Sample records for radionuclide transmutation technology

  1. An overview of accelerator-driven transmutation technology

    SciTech Connect

    Heighway, E.A.

    1994-07-01

    Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology, or ADT{sup 2}, is a collection of programs that share a common theme - they each have at their heart an intense source of neutrons generated by a high-energy proton beam striking a heavy metal target. The beam energy, typically 1000 MeV, is enough for a single proton to smash a target atom into atomic fragments. This so-called spallation process generates large numbers of neutrons (around 20 to 30 per proton) amid the atomic debris. These neutrons are of high value because they can be used to transmute neighboring atoms by neutron capture. Three distinct ADT{sup 2} program elements will be described. These are ADEP - accelerator-driven energy production, ABC - accelerator based conversion (of plutonium) and ATW - accelerator transmutation of waste.

  2. Definition of Technology Readiness Levels for Transmutation Fuel Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171)

    2008-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Transmutation fuel development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the transmutation fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Transuranic Fuel Development Campaign.

  3. TECHNOLOGIES FOR RADON AND RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a summary of the technologies that are currently being used to remove radionuclides from drinking water. The radionuclides that are featured are the radionuclides currently regulated by EPA; radium, radon and uranium. Tehnologies effective for removal of eac...

  4. Chemistry technology base and fuel cycle of the Los Alamos accelerator-driven transmutation system

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, M.A.

    1997-12-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the Los Alamos accelerator-driven transmutation system, a description of the pyrochemistry technology base and the fuel cycle for the system. The pyrochemistry technology base consists of four processes: direct oxide reduction, reductive extraction, electrorefining, and electrowinning. Each process and its utility is described. The fuel cycle is described for a liquid metal-based system with the focus being the conversion of commercial spent nuclear fuel to fuel for the transmutation system. Fission product separation and actinide recycle processes are also described.

  5. Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

    1999-08-12

    In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

  6. Fermilab Project X nuclear energy application: Accelerator, spallation target and transmutation technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Yousry; /Argonne; Johnson, David; Johnson, Todd; Mishra, Shekhar; /Fermilab

    2011-04-01

    The recent paper 'Accelerator and Target Technology for Accelerator Driven Transmutation and Energy Production' and report 'Accelerators for America's Future' have endorsed the idea that the next generation particle accelerators would enable technological breakthrough needed for nuclear energy applications, including transmutation of waste. In the Fall of 2009 Fermilab sponsored a workshop on Application of High Intensity Proton Accelerators to explore in detail the use of the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) accelerator technology for Nuclear Energy Applications. High intensity Continuous Wave (CW) beam from the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Linac (Project-X) at beam energy between 1-2 GeV will provide an unprecedented experimental and demonstration facility in the United States for much needed nuclear energy Research and Development. We propose to carry out an experimental program to demonstrate the reliability of the accelerator technology, Lead-Bismuth spallation target technology and a transmutation experiment of spent nuclear fuel. We also suggest that this facility could be used for other Nuclear Energy applications.

  7. An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — Burnup and transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomonaco, G.; Frasciello, O.; Osipenko, M.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.

    2014-04-01

    The currently dominant open fuel cycles have resulted in the gradual accumulation of (relatively) large quantities of highly radioactive or fertile materials in the form of depleted uranium, plutonium, minor actinides (MA) and long-lived fission products (LLFP). For low-activity wastes a heavily shielded surface repository is required. Spent fuel can be instead directly buried in deep geological repositories or reprocessed in order to separate U and Pu and eventually also MA and LLFP from other materials. These elements can be further burnt by modern reactors but not yet in sufficient quantities to slow down the steady accumulation of these materials in storage. Using ADS, the residual long-lifetime isotopes can be transmuted by nuclear reactions into shorter-lifetime isotopes again storable in surface repositories. However, in order to perform transmutations at a practical level, high-power reactors (and consequently high-power accelerators) are required; particularly, a significant transmutation can be reached not only by increasing the beam current to something of the order of a few tens of mA, but also by increasing the beam energy above 500MeV in order to reach the spallation regime. Such high-power infrastructures require intermediate test facilities with lower power and higher safety level for the investigation of their dynamics and transmutation capabilities: the ADS proposed in this study could accomplish many of these constraints.

  8. Bioremediation: a genuine technology to remediate radionuclides from the environment

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Dhan; Gabani, Prashant; Chandel, Anuj K; Ronen, Zeev; Singh, Om V

    2013-01-01

    Summary Radionuclides in the environment are a major human and environmental health concern. Like the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 is once again causing damage to the environment: a large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated and dumped into the environment, and if the general population is exposed to it, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Bioremediation has been viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to environmentally destructive physical remediation. Microorganisms carry endogenous genetic, biochemical and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for pollutant remediation in soil and groundwater. Attempts have been made to develop native or genetically engineered (GE) microbes for the remediation of environmental contaminants including radionuclides. Microorganism-mediated bioremediation can affect the solubility, bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides. Therefore, we aim to unveil the microbial-mediated mechanisms for biotransformation of radionuclides under various environmental conditions as developing strategies for waste management of radionuclides. A discussion follows of ‘-omics’-integrated genomics and proteomics technologies, which can be used to trace the genes and proteins of interest in a given microorganism towards a cell-free bioremediation strategy. PMID:23617701

  9. Bioremediation: a genuine technology to remediate radionuclides from the environment.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Dhan; Gabani, Prashant; Chandel, Anuj K; Ronen, Zeev; Singh, Om V

    2013-07-01

    Radionuclides in the environment are a major human and environmental health concern. Like the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 is once again causing damage to the environment: a large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated and dumped into the environment, and if the general population is exposed to it, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Bioremediation has been viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to environmentally destructive physical remediation. Microorganisms carry endogenous genetic, biochemical and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for pollutant remediation in soil and groundwater. Attempts have been made to develop native or genetically engineered (GE) microbes for the remediation of environmental contaminants including radionuclides. Microorganism-mediated bioremediation can affect the solubility, bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides. Therefore, we aim to unveil the microbial-mediated mechanisms for biotransformation of radionuclides under various environmental conditions as developing strategies for waste management of radionuclides. A discussion follows of '-omics'-integrated genomics and proteomics technologies, which can be used to trace the genes and proteins of interest in a given microorganism towards a cell-free bioremediation strategy. PMID:23617701

  10. Nuclear Methods for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste: Problems, Perspextives, Cooperative Research - Proceedings of the International Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khankhasayev, Zhanat B.; Kurmanov, Hans; Plendl, Mikhail Kh.

    1996-12-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * I. Review of Current Status of Nuclear Transmutation Projects * Accelerator-Driven Systems — Survey of the Research Programs in the World * The Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste Concept * Nuclear Waste Transmutation Program in the Czech Republic * Tentative Results of the ISTC Supported Study of the ADTT Plutonium Disposition * Recent Neutron Physics Investigations for the Back End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle * Optimisation of Accelerator Systems for Transmutation of Nuclear Waste * Proton Linac of the Moscow Meson Factory for the ADTT Experiments * II. Computer Modeling of Nuclear Waste Transmutation Methods and Systems * Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Different Nuclear Facilities * Monte Carlo Modeling of Electro-nuclear Processes with Nonlinear Effects * Simulation of Hybrid Systems with a GEANT Based Program * Computer Study of 90Sr and 137Cs Transmutation by Proton Beam * Methods and Computer Codes for Burn-Up and Fast Transients Calculations in Subcritical Systems with External Sources * New Model of Calculation of Fission Product Yields for the ADTT Problem * Monte Carlo Simulation of Accelerator-Reactor Systems * III. Data Basis for Transmutation of Actinides and Fission Products * Nuclear Data in the Accelerator Driven Transmutation Problem * Nuclear Data to Study Radiation Damage, Activation, and Transmutation of Materials Irradiated by Particles of Intermediate and High Energies * Radium Institute Investigations on the Intermediate Energy Nuclear Data on Hybrid Nuclear Technologies * Nuclear Data Requirements in Intermediate Energy Range for Improvement of Calculations of ADTT Target Processes * IV. Experimental Studies and Projects * ADTT Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center * Neutron Multiplicity Distributions for GeV Proton Induced Spallation Reactions on Thin and Thick Targets of Pb and U * Solid State Nuclear Track Detector and Radiochemical Studies on the Transmutation of Nuclei Using Relativistic Heavy Ions * Experimental and Theoretical Study of Radionuclide Production on the Electronuclear Plant Target and Construction Materials Irradiated by 1.5 GeV and 130 MeV Protons * Neutronics and Power Deposition Parameters of the Targets Proposed in the ISTC Project 17 * Multicycle Irradiation of Plutonium in Solid Fuel Heavy-Water Blanket of ADS * Compound Neutron Valve of Accelerator-Driven System Sectioned Blanket * Subcritical Channel-Type Reactor for Weapon Plutonium Utilization * Accelerator Driven Molten-Fluoride Reactor with Modular Heat Exchangers on PB-BI Eutectic * A New Conception of High Power Ion Linac for ADTT * Pions and Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Waste? * V. Problems and Perspectives * Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies for Resolution of Long-Term Nuclear Waste Concerns * Closing the Nuclear Fuel-Cycle and Moving Toward a Sustainable Energy Development * Workshop Summary * List of Participants

  11. Technologies for destruction of long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste: Overview and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, E.D.

    1993-10-01

    This paper, and this topical session on Nuclear Waste Minimization, Management and Remediation, focuses on two nuclear systems, and their associated technologies, that have the potential to address concerns surrounding long-lived radionuclides in high-level waste. Both systems offer technology applicable to HLW from present light-water reactors (LWR). Additionally these systems represent advanced nuclear power concepts that have important features associated with integrated management of wastes, long-term fuel supplies, and enhanced safety. The first system is the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. This system incorporates a metal-fueled fast reactor coupled with chemical separations based on pyroprocessing to produce power while simultaneously burning long-lived actinide waste. IFR applications include burning of actinides from current LWR spent fuel and energy production in a breeder environment. The second concept, Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW), is based upon an accelerator-induced intense source of thermal neutrons and is aimed at destruction of long-lived actinides and fission products. This concept can be applied to long-lived radionuclides in spent fuel HLW as well as a future fission power source built around use of natural thorium or uranium as fuels coupled with concurrent waste destruction.

  12. Accelerator transmutation of sup 129 I

    SciTech Connect

    Attrep, M. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Iodine-129 is one of several long-lived reactor products that is being considered for transmutation by the Los Alamos Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program. A reasonable rate of transmutation of 1291 is possible in this system because of the anticipated high neutron flux generated from the accelerator. This report summarizes previous papers dealing with the transmutation of 1291 where reactor technologies have been employed for neutron sources. The transmutation process is considered marginal under these conditions. Presented here are additional information concerning the final products that could be formed from the transmutation process in the ATW blanket. The transmutation scheme proposes the use of solid iodine as the target material and the escape of product xenon from the containers after van Dincklange (1981). Additional developmental plans are considered.

  13. Accelerator transmutation of {sup 129}I

    SciTech Connect

    Attrep, M. Jr.

    1992-10-01

    Iodine-129 is one of several long-lived reactor products that is being considered for transmutation by the Los Alamos Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program. A reasonable rate of transmutation of 1291 is possible in this system because of the anticipated high neutron flux generated from the accelerator. This report summarizes previous papers dealing with the transmutation of 1291 where reactor technologies have been employed for neutron sources. The transmutation process is considered marginal under these conditions. Presented here are additional information concerning the final products that could be formed from the transmutation process in the ATW blanket. The transmutation scheme proposes the use of solid iodine as the target material and the escape of product xenon from the containers after van Dincklange (1981). Additional developmental plans are considered.

  14. Imaging Transgene Expression with Radionuclide Imaging Technologies1

    PubMed Central

    Gambhir, SS; Herschman, HR; Cherry, SR; Barrio, JR; Satyamurthy, N; Toyokuni, T; Phelps, ME; Larson, SM; Balaton, J; Finn, R; Sadelain, M; Tjuvajev, J

    2000-01-01

    Abstract A variety of imaging technologies are being investigated as tools for studying gene expression in living subjects. Noninvasive, repetitive and quantitative imaging of gene expression will help both to facilitate human gene therapy trials and to allow for the study of animal models of molecular and cellular therapy. Radionuclide approaches using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) are the most mature of the current imaging technologies and offer many advantages for imaging gene expression compared to optical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based approaches. These advantages include relatively high sensitivity, full quantitative capability (for PET), and the ability to extend small animal assays directly into clinical human applications. We describe a PET scanner (micro PET) designed specifically for studies of small animals. We review “marker/reporter gene” imaging approaches using the herpes simplex type 1 virus thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and the dopamine type 2 receptor (D2R) genes. We describe and contrast several radiolabeled probes that can be used with the HSV1-tk reporter gene both for SPECT and for PET imaging. We also describe the advantages/disadvantages of each of the assays developed and discuss future animal and human applications. PMID:10933072

  15. Evaluation and selection of aqueous-based technology for partitioning radionuclides from ICPP calcine

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, A.L.; Schulz, W.W.; Burchfield, L.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Swanson, J.L.; Thompson, M.C.

    1993-02-01

    Early in 1993 Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) chartered a Panel of Nuclear Separations Experts. The purpose of this Panel was to assist WINCO scientists and engineers in selecting, evaluating, and ranking candidate aqueous-based processes and technologies for potential use in partitioning selected radionuclides from nitric acid solutions of retrieved Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) calcine. Radionuclides of interest are all transuranium elements, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 137}Cs. The six man Panel met for 4 days (February 16--19, 1993) on the campus of the Idaho State University in Pocatello, Idaho. Principal topics addressed included: Available radionuclide removal technology; applicability of separations technology and processes to ICPP calcine; and potential integrated radionuclide partitioning schemes. This report, prepared from contributions from all Panel members, presents a comprehensive account of the proceedings and significant findings of the February, 1993 meeting in Pocatello.

  16. Innovative Fuel Types for Minor Actinides Transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, D.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.

    2006-04-01

    Transmutation of long-lived radio-nuclides is an option for reducing the hazards linked to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Previous studies have demonstrated that the main contributor to spent fuel radio-toxicity is by far Pu, followed by Am and Cm. Prerequisite for any efficient transmutation strategy is therefore Pu multiple recycling, whereas Am and Cm could be treated in different ways, including multiple recycling or once-through burning in dedicated targets. In all cases, however, the transmutation efficiency must be maximised, a condition best achieved if, firstly, uranium-free fuels are considered, and secondly, if multiple reprocessing and recycling is considered. In Europe, and in particular at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), extensive experimental work is being performed to develop fabrication processes for these innovative compounds, and to characterise their properties under irradiation. This work is mostly done within European collaborations, and is partially funded under the European Framework Programmes.

  17. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant technical background document for best available radionuclide control technology demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.B.; Skone, S.S.; Rodenhizer, D.G.; Marusich, M.V. (Ebasco Services, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    This report provides the background documentation to support applications for approval to construct and operate new radionuclide emission sources at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) near Richland, Washington. The HWVP is required to obtain permits under federal and state statutes for atmospheric discharges of radionuclides. Since these permits must be issued prior to construction of the facility, draft permit applications are being prepared, as well as documentation to support these permits. This report addresses the applicable requirements and demonstrates that the preferred design meets energy, environmental, and economic criteria for Best Available Radionuclide Control Technology (BARCT) at HWVP. 22 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  18. Radioanalytical technology for 10 CFR Part 61 and other selected radionuclides: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.W.; Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A comprehensive literature review and assessment was conducted to identify and evaluate radioanalytical technology and procedures used for measuring 10CFR61 radionuclides and other long-lived isotopes. This review evaluated radiochemical procedures currently in use at a number of laboratories in the US, as well as identifying new advanced methods and techniques which could be adapted for routine radiochemical analyses of low-level radioactive waste. The 10CFR61 radionuclides include {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Cl, {sup 59,63}Ni, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, and TRU isotopes with half lives greater than 5 years. Other low-level radionuclides of interest include {sup 7,10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 109,113m}Cd, and {sup 121m,126}Sn, which may be present in various types of waste streams from nuclear power stations.

  19. Breast imaging technology: Recent advances in imaging endogenous or transferred gene expression utilizing radionuclide technologies in living subjects - applications to breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Berger; Sanjiv Sam Gambhir

    2001-01-01

    A variety of imaging technologies is being investigated as tools for studying gene expression in living subjects. Two technologies that use radiolabeled isotopes are single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). A relatively high sensitivity, a full quantitative tomographic capability, and the ability to extend small animal imaging assays directly into human applications characterize radionuclide approaches.

  20. Transmute 1.67

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-08

    As January turns into February, some people may be in the market for a new web browser. Of course, some may be wondering: What do I do about my bookmarks? That's easy enough to solve by making use of Transmute 1.67. This tiny program transfers bookmarks from one browser to another. The program is compatible with seven different browsers, including Google Chrome, Opera, and Chromium. The program provides automatic backups and the support site includes screen shots and support suggestions. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 95 and newer.

  1. Transmutation Fuel Campaign Description and Status

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    This report contains a technical summary package in response to a Level 2 milestone in the transmutation fuel campaign (TFC) management work-package calling for input to the Secretarial decision. At present, the form of the Secretarial decision package is not fully defined, and it is not clear exactly what will be required from the TFC as a final input. However, it is anticipated that a series oftechnical and programmatic documents will need to be provided in support of a wider encompassing document on GNEP technology development activities. The TFC technical leadership team provides this report as initial input to the secretarial decision package which is being developed by the Technical Integration Office (TIO) in support of Secretarial decision. This report contains a summary of the TFC execution plan with a work breakdown structure, highlevel schedule, major milestones, and summary description of critical activities in support of campaign objectives. Supporting documents referenced in this report but provided under separate cover include: • An updated review of the state-of-the art for transmutation fuel development activities considering national as well as international fuel research and development testing activities. • A definition of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) used to systematically define and execute the transmutation fuel development activities.

  2. RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. uring the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium,...

  3. Axial Neutron Flux Evaluation in a Tokamak System: a Possible Transmutation Blanket Position for a Fusion-Fission Transmutation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasquez, Carlos E.; de P. Barros, Graiciany; Pereira, Claubia; Fortini Veloso, Maria A.; Costa, Antonella L.

    2012-08-01

    A sub-critical advanced reactor based on Tokamak technology with a D-T fusion neutron source is an innovative type of nuclear system. Due to the large number of neutrons produced by fusion reactions, such a system could be useful in the transmutation process of transuranic elements (Pu and minor actinides (MAs)). However, to enhance the MA transmutation efficiency, it is necessary to have a large neutron wall loading (high neutron fluence) with a broad energy spectrum in the fast neutron energy region. Therefore, it is necessary to know and define the neutron fluence along the radial axis and its characteristics. In this work, the neutron flux and the interaction frequency along the radial axis are evaluated for various materials used to build the first wall. W alloy, beryllium, and the combination of both were studied, and the regions more suitable to transmutation were determined. The results demonstrated that the best zone in which to place a transmutation blanket is limited by the heat sink and the shield block. Material arrangements of W alloy/W alloy and W alloy/beryllium would be able to meet the requirements of the high fluence and hard spectrum that are needed for transuranic transmutation. The system was simulated using the MCNP code, data from the ITER Final Design Report, 2001, and the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library/MC-2.1 nuclear data library.

  4. Proceedings of Soil Decon `93: Technology targeting radionuclides and heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The principal objective for convening this workshop was to exchange ideas and discuss with scientists and engineers methods for removing radionuclides and/or toxic metals from soils. Over the years there have been numerous symposia, conferences, and workshops directed at soil remediation. However, this may be the first where the scope was narrowed to the removal of radionuclides and toxic metals from soils. The intent was to focus on the separation processes controlling the removal of the radionuclide and/or metal from soil. Its purpose was not intended to be a soil washing/leaching workshop, but rather to identify a variety or combination of processes (chemical, physical, and biological) that can be used in concert with the applicable engineering approaches to decontaminate soils of radionuclides and toxic metals. Abstracts and visual aids used by the speakers of the workshop are presented in this document.

  5. Promises and Challenges of Thorium Implementation for Transuranic Transmutation - 13550

    SciTech Connect

    Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E.; Wenner, M. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States)] [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Lindley, B. [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)] [University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Fiorina, C. [Polytechnic of Milan (Italy)] [Polytechnic of Milan (Italy); Phillips, C. [Energy Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)] [Energy Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges of implementing a thorium fuel cycle for recycle and transmutation of long-lived actinide components from used nuclear fuel. A multi-stage reactor system is proposed; the first stage consists of current UO{sub 2} once-through LWRs supplying transuranic isotopes that are continuously recycled and burned in second stage reactors in either a uranium (U) or thorium (Th) carrier. The second stage reactors considered for the analysis are Reduced Moderation Pressurized Water Reactors (RMPWRs), reconfigured from current PWR core designs, and Fast Reactors (FRs) with a burner core design. While both RMPWRs and FRs can in principle be employed, each reactor and associated technology has pros and cons. FRs have unmatched flexibility and transmutation efficiency. RMPWRs have higher fuel manufacturing and reprocessing requirements, but may represent a cheaper solution and the opportunity for a shorter time to licensing and deployment. All options require substantial developments in manufacturing, due to the high radiation field, and reprocessing, due to the very high actinide recovery ratio to elicit the claimed radiotoxicity reduction. Th reduces the number of transmutation reactors, and is required to enable a viable RMPWR design, but presents additional challenges on manufacturing and reprocessing. The tradeoff between the various options does not make the choice obvious. Moreover, without an overarching supporting policy in place, the costly and challenging technologies required inherently discourage industrialization of any transmutation scheme, regardless of the adoption of U or Th. (authors)

  6. Extension of Studies with 3M Empore TM and Selentec MAG *SEP SM Technologies for Improved Radionuclide Field Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Beals, D.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

    1996-07-10

    The Savannah River Technology Center is evaluating new field sampling methodologies to more easily determine concentrations of radionuclides in aqueous systems. One methodology studied makes use of 3M EmporeTM disks. The disks are composed of selective resins embedded in a Teflon support. The disks remove the ion of interest from aqueous solutions when the solution is passed through the disk. The disk can then be counted directly to quantify the isotope of interest. Four types of disks were studied during this work: for the extraction of technetium (two types), cesium, plutonium, and strontium. A sampler has been developed for automated, unattended, in situ use of the EmporeTM disks.

  7. ACCELERATED SITE TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT COMPARABILITY OF ISOCS INSTRUMENT IN RADIONUCLIDE CHARACTERICATION AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    KALB,P.; LUCKETT,L.; MILLER,K.; GOGOLAK,C.; MILIAN,L.

    2001-03-01

    This report describes a DOE Accelerated Site Technology Deployment project being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to deploy innovative, radiological, in situ analytical techniques. The technologies are being deployed in support of efforts to characterize the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) facility, which is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning. This report focuses on the deployment of the Canberra Industries In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) and assesses its data comparability to baseline methods of sampling and laboratory analysis. The battery-operated, field deployable gamma spectrometer provides traditional spectra of counts as a function of gamma energy. The spectra are then converted to radionuclide concentration by applying innovative efficiency calculations using monte carlo statistical methods and pre-defined geometry templates in the analysis software. Measurement of gamma emitting radionuclides has been accomplished during characterization of several BGRR components including the Pile Fan Sump, Above Ground Ducts, contaminated cooling fans, and graphite pile internals. Cs-137 is the predominant gamma-emitting radionuclide identified, with smaller quantities of Co-60 and Am-241 detected. The Project used the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual guidance and the Data Quality Objectives process to provide direction for survey planning and data quality assessment. Analytical results have been used to calculate data quality indicators (DQI) for the ISOCS measurements. Among the DQIs assessed in the report are sensitivity, accuracy, precision, bias, and minimum detectable concentration. The assessment of the in situ data quality using the DQIs demonstrates that the ISOCS data quality can be comparable to definitive level laboratory analysis when the field instrument is supported by an appropriate Quality Assurance Project Plan. A discussion of the results obtained by ISOCS analysis of objects that could not be analyzed readily by conventional methods demonstrates a powerful application of the instrument. In conclusion, a comparison of costs associated with the analysis on the ISOCS instrument to the costs of conventional sampling and laboratory analysis is presented.

  8. Industrial research for transmutation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarcat, Noel; Garzenne, Claude; Le Mer, Joël; Leroyer, Hadrien; Desroches, Estelle; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

    2011-04-01

    This article presents the results of research scenarios for americium transmutation in a 22nd century French nuclear fleet, using sodium fast breeder reactors. We benchmark the americium transmutation benefits and drawbacks with a reference case consisting of a hypothetical 60 GWe fleet of pure plutonium breeders. The fluxes in the various parts of the cycle (reactors, fabrication plants, reprocessing plants and underground disposals) are calculated using EDF's suite of codes, comparable in capabilities to those of other research facilities. We study underground thermal heat load reduction due to americium partitioning and repository area minimization. We endeavor to estimate the increased technical complexity of surface facilities to handle the americium fluxes in special fuel fabrication plants, americium fast burners, special reprocessing shops, handling equipments and transport casks between those facilities.

  9. The implications of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical technology. Background paper number 2: case studies of medical technologies. Case study number 13: cardiac radionuclide imaging and cost effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    Cardiac radionuclide imaging is a new and rapidly expanding diagnostic technology that promises to make significant contributions to the diagnosis and management of heart disease. Dynamic changes are occurring in the technology at the same time diffusion is taking place. The combination of diffusion and technological development creates an imperative for careful evaluation and prospective planning. Clinical applications of cardiac imaging include the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, evaluation of cardiac function abnormalities, verification of the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and monitoring of patients under treatment for establishing cardiac disease. The report describes the dimensions of the technology of cardiac radionuclide imaging. Information is summarized on the industry producing radionuclide imaging equipment, on clinical applications of technology, and on the costs and efficacies of the various techniques. Finally, formulation of some of the issues involved in the assessment of the technology's cost effectiveness is presented.

  10. Radioactive waste from transmutation of technetium: a model for anticipating characteristics of high level waste from transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, M.G. [Booz Allen Hamilton, Washington DC (United States)

    2007-07-01

    At this early stage in the conceptualization of fuel treatment and radioisotope transmutation for the disposition of nuclear wastes, it is possible to anticipate some characteristics of the waste stream resulting from the deployment of advanced technologies. Fission products and actinides cannot be completely destroyed by transmutation even with continuous purification and recycle. This is demonstrated for technetium in this analysis, but is true for all radioisotopes. Also, some of the reaction products are themselves long-lived radioactive isotopes. The purification and recycle steps produce nuclear wastes that must be planned for geologic disposal. Five radioisotopes have been identified to be produced in abundance by transmutation of technetium using fast neutrons. Four of these isotopes may be more benign than the original technetium-99 because of their longer half lives. However, one isotope, molybdenum-93 with a half life of four thousand years, may be troublesome. All of the isotopes arising from the transmutation process that end up in high level waste must be examined in terms of their behavior in geologic disposal. In selecting goals for chemical separations, the technologists must consider the entire cycle of separation and transmutation before applying the performance expected in a single separation to implications concerning a repository. A separation efficiency of 0.95 can translate into the disposal of as much as 30 to 60 percent of the technetium in the repository if down stream losses are not controlled. In this case, the treatment may have little impact on anticipated off site radiation from technetium. The destruction of technetium through continuous recycle requires the cost of increased neutron dose and increased space in reactors that must be considered in design of fuel treatment systems. (authors)

  11. Transmutation of Nuclear Waste and the future MYRRHA Demonstrator

    E-print Network

    Alex C. Mueller

    2012-10-16

    While a considerable and world-wide growth of the nuclear share in the global energy mix is desirable for many reasons, there are also, in particular in the "old world" major objections. These are both concerns about safety, in particular in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident and concerns about the long-term burden that is constituted by the radiotoxic waste from the spent fuel. With regard to the second topic, the present contribution will outline the concept of Partitioning & Transmutation (P&T), as scientific and technological answer. Deployment of P&T may use dedicated "Transmuter" or "Burner" reactors, using a fast neutron spectrum. For the transmutation of waste with a large content (up to 50%) of (very long-lived) Minor Actinides, a sub-critical reactor, using an external neutron source is a most attractive solution. It is constituted by coupling a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical core. This promising new technology is named ADS, for accelerator-driven system. The present paper aims at a short introduction into the field that has been characterized by a high collaborative activity during the last decade in Europe, in order to focus, in its later part, on the MYRRHA project as the European ADS technology demonstrator.

