.

Kuriyama, K.; Ohbora, K.; Okada, M.

2000-01-01

46

Waste/Rock Interactions Technology Program: the status of radionuclide sorption-desorption studies performed by the WRIT program  

SciTech Connect

The most credible means for radionuclides disposed as solid wastes in deep-geologic repositories to reach the biosphere is through dissolution of the solid waste and subsequent radionuclide transport by circulating ground water. Thus safety assessment activities must consider the physicochemical interactions between radionculides present in ground water with package components, rocks and sediments since these processes can significantly delay or constrain the mass transport of radionuclides in comparison to ground-water movement. This paper focuses on interactions between dissolved radiouclides in ground water and rocks and sediments away from the near-field repository. The primary mechanism discussed is adsorption-desorption, which has been studied using two approaches. Empirical studies of adsorption-desorption rely on distribution coefficient measurements while mechanism studies strive to identify, differentiate and quantify the processes that control nuclide retardation.

Serne, R.J.; Relyea, J.F.

1982-04-01

47

Summary of Generation-IV transmutation impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment of the potential role of Generation IV nuclear systems in an advanced fuel cycle has been performed. The Generation IV systems considered are the thermal-spectrum VHTR and SCWR, and the fast-spectrum GFR, LFR, and SFR. This report addresses the impact of each system on advanced fuel cycle goals, particularly related to waste management and resource utilization. The transmutation

T. A. Taiwo; R. N. Hill

2005-01-01

48

Transmutation Fuels Campaign FY-09 Accomplishments Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the fiscal year 2009 (FY-08) accomplishments for the Transmutation Fuels Campaign (TFC). The emphasis is on the accomplishments and relevance of the work. Detailed description of the methods used to achieve the highlighted results and the associated support tasks are not included in this report.

Lori Braase

2009-09-01

49

Quantifying sediment retention by restored wetlands using fallout radionuclide tracer technology (Cs-137 and Be-7): The River Odense, Denmark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River restoration projects that allow temporary inundations of the floodplain are important for increasing the water storage potential of the landscape which can decrease flood risk to vulnerable downstream urban areas. During inundation, coarse and fine fluvial sediments are deposited on the floodplain leading to reduced organic matter and nutrient flux downstream. In this context, information on sediment accretion rates by floodplain units is required to inform restoration decisions. Sediment traps are widely used to determine contemporary accretion rates in floodplain units but there are questions about the representativeness and resolution of data. Here, we have tested the application of radionuclide tracer technology (Cs-137 and Be-7) for use in Danish river and floodplain monitoring for longer and shorter term quantification of sediment accretion rates. Prior to the wet season, a network of AstroTurf mats was placed along three transects in the study zone of the Odense floodplain. Suspended sediment traps were installed in the channel and samples were collected during period of floodplain inundation to characterise the FRN activity concentrations in deposited material. Following a series of major inundation events, shallow (3 cm) sediment cores were collected to determine Be-7 inventory relative to a non-inundated reference site. Deeper cores (30 cm) were collected, including a section core, to quantify Cs-137 inventories on the floodplain relative to a reference site. All materials were analysed for particle size and a separation experiment was undertaken to characterise the relationship between particle size and FRN concentration. Cs-137 based accretion rates were in accord with long-term direct monitoring and provided a useful context for the contemporary extreme event data. Comparison of Be-7 based accretion estimates to Astro Turf mat deposition indicated that the Be-7 approach offers to provide high resolution retrospective accretion rate data for contemporary overbank events. The quality of the data, however, is highly sensitive to the particle size correction approach taken. The study illustrates the value of FRN-based techniques but also demonstrates the critical need for careful application of particle size correction procedures based on deposited material at each sampling point representative of the study period and a site-specific FRN-particle size relationship.

Kronvang, Brian; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Taylor, Alex; Blake, William

2013-04-01

50

Nuclear data requirements for accelerator-driven transmutation systems  

SciTech Connect

The possibilities of several new technologies based on use of intense, medium-energy proton accelerators are being investigated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The potential new areas include destruction of long-lived components of nuclear waste, plutonium burning, energy production, and production of tritium. The design, assessment, and safety analysis of potential facilities involves the understanding of complex combinations of nuclear processes, which in turn places new requirements on nuclear data that transcend the traditional needs of the fission and fusion reactor communities. In this paper an assessment of the nuclear data needs for systems currently being considered in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies program is given. The importance of developing neutron and proton cross section libraries in the incident particle energy range of 20 MeV to approximately 200 MeV for transport applications is discussed, and new theoretical methods for developing cross section libraries at higher incident neutron and proton energies are summarized.

Young, P.G.; Wilson, W.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Theory and Applications Group; Chadwick, M.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Data Group

1994-08-01

51

Fusion-Fission Transmutation Scheme- Efficient Destruction of Nuclear Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fusion-assisted transmutation system for the destruction of transuranic (TRU) waste is presented. Subcritical fusion-fission hybrids burn the intransigent transuranic residues (with most of the long lived bio-hazard) of a new fuel cycle that uses cheap light water reactors (LWRs) for the easily burned majority of the TRU. In the new fuel cycle, the number of hybrids needed to destroy a given amount of original LWR waste is 5-10 times less than the corresponding number of critical fast reactors. (Fast reactors, due to stability constraints, cannot burn the very poor quality TRU residue.) The new system comparably reduces the expensive reprocessing throughput. Realization of these advantages should lead to a great reduction in the cost of transmutation. The time needed for 99% waste destruction would also be reduced from centuries to decades. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density compact fusion neutron source (CFNS-100 MW, with major radius + minor radius ˜ 2.5 m), which is made possible by a super-X divertor. The physics and technology requirements of the CFNS are much less than the requirements of a pure fusion power source. Advantages of the system as part of a timely strategy to combat global warming are briefly described.

Kotschenreuther, Mike; Mahajan, Swadesh; Valanju, Prashant; Schneider, Erich A.

2009-05-01

52

Potential Role of Lasers for Sustainable Fission Energy Production and Transmutation of Nuclear Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

While means for transmutation of nuclear waste using fast reactor technology and reprocessing have existed for many years,\\u000a this technology has not been deployed primarily for economic reasons but also owing to safety and proliferation concerns.\\u000a Geological storage also remains politically uncertain in some countries as a means for disposal of nuclear waste. We argue\\u000a here that neutrons supplemental to

C. D. Bowman; J. Magill

53

Statistical Transmutation in Doped Quantum Dimer Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove a “statistical transmutation” symmetry of doped quantum dimer models on the square, triangular, and kagome lattices: the energy spectrum is invariant under a simultaneous change of statistics (i.e., bosonic into fermionic or vice versa) of the holes and of the signs of all the dimer resonance loops. This exact transformation enables us to define the duality equivalence between doped quantum dimer Hamiltonians and provides the analytic framework to analyze dynamical statistical transmutations. We investigate numerically the doping of the triangular quantum dimer model with special focus on the topological Z2 dimer liquid. Doping leads to four (instead of two for the square lattice) inequivalent families of Hamiltonians. Competition between phase separation, superfluidity, supersolidity, and fermionic phases is investigated in the four families.

Lamas, C. A.; Ralko, A.; Cabra, D. C.; Poilblanc, D.; Pujol, P.

2012-07-01

54

Energy transmutation in nonequilibrium quantum systems  

E-print Network

We investigate the particle and heat transport in quantum junctions with the geometry of star graphs. The system is in a nonequilibrium steady state, characterized by the different temperatures and chemical potentials of the heat reservoirs connected to the edges of the graph. We explore the Landauer-Buettiker state and its orbit under parity and time reversal transformations. Both particle number and total energy are conserved in these states. However the heat and chemical potential energy are in general not separately conserved, which gives origin to a basic process of energy transmutation among them. We study both directions of this process in detail, introducing appropriate efficiency coefficients. For scale invariant interactions in the junction our results are exact and explicit. They cover the whole parameter space and take into account all nonlinear effects. The energy transmutation depends on the particle statistics.

Mihail Mintchev; Luca Santoni; Paul Sorba

2014-09-10

55

The dd Cold Fusion-Transmutation Connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

LENR theory must explain dd fusion, alpha-addition transmutations, radiationless nuclear reactions, and 3-body nuclear particle reactions. Reaction without radiation requires many-body D+Bloch periodicity in both location and internal structure dependencies. Electron scattering leads to mixed quantum states. The radiationless dd fusion reaction is 2-D+Bloch ? 4He++Bloch. Overlap between 4He++Bloch and surface Cs leads to alpha absorption. In the Iwamura et

Talbot A. Chubb

56

On Nuclear Transmutation Reactions in Solids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on transmutation reactions in solids heavily loaded with H or D( high H\\/D atoms\\/metal atom) is rapidly growing. Previously it was thought that reactant energies were too low to overcome the coulombic field barrier. However, such reactions have been reported by a number of researchers. Earlier Miley, et al. studied multi-layer thin-film Ni\\/Pd electrodes loaded electrolytically Reaction products exhibited

George H. Miley; Heinz Hora; Nie Luo

2004-01-01

57

MA transmutation performance in the optimized MYRRHA  

SciTech Connect

MYRRHA (multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications) is a multipurpose research facility currently being developed at SCK-CEN. It will be able to work in both critical and subcritical modes and, cooled by lead-bismuth eutectic. In this paper the minor actinides (MA) transmutation capabilities of MYRRHA are investigated. (Pu + Am, U) MOX fuel and (Np + Am + Cm, Pu) Inert Matrix Fuel test samples have been loaded in the central channel of the MYRRHA critical core and have been irradiated during five cycles, each one consisting of 90 days of operation at 100 MWth and 30 days of shutdown. The reactivity worth of the test fuel assembly was about 1.1 dollar. A wide range of burn-up level has been achieved, extending from 42 to 110 MWd/kg HM, the samples with lower MA-to-Pu ratios reaching the highest burn-up. This study has highlighted the importance of the initial MA content, expressed in terms of MA/Pu ratio, on the transmutation rate of MA elements. For (Pu + Am, U) MOX fuel samples, a net build-up of MA is observed when the initial content of MA is very low (here, 1.77 wt% MA/Pu) while a net decrease in MA is observed in the sample with an initial content of 5 wt%. This suggests the existence of some 'equilibrium' initial MA content value beyond which a net transmutation is achievable.

Malambu, E.; Van den Eynde, G.; Fernandez, R.; Baeten, P.; Ait Abderrahim, H. [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, BE-2400 Mol (Belgium)

2013-07-01

58

A Subcritical, Gas-Cooled Fast Transmutation Reactor with a Fusion Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

A design is presented for a subcritical, He-cooled fast reactor, driven by a tokamak D-T fusion neutron source, for the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The reactor is fueled with coated transuranic (TRU) particles and is intended for the deep-burn (>90%) transmutation of the TRUs in SNF without reprocessing of the coated fuel particles. The reactor design is based on the materials, fuel, and separations technologies under near-term development in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Program and on the plasma physics and fusion technologies under near-term development in the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program, with the objective of intermediate-term ({approx}2040) deployment. The physical and performance characteristics and research and development requirements of such a reactor are described.

Stacey, W.M. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Beavers, V.L. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Casino, W.A. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Cheatham, J.R. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Friis, Z.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Green, R.D. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Hamilton, W.R. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Haufler, K.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Hutchinson, J.D. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Lackey, W.J. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Lorio, R.A. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Maddox, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Mandrekas, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Manzoor, A.A. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Noelke, C.A. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Oliveira, C. de [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Park, M. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Tedder, D.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Terry, M.R. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Hoffman, E.A. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

2005-05-15

59

Neutron cross section sensitivity for minor actinide transmutation in energy amplifier systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear data sensitivity in 3D Monte Carlo burnup calculations of minor actinide transmutation in Energy Amplifier Systems is assessed. Ansaldo Nucleare’s 80MWth Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility (EADF) design serves as a technical and geometrical platform for the analysis. The accelerator-driven EADF is a fast, subcritical system based on classical MOX-fuel technology and on molten lead–bismuth eutectic cooling. For Monte

Marcus Dahlfors; Yacine Kadi; Adonai Herrera-Martínez

2007-01-01

60

II. Inhibited Diffusion Driven Surface Transmutations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is the second of a set of three papers dealing with the role of coherent partitioning as a common element in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), by which is meant cold-fusion related processes. This paper discusses the first step in a sequence of four steps that seem to be necessary to explain Iwamura 2-?-addition surface transmutations. Three concepts are examined: salt-metal interface states, sequential tunneling that transitions D+ ions from localized interstitial to Bloch form, and the general applicability of 2-dimensional vs. 3-dimensional symmetry hosting networks.

Chubb, Talbot A.

2006-02-01

61

The DD Cold Fusion-Transmutation Connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LENR theory must explain dd fusion, alpha-addition transmutations, radiationless nuclear reactions, and three-body nuclear particle reactions. Reaction without radiation requires many-body D Bloch+ periodicity in both location and internal structure dependencies. Electron scattering leads to mixed quantum states. The radiationless dd fusion reaction is 2-D Bloch+ -> {}4 He Bloch2+. Overlap between {}4 He Bloch2+ and surface Cs leads to alpha absorption. In the Iwamura et al. studies active deuterium is created by scattering at diffusion barriers.

Chubb, Talbot A.

2005-12-01

62

The Hopping Conduction of Neutron Transmuted Germanium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation was made of a batch of samples of neutron transmutation-doped (NTD) Ge:Ga with the degree of compensation K=0.3 and the concentration of the main impurity (Ga) from N=3.6 · 1014cm-3 to Nc=2.5 · 1017cm-3, corresponding to the MI transition. The following were studied: the parameters of NTD Ge:Ga, the temperature dependence of hopping transport, the ?3 region of the nearest neighbor hopping (NNH), the saturation of NNH, variable range hopping (VRH) and the Coulomb gap.

Zabrodskii, A. G.; Andreev, A. G.

63

A Los Alamos concept for accelerator transmutation of waste and energy production (ATW)  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the diagrams presented at the ATW (Accelerator Transmutation of Waste and Energy Production) External Review, December 10-12, 1990, held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Included are the charge to the committee and the presentations for the committee`s review. Topics of the presentations included an overview of the concept, LINAC technology, near-term application -- high-level defense wastes (intense thermal neutron source, chemistry and materials), advanced application of the ATW concept -- fission energy without a high-level waste stream (overview, advanced technology, and advanced chemistry), and a summary of the research issues.

Not Available

1990-12-31

64

Repository size for deep geological disposal of partitioning and transmutation high level waste  

SciTech Connect

In order to reveal the impact of the partitioning and transmutation (PT) technology on the geological disposal, we investigated the production and disposal of the radioactive wastes from the PT facilities including the dry reprocessing for the spent fuel from accelerator-driven system. After classifying the PT wastes according to the heat generations, the emplacement configurations in the repository were assumed for each group based on the several disposal concepts proposed for the conventional glass waste form. Then, the sizes of the repositories represented by the vault length, emplacement area and excavation volume were estimated. The repository sizes were reduced by PT technology for all disposal concepts. (authors)

Nishihara, Kenji; Nakayama, Shinichi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency: Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

2007-07-01

65

Infrared absorption study of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using high-resolution far-infrared Fourier transform absorption spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements, the evolution of the shallow acceptor and donor impurity levels in germanium during and after the neutron transmutation doping process was studied. The results show unambiguously that the gallium acceptor level concentration equals the concentration of transmutated Ge-70 atoms during the whole process indicating that neither recoil during transmutation nor gallium-defect complex formation play significant roles. The arsenic donor levels appear at full concentration only after annealing for 1 h at 450 C. It is shown that this is due to donor-radiation-defect complex formation. Again, recoil does not play a significant role.

Park, I. S.; Haller, E. E.

1988-01-01

66

TOKAMAK TRANSMUTATION OF (NUCLEAR) WASTE (TTW) - PARAMETRIC STUDIES  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste generated as part of the commercial-power and defense nuclear programs can be either stored or transmuted. The latter treatment requires a capital-intensive neutron source and is reserved for particularly hazardous and long-lived actinide and fission-product waste. A comparative description of fusion-based transmutation is made on the basis of rudimentary estimates of energy-balance performance and transmutation capacities versus inventories for both ultra-low-aspect-ratio (spherical torus, ST) and conventional (aspect-ratio) tokamak fusion-power-core drivers. The parametric systems studies reported provides a preamble to more-detailed, cost-based systems analyses.

Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cheng, E.T. [TSI Research Inc.] [TSI Research Inc.; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL] [ORNL

1994-01-01

67

Tokamak transmutation of (nuclear) waste (TTW): Parametric studies  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste generated as part of the commercial-power and defense nuclear programs can be either stored or transmuted. The latter treatment requires a capital-intensive neutron source and is reserved for particularly hazardous and long-lived actinide and fission-product waste. A comparative description of fusion-based transmutation is made on the basis of rudimentary estimates of ergonic performance and transmutation capacities versus inventories for both ultra-low-aspect-ratio (spherical torus, ST) and conversional (aspect-ratio) tokamak fusion-power-core drivers. The parametric systems studies reported herein provides a preamble to more-detailed, cost-based systems analyses.

Cheng, E.T. [TSI Research, Inc., Solana Beach, CA (United States); Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Peng, Y.K.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-06-01

68

Tokamak Transmutation of (nuclear) Waste (TTW): Parametric studies  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste generated as part of the commercial-power and defense nuclear programs can be either stored or transmuted. The latter treatment requires a capital-intensive neutron source and is reserved for particularly hazardous and long-lived actinide and fission-product waste. A comparative description of fusion-based transmutation is made on the basis of rudimentary estimates of energy-balance performance and transmutation capacities versus inventories for both ultra-low-aspect-ratio (spherical torus, ST) and conventional (aspect-ratio) tokamak fusion-power-core drivers. The parametric systems studies reported provides a preamble to more-detailed, cost-based systems analyses.

Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Cheng, E.T. [TSI Research, Inc., Solana Beach, CA (United States); Peng, Y.K.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-11-01

69

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

70

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

Bowman, C.D.

1992-11-03

71

Nuclear energy generation and waste transmutation using an accelerator-driven intense thermal neutron source  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new approach for commercial nuclear energy production without a long-term high-level waste stream and for transmutation of both fission product and higher actinide commercial nuclear waste using a thermal flux of accelerator-produced neutrons in the 10{sup 16} n/cm{sup 2}-s range. Continuous neutron fluxes at this intensity, which is approximately 100 times larger than is typically available in a large scale thermal reactor, appear practical owing to recent advances in proton linear accelerator technology and to the spallation target-moderator design presented here. This large flux of thermal neutrons makes possible a waste inventory in the transmutation system which is smaller by about a factor of 100 than competing concepts. The accelerator allows the system to operate well below criticality so that the possibility for a criticality accident is estimated. No control rods are required. The successful implementation of this new method for energy generation and waste transmutation would eliminate the need for nuclear waste storage on a geologic time scale. The production of nuclear energy from {sup 232}Th or {sup 238}U is used to illustrate the general principles of commercial nuclear energy production without long-term high-level waste. There is sufficient thorium to meet the world's energy needs for many millenia. 27 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

Bowman, C.D.; Arthur, E.D.; Lisowski, P.W.; Lawrence, G.P.; Jensen, R.J.; Anderson, J.L.; Blind, B.; Cappiello, M.; Davidson, J.W.; England, T.R.; Engel, L.N.; Haight, R.C.; Hughes, H.G. III; Ireland, J.R.; Krakowski, R.A.; LaBauve, R.J.; Letellier, B.C.; Perry, R.T.; Russell, G.J.; Staudhammer, K.P.; Versamis, G.; Wilson, W.B.

1991-01-01

72

Neutron transmutation doping of isotopically engineered Ge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a novel approach for obtaining precise control of both p- and n-type dopant concentrations in bulk Ge single crystals. High-purity Ge single crystals of controlled 74Ge/70Ge isotope composition ratios were grown and subsequently doped by the neutron transmutation doping (NTD) technique. The resulting net-impurity concentrations and the compensation ratios were precisely determined by the thermal neutron fluence and the [74Ge]/[70Ge] ratios of the starting Ge materials, respectively. Application of NTD to seven crystals with 0?[74Ge]/[70Ge]?4.34 lead to p-type Ge:Ga,As with compensation ratios in the range 0-0.76. The ability to grow crystals with accurately controlled Ge isotope mixtures allows us to obtain ratios anywhere between 0 and 1 for both p- and n-type doping.

Itoh, K. M.; Haller, E. E.; Hansen, W. L.; Beeman, J. W.; Farmer, J. W.; Rudnev, A.; Tikhomirov, A.; Ozhogin, V. I.

1994-04-01

73

Risks to the public from historical releases of radionuclides and chemicals at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the methods and results of estimating risks of cancer incidence resulting from plutonium, carbon tetrachloride, and beryllium releases from operations at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado, from 1953 through 1989. The key findings show that people who lived near the facility were exposed to plutonium mainly through inhalation during routine operations, from a

JOHN E TILL; ARTHUR S ROOD; PAUL G VOILLEQUÉ; PATRICIA D MCGAVRAN; KATHLEEN R MEYER; HELEN A GROGAN; WARREN K SINCLAIR; JILL W AANENSON; H ROBERT MEYER; H JUSTIN MOHLER; SUSAN K ROPE; MARILYN J CASE

2002-01-01

74

Neutron transmutation doping of GaP: optical studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unambiguous proof for successful neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of GaP is presented on the basis of optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR). GaP:S samples grown by the liquid encapsulated Czochralski method were irradiated with thermal neutrons and subsequently annealed at 800°C. In the ODMR experiments the transmuted Ge substitutional on Ga sites was detected. The NTD process was also found to create deep acceptors, the nature of which will be tentatively discussed.

Heijmink Liesert, B. J.; Godlewski, M.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Ammerlaan, C. A. J.

1991-06-01

75

Sorption of radionuclides on inorganic sorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inorganic sorbents are often used in separation of metals and radionuclides in radioanalytical application and they were also used in technological scale for separation of radionuclides in cleanup of Three Mile Island NPP. Inorganic sorbents become popular in the last years because no problem with organic contamination, there are stable against radiation, sorption efficiency can be tailor made for selective

P. Rajec; L'. Mátel; J. Orechovská; J. Šúcha; I. Novák

1996-01-01

76

Transmutation and the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership  

SciTech Connect

In the January 2006 State of the Union address, President Bush announced a new Advanced Energy Initiative, a significant part of which is the Global Nuclear Energy Initiative. Its details were described on February 6, 2006 by the U.S. Secretary of Energy. In summary, it has three parts: (1) a program to expand nuclear energy use domestically and in foreign countries to support economic growth while reducing the release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. (2) an expansion of the U.S. nuclear infrastructure that will lead to the recycling of spent fuel and a closed fuel cycle and, through transmutation, a reduction in the quantity and radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and its proliferation concerns, and (3) a partnership with other fuel cycle nations to support nuclear power in additional nations by providing small nuclear power plants and leased fuel with the provision that the resulting spent fuel would be returned by the lessee to the lessor. The final part would have the effect of stabilizing the number of fuel cycle countries with attendant non-proliferation value. Details will be given later in the paper. Commercial spent fuel recycling, pioneered in the U.S., has not been carried out since the nineteen seventies following a decision by President Carter to forego fuel reprocessing and to recommend similar practices by other countries. However, many nations have continued spent fuel reprocessing, generally using the U.S.-developed PUREX process. The latest to do so are Japan, which began operations of an 800 metric tons (tonnes) per year PUREX reprocessing plant at Rokkasho-mura in northern Honshu in 2006 and China, which recently began operations of a separations pilot plant, also using PUREX. Countries using the PUREX process, recycle the separated plutonium to light water reactors (LWRs) in a mixed plutonium/uranium oxide fuel called MOX. Plutonium recycling in LWRs, which are used for electricity production in all nuclear power nations, reduces, somewhat, the uranium ore and enrichment requirements at a given level of power production, but has the disadvantage of producing non-fissile plutonium isotopes and the so-called minor actinides (neptunium, americium and curium), some of which act as neutron poisons, and thus, require increasing uranium enrichment, eventually raising fuel costs beyond practical limits. The French only use one recycle of plutonium in their power reactors. The future 'burning' (transmutation by fission) of used plutonium (and the other transuranics) could, if put into large-scale practice, eliminate one of the more serious proliferation problems in the world today, the accumulation of large quantities of separated civilian plutonium. It is generally accepted by the world's technical community that the effective way to transmute transuranics is by fissioning them in a fast reactor (i.e., reactors not containing light materials used to slow down, by collision fission, neutrons in LWRs to velocities equal to thermal velocities or the media temperature). (author)

Bresee, James [Office of the Asst. Sec. for Nuclear Energy, Global Nuclear Energy Parternship (NE-2.4), U.S. Department of Energy, 1000 Independence Ave. SW, Washington, DC, 20585 (United States)

2007-07-01

77

Thermal donors and radiation-induced defect states in transmutation doped gamma-irradiated silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport phenomena are studied in uniaxially strained transmutation doped \\/gamma-irradiated n-Si(P) crystals. It is shown that thermal annealing of the transmutation doped Si results in the generation of different types of thermodonors. Tensoresistivity mechanisms in highly strained transmutation doped silicon are identified as well.

S. I. Budzulyak; Yu. P. Dotsenko; V. M. Ermakov; V. V. Kolomoets; E. F. Venger

2001-01-01

78

Thermal donors and radiation-induced defect states in transmutation doped gamma-irradiated silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport phenomena are studied in uniaxially strained transmutation doped ?-irradiated n-Si(P) crystals. It is shown that thermal annealing of the transmutation doped Si results in the generation of different types of thermodonors. Tensoresistivity mechanisms in highly strained transmutation doped silicon are identified as well.

S. I Budzulyak; Yu. P Dotsenko; V. M Ermakov; V. V Kolomoets; E. F Venger

2001-01-01

79

Accelerator-driven transmutation of high-level waste from the defense and commercial sectors  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The major goal has been to develop accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system designs that will thoroughly and rapidly transmute nuclear waste, including plutonium from dismantled weapons and spent reactor fuel, while generating useful electrical power and without producing a long-lived radioactive waste stream. We have identified and quantified the unique qualities of subcritical nuclear systems and their capabilities in bringing about the complete destruction of plutonium. Although the 1191 subcritical systems involved in our most effective designs radically depart from traditional nuclear reactor concepts, they are based on extrapolations of existing technologies. Overall, care was taken to retain the highly desired features that nuclear technology has developed over the years within a conservative design envelope. We believe that the ATW systems designed in this project will enable almost complete destruction of nuclear waste (conversion to stable species) at a faster rate and without many of the safety concerns associated with the possible reactor approaches.

Bowman, C.; Arthur, E.; Beard, C. [and others

1996-09-01

80

Summary of Generation-IV transmutation impacts.  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the potential role of Generation IV nuclear systems in an advanced fuel cycle has been performed. The Generation IV systems considered are the thermal-spectrum VHTR and SCWR, and the fast-spectrum GFR, LFR, and SFR. This report addresses the impact of each system on advanced fuel cycle goals, particularly related to waste management and resource utilization. The transmutation impact of each system was also assessed, along with variant designs for transuranics (TRU) burning. The base fuel cycle for the thermal reactor concepts (VHTR and SCWR) is a once-through fuel cycle using low-enriched uranium fuels. The higher burnup and thermal efficiency of the VHTR gives an advantage in terms of heavy-metal waste mass and volume, with lower decay heat and radiotoxicity of the spent fuel per electrical energy produced, compared to a PWR. Fuel utilization might, however, be worse compared to the PWR, because of the higher fuel enrichment essential to meeting the VHTR system design requirements. The SCWR concept also featured improved thermal efficiency; however, benefits are reduced by the lower fuel discharge burnup. The base fuel cycle for the fast reactor concepts (SFR, GFR, and LFR) is a closed fuel cycle using recycled TRU and depleted uranium fuels. Waste management gains from complete recycle are substantial, with the final disposition heat load determined by processing losses. The base Generation-IV concepts allow consumption of U-238 significantly extending uranium resources (up to 100 times). For both thermal and fast concepts, recent design studies have pursued the development of dedicated burner designs. Preliminary results suggest that a burnup of 50-60% is possible in a VHTR burner design using non-uranium (transuranics) fuel. However, practical limits related to higher actinide buildup and safety impact may limit the extent of TRU burning in thermal reactors. Fast burner designs have been developed for both conventional and high TRU content fuel forms. In general, the conversion ratio can be varied within a system by changing the uranium loading. Recent studies indicate a low conversion ratio (0.25) SFR retains the favorable passive characteristics of conventional designs, and the cost is similar.

Taiwo, T. A.; Hill, R. N.

2005-08-03

81

Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides  

E-print Network

Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-08-04

82

Accelerator-driven transmutation of spent fuel elements  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Uranium may also be enriched, thereby providing new fuel for use in conventional nuclear power plants. An accelerator provides the additional neutrons required to perform the processes. The size of the accelerator needed to complete fuel cycle closure depends on the neutron efficiency of the supported reactors and on the neutron spectrum of the actinide transmutation apparatus. Treatment of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs) using uranium-based fuel will require the largest accelerator power, whereas neutron-efficient high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) or CANDU reactors will require the smallest accelerator power, especially if thorium is introduced into the newly generated fuel according to the teachings of the present invention. Fast spectrum actinide transmutation apparatus (based on liquid-metal fuel) will take full advantage of the accelerator-produced source neutrons and provide maximum utilization of the actinide-generated fission neutrons. However, near-thermal transmutation apparatus will require lower standing

Venneri, Francesco (Los Alamos, NM); Williamson, Mark A. (Los Alamos, NM); Li, Ning (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

83

Analysis of the Gas Core Actinide Transmutation Reactor (GCATR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design power plant studies were carried out for two applications of the plasma core reactor: (1) As a breeder reactor, (2) As a reactor able to transmute actinides effectively. In addition to the above applications the reactor produced electrical power with a high efficiency. A reactor subsystem was designed for each of the two applications. For the breeder reactor, neutronics calculations were carried out for a U-233 plasma core with a molten salt breeding blanket. A reactor was designed with a low critical mass (less than a few hundred kilograms U-233) and a breeding ratio of 1.01. The plasma core actinide transmutation reactor was designed to transmute the nuclear waste from conventional LWR's. The spent fuel is reprocessed during which 100% of Np, Am, Cm, and higher actinides are separated from the other components. These actinides are then manufactured as oxides into zirconium clad fuel rods and charged as fuel assemblies in the reflector region of the plasma core actinide transmutation reactor. In the equilibrium cycle, about 7% of the actinides are directly fissioned away, while about 31% are removed by reprocessing.

Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

1977-01-01

84

Minor actinides transmutation scenario studies with PWRs, FRs and moderated targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study it is demonstrated that it is theoretically possible to obtain different minor actinide transmutation scenarios with a significant gain on the waste radio-toxicity inventory using current technologies. The handling of materials containing Am + Cm entails a significant increase of penetrating radiation sources (neutron and ?) whatever mixed reactor scenario is envisioned: The PWR and fast reactor scenario involving the recycling of Am + Cm in the form of targets results in the lowest mass flow. In the light of these outcomes, the detailed studies has allowed to: Design a target sub-assembly with a high fission rate (90%). Define a reprocessing scheme for the plant head and the minor actinide separation processes (PUREX, DIAMEX and SANEX). Some technological difficulties appear in manipulating curium, principally in manufacturing, where the wet process ('sol-gel') is not well suited for (Am + Cm).

Grouiller, Jean-Paul; Pillon, Sylvie; de Saint Jean, Cyrille; Varaine, Frederic; Leyval, Lydie; Vambenepe, Guy; Carlier, Bertrand

2003-07-01

85

Fusion-Fission Transmutation Scheme-Efficient Destruction of Nuclear Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fusion-assisted transmutation system for the destruction of transuranic (TRU) waste is presented. Subcritical fusion-fission hybrids burn the intransigent transuranic residues (with most of the long lived bio-hazard) of a new fuel cycle that uses cheap light water reactors (LWRs) for the easily burned majority of the TRU. In the new fuel cycle, the number of hybrids needed to destroy a given amount of original LWR waste is 5-10 times less than the corresponding number of critical fast reactors. (Fast reactors, due to stability constraints, cannot burn the very poor quality TRU residue.) The new system comparably reduces the expensive reprocessing throughput. Realization of these advantages should lead to a great reduction in the cost of transmutation. The time needed for 99% waste destruction would also be reduced from centuries to decades. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density compact fusion neutron source (CFNS-100 MW, with major radius + minor radius ˜ 2.5 m), which is made possible by a super-X divertor. The physics and technology requirements of the CFNS are much less than the requirements of a pure fusion power source. Advantages of the system as part of a timely strategy to combat global warming are briefly described.

Kotschenreuther, Mike; Mahajan, Swadesh; Valanju, Prashant; Schneider, Erich A.

2009-05-01

86

Monitored Natural Attenuation For Radionuclides In Ground Water - Technical Issues  

EPA Science Inventory

Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attentuation) within the subsurface. In gen...

87

Subsurface Characterization To Support Evaluation Of Radionuclide Transport And Attenuation  

EPA Science Inventory

Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

88

Separation of Transmutation - and Fission-Produced Radioisotopes from Irradiated Beryllium  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a two-step solvent extraction-precipitation process for separating transmutation and fission products from irradiated beryllium. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluoroboric acids. Isotopes of 241Am, 239Pu, 85Sr, 60Co, and 137Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,Ndiisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide in tributyl phosphate diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The 60Co was separated by first forming a cobalt complex and then selectively precipitating the beryllium as a hydroxide. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each radionuclide. Transuranic isotope contamination levels are reduced to less than 100 nCi/g, and sources of high beta-gamma radiation (60Co, 137Cs, and 90Sr) are reduced to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. The separation process may be applicable to a recycle or waste disposition scenario.

Troy J. Tranter; RIchard D. Tillotson; Nick R. Mann; Glen R. Longhurst

2011-11-01

89

Production of Radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 1896 Henri Becquerel discovered natural radioactivity and in 1934 Frédéric Joliot and Irène Curie-Joliot discovered artificial\\u000a radioactivity. Most natural radionuclides are produced through one of four radioactive decay chains, each chain fed by a long-lived\\u000a and heavy parent radionuclide. The vast majority of currently known radionuclides, however, are man-made and artificially\\u000a produced through a process of nuclear activation which

Ervin B. Podgoršak

90

An investigation of magnesium production in silicon by neutron transmutation  

E-print Network

OF SCIENCE May 1986 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM PRODUCTION IN SILICON BY NEUTRON TRANSMUTATION A Thesis by FREDDIE JOE DAVIS, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Ron R. Har t (Chair of Committee) Donald L... University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr . Ron R. Hart An investigation of the production of' magnesium in silicon by neutron tr ansmutation is r eported. A 20 mil silicon wafer was irradiated at the Texas A&M University Nuclear Science Center...

Davis, Freddie Joe

2012-06-07

91

The chemistry and physics of modelling nitride fuels for transmutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Against the background of increased interest in nitride fuel for transmutation of minor actinides, this paper presents the current status of UK modelling of nitride fuel pins. A new equilibrium chemistry model for nitride fuel, suitable for inclusion in fuel pin modelling codes, is described. High-temperature experiments on (U,Zr)N in a sealed capsule indicate that actinide nitrides in a nitrogen

Roger Thetford; Mike Mignanelli

2003-01-01

92

Chemical separations schemes for partitioning and transmutation systems.  

SciTech Connect

In the initial phase of the U.S. Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program, a single-tier system was foreseen in which the transuranics and long-lived fission products (specifically, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I) recovered from spent LWR oxide fuel would be sent directly to an accelerator-driven transmuter reactor [1]. Because the quantity of fuel to be processed annually was so large (almost 1,500 tons per year), an aqueous solvent extraction process was chosen for LWR fuel processing. Without the need to separate transuranics from one another for feed to the transmuter, it became appropriate to develop an advanced aqueous separations method that became known as UREX. The UREX process employs an added reagent (acetohydroxamic acid) that suppresses the extraction of plutonium and promotes the extraction of technetium together with uranium. Technetium can then be efficiently removed from the uranium; the recovered uranium, being highly decontaminated, can be disposed of as a low-level waste or stored in an unshielded facility for future use. Plutonium and the other transuranic elements, plus the remaining fission products, are directed to the liquid waste stream. This stream is calcined, converting the transuranics and fission products to their oxides. The resulting oxide powder, now representing only about four percent of the original mass of the spent fuel, is reduced to metallic form by means of a pyrometallurgical process. Subsequently, the transuranics are separated from the fission products in another pyro-metallurgical step involving molten salt electrorefining.

Laidler, J.

2002-05-02

93

Nuclear Waste Transmutation in Subcritical Reactors Driven by Target-Distributed Accelerators  

E-print Network

A radioactive waste transmutation system based extensively on existing nuclear power technology is presented. By replacing the control rods with neutron sources, we could maintain good power distribution and perform long-lived waste burning in high flux subcritical reactors. The design is based on a small pressurized water reactor, fission electric cell (FEC), target-distributed accelerator (TDA) and power monitoring system with in-core gamma-ray detectors, now under development in several countries. The TDA, in which an FEC electric field compensates for lost beam energy in the target, offers a new approach to obtain large neutron fluxes. The analysis takes into consideration a wide range of TDA design aspects including the wave model of observed relativistic phenomena, in-core microwave power source, the FEC with a multistage collector (anode) and layered cathode.

Blanovsky, A

2004-01-01

94

Lattice distortions and the transmuted-Ge related luminescence in neutron-transmutation-doped GaN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lattice distortion and the transmuted-Ge related luminescence in neutron-transmutation-doped (NTD) GaN are studied by combining Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy/channeling, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence methods. The lattice displacement of Ga atoms of ˜0.12 Å from the <0001> row is estimated from the normalized angular yield profiles, preserving the single crystallinity in as-irradiated GaN with a minimum yield (?min) of 7%. A 2.84 eV emission band observed in 600 °C annealed NTD-GaN is associated with the Ga interstitial, supporting the lattice distortion. Two emission bands at 2.90 eV and 2.25 eV observed in 1000 °C annealed NTD-GaN are assigned to a negatively charged DX-like center of Ge at Ga site and a complex defect attributed to Ge at Ga site and Ga vacancy, respectively.

Kuriyama, K.; Tokumasu, T.; Takahashi, Jun; Kondo, H.; Okada, M.

2002-05-01

95

Front-end and back-end electrochemistry of molten salt in accelerator-driven transmutation systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to develop preparation and clean-up processes for the fuel and carrier salt in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology molten salt nuclear system. The front-end or fuel preparation process focuses on the removal of fission products, uranium, and zirconium from spent nuclear fuel by utilizing electrochemical methods (i.e., electrowinning). The same method provides the separation of the so-called noble metal fission products at the back-end of the fuel cycle. Both implementations would have important diversion safeguards. The proposed separation processes and a thermodynamic analysis of the electrochemical separation method are presented.

Williamson, M.A.; Venneri, F.

1995-07-01

96

Radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation within advanced fuel cycles: Achievements and Challenges  

SciTech Connect

In the last decades, numerous studies have been performed in order to identify appropriate “Partitioning and Transmutation” (P&T) strategies, aiming to the reduction of the burden on a geological storage (see, among many others, Salvatores, 2005). P&T strategies are very powerful and unique tools to reduce drastically the radiotoxicity level of the wastes and to reduce the time needed to reach the reference level (from ~100,000 years to few hundred years, i.e. comparable to the period in which technological and engineering means allow reasonably to control the radioactivity confinement). Moreover, P&T allows, in principle, also the reduction of the residual heat in a geological repository, with a potential significant impact on the repository size and characteristics. The first requirement of P&T strategies is the deployment of spent fuel reprocessing techniques (aqueous or dry), which are both in the continuity of today technologies (e.g. as implemented at La Hague in France, where Pu is separated up to 99.9 %) or which represent innovative, adapted approaches (e.g. pyrochemistry). The requirement is to extend the performance of Pu separation to 99.9 % also to Np, Am and Cm kept together or separated and in any case decontaminated from the lanthanides as much as possible. The separated TRU should then be “transmuted” (or “burned”) in a neutron field. The essential mechanism is to fission them, transforming them into much shorter lived or stable fission products. However, the fission process is always in competition with other processes, and, in particular, with neutron capture, which does eliminate isotope A, but transforms it into isotope A+1, which can still be radioactive. Isotope A+1 can in turn be fissioned or transmuted into isotope A+2, and so on. The neutron field has to be provided by a fission reactor. The requirement for this (dedicated) reactor is to be able to privilege the fission process with respect to the capture process and to be able to be loaded with fuels with potentially very different mixtures of Pu and minor actinides (MA), according to the chosen approach and the objective of the P&T strategy, and this without affecting its safety or penalizing its operability. A major issue of any P&T implementation strategy is a detailed evaluation of the impact of each strategy on the different features and installations of the fuel cycle, and a discussion of this issue will be provided in chapter 6. Chapter 7 will tackle the problem of nuclear data uncertainties and their impact on the nominal performances of the different transmutation systems. Finally, in chapter 8 it will be discussed in more detail the role of the different types of fast reactors described in the previous chapters, according to the different P&T objectives and implementation scenarios.

M. Salvatores; G. Palmiotti

2011-01-01

97

Transmutation behaviour of Eurofer under irradiation in the IFMIF test facility and fusion power reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmutation behaviour of the low activation steel Eurofer was analysed for irradiation simulations in the high flux test module (HFTM) of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) neutron source and the first wall of a typical fusion power reactor (FPR) employing helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) and pebble bed (HCPB) blankets. The transmutation calculations were conducted with the

U Fischer; S. P Simakov; P. P. H Wilson

2004-01-01

98

Thorium-Based Transmuter Fuels for Light Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect

A light water reactor (LWR) fuel cycle is proposed where the reactor core mainly consists of standard uranium-dioxide (UO2) fuel rods with typical 235U enrichment, along with thoria-urania (ThO2-UO2) or yttria-stablized zirconia fertile-free fuel rods containing the plutonium and minor actinides typical of 30-yr old UO2 fuel in 1/9 to 1/3 of the positions. The goals of this mono-recycling strategy or "twice through fuel cycle" are to transmute the great majority of the long lived actinides in existing LWRs and to discharge a fuel form that is a very robust waste form and whose isotopic content is very proliferation resistant. The incorporation of plutonium into a ThO2 or yttria-stablized zirconia fertile-free matrix results in the consumption of already-separated plutonium without breeding significant additional 239Pu. The minor actinides (i.e., neptunium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, etc.) are also included in the ThO2 or fertile-free transmuter fuel rods to further reduce the overall long-term radiotoxicity of the fuel cycle. Our analyses have shown that thorium-based or fertile-free fuels can reduce the amount of 239Pu needing further transmutation or going to a repository by ~90%. Also, thorium-based fuels produce a mixture of plutonium isotopes high in 238Pu. Because of the high decay heat and spontaneous neutron generation of 238Pu, this isotope provides intrinsic proliferation resistance.

J. Stephen Herring; P. E. MacDonald; K. Weaver

2004-04-01

99

Carrier doping into boron nanobelts by neutron transmutation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the effects of a neutron-capture reaction of isotope B10 on the structure and electrical transport of B10-enriched single-crystalline boron nanobelts. Partial amorphization, particularly at the surface of the nanobelt, was observed after thermal neutron irradiation with a dose of 2×1019 cm-2. Carrier doping into the nanobelts by neutron transmutation is expected after postannealing. The change in conductance is discussed based on the distribution of localized states in the band gap of ?-tetragonal boron.

Kirihara, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Yamada, Yoichi; Esaka, Fumitaka; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koshizaki, Naoto; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Shamoto, Shin-ichi; Kimura, Kaoru

2010-11-01

100

Neutron transmutation doped far-infrared p-Ge laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A far-infrared p-type germanium laser with active crystal prepared from ultra pure single-crystal Ge by neutron transmutation doping (NTD) is demonstrated. Calculations show that the high uniformity of Ga acceptor distribution achieved by NTD significantly improves average gain. The stronger ionized impurity scattering due to high compensation in NTD Ge is shown to have insignificant negative impact on the gain at the moderate doping concentrations sufficient for laser operation. Experimentally, this first NTD laser is found to have lower current-density lasing threshold than the best of a number of melt-doped laser crystals studied for comparison.

Nelson, E. W.; Dolguikh, M. V.; Muravjov, A. V.; Flitsiyan, E. S.; Du Bosq, T. W.; Peale, R. E.; Kleckley, S. H.; Fredricksen, C. J.; Vernetson, W. G.

2004-07-01

101

Calculation of transmutation in copper and comparison with measured electrical properties  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of the transmutation of pure cooper have been performed for the Fast Flux Test Facility/Materials Open Test Assembly (FFTF/MOTA) and for the STARFIRE first-wall fusion reactor. The principal transmutation products in decreasing order of importance are nickel, zinc, and cobalt. Contrary to previously published calculations, nickel and zinc are produced at nearly equal rates in FFTF, but cobalt is insignificant. The fusion reactor case shows much higher transmutation rates and produces about twice as much nickel as zinc. Transmutation rates for FFTF were determined using adjusted neutron energy spectra based on dosimetry measurements at various positions in the MOTA. The predicted transmutation rates were compared directly with nickel concentrations measured by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry (EDS) microchemistry and with measurements of the electrical conductivity of copper and two copper alloys irradiated in the MOTA. Measurements and calculations agree within {+-}15%.

Greenwood, L.R.; Garner, F.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, D.J. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

1993-08-01

102

Transmutation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu and 241Am Using Neutrons Produced in Target-Blanket System ``Energy & Transmutation'' Bombarded by Relativistic Protons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Target-blanket facility "Energy & Transmutation" was irradiated by a 2 GeV proton beam extracted from the Nuclotron Accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Radioactive samples made from iodine, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated by spallation neutrons produced in the "E&T" facility. Transmutation reaction yields (residual nuclei production yields) have been determined using methods of ?-spectroscopy. The energy spectrum of the neutron field has been studied by using a set of threshold detectors.

Adam, J.; Katovsky, K.; Balabekyan, A.; Solnyshkin, A. A.; Kalinnikov, V. G.; Stegailov, V. I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Stetsenko, S. G.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Pronskikh, V. S.; Vladimirova, N. M.; Kumawat, H.

2005-05-01

103

Transmutation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu and 241Am Using Neutrons Produced in Target-Blanket System ``Energy & Transmutation'' Bombarded by Relativistic Protons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Target-blanket facility ``Energy & Transmutation'' was irradiated by a 2 GeV proton beam extracted from the Nuclotron Accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Radioactive samples made from iodine, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated by spallation neutrons produced in the ``E&T'' facility. Transmutation reaction yields (residual nuclei production yields) have been determined using methods of

J. Adam; K. Katovsky; A. Balabekyan; A. A. Solnyshkin; V. G. Kalinnikov; V. I. Stegailov; V. M. Tsoupko-Sitnikov; S. G. Stetsenko; M. I. Krivopustov; V. S. Pronskikh; N. M. Vladimirova; H. Kumawat

2005-01-01

104

Dosimetry of administered radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This volume provides the Proceedings of the Symposium on Dosimetry of Administered Radionuclides held September 21 and 22, 1989 in Washington DC. The sixteen individual presentations are indexed and abstracted separately for the database.

Adelstein, S.J.; Kassis, A.I. (eds.) (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Burt, R.W. (ed.) (Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, IN (United States))

1989-01-01

105

Biology of radionuclide therapy  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference entitled Biology of Radionuclide Therapy held in Washington September 29 and 30, 1988. The meeting is part of the Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium Series.

DeNardo, G.L.; Lewis, J.P. (eds.) (University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)); Raventos, A. (ed.) (Veterans Administration Hospital, Martinez, CA (United States)); Burt, R.W. (ed.) (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States))

1989-01-01

106

Commonly Encountered Radionuclides  

MedlinePLUS

... Which nuclides are radioactive? Unstable nuclides of any element can exist. However, almost all elements that are heavier than bismuth, which has 83 ... found in Superfund Sites. Please note : Where an element is listed rather than an individual radionuclide, the ...

107

EASY-II: a system for modelling of n, d, p, ? and ? activation and transmutation processes  

E-print Network

EASY-II is designed as a functional replacement for the previous European Activation System, EASY-2010. It has extended nuclear data and new software, FISPACT-II, written in object-style Fortran to provide new capabilities for predictions of activation, transmutation, depletion and burnup. The new FISPACT-II code has allowed us to implement many more features in terms of energy range, up to GeV; incident particles: alpha, gamma, proton, deuteron and neutron; and neutron physics: self-shielding effects, temperature dependence, pathways analysis, sensitivity and error estimation using covariance data. These capabilities cover most application needs: nuclear fission and fusion, accelerator physics, isotope production, waste management and many more. In parallel, the maturity of modern general-purpose libraries such as TENDL-2012 encompassing thousands of target nuclides, the evolution of the ENDF format and the capabilities of the latest generation of processing codes PREPRO-2012, NJOY2012 and CALENDF-2010 have allowed the FISPACT-II code to be fed with more robust, complete and appropriate data: cross-sections with covariance, probability tables in the resonance ranges, kerma, dpa, gas and radionuclide production and 24 decay types. All such data for the five most important incident particles are placed in evaluated data files up to an incident energy of 200 MeV. The resulting code and data system, EASY-II, includes many new features and enhancements. It has been extensively tested, and also benefits from the feedback from wide-ranging validation and verification activities performed with its predecessor.

Jean-Christophe Sublet; James Eastwood; Guy Morgan; Arjan Koning; Dimitri Rochman

2013-09-27

108

Defects and transmutations in reactor-irradiated copper  

SciTech Connect

From measurements made at 4.2 K, the residual resisitivity increases produced by reactor irradiation near room temperature were studied in pure Cu up to fluences of 4.2 x 10/sup 23/ n/m/sup 2/ > 1 MeV and 12 x 10/sup 23/ thermal n/m/sup 2/ by methods which resolved the effects due to transmutations and to defects. While the increase in resistivity due to transmutations is linear, that due to defects falls off rapidly with increasing fluence. The defect damage rates at low doses depend upon initial sample conditions that are related to impurities, but they become equal above approx. 6 x 10/sup 21/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 1 MeV). Computations of defect concentrations using these resistivity data and earlier x-ray results, which measure dislocation loops, can be brought into reasonable agreement if the specific resistivity attributed to a single defect is decreased when that defect becomes part of a dislocation loop.

Chaplin, R.L.

1981-11-01

109

Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides  

DOEpatents

In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

Harp, Richard J. (18746 Viking Way, Cerritos, CA 90701)

1990-01-01

110

Method and apparatus for Separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes apparatus for Separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides. It comprises: a reactor vessel including wall members defining a reactor chamber adapted to receive a mixture of the radionuclides and non-radionuclides in a solid or liquid phase; the radionuclides having temperatures of vaporization higher than a first temperature; the non-radionuclides having temperatures of vaporization lower than a second temperature; means for heating the mixture in the chamber to a temperature greater than the second temperature but less than the first temperature to drive the non-radionuclides to a vapor phase while retaining the radionuclides in a solid or liquid phase; and means for removing the vapors of the non-radionuclides from the chamber. Whereby substantially all of the non-radionuclides exist the chamber in a vapor phase while the radionuclides remain within the chamber in a solid or liquid phase. Also described is a method for disposing of radionuclides present in a mixture of non-radionuclides and radionuclides.

Harp, R.J.

1990-01-09

111

Accelerator transmutation studies at Los Alamos with LAHET, MCNP, and CINDER`90  

SciTech Connect

Versions of the CINDER code have been used over three decades for determination of reactor fuel inventories and aggregate neutron absorption and radioactive decay properties. The CINDER`90 code, an evolving version which requires no predetermined nuclide chain structure, is suitable for a wider range of transmutation problems including those treated with older versions. In recent accelerator transmutation studies, the CINDER`90 code has been linked with the LAHET Code System (LCS) and, for high-energy calculations, with SUPERHET. A description of the nature of these linked calculational tools is given; data requirements for the transmutation studies are described; and, examples of linked calculations are described for some interesting accelerator applications.

Wilson, W.B.; England, T.R.; Arthur, E.D. [and others

1993-09-01

112

Accelerator transmutation studies at Los Alamos with LAHET, MCNP, and CINDER`90  

SciTech Connect

Versions of the CINDER code have been used over three decades for determination of reactor fuel inventories and aggregate neutron absorption and radioactive decay properties. The CINDER`90 code, an evolving version which requires no predetermined nuclide chain structure, is suitable for a wider range of transmutation problems including those treated with older versions. In recent accelerator transmutation studies, the CINDER`90 code has been linked with the LAHET Code System (LCS) and, for high-energy calculations, with SUPERHET. A description of the nature of these linked calculational tools is given; data requirements for the transmutation studies are described; and, examples of linked calculations are described for some interesting accelerator applications.

Wilson, W.B.; England, T.R.; Arthur, E.D.; Beard, C.A.; Bowman, C.D.; Engel, L.N.; Gavron, A.; George, D.C.; Daemen, L.L.; Hughes, H.G. III [and others

1994-10-01

113

Optically detected magnetic resonance studies of neutron-transmutation-doped GaP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A direct proof of neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of GaP is presented on the basis of optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR). GaP:S samples grown by the liquid- encapsulated Czochralski method were irradiated with thermal neutrons and subsequently annealed at 800 °C. In the ODMR experiments the transmuted Ge substitutional on Ga sites was detected. The NTD process was also found to create deep acceptors; these are tentatively identified as associates of gallium vacancies (VGa) and germanium donors on gallium sites (GeGa). Such identification requires that some of the structural defects (vacancies) created by ? and ? recoil during transmutation are stabilized by forming VGa- GeGa complexes.

Liesert, B. J. Heijmink; Godlewski, M.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Ammerlaan, C. A. J.

1991-01-01

114

Targeted Radionuclide Therapy  

PubMed Central

Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose. PMID:24213114

Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

2011-01-01

115

Description of Transmutation Library for Fuel Cycle System Analyses  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the Transmutation Library that is used in Fuel Cycle System Analyses. This version replaces the 2008 version.[Piet2008] The Transmutation Library has the following objectives: • Assemble past and future transmutation cases for system analyses. • For each case, assemble descriptive information such as where the case was documented, the purpose of the calculation, the codes used, source of feed material, transmutation parameters, and the name of files that contain raw or source data. • Group chemical elements so that masses in separation and waste processes as calculated in dynamic simulations or spreadsheets reflect current thinking of those processes. For example, the CsSr waste form option actually includes all Group 1A and 2A elements. • Provide mass fractions at input (charge) and output (discharge) for each case. • Eliminate the need for either “fission product other” or “actinide other” while conserving mass. Assessments of waste and separation cannot use “fission product other” or “actinide other” as their chemical behavior is undefined. • Catalog other isotope-specific information in one place, e.g., heat and dose conversion factors for individual isotopes. • Describe the correlations for how input and output compositions change as a function of UOX burnup (for LWR UOX fuel) or fast reactor (FR) transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR) for either FR-metal or FR-oxide. This document therefore includes the following sections: • Explanation of the data set information, i.e., the data that describes each case. In no case are all of the data presented in the Library included in previous documents. In assembling the Library, we return to raw data files to extract the case and isotopic data, into the specified format. • Explanation of which isotopes and elements are tracked. For example, the transition metals are tracked via the following: two Zr isotopes, Zr-other, Tc99, Tc-other, two Mo-Ru-Rh-Pd isotopes, Mo-Ru-Rh-Pd-other, four other specific TM isotopes, and TM-other. Mo-Ru-Rh-Pd are separated because their content constrains the loading of waste in glass, so we have to know the mass of those elements independent of others. • Rules for collapsing long lists of isotopes (~1000) to the 81 items in the library. For each tracked isotope, we define which short-lived isotopes’ mass (at t=0) is included with the mass of the tracked isotope at t=0, which short-lived radioactive progeny must be accounted for when the tracked isotope decays, and to which of the other 80 items the mass of the tracked isotope goes when it decays. • Explanation of where raw data files can be found on the fuel cycle data portal. • Explanation of generic cross section sets • Explanation of isotope-specific parameters such as heat and dose conversion factors • Explanation of the LWR UOX burnup and FR TRU CR correlations.

Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Edward A. Hoffman

2010-08-01

116

Utilization of accelerators for transmutation and energy production  

SciTech Connect

Given the increased concern over reliable, emission-free power, nuclear power has experienced a resurgence of interest. A sub-critical accelerator driven system (ADS) can drive systems that have either safety constraints (waste transmutation) or reduced fissile content (thorium reactor). The goals of ADS are some or all of the following: (1) to significantly reduce the generation or impacts due to the minor actinides on the packing density and long-term radiotoxicity in the repository design, (2) preserve/use the energy-rich component of used nuclear fuel, and (3) reduce proliferation risk. ADS systems have been actively studied in Europe and Asia over the past two decades and renewed interest is occurring in the U.S. This talk will cover some of the history, possible applicable fuel cycle scenarios, and general issues to be considered in implementing ADS systems.

Sheffield, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-24

117

Production of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) Germanium Thermistors for CUORE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CUORE is a cryogenic bolometer experiment designed to look for neutrinoless double beta decay in tellurium-130 in the inverted mass hierarchy region. The source/detector will consist of 988 TeO2 crystals weighing a total of 740 kg, or 204 kg of Te-130. Each bolometer consists of a 5x5x5 cm^3 TeO2 crystal, a silicon resistive heater, and a thermistor which measures the small temperature rise in the crystal when energy from a nuclear decay or background events is deposited. To achieve the required uniformity and concentration in the gallium and arsenic dopants in the thermistors, germanium wafers are neutron-transmutation doped by irradiation at a nuclear reactor. We will present the techniques developed to dope and test four 58 g high-purity germanium wafers with a diameter of 65 mm and thickness 3 mm to an absolute precision of 1%.

Maruyama, Reina

2008-10-01

118

An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities.  

PubMed

Transformation optics is a concept used in some metamaterials to guide light on a predetermined path. In this approach, the materials implement coordinate transformations on electromagnetic waves to create the illusion that the waves are propagating through a virtual space. Transforming space by appropriately designed materials makes devices possible that have been deemed impossible. In particular, transformation optics has led to the demonstration of invisibility cloaking for microwaves, surface plasmons and infrared light. Here, on the basis of transformation optics, we implement a microwave device that would normally require a dielectric singularity, an infinity in the refractive index. To fabricate such a device, we transmute a dielectric singularity in virtual space into a mere topological defect in a real metamaterial. In particular, we demonstrate an omnidirectional retroreflector, a device for faithfully reflecting images and for creating high visibility from all directions. Our method is robust, potentially broadband and could also be applied to visible light using similar techniques. PMID:19561598

Ma, Yun Gui; Ong, C K; Tyc, Tomás; Leonhardt, Ulf

2009-08-01

119

Evaluation of radionuclide transport: Effect of radionuclide sorption and solubility  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major factors involved in evaluating the suitability of the Columbia River basalts for the siting of a nuclear waste repository is the assessment of the ability of the basalt geohydrologic system to retard the transport of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Solubility limited release of radionuclides and sorption of radionuclides on basalt and its associated secondary minerals

P. F. Salter; G. K. Jacobs

1982-01-01

120

Impact of the neutron flux on transmutation products at fusion reactor first-walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To develop and to assess the suitability of a material for use as the first structural wall in a fusion reactor, it is necessary to know the transmutation behaviour of the material. In the present paper we propose a transmutation calculational strategy and how this methodology is implemented in a computer code package, called CIBELES. The code system has been developed to calculate and especially to analyze the transmutations resulting from neutron irradiation. The system includes powerful computing methods for analysing the results, and uses the numerical calculation techniques of the ORIGEN code. The transmutation characteristics of two structural materials, AISI 316L austenitic steel and DIN 1.4914 martensitic steel have been evaluated for the peripheral target position in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and the first wall position of the Culham Conceptual Tokamak Reactor MarkIIA (CCTRII).

Sanz, J.; De La Fuente, R.; Perlado, J. M.

1988-07-01

121

Brocchi, Darwin, and Transmutation: Phylogenetics and Paleontology at the Dawn of Evolutionary Biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giambattista Brocchi’s (1814) monograph (see Dominici, Evo Edu Outreach, this issue, 2010) on the Tertiary fossils of the Subappenines in Italy—and their relation to the living molluscan fauna—contains a theoretical,\\u000a transmutational perspective (“Brocchian transmutation”). Unlike Lamarck (1809), Brocchi saw species as discrete and fundamentally stable entities. Explicitly analogizing the births and deaths of species\\u000a with those of individual organisms (“Brocchi’s

Stefano Dominici; Niles Eldredge

2010-01-01

122

Transmutation of minor actinides in a spherical torus tokamak fusion reactor, FDTR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a concept of transmutation minor actinide (MA) nuclear waste based on the spherical torus (ST) tokamak reactor, FDTR, was put forward. A set of plasma parameter was decided suitable for the ST transmutation nuclear waste blanket. Using the 2-D neutron transport code TWODANT, the 3-D Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B and the 1-D burn-up calculation code BISON3.0 and

K. M Feng; G. S Zhang; M. G Deng

2002-01-01

123

Modification of PROMETHEUS Reactor as a Fusion Breeder and Fission Product Transmuter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the analyses of the fissile breeding and long-lived fission product (LLFP) transmutation potentials of\\u000a PROMETHEUS reactor. For this purpose, a fissile breeding zone (FBZ) fueled with the ceramic uranium mono-carbide (UC) and\\u000a a LLFP transmutation zone (TZ) containing the 99TC and 129I and 135Cs isotopes are separately placed into the breeder zone of PROMETHEUS-H design. The neutronic

Hüseyin Yap?c?; Gül?ah Öz???k

2008-01-01

124

Rapid Transmutation of High-Level Nuclear Wastes in a Catalyzed Fusion-Driven System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to investigate the high-level waste (HLW) transmutation potential of fusion-driven transmuter (FDT)\\u000a based on catalyzed D–D fusion plasma for various fuel fractions. The Minor actinide (MA) (237Np, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm) and long-lived fission product (LLFP) (99Tc, 129I and 135Cs) nuclides discharged from high burn-up pressured water reactor-mixed oxide spent fuel are considered as

Nesrin Demir; Gamze Genç; Taner Altunok; Hüseyin Yap?c?

2009-01-01

125

Technical and economic assessment of different options for minor actinide transmutation: the French case  

SciTech Connect

Studies have been performed to assess the industrial perspectives of partitioning and transmutation of long-lived elements. These studies were carried out in tight connection with GEN-IV systems development. The results include the technical and economic evaluation of fuel cycle scenarios along with different options for optimizing the processes between the minor actinide transmutation in fast neutron reactors, their interim storage and geological disposal of ultimate waste. The results are analysed through several criteria (impacts on waste, on waste repository, on fuel cycle plants, on radiological exposure of workers, on costs and on industrial risks). These scenario evaluations take place in the French context which considers the deployment of the first Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) in 2040. 3 management options of minor actinides have been studied: no transmutation, transmutation in SFR and transmutation in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). Concerning economics the study shows that the cost overrun related to the transmutation process could vary between 5 to 9% in SFR and 26 % in the case of ADS.

Chabert, C.; Coquelet-Pascal, C. [CEA-Cadarache, DEN, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Saturnin, A. [CEA, DEN, Marcoule (France); Mathonniere, G.; Boullis, B.; Warin, D. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Van Den Durpel, L. [AREVA-NC, Paris-la-Defense (France); Caron-Charles, M. [AREVA-NP, Paris-la-Defense (France); Garzenne, C. [EDF, Paris (France)

2013-07-01

126

Radionuclide imaging of infection.  

PubMed

Although our understanding of microorganisms has advanced significantly and antimicrobial therapy has become increasingly available, infection remains a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality. The role of radionuclide imaging in the evaluation of the patient suspected of harboring an infection varies with the situation. For example, in the postoperative patient, radionuclide imaging is complementary to CT and is used to help differentiate postoperative changes from infection. In the case of the painful joint replacement, in contrast, radionuclide studies are the primary diagnostic imaging modality for differentiating infection from other causes of prosthetic failure. Several tracers are available for imaging infection: (99m)Tc-diphosphonates, (67)Ga-citrate, and (111)In- and (99m)Tc-labeled leukocytes. At the moment, in immunocompetent patients, labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide procedure of choice for detecting most infections. There are, unfortunately, significant limitations to the use of labeled leukocytes. The in vitro labeling process is labor intensive, is not always available, and involves direct handling of blood products. For musculoskeletal infection, the need to frequently perform complementary marrow or bone imaging adds complexity and expense to the procedure and is an inconvenience to patients. Considerable effort has therefore been devoted to the search for alternatives to this procedure, including in vivo methods of labeling leukocytes, (18)F-FDG PET, and radiolabeled antibiotics. This article reviews the current status of nuclear medicine infection imaging and the potential of a murine monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody, fanolesomab, that is currently under investigation. Upon completion of this article, the reader will be familiar with the physical characteristics and uptake mechanisms of tracers currently approved for infection imaging, the indications for the uses of these tracers, and the characteristics and potential indications for a murine monoclonal antigranulocyte antibody under investigation. PMID:15175400

Love, Charito; Palestro, Christopher J

2004-06-01

127

Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of technology focuses on instructional technology. Topics include inquiry and technology; curriculum development; reflection and curriculum evaluation; criteria for technological innovations that will increase student motivation; standards; impact of new technologies on library media centers; software; and future trends. (LRW)

Callison, Daniel

2002-01-01

128

Study of Radioactive Impurities in Neutron Transmutation Doped Germanium  

E-print Network

A program to develop low temperature (mK) sensors with neutron transmutation doped Ge for rare event studies with a cryogenic bolometer has been initiated. For this purpose, semiconductor grade Ge wafers are irradiated with thermal neutron flux from Dhruva reactor at BARC, Mumbai. Spectroscopic studies of irradiated samples have revealed that the environment of the capsule used for irradiating the sample leads to significant levels of $^{65}$Zn, $^{110}$Ag and $^{182}$Ta impurities, which can be reduced by chemical etching of approximately $\\sim50 \\mu$m thick surface layer. From measurements of the etched samples in the low background counting setup, activity due to trace impurities of $^{123}$Sb in bulk Ge is estimated to be $\\sim$ 1 Bq/gm after irradiation. These estimates indicate that in order to use the NTD Ge sensors for rare event studies, a cool down period of $\\sim$ 2 years would be necessary to reduce the radioactive background to $\\le$ 1 mBq/gm.