  12. Transmutation of Nuclear Waste and the future MYRRHA Demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Alex C.

    2013-03-01

    While a considerable and world-wide growth of the nuclear share in the global energy mix is desirable for many reasons, there are also, in particular in the "old world" major objections. These are both concerns about safety, in particular in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident and concerns about the long-term burden that is constituted by the radiotoxic waste from the spent fuel. With regard to the second topic, the present contribution will outline the concept of Partitioning & Transmutation (P&T), as scientific and technological answer. Deployment of P&T may use dedicated "Transmuter" or "Burner" reactors, using a fast neutron spectrum. For the transmutation of waste with a large content (up to 50%) of (very long-lived) Minor Actinides, a sub-critical reactor, using an external neutron source is a most attractive solution. It is constituted by coupling a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical core. This promising new technology is named ADS, for accelerator-driven system. The present paper aims at a short introduction into the field that has been characterized by a high collaborative activity during the last decade in Europe, in order to focus, in its later part, on the MYRRHA project as the European ADS technology demonstrator.

  13. Transmutation of Nuclear Waste and the future MYRRHA Demonstrator

    E-print Network

    Mueller, Alex C

    2012-01-01

    While a considerable and world-wide growth of the nuclear share in the global energy mix is desirable for many reasons, there are also, in particular in the "old world" major objections. These are both concerns about safety, in particular in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident and concerns about the long-term burden that is constituted by the radiotoxic waste from the spent fuel. With regard to the second topic, the present contribution will outline the concept of Partitioning & Transmutation (P&T), as scientific and technological answer. Deployment of P&T may use dedicated "Transmuter" or "Burner" reactors, using a fast neutron spectrum. For the transmutation of waste with a large content (up to 50%) of (very long-lived) Minor Actinides, a sub-critical reactor, using an external neutron source is a most attractive solution. It is constituted by coupling a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical core. This promising new technology is named ADS, for accelerator-driven syste...

  14. The enrichment of natural radionuclides in oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia--the impact of new circulating fluidized bed technology.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-03-01

    Burning oil shale to produce electricity has a dominant position in Estonia's energy sector. Around 90% of the overall electric energy production originates from the Narva Power Plants. The technology in use has been significantly renovated - two older types of pulverized fuel burning (PF) energy production units were replaced with new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. Additional filter systems have been added to PF boilers to reduce emissions. Oil shale contains various amounts of natural radionuclides. These radionuclides concentrate and become enriched in different boiler ash fractions. More volatile isotopes will be partially emitted to the atmosphere via flue gases and fly ash. To our knowledge, there has been no previous study for CFB boiler systems on natural radionuclide enrichment and their atmospheric emissions. Ash samples were collected from Eesti Power Plant's CFB boiler. These samples were processed and analyzed with gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations (Bq/kg) and enrichment factors were calculated for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides and for (40)K in different CFB boiler ash fractions. Results from the CFB boiler ash sample analysis showed an increase in the activity concentrations and enrichment factors (up to 4.5) from the furnace toward the electrostatic precipitator block. The volatile radionuclide ((210)Pb and (40)K) activity concentrations in CFB boilers were evenly distributed in finer ash fractions. Activity balance calculations showed discrepancies between input (via oil shale) and output (via ash fractions) activities for some radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb). This refers to a situation where the missing part of the activity (around 20% for these radionuclides) is emitted to the atmosphere. Also different behavior patterns were detected for the two Ra isotopes, (226)Ra and (228)Ra. A part of (226)Ra input activity, unlike (228)Ra, was undetectable in the solid ash fractions of the boiler. Most probably it is released to the surrounding environment. PMID:24462922

  15. Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

  16. Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation and breeder applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    This work consists of design power plant studies for four types of reactor systems: uranium plasma core breeder, uranium plasma core actinide transmuter, UF6 breeder and UF6 actinide transmuter. The plasma core systems can be coupled to MHD generators to obtain high efficiency electrical power generation. A 1074 MWt UF6 breeder reactor was designed with a breeding ratio of 1.002 to guard against diversion of fuel. Using molten salt technology and a superheated steam cycle, an efficiency of 39.2% was obtained for the plant and the U233 inventory in the core and heat exchangers was limited to 105 Kg. It was found that the UF6 reactor can produce high fluxes (10 to the 14th power n/sq cm-sec) necessary for efficient burnup of actinide. However, the buildup of fissile isotopes posed severe heat transfer problems. Therefore, the flux in the actinide region must be decreased with time. Consequently, only beginning-of-life conditions were considered for the power plant design. A 577 MWt UF6 actinide transmutation reactor power plant was designed to operate with 39.3% efficiency and 102 Kg of U233 in the core and heat exchanger for beginning-of-life conditions.

  17. U.S. Plans for the Next Fast Reactor Transmutation Fuels Irradiation Test

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Hilton

    2007-09-01

    The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. One important component of the technology development is actinide-bearing transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. Metallic alloy and oxide fuel forms are being developed as the near term options for fast reactor implementation.

  18. The Transmutation of Nuclear Waste in the Two-Zone Subcritical System Driven by High- Intensity Neutron Generator - 12098

    SciTech Connect

    Babenko, V.O. [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Metrolohichna str. 14-b, Kiev, 03680 (Ukraine); Gulik, V.I.; Pavlovych, V.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, pr. Nauky 47, Kyiv, 03680 (Ukraine)

    2012-07-01

    The main problems of transmutation of high-level radioactive waste (minor actinides and long-lived fission products) are considered in our work. The range of radioactive waste of nuclear power is analyzed. The conditions under which the transmutation of radioactive waste will be most effective are analyzed too. The modeling results of a transmutation of the main radioactive isotopes are presented and discussed. The transmutation of minor actinides and long-lived fission products are modeled in our work (minor actinides - Np-237, Am-241, Am-242, Am-243, Cm-244, Cm-245; long-lived fission products - I-129, Tc-99). The two-zone subcritical system is calculated with help of different neutron-physical codes (MCNP, Scale, Montebarn, Origen). The ENDF/B-VI nuclear data library used in above calculations. Thus, radioactive wastes can be divided into two main groups that need to be transmuted. The minor actinides form the first group and the long-lived fission products form the second one. For the purpose of effective transmutation these isotopes must be extracted from the spent nuclear fuel with the help of either PUREX technology or pyrometallurgical technology. The two-zone reactor system with fast and thermal regions is more effective for nuclear waste transmutation than the one-zone reactor. Modeling results show that nearly all radioactive wastes can be transmuted in the two-zone subcritical system driven by a high-intensity neutron generator with the external neutron source strength of 1.10{sup 13} n/sec. Obviously, transmutation rate will increase with a rise of the external neutron source strength. From the results above we can also see that the initial loading of radioactive isotopes into the reactor system should exceed by mass those isotopes that are finally produced. (authors)

  19. Neutron transmutation of nuclear waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Edward Albert

    Two metal fueled sub-critical fast reactor concepts, cooled by PbLi and PbBi, respectively, for a Fusion Transmutation of Waste Reactor (FTWR) were developed. Heat removal, radiation damage, etc. design constraints were applied to the FTWR to ensure a realistic and credible design. The standard linear stability model for critical systems was extended for evaluation of the linear stability of sub-critical systems, and the FTWR was shown to be stable to power excursions even when substantial positive fuel and coolant temperature coefficients exist. The reactor design concepts were calculated to remain subcritical for a wide range of off-normal conditions. Fuel cycle analyses were performed to evaluate the impacts of further transmutation of spent nuclear fuel on high-level and low-level waste mass flows into repositories, on the composition and toxicity of the high-level waste, on the capacity of high-level waste repositories, and on the proliferation-resistance of the high-level waste. Storage intact of LWR spent nuclear fuel, a single recycle in a LWR of the plutonium as MOX fuel, and the repeated recycle of the transuranics in critical and sub-critical fast reactors are compared. Sub-critical reactors based on both accelerator and fusion neutron sources were considered. The overall conclusions are that repeated recycling of the transuranics from spent nuclear fuel would significantly increase the capacity of high-level waste repositories per unit of nuclear energy produced, significantly increase the nuclear energy production per unit mass of uranium ore mined, significantly reduce the radio-toxicity of the waste streams per unit of nuclear energy produced, and significantly enhance the proliferation-resistance of the material stored in high-level waste repositories.

  20. Alchemy: Transmuting Base Alloy Specifications into Implementations

    E-print Network

    Krishnamurthi, Shriram

    Alchemy: Transmuting Base Alloy Specifications into Implementations Shriram Krishnamurthi Brown to define lightweight models of systems. We present Alchemy, which compiles Alloy specifi- cations into implementations that execute against persistent databases. Alchemy translates a subset of Alloy predicates

  1. Transmutation: The Roots of the Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpenko, Vladimir

    1995-01-01

    Examines the history of alchemical attempts at transmutation and classifies them by differing approaches and techniques. Traces the development of alchemy in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East, and compares alchemy with craftsmanship. (18 references) (DDR)

  2. The transmutation of silver into gold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George B. Kauffman

    1983-01-01

    Throughout the ages, man has been intrigued by the idea of transmuting base metals into the ‘king of metals’. Stephen H. Emmens,\\u000a a late 19th-century scientist and entrepreneur, living and working in America, claimed to have transmuted silver into gold\\u000a by his socalled Argentaurum process. His work in this area and his exchange of correspondence with the eminent scientist Sir

  3. IAEA activities in the area of partitioning and transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, Alexander

    2006-06-01

    Four major challenges are facing the long-term development of nuclear energy: improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptance. Meeting the sustainability criteria is the driving force behind the topic of this paper. In this context, sustainability has two aspects: natural resources and waste management. IAEA's activities in the area of Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) are mostly in response to the latter. While not involving the large quantities of gaseous products and toxic solid wastes associated with fossil fuels, radioactive waste disposal is today's dominant public acceptance issue. In fact, small waste quantities permit a rigorous confinement strategy, and mined geological disposal is the strategy followed by some countries. Nevertheless, political opposition arguing that this does not yet constitute a safe disposal technology has largely stalled these efforts. One of the primary reasons cited is the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission. This concern has led to increased R&D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount and radio-toxicity of long-lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or sub-critical systems. In the frame of the Project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilization of plutonium and transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste, ADS, and deuterium-tritium plasma-driven sub-critical systems. The paper presents past accomplishments, current status and planned activities of this IAEA project.

  4. Cross section measurements for studies on nuclear transmutation and nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Igashira, Masayuki; Masuda, Koji; Nagai, Yasuki; Kitazawa, Hideo [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron cross section measurements with a new {gamma}-ray detection system have started at the Tokyo Institute of Technology for studies on the nuclear transmutation of long-lived fission product nuclides and transuranic nuclides and on the nucleosynthesis in stars and in the primordial universe. The first results about the capture cross sections and/or capture {gamma}-ray spectra of {sup 1}H, {sup 10,11}B, {sup 19}F, {sup 149}Sm, and {sup 161,162,163}Dy are presented and discussed.

  5. Incentives and recent proposals for partitioning and transmutation in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, T.J.

    1995-05-01

    Partitioning and transmutation (P-T) is perhaps the most elegant means of high level waste disposal. Currently, the cost of fuel obtained from reprocessing spent fuel exceeds the cost of fuel obtained by mining. This has resulted in the once through fuel cycle dominating the US nuclear industry. Despite this fact P-T continues to be examined and debated by the US as well as abroad. The US first seriously considered P-T between approximately 1976 and 1982 but rejected the concept in favor of reprocessing. More recently, since about 1989, as a result of the once through fuel cycle and the growing problems of waste disposal, studies concerning P-T have resumed. This essay will seek to outline the incentives and goals of partitioning and transmutation as it would apply to the disposal of spent fuel in the US. Recent proposals by various US national laboratories for implementing partitioning and transmutation as a high level waste management and disposal device will also be discussed. The review will seek to examine the technical concepts utilized in each of the proposals and their feasibility. The major focus of this essay will be the transmutation methods themselves, while the partitioning methods will be discussed only briefly. This is because of the fact that partitioning methods fall under reprocessing as an already fairly well established and accepted technology while feasible methods for transmutation are still being advanced.

  6. Brief overview of the long-lived radionuclide separation processes developed in france in connection with the SPIN program

    SciTech Connect

    Madic, Charles; Bourges, Jacques; Dozol, Jean-Francois [CEA, Direction du Cycle du Combustible DRDD, CEN-FAR, B. P. No 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); CEA, Direction du Cycle du Combustible DESD, CEN-CAD. Cadarache (France)

    1995-09-15

    To reduce the long-term potential hazards associated with the management of nuclear wastes generated by nuclear fuel reprocessing, one alternative is the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides into short-lived radionuclides by nuclear means (P and T strategy). In this context, according to the law passed by the French Parliament on 30 December 1991, the CEA launched the SPIN program for the design of long-lived radionuclide separation and nuclear incineration processes. The research in progress to define separation processes focused mainly on the minor actinides (neptunium, americium and curium) and some fission products, like cesium and technetium. To separate these long-lived radionuclides, two strategies were developed. The first involves research on new operating conditions for improving the PUREX fuel reprocessing technology. This approach concerns the elements neptunium and technetium (iodine and zirconium can also be considered). The second strategy involves the design of new processes; DIAMEX for the co-extraction of minor actinides from the high-level liquid waste leaving the PUREX process, An(III)/Ln(III) separation using tripyridyltriazine derivatives or picolinamide extracting agents; SESAME for the selective separation of americium after its oxidation to Am(IV) or Am(VI) in the presence of a heteropolytungstate ligand, and Cs extraction using a new class of extracting agents, calixarenes, which exhibit exceptional Cs separation properties, especially in the presence of sodium ion. This lecture focuses on the latest achievements in these research areas.

  7. Brief overview of the long-lived radionuclide separation processes developed in france in connection with the spin program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madic, Charles; Bourges, Jacques; Dozol, Jean-François

    1995-09-01

    To reduce the long-term potential hazards associated with the management of nuclear wastes generated by nuclear fuel reprocessing, one alternative is the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides into short-lived radionuclides by nuclear means (P & T strategy). In this context, according to the law passed by the French Parliament on 30 December 1991, the CEA launched the SPIN program for the design of long-lived radionuclide separation and nuclear incineration processes. The research in progress to define separation processes focused mainly on the minor actinides (neptunium, americium and curium) and some fission products, like cesium and technetium. To separate these long-lived radionuclides, two strategies were developed. The first involves research on new operating conditions for improving the PUREX fuel reprocessing technology. This approach concerns the elements neptunium and technetium (iodine and zirconium can also be considered). The second strategy involves the design of new processes; DIAMEX for the co-extraction of minor actinides from the high-level liquid waste leaving the PUREX process, An(III)/Ln(III) separation using tripyridyltriazine derivatives or picolinamide extracting agents; SESAME for the selective separation of americium after its oxidation to Am(IV) or Am(VI) in the presence of a heteropolytungstate ligand, and Cs extraction using a new class of extracting agents, calixarenes, which exhibit exceptional Cs separation properties, especially in the presence of sodium ion. This lecture focuses on the latest achievements in these research areas.

  8. The physics design of accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Venneri, F.

    1995-02-01

    Nuclear systems under study in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology program (ADTT) will allow the destruction of nuclear spent fuel and weapons-return plutonium, as well as the production of nuclear energy from the thorium cycle, without a long-lived radioactive waste stream. The subcritical systems proposed represent a radical departure from traditional nuclear concepts (reactors), yet the actual implementation of ADTT systems is based on modest extrapolations of existing technology. These systems strive to keep the best that the nuclear technology has developed over the years, within a sensible conservative design envelope and eventually manage to offer a safer, less expensive and more environmentally sound approach to nuclear power.

  9. Transmutation Fuel Performance Code Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory K. Miller; Pavel G. Medvedev

    2007-03-01

    One of the objectives of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is to facilitate the licensing and operation of Advanced Recycle Reactors (ARRs) for transmutation of the transuranic elements (TRU) present in spent fuel. A fuel performance code will be an essential element in the licensing process ensuring that behavior of the transmutation fuel elements in the reactor is understood and predictable. Even more important in the near term, a fuel performance code will assist substantially in the fuels research and development, design, irradiation testing and interpretation of the post-irradiation examination results.

  10. Waste/Rock Interactions Technology Program: the status of radionuclide sorption-desorption studies performed by the WRIT program

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Relyea, J.F.

    1982-04-01

    The most credible means for radionuclides disposed as solid wastes in deep-geologic repositories to reach the biosphere is through dissolution of the solid waste and subsequent radionuclide transport by circulating ground water. Thus safety assessment activities must consider the physicochemical interactions between radionculides present in ground water with package components, rocks and sediments since these processes can significantly delay or constrain the mass transport of radionuclides in comparison to ground-water movement. This paper focuses on interactions between dissolved radiouclides in ground water and rocks and sediments away from the near-field repository. The primary mechanism discussed is adsorption-desorption, which has been studied using two approaches. Empirical studies of adsorption-desorption rely on distribution coefficient measurements while mechanism studies strive to identify, differentiate and quantify the processes that control nuclide retardation.

  11. Quantifying sediment retention by restored wetlands using fallout radionuclide tracer technology (Cs-137 and Be-7): The River Odense, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronvang, Brian; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Taylor, Alex; Blake, William

    2013-04-01

    River restoration projects that allow temporary inundations of the floodplain are important for increasing the water storage potential of the landscape which can decrease flood risk to vulnerable downstream urban areas. During inundation, coarse and fine fluvial sediments are deposited on the floodplain leading to reduced organic matter and nutrient flux downstream. In this context, information on sediment accretion rates by floodplain units is required to inform restoration decisions. Sediment traps are widely used to determine contemporary accretion rates in floodplain units but there are questions about the representativeness and resolution of data. Here, we have tested the application of radionuclide tracer technology (Cs-137 and Be-7) for use in Danish river and floodplain monitoring for longer and shorter term quantification of sediment accretion rates. Prior to the wet season, a network of AstroTurf mats was placed along three transects in the study zone of the Odense floodplain. Suspended sediment traps were installed in the channel and samples were collected during period of floodplain inundation to characterise the FRN activity concentrations in deposited material. Following a series of major inundation events, shallow (3 cm) sediment cores were collected to determine Be-7 inventory relative to a non-inundated reference site. Deeper cores (30 cm) were collected, including a section core, to quantify Cs-137 inventories on the floodplain relative to a reference site. All materials were analysed for particle size and a separation experiment was undertaken to characterise the relationship between particle size and FRN concentration. Cs-137 based accretion rates were in accord with long-term direct monitoring and provided a useful context for the contemporary extreme event data. Comparison of Be-7 based accretion estimates to Astro Turf mat deposition indicated that the Be-7 approach offers to provide high resolution retrospective accretion rate data for contemporary overbank events. The quality of the data, however, is highly sensitive to the particle size correction approach taken. The study illustrates the value of FRN-based techniques but also demonstrates the critical need for careful application of particle size correction procedures based on deposited material at each sampling point representative of the study period and a site-specific FRN-particle size relationship.

  12. Transmutation Fuels Campaign FY-09 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lori Braase

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year 2009 (FY-08) accomplishments for the Transmutation Fuels Campaign (TFC). The emphasis is on the accomplishments and relevance of the work. Detailed description of the methods used to achieve the highlighted results and the associated support tasks are not included in this report.

  13. Nuclear data requirements for accelerator-driven transmutation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P. G.; Wilson, W. B.; Chadwick, M. B.

    1995-09-01

    The possibilities of several new technologies based on use of intense, medium-energy proton accelerators are being investigated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The potential new areas include destruction of long-lived components of nuclear waste, plutonium burning, energy production, and production of tritium. The design, assessment, and safety analysis of potential facilities involves the understanding of complex combinations of nuclear processes, which in turn places new requirements on nuclear data that transcend the traditional needs of the fission and fusion reactor communities. In this paper an assessment of the nuclear data needs for systems currently being considered in the Los Alamos Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies program is given. The importance of developing neutron and proton cross section libraries in the incident particle energy range of 20 MeV to approximately 200 MeV for transport applications is discussed, and new theoretical methods for developing cross section libraries at higher incident neutron and proton energies are summarized.

  14. Review of Transmutation Fuel Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171)

    2008-01-01

    The technology demonstration element of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is aimed at demonstrating the closure of the fuel cycle by destroying the transuranic (TRU) elements separated from spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Multiple recycle through fast reactors is used for burning the TRU initially separated from light-water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel. For the initial technology demonstration, the preferred option to demonstrate the closed fuel cycle destruction of TRU materials is a sodium-cooled fast reactor (FR) used as burner reactor. The sodium-cooled fast reactor represents the most mature sodium reactor technology available today. This report provides a review of the current state of development of fuel systems relevant to the sodium-cooled fast reactor. This report also provides a review of research and development of TRU-metal alloy and TRU-oxide composition fuels. Experiments providing data supporting the understanding of minor actinide (MA)-bearing fuel systems are summarized and referenced.

  15. SCWR Once-Through Calculations for Transmutation and Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    ganda, francesco (090771)

    2012-07-01

    It is the purpose of this report to document the calculation of (1) the isotopic evolution and of (2) the 1-group cross sections as a function of burnup of the reference Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR), in a format suitable for the Fuel Cycle Option Campaign Transmutation Data Library. The reference SCWR design was chosen to be that described in [McDonald, 2005]. Super Critical Water Reactors (SCWR) are intended to operate with super-critical water (i.e. H2O at a pressure above 22 MPa and a temperature above 373oC) as a cooling – and possibly also moderating – fluid. The main mission of the SCWR is to generate lower cost electricity, as compared to current standard Light Water Reactors (LWR). Because of the high operating pressure and temperature, SCWR feature a substantially higher thermal conversion efficiency than standard LWR – i.e. about 45% versus 33%, mostly due to an increase in the exit water temperature from ~300oC to ~500oC – potentially resulting in a lower cost of generated electricity. The coolant remains single phase throughout the reactor and the energy conversion system, thus eliminating the need for pressurizers, steam generators, steam separators and dryers, further potentially reducing the reactor construction capital cost. The SCWR concept presented here is based on existing LWR technology and on a large number of existing fossil-fired supercritical boilers. However, it was concluded in [McDonald, 2005], that: “Based on the results of this study, it appears that the reference SCWR design is not feasible.” This conclusion appears based on the strong sensitivity of the design to small deviations in nominal conditions leading to small effects having a potentially large impact on the peak cladding temperature of some fuel rods. “This was considered a major feasibility issue for the SCWR” [McDonald, 2005]. After a description of the reference SCWR design, the Keno V 3-D single assembly model used for this analysis, as well as the calculated results, are presented. Additionally, the follwing information, presented in the appendixes, is intended to provide enough guidance that a researcher repeating the same task in the future should be able to obtain a vector of nuclei and cross sections ready for insertion into the transmutation library without any need for further instructions: (1) Complete TRITON/KENO-V input used for the analysis; (2) Inputs and detailed description of the usage of the OPUS utility, used to postproces and to extract the nuclei concentrations for the transmutation library; (3) Inputs and detailed description of the usage of the XSECLIST utility, used to postproces and to extract the 1-group cross sections for the transmutation library; (4) Details of an ad-hoc utility program developed to sort the nuclei and cross sections for the transmutation library.

  16. Sphere-Pac Evaluation for Transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Icenhour, A.S.

    2005-05-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is sponsoring a project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with the objective of conducting the research and development necessary to evaluate the use of sphere-pac transmutation fuel. Sphere-pac fuels were studied extensively in the 1960s and 1970s. More recently, this fuel form is being studied internationally as a potential plutonium-burning fuel. For transmutation fuel, sphere-pac fuels have potential advantages over traditional pellet-type fuels. This report provides a review of development efforts related to the preparation of sphere-pac fuels and their irradiation tests. Based on the results of these tests, comparisons with pellet-type fuels are summarized, the advantages and disadvantages of using sphere-pac fuels are highlighted, and sphere-pac options for the AFCI are recommended. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory development activities are also outlined.

  17. Energy transmutation in nonequilibrium quantum systems

    E-print Network

    Mihail Mintchev; Luca Santoni; Paul Sorba

    2014-12-19

    We investigate the particle and heat transport in quantum junctions with the geometry of star graphs. The system is in a nonequilibrium steady state, characterized by the different temperatures and chemical potentials of the heat reservoirs connected to the edges of the graph. We explore the Landauer-Buettiker state and its orbit under parity and time reversal transformations. Both particle number and total energy are conserved in these states. However the heat and chemical potential energy are in general not separately conserved, which gives origin to a basic process of energy transmutation among them. We study both directions of this process in detail, introducing appropriate efficiency coefficients. For scale invariant interactions in the junction our results are exact and explicit. They cover the whole parameter space and take into account all nonlinear effects. The energy transmutation depends on the particle statistics.

  18. Energy transmutation in nonequilibrium quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintchev, Mihail; Santoni, Luca; Sorba, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We investigate particle and heat transport in quantum junctions with the geometry of star graphs. The system is in a non-equilibrium steady state, characterized by the different temperatures and chemical potentials of the heat reservoirs connected to the edges of the graph. We explore the Landauer–Büttiker state and its orbit under parity and time reversal transformations. Both particle number and total energy are conserved in these states. However, the heat and chemical potential energy are in general not separately conserved, which gives origin to a basic process of energy transmutation among them. We study both directions of this process in detail, introducing appropriate efficiency coefficients. For scale invariant interactions in the junction our results are exact and explicit. They cover the whole parameter space and take into account all nonlinear effects. The energy transmutation depends on the particle statistics.

  19. On the use of a molten salt fast reactor to apply an idealized transmutation scenario for the nuclear phase out.

    PubMed

    Merk, Bruno; Rohde, Ulrich; Glivici-Cotru??, Varvara; Litskevich, Dzianis; Scholl, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In the view of transmutation of transuranium (TRU) elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs) offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the research challenges are analyzed. In the second part cycle studies for the MSFR are given for different configurations--a core with U-238 fertile, a fertile free core, and a core with Th-232 as fertile material. For all cases, the transmutation potential is determined and efficient transmutation performance for the case with thorium as a fertile material as well as for the fertile free case is demonstrated and the individual advantages are discussed. The time evolution of different important isotopes is analyzed. In the third part a strategy for the optimization of the transmutation efficiency is developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus on the determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover is achieved by a two step procedure of a first transmuter operation phase followed by a second deep burning phase. There the U-233, which is bred in the blanket of the core consisting of thorium containing salt, is used as feed. It is demonstrated, that transmutation rates up to more than 90% can be achieved for all transuranium isotopes, while the production of undesired high elements like californium is very limited. Additionally, the adaptations needed for the simulation of a MSFR, and the used tool HELIOS 1.10 is described. PMID:24690768

  20. On the Use of a Molten Salt Fast Reactor to Apply an Idealized Transmutation Scenario for the Nuclear Phase Out

    PubMed Central

    Merk, Bruno; Rohde, Ulrich; Glivici-Cotru??, Varvara; Litskevich, Dzianis; Scholl, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    In the view of transmutation of transuranium (TRU) elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs) offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the research challenges are analyzed. In the second part cycle studies for the MSFR are given for different configurations – a core with U-238 fertile, a fertile free core, and a core with Th-232 as fertile material. For all cases, the transmutation potential is determined and efficient transmutation performance for the case with thorium as a fertile material as well as for the fertile free case is demonstrated and the individual advantages are discussed. The time evolution of different important isotopes is analyzed. In the third part a strategy for the optimization of the transmutation efficiency is developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus on the determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover is achieved by a two step procedure of a first transmuter operation phase followed by a second deep burning phase. There the U-233, which is bred in the blanket of the core consisting of thorium containing salt, is used as feed. It is demonstrated, that transmutation rates up to more than 90% can be achieved for all transuranium isotopes, while the production of undesired high elements like californium is very limited. Additionally, the adaptations needed for the simulation of a MSFR, and the used tool HELIOS 1.10 is described. PMID:24690768

  1. The dd Cold Fusion-Transmutation Connection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talbot A. Chubb

    LENR theory must explain dd fusion, alpha-addition transmutations, radiationless nuclear reactions, and 3-body nuclear particle reactions. Reaction without radiation requires many-body D+Bloch periodicity in both location and internal structure dependencies. Electron scattering leads to mixed quantum states. The radiationless dd fusion reaction is 2-D+Bloch ? 4He++Bloch. Overlap between 4He++Bloch and surface Cs leads to alpha absorption. In the Iwamura et

  2. Heterogeneous sodium fast reactor designed for transmuting minor actinide waste isotopes into plutonium fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bays, Samuel Eugene

    2008-10-01

    In the past several years there has been a renewed interest in sodium fast reactor (SFR) technology for the purpose of destroying transuranic waste (TRU) produced by light water reactors (LWR). The utility of SFRs as waste burners is due to the fact that higher neutron energies allow all of the actinides, including the minor actinides (MA), to contribute to fission. It is well understood that many of the design issues of LWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal in a geologic repository are linked to MAs. Because the probability of fission for essentially all the "non-fissile" MAs is nearly zero at low neutron energies, these isotopes act as a neutron capture sink in most thermal reactor systems. Furthermore, because most of the isotopes produced by these capture reactions are also non-fissile, they too are neutron sinks in most thermal reactor systems. Conversely, with high neutron energies, the MAs can produce neutrons by fast fission. Additionally, capture reactions transmute the MAs into mostly plutonium isotopes, which can fission more readily at any energy. The transmutation of non-fissile into fissile atoms is the premise of the plutonium breeder reactor. In a breeder reactor, not only does the non-fissile "fertile" U-238 atom contribute fast fission neutrons, but also transmutes into fissile Pu-239. The fissile value of the plutonium produced by MA transmutation can only be realized in fast neutron spectra. This is due to the fact that the predominate isotope produced by MA transmutation, Pu-238, is itself not fissile. However, the Pu-238 fission cross section is significantly larger than the original transmutation parent, predominately: Np-237 and Am-241, in the fast energy range. Also, Pu-238's fission cross section and fission-to-capture ratio is almost as high as that of fissile Pu-239 in the fast neutron spectrum. It is also important to note that a neutron absorption in Pu-238, that does not cause fission, will instead produce fissile Pu-239. Given this fast fissile quality and also the fact that Pu-238 is transmuted from Np-237 and Am-241, these MAs are regarded as fertile material in the SFR design proposed by this dissertation. This dissertation demonstrates a SFR design which is dedicated to plutonium breeding by targeting Am-241 transmutation. This SFR design uses a moderated axial transmutation target that functions primarily as a pseudo-blanket fuel, which is reprocessed with the active driver fuel in an integrated recycling strategy. This work demonstrates the cost and feasibility advantages of plutonium breeding via MA transmutation by adopting reactor, reprocessing and fuel technologies previously demonstrated for traditional breeder reactors. The fuel cycle proposed seeks to find a harmony between the waste management advantages of transuranic burning SFRs and the resource sustainability of traditional plutonium breeder SFRs. As a result, the enhanced plutonium conversion from MAs decreases the burner SFR's fuel costs, by extracting more fissile value from the initial TRU purchased through SNF reprocessing.