Mathimalar, S; Singh, V; Nanal, V; Pillay, R G; Shrivastava, A; Jagadeesan, K C; Thakare, S V

2014-01-01

129

Study of Radioactive Impurities in Neutron Transmutation Doped Germanium  

E-print Network

A program to develop low temperature (mK) sensors with neutron transmutation doped Ge for rare event studies with a cryogenic bolometer has been initiated. For this purpose, semiconductor grade Ge wafers are irradiated with thermal neutron flux from Dhruva reactor at BARC, Mumbai. Spectroscopic studies of irradiated samples have revealed that the environment of the capsule used for irradiating the sample leads to significant levels of $^{65}$Zn, $^{110}$Ag and $^{182}$Ta impurities, which can be reduced by chemical etching of approximately $\\sim50 \\mu$m thick surface layer. From measurements of the etched samples in the low background counting setup, activity due to trace impurities of $^{123}$Sb in bulk Ge is estimated to be $\\sim$ 1 Bq/gm after irradiation. These estimates indicate that in order to use the NTD Ge sensors for rare event studies, a cool down period of $\\sim$ 2 years would be necessary to reduce the radioactive background to $\\le$ 1 mBq/gm.

S. Mathimalar; N. Dokania; V. Singh; V. Nanal; R. G. Pillay; A. Shrivastava; K. C. Jagadeesan; S. V. Thakare

2014-06-06

130

Heat Capacity of Neutron Transmutation Doped Ge Type 18  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present measurements of the heat capacity of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) Ge temperature sensors from 100-300 mK. The NTD Ge sensor studied consists of a 30?m×100?m×250?m block of NTD Ge type 18 with the natural isotopic abundance, a doping of n = 5.6×1016cm-3 and ion implanted and metallized contact pads. Each sensor was mounted on a freestanding silicon nitride (Si-N) pad supported by Si-N legs each with a cross section in the range 5-10 ?m2. Two of the Si-N legs were metallized for electrical readout of the NTD Ge sensor. The measured heat capacity of the NTD Ge sensor, which includes the metalization and Si-N pad, when fit to power law C = C0T? yields C0 = 4.3pJ/K? and ? = 1.6. The thermal conductance, GSi-N, of the Si-N support legs was measured over a larger temperature range 80-800 mK. We find Gsi-N at temperatures >200 mK of all 4 samples is at or below the 1D or quantum of thermal conductance limit.

Holmes, W.; Bock, J. J.; Lange, A. E.

2009-12-01

131

Neutron transmutation doped natural and isotopically engineered germanium thermistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development, fabrication and performance of a new class of thermal sensors for far IR and millimeter wave detection. These devices consist of small single crystal samples of ultra-pure, natural or isotopically engineered germanium which have been doped by the neutron transmutation doping (NTD) technique. The concentrations of the acceptor and donor dopants (N(subscript A),N(subscript D)) can be accurately controlled with this technique. They depend on the thermal neutron fluence, the neutron absorption cross sections and the atomic fractions of (superscript 70)Ge (for the Ga acceptors) and (superscript 74)Ge (for the As donors), respectively. The values of N(subscript A) and N(subscript D) and their ratio result in a predictable resistivity of the Ge crystals down to temperatures of a few milliKelvin. The excellent control of the resistivity down to very low temperatrues, together with the development of ohmic contacts working at the lowest temperatures, allows the fabrication of high sensitivity bolometer arrays with over 100 pixels and highly uniform response.

Haller, Eugene E.; Itoh, K. M.; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Hansen, William L.; Ozhogin, V. I.

1994-06-01

132

Annealing characteristics of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capacitance transient spectroscopy and the variable temperature Hall effect are used to investigate the effects of thermal-enhanced and injection-enhanced annealing on the electrical properties of initially high-purity (N sub A - N sub D = 10 to the 10th per cu cm) neutron-transmutation-doped (NTD) Ge. After thermal annealing at 400 C for 6 h, complete recovery of electrical properties is seen; significant activation of dopants created by the NTD process is observed even in samples left at ambient temperature for eight months after irradiation. To verify their acceptor nature, use is made of electric field-enhanced emission of trapped holes from deep level, damage-induced states, and a recombination-enhanced annealing mechanism is observed for several deep acceptors. It is noted that other high-purity samples irradiated with a lower dose of fast neutrons reveal only many deep hole traps; most of these are tentatively correlated with the amount of hydrogen in the parent crystal.

Palaio, N. P.; Pearton, S. J.; Haller, E. E.

1984-03-01

133

Electrical properties of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium  

SciTech Connect

Electrical properties of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium (NTD Ge) and nearly uncompensated gallium-doped germanium have been measured as functions of net-impurity concentration (2 x 10/sup 15/cm/sup -3/ less than or equal to N/sub A/ - N/sub D/ less than or equal to 5 x 10/sup 16/cm/sup -3/) and temperature (0.3 K less than or equal to T less than or equal to 300 K). The method of impurity conduction as a function of carrier concentration and compensation was investigated in the low temperature hopping regime. For nearest neighbor hopping, the resistivity is expected to vary as rho = rho/sub 0/exp(..delta../T) while Mott's theory of variable range hopping predicts that rho = rho/sub 0/exp(..delta../T)/sup 1/4/ in the low temperature limit. In contrast, our results show that the resistivity can best be approximated by rho = rho/sub 0/exp(..delta../T)/sup 1/2/ in the hopping regime down to 0.3 K.

Rodder, M.

1982-08-01

134

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

J.D. Schreiber

2005-08-25

135

Study on partitioning and transmutation as a possible option for spent fuel management within a nuclear phase-out scenario  

SciTech Connect

Most Partitioning and Transmutation (PT) studies implicitly presuppose the continuous use of nuclear energy. In this case the development of new facilities or the modification of the fuel cycle can be justified in the long-term as an important feature in order to improve sustainability by minimizing radioactive waste and reducing the burden at waste disposal. In the case of a country with nuclear energy phase-out policy, the PT option might have also an important role for what concerns the final disposal strategies of the spent fuel. In this work three selected scenarios are analyzed in order to assess the impact of PT implementation in a nuclear energy phase out option. The scenarios are: -) Scenario 1: Identification of Research/Development activities needs for a technological development of PT while postponing the decision of PT implementation; -) Scenario 2: Isolated application of PT in a phase-out context; and -) Scenario 3: Implementation of PT in a European context. In order to facilitate the discrimination among the 3 scenarios, a number of figures of indicators have been evaluated for each scenario. The selected indicators are: the mass of High Level Waste (HLW), Uranium inventory, thermal output of HLW, Radiotoxicity, Fuel cycle secondary waste associated to the PT operation, and Facility capacity/number requirements. The reduction, due to PT implementation, of high level wastes masses and their associated volumes can be significant. For what concerns the thermal output and radiotoxicity a significant impact can be also expected. However, when assessing these two indicators the contribution coming from already vitrified waste should also not be neglected. Moreover, an increase of secondary waste inventory is also expected. On the contrary, the increase of fission product inventories due to the operation of the transmutation system has a relatively limited impact on the fuel cycle.

Fazion, C.; Rineiski, A.; Salvatores, M.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Romanello, V.; Vezzoni, B.; Gabrielli, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2013-07-01

136

Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: appendix  

SciTech Connect

The Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has prepared a set of documents that evaluate a Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle relative to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted to shorter-lived materials, thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks they present to the public and to workers. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the CRAC code appropriately modified for the material composition. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts; the effects are calculated using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. The result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. This conclusion is strongly dominated by the nonradiological risk, which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatalities/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatalities/GWe-year for the Reference cycle. This should be compared with Inhaber's estimate of 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year.

Fullwood, R.R.; Jackson, R.

1980-01-01

137

Transmutability: Digital Decontextualization, Manipulation, and Recontextualization as a New Source of Value in the Production and Consumption of Culture Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a fundamental characteristic of digital culture goods, transmutability, which has not previously been studied in IS research as a driver of value. Transmutability refers to the fact that digital files of culture goods such as music and movies can easily be altered, unlike the analog culture products which preceded the digital age. Both creators and consumers of

Jerald Hughes; Karl Reiner Lang

2006-01-01

138

The Minor Actinide Transmutation-Incineration Potential Studies in High Intensity Neutron Fluxes  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of nuclear waste transmutation studies, the Mini-INCA project has been initiated at CEA/DSM with objectives to determine optimal conditions for transmutation and incineration of Minor Actinides (MA) in high intensity neutron fluxes. Our experimental tools based on alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and the development of fission micro-chambers could gather both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials. Cross sections of selected actinides (241Am, 242Am, 242Pu, 237Np, 238Np) have already been measured at ILL, showing some discrepancies when compared to evaluated data libraries but in overall good agreement with recent experimental data.

Letourneau, A.; Chabod, S.; Foucher, Y.; Marie, F.; Ridikas, D.; Veyssiere, Ch. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Al Mahamid, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, E.H. and S Division - CA (United States); Blandin, Ch. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX - Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Chartier, F. [CEA/Saclay/DEN/DPC/SECR - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Faust, H.; Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

2005-05-24

139

Radionuclides' Content Speciation and Fingerprinting of Nigerian Tin Mining Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment and process-waste samples rich in cassiterite, monazite and zircon, which are of industrial interest, were analysed for the natural series radionuclides, 232Th and 238U and the non-series radionuclide, 40K using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. The natural radionuclides' radioactivity in the samples from the tin-rich areas of Jos, Nigeria was determined using K0-INAA. The obtained results have a high degree of reliability judging from the techniqués accuracy, precision and its non-dependence on secular equilibrium and density correction problems inherent in gamma spectrometry as well as rigorous contamination-prone sample preparation requirements of other methods. Radionuclides speciation and ratios, giving radionuclide fingerprinting of the tin mining tailings is reported. The measured radionuclides activity levels are several orders of magnitude higher than UNSCEAR reference values, revealing the pollution potential of the tin mining and process activities on the surrounding areas, vis-à-vis heavy particulate matter load, leaching into various water channels and direct exposure to gamma rays emitted from the houses and facilities built from the generated wastes. The observed activity levels reflects possible worst scenario situation and the data would not only be of use to the government in its remediation plan for the study area but will also serve as important information for the nuclear science and technology programme about to be embarked upon. Methods of checking exposure have also been suggested.

Olise, F. S.; Oladejo, O. F.; Owoade, O. K.; Almeida, S. M.; Ho, M. D.; Olaniyi, H. B.

2012-04-01

140

Simulation of radionuclide transport in U. S. agriculture  

SciTech Connect

Because of the recent concern about the impact of energy technologies on man and related health effects, there has emerged a need for models to calculate or predict the effects of radionuclides on man. A general overview is presented of a model that calculates the ingrowth of radionuclides into man's food chain. The FORTRAN IV computer program TERRA, Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides in Agriculture, simulates the build-up of radionuclides in soil, four plant food compartments, in meat and milk from beef, and in the livestock food compartments that cause radionuclide build-up in milk and meat from beef. A large data set of spatially oriented parameters has been developed in conjunction with TERRA. This direct-access data set is called SITE, Specific Information on the Terrestrial Environment, and contains 35 parameters for each of 3525 half-degree longitude-latitude cells which define the lower 48 states. TERRA and SITE are used together as a package for determining radionuclide concentrations in man's food anywhere within the conterminous 48 states due to atmospheric releases.

Sharp, R.D.; Baes, C.F. III

1982-01-01

141

Studying the anthropogenic radionuclides in Puerto Rico: Preliminary Result  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local introduction of anthropogenic radionuclides to Puerto Rico's terrestrial and aquatic environments began in 1962 as a result of US government-sponsored research activities. Some of the earlier experiments examined the effects of radiation in tropical rainforests and the potential of superheated boiling nuclear reactor technology. More recent activities involved the use of depleted uranium during military exercises on Vieques. While

W. Ithier-Guzmán; A. J. Pyrtle; J. Smoak

2004-01-01

142

Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees  

SciTech Connect

A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

Doepel, L.K.

1985-02-08

143

The place of man in the development of Darwin's theory of transmutation. Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The place of man in Darwin's development of a theory of transmutation has been obscured by his manner of disclosure. Comparing the 1837–1839 period to his entire career as a theorist suggests that it was Darwin's practice to present himself and his work only before the most select scientific audiences, and then in accordance with their expectations. The negative implications

Sandra Herbert

1977-01-01

144

Scent Transmutation: A New Way to Teach on Chemical Equilibrium, Distillation, and Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Esters are volatile and pleasantly smelling compounds, commonly used as food additives. Using Ti(OBu)[subscript 4]-catalyzed acyl exchange, we demonstrate a scent transmutation experiment, in which two fragrant esters swap their acyl and alkoxy substituents and are, during the course of a reactive distillation, quantitatively converted into two…

Ji, Qing; El-Hamdi, Nadia S.; Miljanic´, Ognjen S?.

2014-01-01

145

Transmutation behaviour of Eurofer under irradiation in the IFMIF test facility and fusion power reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transmutation behaviour of the low activation steel Eurofer was analysed for irradiation simulations in the high flux test module (HFTM) of the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) neutron source and the first wall of a typical fusion power reactor (FPR) employing helium cooled lithium lead (HCLL) and pebble bed (HCPB) blankets. The transmutation calculations were conducted with the analytical and laplacian adaptive radioactivity analysis (ALARA) code and IEAF-2001 data for the IFMIF and the EASY-2003 system for the fusion power reactor (FPR) irradiations. The analyses showed that the transmutation of the main constituents of Eurofer, including iron and chromium, is not significant. Minor constituents such as Ti, V and Mn increase by 5-15% per irradiation year in the FPR and by 10-35% in the IFMIF HFTM. Other minor constituents such as B, Ta, and W show a different transmutation behaviour resulting in different elemental compositions of the Eurofer steel after high fluence irradiations in IFMIF and fusion power reactors.

Fischer, U.; Simakov, S. P.; Wilson, P. P. H.

2004-08-01

146

Transmutation of minor actinides discharged from LMFBR spent fuel in a high power density fusion reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant amounts of nuclear wastes consisting of plutonium, minor actinides and long lived fission products are produced during the operation of commercial nuclear power plants. Therefore, the destruction of these wastes is very important with respect to public health, environment and also the future of nuclear energy. In this study, transmutation of minor actinides (MAs) discharged from LMFBR spent fuel

Mustafa Übeyli

2004-01-01

147

Electrical and thermal properties of neutron-transmutation-doped Ge at 20 mK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on hot-electron effects in neutron-transmutation-doped Ge (NTD Ge) near 20 mK. Both static and dynamic electrical properties were measured and compared with a model including both variable-range-hopping conduction and hot-electron effects.

Wang, Ning; Wellstood, F. C.; Sadoulet, B.; Haller, E. E.; Beeman, J.

1990-02-01

148

CONCEPT OF THE DEMONSTRATION MOLTEN SALT UNIT FOR THE TRANSURANIUM ELEMENTS TRANSMUTATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report it is considered fluorine reprocessing of spent fuel and fluoride molten salt reactor in critical and subcritical modes for plutonium and minor actinides burning. International collaboration for creation of such system is proposed. It is without any doubt that additional neutron source in the core will have positive influence on the transmutation processes in the reactor. On

P. Alekseev; A. Dudnikov; V. Prusakov; S. Subbotin; R. Zakirov; V. Lelek; I. Peka

149

Modelling the inventory and impact assessment of partitioning and transmutation approaches to spent nuclear fuel management  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inventory modelling and impact assessment system to investigate the potential effects of partitioning and transmutation is proposed. It is founded on a mass based inventory analysis using the principles of basic nuclear physics and the international standards for assessing radiological health effects. It is specific to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle and is applied to four alternative

C. Hoggett-Jones; C. Robbins; G. Gettinby; S. Blythe

2002-01-01

150

Biology of radionuclide therapy. Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference entitled Biology of Radionuclide Therapy held in Washington September 29 and 30, 1988. The meeting is part of the Frontiers in Nuclear Medicine Symposium Series.

DeNardo, G.L.; Lewis, J.P. [eds.] [University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Raventos, A. [ed.] [Veterans Administration Hospital, Martinez, CA (United States); Burt, R.W. [ed.] [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

1989-12-31

151

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-09-30

152

The fast-spectrum transmutation experimental facility FASTEF: Main design achievements (Part 1: Core and primary system) within the FP7-CDT collaborative project of the European Commission  

SciTech Connect

MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hybrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is the flexible experimental accelerator-driven system (ADS) in development at SCK CEN in replacement of its material testing reactor BR2. SCK CEN in association with 17 European partners from industry, research centres and academia, responded to the FP7 (Seventh Framework Programme) call from the European Commission to establish a Central Design Team (CDT) for the design of a Fast Spectrum Transmutation Experimental Facility (FASTEF) able to demonstrate efficient transmutation and associated technology through a system working in subcritical and/or critical mode. The project has started on April 01, 2009 for a period of three years. In this paper, we present the latest configuration of the reactor core and primary system. The FASTEF facility has evolved quite a lot since the intermediate reporting done at the ICAPP'10 and ICAPP'11 conferences 1 2. If it remains a small-scale facility, the core power amounts now up to 100 MWth in critical mode. In a companion paper 3, we present the concept of the reactor building and the plant layout. (authors)

De Bruyn, D.; Fernandez, R. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Mansani, L. [ANSALDO, Corso Perrone 25, 16152 Genova (Italy); Woaye-Hune, A. [AREVA-NP, rue Juliette Recamier 10, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France); Sarotto, M. [ENEA, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Bubelis, E. [KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2012-07-01

153

Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides (153samarium-ethylenediaminetetramethylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and 89strontium) deliver high

Manfred Fischer; Willm U. Kampen

2012-01-01

154

Video instrumentation for radionuclide angiocardiography.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two types of videoscintiscopes for performing radioisotopic angiocardiography with a scintillation camera are described, and use of these instruments in performing clinical studies is illustrated. Radionuclide angiocardiography is a simple, quick and accurate procedure recommended as a screening test for patients with a variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions. When performed in conjunction with coronary arterial catheterization, dynamic radionuclide angiography may provide useful information about regional myocardial perfusion. Quantitative capabilities greatly enhance the potential of this diagnostic tool.

Kriss, J. P.

1973-01-01

155

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

156

Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

1998-07-01

157

Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, ?-, ?-, and ?-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients. PMID:20811605

Ting, Gann; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Lee, Te-Wei

2010-01-01

158

Studying the anthropogenic radionuclides in Puerto Rico: Preliminary Result  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local introduction of anthropogenic radionuclides to Puerto Rico's terrestrial and aquatic environments began in 1962 as a result of US government-sponsored research activities. Some of the earlier experiments examined the effects of radiation in tropical rainforests and the potential of superheated boiling nuclear reactor technology. More recent activities involved the use of depleted uranium during military exercises on Vieques. While the presence of radionuclides in Puerto Rico is documented, little research has been done to assess the environmental impact of this anthropogenic material. After entering Puerto Rico's environment, it is likely that some radionuclides are transported away from initial introduction sites. It is important that the distributions and behavior of radionuclides in Puerto Rico be determined. As such an investigation of this material throughout Puerto Rico was initiated. Sediment Cs-137 and Pb-210 activities, as well as ancillary geochemistry data are presented. These preliminary findings will be utilized as part of an ongoing study to determine radionuclide distributions and behaviors, with respect to aquatic geochemistry and dominant transport processes.

Ithier-Guzmán, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Smoak, J.

2004-12-01

159

Measurements at n_TOF of the Neutron Capture Cross Section of Minor Actinides Relevant to the Nuclear Waste Transmutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and reliable neutron-capture cross-section data for actinides are necessary for the proper design, safety regulation, and precise performance assessment of transmutation devices such as Fast Critical Reactors or Accelerator Driven Systems. In particular, the neutron-capture cross sections of 237Np, 240Pu, and 243Am play a key role in the design and optimization of a strategy for the Nuclear Waste Transmutation.

D. Cano-Ott; U. Abbondanno; G. Aerts; H. Álvarez; F. Àlvarez-Velarde; S. Andriamonje; J. Andrzejewski; P. Assimakopoulos; L. Audouin; G. Badurek; P. Baumann; F. Becvár; J. Benlliure; E. Berthoumieux; F. Calviño; R. Capote; A. Carillo de Albornoz; P. Cennini; V. Chepel; E. Chiaveri; N. Colonna; G. Cortes; D. Cortina; A. Couture; J. Cox; S. David; R. Dolfini; C. Domingo-Pardo; W. Dridi; I. Duran; M. Embid-Segura; L. Ferrant; A. Ferrari; L. Fitzpatrick; R. Ferreira-Marques; H. Frais-Koelbl; K. Fujii; W. Furman; I. Goncalves; R. Gallino; E. Gonzalez-Romero; A. Goverdovski; F. Gramegna; E. Griesmayer; C. Guerrero; F. Gunsing; B. Haas; R. Haight; M. Heil; A. Herrera-Martinez; M. Igashira; S. Isaev; E. Jericha; Y. Kadi; F. Käppeler; D. Karamanis; D. Karadimos; M. Kerveno; V. Ketlerov; P. Koehler; V. Konovalov; E. Kossionides; C. Lamboudis; H. Leeb; A. Lindote; I. Lopes; M. Lozano; S. Lukic; J. Marganiec; L. Marques; S. Marrone; P. Mastinu; A. Mengoni; P. M. Milazzo; C. Moreau; M. Mosconi; F. Neves; H. Oberhummer; S. O'Brien; M. Oshima; J. Pancin; C. Papachristodoulou; C. Papadopoulos; T. Papaevangelou; C. Paradela; N. Patronis; A. Pavlik; P. Pavlopoulos; G. Perdikakis; L. Perrot; R. Plag; A. Plompen; A. Plukis; A. Poch; C. Pretel; J. Quesada; T. Rauscher; R. Reifarth; M. Rosetti; C. Rubbia; G. Rudolf; P. Rullhusen; J. Salgado; L. Sarchiapone; C. Stephan; G. Tagliente; J. L. Tain; L. Tassan-Got; L. Tavora; R. Terlizzi; G. Vannini; P. Vaz; A. Ventura; D. Villamarin; M. C. Vincente; V. Vlachoudis; R. Vlastou; F. Voss; H. Wendler; M. Wiescher

2005-01-01

160

Radionuclide injury to the lung.  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

1984-01-01

161

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2012-09-24

162

Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods  

DOEpatents

Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-03-08

163

Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of information and knowledge management in the knowledge intensive and time critical environment of law enforcement has posed an interesting problem for information technology professionals in the field. Coupled with this challenging environment are issues relating to the integration of multiple systems, each having different functionalities resulting in difficulty for the end-user. The COPLINK project ties together the

Roslin V. Hauck; Hsinchun Chen

164

Detailed studies of Minor Actinide transmutation-incineration in high-intensity neutron fluxes  

SciTech Connect

The Mini-INCA project is dedicated to the measurement of incineration-transmutation chains and potentials of minor actinides in high-intensity thermal neutron fluxes. In this context, new types of detectors and methods of analysis have been developed. The {sup 241}Am and {sup 232}Th transmutation-incineration chains have been studied and several capture and fission cross sections measured very precisely, showing some discrepancies with existing data or evaluated data. An impact study was made on different based-like GEN-IV reactors. It underlines the necessity to proceed to precise measurements for a large number of minor-actinides that contribute to these future incineration scenarios. (authors)

Bringer, O. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Al Mahamid, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, E.H. and S. Div., CA (United States); Blandin, C. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Chabod, S. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chartier, F. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dupont, E.; Fioni, G. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Isnard, H. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Letourneau, A.; Marie, F. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Oriol, L. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, C. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2006-07-01

165

Application of neutron transmutation doping method to initially p-type silicon material.  

PubMed

The neutron transmutation doping (NTD) method was applied to the initially p-type silicon in order to extend the NTD applications at HANARO. The relationship between the irradiation neutron fluence and the final resistivity of the initially p-type silicon material was investigated. The proportional constant between the neutron fluence and the resistivity was determined to be 2.3473x10(19)nOmegacm(-1). The deviation of the final resistivity from the target for almost all the irradiation results of the initially p-type silicon ingots was at a range from -5% to 2%. In addition, the burn-up effect of the boron impurities, the residual (32)P activity and the effect of the compensation characteristics for the initially p-type silicon were studied. Conclusively, the practical methodology to perform the neutron transmutation doping of the initially p-type silicon ingot was established. PMID:19318259

Kim, Myong-Seop; Kang, Ki-Doo; Park, Sang-Jun

2009-01-01

166

Hydrogen bond disruption in DNA base pairs from (14)C transmutation.  

PubMed

Recent ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have shown that radioactive carbon does not normally fragment DNA bases when it decays. Motivated by this finding, density functional theory and Bader analysis have been used to quantify the effect of C ? N transmutation on hydrogen bonding in DNA base pairs. We find that (14)C decay has the potential to significantly alter hydrogen bonds in a variety of ways including direct proton shuttling (thymine and cytosine), thermally activated proton shuttling (guanine), and hydrogen bond breaking (cytosine). Transmutation substantially modifies both the absolute and relative strengths of the hydrogen bonding pattern, and in two instances (adenine and cytosine), the density at the critical point indicates development of mild covalent character. Since hydrogen bonding is an important component of Watson-Crick pairing, these (14)C-induced modifications, while infrequent, may trigger errors in DNA transcription and replication. PMID:25127298

Sassi, Michel; Carter, Damien J; Uberuaga, Blas P; Stanek, Christopher R; Mancera, Ricardo L; Marks, Nigel A

2014-09-01

167

Progress of nitride fuel cycle research for transmutation of minor actinides  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress of nitride fuel cycle research for transmutation of MA is summarized. Preparation of MA-bearing nitride pellets, such as (Np,Am)N, (Am,Pu)N and (Np,Pu,Am,Cm)N, was carried out. Irradiation behavior of U-free nitride fuel was investigated by the irradiation test of (Pu,Zr)N and PuN+TiN fuels, in which ZrN and TiN were added as a possible diluent material. Further, pyrochemical process of spent nitride fuel was developed by electrorefining in a molten chloride salt and subsequent re-nitridation of actinides in liquid Cd cathode electro-deposits. Nitride fuel cycle for transmutation of MA has been demonstrated in a laboratory scale by the experimental study with MA and Pu. (authors)

Arai, Yasuo; Akabori, Mitsuo; Minato, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

2007-07-01

168

Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

169

Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides (153samarium-ethylenediaminetetrameth-ylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and 89strontium) deliver high radiation doses to bone metastases and micrometastases in the bone marrow, but only negligible doses to the hematopoietic marrow. The response rate regarding pain syndrome is about 75%; about 25% of the patients may even become pain free. The therapy is repeatable, depending on cell counts. Concomitant treatment with modern bisphosphonates does not interfere with the treatment effects. Clinical trials using a new, not yet approved nuclide (223Radium) and/or combinations of chemotherapy and radionuclides are aiming at a more curative approach. PMID:22740795

Fischer, Manfred; Kampen, Willm U.

2012-01-01

170

100 years of radionuclide metrology.  

PubMed

The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. PMID:24398412

Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Toraño, E; Wätjen, U

2014-05-01

171

Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) germanium thermistors for sub-mm bolometer applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in the development of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) semiconductor thermistors fabricated from natural and controlled isotopic composition germanium are reported. The near ideal doping uniformity that can be achieved with the NTD process, the device simplicity of NTD Ge thermistors and the high performance of cooled junction field effect transistor preamplifiers led to the widespread acceptance of these thermal sensors in ground-based, airborne and spaceborne radio telescopes. These features made possible the development of efficient bolometer arrays.

Haller, E. E.; Itoh, K. M.; Beeman, J. W.

1996-01-01

172

SSNTD and radiochemical studies on the transmutation of nuclei using relativistic ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended targets were irradiated for transmutation studies with relativistic heavy ions. For this, a metal core was surrounded by a paraffin moderator. The metal is either copper or lead and it was irradiated with deuterium, alpha, or carbon beams of 1.5 or 3.7 GeV\\/u at the SYNCHROPHASOTRON, LHE, JINR, Dubna, Russia. During this irradiation copious amounts of secondary neutrons are

M. Ochs; I. G. Abdullaev; I. Adam; J. C. Adloff; I. G. Bersina; V. Bradnova; R. Brandt; M. Bognitzki; V. S. Butsev; M. Debeauvais; K. K. Dwivedi; F. Fernandes; S.-L. Guo; M. I. Krivopustov; B. A. Kulakov; E.-J. Langrock; G. Modolo; R. Odoj; V. P. Perelygin; A. N. Priemyshev; V. S. Pronskich; T. Schmidt; A. N. Sosnin; V. I. Stegailov; R. Sudowe; P. Vater; J.-S. Wan; M. Zamani; V. M. Zupko-Sitnikov

1997-01-01

173

Accelerator-driven transmutation of nuclear waste and electrical power production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capabilities of modern proton or deuteron linear accelerators (1 Gev, 200 mA average current) enable a new physics and engineering approach using thermal neutrons to transmute both actinide and fission product radioactive wastes to short-lived or non-radioactive byproducts. A clean and economically attractive energy source with a long-term plentiful fuel supply and no long-term waste legacy results from using

Robert A. Jameson

1993-01-01

174

Influence of fast neutrons on the recombination and electrical properties of neutron transmutation doped gallium arsenide  

SciTech Connect

The electrical properties, photoluminescence and DLTS spectra of LEC gallium arsenide crystals after neutron transmutation doping (NTD) has been investigated as function of starting material properties, irradiation dose and thermal to fast neutron fluences-ratio. The residual carbon acceptors interact with radiation induced defects (RD) in neutron irradiated GaAs crystals and formed nonradiative recombination centers, which are stable up to 700 C temperature.

Bykovsky, V.A.; Karas, V.I.; Shoh, V.F. [Research Inst. of Radiomaterials, Minsk (Belarus); Strzelecka, S.; Hruban, A.; Gladysz, M. [Inst. of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

1996-12-31

175

Comparative Fuel Cycle Analysis of Critical and Subcritical Fast Reactor Transmutation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cycle analyses are performed to evaluate the impacts of further transmutation of spent nuclear fuel on high-level and low-level waste mass flows into repositories, on the composition and toxicity of the high-level waste, on the capacity of high-level waste repositories, and on the proliferation resistance of the high-level waste. Storage intact of light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel,

Edward A. Hoffman; Weston M. Stacey

2003-01-01

176

LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE NOTE PRLIMINAIRE SUR LA TRANSMUTATION DU MERCURE EN OR  

E-print Network

LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE RADIUM NOTE PR�LIMINAIRE SUR LA TRANSMUTATION DU MERCURE EN OR par M tungstène et une électrode de mercure plongées dans de l'huile de paraffine ou de l'huile de transformateur. Le mercure en expérience a été purifié deux ou trois fois par distillation dans le vide. On a fait

Boyer, Edmond

177

Status of development of actinide blanket processing flowsheets for accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

An accelerator-driven subcritical nuclear system is briefly described that transmutes actinides and selected long-lived fission products. An application of this accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW) concept to spent fuel from a commercial nuclear power plant is presented as an example. The emphasis here is on a possible aqueous processing flowsheet to separate the actinides and selected long-lived fission products from the remaining fission products within the transmutation system. In the proposed system the actinides circulate through the thermal neutron flux as a slurry of oxide particles in heavy water in two loops with different average residence times: one loop for neptunium and plutonium and one for americium and curium. Material from the Np/Pu loop is processed with a short cooling time (5-10 days) because of the need to keep the total actinide inventory, low for this particular ATW application. The high radiation and thermal load from the irradiated material places severe constraints on the separation processes that can be used. The oxide particles are dissolved in nitric acid and a quarternary, ammonium anion exchanger is used to extract neptunium, plutonium, technetium, and palladium. After further cooling (about 90 days), the Am, Cm and higher actinides are extracted using a TALSPEAK-type process. The proposed operations were chosen because they have been successfully tested for processing high-level radioactive fuels or wastes in gram to kilogram quantities.

Dewey, H.J.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Schroeder, N.C.; Smith, B.F.; Villarreal, R.; Walker, R.B.; Yarbro, S.L.; Yates, M.A.

1993-09-01

178

Modification of PROMETHEUS Reactor as a Fusion Breeder and Fission Product Transmuter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the analyses of the fissile breeding and long-lived fission product (LLFP) transmutation potentials of PROMETHEUS reactor. For this purpose, a fissile breeding zone (FBZ) fueled with the ceramic uranium mono-carbide (UC) and a LLFP transmutation zone (TZ) containing the 99TC and 129I and 135Cs isotopes are separately placed into the breeder zone of PROMETHEUS-H design. The neutronic calculations are performed by using two different computer codes, the XSDRNPM/SCALE4.4a neutron transport code and the MCNP4B Monte Carlo code. A range of analyses are examined to determine the effects of the FF, the fraction of 6Li in lithium (Li) and the theoretical density (TD) of Li2O in the tritium breeder zone (TBZ) on the neutronic parameters. It is observed that the numerical results obtained from both codes are consistent with each other. It is carried out that the profiles of fission power density (FPD) are flattened individually for each FF (from 3 to 10%). Only, in the cases of FF ? 8%, the system is self sufficient from the point of view of tritium generation. The results bring out that the modified PROMETHEUS fusion reactor has capabilities of effective fissile breeding and LLFP transmutation, as well as the energy generation.

Yap?c?, Hüseyin; Öz???k, Gül?ah

2008-12-01

179

Technologies Technologies  

E-print Network

UFR Sciences et Technologies UFR Sciences et Technologies UFR SCIENCES ET TECHNOLOGIES Département ETUDIE *-*-*-*-*-*-*-* #12;UFR Sciences et Technologies UFR Sciences et Technologies Dossier de-baccalauréat : ANNEE DUREE ENTREPRISE SUJET #12;UFR Sciences et Technologies UFR Sciences et Technologies Dossier de

Sart, Remi

180

Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use  

DOEpatents

Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

1983-05-03

181

An accelerator technology legacy  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator technology has been a major beneficiary of the investment made over the last decade. It is the intention of this paper to provide the reader with a glimpse of the broad nature of those advances. Development has been on a broad front and this paper can highlight only a few of those. Two spin-off applications will be outlined -- a concept for a compact, active, beam probe for solar body exploration and the concept for an accelerator-driven transmutation system for energy production.

Heighway, E.A.

1994-11-01

182

Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitoed in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media.

Timothy DeVol

2006-06-30

183

Radionuclide evaluation in childhood injuries  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide techniques serve an important role in evaluating childhood injuries. Frequently, they can be employed as the initial and definitive examination. At times they represent the only modality that will detect specific injuries such as the skeletal system. Familiarity with the advantages and limitations of tracer techniques will insure appropriate management of childhood injuries.

Sty, J.R.; Starshak, R.J.; Hubbard, A.M.

1983-07-01

184

Compact, Energy Efficient Neutron Source: Enabling Technology for Thorium Breeder and Accelerator Transmutation of Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel neutron source concept, in which a deuterium beam (energy of about 100 keV) is to be injected into a tube filled with tritium gas or tritium plasma, is described. At the opposite end of the tube, the energy of deuterium ions that did not interact is recovered. Be walls of proper thickness will absorb 14 MeV neutrons and

A. Hershcovitch; W. Horak; B. Johnson; M. Todosow; T. Roser; M. Driscoll

2009-01-01

185

Compact, Energy Efficient Neutron Source: Enabling Technology for Thorium Breeder and Accelerator Transmutation of Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel neutron source concept, in which a deuterium beam (energy of about 100 keV) is to be injected into a tube filled with tritium gas or tritium plasma, is described. At the opposite end of the tube, the energy of deuterium ions that did not interact is recovered. Be walls of proper thickness will absorb 14 MeV neutrons and release 2 -- 3 lower energy neutrons. Each ion source and tube forms a module. Larger systems can be formed from multiple units. Beam propagation can be further enhanced with vortex-stabilized discharges, electron beams in opposite direction (with energy recovery) or magnetic fields. Deuterium ions propagating through tritium plasma are slowed down and deposit significant energy in the tritium target. Plasma heating results in high temperature electron, thus reducing deuterium ion energy loss. Equilibrium electron temperature exceeding 200 eV can be achieved. Unlike current methods, where accelerator based neutron sources require large amounts of power for operation, this neutron source is compact and can generate neutrons at higher power efficiency. Being modular, the concept can be tested in tabletop experiments.

Hershcovitch, A.; Horak, W.; Johnson, B.; Todosow, M.; Roser, T.; Driscoll, M.

2009-11-01

186

Immobilization of slimes obtained during the magnetic and sorption water treatment from radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process flow diagram for the magnetic and sorption treatment of water from radionuclides has been proposed. Basic technology\\u000a concepts were developed for the conditioning of water treatment radioactive slimes aimed at immobilization of radionuclides.\\u000a A new type of matrices (glass-ceramic matrices) was used for processing slimes produced during the magnetic and sorption treatment\\u000a of 90Sr-containing water. Optimal conditions were

L. N. Puzyrnaya; T. G. Timoshenko; A. P. Kryvoruchko; E. V. Terlikovskii

2009-01-01

187

Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))

1990-07-01

188

Nuclear transmutation doping of GaAs. Final technical report 1 Jun 80-30 Jun 81  

SciTech Connect

Shallow donors have been introduced into GaAs crystals by irradiation with thermal neutrons and subsequent nuclear transmutation. Good agreement was found between the measured concentrations of added donors and the values expected from the neutron capture cross sections and the neutron fluences used. This doping method is approximately 1000 times more efficient in GaAs than in Si because of the higher abundances and neutron capture cross sections of the transmutable isotopes in GaAs. In epitaxially grown GaAs of high purity, the recoil and radiation damage associated with transmutation doping can be removed by annealing at about 600 C which is below the critical temperature for As effusion. The electronic transport properties of transmutation doped GaAs samples were studied between 1.4 and 450K of concentrations both above and below the metal-nonmetal transition. We found that transmutation doping is a convenient method for introducing a desired concentration of shallow donors into GaAs crystals for modifying their electronic properties.

Fritzsche, H.

1981-09-01

189

Biomonitoring Radionuclide Deposition with Lichens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Aboveground nuclear tests conducted in the fifties and sixties of the 20th century gave rise to large amounts of 137Cs and 90Sr in the environment. Both radionuclides have physical half-lives of approximately 30 years and are still found in parts\\u000a of the ecosystem. The long-lived fission products persist, especially in alpine and circumpolar environments characterised\\u000a by a very slow biological

Georg Heinrich; Klaus Remele

190

Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

Premuzic, E.T.

1983-08-25

191

Neutron Capture Cross Section Measurements at n_TOF of 237Np, 240Pu and 243Am for the Transmutation of Nuclear Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate and reliable neutron capture cross section data for actinides are necessary for the proper design, safety regulation and precise performance assessment of transmutation devices such as Fast Critical Reactors or Accelerator Driven Systems. In particular, the neutron capture cross sections of 237Np, 240Pu and 243Am play a key role in the design and optimization of strategies for the Transmutation

D. Cano-Ott; U. Abbondanno; G. Aerts; H. Álvarez; F. Alvarez-Velarde; S. Andriamonje; J. Andrzejewski; P. Assimakopoulos; L. Audouin; G. Badurek; P. Baumann; F. Becvár; E. Berthoumieux; F. Calviño; R. Capote; A. Carrillo de Albornoz; P. Cennini; V. Chepel; E. Chiaveri; N. Colonna; G. Cortes; A. Couture; J. Cox; M. Dahlfors; S. David; I. Dillman; R. Dolfini; C. Domingo-Pardo; W. Dridi; I. Duran; C. Eleftheriadis; M. Embid-Segura; L. Ferrant; A. Ferrari; R. Ferreira-Marques; L. Fitzpatrick; H. Frais-Koelbl; K. Fujii; W. Furman; R. Gallino; I. Goncalves; E. Gonzalez-Romero; A. Goverdovski; F. Gramegna; E. Griesmayer; C. Guerrero; F. Gunsing; B. Haas; R. Haight; M. Heil; A. Herrera-Martinez; M. Igashira; S. Isaev; E. Jericha; Y. Kadi; F. Käppeler; D. Karamanis; D. Karadimos; M. Kerveno; V. Ketlerov; P. Koehler; V. Konovalov; E. Kossionides; C. Lamboudis; H. Leeb; A. Lindote; I. Lopes; M. Lozano; S. Lukic; J. Marganiec; L. Marques; S. Marrone; T. Martinez; P. Mastinu; A. Mengoni; P. M. Milazzo; C. Moreau; M. Mosconi; F. Neves; H. Oberhummer; S. O'Brien; M. Oshima; J. Pancin; C. Papachristodoulou; C. Papadopoulos; C. Paradela; N. Patronis; A. Pavlik; P. Pavlopoulos; L. Perrot; R. Plag; A. Plompen; A. Plukis; A. Poch; C. Pretel; J. Quesada; T. Rauscher; R. Reifarth; M. Rosetti; C. Rubbia; G. Rudolf; P. Rullhusen; J. Salgado; L. Sarchiapone; I. Savvidis; C. Stephan; G. Tagliente; J. L. Tain; L. Tassan-Got; L. Tavora; R. Terlizzi; G. Vannini; P. Vaz; A. Ventura; D. Villamarin; M. C. Vincente; V. Vlachoudis; R. Vlastou; F. Voss; S. Walter; H. Wendler; M. Wiescher

2006-01-01

192

Radionuclide behavior in the environment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))

1991-09-01

193

Transmutation Analysis of Enriched Uranium and Deep Burn High Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect

High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been under consideration for production of electricity, process heat, and for destruction of transuranics for decades. As part of the transmutation analysis efforts within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) campaign, a need was identified for detailed discharge isotopics from HTRs for use in the VISION code. A conventional HTR using enriched uranium in UCO fuel was modeled having discharge burnup of 120 GWd/MTiHM. Also, a deep burn HTR (DB-HTR) was modeled burning transuranic (TRU)-only TRU-O2 fuel to a discharge burnup of 648 GWd/MTiHM. For each of these cases, unit cell depletion calculations were performed with SCALE/TRITON. Unit cells were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were first set by using Serpent calculations to match a spectral index between unit cell and whole core domains. In the case of the DB-HTR, the unit cell which was arrived at in this way conserved the ratio of fuel to moderator found in a single block of fuel. In the conventional HTR case, a larger moderator-to-fuel ratio than that of a single block was needed to simulate the whole core spectrum. Discharge isotopics (for 500 nuclides) and one-group cross-sections (for 1022 nuclides) were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations. In addition to the discharge isotopics, one-group cross-sections were provided for the full list of 1022 nuclides tracked in the transmutation library.

Michael A. Pope

2012-07-01

194

Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG  

SciTech Connect

The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.

Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

1985-09-01

195

Synthesis of (Zr, Y, Am)O2-x transmutation targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A process consisting of sol gel external gelation and infiltration steps has been developed for the synthesis of oxide fuels and targets for the transmutation of minor actinides, in this case americium. Carbon has been introduced into the sol gel produced beads, removal of which leads to higher porosity. In addition, the beads are softer enabling better pressing characteristics and most importantly an optimised microstructure devoid of lenticular pores. This microstructure improvement has a strong positive effect on the thermal conductivity, which is increased by 40%. Thus, the margin between operating temperature and melting temperature of the fuel is increased, improving significantly safety aspects of the fuel in the reactor.

Nästren, C.; Staicu, D.; Somers, J.; Fernandez, A.

2013-02-01

196

Accelerator-driven transmutation of nuclear waste and electrical power production  

SciTech Connect

The capabilities of modern proton or deuteron linear accelerators (1 GeV, 200 mA average current) enable a new physics and engineering approach using thermal neutrons to transmute both actinide and fission product radioactive wastes to short-lived or non-radioactive by-products. A clean and economically attractive energy source with a long-term plentiful fuel supply and no long-term waste legacy results from using thorium fuel concurrently with waste burning. The proposed method, with relatively straight-forward development and demonstration, provides an alternative to radioactive waste storage problems and continued depletion of organic fuel reserves.

Jameson, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-12-01

197

The key role of off-axis singularities in free-space vortex transmutation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally demonstrate the generation of off-axis phase singularities in a vortex transmutation process induced by the breaking of rotational symmetry. The process takes place in free space by launching a highly charged vortex, owning full rotational symmetry, into a linear thin diffractive element presenting discrete rotational symmetry. It is shown that off-axis phase singularities follow straight dark rays bifurcating from the symmetry axis. This phenomenon may provide new routes toward the spatial control of multiple phase singularities for applications in atom trapping and particle manipulation.

Novoa, David; Sola, Iñigo J.; García-March, Miguel Angel; Ferrando, Albert

2014-09-01

198

Uniform acceptor distribution in neutron-transmutation-doped far-infrared p-Ge lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A neutron transmutation doped (NTD) far-infrared p-Ge laser crystal and a melt-grown p-Ge laser are analyzed and compared. Though the doping level in the NTD active crystal is twice lower than optimal, the laser performance is comparable to that produced from high-quality melt-grown crystals because of superior dopant uniformity. Compensation was examined by comparing results of neutron activation analysis with majority carrier concentration. Study of impurity breakdown electric field reveals better crystal quality in NTD. The current saturation behavior confirms the expected higher doping uniformity over melt grown laser rods.

Nelson, E. W.; Dolguikh, M. V.; Flitsiyan, E. S.; Muravjov, A. V.; Peale, R. E.; Kleckley, S. H.; Vernetson, W. G.; Tsipin, V. Z.

2003-09-01

199

LO-phonon and plasmon coupling in neutron-transmutation-doped GaAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupling between the longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon mode and the longitudinal plasma mode in neutron-transmutation-doped (NTD) semi-insulating GaAs was studied using Raman-scattering spectroscopy and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer. When the electron concentration due to the activation of NTD impurities (GeGa and SeAs) approaches ~8×1016 cm-3, the LO-phonon-plasmon coupling is observed. This behavior is consistent with the free-electron absorption due to the activation of NTD impurities in samples annealed above 600 °C.

Kuriyama, K.; Sakai, K.; Okada, M.

1996-01-01

200

Gain improvement for the THz p-Ge laser using neutron transmutation doped active crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A far-infrared p-type germanium laser with active crystal prepared from ultra pure single-crystal Ge by neutron transmutation doping (NTD) is demonstrated. Calculations show that the high uniformity of Ga acceptor distribution achieved by NTD significantly improves average gain. The negative factor of stronger ionized impurity scattering due to high compensation in NTD Ge is shown to be unremarkable for the gain at moderate doping concentrations sufficient for laser operation. Experimentally, this first NTD laser is found to have lower current-density lasing threshold than the best of a number of melt-doped laser crystals studied for comparison.

Flitsiyan, Elena S.; Dolguikh, Maxim V.; Muravjov, Andrei V.; Nelson, Eric W.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Peale, Robert E.; Fredricksen, Christopher J.; Vernetson, William G.

2004-09-01

201

Parametric systems studies of the aqueous-based (slurry) blanket concept for accelerator transmutation of waste  

SciTech Connect

Transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste currently stored in spent reactor fuels may represent an attractive alternative to deep geologic disposal. The aqueous-based accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) concept uses a proton accelerator to produce a 1.6-GeV, 250-mA ( ca. 400 MW) beam that is split four ways and directed to four D{sub 2}O-cooled solid W-Pb composite targets. Each target in turn is centered in a heavy water moderated, highly multiplying, actinide (oxide)-slurry blanket. The target-blanket system for ATW resides at an interface separating two major systems that are crucial to the economic and technical success of the concept: (a) the high-energy (power-intensive) accelerator delivering 0.8 to 1.6 GeV protons to the high-Z spallation neutron source and (b) the chemical-plant equipment (CPE) that provides feedstock appropriate for efficient and effective transmutation. Parametric studies have been performed to assess the effects of the target-blanket on overall system performance with regard to neutron economy, chemical-processing efficiency and thermal-hydraulic design options. Based on these parametric evaluations, an interim base-case aqueous-slurry ATW design was selected for more detailed analysis. This base-case target-blanket consists of an array of Zr-Nb pressure tubes placed in a heavy water moderator surrounding a heavy-water-cooled W-Pb target. Neutronics and thermal-hydraulic calculations indicate that each of the four ATW target-blanket modules operating with a neutron multiplication k{sub eff} = 0.95 can transmute the actinide waste and the technetium and iodine waste from ca. 2.5 light water reactors. By recovering the fission heat, sufficient electricity can be produced both to operate the accelerator and to supply power to the grid for revenue generation. These broad-based parametric studies have provided guidance to a preliminary conceptual engineering design of the aqueous-slurry ATW blanket concept.

Beard, C.A.; Davidson, J.W.; Krakowski, R.A.; Battat, M.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-06-01

202

Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste and production of {sup 233}U using an accelerator-driven reactor  

SciTech Connect

Reactor safety, the disposal of high-level nuclear waste, and nonproliferation of nuclear material for military purposes are the problems of greatest concern for nuclear energy. Technologies for accelerators developed in the field of high-energy physics can contribute to solving these problems. For reactor safety, especially for that of a Na-cooled fast reactor, the use of an accelerator, even a small one, can enhance the safety using a slightly subcritical reactor. There is growing concern about how we can deal with weapons-grade Pu, and about the large amount of Pu accumulating from the operation of commercial reactors. It has been suggested that this Pu could be incinerated, using the reactor and a proton accelerator. However, because Pu is a very valuable material with future potential for generating nuclear energy, we should consider transforming it into a proliferation-resistant material that cannot be used for making bombs, rather than simply eliminating the Pu. An accelerator-driven fast reactor (700 MWt), run in a subcritical condition, and fueled with MOX can generate {sup 233}U more safely and efficiently than can a critical reactor. We evaluate the production of {sup 233}U, {sup 239}Pu, and the transmutation of the long-lived fission products of {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I, which are loaded with YH{sub 1.7} between the fast core and blanket, by reducing the conversion factor of Pu to {sup 233}U. And we assessed the rates of radiation damage, hydrogen production, and helium production in a target window and in the surrounding vessel.

Takahashi, Hiroshi; Takashita, Hirofumi; Chen, Xinyi

1994-08-01

203

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1998-09-15

204

Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with toxic elements and radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

At many US Department of Energy (US DOE) facilities and other sites, surface soils over relatively large areas are contaminated with heavy metals, radionuclides, and other toxic elements, often at only a relatively small factor above regulatory action levels. Cleanup of such sites presents major challenges, because currently available soil remediation technologies can be very expensive. In response, the US DOE`s Office of Technology Development, through the Western Environmental Technology Office, is sponsoring research in the area of phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses higher plants to transfer toxic elements and radionuclides from surface soils into aboveground biomass. Some plants, termed hyperaccumulators, take up toxic elements in substantial amounts, resulting in concentrations in aboveground biomass over 100 times those observed with conventional plants. After growth, the plant biomass is harvested, and the toxic elements are concentrated and reclaimed or disposed of. As growing, harvesting, and processing plant biomass is relatively inexpensive, phytoremediation can be a low-cost technology for remediation of extensive areas having lightly to moderately contaminated soils. This paper reviews the potential of hyper- and moderate accumulator plants in soil remediation, provides some comparative cost estimates, and outlines ongoing work initiated by the US DOE.

Cornish, J.E.; Goldberg, W.C. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Levine, R.S. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Technology Development; Benemann, J.R.

1995-12-31

205

Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

2009-01-07

206

Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters  

SciTech Connect

In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

1994-04-01

207

Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1991-01-01

208

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (GlenEllyn, IL)

1990-01-01

209

Monitoring of the Irradiated Neutron Fluence in the Neutron Transmutation Doping Process of Hanaro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron transmutation doping (NTD) for silicon is a process of the creation of phosphorus impurities in intrinsic or extrinsic silicon by neutron irradiation to obtain silicon semiconductors with extremely uniform dopant distribution. HANARO has two vertical holes for the NTD, and the irradiation for 5 and 6 inch silicon ingots has been going on at one hole. In order to achieve the accurate neutron fluence corresponding to the target resistivity, the real time neutron flux is monitored by self-powered neutron detectors. After irradiation, the total irradiation fluence is confirmed by measuring the absolute activity of activation detectors. In this work, a neutron fluence monitoring method using zirconium foils with the mass of 10 ~ 50 mg was applied to the NTD process of HANARO. We determined the proportional constant of the relationship between the resistivity of the irradiated silicon and the neutron fluence determined by using zirconium foils. The determined constant for the initially n-type silicon was 3.126 × 1019 n·?/cm. It was confirmed that the difference between this empirical value and the theoretical one was only 0.5%. Conclusively, the practical methodology to perform the neutron transmutation doping of silicon was established.

Kim, Myong-Seop; Park, Sang-Jun

2009-08-01

210

Thermal conductivity changes upon neutron transmutation of 10B doped diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

10B doped p-type diamond samples were subjected to neutron transmutation reaction using thermal neutron flux of 0.9 × 1013 cm-2 s-1 and fast neutron flux of 0.09 × 1013 cm-2 s-1. Another sample of epilayer grown on type IIa (110) single crystal diamond substrate was subjected to equal thermal and fast neutron flux of 1014 cm-2 s-1. The defects in the diamond samples were previously characterized by different methods. In the present work, thermal conductivity of these diamond samples was determined at room temperature by transient thermoreflectance method. The thermal conductivity change in the samples as a function of neutron fluence is explained by the phonon scattering from the point defects and disordered regions. The thermal conductivity of the diamond samples decreased more rapidly initially and less rapidly for larger neutron fluence. In addition, the thermal conductivity in type IIb diamond decreased less rapidly with thermal neutron fluence compared to the decrease in type IIa diamond subjected to fast neutron fluence. It is concluded that the rate of production of defects during transmutation reaction is slower when thermal neutrons are used. The thermal conductivity of epilayer of diamond subjected to high thermal and fast neutron fluence is associated with the covalent carbon network in the composite structure consisting of disordered carbon and sp2 bonded nanocrystalline regions.

Jagannadham, K.; Verghese, K.; Butler, J. E.

2014-08-01

211

Porosity swelling and transmutation contributions to conductivity changes in some neutron-irradiated copper alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast-neutron irradiation of alloys for fusion-reactor applications produces bulk changes in the density and composition via porosity swelling and transmutation which affect the do volume electrical and thermal conductivities ( ? = 1/ ?e and K). For the Cu materials of our study, neutron fluences of 2 × 10 26 n/m 2 ( E > 0.1 MeV) produced increases in Ni and Zn concentrations of about 0.05 and 0.09 wt%, respectively, and porosity swelling of 0-7%; ?e accordingly increased as much as 18%. We also determined the individual ?e changes due to both swelling and transmutation via use of an appropriate mixing rule and of Matthiessen's law to unmask any residual effects present, e.g., phase or microstructural changes. For four materials — two pure copper and two alumina-dispersion-strengthened (ADS) alloys — subtraction of these ??e's from the irradiated values yielded or nearly yielded the respective control values. In contrast, the two precipitation-strengthened (PS) alloys studied, MZC and AMZIRC, had relatively large negative residues, apparently indicating effective radiation-induced conductivities.

Frost, H. M.; Kennedy, J. C.

1986-11-01

212

Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations  

DOEpatents

The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

Chen, Xiaoyuan (Syracuse, NY); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Fisher, Darrell R. (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

213

Acute gangrenous cholecystitis: radionuclide diagnosis  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m IDA is a useful procedure for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gallbladder essentially rules out acute cholecystitis. Nonvisualization suggest acute cholecystitis but may also be associated with chronic gallbladder disease or other conditions. The authors recently observed five patients in whom a rim of increased parenchymal liver activity was seen adjacent to the gallbladder fossa. All five patients had acute gangrenous cholecystitis. The rim of increased activity appears to be a useful secondary sign of acute cholecystitis.

Brachman, M.B.; Tanasescu, D.E.; Ramanna, L.; Waxman, A.D.

1984-04-01

214

Evidence of Ball Lightning-- A Survey of Some Recent Experimental Papers Describing Microscopic Objects Associated with Transmutation Phenomena  

E-print Network

cust38.metawerx.com.au Eight or 9 groups of researchers have reported that transmutation experiments are associated with the emission of anomalous objects that cause anomalous markings. Since the year 2000, Urutskoev et al., Savvatimova, Ivoilov, and Adamenko have published similar results, and several scientists are speculating that these emitted objects are Lochak monopoles. Plastic targets like CR-39 and nuclear emulsions of various kinds are used by researchers as a way to detect various particles and objects, and people are finding anomalous markings on their detectors and on their electrodes. Before them, Matsumoto, Shoulders and I reported finding similar markings in transmutation experiments. I found such markings on the components of an electrolysis cell [1]. I hypothesized that microscopic ball lightning is produced in transmutation experiments. Matsumoto accepted this idea when I told him, and Savvatimova and Urutskoev acknowledge that they have found tracks similar to those in the photographs published by Matsumoto [2, 3]. Their transmutation results are similar also. During this decade, several groups investigated these objects that evidence the characteristics and behavior of ball lightning.

Edward Lewis

215

Neutron-transmuted carbon-14 in neutron-irradiated GaN: Compensation of DX-like center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transmuted-C related luminescence and net carrier concentration are studied by combining photoluminescence, liquid scintillation, and Raman scattering. GaN single crystal films grown by metalorganic-vapor-phase epitaxy are irradiated with fast and thermal neutrons at fluxes of 3.9 × 1013 cm-2s-1 and 8.15 × 1013 cm-2s-1, respectively. Irradiation time is 48 hours. The calculated 72Ge and 14C concentrations are 1.24 × 1018 cm-3 and 1.13 × 1018 cm-3, respectively. The transmuted 14C is detected by the liquid scintillation method to survey ?-rays emitted in the process of 14C decays from 14N. Tritium (3H) is also emitted by a (n,t) reaction of 14N due to the neutron irradiation above 4.5 MeV. Photoluminescence relating to C, DX-like center of Ge and yellow luminescence band are observed in 1000 °C annealed NTD-GaN. The free electron concentration estimated from Raman scattering is 4.97 × 1017 cm-3. This value is lower than that from the transmuted Ge concentration, suggesting the compensation due to the transmuted 14C acceptors.

Ida, T.; Oga, T.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Xu, Q.; Fukutani, S.

2013-12-01

216

Neutron-transmuted carbon-14 in neutron-irradiated GaN: Compensation of DX-like center  

SciTech Connect

The transmuted-C related luminescence and net carrier concentration are studied by combining photoluminescence, liquid scintillation, and Raman scattering. GaN single crystal films grown by metalorganic-vapor-phase epitaxy are irradiated with fast and thermal neutrons at fluxes of 3.9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2}s{sup ?1} and 8.15 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2}s{sup ?1}, respectively. Irradiation time is 48 hours. The calculated {sup 72}Ge and {sup 14}C concentrations are 1.24 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup ?3} and 1.13 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup ?3}, respectively. The transmuted {sup 14}C is detected by the liquid scintillation method to survey ?-rays emitted in the process of {sup 14}C decays from {sup 14}N. Tritium ({sup 3}H) is also emitted by a (n,t) reaction of {sup 14}N due to the neutron irradiation above 4.5 MeV. Photoluminescence relating to C, DX-like center of Ge and yellow luminescence band are observed in 1000 °C annealed NTD-GaN. The free electron concentration estimated from Raman scattering is 4.97 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup ?3}. This value is lower than that from the transmuted Ge concentration, suggesting the compensation due to the transmuted {sup 14}C acceptors.

Ida, T.; Oga, T.; Kuriyama, K. [College of Engineering and Research Center of Ion Beam Technology, Hosei University Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Kushida, K. [Departments of Arts and Sciences, Osaka Kyoiku University Kashiwara, Osaka 582-8582 (Japan); Xu, Q.; Fukutani, S. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University Kumatori, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

2013-12-04

217

Fusion-driven transmutations of nuclear waste—a misconception or an incentive for promotion of fusion energy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion-driven system of transmutation of nuclear waste is presented. The main positive aspect of this fusion power option, thanks to energy release from fission, is the prospect of a radical reduction of necessary plasma energy gain, Q, to levels achievable in relatively simple mirror devices. Further advantages of the system include lower FW load and homogeneous heating distribution. The

Stefan Taczanowski; Gra?yna Doma?ska; Jerzy Cetnar

1998-01-01

218

Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

1981-10-01

219

UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE APPLICATION FOR RADIONUCLIDE UTILIZATION  

E-print Network

required for each Radionuclides which will be used under the Permit: Radionuclide Experimental Limit (mCi) Possession Limit (mCi) Per Shipment Limit (mCi) Annual Shipment Limit (mCi) #12;List the make, model with atomic number greater than 83, the use of greater than 25mCi in a single experiment, the use

Firestone, Jeremy

220

Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis and interpretation of the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu in the Caspian Sea water are presented. These radionuclides are shown to be of environmental importance and to be useful for studying water mass dynamics.

B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud; M. K. Pham; P. P. Povinec

2003-01-01

221

Anthropogenic radionuclides in Peter the Great bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive investigation of radionuclide distributions in seawater and bottom sediments of Peter the Great bay was conducted in September–October 1994. Sampling sites were chosen close to potential radioactivity sources as well as in fishing and recreational areas. The results have shown that the main sources of radionuclides in Peter the Great bay are still global atmospheric fallout and the

A. V Tkalin; E. L Chaykovskaya

2000-01-01

222

AFCI Transmutation Fuel Processes and By-Products Planning: Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program are to reduce high-level waste volume, reduce long-lived and radiotoxic elements, and reclaim valuable energy content of spent nuclear fuel. The AFCI chartered the Fuel Development Working Group (FDWG) to develop advanced fuels in support of the AFCI goals. The FDWG organized a phased strategy of fuel development that is designed to match the needs of the AFCI program: Phase 1 - High-burnup fuels for light-water reactors (LWRs) and tri-isotopic (TRISO) fuel for gas-cooled reactors Phase 2 – Mixed oxide fuels with minor actinides for LWRs, Am transmutation targets for LWRs, inert matrix fuels for LWRs, and TRISO fuel containing Pu and other transuranium for gas-cooled reactors Phase 3 – Fertile free or low-fertile metal, ceramic, ceramic dispersed in a metal matrix (CERMET), and ceramics dispersed in a ceramic matrix (CERCER) that would be used primarily in fast reactors. Development of advanced fuels requires the fabrication, assembly, and irradiation of prototypic fuel under bounding reactor conditions. At specialized national laboratory facilities small quantities of actinides are being fabricated into such fuel for irradiation tests. Fabrication of demonstration quantities of selected fuels for qualification testing is needed but not currently feasible, because existing manual glovebox fabrication approaches result in significant radiation exposures when larger quantities of actinides are involved. The earliest demonstration test fuels needed in the AFCI program are expected to be variants of commercial mixed oxide fuel for use in an LWR as lead test assemblies. Manufacture of such test assemblies will require isolated fabrication lines at a facility not currently available in the U.S. Such facilities are now being planned as part of an Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). Adequate planning for and specification of actinide fuel fabrication facilities capable of producing transmutation fuels dictates the need for detailed process flows, mass balances, batch size data, and radiological dose estimates. Full definition of the materials that will need to be handled in the facility as feed material inputs, in-process fuel, scrap recycle, scrap requiring recovery, and by-product wastes is required. The feed material for demonstrating transmutation fuel fabrication will need to come from the separations of actinides from spent nuclear fuel processed in the same AFCF.

Eric L. Shaber

2005-09-01

223

The Fast-spectrum Transmutation Experimental Facility FASTEF: Main design achievements (part 2: Reactor building design and plant layout) within the FP7-CDT collaborative project of the European Commission  

SciTech Connect

MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hybrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is the flexible experimental accelerator-driven system (ADS) in development at SCK-CEN in replacement of its material testing reactor BR2. SCK-CEN in association with 17 European partners from industry, research centres and academia, responded to the FP7 (Seventh Framework Programme) call from the European Commission to establish a Central Design Team (CDT) for the design of a Fast Spectrum Transmutation Experimental Facility (FASTEF) able to demonstrate efficient transmutation and associated technology through a system working in subcritical and/or critical mode. The project has started on April 01, 2009 for a period of three years. In this paper, we present the latest concept of the reactor building and the plant layout. The FASTEF facility has evolved quite a lot since the intermediate reporting done at the ICAPP'10 and ICAPP'11 conferences 1,2. Many iterations have been performed to take into account the safety requirements. The present configuration enables an easy operation and maintenance of the facility, including the possibility to change large components of the reactor. In a companion paper 3, we present the latest configuration of the reactor core and primary system. (authors)

De Bruyn, D.; Engelen, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Ortega, A.; Aguado, M. P. [Empresarios Agrupados A.I.E., Magallanes 3, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

2012-07-01

224

Development of a technique for measuring cross sections of interest to accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW)  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that transmutation of actinide waste into fission products could be enhanced by using resonance fission of odd-odd target materials; those of interest are {sup 232}Pa, {sup 238}Np, and {sup 242}Am. Our technique for carrying out the measurement of the resonance fission cross section of short-lived materials has three steps: (1) We produce the sample by the (d,2n) reaction at the Los Alamos Ion Beam Facility. (2) We carry out fast radiochemistry to separate the odd-odd target of interest. (3) We measure the fission rate in a high intensity pulsed neutron beam produced by 800 MeV proton spallation. Using this technique, we have successfully measured the neutron-induced fission cross sections of 1.3 day {sup 232}Pa and 2.1 day {sup 238}Np, from 0.01 eV to 50 keV.

Moore, M.S.; Koehler, P.E.; Littleton, P.E. [and others

1994-05-01

225

Modulated electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous media, hyperbolic pseudoanalytic functions and transmutations  

E-print Network

The time-dependent Maxwell system describing electromagnetic wave propagation in inhomogeneous isotropic media in the one-dimensional case reduces to a Vekua-type equation for bicomplex-valued functions of a hyperbolic variable (see arXiv:1001.0552). Using this relation we solve the problem of the transmission through an inhomogeneous layer of a normally incident electromagnetic time-dependent plane wave. The solution is written in terms of a pair of Darboux-associated transmutation operators (see arXiv:1111.4449), and combined with the recent results on their construction (see arXiv:1208.6166, arXiv:1306.2914) can be used for efficient computation of the transmitted modulated signals. We develop the corresponding numerical method and illustrate its performance with examples.

Kira V. Khmelnytskaya; Vladislav V. Kravchenko; Sergii M. Torba

2014-10-17

226

Low temperature hopping conduction in neutron transmutation doped isotopically enriched70Ge:Ga single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature dependence of variable range hopping resistivity ? in neutron transmutation doped (NTD) isotopically enriched70Ge:Ga samples is reported. Five samples with compensation ratios K less than 0.001 and Ga concentrations between 3×1016 and 1.77×1017 cm-3 were studied. All samples investigated show the ln ??T-1/2 dependence in the temperature range below 1.5K. As thermistor materials NTD70Ge:Ga samples are found to have more than factor of two higher sensitivity than commonly used natural NTD Ge in the temperature range between 0.2K and 1K. Our results are compared with theoretical predictions for variable range hopping conduction.

Itoh, K. M.; Hansen, W. L.; Beeman, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Farmer, J. W.; Ozhogin, V. I.