  3. II. Inhibited Diffusion Driven Surface Transmutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    2006-02-01

    This paper is the second of a set of three papers dealing with the role of coherent partitioning as a common element in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR), by which is meant cold-fusion related processes. This paper discusses the first step in a sequence of four steps that seem to be necessary to explain Iwamura 2-?-addition surface transmutations. Three concepts are examined: salt-metal interface states, sequential tunneling that transitions D+ ions from localized interstitial to Bloch form, and the general applicability of 2-dimensional vs. 3-dimensional symmetry hosting networks.

  4. The DD Cold Fusion-Transmutation Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    2005-12-01

    LENR theory must explain dd fusion, alpha-addition transmutations, radiationless nuclear reactions, and three-body nuclear particle reactions. Reaction without radiation requires many-body D Bloch+ periodicity in both location and internal structure dependencies. Electron scattering leads to mixed quantum states. The radiationless dd fusion reaction is 2-D Bloch+ -> {}4 He Bloch2+. Overlap between {}4 He Bloch2+ and surface Cs leads to alpha absorption. In the Iwamura et al. studies active deuterium is created by scattering at diffusion barriers.

  5. Radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation within advanced fuel cycles: Achievements and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvatores, M.; Palmiotti, G.

    2011-01-01

    If nuclear power becomes a sustainable source of energy, a safe, robust, and acceptable solution must be pursued for existing and projected inventories of high-activity, long-lived radioactive waste. Remarkable progress in the field of geological disposal has been made in the last two decades. Some countries have reached important milestones, and geological disposal (of spent fuel) is expected to start in 2020 in Finland and in 2022 in Sweden. In fact, the licensing of the geological repositories in both countries is now entering into its final phase. In France, disposal of intermediate-level waste (ILW) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is expected to start around 2025, according to the roadmap defined by an Act of Parliament in 2006. In this context, transmutation of part of the waste through use of advanced fuel cycles, probably feasible in the coming decades, can reduce the burden on the geological repository. This article presents the physical principle of transmutation and reviews several strategies of partitioning and transmutation (P&T). Many recent studies have demonstrated that the impact of P&T on geological disposal concepts is not overwhelmingly high. However, by reducing waste heat production, a more efficient utilization of repository space is likely. Moreover, even if radionuclide release from the waste to the environment and related calculated doses to the population are only partially reduced by P&T, it is important to point out that a clear reduction of the actinide inventory in the HLW definitely reduces risks arising from less probable evolutions of a repository (i.e., an increase of actinide mobility in certain geochemical situations and radiological impact by human intrusion).

  6. Radioactive Waste Partitioning and Transmutation within Advanced Fuel Cycles: Achievements and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salvatores; G. Palmiotti

    2011-01-01

    If nuclear power should become a sustainable source of energy, a safe, robust and acceptable solution must be pursued for existing and projected inventories of high-activity, long-lived radioactive waste. Remarkable progress in the last two decades has been made in the field of geological disposal. Some countries have reached important milestones and geological disposal (of spent fuel) is expected to start in 2020 in Finland and in 2022 in Sweden and in fact the licensing of the geological repositories in both countries is now entering into their final phases. In France disposal of Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) and vitrified High Level Wastes (HLW) is expected to start around 2025, according to the roadmap defined by a Parliament Act in 2006. In this context, transmutation of part of the waste through use of advanced fuel cycles, probably feasible in the coming decades, has the potential of reducing the burden on the geological repository. This article presents the physical principle of transmutation and reviews several strategies of P&T (Partitioning and Transmutation). Many recent studies have demonstrated that the impact of P&T on geological disposal concepts is not overwhelmingly high. However, by reducing waste heat production a more efficient utilization of repository space is likely. Moreover, even if radionuclide release from the waste to the environment and related calculated doses to the population are only partially reduced by P&T, it is important to point out that a clear reduction of the actinide inventory in the High Level Waste definitely reduces risks arising from less probable evolutions of a repository, i.e. increase of actinide mobility in certain geochemical situations and radiological impact by human intrusion.

  7. Capabilities of a DT tokamak fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Stacey

    2001-01-01

    The capabilities of a DT fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor are characterized by identifying limits on transmutation rates that would be imposed by tokamak physics and engineering limitations on fusion neutron source performance. The need for spent nuclear fuel transmutation and the need for a neutron source to drive subcritical fission transmutation reactors are

  8. A Los Alamos concept for accelerator transmutation of waste and energy production (ATW)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This document contains the diagrams presented at the ATW (Accelerator Transmutation of Waste and Energy Production) External Review, December 10-12, 1990, held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Included are the charge to the committee and the presentations for the committee`s review. Topics of the presentations included an overview of the concept, LINAC technology, near-term application -- high-level defense wastes (intense thermal neutron source, chemistry and materials), advanced application of the ATW concept -- fission energy without a high-level waste stream (overview, advanced technology, and advanced chemistry), and a summary of the research issues.

  9. Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

  10. Overall assessment of actinide partitioning and transmutation for waste management purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Blomeke, J.O.; Croff, A.G.; Finney, B.C.; Tedder, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A program to establish the technical feasibility and incentives for partitioning (i.e., recovering) actinides from fuel cycle wastes and then transmuting them in power reactors to shorter-lived or stable nuclides has recently been concluded at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The feasibility was established by experimentally investigating the reduction that can be practicably achieved in the actinide content of the wastes sent to a geologic repository, and the incentives for implementing this concept were defined by determining the incremental costs, risks, and benefits. Eight US Department of Energy laboratories and three private companies participated in the program over its 3-year duration. A reference fuel cycle was chosen based on a self-generated plutonium recycle PWR, and chemical flowsheets based on solvent extraction and ion-exchange techniques were generated that have the potential to reduce actinides in fuel fabrication and reprocessing plant wastes to less than 0.25% of those in the spent fuel. Waste treatment facilities utilizing these flowsheets were designed conceptually, and their costs were estimated. Finally, the short-term (contemporary) risks from fuel cycle operations and long-term (future) risks from deep geologic disposal of the wastes were estimated for cases with and without partitioning and transmutation. It was concluded that, while both actinide partitioning from wastes and transmutation in power reactors appear to be feasible using currently identified and studied technology, implementation of this concept cannot be justified because of the small long-term benefits and substantially increased costs of the concept.

  11. Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux

    DOEpatents

    Bowman, C.D.

    1992-11-03

    Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

  12. Infrared absorption study of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, I. S.; Haller, E. E.

    1988-01-01

    Using high-resolution far-infrared Fourier transform absorption spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements, the evolution of the shallow acceptor and donor impurity levels in germanium during and after the neutron transmutation doping process was studied. The results show unambiguously that the gallium acceptor level concentration equals the concentration of transmutated Ge-70 atoms during the whole process indicating that neither recoil during transmutation nor gallium-defect complex formation play significant roles. The arsenic donor levels appear at full concentration only after annealing for 1 h at 450 C. It is shown that this is due to donor-radiation-defect complex formation. Again, recoil does not play a significant role.

  13. Critique of rationale for transmutation of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    It has been suggested that nuclear transmutation could be used in the elimination or reduction of hazards from radioactive wastes. The rationale for this suggestion is the subject of this paper. The objectives of partitioning-transmutation are described. The benefits are evaluated. The author concludes that transmutation would appear at best to offer the opportunity of reducing an already low risk. This would not seem to be justifiable considering the cost. If non-radiological risks are considered, there is a negative total benefit. (DC)

  14. Electron linac based mixed-field transmutation of 129I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamtimin, Mayir; Harmon, Frank; Starovoitova, Valeriia

    2015-02-01

    The goal of this work was to determine the feasibility of using electron linacs for transmutation of selective long-lived fission products (LLFPs), particularly 129I. We have designed a converter system that produces both photons and neutrons, thus creating a mixed radiation field. The strength of the field depends on electron beam energy and current, as well as the converter material and geometry. The converter was optimized to maximize transmutation rate of 129I via two channels: 129I(?,n)128I and 129I(n,?)130I. The optimum electron beam energy was found to be around 100 MeV. Computer simulations were benchmarked by experimental data on 133Cs (129I surrogate) photon-induced and neutron-induced transmutation rates. While further optimization of the system is necessary, we have demonstrated that accelerator-driven photonuclear reactions can be practical for 129I transmutation.

  15. Accelerator Production of Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlyer, David J.; Ruth, Thomas J.

    2012-06-01

    While many radioactive isotopes in use today are found in nature, many more are artificially produced by irradiating target materials with nuclear particles. Two different technologies can provide the energetic particles needed: nuclear reactors, which produce a flux of neutrons, and particle accelerators, which produce a flux of charged particles. This chapter will deal with the important aspects of the production of radionuclides with accelerators, along with some details on their applications, commercially-available accelerator systems used for this purpose, and the size of the equipment business.

  16. Neutron transmutation doping of GaP: optical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijmink Liesert, B. J.; Godlewski, M.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Ammerlaan, C. A. J.

    1991-06-01

    An unambiguous proof for successful neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of GaP is presented on the basis of optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR). GaP:S samples grown by the liquid encapsulated Czochralski method were irradiated with thermal neutrons and subsequently annealed at 800°C. In the ODMR experiments the transmuted Ge substitutional on Ga sites was detected. The NTD process was also found to create deep acceptors, the nature of which will be tentatively discussed.

  17. Long-lived fission product transmutation in nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ganev, I.K.; Lopatkin, A.V.; Naumov, V.V.; Reshetov, V.A.

    1993-12-31

    One of the main directions in the management of high-level radioactive wastes is the development of specialized reactors for transmutation with maximum support coefficients for the existing power reactor. The developments have shown that it is more expetitious to design the reactor for actinide transmutation and for fission products separately. For the above purposes, the FBR type fast neutron reactor and FMF type fast reactor with melted fuel were considered.

  18. Radiation Effects on the Sorption and Mobilization of Radionuclide during Transport through the Geosphere

    SciTech Connect

    L.M. Wang; R.C. Eqing; K.F. Hayes

    2004-03-14

    Site restoration activities at DOE facilities and the permanent disposal of nuclear waste inevitably involve understanding the behavior of materials in a radiation field. Radionuclide decay and the associated radiation fields lead to physical and chemical changes that can degrade or enhance important material properties. Alpha-decay of the actinide elements and beta-decay of the fission products lead to atomic-scale changes in materials (radiation damage and transmutation).

  19. Dual neutral particle induced transmutation in CINDER2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, W. J.; de Oliveira, C. R. E.; Hecht, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Although nuclear transmutation methods for fission have existed for decades, the focus has been on neutron-induced reactions. Recent novel concepts have sought to use both neutrons and photons for purposes such as active interrogation of cargo to detect the smuggling of highly enriched uranium, a concept that would require modeling the transmutation caused by both incident particles. As photonuclear transmutation has yet to be modeled alongside neutron-induced transmutation in a production code, new methods need to be developed. The CINDER2008 nuclear transmutation code from Los Alamos National Laboratory is extended from neutron applications to dual neutral particle applications, allowing both neutron- and photon-induced reactions for this modeling with a focus on fission. Following standard reaction modeling, the induced fission reaction is understood as a two-part reaction, with an entrance channel to the excited compound nucleus, and an exit channel from the excited compound nucleus to the fission fragmentation. Because photofission yield data-the exit channel from the compound nucleus-are sparse, neutron fission yield data are used in this work. With a different compound nucleus and excitation, the translation to the excited compound state is modified, as appropriate. A verification and validation of these methods and data has been performed. This has shown that the translation of neutron-induced fission product yield sets, and their use in photonuclear applications, is appropriate, and that the code has been extended correctly.

  20. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F.

    2008-01-01

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT?CT and PET?CT scanners. PMID:18697529

  1. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F. [Radiology Division, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010 (United States); Internal Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, 1508 Alhambra Boulevard, Suite 3100, Sacramento, California 95816 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wallace Tumor Institute WTI No. 117, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners.

  2. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    E-print Network

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  3. Accelerator-driven transmutation of high-level waste from the defense and commercial sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.; Arthur, E.; Beard, C. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The major goal has been to develop accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system designs that will thoroughly and rapidly transmute nuclear waste, including plutonium from dismantled weapons and spent reactor fuel, while generating useful electrical power and without producing a long-lived radioactive waste stream. We have identified and quantified the unique qualities of subcritical nuclear systems and their capabilities in bringing about the complete destruction of plutonium. Although the 1191 subcritical systems involved in our most effective designs radically depart from traditional nuclear reactor concepts, they are based on extrapolations of existing technologies. Overall, care was taken to retain the highly desired features that nuclear technology has developed over the years within a conservative design envelope. We believe that the ATW systems designed in this project will enable almost complete destruction of nuclear waste (conversion to stable species) at a faster rate and without many of the safety concerns associated with the possible reactor approaches.

  4. Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides

    E-print Network

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

    2006-08-04

    Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

  5. Preliminary assessment of partitioning and transmutation as a radioactive waste management concept

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, A. G.; Tedder, D. W.; Drago, J. P.; Blomeke, J. O.; Perona, J. J.

    1977-09-01

    Partitioning (separating) the actinide elements from nuclear fuel cycle wastes and transmuting (burning) them to fission products in power reactors represents a potentially advanced concept of radioactive waste management which could reduce the long-term (greater than 1000 years) risk associated with geologic isolation of wastes. The greatest uncertainties lie in the chemical separations technology needed to recover greater than 99 percent of the actinides during the reprocessing of spent fuels and their refabrication as fresh fuels or target elements. Preliminary integrated flowsheets based on modifications of the Purex process and supplementary treatment by oxalate precipitation and ion exchange indicate that losses of plutonium in reprocessing wastes might be reduced from about 2.0 percent to 0.1 percent, uranium losses from about 1.7 percent to 0.1 percent, neptunium losses from 100 percent to about 1.2 percent, and americium and curium from 100 percent to about 0.5 percent. Mixed oxide fuel fabrication losses may be reduced from about 0.5 percent to 0.06 percent for plutonium and from 0.5 percent to 0.04 percent for uranium. Americium losses would be about 5.5 percent for the reference system. Transmutation of the partitioned actinides at a rate of 5 to 7 percent per year is feasible in both fast and thermal reactors, but additional studies are needed to determine the most suitable strategy for recycling them to reactors and to assess the major impacts of implementing the concept on fuel cycle operations and costs. It is recommended that the ongoing program to evaluate the feasibility, impacts, costs, and incentives of implementing partitioning-transmutation be continued until a firm assessment of its potentialities can be made. At the present level of effort, achievement of this objective should be possible by 1980. 27 tables, 50 figures.

  6. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA); McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  7. Subsurface Characterization To Support Evaluation Of Radionuclide Transport And Attenuation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

  8. Monitored Natural Attenuation For Radionuclides In Ground Water - Technical Issues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attentuation) within the subsurface. In gen...

  9. Application of gaseous core reactors for transmutation of nuclear waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnitzler, B. G.; Paternoster, R. R.; Schneider, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    An acceptable management scheme for high-level radioactive waste is vital to the nuclear industry. The hazard potential of the trans-uranic actinides and of key fission products is high due to their nuclear activity and/or chemical toxicity. Of particular concern are the very long-lived nuclides whose hazard potential remains high for hundreds of thousands of years. Neutron induced transmutation offers a promising technique for the treatment of problem wastes. Transmutation is unique as a waste management scheme in that it offers the potential for "destruction" of the hazardous nuclides by conversion to non-hazardous or more manageable nuclides. The transmutation potential of a thermal spectrum uranium hexafluoride fueled cavity reactor was examined. Initial studies focused on a heavy water moderated cavity reactor fueled with 5% enriched U-235-F6 and operating with an average thermal flux of 6 times 10 to the 14th power neutrons/sq cm-sec. The isotopes considered for transmutation were I-129, Am-241, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, and Cm-246.

  10. Analysis of the Gas Core Actinide Transmutation Reactor (GCATR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    Design power plant studies were carried out for two applications of the plasma core reactor: (1) As a breeder reactor, (2) As a reactor able to transmute actinides effectively. In addition to the above applications the reactor produced electrical power with a high efficiency. A reactor subsystem was designed for each of the two applications. For the breeder reactor, neutronics calculations were carried out for a U-233 plasma core with a molten salt breeding blanket. A reactor was designed with a low critical mass (less than a few hundred kilograms U-233) and a breeding ratio of 1.01. The plasma core actinide transmutation reactor was designed to transmute the nuclear waste from conventional LWR's. The spent fuel is reprocessed during which 100% of Np, Am, Cm, and higher actinides are separated from the other components. These actinides are then manufactured as oxides into zirconium clad fuel rods and charged as fuel assemblies in the reflector region of the plasma core actinide transmutation reactor. In the equilibrium cycle, about 7% of the actinides are directly fissioned away, while about 31% are removed by reprocessing.

  11. Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei

    DOEpatents

    Maenchen, J.E.; Ruiz, C.L.

    1998-12-08

    Insuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to medicine and industry. This invention addresses this problem, and helps to solve it by introducing a new apparatus for transmutation of isotopes which enables swift and flexible production on demand. 9 figs.

  12. Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei

    DOEpatents

    Maenchen, J.E.; Ruiz, C.L.

    1998-06-09

    Insuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to medicine and industry. This invention addresses this problem, and helps to solve it by introducing a new apparatus for transmutation of isotopes which enables swift and flexible production on demand. 9 figs.

  13. Accelerator-driven transmutation of spent fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Venneri, Francesco (Los Alamos, NM); Williamson, Mark A. (Los Alamos, NM); Li, Ning (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Uranium may also be enriched, thereby providing new fuel for use in conventional nuclear power plants. An accelerator provides the additional neutrons required to perform the processes. The size of the accelerator needed to complete fuel cycle closure depends on the neutron efficiency of the supported reactors and on the neutron spectrum of the actinide transmutation apparatus. Treatment of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs) using uranium-based fuel will require the largest accelerator power, whereas neutron-efficient high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) or CANDU reactors will require the smallest accelerator power, especially if thorium is introduced into the newly generated fuel according to the teachings of the present invention. Fast spectrum actinide transmutation apparatus (based on liquid-metal fuel) will take full advantage of the accelerator-produced source neutrons and provide maximum utilization of the actinide-generated fission neutrons. However, near-thermal transmutation apparatus will require lower standing

  14. Characterization of nuclear transmutations in materials irradiated test facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents a comparison of nuclear transmutation rates for candidate fusion first wall/blanket structural materials in available, fission test reactors with those produced in a typical fusion spectrum. The materials analyzed in this study include a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti), a reduced activation martensitic steel (Fe-9Cr-2WVTa), a high conductivity copper alloy (Cu-Cr-Zr), and the SiC compound. The fission irradiation facilities considered include the EBR-II fast reactor, and two high flux mixed spectrum reactors, HFIR (High Flux Irradiation Reactor) and SM-3 (Russian reactor). The transmutation and dpa rates that occur in these test reactors are compared with the calculated transmutation and dpa rates characteristic of a D-T fusion first wall spectrum. In general, past work has shown that the displacement damage produced in these fission reactors can be correlated to displacement damage in a fusion spectrum; however, the generation of helium and hydrogen through threshold reactions [(n,x,{alpha}) and (n,xp)] are much higher in a fusion spectrum. As shown in this study, the compositional changes for several candidate structural materials exposed to a fast fission reactor spectrum are very low, similar to those for a characteristic fusion spectrum. However, the relatively high thermalized spectrum of a mixed spectrum reactor produces transmutation rates quite different from the ones predicted for a fusion reactor, resulting in substantial differences in the final composition of several candidate alloys after relatively short irradiation time.

  15. DETERMINATION OF TRANSMUTATION EFFECTS IN CRYSTALLINE WASTE FORMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to characterize the effects of transmutation in a candidate waste form for 137Cs by investigating samples of a cesium aluminosilicate mineral, pollucite, that have undergone "natural" decay of the Cs under ambient temperature while isolated from int...

  16. Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei

    DOEpatents

    Maenchen, John Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Ruiz, Carlos Leon (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Insuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to medicine and industry. This invention addresses this problem, and helps to solve it by introducing a new apparatus for transmutation of isotopes which enables swift and flexible production on demand.

  17. Fusion transmutation of waste: design and analysis of the in-zinerator concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, S. M.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Guild-Bingham, Avery (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Venneri, Francesco (General Atomics, San Diego, CA); Meier, Wayne (LLNL, Livermore, CA); Alajo, A.B. (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Johnson, T. R. (Argonne Mational Laboratory, Argonne, IL); El-Guebaly, L. A. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Youssef, M. E. (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Young, Michael F.; Drennen, Thomas E. (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Morrow, Charles W.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Wilson, Paul (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Grady, Ryan (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Keith, Rodney L.; Smith, James Dean; Cook, Jason T.; Sviatoslavsky, Igor N. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Willit, J. L. (Argonne Mational Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cleary, Virginia D.; Kamery, William (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene

    2006-11-01

    Due to increasing concerns over the buildup of long-lived transuranic isotopes in spent nuclear fuel waste, attention has been given in recent years to technologies that can burn up these species. The separation and transmutation of transuranics is part of a solution to decreasing the volume and heat load of nuclear waste significantly to increase the repository capacity. A fusion neutron source can be used for transmutation as an alternative to fast reactor systems. Sandia National Laboratories is investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver for this application. This report summarizes the initial design and engineering issues of this ''In-Zinerator'' concept. Relatively modest fusion requirements on the order of 20 MW can be used to drive a sub-critical, actinide-bearing, fluid blanket. The fluid fuel eliminates the need for expensive fuel fabrication and allows for continuous refueling and removal of fission products. This reactor has the capability of burning up 1,280 kg of actinides per year while at the same time producing 3,000 MWth. The report discusses the baseline design, engineering issues, modeling results, safety issues, and fuel cycle impact.

  18. Radionuclide Ventriculography or Radionuclide Angiography (MUGA Scan)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... radioactive tracer (called a radionuclide) and a special camera to take pictures of your heart as it ... test is called “multi-gated” because a gamma camera takes pictures at specific times during each heartbeat. ...

  19. (226)Ra measurement by LSC as a tool to assess the efficiency of a water treatment technology for removing radionuclides from groundwater.

    PubMed

    Suursoo, Siiri; Kiisk, Madis; Al-Malahmeh, Amer; Jantsikene, Alar; Putk, Kaisa; Lumiste, Liie

    2014-11-01

    A simple (226)Ra analysis procedure by LSC with an extractive scintillator was tested for evaluating the long-term radionuclides removal efficiency of a water treatment facility at Viimsi, Estonia. During the 14 months of operation, total radium removal efficiency of the treatment process has stayed over 90%, but the removal efficiencies of the different purification steps have varied notably. This demonstrates the need for routine monitoring of radium content in the water treatment plant. PMID:24593925

  20. Development of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometer material

    SciTech Connect

    Palaio, N.P.

    1983-08-01

    The behavior of lattice defects generated as a result of the neutron-transmutation-doping of germanium was studied as a function of annealing conditions using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and mobility measurements. DLTS and variable temperature Hall effect were also used to measure the activation of dopant impurities formed during the transmutation process. In additioon, a semi-automated method of attaching wires on to small chips of germanium (< 1 mm/sup 3/) for the fabrication of infrared detecting bolometers was developed. Finally, several different types of junction field effect transistors were tested for noise at room and low temperature (approx. 80 K) in order to find the optimum device available for first stage electronics in the bolometer signal amplification circuit.

  1. Cyclic Mode of Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Heavy-Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimov, Aleksander S.; Kiselev, Gennady V.; Myrtsymova, Lidia A.; Zaritskaya, Tamara S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, SSC RF ITEP, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya, 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Characteristics of process of transmutation of americium and curium from spent nuclear fuel in heavy-water reactor during first 10 lifetimes and at transition to equilibrium mode are calculated. During transmutation, dangerous nuclides, first of all, {sup 244}Cm and {sup 238}Pu are accumulated. They cause an increase of radiotoxicity. At first 10 cycles of a transmutation, the radiotoxicity is increased by 11 times in comparison with initial load of transmuted actinides. Heavy-water reactor with thermal power of 1000 MW can transmute americium and curium extracted from 7-8 VVER-1000 type reactors. It means that the required power of transmutation reactor makes about 4 % of thermal power of VVER-1000 type reactors. (authors)

  2. Transmutation of nuclear waste with a low-aspect-ratio tokamak neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Bong Guen; Moon, Se Youn

    2014-10-01

    The transmutation characteristics of transuranics (TRUs) in a transmutation reactor based on a LAR (Low-aspect-ratio) tokamak as a neutron source are investigated. The optimum radial build of a transmutation reactor is found by using a coupled analysis of the tokamak systems and the neutron transport. The dependences of the transmutation characteristics on the aspect ratio A in the range of 1.5 to 2.5 and on the fusion power in the range of 150 to 500 MW are investigated. An equilibrium fuel cycle is developed for effective transmutation, and show that with one unit of the transmutation reactor based on the LAR tokamak producing fusion power in the range of a few hundred MWs, up to 3 PWRs (1.0 GWe capacity) can be supported with a burn-up fraction larger than 50%.

  3. Biological Nuclear Transmutations as a Source of Biophotons

    E-print Network

    A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; S. Sivasubramanian

    2011-02-20

    Soft multi-photon radiation from hard higher energy reaction sources can be employed to describe three major well established properties of biophoton radiation; Namely, (i) the mild radiation intensity decreases for higher frequencies, (ii) the coherent state Poisson counting statistics, and (iii) the time delayed luminescence with a hyperbolic time tail. Since the soft photon frequencies span the visible to the ultraviolet frequency range, the hard reaction sources have energies extending into the nuclear transmutation regime.

  4. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. I. Overall assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, A.G.; Blomeke, J.O.; Finney, B.C.

    1980-06-01

    This report is concerned with an overall assessment of the feasibility of and incentives for partitioning (recovering) long-lived nuclides from fuel reprocessing and fuel refabrication plant radioactive wastes and transmuting them to shorter-lived or stable nuclides by neutron irradiation. The principal class of nuclides considered is the actinides, although a brief analysis is given of the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I. The results obtained in this program permit us to make a comparison of the impacts of waste management with and without actinide recovery and transmutation. Three major conclusions concerning technical feasibility can be drawn from the assessment: (1) actinide P-T is feasible, subject to the acceptability of fuels containing recycle actinides; (2) technetium P-T is feasible if satisfactory partitioning processes can be developed and satisfactory fuels identified (no studies have been made in this area); and (3) iodine P-T is marginally feasible at best because of the low transmutation rates, the high volatility, and the corrosiveness of iodine and iodine compounds. It was concluded on the basis of a very conservative repository risk analysis that there are no safety or cost incentives for actinide P-T. In fact, if nonradiological risks are included, the short-term risks of P-T exceed the long-term benefits integrated over a period of 1 million years. Incentives for technetium and iodine P-T exist only if extremely conservative long-term risk analyses are used. Further RD and D in support of P-T is not warranted.