1993-11-01

227

Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

228

GIS Modelling of Radionuclide Transport from the Semipalatinsk Test Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the software complex GIS-project MigRad (Migration of Radionuclide) was developed, tested and applied for the territory of the Semipalatinsk test site/ polygon (Republic of Kazakhstan), where since 1961, in total 348 underground nuclear explosions were conducted. The MigRad is oriented on integration of large volumes of different information (mapping, ground-based, and satellite-based survey): and also includes modeling on its base local redistribution of radionuclides by precipitation and surface waters and by long-range transport of radioactive aerosols. The existing thermal anomaly on territory of the polygon was investigated in details, and the object-oriented analysis was applied for the studied area. Employing the RUNOFF model, the simulation of radionuclides migration with surface waters was performed. Employing the DERMA model, the simulation of long-term atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition patterns for cesium was conducted from 3 selected locations (Balapan, Delegen, and Experimental Field). Employing geoinformation technology, the mapping of the of the high temperature zones and epicenters of radioactive aerosols transport for the territory of the test site was carried out with post-processing and integration of modelling results into GIS environment. Contamination levels of pollution due to former nuclear explosions for population and environment of the surrounding polygon territories of Kazakhstan as well as adjacent countries were analyzed and evaluated. The MigRad was designed as instrument for comprehensive analysis of complex territorial processes influenced by former nuclear explosions on the territory of Semipalatinsk test site. It provides possibilities in detailed analyses for (i) extensive cartographic material, remote sensing, and field measurements data collected in different level databases; (ii) radionuclide migration with flows using accumulation and redistribution of soil particles; (iii) thermal anomalies caused by explosions and observed on the test site and adjacent territories, and (iv) long-range transport of radioactive aerosols with analysis of dynamics of spatial distribution, averaged and accumulated fields for concentration and deposition patterns.

Balakay, L.; Zakarin, E.; Mahura, A.; Baklanov, A.; Sorensen, J. H.

2009-04-01

229

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

2008-08-01

230

Partitioning and transmutation: Near-term solution or long-term option?  

SciTech Connect

Starting in 1989, the concept that partitioning and transmuting actinides from spent nuclear fuel could be a {open_quotes}solution{close_quotes} to the apparent lack of progress in the high-level waste disposal program began to be heard from a variety of sources, both in the US and internationally. There have been numerous papers and sessions at scientific conferences and several conferences devoted to this subject in the last three years. At the request of the US Department of Energy, the National Research Council is evaluating the feasibility of this concept. Because either plutonium or highly enriched uranium is needed to startup breeder reactors, there is a sound rationale for using Pu from reprocessing spent light-water reactor fuel to start a conversion to Pu-breeding liquid metal reactors (LMRs), once society makes the determination that adding a large component of LMRs to the electricity-generating grid is desirable. This is the long-term option referred to in the title. It is compatible with the current and likely future high-level waste program, as well as the current nuclear power industry in the US. However, the thesis of this paper is that partitioning and transmutation (P-T) does not offer a near term solution to high-level waste disposal in the US for numerous reasons, the most important of which is that a repository will be needed even with P-T. Other important reasons include: (1) lack of evidence that the public will be more likely to accept a repository that has a reduced inventory, (2) the waste disposal program delays do not result from technical evidence of lack of safety, (3) the economics of reprocessing and/or P-T are unfavorable, and (4) obtaining the benefits from P-T requires a long-term commitment to nuclear power.

Ramspott, L.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (US); Isaacs, T. [USDOE, Washington, DC (US)

1993-02-25

231

Advanced orient cycle, toward realizing intensified transmutation and utilization of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

To minimize the ecological burden originating in nuclear fuel recycling, a new R and D strategy, Adv.- ORIENT (Advanced Optimization by Recycling Instructive Elements) cycle, was set forth. In this context, mutual separation of f-elements, such as minor actinide (MA)/lanthanide (Ln) and Am/Cm, are essential to enhance the MA (particularly {sup 241}Am) burning. Isotope separation before transmutation is inevitably required in the case of some long-lived fission products (LLFPs) like {sup 126}Sn, {sup 135}Cs, etc. The separation and utilization of rare metal fission products (RMFPs: Ru, Rh, Pd, Tc, Se, Te, etc.) can offer a new direction in the partitioning and transmutation (P and T) field. Separation of exothermic nuclides {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs as well as MA will significantly help to mitigate the repository tasks. A key separation tool is ion exchange chromatography (IXC) by a tertiary pyridine resin having soft donor nitrogen atoms. This method has provided individual recovery of pure Am and Cm products with a Pu/U/Np fraction from irradiated fuel in just a 3-step separation. A catalytic electrolytic extraction (CEE) method by Pd{sub adatom} has been employed to separate, purify and fabricate RMFP catalysts. High separation efficiency of RMFP proved hydrochloric acid as a suitable media for their recovery. Different functioned ion exchangers, e.g., ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP), have been investigated for the separation of Cs{sup +}. Theoretical and laboratory studies on the isotope separation of LLFPs were begun for {sup 79}Se, {sup 126}Sn and {sup 135}Cs. (authors)

Ozawa, Masaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)]|[Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Koyama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Suzuki, Tatsuya; Fujii, Yasuhiko [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Fujita, Reiko [Toshiba Corporation (Japan); Mimura, Hitoshi [Tohoku University (Japan)

2007-07-01

232

Mapping radionuclide distribution in surface sediments using GIS and an underwater HPGe detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radiological distribution survey at the L Lake on the Savannah River Site (SRS) was conducted by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) during the summer of 1995 as part of a larger project to examine future alternatives for L Lake and other SRS water bodies. The primary purpose of the survey was to confirm previous radionuclide surveys of Cesium-137

D. L. Dunn; W. G. Winn; P. J. Bresnahan

1996-01-01

233

Conus Medullaris Syndrome following Radionuclide Cisternography  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide cisternography is generally considered to be a safe procedure without significant neurological complications. However, in this report we present a patient who developed conus medullaris syndrome following radionuclide cisternography. A 46-year-old woman underwent lumbar puncture followed by radionuclide cisternography with the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. After the cisternography, she developed voiding difficulty with perineal sensory loss. Lumbar MRI revealed a high signal intensity lesion on T2-weighted images at the level of conus medullaris. Considering its clinical course and MRI findings, a spinal cord infarction is highly suggested as a cause of the conus medullaris lesion in this patient. PMID:25024857

2014-01-01

234

Radionuclide cisternography in spontaneous intracranial hypotension.  

PubMed

We report a case of spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) that was investigated using cranial MRI and radionuclide cisternography. Radionuclide imaging was remarkable, showing direct signs of diffuse asymmetric leakage and indirect signs of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypotension consisting of slow CSF circulation to the convexity and rapid appearance of urinary bladder activity. The MRI appearance was also suggestive of SIH, with diffuse meningeal enhancement. Treatment with autologous blood injection at the level of the radionuclide spinal leakage was useful, resulting in disappearance of SIH symptoms. PMID:9509927

Benamor, M; Tainturier, C; Graveleau, P; Pierot, L

1998-03-01

235

Radionuclide Transport in Fractured Tuff under Episodic Flow Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current conceptual model of radionuclide transport in unsaturated fractured rock includes water movement in fractures, with migration of the entrained radionuclides being retarded by diffusion into and sorption within the rock matrix. Water infiltration and radionuclide transport through low-permeability unsaturated fractured rock are episodic and intermittent in nature, at least at local scales. Under episodic flow conditions, the matrix is constantly imbibing or draining, and this fluctuating wetness both drives two-way advective movement of radionuclides, and forces changes in the matrix diffusivity. This work is intended to examine, both experimentally and numerically, how radionuclide transport under episodic flow conditions is affected by the interacting processes of imbibition and drainage, diffusion, and matrix sorption. Using Topopah Spring welded volcanic tuff, collected from the potential repository geologic unit at Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste, we prepared a saw-cut fracture core (length 10.2 cm, diameter 4.4 cm, and fracture aperture 100 microns). The dry core was packed into a flow reactor, flushed with CO2, then saturated via slow pumping (0.01 mL/min) of synthetic groundwater. The fractured core was then flushed with air at 97% relative humidity (to simulate in situ unsaturated fractured rock conditions at Yucca Mountain), then the episodic transport experiment was conducted. Episodic flow involved 4 cycles of tracer solution flow within the fracture, followed by flushing with high humidity air. Each flow episode contained a different suite of non-sorbing and sorbing tracers, which included 3H, ReO4- (a chemical analog for 99TcO4-), I- (for 129I-), Sr and Cs (for 90Sr and 137Cs), plus the radionuclides 235U, 237Np, and 241Pu. These radionuclides span a variety of sorption strengths and represent a large fraction of the radionuclides of concern at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. Meanwhile, the non-sorbing 3H and ReO4- serve as diffusivity tracers with different aqueous diffusion coefficients. Liquid effluent from the flow reactor was collected for multi-elemental analyses using ICP-MS, as well as liquid scintillation counting for 3H, to obtain the breakthrough curves of non- or less-retarded tracers. After the flow-tests were complete, the flow reactor was opened and the distribution of strongly retarded tracers within the fractured core characterized by laser ablation coupled with ICP-MS. A numerical model was developed, based on the NUFT (Non-isothermal, Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport) computer code, to describe the experimental system, compare with, and interpret experimental results. This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Science and Technology and International (OST&I). This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

Hu, Q.; Sun, Y.; Ewing, R. P.

2005-12-01

236

Accelerator Technology Division annual report, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; {Phi} Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

Not Available

1992-04-01

237

Improving Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Using Nuclear Nanotechnology  

E-print Network

. The general formulae can be applied to any tumor size, any radionuclide, and any pharmacokinetic nanoparticle distribution throughout the body, ultimately allowing a quick method of approximating the necessary activation time and treatment dosage parameters...

Evans, Jordan Andrew

2013-05-03

238

Migration of radionuclides in the enviroment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of transport and retaidation processes, chemistry and migration behaviour of radionuclides of fission products\\u000a and actinides in engineered barriers, especially bentonites, have been summarised. A “critical group of radionuclides” is\\u000a proposed for thorough investigation of their retardation properties in natural sorbents. The evaluation of accessible data\\u000a of retardation and transport parameters relevant for the conditions of underground deep

V. Jedináková-K?ižová

1998-01-01

239

Radionuclide Geomicrobiology of the Deep Biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes research into interactions between microorganisms and radionuclides under conditions typical of a repository for high-level radioactive waste in deep hard rock environments at a depth of approximately 500 m. The cell–radionuclide interactions of strains of two bacterial species (i.e., Shewanella putrefaciens and Desulfovibrio aespoeensis) with Cm, Pm, and Pu were investigated in vitro and the results were

Craig Anderson; Anna Johnsson; Henry Moll; Karsten Pedersen

2011-01-01

240

Behaviour of the Radionuclides in Peat Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of theoretical and experimental studies a method of assessment and prognosis of the radionuclides migration soils\\u000a has been created.\\u000a \\u000a Experimental methods for the determination of transfer characteristics and their assessment, and also the methods for prediction\\u000a of radionuclide migration in frozen grounds should provide a clear distinction between driving forces and fluxes of the convection\\u000a and diffusion

G. Brovka; I. Dedulya; E. Rovdan

241

Particle count monitoring of reverse osmosis water treatment for removal of low-level radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser diode particle counting technology and analytical measurements were used to evaluate a pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment system for removal of particulate matter and sub-picocurie low-level radionuclides. Stormwater mixed with Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), formerly a Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facility, were treated. No chemical

E. J. Moritz; C. R. Hoffman; T. R. Hergert

1995-01-01

242

(Radiological assessments of radionuclide releases)  

SciTech Connect

As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, data have been obtained throughout the Northern Hemisphere on the concentrations of radionuclides in air, vegetation, soil, water, and foodstuffs that could be important means of human exposure. At the IAEA's invitation, the traveler reviewed recently published data and handbook summaries. The traveler evaluated the need for revising the default values recommended in Chapter 5, Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Chain Transport,'' of IAEA Safety Series No. 57. All attempts at revision were made to keep the mathematical complexity of the models to a minimum without substantial underestimation of dose to critical population subgroups. The traveler also served as chairman of the Multiple Pathways Working Group of the Coordinated Research Program on VAMP. This group has been established to test predictions of models assessing multiple exposure pathways potentially leading to human exposure to {sup 137}Cs. Testing is carried out for major components of assessment models that predict deposition, environmental transport, food chain bioaccumulation, and subsequent uptake and retention in the human body and dose due to exposure to external gamma radiation.

Hoffman, F.O.

1990-12-28

243

Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

1983-07-01

244

Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

2012-04-01

245

Fission Product Impact Reduction via Protracted In-core Retention in Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Transmutation Scenarios  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge National Laboratory OTOC Once-Through-and-Out Cycle P&T Partitioning and Transmutation PWR Pressurized Water Reactor SNF Spent Nuclear Fuel THTR Thorium High Temperature Reactor TRISO Tri-structural Isotropic TRU Transuranium Nuclide... and thermal spectrum ?.. 77 17 Key focus of Chapter IV ???????????????????? 86 18 Fuel assembly block?????????????????????.... 88 19 Fuel assembly block dimensions????????????????? 89 20 TRISO fuel structure?????????????????????.. 92 21...

Alajo, Ayodeji Babatunde

2011-08-08

246

Increasing the Acceptance of Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal by the Transmutation of Minor Actinides Using an Accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main challenge in nuclear fuel cycle closure is the reduction of the potential radiotoxicity of spent LWR nuclear fuel, or the length of time in which that potential hazard exists. Partitioning and accelerator-based transmutation in combination with geological disposal can lead to an acceptable societal solution for the nuclear spent fuel management problem. Nuclear fuel seems ideally suited for recycling. Only a small fraction of the available energy in the fuel is extracted in a single pass and the problem isotopes, consisting of the transuranic elements plutonium, neptunium, americium, curium and the long-lived fission products iodine and technetium, could be burned in fast-neutron spectrum reactors or sub-critical accelerator driven transmuters. Most of the remaining wastes have half-lives of a few hundred years and can be safely stored in man-made containment structures (casks or glass). The very small amount of remaining long-lived waste could be safely stored in a small geologic repository. The problem for the next 100 years is that a sufficient number of fast reactors are unlikely to be built by industry to burn its own waste and the waste from existing and new light water reactors (LWRs). So an interim solution is required to transition to a fast reactor economy. The goals of accelerator transmutation are some or all of the following: 1) to significantly reduce the impacts due to the minor actinides on the packing density and long-term radiotoxicity in the repository design, 2) preserve/use the energy-rich component of used nuclear fuel, and 3) reduce proliferation risk. Accelerator-based transmutation could lead to a greater percentage of our power coming from greenhouse-gas emission-free nuclear power and provide a long-term strategy enabling the continuation and growth of nuclear power in the U.S. )

Sheffield, Richard L.

2010-02-01

247

Electrical properties of isotopically enriched neutron-transmutation-doped 70Ge:Ga near the metal-insulator transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report low-temperature carrier transport properties of a series of nominally uncompensated neutron-transmutation-doped 70Ge:Ga samples very close to the critical concentration Nc for the metal-insulator transition. The nine samples closest to Nc have Ga concentrations N in the range 0.99Nc

Michio Watanabe; Youiti Ootuka; Kohei M. Itoh; Eugene E. Haller

1998-01-01

248

Measurement of electron-phonon decoupling time in neutron-transmutation doped germanium at 20 mK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the electron-phonon decoupling in Neutron-Transmutation Doped (NTD) Germanium thermistors below 50 mK, and measured a characteristic time constant of this phenomenon. We will discuss how our decoupling model accounts for observed non-linearities in I V characteristics of NTD Ge and for the time structure of phonon pulses detected in a Ge crystal operated at 20 mK.

Aubourg, Éric; Cummings, Alan; Shutt, Tom; Stockwell, Walter; Barnes, Peter D.; da Silva, Angela; Emes, John; Haller, Eugene E.; Lange, Andrew E.; Ross, Ron R.; Sadoulet, Bernard; Smith, Garth; Wang, Ning; White, Storn; Young, Betty A.; Yvon, Dominique

1993-11-01

249

An integrated model for materials in a fusion power plant: transmutation, gas production, and helium embrittlement under neutron irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high-energy, high-intensity neutron fluxes produced by the fusion plasma will have a significant life-limiting impact on reactor components in both experimental and commercial fusion devices. As well as producing defects, the neutrons bombarding the materials initiate nuclear reactions, leading to transmutation of the elemental atoms. Products of many of these reactions are gases, particularly helium, which can cause swelling

M. R. Gilbert; S. L. Dudarev; S. Zheng; L. W. Packer; J.-Ch. Sublet

2012-01-01

250

Influence of transmutation on microstructure, density change, and embrittlement of vanadium and vanadium alloys irradiated in HFIR  

SciTech Connect

Addition of 1 at.% nickel to vanadium and V-10Ti, followed by irradiation along with the nickel-free metals in HFIR to 2.3 {times} 10{sup 22}n cm{sup {minus}2}, E > 0.1MeV (corresponding to 17.7 dpa) at 400 C, has been used to study the influence of helium on microstructural evolution and embrittlement. Approximately 15.3% of the vanadium transmuted to chromium in these alloys. The {approximately}50 appm helium generated from the {sup 58}Ni(n,{gamma}){sup 59}Ni(n,{alpha}){sup 56}Fe sequence was found to exert much less influence than either the nickel directly or the chromium formed by transmutation. The V-10Ti and V-10Ti-1Ni alloys developed an extreme fragility and broke into smaller pieces in response to minor physical insults during density measurements. A similar behavior was not observed in pure V or V-1Ni. Helium`s role in determination of mechanical properties and embrittlement of vanadium alloys in HFIR is overshadowed by the influence of alloying elements such as titanium and chromium. Both elements have been shown to increase the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) rather rapidly in the region of 10% (Cr + Ti). Since Cr is produced by transmutation of V, this is a possible mechanism for the embrittlement. Large effects on the DBTT may have also resulted from uncontrolled accumulation of interstitial elements such as C, N, and O during irradiation.

Ohnuki, S.; Takahashi, H. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Shiba, K.; Hishinuma, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai (Japan); Pawel, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Garner, F.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-06-01

251

The Raman spectroscopy of neutron transmutation doping isotope 74Germanium nanocrystals embedded in SiO 2 matrix  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have succeeded in doping arsenic (As) impurities into isotope germanium nanocrystals (nc- 74Ge) uniformly dispersed in a SiO 2 matrix by using the neutron transmutation doping (NTD) method. The samples' inner structural transmutation is studied by combining Raman scattering, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) methods. The Raman spectrum of the doped sample exhibits a relative intensity increase of the low frequency tail, blue shift of the main Raman peak (˜300 cm -1) and a high frequency tail, while the undoped sample does not. Together with the XRF, XPS and TEM, we believe that the relative intensity increase of the low frequency tail arises from an increase of amorphous 74Ge (a- 74Ge) induced by the irradiation damage. The blue shift of the main Raman peak comes from the mismatch of the crystal lattice which arose from the As impurity introduction. And the high frequency tail is due to transmuted-impurities (As) in the nc- 74Ge which was introduced by NTD.

Hu, Youwen; Lu, Tiecheng; Dun, Shaobo; Hu, Qiang; Huang, Ningkang; Zhang, Songbao; Tang, Bin; Dai, Junlong; Resnick, Lev; Shlimak, Issai; Zhu, Sha; Wei, Qiangmin; Wang, Lumin

2007-03-01

252

Determination of transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. 1997 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'A team from two national laboratories is studying transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. Analyses are being done with 18 year old samples of {sup 137}Cs-bearing pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} \\267 0.5 H{sub 2}O) obtained from a French company. These samples are unique in that the pollucite was made with various amounts of {sup 137}Cs, which was then sealed in welded stainless- steel capsules to be used as tumor irradiation sources. Over the past 18 years, the {sup 137}Cs has been decaying to stable Ba in the capsules, i.e., in the absence of atmospheric effects. This material serves as an analogue to a crystalline waste form in which such a transmutation occurs to possibly disrupt the integrity of the original waste form. Work this year consisted of determining the construction of the capsule and state of the pollucite in the absence of details about these components from the French company. The authors have opened one capsule containing nonradioactive pollucite. The information on the construction of the stainless-steel capsule is useful for the work that the authors are preparing to do on capsules containing radioactive pollucite. Microscopic characterization of the nonradioactive pollucite revealed that there are at least two compounds in addition to pollucite: a Cs-silicate and a Cs-aluminosilicate (CsAlSiO{sub 4}). These findings may complicate the interpretation of the planned experiments using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (flourescence) have been used to characterize the nonradioactive pollucite. They have investigated the stability of the nonradioactive pollucite to {beta} radiation damage by use of 200 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope. The samples were found to become amorphous in less than 10 minutes with loss of Cs. This is equivalent to many more years of {beta} radiation damage than under normal decay of the {sup 137}Cs. In fact, the dose was equivalent to several thousand years of normal radiation damage from the decay of {sup 137}Cs. Of course, there would not be any {sup 137}Cs remaining after that length of time because the half-life of {sup 137}Cs is 30 y. Preparations have been started to study the radioactive pollucite samples at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. The calculations show that by thinning the base of the capsules the authors should be able to obtain about a factor of ten increase in the fluorescence signal. Procedures for thinning capsules containing the radioactive pollucite and examining the samples at the Stanford synchrotron are in place.'

Strachan, D.M.; Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Hess, N.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1997-01-01

253

Workshop on development of radionuclide getters for the Yucca Mountain waste repository: proceedings.  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository, located in southern Nevada, is to be the first facility for permanent disposal of spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analysis has indicated that among the major radionuclides contributing to dose are technetium, iodine, and neptunium, all of which are highly mobile in the environment. Containment of these radionuclides within the repository is a priority for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). These proceedings review current research and technology efforts for sequestration of the radionuclides with a focus on technetium, iodine, and neptunium. This workshop also covered issues concerning the Yucca Mountain environment and getter characteristics required for potential placement into the repository.

Moore, Robert Charles; Lukens, Wayne W. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

2006-03-01

254

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems  

SciTech Connect

Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. M.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2009-04-08

255

Neutron-induced dpa, transmutations, gas production, and helium embrittlement of fusion materials  

E-print Network

In a fusion reactor materials will be subjected to significant fluxes of high-energy neutrons. As well as causing radiation damage, the neutrons also initiate nuclear reactions leading to changes in the chemical composition of materials (transmutation). Many of these reactions produce gases, particularly helium, which cause additional swelling and embrittlement of materials. This paper investigates, using a combination of neutron-transport and inventory calculations, the variation in displacements per atom (dpa) and helium production levels as a function of position within the high flux regions of a recent conceptual model for the "next-step" fusion device DEMO. Subsequently, the gas production rates are used to provide revised estimates, based on new density-functional-theory results, for the critical component lifetimes associated with the helium-induced grain-boundary embrittlement of materials. The revised estimates give more optimistic projections for the lifetimes of materials in a fusion power plant compared to a previous study, while at the same time indicating that helium embrittlement remains one of the most significant factors controlling the structural integrity of fusion power plant components.

M. R. Gilbert; S. L. Dudarev; D. Nguyen-Manh; S. Zheng; L. W. Packer; J. -Ch. Sublet

2013-11-20

256

Role of the National Nuclear Data Center in the field of nuclear waste transmutation  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the role of The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), formerly the National Neutron Cross Section Center. The NNDC collates and analyzes nuclear physics information for basic and applied research scientists. The NNDC performs functions that are characteristic of an information analysis center, namely bibliographic searches, data compilation, and critical appraisal of available information. Such compilations and searches are of unique importance for investigators in the field of nuclear waste transmutation. In addition, the NNDC issues publications, provides technical support to its sponsors, and conducts seminars on important topics. A primary concern of the NNDC is the timely production and revision of reference nuclear data. The NNDC coordinates the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), a cooperative effort of over 20 laboratories, and the Nuclear Data Network (NDN), a group of US Nuclear Data Centers involved in the study of nuclear structure. The NNDC also interfaces with similar groups outside the United States in activities contributing to documented computerized reference data files. The Department of Energy has established the NNDC as the Center to service requests from the research community for bibliographic and data retrievals for neutron, charged particle, nuclear structure, and radioactive decay data.

Rose, P.F.

1980-01-01

257

Measurement of anomalous resistance-temperature relation for neutron transmutation doped germanium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present precise measurements of the resistance-temperature variation of several samples of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) germanium, at temperatures from 70 mK to 1 K. This material is used widely both for thermometry and for the thermistor element in bolometers and microcalorimeters. The resistance, R, is expected to follow the variable range hopping equation R(T)=R0Tq exp(T0/T)p, where T is temperature and R0 and T0 are material parameters. A value of p=0.5 is supported by theory, and usually appears to allow good fits to data (with the Tq term neglected). However, we find that setting p=0.5 produces clear systematic errors for some of our samples. Taking p as a fitting parameter gives excellent fits over a large temperature range with p~=0.55 for these samples. We consider possible causes for this behavior, and suggest that in general NTD germanium calibration data should be examined carefully for errors caused by assuming an incorrect value of p. .

Woodcraft, A. L.; Sudiwala, R. V.; Wakui, E.

2002-02-01

258

Influence of transmutation and high neutron exposure on materials used in fission-fusion correlation experiments  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the response of three different materials to high fluence irradiation as observed in recent fusion-related experiments. While helium at fusion-relevant levels influences the details of the microstructure of Fe--Cr--Ni alloys somewhat, the resultant changes in swelling and tensile behavior are relatively small. Under conditions where substantially greater-than-fusion levels of helium are generated, however, an extensive refinement of microstructure can occur, leading to depression of swelling at lower temperatures and increased strengthening at all temperatures studied. The behavior of these alloys is dominated by their tendency to converge to saturation microstructures which encourage swelling. Irradiations of nickel are dominated by its tendency to develop a different type of saturation microstructure that discourages further void growth. Swelling approaches saturation levels that are remarkably insensitive to starting microstructure and irradiation temperature. The rate of approach to saturation is very sensitive to variables such as helium, impurities, dislocation density and displacement rate, however. Copper exhibits a rather divergent response depending on the property measured. Transmutation of copper to nickel and zinc plays a large role in determining electrical conductivity but almost no role in void swelling. Each of these three materials offers different challenges in the interpretation of fission-fusion correlation experiments.

Garner, F.A.

1990-07-01

259

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2013-10-15

260

Nuclear Technology Series. Course 22: Advanced Radionuclide Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

261

Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

Srivastava, S.C.

1996-08-01

262

Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil  

SciTech Connect

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

2012-04-25

263

Use of therapeutic radionuclides in medicine.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to follow the course of historical development in the use of radiopharmaceuticals as a therapeutic tool in nuclear medicine. This chapter is designed to point out the different phases of the development of therapeutic nuclear medicine, pointing out the events which most shaped its history along the way. Those events included the discovery of radioactivity, the development of the cyclotron and nuclear reactor as a method of delivering high specific activity radioactive sources, and a few significant therapeutic radionuclides such as 131I and 32P. The most significant therapeutic radionuclide was radium, which is treated very extensively in this paper from an historical viewpoint. It is only recently that attention of the nuclear medicine community turned to new therapeutic agents, such as bone pain palliation agents, monoclonal antibodies, and others. It may be that the next growth phase of nuclear medicine will revolve around therapy with these radionuclides. PMID:7558861

Early, P J; Landa, E R

1995-11-01

264

Radionuclide sorption on well construction materials  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which trace concentrations of radioactive materials would sorb on well construction materials and to assess the rapidity with which sorption would occur. The radionuclides employed in these studies were tritium, Cs-137, and Co-57. Solutions with trace concentrations of these radionuclides were contacted with casings of PVC, fiber-glass-epoxy, stainless steel, carbon steel, and steel rods coated with epoxy. The PVC showed no interaction with the tritium or Cs-137 during contact times of two hours to three weeks ; however, it did sorb Co-57. The fiber-glass-epoxy also interacted only with the cobalt. The stainless steel sorbed cesium and cobalt. The epoxy-coated steel rods did not interact measurably with any of the radionuclides so long as the coating was intact. The sorption reactions generally were apparent after a few days of contact; in the case of carbon steel, they were detectable in a few hours.

Thompson, J.L.

1996-11-01

265

State of radionuclides in natural waters  

SciTech Connect

This work is devoted to a study of the kinetics of attainment of equilibrium between various forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and to an evaluation of the part played by isotope exchange in this process. The radionuclide mercury-203 was added without a carrier to natural waters of the Syr-Dar'ya and Amu-Dar'ya Rivers and the Aral Sea in the cationic form (3). In order to determine the time of attainment of equilibrium between the forms of the radionuclide mercury-203 and the stable nuclide analogs, they used the methods of sorption on L-36 glass, AV-17 anion-exchanger, KU-2 cation-exchanger, extraction with chloroform plus isobutyl alcohol, and filtration.

Kulmatov, R.A.; Rakhmatov, U.; Kist, A.A.; Volkov, A.A.

1987-03-01

266

Scoping analysis for radionuclide migration test  

SciTech Connect

The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is to conduct an in situ test of radionuclide migration in fractured granite. Radionuclides are to be injected into a fracture in the Climax Stock of the Nevada Test Site, then transported by fluid motion and subsequently withdrawn. The fluid will be injected through a borehole intersecting a near vertical fracture and withdrawn through a second borehole that intersects the fracture directly below the first. The scoping calculations presented here are intended to aid planning this experiment. In the absence of a detailed fracture description, this analysis treats the fracture as the space between parallel flat plates; the flow is a Hele-Shaw flow. The calculations predict the conditions for breakthrough of radionuclides at the outlet hole and describe the subsequent concentration history of fluid flowing from the fracture. The effects of advection, sorption, and geometric dispersion are treated.

Morrison, F.A. Jr.

1982-01-01

267

Therapeutic Radionuclides: Biophysical and Radiobiologic Principles  

PubMed Central

Although the general radiobiologic principles underlying external beam therapy and radionuclide therapy are the same, there are significant differences in the biophysical and radiobiologic effects from the two types of radiation. In addition to the emission of particulate radiation, targeted radionuclide therapy is characterized by (i) extended exposures and, usually, declining dose rates; (ii) nonuniformities in the distribution of radioactivity and, thus, absorbed dose; and (iii) particles of varying ionization density and, hence, quality. This chapter explores the special features that distinguish the biologic effects consequent to the traversal of charged particles through mammalian cells. It also highlights what has been learned when these radionuclides and radiotargeting pharmaceuticals are used to treat cancers. PMID:18662557

Kassis, Amin I.

2008-01-01

268

Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.  

PubMed

An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

2004-12-01

269

[Radionuclide therapy for cancer--what's new?].  

PubMed

Radionuclide therapy is radiation therapy, the effect of which is based on radiation damage in cancer cells. The most common radionuclide therapy for cancer is radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. Two new forms of treatment have recently been initiated in Finland: 177lutetium octreotate therapy for neuroendocrine tumors, pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma as well as radioembolization (selective internal radiation therapy, SIRT) with 90yttrium-coated resin beads against liver metastases. Still in experimental use, 223radium chloride is a drug prolonging survival in prostate cancer that has metastasized to bone. The treatments require special knowledge and collaboration between several units. PMID:23210283

Hanna, Mäenpää; Mikko, Tenhunen

2012-01-01

270

Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2010-01-04

271

Assessment of Radionuclides in the Savannah River Site Environment Summary  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the impact of radionuclide releases from Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities from 1954 through 1996. The radionuclides reported here are those whose release resulted in the highest dose to people living near SRS.

Carlton, W.H.

1999-01-26

272

Intrathoracic kidney on radionuclide renography. A case report  

SciTech Connect

A child with an asymptomatic mass in the lower right thorax was evaluated with sonography, intravenous urography, and radionuclide renography. High renal ectopia was only diagnosed with radionuclide renography.

Williams, A.G. Jr.; Christie, J.H.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.

1983-09-01

273

Nuclear Transmutations in HFIR's Beryllium Reflector and Their Impact on Reactor Operation and Reflector Disposal  

SciTech Connect

The High Flux Isotope Reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory utilizes a large cylindrical beryllium reflector that is subdivided into three concentric regions and encompasses the compact reactor core. Nuclear transmutations caused by neutron activation occur in the beryllium reflector regions, which leads to unwanted neutron absorbing and radiation emitting isotopes. During the past year, two topics related to the HFIR beryllium reflector were reviewed. The first topic included studying the neutron poison (helium-3 and lithium-6) buildup in the reflector regions and its affect on beginning-of-cycle reactivity. A new methodology was developed to predict the reactivity impact and estimated symmetrical critical control element positions as a function of outage time between cycles due to helium-3 buildup and was shown to be in better agreement with actual symmetrical critical control element position data than the current methodology. The second topic included studying the composition of the beryllium reflector regions at discharge as well as during decay to assess the viability of transporting, storing, and ultimately disposing the reflector regions currently stored in the spent fuel pool. The post-irradiation curie inventories were used to determine whether the reflector regions are discharged as transuranic waste or become transuranic waste during the decay period for disposal purposes and to determine the nuclear hazard category, which may affect the controls invoked for transportation and temporary storage. Two of the reflector regions were determined to be transuranic waste at discharge and the other region was determined to become transuranic waste in less than 2 years after being discharged due to the initial uranium content (0.0044 weight percent uranium). It was also concluded that all three of the reflector regions could be classified as nuclear hazard category 3 (potential for localized consequences only).

Chandler, David [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Proctor, Larry Duane [ORNL

2012-01-01

274

Hardening neutron spectrum for advanced actinide transmutation experiments in the ATR.  