  5. Some basic advantages of accelerator-driven transmutation of minor actinides and iodine-129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Apse, V. A.; Kulikov, G. G.

    1995-09-01

    The blanket of accelerator-driven facility designed for I-129 transmutation doesn't contain fissile and fertile materials. So the overheating of iodine compounds transmuted is practically excluded. The efficacy of I-129 transmutation is estimated. Curium being accumulated in nuclear reactors can be incinerated in blanket of accelerator-driven facility. The deep depletion of curium diluted with inert material can be achieved.

  6. Multiple Tier Fuel Cycle Studies for Waste Transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.N.; Taiwo, T.A.; Stillman, J.A.; Graziano, D.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bennett, D.R.; Trellue, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Todosow, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, P.O. Box 5000 Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Halsey, W.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Baxter, A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2002-07-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Accelerator Applications Program, a systems study was conducted to evaluate the transmutation performance of advanced fuel cycle strategies. Three primary fuel cycle strategies were evaluated: dual-tier systems with plutonium separation, dual-tier systems without plutonium separation, and single-tier systems without plutonium separation. For each case, the system mass flow and TRU consumption were evaluated in detail. Furthermore, the loss of materials in fuel processing was tracked including the generation of new waste streams. Based on these results, the system performance was evaluated with respect to several key transmutation parameters including TRU inventory reduction, radiotoxicity, and support ratio. The importance of clean fuel processing ({approx}0.1% losses) and inclusion of a final tier fast spectrum system are demonstrated. With these two features, all scenarios capably reduce the TRU and plutonium waste content, significantly reducing the radiotoxicity; however, a significant infrastructure (at least 1/10 the total nuclear capacity) is required for the dedicated transmutation system. (authors)

  7. Multiple tier fuel cycle studies for waste transmutation.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.N.; Taiwo, T.A.; Stillman, J.A.; Graziano, D.J.; Bennett, D.R.; Trellue, H.; Todosow, M.; Halsey, W.G.; Baxter, A.

    2002-03-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Accelerator Applications Program, a systems study was conducted to evaluate the transmutation performance of advanced fuel cycle strategies. Three primary fuel cycle strategies were evaluated: dual-tier systems with plutonium separation, dual-tier systems without plutonium separation, and single-tier systems without plutonium separation. For each case, the system mass flow and TRU consumption were evaluated in detail. Furthermore, the loss of materials in fuel processing was tracked including the generation of new waste streams. Based on these results, the system performance was evaluated with respect to several key transmutation parameters including TRU inventory reduction, radiotoxicity, and support ratio. The importance of clean fuel processing ({approx}0.1% losses) and inclusion of a final tier fast spectrum system are demonstrated. With these two features, all scenarios capably reduce the TRU and plutonium waste content, significantly reducing the radiotoxicity; however, a significant infrastructure (at least 1/10 the total nuclear capacity) is required for the dedicated transmutation system.

  8. Transmutation of MA in the high flux thermal reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Hu, Wenchao; Wang, Kai; Huang, Liming; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Tu, Jing; Zhu, Yangni

    2013-06-01

    We study the MA transmutation characteristics in the high flux thermal reactor, our calculation shows that different MA nuclides may have the drastically different effects on keff, Np-237, Am-241 and Am-243 decrease keff greatly, Cm-244 affects the keff slightly, but Cm-245 boosts the keff significantly. The MA nuclides actually can act as the burnable poisons in the thermal reactors. The SCALE simulation shows that after 300-day-exposure in high flux thermal reactor the disappearance rate of Np-237, Am-241 and Am-243 are 73.7%, 98.1% and 82.8% respectively. The SCALE simulation results also show that the total transmutation rate of MA nuclides by fission which include direct and indirect fission after 300-day-exposure in the high flux thermal reactor is 6.3%. The SCALE simulation indicates at least 44.2% MA nuclides transmute to plutonium isotopes by various reactions and 63% of the Pu-238 in the MOX fuel is consumed during 300-day-exposure in this reactor.

  9. Irradiation of Metallic Fuels with Rare Earth Additions for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR. Experiment Description for AFC-2A and AFC-2B

    SciTech Connect

    Irradiation of Metallic Fuels with Rare Earth Addi

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), now within the broader context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. One important component of the technology development is actinide-bearing metallic transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. The proposed AFC-2A and AFC-2B irradiation experiments are a continuation of the metallic fuel test series in progress in the ATR. This report documents the experiment description and test matrix of the proposed experiments and the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) and fabrication schedule.

  10. Irradiation of Metallic Fuels with Rare Earth Additions for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR. Experiment Description for AFC-2A and AFC-2B

    SciTech Connect

    S. L. Hayes; D. J. Utterbeck; T. A. Hyde

    2007-03-01

    The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), now within the broader context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. One important component of the technology development is actinide-bearing metallic transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. The proposed AFC-2A and AFC-2B irradiation experiments are a continuation of the metallic fuel test series in progress in the ATR. This report documents the experiment description and test matrix of the proposed experiments and the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) and fabrication schedule.

  11. Irradiation of Metallic Fuels with Rare Earth Additions for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR. Experiment Description for AFC-2A and AFC-2B

    SciTech Connect

    S. L. Hayes; D. J. Utterbeck; T. A. Hyde

    2006-11-01

    The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), now within the broader context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. One important component of the technology development is actinide-bearing metallic transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. The proposed AFC-2A and AFC-2B irradiation experiments are a continuation of the metallic fuel test series in progress in the ATR. This report documents the experiment description and test matrix of the proposed experiments and the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) and fabrication schedule.

  12. Radiotoxicity of Actinides During Transmutation in Final Stage of Atomic Power

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimov, Aleksander S.; Bergelson, Boris R.; Myrtsymova, Lidia A.; Tikhomirov, Georgy V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, SSC RF ITEP, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya, 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Characteristics of a transmutation mode in final stage of atomic power are analyzed. In this stage, transmutation of actinides accumulated in transmutation reactors is performed without feed by actinides from other reactors. The radiotoxicity during first 20 years of transmutation is caused mainly by {sup 244}Cm. During following period of time, {sup 252}Cf is main nuclide. Contribution of {sup 246}Cm and {sup 250}Cf is 5-7 times less than that of {sup 252}Cf. During 50 years of a transmutation, the total radiotoxicity falls by 50 times. Long-lived radiotoxicity decreases slowly. During the period between T=50 years and T=100 years, long-lived radiotoxicity falls by 3.7 times. For each following 50 years after this period, long-lived radiotoxicity falls by 3.2 times. These results corresponding to neutron flux density 10{sup 14} neutr/(cm{sup 2}s) in transmutation reactor demonstrate that the final stage of a transmutation should be performed with use of high flux transmutation facilities which provide shorter time of transmutation. (authors)

  13. Radionuclides in US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  14. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... If two or more radionuclides...gross alpha particle activity...Community water systems must comply...applicable to systems with sufficiently...technology is most applicable to small systems that already...Gross alpha particle activity...

  15. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... If two or more radionuclides...gross alpha particle activity...Community water systems must comply...applicable to systems with sufficiently...technology is most applicable to small systems that already...Gross alpha particle activity...

  16. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... If two or more radionuclides...gross alpha particle activity...Community water systems must comply...applicable to systems with sufficiently...technology is most applicable to small systems that already...Gross alpha particle activity...

  17. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... If two or more radionuclides...gross alpha particle activity...Community water systems must comply...applicable to systems with sufficiently...technology is most applicable to small systems that already...Gross alpha particle activity...

  18. 40 CFR 141.66 - Maximum contaminant levels for radionuclides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... If two or more radionuclides...gross alpha particle activity...Community water systems must comply...applicable to systems with sufficiently...technology is most applicable to small systems that already...Gross alpha particle activity...

  19. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  20. Hyperfuse: A novel inertial confinement system utilizing hypervelocity projectiles for fusion energy and fission waste transmutation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Makowitz; J. Powell; R. Wiswall

    1979-01-01

    A new concept for the transmutation of fission products and transuranics is proposed. Termed HYPERFUSE, it involves use of inertial reactors for transmutation. The fission products and transuranics are incorporated into the shell of the fusion pellet and accelerated to the hypervelocity range appropriate to the impact fusion approach. When the fusion microexplosion occurs, a substantial fraction, approximately 10 percent

  1. Comparison of Processes of Transmutation of Long-Lived Actinides in Different Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bergelson, B.R.; Gerasimov, A.S.; Kiselev, G.V.; Tikhomirov, G.V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), 25, B.Cheremushkinskaya, Moscow, 117259 (Russian Federation)

    2002-07-01

    Efficiency of transmutation of actinides was compared for different types of reactors-transmuters: light water VVER-1000 type reactor, fast breeder BN-600 and Super-Phenix type reactors, as well as high-flux subcritical ADS-800 type facility. Feed with minor actinides extracted from the reactor of VVER-1000 type was supposed. (authors)

  2. Residual radioactivity of silicon doped by transmutation V. K. Agrawal (*) and F. Benire

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L-49 Residual radioactivity of silicon doped by transmutation V. K. Agrawal (*) and F. Benière to the formation of radioactive P-32 by irradiation of silicon with thermal neutrons, has been studied with the classical value. It is then possible to predict the radioactivity of silicon doped by nuclear transmutation

  3. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VII. Long-term risk analysis of the geologic repository

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, S.E.; Conarty, R.L.; Ng, H.S.; Rahal, L.J.; Shirley, C.G.

    1980-09-01

    This report supports the overall assessment by Oak Ridge National Laboratory of actinide partitioning and transmutation by providing an analysis of the long-term risks associated with the terminal storage of wastes from a fuel cycle which incorporates partitioning and transmutation (P-T) and wastes from a cycle which does not. The system model and associated computer code, called AMRAW (Assessment Method for Radioactive Waste), are used for the analysis and are applied to the Los Medanos area in southeastern New Mexico. Because a conservative approach is used throughout, calculated results are believed to be consistently higher than reasonable expectations from actual disruptive incidents at the site and therefore are not directly suited for comparison with other analyses of the particular geologic location. The assessment is made with (1) the probabilistic, or risk, mode that uses combinations of reasonable possible release incidents with their probability of occurrence distributed and applied throughout the assessment period, and (2) the consequence mode that forces discrete release events to occur at specific times. An assessment period of 1 million years is used. The principal results are: (1) In all but the expulsive modes, /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I completely dominate cumulative effects based on their transport to man through leaching and movement with groundwater, effecting about 33,000 health effects (deaths) over the 1 million years; (2) P-T has only limited effectiveness in reducing long-term risk from a radionuclide waste repository under the conditions studied, and such effectiveness is essentially confined to the extremely unlikely (probability of occurrence 10/sup -12//year) expulsive events; (3) Removal or immobilization of /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I might provide benefits sufficiently tangible to warrant special consideration.

  4. Muonic alchemy: Transmuting elements with the inclusion of negative muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncada, Félix; Cruz, Daniel; Reyes, Andrés

    2012-06-01

    In this Letter we present a theoretical study of atoms in which one electron has been replaced by a negative muon. We have treated these muonic systems with the Any Particle Molecular Orbital (APMO) method. A comparison between the electronic and muonic radial distributions revealed that muons are much more localized than electrons. Therefore, the muonic cloud is screening effectively one positive charge of the nucleus. Our results have revealed that by replacing an electron in an atom by a muon there is a transmutation of the electronic properties of that atom to those of the element with atomic number Z - 1.

  5. Magnetic Fusion driven Transmutation of nuclear Waste (FTW)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueng Kay Martin Peng; Edward T. Cheng

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of magnetic Fusion driven Transmutation of Waste (FTW) was revisited and discussed recently. Nuclear wastes include all transuranium elements: Pu isotopes (Pu²³⁹⁻²⁴¹), minor actinides separated from the spent fission fuel (Np²³⁷, Am{sup 241,243}, Cm²⁴⁴, etc.), and fissile products (Tc⁹⁹, I¹²⁹). Elimination of these long-life nuclear wastes is necessary for the long-term viability of fission power.

  6. Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Harp, Richard J. (18746 Viking Way, Cerritos, CA 90701)

    1990-01-01

    In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

  7. Georgia Tech Studies of Sub-Critical Advanced Burner Reactors with a D-T Fusion Tokamak Neutron Source for the Transmutation of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, W. M.

    2009-09-01

    The possibility that a tokamak D-T fusion neutron source, based on ITER physics and technology, could be used to drive sub-critical, fast-spectrum nuclear reactors fueled with the transuranics (TRU) in spent nuclear fuel discharged from conventional nuclear reactors has been investigated at Georgia Tech in a series of studies which are summarized in this paper. It is found that sub-critical operation of such fast transmutation reactors is advantageous in allowing longer fuel residence time, hence greater TRU burnup between fuel reprocessing stages, and in allowing higher TRU loading without compromising safety, relative to what could be achieved in a similar critical transmutation reactor. The required plasma and fusion technology operating parameter range of the fusion neutron source is generally within the anticipated operational range of ITER. The implications of these results for fusion development policy, if they hold up under more extensive and detailed analysis, is that a D-T fusion tokamak neutron source for a sub-critical transmutation reactor, built on the basis of the ITER operating experience, could possibly be a logical next step after ITER on the path to fusion electrical power reactors. At the same time, such an application would allow fusion to contribute to meeting the nation's energy needs at an earlier stage by helping to close the fission reactor nuclear fuel cycle.

  8. EASY-II: a system for modelling of n, d, p, ? and ? activation and transmutation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sublet, Jean-Christophe; Eastwood, James; Morgan, Guy; Koning, Arjan; Rochman, Dimitri

    2014-06-01

    EASY-II is designed as a functional replacement for the previous European Activation System, EASY-2010. It has extended nuclear data and new software, FISPACT-II, written in object-style Fortran to provide new capabilities for predictions of activation, transmutation, depletion and burnup. The new FISPACT-II code has allowed us to implement many more features in terms of energy range, up to GeV; incident particles: alpha, gamma, proton, deuteron and neutron; and neutron physics: self-shielding effects, temperature dependence, pathways analysis, sensitivity and error estimation using covariance data. These capabilities cover most application needs: nuclear fission and fusion, accelerator physics, isotope production, waste management and many more. In parallel, the maturity of modern general-purpose libraries such as TENDL-2012 encompassing thousands of target nuclides, the evolution of the ENDF format and the capabilities of the latest generation of processing codes PREPRO-2012, NJOY2012 and CALENDF-2010 have allowed the FISPACT-II code to be fed with more robust, complete and appropriate data: cross-sections with covariance, probability tables in the resonance ranges, kerma, dpa, gas and radionuclide production and 24 decay types. All such data for the five most important incident particles are placed in evaluated data files up to an incident energy of 200 MeV. The resulting code and data system, EASY-II, includes many new features and enhancements. It has been extensively tested, and also benefits from the feedback from wide-ranging validation and verification activities performed with its predecessor

  9. Practising alchemy: the transmutation of evidence into best health care.

    PubMed

    Goodyear-Smith, Felicity

    2011-04-01

    Alchemy was the synthesis or transmutation of all elements in perfect balance to obtain the philosopher's stone, the key to health. Just as alchemists sought this, so health practitioners always seek the best possible practice for optimal health outcomes for our patients. Best practice requires full knowledge--a little information can be dangerous. We need to serve our apprenticeship before we master our profession. Our profession is about improving health care. While the journey may start at medical school, the learning never ceases. It is not only about practising medicine, it is about the development of the practitioner. Professional practice requires systematic thinking combined with capacity to deal morally and creatively in areas of complexity and uncertainty appropriate to a specific context. It requires exemplary communication skills to interact with patients to facilitate collaborative decision making resulting in best practice. The synthesis of scientific and contextual evidence is a concept which applies to all disciplines where theoretical knowledge needs to be transferred to action to inform best practice. Decisions need to be made which take into account a complex array of factors, such as social and legal issues and resource constraints. Therefore, journey towards best practice involves transmutation of these three elements: scientific knowledge, the context in which it is applied and phronesis, the practical wisdom of the practitioner. All science has its limitations and we can never know all possible contextual information. Hence, like the philosopher's stone, best practice is a goal to which we aspire but never quite attain. PMID:21127021

  10. LDRD 140639 final report : investigation of transmutation claims.

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, Jeffrey E.; Van Devender, J. Pace; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Grant, Richard P.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

    2009-11-01

    The Proton-21 Laboratory in the Ukraine has been publishing results on shock-induced transmutation of several elements, including Cobalt 60 into non-radioactive elements. This report documents exploratory characterization of a shock-compressed Aluminum-6061 sample, which is the only available surrogate for the high-purity copper samples in the Proton-21 experiments. The goal was to determine Sandia's ability to detect possible shock-wave-induced transmutation products and to unambiguously validate or invalidate the claims in collaboration with the Proton-21 Laboratory. We have developed a suitable characterization process and tested it on the surrogate sample. Using trace elemental analysis capabilities, we found elevated and localized concentrations of impurity elements like the Ukrainians report. All our results, however, are consistent with the ejection of impurities that were not in solution in our alloy or were deposited from the cathode during irradiation or possibly storage. Based on the detection capabilities demonstrated and additional techniques available, we are positioned to test samples from Proton-21 if funded to do so.

  11. Radionuclide imaging in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2014-11-01

    Ischemic stroke is caused by interruption or significant impairment of blood supply to the brain, which leads to a cascade of metabolic and molecular alterations resulting in functional disturbance and morphologic damage. The changes in regional cerebral blood flow and regional metabolism can be assessed by radionuclide imaging, especially SPECT and PET. SPECT and PET have broadened our understanding of flow and metabolic thresholds critical for maintenance of brain function and morphology: PET was essential in the transfer of the concept of the penumbra to clinical stroke and thereby had a great impact on developing treatment strategies. Receptor ligands can be applied as early markers of irreversible neuronal damage and can predict the size of the final infarcts, which is important for decisions on invasive therapy in large ("malignant") infarction. With SPECT and PET, the reserve capacity of the blood supply can be tested in obstructive arteriosclerosis, which is essential for planning interventions. The effect of a stroke on surrounding and contralateral primarily unaffected tissue can be investigated, helping to understand symptoms caused by disturbance in functional networks. Activation studies are useful to demonstrate alternative pathways to compensate for lesions and to test the effect of rehabilitative therapy. Radioisotope studies help to detect neuroinflammation and its effect on extension of tissue damage. Despite the limitations of broad clinical application of radionuclide imaging, this technology has a great impact on research in cerebrovascular diseases and still has various applications in the management of stroke. PMID:25300599

  12. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as 2030 and 2033, depending on the type of waste. TSPA-LA uses the results of this analysis to decay the inventory to the year of repository closure projected for the year of 2060.

  13. Multi-Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU,alpha1): Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Andrea Alfonsi; Samuel E. Bays; Cristian Rabiti; Steven J. Piet

    2011-02-01

    Multi-Reactor Transmutation Utility (MRTAU) is a general depletion/decay algorithm under development at INL to support quick assessment of off-normal fuel cycle scenarios of similar nature to well studied reactor and fuel cycle concepts for which isotopic and cross-section data exists. MRTAU has been used in the past for scoping calculations to determine actinide composition evolution over the course of multiple recycles in Light Water Reactor Mixed Oxide and Sodium cooled Fast Reactor. In these applications, various actinide partitioning scenarios of interest were considered. The code has recently been expanded to include fission product generation, depletion and isotopic evolution over multiple recycles. The capability was added to investigate potential partial separations and/or limited recycling technologies such as Melt-Refining, AIROX, DUPIC or other fuel recycle technology where the recycled fuel stream is not completely decontaminated of fission products prior to being re-irradiated in a subsequent reactor pass. This report documents the code's solution methodology and algorithm as well as its solution accuracy compared to the SCALE6.0 software suite.

  14. Radionuclides in Canada goose eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Rickard; H. A. Sweany

    1975-01-01

    Low levels of radionuclides were measured in Canada goose eggs taken ; from deserted nests from Columbia River islands on the Energy Research and ; Development Administration's Hanford Reservation. Potassium-40, a naturally ; occurring radionuclide, was the most abundant radionuclide measured in egg ; contents and egg shell. Strontium-90 was incorporated into egg shells and cesium-; 137 into inner egg

  15. Traceability in radionuclide metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christmas, P.

    1984-06-01

    The concept of traceability is developed in the general context of national and international measurement systems. The distinction is drawn between measurement standards and specification standards, and reference is made to legal aspects of metrology. These themes are further developed in relation to ionizing radiation and radionuclide metrology, and present and future requirements for traceability are discussed with particular reference to the UK situation.

  16. Utilization of accelerators for transmutation and energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-24

    Given the increased concern over reliable, emission-free power, nuclear power has experienced a resurgence of interest. A sub-critical accelerator driven system (ADS) can drive systems that have either safety constraints (waste transmutation) or reduced fissile content (thorium reactor). The goals of ADS are some or all of the following: (1) to significantly reduce the generation or impacts due to the minor actinides on the packing density and long-term radiotoxicity in the repository design, (2) preserve/use the energy-rich component of used nuclear fuel, and (3) reduce proliferation risk. ADS systems have been actively studied in Europe and Asia over the past two decades and renewed interest is occurring in the U.S. This talk will cover some of the history, possible applicable fuel cycle scenarios, and general issues to be considered in implementing ADS systems.

  17. Americium Transmutation Feasibility When Used as Burnable Absorbers - 12392

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaras, Sean A. [United States Military Academy, West Point, New York 10996 (United States); Knight, Travis W. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The use of plutonium in Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in traditional Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies leads to greater americium production which is not addressed in MOX recycling. The transuranic nuclides (TRU) contribute the most to the radiotoxicity of nuclear waste and a reduction of the TRU stockpile would greatly reduce the overall radiotoxicity of what must be managed. Am-241 is a TRU of particular concern because it is the dominant contributor of total radiotoxicity for the first 1000 years in a repository. This research explored the feasibility of transmuting Am-241 by using varying amounts in MOX rods being used in place of burnable absorbers and evaluated with respect to the impact on incineration and transmutation of transuranics in MOX fuel as well as the impact on safety. This research concludes that the addition of americium to a non-uniform fuel assembly is a viable method of transmuting Am-241, holding down excess reactivity in the core while serving as a burnable poison, as well as reducing the radiotoxicity of high level waste that must be managed. The use of Am/MOX hybrid fuel assemblies to transmute americium was researched using multiple computer codes. Am-241 was shown in this study to be able to hold down excess reactivity at the beginning of cycle and shape the power distribution in the core with assemblies of varying americium content loaded in a pattern similar to the traditional use of assemblies with varying amounts of burnable absorbers. The feasibility, safety, and utility of using americium to create an Am/MOX hybrid non-uniform core were also evaluated. The core remained critical to a burnup of 22,000 MWD/MTM. The power coefficient of reactivity as well as the temperature and power defects were sufficiently negative to provide a prompt feedback mechanism in case of a transient and prevent a power excursion, thus ensuring inherent safety and protection of the core. As shown here as well as many other studies, this non-uniform assembly type successfully addresses the concerns of reduced control rod worth within advanced MOX assemblies because the Am/MOX hybrid fuel rods are on the periphery of the assembly. The radiotoxicity of the high level waste that must be managed from a single use of an Am/MOX hybrid batch is reduced for the first 1000 years in comparison to a regular UO{sub 2} batch. However, there is no heat-load advantage without multi-recycling the Am/MOX hybrid assemblies. As shown through numerous studies, the heterogeneous assembly model used as the basis for this research is capable of multiple recycles while still maintaining negative temperature and power coefficients of reactivity. Multi-recycling would provide an even greater reduction to the radiotoxicity of the high level waste as well as provide a heat-load advantage compared to a once through UO{sub 2} fuel cycle. (authors)

  18. Description of Transmutation Library for Fuel Cycle System Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Edward A. Hoffman

    2010-08-01

    This report documents the Transmutation Library that is used in Fuel Cycle System Analyses. This version replaces the 2008 version.[Piet2008] The Transmutation Library has the following objectives: • Assemble past and future transmutation cases for system analyses. • For each case, assemble descriptive information such as where the case was documented, the purpose of the calculation, the codes used, source of feed material, transmutation parameters, and the name of files that contain raw or source data. • Group chemical elements so that masses in separation and waste processes as calculated in dynamic simulations or spreadsheets reflect current thinking of those processes. For example, the CsSr waste form option actually includes all Group 1A and 2A elements. • Provide mass fractions at input (charge) and output (discharge) for each case. • Eliminate the need for either “fission product other” or “actinide other” while conserving mass. Assessments of waste and separation cannot use “fission product other” or “actinide other” as their chemical behavior is undefined. • Catalog other isotope-specific information in one place, e.g., heat and dose conversion factors for individual isotopes. • Describe the correlations for how input and output compositions change as a function of UOX burnup (for LWR UOX fuel) or fast reactor (FR) transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR) for either FR-metal or FR-oxide. This document therefore includes the following sections: • Explanation of the data set information, i.e., the data that describes each case. In no case are all of the data presented in the Library included in previous documents. In assembling the Library, we return to raw data files to extract the case and isotopic data, into the specified format. • Explanation of which isotopes and elements are tracked. For example, the transition metals are tracked via the following: two Zr isotopes, Zr-other, Tc99, Tc-other, two Mo-Ru-Rh-Pd isotopes, Mo-Ru-Rh-Pd-other, four other specific TM isotopes, and TM-other. Mo-Ru-Rh-Pd are separated because their content constrains the loading of waste in glass, so we have to know the mass of those elements independent of others. • Rules for collapsing long lists of isotopes (~1000) to the 81 items in the library. For each tracked isotope, we define which short-lived isotopes’ mass (at t=0) is included with the mass of the tracked isotope at t=0, which short-lived radioactive progeny must be accounted for when the tracked isotope decays, and to which of the other 80 items the mass of the tracked isotope goes when it decays. • Explanation of where raw data files can be found on the fuel cycle data portal. • Explanation of generic cross section sets • Explanation of isotope-specific parameters such as heat and dose conversion factors • Explanation of the LWR UOX burnup and FR TRU CR correlations.

  19. An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities

    E-print Network

    Ma, Yun Gui; Tyc, Tomas; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    In the field of transformation optics, metamaterials mimic the effect of coordinate transformations on electromagnetic waves, creating the illusion that the waves are propagating through a virtual space. Transforming space by appropriately designed materials makes devices possible that have been deemed impossible. In particular, transformation optics has led to the demonstration of invisibility cloaking for microwaves, surface plasmons and infrared light. Here we report the achievement of another "impossible task". We implement, for microwaves, a device that would normally require a dielectric singularity, an infinity in the refractive index. We transmute a singularity in virtual space into a mere topological defect in a real metamaterial. In particular, we demonstrate an omnidirectional retroreflector, a device for faithfully reflecting images and for creating high visibility, from all directions. Our method is robust, potentially broadband and similar techniques could be applied for visible light.

  20. An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yun Gui; Ong, C. K.; Tyc, Tomáš; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-08-01

    Transformation optics is a concept used in some metamaterials to guide light on a predetermined path. In this approach, the materials implement coordinate transformations on electromagnetic waves to create the illusion that the waves are propagating through a virtual space. Transforming space by appropriately designed materials makes devices possible that have been deemed impossible. In particular, transformation optics has led to the demonstration of invisibility cloaking for microwaves, surface plasmons and infrared light. Here, on the basis of transformation optics, we implement a microwave device that would normally require a dielectric singularity, an infinity in the refractive index. To fabricate such a device, we transmute a dielectric singularity in virtual space into a mere topological defect in a real metamaterial. In particular, we demonstrate an omnidirectional retroreflector, a device for faithfully reflecting images and for creating high visibility from all directions. Our method is robust, potentially broadband and could also be applied to visible light using similar techniques.

  1. Optimization of actinide transmutation in innovative lead-cooled fast reactors

    E-print Network

    Romano, Antonino, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    The thesis investigates the potential of fertile free fast lead-cooled modular reactors as efficient incinerators of plutonium and minor actinides (MAs) for application to dedicated fuel cycles for transmutation. A methodology ...