PubMed

The most effective method for transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast test reactor in the United States, initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. Such a test facility, with a spectrum similar but somewhat softer than that of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), has been constructed in the INEEL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The radial fission power distribution of the actinide fuel pin, which is an important parameter in fission gas release modelling, needs to be accurately predicted and the hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum is compared. The comparison analyses in this study are performed using MCWO, a well-developed tool that couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and build-up code ORIGEN-2. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations and detailed radial fission power profile calculations for a typical fast reactor (LMFBR) neutron spectrum and the hardened neutron spectrum test region in the ATR. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the cadmium basket used in the advanced fuel test assembly in the ATR can effectively depress the linear heat generation rate in the experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum in the test region. PMID:16381683

Chang, G S; Ambrosek, R G

2005-01-01

275

Production cross sections of short-lived silver radionuclides from natPd(p,xn) nuclear processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production cross-sections of short-lived 103Ag, 104mAg and 104gAg radionuclides from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium (Pd) were measured up to 41 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution ?-ray spectrometry. The present results are compared with the available literature values as well as theoretical data calculated by the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE computer codes. Note that production cross-sections of the 104mAg radionuclide from natPd(p,xn) processes has been measured here for the first time. Physical thick target yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced from the respective threshold energy to 41 MeV taking into account that the total energy is absorbed in the targets. Measured data of the short-lived 103Ag radionuclide are noteworthy due to its possible applications as a precursor for the indirect production of widely used therapeutic 103Pd radionuclide via natPd(p,xn)103Ag ? 103Pd processes. On the other hand, the investigated 104Ag radionuclide finds importance due to its potential use as a diagnostic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging analogue. Above all, measured data will enrich the literature database leading to various applications in science and technology.

Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun

2012-03-01

276

A model for radionuclide transport in the Cooling Water System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radionuclide transport model developed to assess radiological levels in the K-reactor Cooling Water System (CWS) in the event of an inadvertent process water (PW) leakage to the cooling water (CW) in the heat exchangers (HX) is described. During and following a process water leak, the radionuclide transport model determines the time-dependent release rates of radionuclide from the cooling water

Kahook

1992-01-01

277

Radionuclide Cisternography. The Value of Radionuclide Cisternography in the Diagnosis and Management of Hydrocephalus and Possibly Associated Anomalies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to show that radionuclide cisternography makes an essential contribution to the investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics, especially for the investigation of hydrocephalus. The technical details of radionuclide cis...

H. H. Song

1980-01-01

278

Hopping Conduction and Metal-Insulator Transition in Isotopically Enriched Neutron-Transmutation-Doped 70Ge:Ga  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the electrical conductivity sigma of a series of nominally uncompensated neutron-transmutation-doped isotopically enriched 70Ge:Ga samples with the Ga concentration [Ga] near Nc for the metal-insulator transition. sigma of all insulating samples obeys lnsigma~-\\\\(T0\\/T\\\\)1\\/2 with T0~\\\\(Nc-[Ga]\\\\)\\/Nc while the zero temperature conductivity sigma\\\\(0\\\\) of the metallic samples is sigma\\\\(0\\\\)~\\\\{\\\\([Ga]-Nc\\\\)\\/Nc\\\\}nu with the critical exponent nu~0.5. The values of Nc obtained

K. M. Itoh; E. E. Haller; J. W. Beeman; W. L. Hansen; J. Emes; L. A. Reichertz; E. Kreysa; T. Shutt; A. Cummings; W. Stockwell; B. Sadoulet; J. Muto; J. W. Farmer; V. I. Ozhogin

1996-01-01

279

Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.  

PubMed

The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. PMID:24508949

Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

2014-06-01

280

FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of Metrologia on radionuclide metrology is the first of a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurement, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The idea was first proposed at the 2003 series of CCRI Section meetings, with the general aim of showcasing

Bruce Simpson; Steven Judge

2007-01-01

281

RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

S. Magnuson

2004-11-01

282

REMOVAL OF RADIONUCLIDES BY ELECTROKINETIC SOIL PROCESSING  

EPA Science Inventory

Electrokinetics promises to be an innovative treatment process for in-situ treatment of soils and groundwater contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Electrokinetics refers to the movement of ionic liquids and charged particles relative to one another under the action ...

283

LASL models for environmental transport of radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current status of a project at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for development of a generalized technique for evaluating the adequacy of solid radioactive waste disposal sites is outlined. A major part of the project is the modeling of environmental processes which may result in the release of radionuclides to the environs. The structure of the environmental transport modeling

W. J. II Smith; A. F. Gallegos; L. J. Johnson

1977-01-01

284

Migration of radionuclides following shallow land burial  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of radionuclide migration was conducted at a facility used from 1944 to 1949 for the shallow land burial of radwaste produced during operations with two reactors and related nuclear research. It is situated in glacial drift 45 m thick. Underlying the drift is a generally level Silurian dolomite bedrock 60 m thick. The thickness of the drift decreases

J. Sedlet; N. W. Golchert

1980-01-01

285

Targets and methods for target preparation for radionuclide production  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to nuclear technology, and to irradiation targets and their preparation. One embodiment of the present invention includes a method for preparation of a target containing intermetallic composition of antimony Ti--Sb, Al--Sb, Cu--Sb, or Ni--Sb in order to produce radionuclides (e.g., tin-117 m) with a beam of accelerated particles. The intermetallic compounds of antimony can be welded by means of diffusion welding to a copper backing cooled during irradiation on the beam of accelerated particles. Another target can be encapsulated into a shell made of metallic niobium, stainless steel, nickel or titanium cooled outside by water during irradiation. Titanium shell can be plated outside by nickel to avoid interaction with the cooling water.

Zhuikov, Boris L; Konyakhin, Nicolai A; Kokhanyuk, Vladimir M; Srivastava, Suresh C

2012-10-16

286

Targeted radionuclide therapy--an overview.  

PubMed

Radionuclide therapy (RNT) based on the concept of delivering cytotoxic levels of radiation to disease sites is one of the rapidly growing fields of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, RNT targets diseases at the cellular level rather than on a gross anatomical level. This concept is a blend of a tracer moiety that mediates a site specific accumulation followed by induction of cytotoxicity with the short-range biological effectiveness of particulate radiations. Knowledge of the biochemical reactions taking place at cellular levels has stimulated the development of sophisticated molecular carriers, catalyzing a shift towards using more specific targeting radiolabelled agents. There is also improved understanding of factors of importance for choice of appropriate radionuclides based on availability, the types of emissions, linear energy transfer (LET), and physical half-life. This article discusses the applications of radionuclide therapy for treatment of cancer as well as other diseases. The primary objective of this review is to provide an overview on the role of radionuclide therapy in the treatment of different diseases such as polycythaemia, thyroid malignancies, metastatic bone pain, radiation synovectomy, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and others. In addition, recent developments on the systematic approach in designing treatment regimens as well as recent progress, challenges and future perspectives are discussed. An examination of the progress of radionuclide therapy indicates that although a rapid stride has been made for treating hematological tumors, the development for treating solid tumors has, so far, been limited. However, the emergence of novel tumor-specific targeting agents coupled with successful characterization of new target structures would be expected to pave the way for future treatment for such tumors. PMID:24059327

Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F Russ; Pillai, M R A

2013-09-01

287

Source inversion for the CTBTO radionuclide network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to support its mission of monitoring compliance with the treaty banning nuclear explosions, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) operates four global networks of, respectively, seismic, infrasound, hydroacoustic sensors and air samplers accompanied with radionuclide detectors. The role of the International Data Centre (IDC) of CTBTO is to associate the signals detected in the monitoring networks with the physical phenomena which emitted these signals, by forming events. One of the aspects of associating detections with emitters is the problem of inferring the sources of radionuclides from the detections made at CTBTO radionuclide network stations. This task is particularly challenging because the average transport distance between a release point and detectors is large. Complex processes of turbulent diffusion are responsible for efficient mixing and consequently for decreasing the information content of detections with an increasing distance from the source. The problem is generally addressed in a two-step process. In the first step, an atmospheric transport model establishes a link between the detections and the regions of possible source location. In the second step this link is inverted to infer source information from the detections. In this presentation, we will discuss enhancements of the presently used regression-based inversion algorithm to reconstruct a source of radionuclides. To this aim, modern inversion algorithms accounting for prior information and appropriately regularizing an under-determined reconstruction problem will be briefly introduced. Emphasis will be on the CTBTO context and the choice of inversion methods. An illustration of the first tests will be provided using a framework of twin experiments, i.e. fictitious detections in the CTBTO radionuclide network generated with an atmospheric transport model.

Krysta, M.; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J.; Nikkinen, M.; Carter, J. A.

2013-12-01

288

Anthropogenic radionuclides in the atmosphere observed at Tsukuba: characteristics of the radionuclides derived from Fukushima.  

PubMed

During a serious accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP), a huge quantity of radionuclides was released into the atmosphere and ocean. We measured anthropogenic radionuclides in surface air at Tsukuba, about 170 km from the FDNPP. On March 15, 2011, we detected the radioactivity released from the Fukushima accident in air samples at Tsukuba. The major radionuclides that we observed were radioiodine ((131)I, (132)I, (133)I) and radiocesium ((134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs). This radioiodine consisted of gaseous and particulate forms; the percentage of particulate (131)I in the total (131)I ranged from 0 to 86%. The percentage of the particulate (131)I to the total (131)I increased on the arrival of the plumes from major emissions of the FDNPP. After activities of the radionuclides attained the maximum on March 15, 2011, the FDNPP-derived radionuclides decreased rapidly in surface air. The activity median aerodynamic diameter of (131)I-bearing particles was 0.7 ?m, while those of (134)Cs- and (137)Cs-bearing particles were larger than 1 ?m. Large variations of ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (132)Te/(137)Cs, and (99)Mo ((99m)Tc)/(137)Cs (all involving different elements) suggest that the behaviors of these radionuclides in the atmosphere, including the processes of their emission, differed each other. PMID:23542231

Doi, Taeko; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi; Toyoda, Akihiro; Tanaka, Atsushi; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Hirose, Katsumi

2013-08-01

289

Compact, energy self-sustaining neutron source: Enabling technology for thorium breeder and accelerator transmutation of waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this novel neutron source, a deuterium beam (energy of about 100 keV) is to be injected through a plasma window into a tube filled with tritium gas or tritium plasma to generate D-T fusion reactions whose products are 14.06 MeV neutrons and 3.52 MeV alpha particles. At the opposite end of the tube, the energy of deuterium ions that

A. Hershcovitch; W. Horak; B. Johnson; M. Todosow; T. Roser; M. Driscoll

2009-01-01

290

Transmutation and activation effects in high-conductivity copper alloys exposed to a first wall fusion neutron flux  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmutation and activity characteristics are calculated for a number of high-conductivity copper-based alloys exposed to 2.5 y continuous irradiation in the first wall neutron flux of the Culham Conceptual Tokamak Reactor IIA with neutron power loading of 7 MW m -2. The computations are based on a modified form of the ORIGEN code and the cross section data library UKCTRIIIA. It is found that the copper base transmutes to other elements, principally nickel and zinc, at the rate of 0.28 wt% per MW y m -2. The probable effect of these unintended alloying additions on the thermal conductivity is briefly discussed. Since their activities are generally dominated by that of the copper component, the dilute alloys studied exhibit very similar activation and decay properties. The long term surface dose rate of alumina dispersion strengthened alloys may, however, be dominated by the ? decay of 26Al with half life 7.4 × 10 5y. Comparison is made with the activation characteristics of type 316 austenitic steel and the martensitic steel HT-9. It is noted that the long-term activity of copper alloys may in practice be governed by their silver impurity content, unless this can be reduced to about 1 ppm.

Butterworth, G. J.

1985-10-01

291

An integrated model for materials in a fusion power plant: transmutation, gas production, and helium embrittlement under neutron irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-energy, high-intensity neutron fluxes produced by the fusion plasma will have a significant life-limiting impact on reactor components in both experimental and commercial fusion devices. As well as producing defects, the neutrons bombarding the materials initiate nuclear reactions, leading to transmutation of the elemental atoms. Products of many of these reactions are gases, particularly helium, which can cause swelling and embrittlement of materials. This paper integrates several different computational techniques to produce a comprehensive picture of the response of materials to neutron irradiation, enabling the assessment of structural integrity of components in a fusion power plant. Neutron-transport calculations for a model of the next-step fusion device DEMO reveal the variation in exposure conditions in different components of the vessel, while inventory calculations quantify the associated implications for transmutation and gas production. The helium production rates are then used, in conjunction with a simple model for He-induced grain-boundary embrittlement based on electronic-structure density functional theory calculations, to estimate the timescales for susceptibility to grain-boundary failure in different fusion-relevant materials. There is wide variation in the predicted grain-boundary-failure lifetimes as a function of both microstructure and chemical composition, with some conservative predictions indicating much less than the required lifetime for components in a fusion power plant.

Gilbert, M. R.; Dudarev, S. L.; Zheng, S.; Packer, L. W.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

2012-08-01

292

Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

Knight, M.J.

1983-04-01

293

Radioimmunoimaging with longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides: potentials and challenges  

PubMed Central

Radioimmunoimaging and therapy has been an area of interest for several decades. Steady progress has been made towards clinical translation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Tremendous advances have been made in imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET). However, these advances have so far eluded routine translation into clinical radioimmunoimaging applications due to the mismatch between the short half-lives of routinely used positron-emitting radionuclides such as 18F versus the pharmacokinetics of most intact monoclonal antibodies of interest. The lack of suitable positron-emitting radionuclides that match the pharmacokinetics of intact antibodies has generated interest in exploring the use of longer-lived positron emitters that are more suitable for radioimmunoimaging and dosimetry applications with intact monoclonal antibodies. In this review, we examine the opportunities and challenges of radioimmunoimaging with select longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as 124I, 89Zr and 86Y with respect to radionuclide production, ease of radiolabeling intact antibodies, imaging characteristics, radiation dosimetry and clinical translation potential. PMID:19125647

Nayak, Tapan K.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

2012-01-01

294

Mapping Biological Behaviors by Application of Longer-Lived Positron Emitting Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

With the technological development of positron emission tomography (PET) and the advent of novel antibody-directed drug delivery systems, longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides are moving to the forefront to take important roles in tracking the distribution of biotherapeutics such as antibodies, and for monitoring biological processes and responses. Longer half-life radionuclides possess advantages of convenient on-site preparation procedures for both clinical and non-clinical applications. The suitability of the long half-life radionuclides for imaging intact monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and their respective fragments, which have inherently long biological half-lives, has attracted increased interest in recent years. In this review, we provide a survey of the recent literature as it applies to the development of nine-selected longer-lived positron emitters with half-lives of 9–140 hours (e.g., 124I, 64Cu, 86Y and 89Zr), and describe the biological behaviors of radionuclide-labeled mAbs with respect to distribution and targeting characteristics, potential toxicities, biological applications, and clinical translation potentials. PMID:23123291

Zhou, Yang; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

2012-01-01

295

Radionuclide behavior in water saturated porous media: Diffusion and infiltration coupling of thermodynamically and kinetically controlled radionuclide water - mineral interactions  

SciTech Connect

A model is developed describing one dimensional radionuclide transport in porous media coupled with locally reversible radionuclide water-mineral exchange reactions and radioactive decay. Problems are considered in which radionuclide transport by diffusion and infiltration processes occur in cases where radionuclide water-solid interaction are kinetically and thermodynamically controlled. The limits of Sr-90 and Cs-137 migration are calculated over a wide range of the problem variables (infiltration velocity, distribution coefficients, and rate constants of water-mineral radionuclide exchange reactions).

Spasennykh, M.Yu. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow (Russian Federation); Apps, J.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1995-05-01

296

Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

2013-04-01

297

Radionuclide Sensors and Systems for Environmental Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

We have developed automated sensor and monitoring devices for trace radionuclides in water, using preconcentrating columns and radiometric detection. The preconcentrating minicolumn sensor concept combines selective capture and detection in a single functional unit. We have demonstrated quantification of radionuclides such as technetium-99 to levels below drinking water standards in an equilibration-based process that produces steady state signals, signal proportional to concentration, and easy re-equilibration to new concentration levels. Alternatively, monitors can be developed with separate separation and detection units that are fluidically linked. We have demonstrated detection of strontium-90 to levels below drinking water standards by this approach. We are developing autonomous systems for at-site monitoring on the Hanford Site in Washington State.

Grate, Jay W.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Egorov, Oleg; Burge, Scott R.

2009-05-18

298

Radionuclide transport in the Yenisei River  

E-print Network

Data characterizing the pollution of the Yenisei River (water and bottom sediment) by radionuclide resulting from the use of the river water for cooling industrial reactors in the Mining-Chemical Complex are presented. Studies have been made of the contamination of the river during the period when reactors with direct flow cooling were used and after these were shut down. Distinctive features of the migration of radionuclide in the Yenisei are noted, in particular, their distribution between the solid and liquid phases. The amounts of 137Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 152Eu in the channel are determined from the effluent discharge site to Dudinka port. The rate of continuous self removal of 137Cs is estimated to be 0.19 1/year, corresponding to a half purification time of 3.6 years for a 600 km long segment of the river bed.

Vakulovsky, S M; Kabanov, A I

2012-01-01

299

Radionuclide transport in the Yenisei River  

E-print Network

Data characterizing the pollution of the Yenisei River (water and bottom sediment) by radionuclide resulting from the use of the river water for cooling industrial reactors in the Mining-Chemical Complex are presented. Studies have been made of the contamination of the river during the period when reactors with direct flow cooling were used and after these were shut down. Distinctive features of the migration of radionuclide in the Yenisei are noted, in particular, their distribution between the solid and liquid phases. The amounts of 137Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 152Eu in the channel are determined from the effluent discharge site to Dudinka port. The rate of continuous self removal of 137Cs is estimated to be 0.19 1/year, corresponding to a half purification time of 3.6 years for a 600 km long segment of the river bed.

S. M. Vakulovsky; E. G. Tertyshnik; A. I. Kabanov

2012-11-15

300

Radionuclide partitioning in the modified Unex process  

SciTech Connect

The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of long-lived radionuclides (cesium, strontium, actinides, and lanthanides) from acidic solutions in one extraction cycle. Modification of this organic solvent through the use of diamides of dipicolinic acid instead of CMPO increases the extraction capacity of UNEX solvent toward lanthanides and actinide metals, allowing for the processing of spent nuclear fuel. The possibility of radionuclide group separation using the modified UNEX solvent [HCCD (chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide), TBDPA (tetrabutyl-diamide of dipicolinic acid), PEG in FS-1 3 (phenyl-trifluoromethyl-sulfone)] is being investigated. Individual strip products, including a) actinides and lanthanides, b) strontium, and c) cesium, can be obtained by selective stripping from UNEX solvent. Such partitioning will make it possible to transform the Cs/Sr product into the most stable matrices for long-term storage and to further process the actinide/lanthanide product for recycling to a nuclear reactor. (authors)

Babain, V.; Smirnov, I. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Alyapyshev, M. [Khlopin Radium Institute, St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Todd, T.A.; Law, J.D.; Herbst, R.S. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Paulenova, A. [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States)

2008-07-01

301

Radionuclide content of Las Vegas wash sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Las Vegas Wash is an excavated waterway channel which drains all surface water and effluent discharge from sewage-treatment facilities from the greater Las Vegas Metropolitan Area to Lake Mead. Runoff and erosion processes are expected to transport man-made radioactivity that was deposited over the past several decades in the Las Vegas Valley. Additionally, radionuclides disposed of via the city`s

M. J. Rudin; A. M. Meyers; W. H. Johnson

1996-01-01

302

Separation of Radionuclides by Polyurethane Foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 103Pd, 110Ag and 203Hg radionuclides by polyurethane foam (PUF) was investigated and optimized with respect to the selection of appropriate sorptive medium, metal, thiocyanate ions (except for 110Ag) and PUF concentration and equilibration time. The influence of common anions and cations on the sorption of each metal was examined. The sorption data subjected to

S. M. Hasany; M. M. Saeed; M. Ahmed

2000-01-01

303

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

Wahl, Linnea

2009-05-21

304

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

2008-06-13

305

UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

2006-08-28

306

Radionuclide content of Las Vegas wash sediments  

SciTech Connect

The Las Vegas Wash is an excavated waterway channel which drains all surface water and effluent discharge from sewage-treatment facilities from the greater Las Vegas Metropolitan Area to Lake Mead. Runoff and erosion processes are expected to transport man-made radioactivity that was deposited over the past several decades in the Las Vegas Valley. Additionally, radionuclides disposed of via the city`s sanitary system are expected to accumulate in the Wash sediments. Fine and coarse sediment samples were collected at 100 m intervals and analyzed to determine the distribution of alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides in the lower 5,500 in of the Las Vegas Wash. Results indicate little accumulation of long-lived fission products in upstream Wash sediments. However, trace amounts of fission products measured in downstream sediments suggest the resuspension and transport of radioactive particulate matter within the Wash. Levels of naturally-occurring radionuclides found in Wash sediments were found to be consistent with levels typically found in southeast Nevada soils.

Rudin, M.J.; Meyers, A.M.; Johnson, W.H. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

1996-06-01

307

Sorption of radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs  

SciTech Connect

A substantial database of sorption coefficients for important radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs has been obtained by Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past ten years. Current sorption studies are focussed on validation questions and augmentation of the existing database. Validation questions concern the effects of the use of crushed instead of solid rock samples in the batch experiments, the use of oversaturated stock solutions, and variations in water/rock ratios. Sorption mechanisms are also being investigated. Database augmentation activities include determination of sorption coefficients for elements with low sorption potential, sorption on psuedocolloids, sorption on fracture lining minerals, and sorption kinetics. Sorption can provide an important barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the proposed repository within Yucca Mountain to the accessible environment. In order to quantify this barrier, sorption coefficients appropriate for the Yucca Mountain groundwater system must be obtained for each of the important radionuclides in nuclear waste. Los Alamos National Laboratories has conducted numerous batch (crushed-rock) sorption experiments over the past ten years to develop a sorption coefficient database for the Yucca Mountain site. In the present site characterization phase, the main goals of the sorption test program will be to validate critical sorption coefficients and to augment the existing database where important data are lacking. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Meijer, A.; Triay, I.; Knight, S.; Cisneros, M.

1989-11-01

308

A fieldable instrument for waterborne radionuclide detection  

SciTech Connect

In monitoring effluent leaving its sites, US DOE assays for alpha- emitting radionuclides (U, transuranics) to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Because alpha emissions can only by detected over a short range in water ({approximately}40{mu}m), the conventional approach is to collect samples for processing in a central laboratory; a time-consuming and cost procedure ensues to separate and measure the radionuclides. Because of the sporadic nature of sampling processes, there is the possibility that a release may go undetected. We are addressing this issue by a developing a real-time, field- deployable instrument which incorporates a proprietary film that selectively binds radionuclides from dilute aqueous samples. By combining the film with an appropriate alpha spectrometer, we have developed a fieldable system that can operate as an autonomous monitor in a batch or continuous manner. Laboratory results to date have been encouraging. Positive identification of U and Pu has been made by resolving the energy spectrum of emitted alphas. Sensitivity for U is at the 10 part per trillion level (15 femtocuries per liter).

Barshick, C.M.; Turner, M.L.; Smith, D.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Patch, K.D. [Thermo Power Corp., Waltham, MA (United States). Tecogen Div.

1996-12-31

309

UNIFYING THEORY OF LOW-ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTION AND TRANSMUTATION PROCESSES IN DEUTERATED\\/HYDROGENATED METALS, ACOUSTIC CAVITATION, GLOW DISCHARGE, AND DEUTERON BEAM EXPERIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most basic theoretical challenge for understanding low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation reaction (LETR) in condensed matters is to find mechanisms by which the large Coulomb barrier between fusing nuclei can be overcome. A unifying theory of LENR and LETR has been developed to provide possible mechanisms for the LENR and LETR processes in matters based on high-density

YEONG E. KIM; ALEXANDER L. ZUBAREV

310

Proposal for New Experimental Tests of the Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low Energy Nuclear Reaction and Transmutation Processes in Deuterium Loaded Micro and Nano Scale Cavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of experimental results of low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) reported so far cannot be reproduced on demand. There have been persistent experimental results indicating that the LENR and transmutation processes in condensed matters (LENRTPCM) are surface phenomena rather than bulk phenomena. Recently proposed Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) mechanism may provide a suitable theoretical description of the surface phenomena. New experiments

Yeong E. Kim; David S. Koltick; Ronald G. Reifenberger; Alexander L. Zubarev

311

Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters  

SciTech Connect

The study objective of "The Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters" is to synthesize and test radionuclide transport models capable of realistically assessing radionuclide transport in various types of surface water bodies by including the sediment-radionuclide interactions. These interactions include radionuclide adsorption by sediment; desorption from sediment into water; and transport, deposition, and resuspension of sorbed radionuclides controlled by the sediment movements. During FY-1979, the modification of sediment and contaminant (radionuclide) transport model, FETRA, was completed to make it applicable to coastal waters. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral) model that consists of three submodels (for sediment, dissolved-contaminant, and particulate-contaminant transport), coupled to include the sediment-contaminant interactions. In estuaries, flow phenomena and consequent sediment and radionuclide migration are often three-dimensional in nature mainly because of nonuniform channel cross-sections, salinity intrusion, and lateral-flow circulation. Thus, an unsteady, three-dimensional radionuclide transport model for estuaries is also being synthesized by combining and modifying a PNL unsteady hydrothermal model and FETRA. These two radionuclide transport models for coastal waters and estuaries will be applied to actual sites to examine the validity of the codes.

,

1981-04-01

312

Natural radionuclides in groundwater as pollutants and as useful tracers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series are present at mBq\\/l concentrations up to some Bq\\/l in many aquifers worldwide. Health impact from these radionuclides when present in drinking water results from ingestion, inhalation of outgassing radon and from possible radionuclide accumulation when water is treated. Activity retained in filters may lead to increased dose rates and contamination problems

François Gainon; Heinz Surbeck; François Zwahlen

313

Radionuclide decay data base - index and summary table  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an index and summary table for an extensive data base of evaluated radioactive decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides of potential importance in assessing radiological impacts on the general public or occupationally exposed individuals. For each radionuclide, the summary table gives the radionuclide name, half-life, and the average energy per decay for the emitted alpha particles, electrons, and photons. 8 refs., 1 tab.

Kocher, D C

1980-05-01

314

EASY-II: a system for modelling of n, d, p, {\\gamma} and {\\alpha} activation and transmutation processes  

E-print Network

EASY-II is designed as a functional replacement for the previous European Activation System, EASY-2010. It has extended nuclear data and new software, FISPACT-II, written in object-style Fortran to provide new capabilities for predictions of activation, transmutation, depletion and burnup. The new FISPACT-II code has allowed us to implement many more features in terms of energy range, up to GeV; incident particles: alpha, gamma, proton, deuteron and neutron; and neutron physics: self-shielding effects, temperature dependence, pathways analysis, sensitivity and error estimation using covariance data. These capabilities cover most application needs: nuclear fission and fusion, accelerator physics, isotope production, waste management and many more. In parallel, the maturity of modern general-purpose libraries such as TENDL-2012 encompassing thousands of target nuclides, the evolution of the ENDF format and the capabilities of the latest generation of processing codes PREPRO-2012, NJOY2012 and CALENDF-2010 have ...

Sublet, Jean-Christophe; Morgan, Guy; Koning, Arjan; Rochman, Dimitri

2013-01-01

315

Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E. [and others

1994-04-01

316

Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

NONE

1996-11-01

317

Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in estuaries  

SciTech Connect

The finite element model LFESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment and Contaminant Transport Model) was synthesized under this study to simulate radionuclide transport in estuaries to obtain accurate radionuclide distributions which are affected by these factors: time variance, three-dimensional flow, temperature, salinity, and sediments. Because sediment transport and radionuclide adsorption/desorption depend strongly on sizes or types of sediments, FLESCOT simulates sediment and a sediment-sorbed radionuclide for the total of three sediment-size fractions (or sediment types) of both cohesive and noncohesive sediments. It also calculates changes of estuarine bed conditions, including bed elevation changes due to sediment erosion/deposition, and three-dimensional distributions of three bed sediment sizes and sediment-sorbed radionuclides within the bed. Although the model was synthesized for radionuclide transport, it is general enough to also handle other contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, or toxic chemicals. The model was checked for its capability for flow, water surface elevation change, salinity, sediment and radionuclide transport under various simple conditions first, confirming the general validity of the model's computational schemes. These tests also revealed that FLESCOT can use large aspect ratios of computational cells, which are necessary in handling long estuarine study areas. After these simple tests, FLESCOT was applied to the Hudson River estuary between Chelsea and the mouth of the river to examine how well the model can predict radionuclide transport through simulating tidally influenced three-dimensional flow, salinity, sediment and radionuclide movements with their interactions.

Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

1982-11-01

318

Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: summary  

SciTech Connect

A Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle is being compared to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the risk, which is RAC code. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts, also using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. Result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. The nonradiological risk which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. If the radiological risk is consdered alone, the ratio of PT to Reference risk is 3, composed as follows: radiological operations affecting the public 5, radiological operations affecting the workers 1.7, and radiological accidents affecting the public 1.4, all in the order of decreasing risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatality/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatality/GWe-year for the reference cycle; this compares with 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year.

Fullwood, R.; Jackson, R.

1980-03-01

319

COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The CPFM technology is designed to remove trace to moderate levels of nontritium radionuclides and heavy metal pollutants from water. he technology uses a proprietary compound that consists of inorganic, oxide-based granules. his mixed is designed to remove heavy metals and radio...

320

COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The CPFM technology is designed to remove trace to moderate levels of nontritium radionuclides and heavy metal pollutants from water. The technology uses a proprietary compound that consists of inorganic, oxide-based granules. This mixed is designed to remove heavy metals and rad...

321

Radionuclides at Descartes in the central highlands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Throium, uranium, potassium, aluminium-26, and sodium-22 were measured by nondestructive gamma ray spectrometry in six soil and two rock samples gathered by Apollo 16 in the lunar central highlands. The soil samples probably include both major geologic formations in the vicinity, the Cayley and Descartes Formations, although it is possible that the Descartes Formation is not represented. The rock samples have low concentrations of primordial radionuclides. The Al concentrations were lower than could be expected from the high abundance of alumina in the Apollo 16 soils reported earlier, but this could be due to lower concentrations of target elements in these soils, sampling depth variations, or regolithic mixing (exposure age variations).

Wrigley, R. C.

1973-01-01

322

Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

Welch, M.J.

1992-06-01

323

Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

1999-01-01

324

Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1981-01-01

325

Determination of the optimal plutonium fraction in transuranium discharged from pressured water reactor (PWR) spent fuel for a flat fission power generation in the force-free helical reactor (FFHR) along the transmutation period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmutation of transuranium (TRU) discharged from PWR spent fuel and the possibility of a flat fission power (FFP) generation along the transmutation process have been investigated in the force-free helical reactor (FFHR), which is a demo relevant helical-type D-T fusion reactor, for an operation period (OP) of up to 10 years by 75% plant factor (?) under a neutron wall

Hüseyin Yap?c?

2003-01-01

326

Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders  

PubMed Central

Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as 99mTc-nanocolloid, 99mTc-sulphur colloid, 111In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed. PMID:20625724

Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo

2010-01-01

327

Application of radionuclide ventriculography to cardiac screening  

SciTech Connect

Screening asymptomatic individuals for latent coronary disease often requires sequential testing because exercise electrocardiography typically produces more false positive than true positive results in a population with a low prevalence of coronary disease. Cardiac scintigraphy is a technique that may be employed as a confirmatory test in lieu of coronary arteriography to further evaluate the significance of a positive exercise electrocardiogram. Radionuclide ventriculography was employed in 98 asymptomatic individuals who were considered to be at moderate risk of heart disease after risk factor analysis and exercise electrocardiography. Seventeen (17%) patients had an abnormal study and underwent cardiac catheterization. Seven had coronary artery disease, two had cardiomyopathy, and eight were normal. Eighty-one (83%) patients had a normal study. Because the sensitivity of radionuclide ventriculography is 63-80%, it was postulated that 2 to 5 individuals with disease were missed. Thus, from a population with an 11-14% prevalence of disease, two subsets were identified. A large subset in which a prevalence of 2-6% could be estimated was separated from a much smaller one in which a prevalence of approximately 50% was demonstrated.

Lindsay, J. Jr.; Milner, M.R.; Chandeysson, P.L.; Rodman, D.J.; Okin, P.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

1989-05-01

328

[Radionuclide therapy of endocrine-related cancer].  

PubMed

This article gives an overview of the established radionuclide therapies for endocrine-related cancer that already have market authorization or are currently under evaluation in clinical trials. Radioiodine therapy is still the gold standard for differentiated iodine-avid thyroid cancer. In patients with bone and lung metastases (near) total remission is seen in approximately 50?% and the 15-year survival rate for these patients is approximately 90?%. In contrast to the USA, meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy has market approval in Europe. According to the current literature, in the setting of advanced stage neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, radiological remission can be achieved in >?30?% and symptom control in almost 80?% of the treated patients. Somatostatin receptor targeted radionuclide therapies (e.g. with DOTATATE or DOTATOC) demonstrated promising results in phase 2 trials, reporting progression-free survival in the range of 24-36 months. A first phase 3 pivotal trial for intestinal carcinoids is currently recruiting and another trial for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is planned. Radiopharmaceuticals based on glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) or minigastrins are in the early evaluation stage for application in the treatment of insulinomas and medullary thyroid cancer. In general, radiopharmaceutical therapy belongs to the group of so-called theranostics which means that therapy is tailored for individual patients based on molecular imaging diagnostics to stratify target positive or target negative tumor phenotypes. PMID:25269725

Kratochwil, C; Giesel, F L

2014-10-01

329

The IAEA CRP on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect

In 2003, the IAEA has initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors, is to increase the capability of Member States in developing and applying advanced technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. Twenty institutions from 15 Member States and one international organization participated in this CRP. The CRP concentrated on the assessment of the dynamic behavior of various transmutation systems. The reactor systems investigated comprise critical reactors, sub-critical accelerator driven systems with heavy liquid metal and gas cooling, critical molten salt systems, and hybrid fusion/fission systems. Both fertile and fertile-free fuel options have been investigated. Apart from the benchmarking of steady state core configurations (including the investigation of transmutation potential, burn-up behavior and decay heat of minor actinide (MA) bearing fuels), the CRP participants determined the safety coefficients for the individual systems and, in a second stage, performed transient analyses which reflected the generic safety related behavior of the various reactors types. (authors)

Maschek, W.; Chen, X.; Rineiski, A.; Schikorr, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O.Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Stanculescu, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, Post Office Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Arien, B.; Malambu, E. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Bai, Y.; Li, J.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, S. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, ASIPP, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Chabert, C.; Peneliau, Y. [CEA Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Chebeskov, A.; Dekoussar, V.; Vorotyntsev, M. [SSC-IPPE, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk 249033, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); da Cruz, D.F. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group - NRG, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Devan, K.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Harish, R.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Pandikumar, G. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Dulla, S.; Ravetto, P. [Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 2, 10129 Torino (Italy); Feynberg, O.; Ignatiev, V.; Subbotin, V.; Surenkov, A.; Zakirov, R. [RRC - Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq., 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kophazi, J.; Szieberth, M. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp. 9, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Morita, K. [Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Srivenkatesan, R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Taczanowski, S. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Tucek, K.; Wider, H. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Vertes, P. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O.Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Uhlir, J. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc., CZ-250 68 Husinec - Rez 13 (Czech Republic)

2007-07-01

330

Removal of radionuclides by analcime-bearing rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the removal of radionuclides (uranium, radium and thorium) in static conditions from aqueous solutions by analcime-bearing rocks and pure analcime was carried out. The high removal efficiency of all studied radionuclides by analcime-bearing rocks was determined. Analcime was efficient in removing of thorium only.

Shushkov, D.; Kotova, O.; Shuktomova, I.

2013-12-01

331

Radionuclide site survey report, Melbourne, Florida (RN-72). Final report  

SciTech Connect

The format and content of this report are based on guidance provided by the Preparatory Commission for the CTBT Organization for conducting and documenting radionuclide site surveys (see GTBT/PC/IV/WGB/1) ``Requirements of Site Surveys for Radionuclide Stations``, (30 September 1997). The purpose of this report is to validate that the Melbourne site will fulfill the requirements for treaty compliance.

Walker, F.; Lucas, J.; Owen, M.; McKethan, E.M.; MacCartney, J.

1998-11-16

332

MARSAME Appendix C C. EXAMPLES OF COMMON RADIONUCLIDES  

E-print Network

Th 226 Ra and progeny Thorium series radionuclides Uranium series radionuclides Waste Water Treatment products (e.g., 60 Co) Aircraft Manufacturing and Maintenance Facility 3 H (dials and gauges) Magnesium-thorium alloys Nickel-thorium alloys 147 Pm (lighted dials and gauges) 226 Ra and progeny (radium dials) Depleted

333

Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review.  

PubMed

Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current developments that have lead, or could potentially contribute, to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) uranium mining and milling; (5) commercial fuel reprocessing; (6) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes that include radionuclides might be released in the future, and (7) nuclear accidents. Then, we briefly summarize the inventory of radionuclides (99)Tc and (129)I, as well as geochemical behavior for radionuclides (99)Tc, (129)I, and (237)Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment; biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides. PMID:18819734

Hu, Qin-Hong; Weng, Jian-Qing; Wang, Jin-Sheng

2010-06-01

334

Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides  

E-print Network

Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides Bradley J and models of CR distribution based on Monte- Carlo simulations of photon and b particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied

Hielscher, Andreas

335

Radionuclide bone scan in initial staging of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Radionuclide bone scans of 100 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer were retrospectively analysed. The number and topography of increased area of uptake were noted. Diagnosis criterion was defined by at least four foci of increased uptake, outside peripheral articular joints. In case of a number between one and three, the result was considered doubtful and radionuclide bone scan was confronted to available standard X Rays or/and radionuclide bone scan follow-up. Correlations of radionuclide bone scans with T, N and the clinical stage were assessed using chi-square methods. Metastases were present in 9 patients (9%). In five of these cases, the pattern was manifestly metastatic without the need to other investigation. In the other cases, interpretation required complementary investigation. The yield of metastases was very low in localized stages, this pointed out the difficulty in interpretation of radionuclide bone scans for localized stages, probably due to a less skeletal extension. PMID:12793064

Boughattas, Sami; Hassine, Habib; Chatti, Kaouther; Essabbah, Habib

2003-03-01

336

Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ({sup 238}Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

1981-03-01

337

Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961  

SciTech Connect

The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ([sup 238]Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

1981-03-01

338

Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

1992-09-01

339

Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

1992-09-01

340

WORKSHOP ON DEVELOPMENT OF RADIONUCLIDE GETTERS FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE REPOSITORY  

SciTech Connect

One of the important that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently undertaking is the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository to be located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Concern is generated by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is due to potential releases as groundwater contamination, as described in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The dose to an off-site individual using this groundwater for drinking and irrigation is dominated by four radionuclides: Tc-99, I-127, Np-237, and U-238. Ideally, this dose would be limited to a single radionuclide, U-238; in other words, YMP would resemble a uranium ore body, a common geologic feature in the Western U.S. For this reason and because of uncertainties in the behavior of Tc-99, I-127, and Np-237, it would be helpful to limit the amount of Tc, I, and Np leaving the repository, which would greatly increase the confidence in the long-term performance of YMP. An approach to limiting the migration of Tc, I, and Np that is complementary to the existing YMP repository design plans is to employ sequestering agents or ''getters'' for these radionuclides such that their migration is greatly hindered, thus decreasing the amount of radionuclide leaving the repository. Development of such getters presents a number of significant challenges. The getter must have a high affinity and high selectivity for the radionuclide in question since there is approximately a 20- to 50-fold excess of other fission products and a 1000-fold excess of uranium in addition to the ions present in the groundwater. An even greater challenge is that the getters must function over a period greater than the half-life of the radionuclide (greater than 5 half-lives would be ideal). Typically, materials with a high affinity for Tc, I, or Np are not sufficiently durable. For example, strong-base ion exchange resins have a very high affinity for TcO{sub 4}{sup -} but are not expected to be durable. On the other hand, durable materials, such as hydrotalcite, do not have sufficient affinity to be useful getters. Despite these problems, the great increase in the repository performance and corresponding decrease in uncertainty promised by a useful getter has generated significant interest in these materials. This report is the result a workshop sponsored by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management and Office of Science and Technology and International of the DOE to assess the state of research in this field.

K.C. Holt

2006-03-13

341

Accumulation of radionuclides by plants as a monitor system.  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of radionuclides by plants acting as a monitoring system in the environment may occur by two modes; foliar absorption by the leaves and shoot of the plant, or by root uptake from the soil. Data on plant accumulation of radionuclides may be obtained from studies of fission product radionuclides deposited as worldwide fallout, and from tracer studies of plant physiology. The epidermal features of plant foliage may exert an effect upon particle retention by leaves, and subsequent uptake of radionuclides from the surface. The transport of radionuclides across the cuticle and epidermis of plant leaves is determined in part by the anatomy of the leaf, and by physiological factors. The foliar uptake of fallout radionuclides, 99Sr, 131I, and 137Cs, is described with examples from the scientific literature. The environmental half-life of 131I, for example, is considerably shorter than its physical half-life because of physical and biological factors which may produce a half-life as short as 0.23/day. 99Sr and 137Cs are readily taken up by the leaf, but 137Cs undergoes more translocation into fruit and seeds than 99Sr which tends to remain in the plant part in which it was initially absorbed. Soil-root uptake is conditioned primarily by soil chemical and physical factors which may selectively retain a radionuclide, such as 137Cs. The presence of organic matter, inorganic colloids (clay), and competing elements will strongly affect the uptake of 99Sr and 137Cs by plants from the soil. The role of plants as monitors of radionuclides is twofold: as monitors of recent atmospheric releases of radionuclides; and as indicators of the long-term behavior of aged deposits of radionuclides in the soil. PMID:367767

Koranda, J J; Robison, W L

1978-01-01

342

Strontium and cesium radionuclide leak detection alternatives in a capsule storage pool  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to assess radionuclide leak-detection systems for use in locating a capsule leaking strontium-90 or cesium-137 into a water-filled pool. Each storage pool contains about 35,000 L of water and up to 715 capsules, each of which contains up to 150 kCi strontium-90 or 80 kCi cesium-137. Potential systems assessed included instrumental chemical analyses, radionuclide detection, visual examination, and other nondestructive nuclear-fuel examination techniques. Factors considered in the assessment include: cost, simplicity of maintenance and operation, technology availability, reliability, remote operation, sensitivity, and ability to locate an individual leaking capsule in its storage location. The study concluded that an adaption of the spent nuclear-fuel examination technique of wet sipping be considered for adaption. In the suggested approoch, samples would be taken continuously from pool water adjacent to the capsule(s) being examined for remote radiation detection. In-place capsule isolation and subsequent water sampling would confirm that a capsule was leaking radionuclides. Additional studies are needed before implementing this option. Two other techniques that show promise are ultrasonic testing and eddy-current testing.

Larson, D.E.; Crawford, T.W.; Joyce, S.M.

1981-08-01

343

A methodology for the determination of the radionuclide contents and activity of samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?-Spectrometry has been used in the Department of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety of ITN (the Nuclear and Technological Institute, in Lisbon, Portugal) to identify and quantify radionuclides in samples from radiological monitoring of radioactive waste discharges. Real samples from radiological monitoring are characterized by a range of different geometries and heterogeneous matrices, therefore, requiring a diversified range of calibration sources to correctly calibrate the measuring system. Moreover, there are cases when due to the geometry or type of matrix, none of the system calibrations is adequate to correctly measure the sample representing a major problem in the accurate determination of samples' radionuclide concentration. Two detection systems were used, one consisting of a 3?×3? NaI(Tl) detector and the other consisting of a HPGe5030. Both detection systems are complete by the associated shielding and calibration sources. The Monte Carlo method was used in support of a methodology to assess the radionuclide contents and activity of the real samples previously mentioned. The efficiency curves measured experimentally from three calibration sources were compared with the corresponding computational ones, obtained by Monte Carlo simulation in order to validate the method and providing the crucial tool needed to simulate any samples' geometry and matrices. The method is then used to analyze unknown samples with different matrix materials. Results from the measurements performed and their comparison with the computational results obtained are presented. Improvements in the understanding of the behavior of the experimental setup, namely the efficiency versus matrix material and geometry are explained.

Carrapiço, C.; Portugal, L.; Gonçalves, I. F.; Paiva, I.; Trindade, R.; Vaz, P.

2007-09-01

344

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems  

SciTech Connect

Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R and D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

Barnett, J. M.; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

2012-04-01

345

The influence of a coal-fired power plant operation on radionuclide concentrations in soil.  

PubMed

Fifty-two soil samples in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant (CFPP) in Figueira (Brazil) were analyzed. The radionuclide concentration for the uranium and thorium series in soils ranged from <9 to 282 Bq kg(-1). The range of 40K concentration in soils varied from <59 to 412 Bq kg(-1). The CFPP (10 MWe) has been operating for 35 years and caused a small increment in natural radionuclide concentration in the surroundings. This technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (TENR) was mainly due to the uranium series (234Th, 226Ra and 210Pb) and was observable within the first kilometer from the power plant. The CFPP influence was only observed in the 0-25 cm soil horizon. The soil properties prevent the radionuclides of the 238U-series from reaching deeper soil profiles. The same behavior was observed for 40K as well. No influence was observed for 232Th, which was found in low concentrations in the coal. PMID:12440517

Flues, M; Moraes, V; Mazzilli, B P

2002-01-01

346

Preparation of alpha sources using magnetohydrodynamic electrodeposition for radionuclide metrology.  

PubMed

Expanded use of nuclear fuel as an energy resource and terrorist threats to public safety clearly require the development of new state-of-the-art technologies and improvement of safety measures to minimize the exposure of people to radiation and the accidental release of radiation into the environment. The precision in radionuclide metrology is currently limited by the source quality rather than the detector performance. Electrodeposition is a commonly used technique to prepare massless radioactive sources. Unfortunately, the radioactive sources prepared by the conventional electrodeposition method produce poor resolution in alpha spectrometric measurements. Preparing radioactive sources with better resolution and higher yield in the alpha spectrometric range by integrating magnetohydrodynamic convection with the conventional electrodeposition technique was proposed and tested by preparing mixed alpha sources containing uranium isotopes ((238)U, (234)U), plutonium ((239)Pu), and americium ((241)Am) for alpha spectrometric determination. The effects of various parameters such as magnetic flux density, deposition current and time, and pH of the sample solution on the formed massless radioactive sources were also experimentally investigated. PMID:19939401

Panta, Yogendra M; Farmer, Dennis E; Johnson, Paula; Cheney, Marcos A; Qian, Shizhi

2010-02-01

347

Radionuclide based imaging of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men. Early detection of PCa by blood tests for elevated levels of prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) has lead to early treatment and a reduction in death rates. However, PSA level alone does not distinguish between PCa and normal conditions that cause elevated PSA. Furthermore, because PCa can be a very slow growing cancer, even confirmation of PCa cells in a biopsy gives no indication whether the PCa will progress into active disease within the individual's lifetime. As a result many patients receive treatment that they may not need. Imaging is an attractive modality for the detection and characterization of disease because most techniques are non- or minimally invasive, nondestructive, provide dynamic real-time data, and allow for repeat measurements. In PCa, advanced imaging techniques could be useful for accurate staging of primary disease, restaging of recurrent disease, detection of metastatic lesions, and predicting the aggressiveness of the disease. This paper reviews the radionuclide based imaging agents for planar, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging currently used in the clinic and those under development for PCa. The former includes the bone agents technetium diphosphonates and F-18 fluoride, the metabolic agents 2-[¹?F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), and receptor targeted radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies including ProstaScint. The latter agents include C-11 acetate, C-11 and F-18 choline, C-11 and F-18 labeled 1-aminocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid, radiolabeled androgen receptor binding compounds, radiolabeled peptides and small molecules for receptors over expressed either on prostate cancer itself or on the associated tumor neovasculature. Coregistration of PET or SPECT images with CT or MRI scans, improvements in imaging cameras, and image reconstruction algorithms have improved the quality of the images to the point where dual modality (radionuclide/CT or MRI) imaging with several agents can now be considered for staging of PCa. In addition, the high selectivity and rapid localization of many of the new agents under development portends promise for a greater use of radionuclide imaging for prostate cancer detection, characterization, and treatment monitoring. PMID:20583988

Mease, Ronnie C

2010-01-01

348

Unifying Theory of Low-Energy Nuclear Reaction and Transmutation Processes in Deuterated\\/hydrogenated Metals, Acoustic Cavitation, Glow Discharge, and Deuteron Beam Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most basic theoretical challenge for understanding low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation reaction (LETR) in condensed matters is to find mechanisms by which the large Coulomb barrier between fusing nuclei can be overcome. A unifying theory of LENR and LETR has been developed to provide possible mechanisms for the LENR and LETR processes in matters based on high-density nano-scale

Yeong E. Kim; Alexander L. Zubarev

2006-01-01

349

Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy: Potential new areas  

SciTech Connect

Radiation oncology is entering an exciting new era with therapies being delivered in a targeted fashion through an increasing number of novel approaches. External beam radiotherapy now integrates functional and anatomic tumor imaging to guide delivery of conformal radiation to the tumor target. Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT) adds an important new dimension by making available to Radiation oncologist biologically targeted radiation therapy. Impressive clinical results with antibody-targeted radiotherapy, leading to the Food and Drug Administration's approval of two anti-CD20 radiolabeled antibodies, highlight the potential of STaRT. Optimization strategies will further improve the efficacy of STaRT by improving delivery systems, modifying the tumor microenvironment to increase targeted dose, and maximizing dose effect. Ultimately, the greatest potential for STaRT will not be as monotherapy, but as therapy integrated into established multimodality regimens and used as adjuvant or consolidative therapy in patients with minimal or micrometastatic disease.

Wong, Jeffrey Y.C. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Research, City of Hope National Medical Center and Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, CA (United States)]. E-mail: jwong@coh.org

2006-10-01

350

Graphene oxide for effective radionuclide removal.  

PubMed

Here we show the efficacy of graphene oxide (GO) for rapid removal of some of the most toxic and radioactive long-lived human-made radionuclides from contaminated water, even from acidic solutions (pH < 2). The interaction of GO with actinides including Am(III), Th(IV), Pu(IV), Np(V), U(VI) and typical fission products Sr(II), Eu(III) and Tc(VII) were studied, along with their sorption kinetics. Cation/GO coagulation occurs with the formation of nanoparticle aggregates of GO sheets, facilitating their removal. GO is far more effective in removal of transuranium elements from simulated nuclear waste solutions than other routinely used sorbents such as bentonite clays and activated carbon. These results point toward a simple methodology to mollify the severity of nuclear waste contamination, thereby leading to effective measures for environmental remediation. PMID:23296256

Romanchuk, Anna Yu; Slesarev, Alexander S; Kalmykov, Stepan N; Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Tour, James M

2013-02-21

351

Radionuclides accumulation in milk and its products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of radioactive pollution is extremely urgent in Russia in connection with presence of territories polluted by radionuclides on places of nuclear tests, in zones around the enterprises on production, processing and storage of radioactive materials, and also in areas of emergency pollution (Barakhtin, 2001). The aim of our investigation was a determination of the levels of the main radioactive elements - Cs-137 and Sr-90 in diary products. 363 samples of milk, dry milk, butter, cheese and yogurt from Novosibirsk region were examined. Cs-137 level was 3.7...9.2 times higher than Sr-90 one in milk, cheese and yogurt. At the same time the level of these radio nuclides in butter was identical (8.03 Bk/kg).

Marmuleva, N. I.; Barinov, E. Ya.; Petukhov, V. L.

2003-05-01

352

Natural radionuclides in drinking waters in Serbia.  

PubMed

Gross alpha and beta activities, (3)H, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities were measured in bottled mineral water produced in Serbia in order to assess its radiological quality. In 11 samples of tap water and in 1 sample of spring waters gross alpha and beta activity were determined. The natural activity concentration of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides are within the range recommended by World Health Organization. The tritium concentration in bottled mineral waters ranged from 0.023 ± 0.012 to 0.046 ± 0.006 Bq l(-1). The activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were below the minimum detectable activity. In order to evaluate the annual effective dose for different classes of age, a conservative dosimetric calculation was carried out. PMID:23041389

Jankovi?, Marija M; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Todorovi?, Nataša A; Nikolov, Jovana

2012-12-01

353

Radionuclide evaluation of spontaneous femoral osteonecrosis  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle in 40 knees was followed by sequential radiographs and three-phase bone scans using /sup 99//sup m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate. The characteristic bone scan appearance of focal increased uptake by the medial femoral condyle in blood flow, blood pool, and delayed images helped to make the specific diagnosis in 11 knees that had no characteristic radiographic findings at the time of presentation. The three phases of the bone scan demonstrated a pattern that was useful in determining the activity of the process. There was a gradual loss of hyperemia as healing progressed. Late bone scans were normal or showed nonspecific findings. Radionuclide bone scans were able to confirm or exclude this disease and were superior to radiographs in demonstrating the disease in the acute phase.

Greyson, N.D. (St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada); Lotem, M.M.; Gross, A.E.; Houpt, J.B.

1982-03-01

354

Characterization of hydrofracture grouts for radionuclide migration  

SciTech Connect

Detailed characterization of hydrofracture grouts was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. Laboratory-produced samples containing simulated wastes as well as actual radioactive samples of hydrofracture grout sheets obtained by core drilling were examined in this work. X-ray diffraction results revealed that both laboratory-produced samples and a core-drilled sample consisted primarily of calcium carbonate phases. Both sample types contained very small amounts of strontium or cesium wastes, neither of which could be detected by microscopic techniques. The core-drilled sample contained radioactive /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 60/Co that could be detected by ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. The autoradiograph revealed that these radionuclides were still present in the 20-year-old grout and that they had not migrated into the trapped shale fragments.

Stinton, D.P.; McDaniel, E.W.; Weeren, H.O.

1983-01-01

355

Radionuclide localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage  

SciTech Connect

The authors prospectively evaluated the usefulness of abdominal radionuclide scintigraphy using 99mTc-labeled red cells as a means of monitoring for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding over a 24-hour period in both control and actively bleeding populations. Of 32 patients with documented hemorrhage, 29 had positive scintiscans (sensitivity, 91%; 9% false negatives). Of 18 nonbleeding patients, 17 had negative scintiscans (specificity, 95%; 5% false positives). 12 of 29 patients bled from 6 to 24 hours after the study was begun. Scintiscans were positive in patients with transfusion requirements of greater than or equal to 500 ml/24 hr. The authors conclude that abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red cells is an effective method of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding.

Winzelberg, G.G.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Waltman, A.C.; Greenfield, A.J.; Athanasoulis, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

1981-05-01

356

Radionuclide localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage  

SciTech Connect

The authors prospectively evaluated the usefulness of abdominal radionuclide scintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells as a means of monitoring for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding over a 24-hour period in both control and actively bleeding populations. Of 32 patients with documented hemorrhage, 29 had positive scintiscans (sensitivity, 91%; 9% false negatives). Of 18 nonbleeding patients, 17 had negative scintiscans (specificity, 95%; 5% false positives). 12 of 29 patients bled from 6 to 24 hours after the study was begun. Scintiscans were positive in patient with transfusion requirements of greater than or equal to 500 ml/24 hr. The authors conclude that abdominal scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells is an effective method of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding.

Winzelberg, G.G.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Waltman, A.C.; Greenfield, A.J.; Athanasoulis, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

1981-05-01

357

Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction

Y. Onishi; S. B. Yabusaki; C. T. Kincaid; R. L. Skaggs; W. H. Walters

1982-01-01

358

Removal of radionuclides at a waterworks.  

PubMed

A waterworks with an average production rate of 1.3 m3 s(-1), providing several large cities in the province of Scania with drinking water has been studied regarding its capacity to remove several natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. The raw water is surface water from lake Bolmen which is transported through an 80 km long tunnel in the bedrock before it enters the waterworks. The method used for purification is a combination of coagulation-flocculation and filtration in sand filters. Two different purification lines are currently in use, one using Al2(SO4)3 as a coagulant and one using FeCl3. After coagulation and flocculation the precipitate is removed and the water is passed through two different sand filters (rapid filtration and slow filtration). Water samples were collected at the lake, the inlet to the waterworks, after each of the flocculation basins (Al2(SO4)3 and FeCl3), after rapid filtration and from the municipal distribution network. The samples were analysed with respect to their content of uranium, thorium, polonium, radium, plutonium and caesium. The results show a high removal capacity for uranium (about 85%), thorium (>90%), plutonium (>95%) and polonium (>90% in the coagulation-flocculation process) while caesium, strontium and radium pass through the purification process with almost unchanged activity concentrations. During transportation of the water in the tunnel it was also observed that infiltration of groundwater leads to a change in isotopic ratios and/or activity concentrations for the naturally occurring radionuclides and plutonium. PMID:12363265

Gäfvert, T; Ellmark, C; Holm, E

2002-01-01

359

Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton  

SciTech Connect

Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

2000-06-01

360

Chancellor Water Colloids: Characterization and Radionuclide Association  

SciTech Connect

Concluding remarks about this paper are: (1) Gravitational settling, zeta potential, and ultrafiltration data indicate the existence of a colloidal phase of both the alpha and beta emitters in the Chancellor water; (2) The low activity combined with high dispersion homogeneity of the Chancellor water indicate that both alpha and beta emitters are not intrinsic colloids; (3) Radionuclides in the Chancellor water, particularly Pu, coexist as dissolved aqueous and sorbed phases - in other words the radionuclides are partitioned between the aqueous phase and the colloidal phase; (4) The presence of Pu as a dissolved species in the aqueous phase, suggests the possibility of Pu in the (V) oxidation state - this conclusion is supported by the similarity of the k{sub d} value of Pu determined in the current study to that determined for Pu(V) sorbed onto smectite colloids, and the similar electrokinetic behavior of the Chancellor water colloids to smectite colloids; (5) About 50% of the Pu(V) is in the aqueous phase and 50% is sorbed on colloids (mass concentration of colloids in the Chancellor water is 0.12 g/L); (6) The k{sub d} of the Pu and the beta emitters (fission products) between aqueous and colloidal phases in the Chancellor water is {approx}8.0 x 10{sup 3} mL/g using two different activity measurement techniques (LSC and alpha spectroscopy); (7) The gravitational settling and size distributions of the association colloids indicate that the properties (at least the physical ones) of the colloids to which the alpha emitters are associated with seem to be different that the properties of the colloids to which the beta emitters are associated with - the beta emitters are associated with very small particles ({approx}50 - 120 nm), while the alpha emitters are associated with relatively larger particles; and (8) The Chancellor water colloids are extremely stable under the natural pH and ionic strength conditions, indicating high potential for transport in the subsurface.

Abdel-Fattah, Amr I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18

361

Endoprobe: a system for radionuclide-guided endoscopy.  

PubMed

Methods to guide the surgical treatment of cancer utilizing handheld beta-sensitive probes in conjunction with tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals [such as 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)] have previously been developed. These technologies could also potentially be used to assist in minimally invasive techniques for the diagnosis of cancer. The goal of this project is to develop and test a system for performing radionuclide-guided endoscopies. This system (called Endoprobe) has four major subsystems: beta detector, position tracker, endoscope, and user interface. The beta detection unit utilizes two miniaturized solid state detectors to preferentially detect beta particles. The position tracking system allows real-time monitoring of the unit's location. The beta detector and position tracking system's receiver are mounted on the tip of an endoscope. Information from the beta detector and tracking system, in addition to the video signal from the endoscope, are combined and presented to the user via a computer interface. The system was tested in a simulated search for radiotracer-avid areas of esophageal cancer. The search for esophageal cancer was chosen because this type of cancer is often diagnosed with endoscopic procedures and has been reported to have good affinity for FDG. Accumulations of FDG in the normal organs of the abdomen were simulated by an anthropomorphic torso phantom filled with the appropriate amounts of radioactivity. A 1.5- mm-thick gelatin film containing FDG was used to simulate radiotracer uptake in the lining of normal esophagus. Esophageal lesions (both benign and malignant) were simulated by thin disks of gelatin (diameters=3.5-12 mm) containing appropriate concentrations of FDG embedded in the gelatin film simulating normal esophagus. Endoprobe facilitated visual identification and examination of the simulated lesions. The position tracking system permitted the location of the Endoprobe tip to be monitored and plotted in real time on a previously acquired positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) image of the phantom. The detection system successfully acquired estimates of the beta flux emitted from areas chosen by the user. Indeed, Endoprobe was able to assist in distinguishing simulated FDG-avid areas as small as 3.5 mm in diameter from normal esophagus (p value <0.025). In addition to FDG, Endoprobe can be used with other positron or electron-emitting radionuclides such as IC or 131I. The next phase of this project will focus on modification of the prototype to make it more suitable for clinical use. PMID:15651613

Raylman, Raymond R; Srinivasan, Amarnath

2004-12-01

362

Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides: What it is and How itWorks  

SciTech Connect

This primer is intended for people interested in DOE environmental problems and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on physical environment, microbial communities, and nature of contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation) or the addition of nutrients (biostimulation).

McCullough, J.; Hazen, Terry; Benson, Sally

1999-01-01

363

A systematic investigation of PET Radionuclide Specific Activity on Miniaturization of Radiochemistry  

SciTech Connect

The PET radionuclides, 18F and 11C consist of very high radiation to mass amounts and should be easily adapted to new technologies such as �chip chemistry� with nanofluidics. However, environmental contamination with nonradioactive fluorine, carbon and other trace contaminants add sufficient mass, micrograms to milligrams, to prevent adapting PET radiochemistry to the nanochip technologies. In addition, the large volumes of material required for beam irradiation make it necessary to also remove the 18F and 11C from their chemical matrices. These steps add contaminants. The work described in this report was a systematic investigation of sources of these contaminants and methods to reduce these contaminants and the reaction volumes for radiochemical synthesis. Several methods were found to lower the contaminants and matrices to within a factor of 2 to 100 of those needed to fully implement chip technology but further improvements are needed.

Jeanne M Link, PhD

2012-03-08

364

Fusion of radionuclide and waveform information at CTBTO in support of the NPE12  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different technologies constitute the pillars of the system which monitors compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Each of the four technologies exploited by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has a monitoring network of its own which together constitute the International Monitoring System (IMS). CTBTO and its State Signatories make an effort to achieve synergy between the complementary information provided by the distinct networks in a process called data fusion. Seismic, infrasound and hydroacoustic monitoring technologies are based on detections of mechanical waves and referred to as waveforms. In an analysis process performed at the International Data Centre (IDC) those detections are subsequently associated to build events from which the mechanical waves originated. The association is more challenging in case of airborne radionuclide monitoring technology. A support in form of the computational results of atmospheric transport modelling is necessary in this case. But even with such a support, due to turbulent processes in the atmosphere, the events emanating the detected radionuclides are not easily identified. In fact, atmospheric transport modelling indicates the regions where a source could have been located rather than point-like events. However, if this information is appropriately merged with the waveform events, it could support evidence of their nuclear character or lack thereof. National Data Centres of State Signatories, which are responsible for the CTBT monitoring and verification at the national level, design and conduct annual exercises in order to test performance of the monitoring system and analysis of its detections. Exercise scenario, mixing real and fictitious components, is designed to ensure as broad a national expert involvement as possible. At the same time it offers a framework for testing and advancing data fusion capacity. In this presentation we propose to address data fusion as a component of the National Data Centre Preparedness Exercise 2012 (NPE12). We will present a part of the exercise scenario, namely a series of fictitious detections of radionuclides at the IMS network, and its analysis in terms of atmospheric transport modelling performed at the IDC. We will address the problem of retrieving source information from this fictitious scenario of radionuclide detections and how to subsequently combine it with the waveform events. We will present a list of waveform events which constitute potential sources and which are then subject to analysis by the waveform experts. Furthermore, illustration of a similar analysis performed using the atmospheric transport modelling results provided by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centres of WMO will be shown. Finally, we will discuss the tools used to perform data fusion analysis and give an account of the on-going developments in this domain at the IDC.

Krysta, Monika; Kusmierczyk-Michulec, Jolanta; Kushida, Noriyuki

2013-04-01

365

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Engineering Technology  

E-print Network

ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Engineering Technology Program The Bachelor of Science in Engineering Technology (BSET) is a hands-on program based upon engineering technology fundamentals, engineering for employment or further education. The focus is on current engineering technology issues and applications used

366

Underground radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

This document reviews results from a number of studies concerning underground migration of radionuclides from nuclear test cavities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Discussed are all cases known to the Department of Energy's Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program where radionuclides have been detected outside of the immediate vicinity of nuclear test cavities that are identifiable as the-source of the nuclides, as well as cases where radionuclides might have been expected and were intentionally sought but not fixed. There are nine locations where source-identifiable radionuclide migration has been detected, one where migration was purposely induced by pumping, and three where migration might be expected but was not found. In five of the nine cases of non-induced migration, the inferred migration mechanism is prompt fracture injection during detonation. In the other four cases, the inferred migration mechanism is water movement. In only a few of the reviewed cases can the actual migration mechanism be stated with confidence, and the attempt has been made to indicate the level of confidence for each case. References are cited where more information may be obtained. As an aid to future study, this document concludes with a brief discussion of the aspects of radionuclide migration that, as the present review indicates, are not yet understood. A course of action is suggested that would produce a better understanding of the phenomenon of radionuclide migration.

Nimz, G.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Thompson, J.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1992-06-22

367

Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects.  

PubMed

The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 ((131)I), phosphorous-32 ((32)P), strontium-90 ((90)Sr), and yttrium-90 ((90)Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-Hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

2014-10-01

368

Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects  

PubMed Central

The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

2014-01-01

369

Task summary: Hot demonstration of proposed commercial nuclide removal technology  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides represent only a small fraction of the components in millions of gallons of storage tank supernatant at various sites, including Oak Ridge, Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho. Most of the radioactivity is contributed by cesium, strontium, and technetium along with high concentrations of sodium and potassium salts. The purpose of this task is to test and select sorbents and commercial removal technologies supplied by ESP for removing and concentrating the radionuclides, thereby reducing the volume of waste to be stored or disposed.

Lee, D.D.; Travis, J.R.

1995-11-01

370

Effect of beta-decay of radionuclides incorporated into influenza virus RNA and proteins on the infectivity of the virus and antigenicity of its nucleoprotein.  