  2. Conceptual study of fusion-driven transmutation reactor with ITER physics and engineering constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guen Hong, Bong

    2011-11-01

    A conceptual study of fusion-driven transmutation reactor was performed based on ITER physics and engineering constraints. A compact reactor concept is desirable from an economic viewpoint. For the optimal design of a reactor, a radial build of reactor components has to be determined by considering the plasma physics and engineering constraints which inter-relate various reactor components. In a transmutation reactor, design of blanket and shield play a key role in determining the size of a reactor; the blanket should produce enough tritium for tritium self-sufficiency, the transmutation rate of waste has to be maximized, and the shield should provide sufficient protection for the superconducting toroidal field (TF) coil. To determine the radial build of the blanket and the shield, not only a radiation transport analysis but also a burnup calculation were coupled with the system analysis and it allowed the self-consistent determination of the design parameters of a transmutation reactor. .

  3. Long-lived radioactive waste transmutation and the role of accelerator driven (hybrid) systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Salvatores; I. Slessarev; G. Ritter; P. Fougeras; A. Tchistiakov; G. Youinou; A. Zaetta

    1998-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation strategies are studied in several countries within the framework of R&D programs devoted to the management of high-level radioactive wastes. One option is to use accelerator-driven reactors in order to transmute Pu and minor actinides and\\/or long-lived fission products. Conceptual studies underway in France and Japan are illustrated in the present paper. Some basic ideas of a

  4. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

  5. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Makowitz, H; Powell, J R; Wiswall, R

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 129/I, /sup 99/Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,..cap alpha..), (n,..gamma..), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R=1.0 to 3.0) requirements.

  6. Technical and economic assessment of different options for minor actinide transmutation: the French case

    SciTech Connect

    Chabert, C.; Coquelet-Pascal, C. [CEA-Cadarache, DEN, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Saturnin, A. [CEA, DEN, Marcoule (France); Mathonniere, G.; Boullis, B.; Warin, D. [CEA-Saclay, DEN, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Van Den Durpel, L. [AREVA-NC, Paris-la-Defense (France); Caron-Charles, M. [AREVA-NP, Paris-la-Defense (France); Garzenne, C. [EDF, Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    Studies have been performed to assess the industrial perspectives of partitioning and transmutation of long-lived elements. These studies were carried out in tight connection with GEN-IV systems development. The results include the technical and economic evaluation of fuel cycle scenarios along with different options for optimizing the processes between the minor actinide transmutation in fast neutron reactors, their interim storage and geological disposal of ultimate waste. The results are analysed through several criteria (impacts on waste, on waste repository, on fuel cycle plants, on radiological exposure of workers, on costs and on industrial risks). These scenario evaluations take place in the French context which considers the deployment of the first Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) in 2040. 3 management options of minor actinides have been studied: no transmutation, transmutation in SFR and transmutation in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). Concerning economics the study shows that the cost overrun related to the transmutation process could vary between 5 to 9% in SFR and 26 % in the case of ADS.

  7. High power linear accelerators for tritium production and transmutation of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    Proton linacs driving high-flux spallation neutron sources are being considered for transmutation of nuclear waste and production of tritium. Advances in high-current linac technology have provided a basis for the development of credible designs for the required accelerator, which has a nominal 1.6-GeV energy, and a 250-mA cw current. A beam with these parameters incident on a liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) target can generate a thermal neutron flux of up to 5 {times} 10{sup 16} n/cm{sup 2}-s in a cylindrical blanket surrounding the spallation source. This high flux can produce tritium through the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha})T or {sup 3}He(n,{gamma})T reactions, or can burn long-lived actinides and fission products from nuclear waste through capture and fission processes. In some system scenarios, waste actinides and/or other fissile materials in the blanket can produce sufficient fission energy to power the accelerator.

  8. Optimizing SFR transmutation performance through direct adjoining control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jeffrey C.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed the CORTANA code to optimize the transmutation performance of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). We obtain the necessary conditions for optimal fuel and burnable absorber loadings using Pontryagin's maximum principle with a direct adjoining approach to explicitly account for either a flat flux or a power peaking inequality constraint providing a set of coupled system, Euler-Lagrange (E-L), and optimality equations which are iteratively solved with the method of conjugate gradients until no further improvement in the objective function is achieved. To satisfy the inequality constraints throughout the operating cycle, we have implemented a backwards diffusion theory (BDT) to establish a relationship between fuel loading and the relative assembly power distribution during the cycle and systematically eliminate the constraint violations with each conjugate gradient iteration. The CORTANA SFR optimization code uses multi-group, three-dimensional neutron diffusion theory, with a microscopic depletion scheme. We solve the system equations in a quasi-static fashion forward in time from beginning-of-cycle (BOC) to end-of-cycle (EOC), while we solve the E-L equations backwards in time from EOC to BOC, reflecting the adjoint nature of the Lagrange multipliers. A two enrichment-zone SFR problem verifies our formulation, yielding a TRU enrichment distribution nearly identical to that of the reference SFR core in the Generation IV Roadmap. Using a full heavy metal recycling mode, we coupled our optimization methodology with the REBUS-3 equilibrium cycle methodology to optimize an SFR operating as a second tier transmuter. We model the system using a three-dimensional triangular-z finite differencing scheme with full core symmetry and a time-independent 33-group microscopic cross section library. Beginning from a uniform TRU distribution, our CORTANA improves the SFR performance by reducing the maximum relative assembly power from 1.7 to 1.25, minimizes reactivity swing over the cycle from 2.12 to 1.47 %Deltak/k, and through the use of thorium fuels maximizes the TRU destruction rate from 167 kgTRU/yr to 181 kgTRU/yr.

  9. Radionuclide production at the Russia State Scientific Center, RIAR.

    PubMed

    Karelin, Y A; Gordeev, Y N; Filimonov, V T; Toporov, Y G; Yadovin, A A; Karasev, V I; Lebedev, V M; Radchenko, V M; Kuznetsov, R A

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclide production capabilities of the Russia State Scientific Center, the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (RIAR) are reviewed. Radionuclides routinely produced are as follows: transplutonium elements 243Am, 244-248Cm, 249Bk, 249Cf, 252Cf and high specific activity radionuclides 153Gd, 33P, 113,119mSn, 188W, 63Ni, 55,59Fe, 51Cr, 54Mn, 89Sr. Other HSA radionuclides (133Ba, 65Zn, 124Sb, 45Ca, 60Co, 192Ir, 169Yb, 170Tm, 75Se) are also available from RIAR. Besides radioactive preparations RIAR produces ionising neutron (252Cf), gamma (60Co, 192Ir, 75Se, 153Gd) and alpha (244Cm) sources for medicine, industry and research. A short description of the technology developed is presented. PMID:9463878

  10. HYPERFUSE: a hypervelocity inertial confinement system for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Makowitz, H.; Powell, J.R.; Wiswall, R.

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from a LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 129/I, /sup 99/Tc, etc. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n,2n), (n,..cap alpha..), (n,..gamma..), etc.) that convert the long-lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product. The transmutation parametric studies conclude that the design of the hypervelocity projectiles should emphasize the achievement of high densities in the transmutation regions (greater than the DT fusion fuel density), as well as the DT ignition and burn criterion (rho R = 1.0 to 3.0) requirements. These studies also indicate that masses on the order of 1.0 g at densities of rho greater than or equal to 500.0 g/cm/sup 3/ are required for a practical fusion-based fission product transmutation system.

  11. Fabrication of nitride fuels for transmutation of minor actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Akabori, Mitsuo; Takano, Masahide; Arai, Yasuo; Nakajima, Kunihisa; Itoh, Akinori; Ogawa, Toru

    2003-07-01

    At the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the concept of the transmutation of minor actinides (MA: Np, Am and Cm) with accelerator-driven systems is being studied. The MA nitride fuel has been chosen as a candidate because of the possible mutual solubility among the actinide mononitrides and excellent thermal properties besides supporting hard neutron spectrum. MA nitrides of NpN, (Np, Pu)N, (Np, U)N, AmN, (Am, Y)N, (Am, Zr)N and (Cm, Pu)N were prepared from the oxides by the carbothermic reduction method. The prepared MA nitrides were examined by X-ray diffraction and the contents of impurities of oxygen and carbon were measured. The fabrication conditions for MA nitrides were improved so as to reduce the impurity contents. For an irradiation test of U-free nitride fuels, pellets of (Pu, Zr)N and PuN + TiN were prepared and a He-bonded fuel pin was fabricated. The irradiation test started in May 2002 and will go on for two years in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor.

  12. Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation. [uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.; Wan, P. T.; Chow, S.

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design of a uranium hexafluoride actinide transmutation reactor to convert long-lived actinide wastes to shorter-lived fission product wastes was analyzed. It is shown that externally moderated gas core reactors are ideal radiators. They provide an abundant supply of thermal neutrons and are insensitive to composition changes in the blanket. For the present reactor, an initial load of 6 metric tons of actinides is loaded. This is equivalent to the quantity produced by 300 LWR-years of operation. At the beginning, the core produces 2000 MWt while the blanket generates only 239 MWt. After four years of irradiation, the actinide mass is reduced to 3.9 metric tonnes. During this time, the blanket is becoming more fissile and its power rapidly approaches 1600 MWt. At the end of four years, continuous refueling of actinides is carried out and the actinide mass is held constant. Equilibrium is essentially achieved at the end of eight years. At equilibrium, the core is producing 1400 MWt and the blanket 1600 MWt. At this power level, the actinide destruction rate is equal to the production rate from 32 LWRs.

  13. Transmutation of nuclear waste in accelerator-driven systems

    E-print Network

    Herrera-Martínez, A

    2004-01-01

    Today more than ever energy is not only a cornerstone of human development, but also a key to the environmental sustainability of economic activity. In this context, the role of nuclear power may be emphasized in the years to come. Nevertheless, the problems of nuclear waste, safety and proliferation still remain to be solved. It is believed that the use of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production would address these problems in a simple, clean and economically viable, and therefore sustainable, manner. This thesis covers the major nuclear physics aspects of ADSs, in particular the spallation process and the core neutronics specific to this type of systems. The need for accurate nuclear data is described, together with a detailed analysis of the specific isotopes and energy ranges in which this data needs to be improved and the impact of their uncertainty. Preliminary experimental results for some of these isotopes, produced by the Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) ...

  14. Post-irradiation examinations of THERMHET composite fuels for transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noirot, J.; Desgranges, L.; Chauvin, N.; Georgenthum, V.

    2003-07-01

    The thermal behaviour of composite targets dedicated to minor actinide transmutation was studied using THERMHET (thermal behaviour of heterogeneous fuel) irradiation in the SILOE reactor. Three inert matrix fuel designs were tested (macro-mass, jingle and microdispersion) all with a MgAl 2O 4 spinel inert matrix and around 40% weight of UO 2 to simulate minor actinide inclusions. The post-irradiation examinations led to a new interpretation of the temperature measurement by thermocouples located in the central hole of the pellets. A major change in the micro-dispersed structure was detected. The examinations enabled us to understand the behaviour of the spinel during the different stages of irradiation. They revealed an amorphisation at low temperature and then a nano re-crystallisation at high temperature of the spinel in the micro-dispersed case. These results, together with those obtained in the MATINA irradiation of an equivalent structure, show the importance of the irradiation temperature on spinel behaviour.

  15. Compton Radiation for Nuclear Waste Management and Transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulyak, E.; Urakawa, J.

    2015-10-01

    Compton inverse radiation is emitted in the process of backscattering of the laser pulses off the relativistic electrons. This radiation possesses high spectral density and high energy of photons--in hard x-ray up to gammaray energy range--with moderate electron energies (hundreds of MeV up to 1 GeV) due to short wavelength of the laser radiation. The Compton radiation is well collimated: emitting within a narrow cone along the electron beam. A distinct property of the Compton inverse radiation is a steep high-energy cutoff of the spectrum and the maximal intensity just below the cutoff. The Compton sources can attain: spectral density up to 1014 gammas/(s 0.1%bandwidth) in MeV range of energies, and spectral brightness up to 1020 gammas/(smm2mr2 0.1% bw). Applicability of Compton sources for nuclear waste management and detection of radioisotopes and fissionable nuclides are discussed in the report. Also application limits of Compton gamma sources for transmutation of radioactive isotopes are estimated. A recently proposed subtracting method, in which two sets of data obtained by irradiating the object by the Compton beams with slightly different maximal energies are compared, will enhance resolution of detection radioactive elements at the 'atomic' (hundreds of keV) and the 'nuclear' (a few MeV) photon energies.

  16. Naturalness and dimensional transmutation in classically scale-invariant gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einhorn, Martin B.; Jones, D. R. Timothy

    2015-03-01

    We discuss the nature of quantum field theories involving gravity that are classically scale-invariant. We show that gravitational radiative corrections are crucial in the determination of the nature of the vacuum state in such theories, which are renormalisable, technically natural, and can be asymptotically free in all dimensionless couplings. In the pure gravity case, we discuss the role of the Gauss-Bonnet term, and we find that Dimensional Transmutation (DT) à la Coleman-Weinberg leads to extrema of the effective action corresponding to nonzero values of the curvature, but such that these extrema are local maxima. In even the simplest extension of the theory to include scalar fields, we show that the same phenomenon can lead to extrema that are local minima of the effective action, with both non-zero curvature and non-zero scalar vacuum expectation values, leading to spontaneous generation of the Planck mass. Although we find an asymptotically free (AF) fixed point exists, unfortunately, no running of the couplings connect the region of DT to the basin of attraction of the AF fixed point. We also find there remains a flat direction for one of the conformal modes. We suggest that in more realistic models AF and DT could be compatible, and that the same scalar vacuum expectation values could be responsible both for DT and for spontaneous breaking of a Grand Unified gauge group.

  17. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

  18. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knies, David L.

    A combination of three-hundred and fifty event and sub-event (~3 mm resolution) ground level precipitation samples were collected near West Lafayette, IN. They included most of the significant precipitation events occurring between April 18, 1992 and August 31, 1993. The cosmogenic radionuclide ( ^7Be(t_{1/2} = 53 d), ^{10}Be(t_{1/2} = 1.5 My), and ^{36}Cl(t_ {1/2} = 0.3 My)), anion (Cl ^-, NO_3^-, SO_4 ^{2-}), and cation (Na ^+, K^+, Mg^{2+}, and Ca^{2+}) concentrations were measured in selected samples. Accelerator mass spectrometry was used to determine the ^{10 }Be and ^{36}Cl content. We used these data along with other standard meteorological data bases to investigate relationships between the cosmogenic radionuclides in mid-latitude wet deposition and storm type, air mass history, and season. Understanding the circumstances that lead to local variations in the ratio of ^{10}Be to ^{36}Cl should aid other investigators in unlocking information stored in form of this ratio in the ice sheets, and thereby gain a better understanding of paleoclimates. In addition, the source functions for these radionuclides and how they vary with differing meteorological conditions are needed for ground water (^{36}Cl) and erosion rate (^{10}Be) studies. A departure from the ^{10}Be/^{36}Cl ratio of 40 predicted by Lal et al. 1967 is seen. Using a new semiempirical cross section formula, we estimated the production ratio to be ~9. Our mean ^{10}Be/^ {36}Cl ratio is 11.4 and typically varies from 4 to 40. We see a higher mean ^ {10}Be/^{36}Cl ratio in stratiform precipitation (14), and a lower mean ratio in convective precipitation (9.7). The estimated ^{10}Be flux from re-suspended soil is 10% of the total ^{10 }Be flux.

  19. Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis. PMID:25589808

  20. Radionuclide imaging in morbid obesity

    SciTech Connect

    DeRogatis, A.J.

    1987-06-01

    Radionuclide studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract have been useful in many gastrointestinal disorders. However, the literature relating to radionuclide techniques in morbid obesity is limited and, at times, controversial. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the use of tracer techniques in this complex disorder. 23 references.

  1. Study on partitioning and transmutation as a possible option for spent fuel management within a nuclear phase-out scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Fazion, C.; Rineiski, A.; Salvatores, M.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Romanello, V.; Vezzoni, B.; Gabrielli, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Most Partitioning and Transmutation (PT) studies implicitly presuppose the continuous use of nuclear energy. In this case the development of new facilities or the modification of the fuel cycle can be justified in the long-term as an important feature in order to improve sustainability by minimizing radioactive waste and reducing the burden at waste disposal. In the case of a country with nuclear energy phase-out policy, the PT option might have also an important role for what concerns the final disposal strategies of the spent fuel. In this work three selected scenarios are analyzed in order to assess the impact of PT implementation in a nuclear energy phase out option. The scenarios are: -) Scenario 1: Identification of Research/Development activities needs for a technological development of PT while postponing the decision of PT implementation; -) Scenario 2: Isolated application of PT in a phase-out context; and -) Scenario 3: Implementation of PT in a European context. In order to facilitate the discrimination among the 3 scenarios, a number of figures of indicators have been evaluated for each scenario. The selected indicators are: the mass of High Level Waste (HLW), Uranium inventory, thermal output of HLW, Radiotoxicity, Fuel cycle secondary waste associated to the PT operation, and Facility capacity/number requirements. The reduction, due to PT implementation, of high level wastes masses and their associated volumes can be significant. For what concerns the thermal output and radiotoxicity a significant impact can be also expected. However, when assessing these two indicators the contribution coming from already vitrified waste should also not be neglected. Moreover, an increase of secondary waste inventory is also expected. On the contrary, the increase of fission product inventories due to the operation of the transmutation system has a relatively limited impact on the fuel cycle.

  2. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: appendix

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.R.; Jackson, R.

    1980-01-01

    The Chemical Technology Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has prepared a set of documents that evaluate a Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle relative to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted to shorter-lived materials, thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks they present to the public and to workers. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the CRAC code appropriately modified for the material composition. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts; the effects are calculated using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. The result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. This conclusion is strongly dominated by the nonradiological risk, which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatalities/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatalities/GWe-year for the Reference cycle. This should be compared with Inhaber's estimate of 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year.

  3. The concept of the volumetric neutron source on the basis of the JUST-T tokamak for minor actinides transmutation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Azizov; Yu. P. Arefiev; G. G. Gladush; V. N. Dokuka; V. V. Filatov; O. G. Filatov; R. R. Khayrutdinov; V. M. Komarov; V. A. Korotkov; V. A. Krylov; E. G. Kuzmin; A. V. Lopatkin; I. V. Mazul; A. B. Mineev; V. G. Muratov; N. A. Obysov; V. A. Yagnov

    2003-01-01

    By concept development of the compact volumetric neutron source on the spherical tokamak JUST basis for minor actinides transmutation with aspect ratio A?=?2, some key plasma physics problems are arising: start of discharge; plasma current maintenance in stationary stage; appropriate neutron fluence for transmutation. On the basis of accepted physical and technical preconditions of the concept the combined scenario of

  4. Evaluation of transuranium isotopes inventory for Candu\\/ACR standard and SEU spent fuel and the possibility to transmute them

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Nineta Ghizdeanu; Alexandru Pavelescu; Victoria Balaceanu

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The main disadvantage of nuclear energy is the quantity of long lived radioactive waste produced in a NPP. Transmutation could be one of the solutions to reduce it. Waste transmutation will require a suitable deployment of techniques for spent fuel reprocessing. At present, reprocessing is done by aqueous methods that

  5. Simulation of radionuclide transport in U. S. agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, R.D.; Baes, C.F. III

    1982-01-01

    Because of the recent concern about the impact of energy technologies on man and related health effects, there has emerged a need for models to calculate or predict the effects of radionuclides on man. A general overview is presented of a model that calculates the ingrowth of radionuclides into man's food chain. The FORTRAN IV computer program TERRA, Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides in Agriculture, simulates the build-up of radionuclides in soil, four plant food compartments, in meat and milk from beef, and in the livestock food compartments that cause radionuclide build-up in milk and meat from beef. A large data set of spatially oriented parameters has been developed in conjunction with TERRA. This direct-access data set is called SITE, Specific Information on the Terrestrial Environment, and contains 35 parameters for each of 3525 half-degree longitude-latitude cells which define the lower 48 states. TERRA and SITE are used together as a package for determining radionuclide concentrations in man's food anywhere within the conterminous 48 states due to atmospheric releases.

  6. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  7. Present status of intermediate energy data evaluation for accelerator-based transmutation of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, A.J. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation, Petten (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    The recent developments in the field of nuclear data evaluation for energies above 20 MeV are outlined. As a particularly interesting application we consider accelerator-based transmutation of radioactive waste. The most urgent data needs for accelerator-based transmutation have been prioritized and translated in terms of intermediate-energy data libraries. Priorities are assigned to the materials relevant to an incineration system and to the most important associated nuclear reactions (notably reactions involving nucleons). In this contribution, the proposed actions as indicated in previous work are further discussed and a sample intermediate-energy {open_quotes}starter{close_quotes} data file is presented.

  8. Multimodality Radionuclide, Fluorescence, and Bioluminescence Small-Animal Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SANJIV S. GAMBHIR

    2005-01-01

    The imaging of molecular events in the complex physiological interplay between organelles, cells, tissues, and organs in the whole organism is now more practical through the use of small-animal imaging technologies. Radionuclide based molecular imaging using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have been used for imaging intracellular enzymes, receptors, transporters, reporter gene expression,

  9. Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees

    SciTech Connect

    Doepel, L.K.

    1985-02-08

    A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

  10. Systematic method for optimizing plutonium transmutation in LWRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Reuben T.

    We have developed the Systematic Reactor Optimization in 2-Dimensions (SRO2D) code to maximize the transmutation of plutonium in light water reactors (LWRs). The necessary conditions for optimal fuel and burnable absorber loadings are obtained with Pontryagin's maximum principle and a direct adjoining approach to explicitly account for a power peaking inequality constraint. The resulting set of coupled system, Euler-Lagrange (E-L), and optimality equations are solved iteratively with the method of conjugate gradients until no further improvement is achieved in the objective function. To satisfy the power peaking inequality constraint throughout the operating cycle we have employed a backwards diffusion theory (BDT) technique as part of the conjugate gradient optimization package. The BDT approach establishes a relationship between the burnable absorber loading and the power distribution during the cycle, such that constraint violations are reduced with each conjugate gradient iteration and eventually eliminated. Our in-core optimization methodology has been implemented in the SRO2D code, assuming two-group, two-dimensional neutron diffusion theory. The system equations are solved in a quasi-static fashion forward in time from beginning-of-cycle (BOC) to end-of-cycle (EOC), while the E-L equations are solved backwards in time from EOC to BOC to reflect the adjoint nature of the Lagrange multipliers. Cycle length extension calculations of a first cycle AP600 plant verify our implementation effort, yielding a nearly identical loading pattern to that issued by Westinghouse in the AP600 Safety Analysis Report. Utilizing a self-generated Pu recycling mode, our in-core optimization methodology is coupled with an equilibrium cycle methodology to arrive at an optimized asymptotic Pu inventory and composition. Beginning with a poor loading pattern, our LWR optimization package improves the core performance by reducing the maximum power peaking factor from 2.0 to 1.4, yielding a net increase of 7 days from the initial cycle length. Our LWR optimization package also improves the path to Pu inventory stabilization by yielding a 7% lower Pu inventory at equilibrium for our optimized case.

  11. Radionuclide imaging of osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide procedures frequently are performed as part of the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. Degenerative joint disease, fracture, and orthopedic hardware decrease the specificity of the bone scan, making it less useful in these situations. Gallium-67 scintigraphy was often used as an adjunct to bone scintigraphy for diagnosing osteomyelitis. However, now it is used primarily for spinal infections when (18)F-FDG imaging cannot be performed. Except for the spine, in vitro-labeled leukocyte imaging is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing complicating osteomyelitis. Leukocytes accumulate in bone marrow as well as in infection. Performing complementary bone marrow imaging with (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid facilitates the differentiation between osteomyelitis and normal marrow and improves test overall accuracy. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments, such as (99m)Tc-besilesomab and (99m)Tc-sulesomab, were developed to eliminate the disadvantages associated with in vitro-labeled leukocytes. These agents, however, have their own shortcomings and are not widely available. As biotin is used as a growth factor by certain bacteria, (111)In-biotin is useful to diagnose spinal infections. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of ubiquicidin, a naturally occurring human antimicrobial peptide that targets bacteria, can differentiate infection from sterile inflammation and may be useful to monitor response to treatment. (18)F-FDG is extremely useful in the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Sensitivity in excess of 95% and specificity ranging from 75%-99% have been reported. (18)F-FDG is the radionuclide test of choice for spinal infection. The test is sensitive, with a high negative predictive value, and reliably differentiates degenerative from infectious vertebral body end-plate abnormalities. Data on the accuracy of (18)F-FDG for diagnosing diabetic pedal osteomyelitis are contradictory, and its role for this indication remains to be determined. Initial investigations suggested that (18)F-FDG accurately diagnoses prosthetic joint infection; more recent data indicate that it cannot differentiate infection from other causes of prosthetic failure. Preliminary data on the PET agents gallium-68 and iodine-124 fialuridine indicate that these agents may have a role in diagnosing osteomyelitis. PMID:25475377

  12. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  13. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the drift. The reason for introducing the fracture-matrix partitioning model is to broaden the conceptual model for flow beneath waste emplacement drifts in a way that does not rely on the specific flow behavior predicted by a dual continuum model and to ensure that radionuclide transport is not underestimated. The fracture-matrix partitioning model provides an alternative method of computing the partitioning of radionuclide releases from drifts without seepage into rock fractures and rock matrix. Drifts without seepage are much more likely to have a significant fraction of radionuclide releases into the rock matrix, and therefore warrant additional attention in terms of the partitioning model used for TSPA.

  14. Transmutation and induced radioactivity of W in the armor and first wall of fusion reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuji Noda; Mitsutane Fujita; Masatoshi Okada

    1998-01-01

    The transmutation and induced activity of W in the armor and first wall of a fusion reactor were calculated for various blanket compositions, taking account of multiple step reactions. Neutron spectra calculated with ANISN showed that the flux of low energy neutrons at both armor and first wall using water coolant is fairly high compared to liquid Li, He gas

  15. Transmutation and induced radioactivity of W in the armor and first wall of fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Tetsuji; Fujita, Mitsutane; Okada, Masatoshi

    1998-10-01

    The transmutation and induced activity of W in the armor and first wall of a fusion reactor were calculated for various blanket compositions, taking account of multiple step reactions. Neutron spectra calculated with ANISN showed that the flux of low energy neutrons at both armor and first wall using water coolant is fairly high compared to liquid Li, He gas and FliBe coolants. About 4% of W transmutes to Re for the W armor of all blankets after 10 MWy/m 2 irradiation and is not affected by the difference in blanket composition. On the other hand, W in the first wall substantially transmutes to Re followed by Os for the water cooled blanket. For the longer irradiation, W was predicted to transmute to Os base alloy. The induced activity of the W armor is hardly influenced by the neutron spectrum. The formation of 186mRe and 186Re controlling the induced activity of the armor for long cooling times is not significant from the viewpoint of the safety level.

  16. Transmutation data for actinide samples exposed in the Dounreay prototype fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, B.D.; Raman, S.; Dickens, J.K.; Walker, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Newton, T.D. [AEA Technology, Dounreay (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    The United States and the United kingdom have been participating in a program to unvestigate the transmutation of actinides in the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor. Twenty one actinide species were investigated and the samples were analyzed. Fission product yield results are discussed.

  17. Fuel design for the U.S. accelerator driven transmutation system.

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M. K.; Hayes, S. L.; Crawford, D. C.; Pahl, R. G.; Tsai, H.

    2002-02-18

    The U.S. concept for actinide transmutation is currently envisioned as a system to destroy plutonium as well as minor actinides in a single or two tier system. In order to maximize the actinide destruction rate, an inert matrix fuel is used. The effectiveness of transmutation in reducing the actinide inventory is linked to the development of a robust fuel system, capable of achieving very high burnup. Very little fuel performance data has been generated to date on inert matrix systems, and there are several issues specific to the behavior of higher actinides that do not allow extension of the existing uranium-plutonium fuel database to these new fuels. These issues include helium production, fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction, and americium migration. In the early 1990's, two U-Pu-Zr metal alloy fuel elements containing 1.2 wt.% Am and 1.3 wt.% Np were fabricated and irradiated to approximately 6 at.% burnup in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Postirradiation examination results were not published; however the recent interest in fuel for actinide transmutation has prompted a reexamination of this data. The results of the postirradiation examination of this experiment, including gas sampling, metallography, and gamma scanning are discussed. Available data on inert matrix fuels and other fuels incorporating actinides are used to assess the implications of minor-actinide specific issues on transmuter fuel. Considerations for the design of nitride and oxide fuels, metallic fuels, and metal-matrix dispersion fuels are discussed.