PubMed

The effect of beta-decay of radionuclides incorporated into influenza virus on the properties of the two closely adjacent structures--RNA and nucleoprotein (NP)--was studied. The long-term storage of 3H-uridine labelled influenza virus was shown to lead to the loss of infectivity. This effect may be explained by lethal intra-molecular modifications of viral RNA, caused by beta-decay of 3H incorporated into the molecule. There was an accompanying decrease of monoclonal antibody (MAB) binding activity, this also being a plausible result of beta-decay. The different rates of inactivation of MAB binding activity of different epitopes of NP of the 3H-labelled virus shown in our studies suggest that there are different types of structural organization or different location of these epitopes in the NP. The effect of 3H-decay on the intracellular RNA of reproducing virus lead to a decrease in virus yield; this may be due to radiation- and transmutation-induced damage of messenger and progeny RNA populations synthesized during the infection. The storage of influenza virus labelled with 14C-aminoacids lead to a decrease in MAB binding activity of the NP that was unaccompanied by a decrease in infectivity. Furthermore, 14C-decay in proteins of reproducing virus had no adverse effect. PMID:3426399

Prokudina, E N; Semyonova, N P; Yamnikova, S S; Zhdanov, V M

1987-01-01

371

Selection of plants for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Remediation of soil contaminated with radionuclides typically requires that soil be removed from the site and treated with various dispersing and chelating chemicals. Numerous studies have shown that radionuclides are generally not leached from the top 0.4 meters of soil, where plant roots actively accumulate elements. Restoration of large areas of land contaminated with low levels of radionuclides may be feasible using phytoremediation. Criteria for the selection of plants for phytoremediation, molecular approaches to increase radio nuclide uptake, effects of cultural practices on uptake and assessment of environmental effects of phytoremediation will be discussed.

Entry J.A. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Vance, N.C. [PNW Research Station, Corvallis, OR (United States); Watrud, L.S. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1996-12-31

372

On the doping of isotopically controlled germanium by nuclear transmutation with a high concentration of shallow donor impurities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results are presented of the neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of isotopically controlled 0268-1242/11/12/010/img7 crystals, irradiated with a high dose of neutron flux 0268-1242/11/12/010/img8 (up to 0268-1242/11/12/010/img9). A series of heavily doped samples of n-Ge:As with small compensation ratio 0268-1242/11/12/010/img10 was obtained. Two novel effects connected with high neutron dose 0268-1242/11/12/010/img8 have been observed: (i) the dependence of the free electron concentration 0268-1242/11/12/010/img12 on 0268-1242/11/12/010/img8, linear at small n, saturates at 0268-1242/11/12/010/img14 (ii) if the NTD procedure is applied to samples previously highly doped by As, the final value of n even decreases (a `negative doping'). These effects are explained by the enhancement of the formation of complexes of an As impurity with radiation damage at high 0268-1242/11/12/010/img8, which leads to a decrease of n.

Shlimak, I.; Ionov, A. N.; Rentzsch, R.; Lazebnik, J. M.

1996-12-01

373

A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by photon-induced transmutation of Ra-226.  

PubMed

Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation on a small scale by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy photons from a medical linear accelerator (linac) to produce Ra-225, which subsequently decays to Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'targeted alpha therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 with a linac using an accurate theoretical model in which the bremsstrahlung photon spectrum at 18 MV linac electron energy is convoluted with the corresponding photonuclear cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained and is compared with a computer simulation. This study shows that at 18 MV, the photonuclear reaction on Ra-226 can produce low activities of Ac-225 with a linac. However, a high power linac with high current, pulse length and frequency is needed to produce practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226. PMID:16806950

Melville, G; Fan Liu, Sau; Allen, B J

2006-09-01

374

Radionuclide Migration at the Rio Blanco Site, A Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies conducted a program in the 1960s and 1970s that evaluated technology for the nuclear stimulation of low-permeability gas reservoirs. The third and final project in the program, Project Rio Blanco, was conducted in Rio Blanco County, in northwestern Colorado. In this experiment, three 33-kiloton nuclear explosives were simultaneously detonated in a single emplacement well in the Mesaverde Group and Fort Union Formation, at depths of 1,780, 1,899, and 2,039 m below land surface on May 17, 1973. The objective of this work is to estimate lateral distances that tritium released from the detonations may have traveled in the subsurface and evaluate the possible effect of postulated natural-gas development on radionuclide migration. Other radionuclides were considered in the analysis, but the majority occur in relatively immobile forms (such as nuclear melt glass). Of the radionuclides present in the gas phase, tritium dominates in terms of quantity of radioactivity in the long term and contribution to possible whole body exposure. One simulation is performed for {sup 85}Kr, the second most abundant gaseous radionuclide produced after tritium.

Clay A. Cooper; Ming Ye; Jenny Chapman; Craig Shirley

2005-10-01

375

Emission of Radionuclides from the Destroyed Unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of radionuclide emission resulting from the Chernobyl accident are briefly reviewed. Three ways to estimate emission are examined: direct investigations of radionuclides emitted from the destroyed unit; study of the quantity and composition of radionuclides emitted on the territory after the active stage of the accident was over; study of the quantity and composition of radionuclides remaining in the

A. A. Borovoi; A. Yu. Gagarinskii

2001-01-01

376

Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and to determine the processes, mechanisms, and geologic features that have a significant effect on it. They evaluate the contributions of daughter products of radioactive decay to transport from the bottom of the potential repository to the water table. The effect of the various conceptual models of perched water bodies on transport is also evaluated. Note that a more thorough study of perched water bodies can be found in another AMR (CRWMS M and O 1999d, Sections 6.2 and 6.6). The primary caveat for using the modeling results documented here is that the input transport parameters were based on limited site data. For some input parameters, best estimates were used because no specific data were available. An additional caveat is that the RTM is based on the conceptual models and numerical approaches used for developing the flow fields and infiltration maps, and thus they share the same limitations.

G. Moridis; Q. Hu

2000-03-12

377

Development of advanced internal gain radiation detector structures based on neutron transmutation doped silicon, high T(sub c) superconductive compounds and their potential application to detection of ionizing radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report covers the period of work from December 1, 1986 through November 30, 1987. The work on mercuric iodide has now entered a new and more developmental phase with support now being obtained from other agencies (NIH, NASA, JPL, the CalTech President's Fund etc.) for specific, directed applications. These include development of arrays of HgI2 X-ray spectrometers for synchrotron radiation application supported by NIH and for long term space mission use supported by NASA. It has been undertaken during the past year (with some work done in the previous year) to re-examine the technology of high field avalanche radiation detector structures which use the controlled surface principle as developed previously under DOE sponsorship. This was undertaken because of the advent of a fundamental advance in silicon single crystal technology - neutron transmutation doped or NTD single crystal. This new material conceptually solves a basic problem that previously halted the development of these potentially useful radiation detection structures. That problem was the non-uniform, (or striated) distribution of donor impurities which adversely affected electric field distribution and thus attainable avalanche gain in these structures. A new effort started late in the year springs from the development of high critical temperature superconducting ceramic compounds. In essence, the phenomenon of superconductivity can now be achieved at temperatures reached by liquid nitrogen rather than expensive and more complicated cryogenic helium. This, in essence, then brings superconductivity into the same temperature range where lithium drifted silicon and intrinsic germanium already operate. The usefulness of superconductivity in detection and spectroscopy of ionizing radiations based on the narrow superconductive band gap is very appealing and theoretical and experimental studies investigating these new materials have begun.

Huth, Gerald C.; Zhou, Bing-Lin; Prussin, Simon; Dabrowski, Andrzej J.

378

Monitoring release of disposable radionuclides in the Kara sea: Bioaccumulation of long-lived radionuclides in echinoderms and molluscs  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the present proposal is to continue and extend our research on the trophic transfer of important radionuclides in benthic fauna of the Kara Sea. This project is assessing the extent to which select species of seastars, brittle stars, and clams typical of the Kara Sea concentrate and retain a variety of long-lived radionuclides known to be (or suspected to be) present in the disposed wastes in the Russian Arctic. The rates and routes of uptake and depuration of isotopes in the same or in closely related species are being quantified so that endemic benthic organisms can be assessed as potential bioindicators of released radionuclides in Arctic waters.

Fisher, N.S.

1994-01-01

379

Developments in Bioremediation of Soils and Sediments Pollutedwith Metals and Radionuclides: 2. Field Research on Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides has had manyfield tests, demonstrations, and full-scale implementations in recentyears. Field research in this area has occurred for many different metalsand radionuclides using a wide array of strategies. These strategies canbe generally characterized in six major categories: biotransformation,bioaccumulation/bisorption, biodegradation of chelators, volatilization,treatment trains, and natural attenuation. For all field applicationsthere are a number of critical biogeochemical issues that most beaddressed for the successful field application. Monitoring andcharacterization parameters that are enabling to bioremediation of metalsand radionuclides are presented here. For each of the strategies a casestudy is presented to demonstrate a field application that uses thisstrategy.

Hazen, Terry C.; Tabak, Henry H.

2007-03-15

380

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

381

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

382

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

383

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

384

21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

385

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

386

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2012-04-01

387

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

388

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

389

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

390

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

391

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

392

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

393

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

394

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

395

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

396

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

397

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2011-04-01

398

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2013-04-01

399

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

400

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2014-04-01

401

21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

2010-04-01

402

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2014-04-01

403

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2012-04-01

404

21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

405

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

406

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2011-04-01

407

21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

408

21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

409

21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

2013-04-01

410

COLLABORATION: INTERFACIAL SOIL CHEMISTRY OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

Mobility of radionuclides (Cs+, Sr2+) in the vadose zone is controlled by sorptive interactions with natural soil particles. Weathering of silicates and intercalation of clay minerals with hydroxy -aluminum and -aluminosilicate species under the intense geochemical conditions in...

411

Colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport in fractured porous rock  

E-print Network

-equilibrium model was developed to describe the transport and fate of the radionuclides in the fracture. Sorption onto rock matrix, fracture surface and sorption into mobile and immobile colloids are included. The effect of colloidal particle size was also...

Baek, Inseok

2012-06-07

412

Site Characterization for MNA of Radionuclides in Ground Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Monitored natural attenuation is often evaluated as a component of the remedy for ground water contaminated with radionuclides. When properly employed, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may provide an effective knowledge-based remedy where a thorough engineering analysis inform...

413

National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series  

SciTech Connect

The National Low Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has published a report containing key information about selected radionuclides that are most likely to contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility. The information includes physical and chemical characteristics, production means, waste forms, behavior of the radionuclide in soils, plants, groundwater, and air, and biological effects in animals and humans. The radionuclides included in this study comprise all of the nuclides specifically listed in 10CFR61.55, Tables 1 and 2, 3 H, 14 C, 59 Ni, 60 Co, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 241 Pu, and 242 Cm. Other key radionuclides addressed in the report include 237 Np, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. This paper summarizes key information contained within this report.

Adams, James Paul; Carboneau, Michael Leonard; Allred, William Edgar

1999-03-01

414

National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series  

SciTech Connect

The National Low Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has published a report containing key information about selected radionuclides that are most likely to contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility. The information includes physical and chemical characteristics, production means, waste forms, behavior of the radionuclide in soils, plants, groundwater, and air, and biological effects in animals and humans. The radionuclides included in this study comprise all of the nuclides specifically listed in 10CFR61.55, Tables 1 and 2, 3 H, 14 C, 59 Ni, 60 Co, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 241 Pu, and 242 Cm. Other key radionuclides addressed in the report include 237 Np, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. This paper summarizes key information contained within this report.

J.P. Adams; M.L. Carboneau; W.E. Allred

1999-02-01

415

Biologically mediated reductive dissolution and precipitation of metals and radionuclides  

E-print Network

-reac- tion studies to formulate two-dimensional numerical models of reactive transport in a heterogeneous remedial strategy). Keywords: reactive transport, heterogeneity, modeling, groundwater, uranium. BACKGROUNDABSTRACT Biologically mediated reductive dissolution and precipitation of metals and radionuclides

Roden, Eric E.

416

Biomolecular Mechanisms Controlling Metal and Radionuclide Transformations in Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans  

SciTech Connect

Microbiological reduction and immobilization of U(VI) and Tc(VII) has been proposed as a strategy for remediating radionuclide-contaminated environments. Numerous studies focusing on the reduction kinetics and speciation of these metals have been carried out using contaminated sediment samples, microbial consortia, and pure bacterial cultures. While previous work with model organisms has increased the general understanding of radionuclide transformation processes, fundamental questions regarding radionuclide reduction mechanisms by indigenous microorganisms are poorly understood, especially under the commonly encountered scenario where multiple electron acceptors are present. Therefore, the overall goal of the proposed research is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of radionuclide biotransformation by Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans, a predominant member of indigenous microorganism commonly found in contaminated subsurface environments, and to assess the effects of relevant environmental factors affecting these transformation reactions.

Beliaev, Alexander S.; Fredrickson, James K.; Loeffler, Frank E.; Sanford, Robert A.

2006-06-01

417

Compositions and methods for removal of toxic metals and radionuclides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to compositions and methods for the removal of toxic metals or radionuclides from source materials. Toxic metals may be removed from source materials using a clay, such as attapulgite or highly cationic bentonite, and chitin or chitosan. Toxic metals may also be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan. Radionuclides may be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan.

Cuero, Raul G. (Inventor); McKay, David S. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

418

Wet deposition of radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl accident  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chernobyl radioactivity in precipitation was measured at Tsukuba, Japan, as were both surface-air concentrations and particle-size distributions of Chernobyl-released radionuclides. To understand the wet removal processes of the Chernobyl radionuclides, i.e.137Cs,103Ru, and90Sr, wet deposition velocities were calculated. The wet deposition velocities of the Chernobyl radioactivity for individual rainfall events varied largely. The wet deposition velocity is given as the product

Katsumi Hirose; Sukeyoshi Takatani; Michio Aoyama

1993-01-01

419

Transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere during complex meteorological conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclides from various sources (nuclear and fossil fuel power plants, nuclear facilities, medical facilities, etc.) are being released to the atmosphere. The meteorological conditions determine the atmospheric turbulence, dispersion, and removal processes of the radionuclides. A two-dimensional version of the cloud model based on the Klemp-Wilhelmson dynamic and Lin et al.'s microphysics and thermodynamics has been adapted and used to

D. Antic; B. Telenta

1991-01-01

420

Genetic effects from internally deposited radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

It was learned in the late 1920's that ionizing radiation could produce genetic effects such as gene mutations and chromosome aberrations. However, at least until 1945, the focus on interest in radiation protection was primarily on somatic effects manifested in the individual exposed. Studies of the genetic effects of radiation using drosophila, however, refocused attention on effects transmitted to the exposed individuals offspring and concern over fallout in the 1950's resulted in efforts to estimate the genetic effects from exposure of human populations to internally deposited radionuclides. No human populations have been identified with burdens of internally deposited radioactive materials which have been shown to produce evidence of transmissible genetic damage. As a result, the research approach has been one in which macromolecular, cellular, and whole animal genetic studies have been combined to estimate genetic effects on humans following the deposition of radioactive materials in the body. The purpose of this report is to update the information available from animal and cellular experiments that relates genetic effects to deposited activity and dose from internally deposited radioactive materials.

Not Available

1987-01-01

421

Biosorption of radionuclides by fungal biomass.  

PubMed

Four kinds of bioreactor were evaluated for thorium removal by fungal biomass. Static-bed or stirred-bed bioreactors did not give satisfactory thorium removal probably because of poor mixing. An air-lift bioreactor removed approximately 90-95% of the thorium supplied over extended time periods and exhibited a well-defined breakthrough point after biosorbent saturation. The air-lift bioreactor promoted efficient circulation and effective contact between the thorium solution and the mycelial pellets. Of several fungal species tested, Rhizopus arrhizus and Aspergillus niger were the most effective biosorbents with loading capacities of 0.5 and 0.6 mmol g-1 respectively (116 and 138 mg g-1) at an inflow thorium concentration of 3 mmol dm-3. The efficiency of thorium biosorption by A. niger was markedly reduced in the presence of other inorganic solutes while thorium biosorption by R. arrhizus was relatively unaffected. Air-lift bioreactors containing R. arrhizus biomass could effectively remove thorium from acidic solution (1 mol dm-3 HNO3) over a wide range of initial thorium concentrations (0.1-3 mmol dm-3). The biotechnological application and significance of these results are discussed in the wider context of fungal biosorption of radionuclides. PMID:1366965

White, C; Gadd, G M

1990-01-01

422

Radionuclide Leaching from Organic Ion Exchange Resin  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of leach treatments for decontaminating organic ion exchange resins (OIER), which have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East Basin sludge. Based on process records, the OIER found in the K Basins is a mixed-bet strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolite{trademark} NRW-037. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the OIER can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). To help understand the effects of anticipated OIER elutriation and washing, tests were performed with well-rinsed OIER material from K East Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed OIER having approximately 5% added K East canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). The rinsed resin-bearing material also contained the inorganic ion exchanger Zeolon-900{trademark}, a zeolite primarily composed of the mineral mordenite. The zeolite was estimated to comprise 27 weight percent of the dry H-08 BEAD G material.

Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.

1999-04-02

423

Natural chelating agents for radionuclide decorporation  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the production of metal-binding compounds useful for the therapy of heavy metal poisoning, for biological mining and for decorporation of radionuclides. The present invention deals with an orderly and effective method of producing new therapeutically effective chelating agents. This method uses challenge biosynthesis for the production of chelating agents that are specific for a particular metal. In this approach, the desired chelating agents are prepared from microorganisms challenged by the metal that the chelating agent is designed to detoxify. This challenge induces the formation of specific or highly selective chelating agents. The present invention involves the use of the challenge biosynthetic method to produce new complexing/chelating agents that are therapeutically useful to detoxify uranium, plutonium, thorium and other toxic metals. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa family of organisms is the referred family of microorganisms to be used in the present invention to produce the new chelating agent because this family is known to elaborate strains resistant to toxic metals.

Premuzic, E.T.

1985-06-11

424

Radionuclide imaging of soft tissue neoplasms  

SciTech Connect

Two classes of radiopharmaceuticals may be used for imaging tumors of the musculoskeletal system. The first is comprised of soft tissue or tumor specific agents such as gallium-67, bleomycin, and radionuclide-labeled antibodies, which may be useful for detecting and localizing these tumors. The other class of tracer is comprised of those with avidity for bone. The 99mTc-labeled-phosphate skeletal imaging compounds have been found to localize in a variety of soft tissue lesions, including benign and malignant tumors. In 1972, Enneking began to include bone scans in the preoperative evaluation of soft tissue masses. Later, he and his associates reported that these scans were useful in planning operative treatment of sarcomas by detecting involvement of bone by the tumors. Nearly all malignant soft tissue tumors take up bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, and bone involvement was indicated in two-thirds of the scans we reviewed. About half of benign soft tissue lesions had normal scans, but the other half showed uptake within the lesion and a few also showed bone involvement. Careful, thorough imaging technique is essential to proper evaluation. Multiple, high-resolution static gamma camera images in different projections are necessary to adequately demonstrate the presence or absence of soft tissue abnormality and to define the precise relationship of the tumor to the adjacent bone.

Chew, F.S.; Hudson, T.M.; Enneking, W.F.

1981-10-01

425

Radionuclides in United States commercial nuclear power reactors  

SciTech Connect

In the next ten to twenty years, many of the commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States will be reaching their projected lifetime of forty years. As these power plants are decommissioned, it seems prudent to consider the recycling of structural materials such as stainless steel. Some of these materials and components have become radioactive through either nuclear activation of the elements within the components or surface contamination with radioactivity form the operational activities. In order to understand the problems associated with recycling stainless steel from decommissioned nuclear power reactors, it is necessary to have information on the radionuclides expected on or in the contaminated materials. A study has been conducted of radionuclide contamination information that is available for commercial nuclear power reactors in the United States. There are two types of nuclear power reactors in commercial use in the United States, pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs). Before presenting radionuclide activities information, a brief discussion is given on the major components and operational differences for the PWRs and BWRs. Radionuclide contamination information is presented from 11 PWRs and over 8 BWRs. These data include both the radionuclides within the circulating reactor coolant water as well as radionuclide contamination on and within component parts.

Bechtold, T.E. [ed.] [Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Co., Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Dyer, N.C. [Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)

1994-01-01

426

Radionuclide Retention Mechanisms in Secondary Waste-Form Testing: Phase II  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate candidate stabilization technologies that have the potential to successfully treat liquid secondary waste stream effluents produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). WRPS is considering the design and construction of a Solidification Treatment Unit (STU) for the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. The ETF, a multi-waste, treatment-and-storage unit that has been permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed wastewaters for treatment. The STU needs to be operational by 2018 to receive secondary liquid waste generated during operation of the WTP. The STU will provide the additional capacity needed for ETF to process the increased volume of secondary waste expected to be produced by WTP. This report on radionuclide retention mechanisms describes the testing and characterization results that improve understanding of radionuclide retention mechanisms, especially for pertechnetate, {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in four different waste forms: Cast Stone, DuraLith alkali aluminosilicate geopolymer, encapsulated fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) product, and Ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramic. These data and results will be used to fill existing data gaps on the candidate technologies to support a decision-making process that will identify a subset of the candidate waste forms that are most promising and should undergo further performance testing.

Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Yang, Jungseok; Engelhard, Mark H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Parker, Kent E.; Wang, Guohui; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

2011-09-26

427

49 CFR 173.433 - Requirements for determining basic radionuclide values, and for the listing of radionuclides on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...into consideration. (2) A single radioactive decay chain in...days or longer than that of the parent nuclide, will be considered as a single radionuclide, and the activity...be those corresponding to the parent nuclide of that chain....

2013-10-01

428

49 CFR 173.433 - Requirements for determining basic radionuclide values, and for the listing of radionuclides on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...435: (1) Where the chemical form of each radionuclide is known, it is permissible to use the A2 value related to its solubility class as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, if the chemical forms under both...

2011-10-01

429

49 CFR 173.433 - Requirements for determining basic radionuclide values, and for the listing of radionuclides on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...435: (1) Where the chemical form of each radionuclide is known, it is permissible to use the A2 value related to its solubility class as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, if the chemical forms under both...

2012-10-01

430

49 CFR 173.433 - Requirements for determining basic radionuclide values, and for the listing of radionuclides on...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...435: (1) Where the chemical form of each radionuclide is known, it is permissible to use the A2 value related to its solubility class as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, if the chemical forms under both...

2010-10-01

431

Natural radionuclides and plutonium in sediments from the western Arctic Ocean: sedimentation rates and pathways of radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment cores collected during R. V. Polar Sea AOS94 expedition from the Chukchi Shelf to the North Pole were analyzed for several decay-series natural radionuclides and Pu isotopes to study sedimentation rates and pathways of radionuclides in the western Arctic Ocean. The measured sedimentation rates vary by more than three orders of magnitude along the transect, from 210Pb-based rates of

Chin-An Huh; Nicklas G. Pisias; James M. Kelley; Tapas C. Maiti; Art Grantz

1997-01-01

432

Phytoremediation of soils and water contaminated with toxic elements and radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

At many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and other sites, large volumes of soils, sediments and waters are contaminated with heavy metals and/or radionuclides, often at only a relatively small factor above regulatory action levels. In response, the DOE`s Office of Technology Development is evaluating the emerging biotechnology known as phytoremediation; this approach utilizes the accelerated transfer of contaminant mass from solution to either root or above ground biomass. After growth, the plant biomass - containing 100 to 1,000 times the contaminant levels observed with conventional plants - is processed to achieve further volume reduction and contaminant concentration. Thus, phytoremediation offers the potential for low cost remediation of highly to moderately contaminated media. Progress made to date by DOE in developing this technology will be summarized and evaluated.

Cornish, J.E.; Huddleston, G.J. [MSE, Inc., Buttle, MT (United States); Levine, R.S. [US Department of Energy, Walnut Creek, CA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

433

Electrical properties of isotopically enriched neutron-transmutation-doped 70Ge:Ga near the metal-insulator transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report low-temperature carrier transport properties of a series of nominally uncompensated neutron-transmutation-doped 70Ge:Ga samples very close to the critical concentration Nc for the metal-insulator transition. The nine samples closest to Nc have Ga concentrations N in the range 0.99NcNc. The values of T0 agree very well with theoretical estimates based on the modified Efros and Shklovskii relation kBT0~(2.8e2/4??0?0?0)(1-N/Nc)?, where ?0 and ?0 are the dielectric constant and the Bohr radius, respectively. The insulating samples very close to the transition (0.991Nc

Watanabe, Michio; Ootuka, Youiti; Itoh, Kohei M.; Haller, Eugene E.

1998-10-01

434

Results from the TARC experiment: spallation neutron phenomenology in lead and neutron-driven nuclear transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize here the results of the TARC experiment whose main purpose is to demonstrate the possibility of using Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) to destroy efficiently Long-Lived Fission Fragments (LLFFs) in accelerator-driven systems and to validate a new simulation developed in the framework of the Energy Amplifier programme. An experimental set-up was installed in a CERN PS proton beam line to study how neutrons produced by spallation at relatively high energy ( E n?1 MeV) slow down quasi-adiabatically with almost flat isolethargic energy distribution and reach the capture resonance energy of an element to be transmuted where they will have a high probability of being captured. Precision measurements of energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (using 2.5 and 3.5 GeV/ c protons) slowing down in a 3.3 m×3.3 m×3 m lead volume and of neutron capture rates on LLFFs 99Tc, 129I, and several other elements were performed. An appropriate formalism and appropriate computational tools necessary for the analysis and understanding of the data were developed and validated in detail. Our direct experimental observation of ARC demonstrates the possibility to destroy, in a parasitic mode, outside the Energy Amplifier core, large amounts of 99Tc or 129I at a rate exceeding the production rate, thereby making it practical to reduce correspondingly the existing stockpile of LLFFs. In addition, TARC opens up new possibilities for radioactive isotope production as an alternative to nuclear reactors, in particular for medical applications, as well as new possibilities for neutron research and industrial applications.

Abánades, A.; Aleixandre, J.; Andriamonje, S.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Arnould, H.; Belle, E.; Bompas, C. A.; Brozzi, D.; Bueno, J.; Buono, S.; Carminati, F.; Casagrande, F.; Cennini, P.; Collar, J. I.; Cerro, E.; Del Moral, R.; Díez, S.; Dumps, L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid, M.; Fernández, R.; Gálvez, J.; García, J.; Gelès, C.; Giorni, A.; González, E.; González, O.; Goulas, I.; Heuer, D.; Hussonnois, M.; Kadi, Y.; Karaiskos, P.; Kitis, G.; Klapisch, R.; Kokkas, P.; Lacoste, V.; Le Naour, C.; López, C.; Loiseaux, J. M.; Martínez-Val, J. M.; Méplan, O.; Nifenecker, H.; Oropesa, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Pérez-Enciso, E.; Pérez-Navarro, A.; Perlado, M.; Placci, A.; Poza, M.; Revol, J.-P.; Rubbia, C.; Rubio, J. A.; Sakelliou, L.; Saldaña, F.; Savvidis, E.; Schussler, F.; Sirvent, C.; Tamarit, J.; Trubert, D.; Tzima, A.; Viano, J. B.; Vieira, S.; Vlachoudis, V.; Zioutas, K.

2002-02-01

435

Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and contaminant mixing in an exhaust system and may be useful to identify potential sampling locations in an exhaust system that are likely to meet criteria in the revised standard.

Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2002-12-16

436

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION.  

SciTech Connect

Treatment of waste streams containing radionuclides, the remediation of contaminated materials, soils, and water, and the safe and economical disposal of radionuclides and toxic metals containing wastes is a major concern. Radionuclides may exist in various oxidation states and may be present as oxide, coprecipitates, inorganic, and organic complexes depending on the process and waste stream. Unlike organic contaminants, the metals cannot be destroyed, but must either be converted to a stable form or removed. Microorganisms present in the natural environment play a major role in the mobilization and immobilization of radionuclides and toxic metals by direct enzymatic or indirect non-enzymatic actions and could affect the chemical nature of the radionuclides by altering the speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of microbiological transformations of various chemical forms of uranium present in wastes and contaminated soils and water has led to the development of novel bioremediation processes. One process uses anaerobic bacteria to stabilize the radionuclides by reductive precipitation from higher to lower oxidation state with a concurrent reduction in volume due to the dissolution and removal of nontoxic elements from the waste matrix. In an another process, uranium and other toxic metals are removed from contaminated surfaces, soils, and wastes by extracting with the chelating agent citric acid. Uranium is recovered from the citric acid extract after biodegradation followed by photodegradation in a concentrated form as UO{sub 3} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O for recycling or appropriate disposal. These processes use all naturally occurring materials, common soil bacteria, naturally occurring organic compound citric acid and sunlight.

FRANCIS, A.J.

2006-09-29

437

Inferring Hillslope Hydrology from the Distribution of Fallout Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Be-7, excess Pb-210, Cs-137, and Am-241 are short-lived (half-life < 500 yr) particle-reactive radionuclides with well-defined atmospheric source terms. Previous studies show that the redistribution of these radionuclides on agricultural fields is by particle transport, not via the dissolved phase. We use the distribution of short-lived atmospheric fallout on forested hillslopes to infer the hydrological processes governing local sediment transport. Here, we present radionuclide activities from soil samples collected at different depths along hillslope profiles in a forested watershed in New Hampshire. Radionuclide activities in stream sediment, water, and soil samples were determined by gamma spectroscopy. Sites with fallout radionuclide inventories consistent with the theoretical deposition flux can be assumed to be stable and undergoing little or no erosion. However, near-stream portions of the watershed which could be subject to saturated overland flow show a depletion of Be-7 and excess Pb-210 relative to the more stable locations. Sediment collected from the bottom of stream channels showed significant activities of short-lived radionuclides, particularly Be-7. This suggests that saturated overland flow is an important process eroding soil from certain parts of the hillslope and in-channel deposition occurs. By comparing the distribution of Be-7 (half-life ca. 53 days) with Cs-137 (half-life ca. 30 yr) we can identify the timescales of sediment transport processes. A hydrological model is presented to explain the distribution of radionuclides on hillslopes at our study site. The results from this study will help us better predict the fate of atmospherically deposited contaminants in watersheds.

Kaste, J. M.; Heimsath, A. M.; Friedland, A. J.

2001-05-01

438

Asymptotic Freedom, Dimensional Transmutation, and an Infra-red Conformal Fixed Point for the $?$-Function Potential in 1-dimensional Relativistic Quantum Mechanics  

E-print Network

We consider the Schr\\"odinger equation for a relativistic point particle in an external 1-dimensional $\\delta$-function potential. Using dimensional regularization, we investigate both bound and scattering states, and we obtain results that are consistent with the abstract mathematical theory of self-adjoint extensions of the pseudo-differential operator $H = \\sqrt{p^2 + m^2}$. Interestingly, this relatively simple system is asymptotically free. In the massless limit, it undergoes dimensional transmutation and it possesses an infra-red conformal fixed point. Thus it can be used to illustrate non-trivial concepts of quantum field theory in the simpler framework of relativistic quantum mechanics.

M. H. Al-Hashimi; A. M. Shalaby; U. -J. Wiese

2014-04-11

439

Unifying Theory of Low-Energy Nuclear Reaction and Transmutation Processes in Deuterated/hydrogenated Metals, Acoustic Cavitation, Glow Discharge, and Deuteron Beam Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most basic theoretical challenge for understanding low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation reaction (LETR) in condensed matters is to find mechanisms by which the large Coulomb barrier between fusing nuclei can be overcome. A unifying theory of LENR and LETR has been developed to provide possible mechanisms for the LENR and LETR processes in matters based on high-density nano-scale and micro-scale quantum plasmas. It is shown that recently developed theoretical models based on Bose-Einstein Fusion (BEF) mechanism and Quantum Plasma Nuclear Fusion (QPNF) mechanism are applicable to the results of many different types of LENR and LETR experiments.

Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

440

Mixtures of Charged Bosons Confined in Harmonic Traps and Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation Processes in Condensed Matters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mixture of two different species of positively charged bosons in harmonic traps is considered in the mean-field approximation. It is shown that depending on the ratio of parameters, the two components may coexist in same regions of space, in spite of the Coulomb repulsion between the two species. Application of this result is discussed for the generalization of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation processes in condensed matters. For the case of deutron-lithium (d + Li) LENR, the result indicates that (d + 6Li) reactions may dominate over (d + d) reactions in LENR experiments.

Kim, Yeong E.; Zubarev, Alexander L.

2006-02-01

441

Experimental verification of neutron phenomenology in lead and of transmutation by adiabatic resonance crossing in accelerator driven systems. A summary of the TARC Project at CERN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (TARC) experiment was carried out as PS211 at the CERN PS from 1996 to 1999. Energy and space distributions of spallation neutrons (produced by 2.5 and 3.57 GeV/ c CERN proton beams) slowing down in a 3.3×3.3×3 m 3 lead volume and neutron capture rates on long-lived fission fragments 99Tc and 129I demonstrate that Adiabatic Resonance Crossing (ARC) can be used to eliminate efficiently such nuclear waste and validate innovative simulation.

Abánades, A.; Aleixandre, J.; Andriamonje, S.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Arnould, H.; Belle, E.; Bompas, C. A.; Brozzi, D.; Bueno, J.; Buono, S.; Carminati, F.; Casagrande, F.; Cennini, P.; Collar, J. I.; Cerro, E.; Del Moral, R.; Díez, S.; Dumps, L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid, M.; Fernández, R.; Gálvez, J.; García, J.; Gelès, C.; Giorni, A.; González, E.; González, O.; Goulas, I.; Heuer, D.; Hussonnois, M.; Kadi, Y.; Karaiskos, P.; Kitis, G.; Klapisch, R.; Kokkas, P.; Lacoste, V.; Le Naour, C.; López, C.; Loiseaux, J. M.; Martínez-Val, J. M.; Méplan, O.; Nifenecker, H.; Oropesa, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Pérez-Enciso, E.; Pérez-Navarro, A.; Perlado, M.; Placci, A.; Poza, M.; Revol, J.-P.; Rubbia, C.; Rubio, J. A.; Sakelliou, L.; Saldaña, F.; Savvidis, E.; Schussler, F.; Sirvent, C.; Tamarit, J.; Trubert, D.; Tzima, A.; Viano, J. B.; Vieira, S.; Vlachoudis, V.; Zioutas, K.

2001-05-01