  18. The Effects of Flux Spectrum Perturbation on Transmutation of Actinides: Optimizing the Production of Transcurium Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Hogle, Susan L [ORNL] [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL] [ORNL; Alexander, Charles W [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This research presented herein involves the optimization of transcurium production in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Due to the dependence of isotope cross sections on incoming neutron energy, the efficiency with which an isotope is transmuted is highly dependent upon the flux spectrum. There are certain energy bands in which the rate of fission of transcurium production feedstock materials is minimized, relative to the rate of non-fission absorptions. It is proposed that by perturbing the flux spectrum, it is possible to increase the amount of key isotopes, such as 249Bk and 252Cf, that are produced during a transmutation cycle, relative to the consumption of feedstock material. This optimization process is carried out by developing an iterative objective framework involving problem definition, flux spectrum and cross section analysis, simulated transmutation, and analysis of final yields and transmutation parameters. It is shown that it is possible to perturb the local flux spectrum in the transcurium target by perturbing the composition of the target. It is further shown that these perturbations are able to alter the target yields in a non-negligible way. Future work is necessary to develop the optimization framework, and identify the necessary algorithms to update the problem definition based upon progress towards the optimization goals.

  19. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  20. Radionuclide salivary gland imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Mishkin, F.S.

    1981-10-01

    Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

  1. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

    1998-07-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

  2. Microgamma Scan System for analyzing radial isotopic profiles of irradiated transmutation fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce A. Hilton; Christopher A. McGrath

    2008-05-01

    The U. S. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership / Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (GNEP/AFCI) is developing metallic transmutation alloys as a fuel form to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products. The AFCI program has irradiated and examined eleven metallic alloy transmutation fuel specimens to evaluate the feasibility of actinide transmutation in advanced sodium-cooled fast reactors and thermal reactor implementation. Initial results of postirradiation examinations indicated the irradiation performance of the actinide-bearing compositions is similar to uranium-plutonium-zirconium ternary metallic alloy fuels (U-xPu-10Zr). Further studies to characterize radial burnup profile, constituent migration, and fuel cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) are in progress. A microgamma scan system is being developed to analyze the radial distribution of fission products, such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Ru-106, and Zr-95, in irradiated fuel cross-sections. The microgamma scan system consists of a set of indexed sample collimator blocks and a sample holder, which interfaces with the INL Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell (ALHC) Gamma Scan System high purity germanium detector, multichannel analyzer, and removable collimators. The microgamma scan results will be used to evaluate radial burnup profile, cesium migration to the sodium bond and constituent migration within the fuel. These data will further clarify the comparative irradiation performance of actinide-bearing metallic transmutation fuel forms and uranium-plutonium-zirconium alloys. Preliminary measurements of the microgamma scan system will be discussed. A simplified model of the microgamma scan system was developed in MCNP and used to investigate the system performance and to interpret data from the scoping studies. Recommendations for improving the MCGS analyses are discussed.

  3. Radionuclide Migration Project 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddemeier, R. W.; Isherwood, D.

    1985-04-01

    The report discusses the hydrogeologic settings and histories of studies associated with the Cheshire (U20n), Cambric (U5e), Nash (UE2ce), Bilby (U3cn), Bourbon (U7n), and Faultless (UC1) Events. Radionuclide and some chemical data are presented for water samples from cavity or chimney wells associated with the Cheshire, Cambric, and Bilby Events, and from satellite wells at the Cambric, Nash, Bibly, Bourbon, and Faultless Event sites. The report also gives the results of studies of specific sampling or analytical methodologies. These studies demonstrated that the apparent migration of (155)Eu is an artfact of spectrometric misidentification of gamma- and X-ray peaks from other constituents. A potential problem with atmospheric contamination of samples collected with evacuated thief samples was also identified. Ultrafiltration techniques were applied to some of the Cheshire cavity samples collected, and preliminary results suggest that substantial amounts of activity may be associated with colloidal particles in the size range of 0.006 to 0.45 (MU)m. A study has begun of the recharge of effluent water from RNM-25 (Cambric satellite well) into the desert floor as a result of nine years of continuous pumping. This report gives the initial results of unsaturated zone studies showing the propagation of moisture and tritium fronts through the shallow soil. Geochemical modeling of the behavior of ruthenium and technetium was carried out, with particular emphasis on the identification of ionic species that would be potentially mobile under NTS ground-water conditions. The report compares the results with observations of ruthenium migration to the Cambric satellite well.

  4. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Knapp, Furn F Russ

    2015-03-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a site-directed targeted therapeutic strategy that specifically uses radiolabeled peptides as biological targeting vectors designed to deliver cytotoxic levels of radiation dose to cancer cells, which overexpress specific receptors. Interest in PRRT has steadily grown because of the advantages of targeting cellular receptors in vivo with high sensitivity as well as specificity and treatment at the molecular level. Recent advances in molecular biology have not only stimulated advances in PRRT in a sustainable manner but have also pushed the field significantly forward to several unexplored possibilities. Recent decades have witnessed unprecedented endeavors for developing radiolabeled receptor-binding somatostatin analogs for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors, which have played an important role in the evolution of PRRT and paved the way for the development of other receptor-targeting peptides. Several peptides targeting a variety of receptors have been identified, demonstrating their potential to catalyze breakthroughs in PRRT. In this review, the authors discuss several of these peptides and their analogs with regard to their applications and potential in radionuclide therapy. The advancement in the availability of combinatorial peptide libraries for peptide designing and screening provides the capability of regulating immunogenicity and chemical manipulability. Moreover, the availability of a wide range of bifunctional chelating agents opens up the scope of convenient radiolabeling. For these reasons, it would be possible to envision a future where the scope of PRRT can be tailored for patient-specific application. While PRRT lies at the interface between many disciplines, this technology is inextricably linked to the availability of the therapeutic radionuclides of required quality and activity levels and hence their production is also reviewed. PMID:25710506

  5. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  6. Radionuclide injury to the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, G.E.; Sanders, C.L.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequently observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. 88 references.

  7. Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-03-08

    Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

  8. HYPERFUSE: a novel inertial confinement system utilizing hypervelocity projectiles for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Makowitz, H; Powell, J R; Wiswall, R

    1980-01-01

    Parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from an LWR economy have been carried out. The ICF reactors would produce net power in addition to transmuting fission products. The particular ICF concept examined is an impact fusion approach termed HYPERFUSE, in which hypervelocity pellets, traveling on the order of 100 to 300 km/sec, collide with each other or a target block in a reactor chamber and initiate a thermonuclear reaction. The DT fusion fuel is contained in a shell of the material to be transmuted, e.g., /sup 137/Cs or /sup 90/Sr. The 14-MeV fusion neutrons released during the pellet burn cause transmutation reactions (e.g., (n, 2n), (n, ..cap alpha..), etc.) that convert the long lived fission products (FP's) either to stable products or to species that decay with a short half-life to a stable product.

  9. Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cressy, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

  10. 100 years of radionuclide metrology.

    PubMed

    Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Toraño, E; Wätjen, U

    2014-05-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. PMID:24398412

  11. HYPER-FUSE - A novel inertial confinement system utilizing hypervelocity projectiles for fusion energy production and fission waste transmutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakowitz, H.; Powell, J. R.; Wiswall, R.

    A conservative, simplified analytical model is adapted to carry out the parametric system studies of an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor system to transmute fission products from a LWR. The principal parameters of interest are mentioned. Other fission products of possible interest for transmutation are analyzed. Possible reactor design for hyper-fuse are examined and the rail gun accelerator is found promising for propelling the pellets to the required velocities.

  12. Treatment planning for molecular targeted radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Siantar, Christine Hartmann; Vetter, Kai; DeNardo, Gerald L; DeNardo, Sally J

    2002-06-01

    Molecular targeted radionuclide therapy promises to expand the usefulness of radiation to successfully treat widespread cancer. The unique properties of radioactive tags make it possible to plan treatments by predicting the radiation absorbed dose to both tumors and normal organs, using a pre-treatment test dose of radiopharmaceutical. This requires a combination of quantitative, high-resolution, radiation-detection hardware and computerized dose-estimation software, and would ideally include biological dose-response data in order to translate radiation absorbed dose into biological effects. Data derived from conventional (external beam) radiation therapy suggests that accurate assessment of the radiation absorbed dose in dose-limiting normal organs could substantially improve the observed clinical response for current agents used in a myeloablative regimen, enabling higher levels of tumor control at lower tumor-to-normal tissue therapeutic indices. Treatment planning based on current radiation detection and simulations technology is sufficient to impact on clinical response. The incorporation of new imaging methods, combined with patient-specific radiation transport simulations, promises to provide unprecedented levels of resolution and quantitative accuracy, which are likely to increase the impact of treatment planning in targeted radionuclide therapy. PMID:12136519

  13. Evaluation of transuranium isotopes inventory for Candu/ACR standard and SEU spent fuel and the possibility to transmute them

    SciTech Connect

    Ghizdeanu, Elena Nineta; Pavelescu, Alexandru [University Politehnica of Bucharest - Faculty of Power Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, RO-060042, Bucharest 6 (Romania); Balaceanu, Victoria [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului Str., 1, Mioveni P.O. Box 78, 0300 Pitesti (Romania)

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The main disadvantage of nuclear energy is the quantity of long lived radioactive waste produced in a NPP. Transmutation could be one of the solutions to reduce it. Waste transmutation will require a suitable deployment of techniques for spent fuel reprocessing. At present, reprocessing is done by aqueous methods that are very efficient for Pu separation (up to 99.9%). For transmutation applications, new partitioning processes must be developed for minor actinides separation from the high level waste. Although these processes are still very much at the research stage, industrial scale-up will result in the deployment of new, more specific separation techniques for transmutation applications. Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) techniques could contribute to reduce the radioactive inventory and its associated radio-toxicity. Scientists are looking for ways to drastically reduce both the mass and the radio-toxicity of the nuclear waste to be stored in a deep geological repository, and to reduce the time needed to reach the radioactivity level of the raw material originally used to produce energy. The first stage in the transmutation process is the isotopes inventory formed in the spent fuel. In this paper is made an intercomparison evaluation using WIMS 5B.12 and ORIGEN computer codes. Using these two codes, there is evaluated the isotopes released by a fuel standard from a Candu reactor. Moreover, there is simulated an inventory released by a Candu-SEU reactor and an ACR reactor. (authors)

  14. Basic Information about the Radionuclides Rule

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Air and Radiation has additional information about radioactivity and specific types of radionuclides. Understanding Radiation Radionuclides ... risk of getting cancer. Beta Particle and Photon Radioactivity 4 mrem/year (look-up table) (1976) May ...

  15. Implications of transmutation on the defect chemistry in crystalline waste forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uberuaga, B. P.; Jiang, C.; Stanek, C. R.; Sickafus, K. E.; Marks, N. A.; Carter, D. J.; Rohl, A. L.

    2010-10-01

    Radioactive decay within the solid state creates chemical environments which are typically incommensurate with the initial host structure. Using a combined theoretical and computational approach, we discuss this 'transmutation problem' in the context of the short-lived fission products Cs-137 and Sr-90. We show how a Kröger-Vink treatment is insufficient for understanding defects arising from transmutation, and present density functional theory data for chemical evolution within two prototypical hosts, CsCl and SrTiO 3. While the latter has a strong driving force for phase separation with increasing Zr content, the Cs(Ba)Cl system is surprisingly stable. The sharp difference between these two findings points to the need for better understanding of novel chemistry in nuclear waste forms.

  16. Transmutation of Matter in Byzantium: The Case of Michael Psellos, the Alchemist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsiampoura, Gianna

    2008-06-01

    There is thus nothing paradoxical about the inclusion of alchemy in the ensemble of the physical sciences nor in the preoccupation with it on the part of learned men engaged in scientific study. In the context of the Medieval model, where discourse on the physical world was ambiguous, often unclear, and lacking the support of experimental verification, the transmutation of matter, which was the subject of alchemy, even if not attended by a host of occult features, was a process that was thought to have a probable basis in reality. What is interesting in this connection is the utilization of the scientific categories of the day for discussion of transmutation of matter and the attempt to avoid, in most instances in the texts that survive, of methods reminiscent of magic.

  17. Zirconate pyrochlore as a transmutation target: thermal behaviour and radiation resistance against fission fragment impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutique, S.; Staicu, D.; Konings, R. J. M.; Rondinella, V. V.; Somers, J.; Wiss, T.

    2003-06-01

    Zirconates with the pyrochlore structure (A 2Zr 2O 7) are investigated at ITU for use as an actinide host in inert matrix fuels for transmutation. Zirconate pyrochlores with A=Nd as an inactive stand in for the trivalent actinides Am and Cm were fabricated and characterised, and their thermal transport properties measured. The low thermal conductivity indicates that zirconate pyrochlore can only be used for transmutation if it is dispersed in a cercer or cermet composite fuel. The temperature profiles of a MgO-An 2Zr 2O 7 composite were calculated using the measured Nd-zirconate thermal conductivity for different concentrations of the included phase. The radiation stability of Nd 2Zr 2O 7 against fission products (FP) was investigated using iodine irradiation (120 MeV). Significant alterations of the implanted regions were observed even at relatively low fluence.

  18. Hydrogen bond disruption in DNA base pairs from (14)C transmutation.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Michel; Carter, Damien J; Uberuaga, Blas P; Stanek, Christopher R; Mancera, Ricardo L; Marks, Nigel A

    2014-09-01

    Recent ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have shown that radioactive carbon does not normally fragment DNA bases when it decays. Motivated by this finding, density functional theory and Bader analysis have been used to quantify the effect of C ? N transmutation on hydrogen bonding in DNA base pairs. We find that (14)C decay has the potential to significantly alter hydrogen bonds in a variety of ways including direct proton shuttling (thymine and cytosine), thermally activated proton shuttling (guanine), and hydrogen bond breaking (cytosine). Transmutation substantially modifies both the absolute and relative strengths of the hydrogen bonding pattern, and in two instances (adenine and cytosine), the density at the critical point indicates development of mild covalent character. Since hydrogen bonding is an important component of Watson-Crick pairing, these (14)C-induced modifications, while infrequent, may trigger errors in DNA transcription and replication. PMID:25127298

  19. High-power proton linac for transmuting the long-lived fission products in nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    High power proton linacs are being considered at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux spallation neutron sources that can be used to transmute the troublesome long-lived fission products in defense nuclear waste. The transmutation scheme being studied provides a high flux (> 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}{minus}s) of thermal neutrons, which efficiently converts fission products to stable or short-lived isotopes. A medium-energy proton linac with an average beam power of about 110 MW can burn the accumulated Tc99 and I129 inventory at the DOE's Hanford Site within 30 years. Preliminary concepts for this machine are described. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Comparative Fuel Cycle Analysis of Critical and Subcritical Fast Reactor Transmutation Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward A. Hoffman; Weston M. Stacey

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cycle analyses are performed to evaluate the impacts of further transmutation of spent nuclear fuel on high-level and low-level waste mass flows into repositories, on the composition and toxicity of the high-level waste, on the capacity of high-level waste repositories, and on the proliferation resistance of the high-level waste. Storage intact of light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel,

  1. Design study of lead-bismuth cooled ADS dedicated to nuclear waste transmutation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takakazu Takizuka; Kazufumi Tsujimoto; Toshinobu Sasa; Kenji Nishihara; Hideki Takano

    2002-01-01

    Research and development on nuclear waste transmutation are being carried out with a special emphasis placed on dedicated accelerator-driven systems at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute under the Japanese OMEGA Program. The reference accelerator-driven system design employs eutectic lead-bismuth as spallation target material and coolant. The fuel for the subcritical core is minor-actinide mononitride. The system consists of a

  2. Minor actinide transmutation in thorium and uranium matrices in heavy water moderated reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, Zaki; Hyland, B.; Edwards, G.W.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, 1 Plant Road, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The irradiation of Th{sup 232} breeds fewer of the problematic minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) than the irradiation of U{sup 238}. This characteristic makes thorium an attractive potential matrix for the transmutation of these minor actinides, as these species can be transmuted without the creation of new actinides as is the case with a uranium fuel matrix. Minor actinides are the main contributors to long term decay heat and radiotoxicity of spent fuel, so reducing their concentration can greatly increase the capacity of a long term deep geological repository. Mixing minor actinides with thorium, three times more common in the Earth's crust than natural uranium, has the additional advantage of improving the sustainability of the fuel cycle. In this work, lattice cell calculations have been performed to determine the results of transmuting minor actinides from light water reactor spent fuel in a thorium matrix. 15-year-cooled group-extracted transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am, Cm) from light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel were used as the fissile component in a thorium-based fuel in a heavy water moderated reactor (HWR). The minor actinide (MA) transmutation rates, spent fuel activity, decay heat and radiotoxicity, are compared with those obtained when the MA were mixed instead with natural uranium and taken to the same burnup. Each bundle contained a central pin containing a burnable neutron absorber whose initial concentration was adjusted to have the same reactivity response (in units of the delayed neutron fraction ?) for coolant voiding as standard NU fuel. (authors)

  3. Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) germanium thermistors for sub-mm bolometer applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haller, E. E.; Itoh, K. M.; Beeman, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) semiconductor thermistors fabricated from natural and controlled isotopic composition germanium are reported. The near ideal doping uniformity that can be achieved with the NTD process, the device simplicity of NTD Ge thermistors and the high performance of cooled junction field effect transistor preamplifiers led to the widespread acceptance of these thermal sensors in ground-based, airborne and spaceborne radio telescopes. These features made possible the development of efficient bolometer arrays.

  4. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

    1984-09-12

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  5. Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages

    DOEpatents

    Brodzinski, Ronald L. (Richland, WA); Perkins, Richard W. (Richland, WA); Rieck, Henry G. (Richland, WA); Wogman, Ned A. (Richland, WA)

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

  6. Tumor immunotargeting using innovative radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  7. Tumor Immunotargeting Using Innovative Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Mathieu, Cédric; Guérard, François; Frampas, Eric; Carlier, Thomas; Chouin, Nicolas; Haddad, Ferid; Chatal, Jean-François; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects and recent developments in the use of antibodies to target radionuclides for tumor imaging and therapy. While radiolabeled antibodies have been considered for many years in this context, only a few have reached the level of routine clinical use. However, alternative radionuclides, with more appropriate physical properties, such as lutetium-177 or copper-67, as well as alpha-emitting radionuclides, including astatine-211, bismuth-213, actinium-225, and others are currently reviving hopes in cancer treatments, both in hematological diseases and solid tumors. At the same time, PET imaging, with short-lived radionuclides, such as gallium-68, fluorine-18 or copper-64, or long half-life ones, particularly iodine-124 and zirconium-89 now offers new perspectives in immuno-specific phenotype tumor imaging. New antibody analogues and pretargeting strategies have also considerably improved the performances of tumor immunotargeting and completely renewed the interest in these approaches for imaging and therapy by providing theranostics, companion diagnostics and news tools to make personalized medicine a reality. PMID:25679452

  8. International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christmas, P.

    1989-12-01

    The International Committee for Radionuclide Metrology (ICRM) held its most recent series of meetings during 5 to 9 June 1989 in Braunschweig, FRG, at the invitation of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The meeting began with a personal welcome from Professor D. Kind, President of PTB.

  9. RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    We propose a research program directed toward developing novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. In order to meet the requirements for isotope specific detection at ultra-low re...

  10. Neutron-induced transmutation effects in W and W-alloys in a fusion environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, M. R.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    2011-04-01

    W and W-alloys are among the primary candidate materials for plasma-facing components in the design of fusion reactors, particularly in high-heat-flux regions such as the divertor. Under neutron irradiation W undergoes transmutation to its near-neighbours in the periodic table. Additionally He and H are particles emitted from certain neutron-induced reactions, and this is particularly significant in fusion research since the presence of helium in a material can cause both swelling and a strong increase in brittleness. This paper presents the results of inventory burn-up calculations on pure W and gives quantitative estimates for He production rates in both a fusion-reactor environment and under conditions expected in the ITER experimental device. Transmutation reactions in possible alloying elements (Re, Ta, Ti and V), which could be used to reduce the brittleness of pure W, are also considered. Additionally, for comparison, the transmutation of other fusion-relevant materials, including Fe and SiC, are presented.

  11. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-12-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11-12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides as well as (40)K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides in the oil shale combustion products. PMID:24661430

  12. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

  13. (Environmental technology)

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  14. An accelerator technology legacy

    SciTech Connect

    Heighway, E.A.

    1994-11-01

    Accelerator technology has been a major beneficiary of the investment made over the last decade. It is the intention of this paper to provide the reader with a glimpse of the broad nature of those advances. Development has been on a broad front and this paper can highlight only a few of those. Two spin-off applications will be outlined -- a concept for a compact, active, beam probe for solar body exploration and the concept for an accelerator-driven transmutation system for energy production.

  15. Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))

    1990-07-01

    A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

  16. The technical and economic impact of minor actinide transmutation in a sodium fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, G. M.; Morin, F. [Alternative Energy and Atomic Energy Commission, CEA, DEN, F - 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Dechelette, F.; Sanseigne, E. [Alternative Energy and Atomic Energy Commission, CEA, DEN DTN, F - 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Chabert, C. [Alternative Energy and Atomic Energy Commission, CEA, DEN, F - 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2012-07-01

    Within the frame work of the French National Act of June 28, 2006 pertaining to the management of high activity, long-lived radioactive waste, one of the proposed processes consists in transmuting the Minor Actinides (MA) in the radial blankets of a Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). With this option, we may assess the additional cost of the reactor by comparing two SFR designs, one with no Minor Actinides, and the other involving their transmutation. To perform this exercise, we define a reference design called SFRref, of 1500 MWe that is considered to be representative of the Reactor System. The SFRref mainly features a pool architecture with three pumps, six loops with one steam generator per loop. The reference core is the V2B core that was defined by the CEA a few years ago for the Reactor System. This architecture is designed to meet current safety requirements. In the case of transmutation, for this exercise we consider that the fertile blanket is replaced by two rows of assemblies having either 20% of Minor Actinides or 20% of Americium. The assessment work is performed in two phases. - The first consists in identifying and quantifying the technical differences between the two designs: the reference design without Minor Actinides and the design with Minor Actinides. The main differences are located in the reactor vessel, in the fuel handling system and in the intermediate storage area for spent fuel. An assessment of the availability is also performed so that the impact of the transmutation can be known. - The second consists in making an economic appraisal of the two designs. This work is performed using the CEA's SEMER code. The economic results are shown in relative values. For a transmutation of 20% of MA in the assemblies (S/As) and a hypothesis of 4 kW allowable for the washing device, there is a large external storage demanding a very long cooling time of the S/As. In this case, the economic impact may reach 5% on the capital part of the Levelized Unit Electricity Cost (LUEC). A diminished concentration at 10% of MA, reduces the size of the external storage and the cooling time of the assemblies becomes compatible with the management of the irradiated fuel. Even with a low allowable power for the washing device, the economic impact on the capital cost is less than 2.5%. (authors)

  17. Electrochemical separation is an attractive strategy for development of radionuclide generators for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh; Pillai, M R A

    2012-07-01

    Electrochemical separation techniques are not widely used in radionuclide generator technology and only a few studies have been reported [1-4]. Nevertheless, this strategy is useful when other parent-daughter separation techniques are not effective or not possible. Such situations are frequent when low specific activity (LSA) parent radionuclides are used for instance with adsorption chromatographic separations, which can result in lower concentration of the daughter radionuclide in the eluent. In addition, radiation instability of the column matrix in many cases can affect the performance of the generator when long lived parent radionuclides are used. Intricate knowledge of the chemistry involved in the electrochemical separation is crucial to develop a reproducible technology that ensures that the pure daughter radionuclide can be obtained in a reasonable time of operation. Crucial parameters to be critically optimized include the applied potential, choice of electrolyte, selection of electrodes, temperature of electrolyte bath and the time of electrolysis in order to ensure that the daughter radionuclide can be reproducibly recovered in high yields and high purity. The successful electrochemical generator technologies which have been developed and are discussed in this paper include the (90)Sr/(90)Y, (188)W/(188)Re and (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generators. Electrochemical separation not only acts as a separation technique but also is an effective concentration methodology which yields high radioactive concentrations of the daughter products. The lower consumption of reagents and minimal generation of radioactive wastes using such electrochemical techniques are compatible with 'green chemistry' principles. PMID:22642386

  18. The application of gas-cooled reactor technologies to the transmutation of nuclear waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Baxter; Carmelo Rodriguez

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear waste from commercial power plants contains large quantities of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and long-lived fission products that pose long-term safe storage problems. Along with materials from weapons decommissioning programs, they are also a proliferation concern. Based on current levels of global nuclear power generation, it is estimated that by 2015 there will be more than 250,000 tons of

  19. Feasibility study of minor actinide transmutation in light-water reactors with various AM/CM separation efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tincher, Daniell

    Implementing a viable solution for the disposition of used nuclear fuel (UNF) raises concerns due its high radiotoxicity and decay heat generation over long time periods. The major contributors to these are the minor actinides (MA) that are contained in the UNF. The strategy of Partition and Transmutation (P&T) separates the components of UNF to treat each separated stream in the manner that is most appropriate. The MA stream can be reprocessed and fabricated with MOX fuel and recycled in a reactor. Through transmutation, reductions in the radiotoxicity and decay heat of UNF can be achieved, which reduces the length of time that UNF must be sequestered from the environment. Because of the greater fission to capture cross section ratio in a fast neutron spectrum, the transmutation of MA is most effective in fast spectrum systems. However, MA transmutation can be carried out, albeit less effectively, in a thermal spectrum. This work examines MA transmutation in a thermal spectrum because there are no currently operating commercial fast spectrum reactors in the U.S. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility of americium transmutation in a typical light water reactor. Due to similar chemical properties of americium and curium and the difficulty associated with their chemical separation, the separation efficiency of these two elements was also considered. Three separation efficiencies for the MA content were considered, and these were 99.9%, 99.0%, and 90.0% separation of Cm from Am. In addition, the homogeneous and heterogeneous additions of MA to MOX fuel were considered. Similar to current MOX loading schemes, the study simulated a reactor core with 30% of the fuel assemblies composed of MOX fuel bearing MA. This study measured the feasibility of MA transmutation by the reactivity of individual MOX+MA fuel assemblies and full cores, the coefficients of reactivity such as the Doppler Coefficient, Moderator Temperature Coefficient, and Moderator Void Coefficient, MA transmutation efficiency, and attainable burnup. Results show that the transmutation of MA in a light water reactor is feasible from a reactor safety and operation point of view. The reductions of the Am inventory in the UNF were between 40% and 60%. Despite these reductions, there was a significant increase in the Cm inventory, mostly due to the neutron capture of Am in the thermal spectrum.

  20. Chernobyl radionuclide distribution and migration.

    PubMed

    Izrael, Yury A

    2007-11-01

    The accident at Unit No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986 presented severe challenges in radiation protection. Early activity measurements defined the contaminated areas in order to determine what persons should be evacuated on the basis of the exposure limit at that time of 100 mSv (10 rem) for accidents. The immediate definition of these areas was accomplished with specially equipped aircraft capable of measuring external gamma-exposure rate and radionuclide spectra. Over time, maps of 137Cs contamination (the most important long-lived radionuclide) have become more and more sophisticated and have been used for further determinations of the control of the consequences of the accident. About 70% of the total release of 137Cs was deposited in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine; but there was also widespread deposition throughout the countries of Western Europe. Two atlases of contamination throughout Europe were prepared, and the Russian atlas included data on other radionuclides and on external gamma-exposure rates. The radiocesiums behaved as volatile radionuclides because of the volatility of cesium. In contrast to the typical pattern after nuclear weapons tests, 90Sr behaved only as a refractory element, as its volatile precursors krypton and rubidium had already decayed within the reactor. Nearly all of the refractory elements (strontium, plutonium, etc.) released by the accident were confined to the 30-km zone around the reactor. A proposal is made to develop a more complete atlas of 137Cs deposition from the accident that would include the entire Northern Hemisphere. Water was not an important vector of exposure to human beings following the accident. PMID:18049217

  1. Radiolytic decomposition and corrosion of a heavy-water blanket for accelerator driven transmutation Modeling and experimental tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulikov, I. A.; Aleksandrov, V. V.; Makarov, V. M.; Volk, V. I.; Vakhrushin, A. Yu; Kazaritsky, V. D.

    The concept of a chemical-engineering complex and its operation stability is described for a radioactive-waste separation and transmutation plant. In the framework of the plant, this chemical complex runs in a closed cycle with a nuclear transmutation reactor driven by a 1 GeV-100 mA class accelerator. Heavy water provides circulation of materials to be transmuted in the reactor blanket and transports the irradiated suspension to and from the chemical-engineering complex for reprocessing and further disposal of transmutation products. Modeling and experimental tests of radiolytic decomposition and corrosion were made in order to evaluate the operation stability of the desired separation and transmutation cycle. Preliminary calculations were made for some methods to suppress gas evolution from water (deuterium) solutions with thorium and transuranium nuclides or from suspensions of their oxides at a pressure of 10 MPa, a temperature of 285°C and radiation doses up to 5×10 7 Gy. The results were checked experimentally. Also the change in size of the suspended particles during irradiation was measured. Additionally, corrosion rates of zirconium alloy tubes were estimated from experiments under the same conditions.

  2. Radionuclide behavior in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  3. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1998-09-15

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

  4. Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

  5. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with toxic elements and radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, J.E.; Goldberg, W.C. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Levine, R.S. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Technology Development; Benemann, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    At many US Department of Energy (US DOE) facilities and other sites, surface soils over relatively large areas are contaminated with heavy metals, radionuclides, and other toxic elements, often at only a relatively small factor above regulatory action levels. Cleanup of such sites presents major challenges, because currently available soil remediation technologies can be very expensive. In response, the US DOE`s Office of Technology Development, through the Western Environmental Technology Office, is sponsoring research in the area of phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses higher plants to transfer toxic elements and radionuclides from surface soils into aboveground biomass. Some plants, termed hyperaccumulators, take up toxic elements in substantial amounts, resulting in concentrations in aboveground biomass over 100 times those observed with conventional plants. After growth, the plant biomass is harvested, and the toxic elements are concentrated and reclaimed or disposed of. As growing, harvesting, and processing plant biomass is relatively inexpensive, phytoremediation can be a low-cost technology for remediation of extensive areas having lightly to moderately contaminated soils. This paper reviews the potential of hyper- and moderate accumulator plants in soil remediation, provides some comparative cost estimates, and outlines ongoing work initiated by the US DOE.

  6. Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

    2009-01-07

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  7. Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1994-04-01

    In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

  8. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

    1990-11-13

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

  9. Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (GlenEllyn, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  10. Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1991-01-01

    A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

  11. Neutron transmutation doped (Ntd) germanium thermistors for sub-Mm bolometer applications

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Engineering Div.; Itoh, K.M. [Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Dept. of Instrumental Engineering; Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Engineering Div.

    1996-09-01

    The authors report on recent advances in the development of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) semiconductor thermistors fabricated from germanium of natural and controlled isotopic composition. The near ideal doping uniformity which can be achieved with the NTD process, the device simplicity of NTD Ge thermistors and the high performance of cooled junction field effect transistor (FET) preamplifiers have led to the widespread acceptance of these thermal sensors in many radiotelescopes operating on the ground, on high altitude aircraft and on spaceborne satellites. These features also have made possible the development of efficient bolometer arrays which are beginning to produce exciting results.

  12. Safety-related neutronics parameters of a molten salt actinide recycler and transmuter

    SciTech Connect

    Rineiski, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe FZK, Inst. for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, B. 421, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ignatiev, V. [RRC-Kurchatov Inst. (RRC-KI), 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Da Cruz, D. [NRG, Fuels, Actinides and Isotopes, P.O. box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Dulla, S. [Politecnico di Torino Polito, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Feinberg, O. [RRC-Kurchatov Inst. (RRC-KI), 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Malambu, E. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Dept., Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Maschek, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe FZK, Inst. for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, B. 421, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Stanculescu, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, Dept. of Nuclear Energy, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Szieberth, M. [Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics BME, Mueegyetem rkp. 3, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Wang, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe FZK, Inst. for Nuclear and Energy Technologies, B. 421, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes studies on reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters in a fertile-free molten salt reactor. This reactor concept originated at RRC-KI for burning and transmutation of LWR spent fuel. The studies are performed at several institutions in the framework of a Coordinated Research Project initiated by the IAEA. The participants investigated the influence of different codes, computation techniques and nuclear data libraries on the neutronics parameters. It is shown that the reactivity coefficients are favorable for reactor safety. (authors)

  13. Vaporisation of candidate nuclear fuels and targets for transmutation of minor actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotcu-Freis, P.; Hiernaut, J.-P.; Colle, J.-Y.; Nästrén, C.; Carretero, A. Fernandez; Konings, R. J. M.

    2011-04-01

    The thermal stability and high temperature behaviour of candidate fuels and targets for transmutation of minor actinides has been investigated. Zirconia-based solid solution, MgO-based CERCER and molybdenum-based CERMET fuels containing Am and/or Pu in various concentrations were heated up to 2700 K in a Knudsen cell coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer, to measure their vapour pressure and vapour composition. The results reveal that the vaporisation of the actinides from the samples is not only determined by the thermodynamics of the system but is also related to the dynamic evolution of multi-component mixtures with complex composition or microstructure.

  14. The impact of different {sup 237}Np data on the performance of the Phoenix transmutation system

    SciTech Connect

    Pelloni, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    The transmutation effectiveness and its sensitivity to the uncertainty in {sup 237}Np data were evaluated for an accelerator driven, subcritical, minor actinide fuelled, sodium cooled target, called PHOENIX. Nuclear data were taken from the JEF-2.2 evaluation. In addition ENDF/B-VI cross sections were used for {sup 237}Np. Significant discrepancies were found in the JEF-2.2 and ENDF/B-VI results (3.3 % in k{sub eff}, the JEF-2.2 value is smaller). The k{sub eff} discrepancies primarily originate from differences in X and {bar V} data.

  15. Inert matrix fuels for incineration of plutonium and transmutation of americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzke, Hj.

    2000-07-01

    In conventional U-based nuclear fuels, both Pu and higher actinides (mainly Am, but also Np and Cm) are formed by neutron capture reactions and ?- or ?-decay. If a strategy of reprocessing is adopted as in some European nations and in Japan, the separated Pu can be recycled as (U, Pu)O2 (or mixed-oxide—MOX) fuel. The high-level liquid waste of reprocessing is presently vitrified. However, the alternative of separating the minor actinides from the fission products (partitioning) and subsequent transmutation in existing reactors or in new dedicated actinide burners is widely studied as a possible means to reduce the radiotoxicity of the waste.

  16. Flowsheet report for baseline actinide blanket processing for accelerator transmutation of waste

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.B.

    1992-04-08

    We provide a flowsheet analysis of the chemical processing of actinide and fission product materials form the actinide blanket of an accelerator-based transmutation concept. An initial liquid ion exchange step is employed to recover unburned plutonium and neptunium, so that it can be returned quickly to the transmitter. The remaining materials, consisting of fission products and trivalent actinides (americium, curium), is processed after a cooling period. A reverse Talspeak process is employed to separate these trivalent actinides from lanthanides and other fission products.

  17. A Novel Molten Salt Reactor Concept to Implement the Multi-Step Time-Scheduled Transmutation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Csom, Gyula; Feher, Sandor; Szieberthj, Mate [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp. 3-9, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary)

    2002-07-01

    Nowadays the molten salt reactor (MSR) concept seems to revive as one of the most promising systems for the realization of transmutation. In the molten salt reactors and subcritical systems the fuel and material to be transmuted circulate dissolved in some molten salt. The main advantage of this reactor type is the possibility of the continuous feed and reprocessing of the fuel. In the present paper a novel molten salt reactor concept is introduced and its transmutation capabilities are studied. The goal is the development of a transmutation technique along with a device implementing it, which yield higher transmutation efficiencies than that of the known procedures and thus results in radioactive waste whose load on the environment is reduced both in magnitude and time length. The procedure is the multi-step time-scheduled transmutation, in which transformation is done in several consecutive steps of different neutron flux and spectrum. In the new MSR concept, named 'multi-region' MSR (MRMSR), the primary circuit is made up of a few separate loops, in which salt-fuel mixtures of different compositions are circulated. The loop sections constituting the core region are only neutronically and thermally coupled. This new concept makes possible the utilization of the spatial dependence of spectrum as well as the advantageous features of liquid fuel such as the possibility of continuous chemical processing etc. In order to compare a 'conventional' MSR and a proposed MRMSR in terms of efficiency, preliminary calculational results are shown. Further calculations in order to find the optimal implementation of this new concept and to emphasize its other advantageous features are going on. (authors)

  18. Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Wai, C.M.; Fisher, D.R.

    2000-06-13

    The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: (a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; (b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and (c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: (a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; (b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and (c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: (a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; (b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and (c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

  19. Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xiaoyuan (Syracuse, NY); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Fisher, Darrell R. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

  20. Fractional order differential and integral equations with Erdélyi-Kober operators: Explicit solutions by means of the transmutation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryakova, Virginia S.

    2011-12-01

    By means of the transmutation method we construct explicit solutions of some fractional order Volterra integral equations of second kind, with one or two different Erdélyi-Kober operators, the latter involving hypergeometric integrals. The same method is applied to fractional differential and differ-integral equations, involving simultaneously Erdélyi-Kober fractional integrals and derivatives of different orders. The idea of this method is to use transmutation operators to reduce the solutions of the discussed problems to the known solutions of the simplest problems of the same type (in this case, with Riemann-Lioville operators). Some illustrative examples are given.

  1. Microstructural Changes In Thermally Cycled U-Pu-Zr-Am-Np Metallic Transmutation Fuel With 1.5% Lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Dawn E. Janney; J. Rory Kennedy

    2008-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is developing metallic actinide-zirconium alloy fuels for the transmutation of minor actinides as part of a closed fuel cycle. The molten salt electrochemical process to be used for fuel recycle has the potential to carry over up to 2% fission product lanthanide content into the fuel fabrication process. Within the scope of the fuel irradiation testing program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), candidate metal alloy transmutation fuels containing quantities of lanthanide elements have been fabricated, characterized, and delivered to the Advanced Test Reactor for irradiation testing.

  2. Rethinking High-Level Waste Disposal: Separate Disposal of High-Heat Radionuclides ({sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

    2000-08-15

    An alternative approach for disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is proposed. HLW would be separated into two fractions: (a) the high-heat radionuclides (HHRs), e.g., {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, and (b) the low-heat radionuclides (LHRs), which are all the remaining radionuclides. These two categories of waste would be disposed of separately in different sections of the repository or different facilities.The LHRs in the HLW contain the long-lived radionuclides that control the repository performance requirements that in turn necessitate (a) expensive waste packages (WPs) and (b) limiting the repository temperatures to avoid repository performance degradation. To limit repository temperature, the amount of HLW per WP is limited and the WPs are spread over a large area. If the decay-heat-generating HHRs are removed from HLW, the repository design is not controlled by decay heat. The resultant LHR repository size (area, number of WPs, total tunnel length) may be reduced to <20% of the size of a conventional repository. With a waste partitioning and transmutation process that includes removal of the minor actinides (americium and curium) from the LHR wastes, significant further reductions in repository size are possible. The minor actinides are the next largest heat generators in LHR wastes.Separate management of HHRs does require (a) separation of the HHRs from the HLW and (b) a separate HHR disposal facility. The HHRs are disposed of in a separate lower-cost facility made possible by the limited lifetimes (T{sub 1/2} {approx} 30 yr) of the HHRs. There are potentially significant gains in economics and repository performance for separate management of HHRs and LHRs in some types of fuel cycles.

  3. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 ...892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A radionuclide test pattern phantom is a device that consists of an...

  4. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section...Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device...

  5. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section...Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device...

  6. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section...Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device...

  7. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section...Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device...

  8. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section...Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device...

  9. Potential benefits of waste transmutation to the U.S. high-level waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Gordon E.

    1995-09-01

    This paper reexamines the potential benefits of waste transmutation to the proposed U.S. geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site based on recent progress in the performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain base case of spent fuel emplacement. It is observed that actinides are assumed to have higher solubility than in previous studies and that Np and other actinides now dominate the projected aqueous releases from a Yucca Mountain repository. Actinides are also identified as the dominant source of decay heat in the repository, and the effect of decay heat in perturbing the hydrology, geochemistry, and thermal characteristics of Yucca Mountain are reviewed. It is concluded that the potential for thermally-driven, buoyant, gas-phase flow at Yucca Mountain introduces data and modeling requirements that will increase the costs of licensing the site and may cause the site to be unattractive for geologic disposal of wastes. A transmutation-enabled cold repository is proposed that might allow licensing of a repository to be based upon currently observable characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site.

  10. Transmutation-induced embrittlement of vanadium and several vanadium alloys in HFIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuki, S.; Takahashi, H.; Garner, F. A.; Pawel, J. E.; Shiba, K.; Hishinuma, A.

    1996-10-01

    Vanadium, V?1Ni, V?10Ti and V?10Ti?1Ni (at%) were irradiated in HFIR to doses ranging from 18 to 30 dpa and temperatures between 300 and 600°C. Since the irradiation was conducted in a highly thermalized neutron spectrum without shielding against thermal neutrons, significant levels of chromium (15-22%) were formed by transmutation. The addition of such large chromium levels caused strong embrittlement. At higher irradiation temperatures radiation-induced segregation of transmutant Cr and solute Ti at specimen surfaces caused strong increases in the density of the alloy. The resultant shrinkage, possibly compounded by thermal cycling, led to cracks developing at all intersections of grain boundaries with the specimen surface. This caused specimens irradiated at 500°C or below to often fail during retrieval from the reactor, as well as during electropolishing and other handling operations. At 600°C, the cracking and embrittlement processes are so severe that only a fine dust, composed mostly of individual grains or chunks of grains, was found in the irradiation capsule.

  11. Calculation of displacement, gas, and transmutation production in stainless steel irradiated with spallation neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wechsler, M. S.; Ramavarapu, R.; Daugherty, E. L.; Palmer, R. C.; Bullen, D. B.; Sommer, W. F.

    1994-09-01

    Calculations using the high-energy transport code LAHET have been made for the production of displacements, helium gas, and transmuted atoms for stainless steel (Fe-18 wt% Cr-10 wt% Ni) irradiated with spallation neutrons at energies of 100 to 1600 MeV. The damage energy cross section increased from about 250 to 350 b keV for increasing neutron energies from 100 to 1600 MeV with a spallation spectrum average of 281 b keV. For a displacement threshold energy of 33 eV, the corresponding spectrum-average displacement cross section is 3400 b. The PKA spectrum was found to be fairly independent of the incident neutron energy, with an average damage energy of 0.25-0.30 MeV. The helium production cross section increased monotonically with increasing neutron energy with a spectrum average of 0.32 b. The maximum transmutation yield was observed near manganese ( Z = 25), corresponding to a production cross section of about 0.2 b. Relevance to fusion materials is discussed.

  12. Thermal conductivity changes upon neutron transmutation of 10B doped diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannadham, K.; Verghese, K.; Butler, J. E.

    2014-08-01

    10B doped p-type diamond samples were subjected to neutron transmutation reaction using thermal neutron flux of 0.9 × 1013 cm-2 s-1 and fast neutron flux of 0.09 × 1013 cm-2 s-1. Another sample of epilayer grown on type IIa (110) single crystal diamond substrate was subjected to equal thermal and fast neutron flux of 1014 cm-2 s-1. The defects in the diamond samples were previously characterized by different methods. In the present work, thermal conductivity of these diamond samples was determined at room temperature by transient thermoreflectance method. The thermal conductivity change in the samples as a function of neutron fluence is explained by the phonon scattering from the point defects and disordered regions. The thermal conductivity of the diamond samples decreased more rapidly initially and less rapidly for larger neutron fluence. In addition, the thermal conductivity in type IIb diamond decreased less rapidly with thermal neutron fluence compared to the decrease in type IIa diamond subjected to fast neutron fluence. It is concluded that the rate of production of defects during transmutation reaction is slower when thermal neutrons are used. The thermal conductivity of epilayer of diamond subjected to high thermal and fast neutron fluence is associated with the covalent carbon network in the composite structure consisting of disordered carbon and sp2 bonded nanocrystalline regions.

  13. Thermal conductivity changes upon neutron transmutation of {sup 10}B doped diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannadham, K., E-mail: jag-kasichainula@ncsu.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Verghese, K. [Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Butler, J. E. [Code 6174, Naval research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)

    2014-08-28

    {sup 10}B doped p-type diamond samples were subjected to neutron transmutation reaction using thermal neutron flux of 0.9 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} and fast neutron flux of 0.09 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup ?2} s{sup ?1}. Another sample of epilayer grown on type IIa (110) single crystal diamond substrate was subjected to equal thermal and fast neutron flux of 10{sup 14}?cm{sup ?2} s{sup ?1}. The defects in the diamond samples were previously characterized by different methods. In the present work, thermal conductivity of these diamond samples was determined at room temperature by transient thermoreflectance method. The thermal conductivity change in the samples as a function of neutron fluence is explained by the phonon scattering from the point defects and disordered regions. The thermal conductivity of the diamond samples decreased more rapidly initially and less rapidly for larger neutron fluence. In addition, the thermal conductivity in type IIb diamond decreased less rapidly with thermal neutron fluence compared to the decrease in type IIa diamond subjected to fast neutron fluence. It is concluded that the rate of production of defects during transmutation reaction is slower when thermal neutrons are used. The thermal conductivity of epilayer of diamond subjected to high thermal and fast neutron fluence is associated with the covalent carbon network in the composite structure consisting of disordered carbon and sp{sup 2} bonded nanocrystalline regions.

  14. Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

    1981-10-01

    A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

  15. Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Caspian Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud; M. K. Pham; P. P. Povinec

    2003-01-01

    Analysis and interpretation of the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu in the Caspian Sea water are presented. These radionuclides are shown to be of environmental importance and to be useful for studying water mass dynamics.

  16. Decision Framework for Applying Attenuation Processes to Metals and Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, J.; Goswami, D.; Spreng, C.

    2010-12-01

    Until recently, there has been little regulatory guidance to support attenuation-based remedies for groundwater contaminated with metals and radionuclides. This has contributed to inconsistent application of those remedies and generally discouraged their consideration. The net result is that many sites face intractable closure problems. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently issued a three-volume technical guidance set that specifically addresses monitored natural attenuation (MNA) of inorganic contaminants. These new documents provide technical information related to the dominant attenuation mechanisms, as well as methods for characterization and evaluation of specific inorganic contaminants and radionuclides. Attenuation-based remedies for metals and long-lived radionuclides rely primarily on immobilization of contaminants as stable and/or nontoxic species. This stabilization and toxicity reduction can result from natural processes, geochemical gradients, or biogeochemical manipulation. Except for a few radionuclides, the original contaminant remains in the subsurface so that documentation of the sustainability, or permanence, of stabilization and detoxification is crucial to assessing performance. Another challenge in applying the existing and emerging guidance is the need to simultaneously address multiple contaminants at a target site, as is often the case in actual practice. The Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) has developed a technical and regulatory guidance to facilitate implementation of the new EPA guidance for MNA of metals and radionuclides. To determine the specific approach of this document, ITRC conducted a web-based survey of state regulators and stakeholders to determine the existing state of knowledge and acceptance regarding the application of attenuation processes as a remedy. The document addresses issues identified in the survey and provides examples of state protocols and stakeholder issues related to the application of MNA as a remedy. Significant uncertainties in MNA cleanup efficacy and timelines may conflict with stakeholder expectations. Current federal and state regulatory policy and guidance is summarized and factors crucial to regulatory acceptance are presented. A decision framework in this guidance document provides a consistent basis for states, stakeholders, federal agencies, and site owners to evaluate and implement attenuation-based remedies for metals and radionuclides. In the framework, an enhanced attenuation strategy supports instances where actions may be needed to support long-term sustainability of the MNA mechanisms. The outcome of these efforts is a process that will encourage regulatory cooperation and expedite cleanup.

  17. RADIONUCLIDE BIOLOGICAL REMEDIATION RESOURCE GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying and accessing pertinent information resources that will help site cleanup managers evaluate innovative technologies is key to the broader use of these technologies. This guide is intended to increase awareness about technical information and specialized resources rel...

  18. Increasing the Acceptance of Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal by the Transmutation of Minor Actinides Using an Accelerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard L. Sheffield

    2010-01-01

    The main challenge in nuclear fuel cycle closure is the reduction of the potential radiotoxicity of spent LWR nuclear fuel, or the length of time in which that potential hazard exists. Partitioning and accelerator-based transmutation in combination with geological disposal can lead to an acceptable societal solution for the nuclear spent fuel management problem. Nuclear fuel seems ideally suited for

  19. Neutron-transmuted carbon-14 in neutron-irradiated GaN: Compensation of DX-like center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ida, T.; Oga, T.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Xu, Q.; Fukutani, S.

    2013-12-01

    The transmuted-C related luminescence and net carrier concentration are studied by combining photoluminescence, liquid scintillation, and Raman scattering. GaN single crystal films grown by metalorganic-vapor-phase epitaxy are irradiated with fast and thermal neutrons at fluxes of 3.9 × 1013 cm-2s-1 and 8.15 × 1013 cm-2s-1, respectively. Irradiation time is 48 hours. The calculated 72Ge and 14C concentrations are 1.24 × 1018 cm-3 and 1.13 × 1018 cm-3, respectively. The transmuted 14C is detected by the liquid scintillation method to survey ?-rays emitted in the process of 14C decays from 14N. Tritium (3H) is also emitted by a (n,t) reaction of 14N due to the neutron irradiation above 4.5 MeV. Photoluminescence relating to C, DX-like center of Ge and yellow luminescence band are observed in 1000 °C annealed NTD-GaN. The free electron concentration estimated from Raman scattering is 4.97 × 1017 cm-3. This value is lower than that from the transmuted Ge concentration, suggesting the compensation due to the transmuted 14C acceptors.

  20. Preliminary neutronics design of china lead-alloy cooled demonstration reactor (CLEAR-III) for nuclear waste transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Southwest Science and Technology Univ., No.350 Shushanhu Road, Shushan District, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Chen, Y.; Bai, Y.; Wang, W.; Chen, Z.; Hu, L.; Long, P. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2012-07-01

    China Lead-Alloy cooled Demonstration Reactor (CLEAR-III), which is the concept of lead-bismuth cooled accelerator driven sub-critical reactor for nuclear waste transmutation, was proposed and designed by FDS team in China. In this study, preliminary neutronics design studies have primarily focused on three important performance parameters including Transmutation Support Ratio (TSR), effective multiplication factor and blanket thermal power. The constraint parameters, such as power peaking factor and initial TRU loading, were also considered. In the specific design, uranium-free metallic dispersion fuel of (TRU-Zr)-Zr was used as one of the CLEAR-III fuel types and the ratio between MA and Pu was adjusted to maximize transmutation ratio. In addition, three different fuel zones differing in the TRU fraction of the fuel were respectively employed for this subcritical reactor, and the zone sizes and TRU fractions were determined such that the linear powers of these zones were close to each other. The neutronics calculations and analyses were performed by using Multi-Functional 4D Neutronics Simulation System named VisualBUS and nuclear data library HENDL (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library). In the preliminary design, the maximum TSRLLMA was {approx}11 and the blanket thermal power was {approx}1000 MW when the effective multiplication factor was 0.98. The results showed that good performance of transmutation could be achieved based on the subcritical reactor loaded with uranium-free fuel. (authors)

  1. Radionuclides in surface and groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Kate M.

    2009-01-01

    Unique among all the contaminants that adversely affect surface and water quality, radioactive compounds pose a double threat from both toxicity and damaging radiation. The extreme energy potential of many of these materials makes them both useful and toxic. The unique properties of radioactive materials make them invaluable for medical, weapons, and energy applications. However, mining, production, use, and disposal of these compounds provide potential pathways for their release into the environment, posing a risk to both humans and wildlife. This chapter discusses the sources, uses, and regulation of radioactive compounds in the United States, biogeochemical processes that control mobility in the environment, examples of radionuclide contamination, and current work related to contaminated site remediation.

  2. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  3. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva [Div. of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  4. R and D of On-line Reprocessing Technology for Molten-Salt Reactor Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Uhlir; Radka Tulackova; Karolina Chuchvalcova Bimova

    2006-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) represents one of promising future nuclear reactor concept included in the Generation IV reactors family. The reactor can be operated as the thorium breeder or as the actinide transmuter. However, the future deployment of Molten-Salt Reactors will be significantly dependent on the successful mastering of advanced reprocessing technologies dedicated to their fuel cycle. Here the

  5. Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

  6. Technologies Technologies

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    .delbos@univ-bpclermont.fr UFR Sciences et Technologies Université Blaise Pascal 24 avenue des Landais BP 80026 63171 AUBIERE Sciences et Technologies Université Blaise Pascal 24 avenue des Landais BP 80026 63171 AUBIERE Cedex Tel Corpusculaire ­ IN2P3 UFR Sciences et Technologies Université Blaise Pascal 24 avenue des Landais BP 80026 63171

  7. RADIONUCLIDE MIGRATION IN TUFF UNDER UNSATURATED CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    T.T. Vandergraaf

    2000-10-25

    An understanding of the transport of radionuclides through unsaturated and saturated tuffaceous material is essential in assessing the safety of the proposed high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Migration experiments with conservative and chemically reactive non-radioactive tracers have been performed at the Busted Butte Unsaturated Zone underground facility, SE of Yucca Mountain, and with radionuclides in columns of crushed tuff at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this paper, complementary radionuclide migration experiments, performed under unsaturated conditions in a small block of tuff excavated from Busted Butte, are described.

  8. Conus Medullaris Syndrome following Radionuclide Cisternography.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jay Chol

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclide cisternography is generally considered to be a safe procedure without significant neurological complications. However, in this report we present a patient who developed conus medullaris syndrome following radionuclide cisternography. A 46-year-old woman underwent lumbar puncture followed by radionuclide cisternography with the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. After the cisternography, she developed voiding difficulty with perineal sensory loss. Lumbar MRI revealed a high signal intensity lesion on T2-weighted images at the level of conus medullaris. Considering its clinical course and MRI findings, a spinal cord infarction is highly suggested as a cause of the conus medullaris lesion in this patient. PMID:25024857

  9. 2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehne, David P.

    2011-06-01

    The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

  10. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. IV. Miscellaneous aspects. [Transport; fuel fabrication; decay; policy; economics

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.W.; Croff, A.G.

    1980-09-01

    This report discusses seven aspects of actinide partitioning-transmutation (P-T) which are important in any complete evaluation of this waste treatment option but which do not fall within other major topical areas concerning P-T. The so-called miscellaneous aspects considered are (1) the conceptual design of a shipping cask for highly neutron-active fresh and spent P-T fuels, (2) the possible impacts of P-T on mixed-oxide fuel fabrication, (3) alternatives for handling the existing and to-be-produced spent fuel and/or wastes until implementation of P-T, (4) the decay and dose characteristics of P-T and standard reactor fuels, (5) the implications of P-T on currently existing nuclear policy in the United States, (6) the summary costs of P-T, and (7) methods for comparing the risks, costs, and benefits of P-T.

  11. Transmutation of high-level fission products and actinides in a laser-driven fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Basov, N.; Rozanov, V.B. (P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., Leninsky Pr., 63, 117924 Moscow (USSR)); Belousov, N.I.; Grishunin, P.A.; Kharitonov, V.V. (Moscow Engineering Physics Inst., Kashirskoye Chausse, 31, 115409 Moscow (USSR)); Subbotin, V.I. (Obninsk Physics and Energy Inst., Obninsk (USSR))

    1992-11-01

    Incineration of [sup 90]Sr and [sup 137]Cs b thermal or fast neutrons is a very difficult problem. A 14-MeV neutron source based on intertial confinement fusion is a more appropriate choice. For the first time, the contribution of the (n,2n) reaction to incineration is revealed. The energy and nuclei balance for a system of several nuclear power plants and a fusion reactor for transmutation is analyzed. If the fusion reactor supports a sufficient number of nuclear power plants, it need not produce energy or tritium. Target and blanket material problems are considered. This paper reports that laser fusion incinerator has the best prospects because of its fast neutron spectrum and high driver efficiency by target gain product.

  12. Anyons and transmutation of statistics via a vacuum-induced Berry phase

    SciTech Connect

    Serra, Roberto M.; Vedral, Vlatko [Optics Section, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Carollo, Angelo [Optics Section, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Centre for Quantum Computation, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Santos, Marcelo Franca [Optics Section, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 30161-970, MG (Brazil)

    2004-10-01

    We show that bosonic fields may present anyonic behavior when interacting with a fermion in a Jaynes-Cummings-like model. The proposal is accomplished via the interaction of a two-level system with two quantized modes of a harmonic oscillator; under suitable conditions, the system acquires a fractional geometric phase. A crucial role is played by the entanglement of the system eigenstates, which provides a two-dimensional confinement in the effective evolution of the system, leading to the anyonic behavior. For a particular choice of parameters, we show that it is possible to transmute the statistics of the system continually from fermions to bosons. We also present an experimental proposal, in an ion-trap setup, in which fractional statistical features can be generated, controlled, and measured.

  13. Partitioning and transmutation: Near-term solution or long-term option?

    SciTech Connect

    Ramspott, L.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (US); Isaacs, T. [USDOE, Washington, DC (US)

    1993-02-25

    Starting in 1989, the concept that partitioning and transmuting actinides from spent nuclear fuel could be a {open_quotes}solution{close_quotes} to the apparent lack of progress in the high-level waste disposal program began to be heard from a variety of sources, both in the US and internationally. There have been numerous papers and sessions at scientific conferences and several conferences devoted to this subject in the last three years. At the request of the US Department of Energy, the National Research Council is evaluating the feasibility of this concept. Because either plutonium or highly enriched uranium is needed to startup breeder reactors, there is a sound rationale for using Pu from reprocessing spent light-water reactor fuel to start a conversion to Pu-breeding liquid metal reactors (LMRs), once society makes the determination that adding a large component of LMRs to the electricity-generating grid is desirable. This is the long-term option referred to in the title. It is compatible with the current and likely future high-level waste program, as well as the current nuclear power industry in the US. However, the thesis of this paper is that partitioning and transmutation (P-T) does not offer a near term solution to high-level waste disposal in the US for numerous reasons, the most important of which is that a repository will be needed even with P-T. Other important reasons include: (1) lack of evidence that the public will be more likely to accept a repository that has a reduced inventory, (2) the waste disposal program delays do not result from technical evidence of lack of safety, (3) the economics of reprocessing and/or P-T are unfavorable, and (4) obtaining the benefits from P-T requires a long-term commitment to nuclear power.

  14. Radionuclide Transport in Fractured Tuff under Episodic Flow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Q.; Sun, Y.; Ewing, R. P.

    2005-12-01

    The current conceptual model of radionuclide transport in unsaturated fractured rock includes water movement in fractures, with migration of the entrained radionuclides being retarded by diffusion into and sorption within the rock matrix. Water infiltration and radionuclide transport through low-permeability unsaturated fractured rock are episodic and intermittent in nature, at least at local scales. Under episodic flow conditions, the matrix is constantly imbibing or draining, and this fluctuating wetness both drives two-way advective movement of radionuclides, and forces changes in the matrix diffusivity. This work is intended to examine, both experimentally and numerically, how radionuclide transport under episodic flow conditions is affected by the interacting processes of imbibition and drainage, diffusion, and matrix sorption. Using Topopah Spring welded volcanic tuff, collected from the potential repository geologic unit at Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste, we prepared a saw-cut fracture core (length 10.2 cm, diameter 4.4 cm, and fracture aperture 100 microns). The dry core was packed into a flow reactor, flushed with CO2, then saturated via slow pumping (0.01 mL/min) of synthetic groundwater. The fractured core was then flushed with air at 97% relative humidity (to simulate in situ unsaturated fractured rock conditions at Yucca Mountain), then the episodic transport experiment was conducted. Episodic flow involved 4 cycles of tracer solution flow within the fracture, followed by flushing with high humidity air. Each flow episode contained a different suite of non-sorbing and sorbing tracers, which included 3H, ReO4- (a chemical analog for 99TcO4-), I- (for 129I-), Sr and Cs (for 90Sr and 137Cs), plus the radionuclides 235U, 237Np, and 241Pu. These radionuclides span a variety of sorption strengths and represent a large fraction of the radionuclides of concern at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. Meanwhile, the non-sorbing 3H and ReO4- serve as diffusivity tracers with different aqueous diffusion coefficients. Liquid effluent from the flow reactor was collected for multi-elemental analyses using ICP-MS, as well as liquid scintillation counting for 3H, to obtain the breakthrough curves of non- or less-retarded tracers. After the flow-tests were complete, the flow reactor was opened and the distribution of strongly retarded tracers within the fractured core characterized by laser ablation coupled with ICP-MS. A numerical model was developed, based on the NUFT (Non-isothermal, Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport) computer code, to describe the experimental system, compare with, and interpret experimental results. This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Science and Technology and International (OST&I). This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  15. Long lived gamma emitting radionuclides in incense.

    PubMed

    Alrefae, Tareq

    2013-10-01

    A study of long-lived gamma emitters in incense was performed. The incense samples originated from seven different countries, and the investigated radionuclides were Ra, Ra, and K. Gamma spectroscopy revealed the presence of all three investigated radionuclides in all samples. Interestingly, the activity concentrations revealed a clear bimodal distribution that distinguished samples that were natural incense from others that were processed incense. The activity concentrations in the latter group were found to be one order of magnitude greater than in the former group. Consequently, the estimated annual effective dose from the latter group was one order of magnitude higher than that of the former group. Nonetheless, the doses from both groups were found to be some three orders of magnitude less than the average worldwide exposure to inhaled natural radionuclides. This finding suggests the radiological safety of incense for the investigated radionuclides. PMID:23982608

  16. System and method for assaying a radionuclide

    DOEpatents

    Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

    2014-12-23

    A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

  17. Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sofou, Stavroula

    2008-01-01

    This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential. PMID:18686778

  18. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

  19. Acceptor and donor production in Hg b1 s[subscript -x]Cd[subscript x]Te by neutron transmutation doping

    E-print Network

    Seager, Kevin Douglas

    1985-01-01

    ACCEPTOR AND DONOR PRODUCTION IN Hgi ?Cd?Te BY NEUTRON TRANSMUTATION DOPING A Thesis by KEVIN DOUGLAS SEAGFR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1985 Majon Subject: Nuclear Fngineer ing ACCEPTOR AND DONOR PRODUCTION IN Hgl-xCdxTe BY NEUTRON TRANSMUTATION DOPING A Thesis by KEVIN DOUGLAS SEAGER Approved as to style and content by: Ron R. Hart (Chairman of Committee...

  20. Peptide-Targeted Radionuclide Therapy for Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yubin; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R) and melanin are two attractive melanoma-specific targets for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma. Radiolabeled peptides targeting MC1-R/melanin can selectively and specifically target cytotoxic radiation generated from therapeutic radionuclides to melanoma cells for cell killing, while sparing the normal tissues and organs. This review highlights the recent advances of peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma targeting MC1R and melanin. The promising therapeutic efficacies of 188Re-(Arg11)CCMSH (188Re-[Cys3,4,10, d-Phe7, Arg11]-?-MSH3-13), 177Lu- and 212Pb-labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-[ReO-(Cys3,4,10, d-Phe7, Arg11)]-?-MSH3-13) and 188Re-HYNIC-4B4 (188Re-hydrazinonicotinamide-Tyr-Glu-Arg-Lys-Phe-Trp-His-Gly-Arg-His) in preclinical melanoma-bearing models demonstrate an optimistic outlook for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma. Peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma will likely contribute in an adjuvant setting, once the primary tumor has been surgically removed, to treat metastatic deposits and for treatment of end-stage disease. The lack of effective treatments for metastatic melanoma and end stage disease underscores the necessity to develop and implement new treatment strategies, such as peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy. PMID:18387816

  1. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  2. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.; Shkolnik, A.; Yogev, R.; Firlit, C.; Traisman, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis.

  3. AFC-1 Transmutation Fuels Post-Irradiation Hot Cell Examination 4-8 at.% - Final Report (Irradiation Experiments AFC-1B, -1F and -1Æ)

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Hilton; Douglas Porter; Steven Hayes

    2006-09-01

    The AFC-1B, AFC-1F and AFC-1Æ irradiation tests are part of a series of test irradiations designed to evaluate the feasibility of the use of actinide bearing fuel forms in advanced fuel cycles for the transmutation of transuranic elements from nuclear waste. The tests were irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to an intermediate burnup of 4 to 8 at% (2.7 - 6.8 x 1020 fiss/cm3). The tests contain metallic and nitride fuel forms with non-fertile (i.e., no uranium) and low-fertile (i.e., uranium bearing) compositions. Results of postirradiation hot cell examinations of AFC-1 irradiation tests are reported for eleven metallic alloy transmutation fuel rodlets and five nitride transmutation fuel rodlets. Non-destructive examinations included visual examination, dimensional inspection, gamma scan analysis, and neutron radiography. Detailed examinations, including fission gas puncture and analysis, metallography / ceramography and isotopics and burnup analyses, were performed on five metallic alloy and three nitride transmutation fuels. Fuel performance of both metallic alloy and nitride fuel forms was best correlated with fission density as a burnup metric rather than at.% depletion. The actinide bearing transmutation metallic alloy compositions exhibit irradiation performance very similar to U-xPu-10Zr fuel at equivalent fission densities. The irradiation performance of nitride transmutation fuels was comparable to limited data published on mixed nitride systems.

  4. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. M.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2009-04-08

    Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

  5. Workshop on development of radionuclide getters for the Yucca Mountain waste repository: proceedings.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Robert Charles; Lukens, Wayne W. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

    2006-03-01

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository, located in southern Nevada, is to be the first facility for permanent disposal of spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analysis has indicated that among the major radionuclides contributing to dose are technetium, iodine, and neptunium, all of which are highly mobile in the environment. Containment of these radionuclides within the repository is a priority for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). These proceedings review current research and technology efforts for sequestration of the radionuclides with a focus on technetium, iodine, and neptunium. This workshop also covered issues concerning the Yucca Mountain environment and getter characteristics required for potential placement into the repository.

  6. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 1, Autopsy and In Vivo Data

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-02-25

    This paper is part one of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. The goal of part one of this work was to review, summarize, and characterize all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Forty-five papers and reports were obtained and their data reviewed, and three data sets were obtained via private communication. The 45 radionuclides of interest are the 238U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by 235U; 11 nuclides), and the 232Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides 87Rb and 40 K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides 14C and 3H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs-137mBa, 129I, and 90Sr-90Y. Measurements judged to be relevant were available for only 15 of these radionuclides: 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 137Cs, 87Rb, 40K, 14C, and 3H. Recent and relevant measurements were not available for 129I and 90Sr-90Y. A total of 11,714 radionuclide concentration measurements were found in one or more tissues or organs from 14 States. Data on age, sex, geographic locations, height, and weight of subjects were available only sporadically. Too often authors did not provide meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. The following papers detail how these shortcomings are overcome to achieve the goals of the three-part series.

  7. Preliminary analysis of the induced structural radioactivity inventory of the base-case aqueous accelerator transmutation of waste reactor concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Bezdecny; K. M. Vance; D. L. Henderson

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Accelerator Transmutation of (Nuclear) Waste (ATW) project is the substantial reduction in volume of long-lived high-level radioactive waste of the US in a safe and energy-efficient manner. An evaluation of the ATW concept has four aspects: material balance, energy balance, performance, and cost. An evaluation of the material balance compares the amount

  8. Design simplification of a small nuclear reactor for large-diameter neutron transmutation doping silicon using control rods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Munkhbat Byambajav; Toru Obara

    2012-01-01

    A design concept for a small nuclear reactor for neutron transmutation doping silicon (NTD-Si) using a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) full-length fuel assembly was proposed in our previous work. The excess reactivity was suppressed by a combination of Gd2O3 and soluble boron, which results in a flatter flux profile over the core than with control rod insertion; however, the soluble

  9. Increasing the Acceptance of Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal by the Transmutation of Minor Actinides Using an Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, Richard L.

    2010-02-01

    The main challenge in nuclear fuel cycle closure is the reduction of the potential radiotoxicity of spent LWR nuclear fuel, or the length of time in which that potential hazard exists. Partitioning and accelerator-based transmutation in combination with geological disposal can lead to an acceptable societal solution for the nuclear spent fuel management problem. Nuclear fuel seems ideally suited for recycling. Only a small fraction of the available energy in the fuel is extracted in a single pass and the problem isotopes, consisting of the transuranic elements plutonium, neptunium, americium, curium and the long-lived fission products iodine and technetium, could be burned in fast-neutron spectrum reactors or sub-critical accelerator driven transmuters. Most of the remaining wastes have half-lives of a few hundred years and can be safely stored in man-made containment structures (casks or glass). The very small amount of remaining long-lived waste could be safely stored in a small geologic repository. The problem for the next 100 years is that a sufficient number of fast reactors are unlikely to be built by industry to burn its own waste and the waste from existing and new light water reactors (LWRs). So an interim solution is required to transition to a fast reactor economy. The goals of accelerator transmutation are some or all of the following: 1) to significantly reduce the impacts due to the minor actinides on the packing density and long-term radiotoxicity in the repository design, 2) preserve/use the energy-rich component of used nuclear fuel, and 3) reduce proliferation risk. Accelerator-based transmutation could lead to a greater percentage of our power coming from greenhouse-gas emission-free nuclear power and provide a long-term strategy enabling the continuation and growth of nuclear power in the U.S. )

  10. Radiological assessment of target materials for accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickers, Linda Diane

    This dissertation issues the first published document of the radiation absorbed dose rate (rad-h-1) to tissue from radioactive spallation products in Ta, W, Pb, Bi, and LBE target materials used in Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) applications. No previous works have provided an estimate of the absorbed dose rate (rad-h-1) from activated targets for ATW applications. The results of this dissertation are useful for planning the radiological safety assessment to personnel, and for the design, construction, maintenance, and disposition of target materials of high-energy particle accelerators for ATW applications (Charlton, 1996). In addition, this dissertation provides the characterization of target materials of high-energy particle accelerators for the parameters of: (1) spallation neutron yield (neutrons/proton), (2) spallation products yield (nuclides/proton), (3) energy-dependent spallation neutron fluence distribution, (4) spallation neutron flux, (5) identification of radioactive spallation products for consideration in safety of personnel to high radiation dose rates, and (6) identification of the optimum geometrical dimensions for the target applicable to the maximum radial spallation neutron leakage from the target. Pb and Bi target materials yielded the lowest absorbed dose rates (rad-h -1) for a 10-year irradiation/50-year decay scheme, and would be the preferred target materials for consideration of the radiological safety of personnel during ATW operations. A beneficial characteristic of these target materials is that they do not produce radioactive transuranic isotopes, which have very long half-lives and require special handling and disposition requirements. Furthermore, the targets are not considered High-Level Waste (HLW) such as reactor spent fuel for disposal purposes. It is a basic ATW system requirement that the spallation target after it has been expended should be disposable as Class C low-level radioactive waste. Therefore, the disposal of Pb and Bi targets would be optimally beneficial to the economy and environment. Future studies should relate the target performance to other system parameters, specifically solid and liquid blanket systems that contain the radioactive waste to be transmuted. The methodology of this dissertation may be applied to any target material of a high-energy particle accelerator.

  11. Determination of transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, D.M.; Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Hess, N.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US)

    1997-01-01

    'A team from two national laboratories is studying transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. Analyses are being done with 18 year old samples of {sup 137}Cs-bearing pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} \\267 0.5 H{sub 2}O) obtained from a French company. These samples are unique in that the pollucite was made with various amounts of {sup 137}Cs, which was then sealed in welded stainless- steel capsules to be used as tumor irradiation sources. Over the past 18 years, the {sup 137}Cs has been decaying to stable Ba in the capsules, i.e., in the absence of atmospheric effects. This material serves as an analogue to a crystalline waste form in which such a transmutation occurs to possibly disrupt the integrity of the original waste form. Work this year consisted of determining the construction of the capsule and state of the pollucite in the absence of details about these components from the French company. The authors have opened one capsule containing nonradioactive pollucite. The information on the construction of the stainless-steel capsule is useful for the work that the authors are preparing to do on capsules containing radioactive pollucite. Microscopic characterization of the nonradioactive pollucite revealed that there are at least two compounds in addition to pollucite: a Cs-silicate and a Cs-aluminosilicate (CsAlSiO{sub 4}). These findings may complicate the interpretation of the planned experiments using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (flourescence) have been used to characterize the nonradioactive pollucite. They have investigated the stability of the nonradioactive pollucite to {beta} radiation damage by use of 200 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope. The samples were found to become amorphous in less than 10 minutes with loss of Cs. This is equivalent to many more years of {beta} radiation damage than under normal decay of the {sup 137}Cs. In fact, the dose was equivalent to several thousand years of normal radiation damage from the decay of {sup 137}Cs. Of course, there would not be any {sup 137}Cs remaining after that length of time because the half-life of {sup 137}Cs is 30 y. Preparations have been started to study the radioactive pollucite samples at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. The calculations show that by thinning the base of the capsules the authors should be able to obtain about a factor of ten increase in the fluorescence signal. Procedures for thinning capsules containing the radioactive pollucite and examining the samples at the Stanford synchrotron are in place.'

  12. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the oxygen retention of the tissue and the significantly greater retention amounting in hypoxic tissue. This hypothesis was confirmed in a series of animal studies. Cu-64 can be used both as an imaging radionuclide and a therapeutic radionuclide. The therapeutic efficacy of Cu-64 ATSM was proven in hamsters bearing the CW39 human colorectal tumors. The administration of Cu-64 ATSM significantly increased the survival time of tumor-bearing animals with no acute toxicity. This copper agent therefore shows promise for radiotherapy. The flow tracer Cu-64 PTSM also demonstrates therapeutic potential by inhibiting cancer cells implanted in animal models. Again, this inhibition occurred at doses which showed no sign of toxicity to the animals. Cu-ATSM was translated to humans, under other support a series of tumors were investigated; these included head and neck cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer and renal cancer. Another radionuclide that was investigated was titanium 45. This radionuclide was successfully produced by radiation of a scandium foil with 15 MeV protons. The titanium 45 was processed and separated from residual scandium by high exchange chomotrophy. Titanium titanocene has been utilized as a therapeutic agent; this compound was prepared and studied in vitro and in vivo. Another project was the preparation of cyclodextrin dimers as a new pre-targeting approach for tumor uptake. Beta-cyclodextradin and two other dimers were synthesized. These dimers were studied for the in vivo application. Work continued on the application of the radionuclide already discussed. Technetium 94m, a positron emitting radionuclide of the widely used 99m Tc nuclide was also prepared. This allows the quantification of the uptake of technetium radiopharmaceuticals. In collaboration with Professor David Piwnica-Worms, technetium 94m, sestamibi was studied in animal models and in a limited number of human subjects.

  13. Radionuclide Mobility at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Smith, D; Rose, T; Glascoe, L; Steefel, C; Zavarin, M

    2003-11-13

    Underground nuclear tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are characterized by abundant fission product and actinide source terms. Included are {sup 99}Tc and other soluble radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 129}I), which are presumably mobile in groundwater and potentially toxic to down-gradient receptors. NTS provides the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an analog of the release of these radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository in the absence of engineered barriers. The investigation described in this report synthesizes a substantial body of data collected on the identity and distribution of soluble radionuclides at field scales over distances of hundreds of meters, for durations up to 40 years, and under hydrogeologic conditions very similar to the proposed geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This body of data is complemented by laboratory transport studies and a synthesis of recent modeling investigations from the NTS, with an emphasis on the ongoing Yucca Mountain Program (YMP) efforts. Overall, understanding the controls of radionuclide mobility associated with these nuclear tests will provide insight into the repository's future performance as well as bounds and calibrations for the numerical predictions of long-term radionuclide releases and migration.

  14. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  15. Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

  16. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  17. Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1996-08-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

  18. Radionuclide sorption on well construction materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which trace concentrations of radioactive materials would sorb on well construction materials and to assess the rapidity with which sorption would occur. The radionuclides employed in these studies were tritium, Cs-137, and Co-57. Solutions with trace concentrations of these radionuclides were contacted with casings of PVC, fiber-glass-epoxy, stainless steel, carbon steel, and steel rods coated with epoxy. The PVC showed no interaction with the tritium or Cs-137 during contact times of two hours to three weeks ; however, it did sorb Co-57. The fiber-glass-epoxy also interacted only with the cobalt. The stainless steel sorbed cesium and cobalt. The epoxy-coated steel rods did not interact measurably with any of the radionuclides so long as the coating was intact. The sorption reactions generally were apparent after a few days of contact; in the case of carbon steel, they were detectable in a few hours.

  19. Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2012-04-25

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

  20. Radionuclide detection of lower gastrointestinal bleeding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, M.; Weissmann, H.S.; Sprayregen, S.; Freeman, L.M.

    1983-09-01

    A retrospective review of two years' experience with radionuclide screening to detect lower gastrointestinal bleeding sites was conducted at New York's Montefiore Medical Center. Of 82 studies performed in 63 patients, 13 identified active bleeding sites. Only three of eight angiograms obtained in these 13 patients were positive. Thirteen contrast angiograms were performed in the group of 50 patients with negative radionuclide studies of which ten were negative and one was equivocal. The results of this study suggest that the Tc-99m sulfur colloid study for active lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is an effective screening procedure. Positive studies help determine which vessel to catheterize selectively if an angiogram is to be performed. If vascular ectasis is still suspected following a negative radionuclide study, contrast angiography can be more efficaciously performed on a nonemergent basis.

  1. Spallation radiation damage and dosimetry for accelerator transmutation of waste applications

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, M.S.; Lin, C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Ferguson, P.D. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Sommer, W.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Proposals are currently being made for systems to treat radioactive waste based on the use of accelerator-driven neutron sources. A linear proton accelerator with energies as high as 1600 MeV and currents up to 250 ma are anticipated for the driver. The neutron fluxes may reach up to 10{sup 20} neutrons/m{sup 2}s as generated by the spallation reactions that occur when the protons strike target materials. Calculations are described to determine radiation fluxes and flux spectra inherent in such systems and to estimate likely radiation effects on system components. The calculations use LAHET, a Monte Carlo high-energy transport code, and MCNP, a generalized-geometry, coupled neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport code. Cross sections for displacement and helium production are presented for spallation neutrons of energies from 21 MeV to 1600 MeV for Inconel 718 (Ni plus 18.5, 18.5, 5.1, and 3 wt % of Cr, Fe, Nb, and Mo, respectively), an alloy that is used for the proton beam entry window in several accelerators. In addition, results for this alloy are presented for the primary knocked-on atom (PKA) spectrum and the transmutation yield for 1600 MeV incident neutrons.

  2. Assessment of SFR fuel pin performance codes under advanced fuel for minor actinide transmutation

    SciTech Connect

    Bouineau, V.; Lainet, M.; Chauvin, N.; Pelletier, M. [French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission - CEA, CEA Cadarache, DEN/DEC/SESC, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Di Marcello, V.; Van Uffelen, P.; Walker, C. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D- 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is, therefore, an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and residual power packages as well as the repository area. In the SUPERFACT Experiment four different oxide fuels containing high and low concentrations of {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am, representing the homogeneous and heterogeneous in-pile recycling concepts, were irradiated in the PHENIX reactor. The behavior of advanced fuel materials with minor actinide needs to be fully characterized, understood and modeled in order to optimize the design of this kind of fuel elements and to evaluate its performances. This paper assesses the current predictability of fuel performance codes TRANSURANUS and GERMINAL V2 on the basis of post irradiation examinations of the SUPERFACT experiment for pins with low minor actinide content. Their predictions have been compared to measured data in terms of geometrical changes of fuel and cladding, fission gases behavior and actinide and fission product distributions. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results, although improvements are also pointed out for further studies, especially if larger content of minor actinide will be taken into account in the codes. (authors)

  3. Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Mark; Herrington, Pres; Miley, Harry; Ellis, J. Edward; McKinnon, David; St. Pierre, Devon

    1999-08-03

    Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by electronic mail using formats defined in IMS 1.0, Formats and Protocols for Messages. An open message authentication standard exists, called S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), which has been proposed for use with all IMS radionuclide station message communications. This standard specifies adding a digital signature and public key certificate as a MIME attachment to the e-mail message. It is advantageous because it allows authentication to be added to all IMS 1.0 messages in a standard format and is commercially supported in e-mail software. For command and control, the RASA system uses a networked Graphical User Interface (GUI) based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) communications, which requires special authentication procedures. The authors have modified the RASA system to meet CTBTO authentication guidelines, using a FORTEZZA card for authentication functions. They demonstrated signing radionuclide data messages at the RASA, then sending, receiving, and verifying the messages at a data center. They demonstrated authenticating command messages and responses from the data center GUI to the RASA. Also, the particular authentication system command to change the private/public key pair and retrieve the new public key was demonstrated. This work shows that data surety meeting IMS guidelines may be immediately applied to IMS radionuclide systems.

  4. [Prevention and therapy of accidental radionuclide uptake].

    PubMed

    Riccabona, G; Zechmann, W

    1986-01-01

    After accidental incorporation of radionuclides in the organism uptake in the whole-body and in critical organs can be either reduced or blocked (prevention) by appropriate medication and behaviour. Effective half-lives after incorporation in critical organs can be shortened (therapy). For different fallout-radionuclides a variety of preparations exists for such purposes. For large-scale prevention only iodine administration seems appropriate to block the uptake of the generally occurring 131-I in the thyroid. Such an iodine prophylaxis, however, seems only necessary when drinking water concentrations exceed 5000 nCi/l. Excessive amounts of iodine can influence thyroid function significantly. PMID:3577639

  5. On the lognormality of radionuclide deposition.

    PubMed

    Grubich, Andry

    2015-05-01

    The influence of the variation of soil density and the uncertainty of activity measurements on the statistical distribution of radionuclide concentrations on a site is considered. It is demonstrated that the influence of these factors adequately explains the observed deviation of radionuclide empirical probability distribution functions (empirical PDFs) from lognormal. In all probability lognormality of activity density distributions is the consequence of the atmospheric fallout process, as observed for deposition from Chernobyl and Fukushima. The results obtained are in no way specific to radioactive contaminants, and are consequently applicable for depositions of non-radioactive pollutants as well. PMID:25725453

  6. Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Velchik, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

  7. External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

    1989-05-01

    Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

  8. Measuring and Modeling Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material: Interpreting the Relationship Between the Natural Radionuclides Present

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, A.J.; Mucha, A.F. [Safety and Ecology Corporation, 2800 Solway Road, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The regulatory release of sites and facilities (property) for restricted or unrestricted use has evolved beyond prescribed levels to model-derived dose and risk based limits. Dose models for deriving corresponding soil and structure radionuclide concentration guidelines are necessarily simplified representations of complex processes. A conceptual site model is often developed to present a reasonable and somewhat conservative representation of the physical and chemical properties of the impacted material. Dose modeling software is then used to estimate resulting dose and/or radionuclide specific acceptance criteria (activity concentrations). When the source term includes any or all of the uranium, thorium or actinium natural decay series radionuclides the interpretation of the relationship between the individual radionuclides of the series is critical to a technically correct and complete assessment of risk and/or derivation of radionuclide specific acceptance criteria. Unlike man-made radionuclides, modeling and measuring naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) source terms involves the interpretation of the relationship between the radionuclide present, e.g., secular equilibrium, enrichment, depletion or transient equilibrium. Isotopes of uranium, radium, and thorium occur in all three natural decay series. Each of the three series also produces a radon gas isotope as one of its progeny. In nature, the radionuclides in the three natural decay series are in a state that is approaching or has achieved secular equilibrium, in which the activities of all radionuclides within each series are nearly equal. However, ores containing the three natural decay series may begin in approximate secular equilibrium, but after processing, equilibrium may be broken and certain elements (and the radioactive isotopes of that element) may be concentrated or removed. Where the original ore may have contained one long chain of natural decay series radionuclides, the resulting TENORM source term may contain several smaller decay chains, each headed by a different longer lived member of the original series. This paper presents the anatomy of common TENORM source terms and the pitfalls of measuring, interpreting and modeling these source terms. Modeling TENORM with common software such as RESRAD is discussed. In summary: RESRAD modeling (dose assessments) to derive single radionuclide, dose based acceptance criteria, requires a good understanding of the physical, chemical and biological factors/input parameters applicable to the selected exposure scenario(s). When NORM or TENORM source terms are modeled, an additional understanding of the status of equilibrium, is necessary to accurately perform a dose assessment in support of dose based acceptance criteria. Historical information about the site processes/ores, selection of appropriate analytical analyses to identify key decay series radionuclide and a comprehensive review of the characterization data are needed to understand the equilibrium status of the decay series present. Once the source term has been characterized (in regards to relative activities of the radionuclides within a decay series) the source term must be input into RESRAD to reflect that status of equilibrium at time zero, or at the time since placement, if the characterization data reflects the equilibrium status of dated material. When the RESRAD output file is reviewed, depending on the time of maximum dose, DCGL values may be artificially high in value. Sum of fraction calculations, based on the status of equilibrium of each decay series, can also be used to assess the RESRAD results and develop an appropriate MARSSIM final status survey protocol. (authors)

  9. MARSAME Appendix C C. EXAMPLES OF COMMON RADIONUCLIDES

    E-print Network

    ) Fission products (e.g., 90 Sr, 137 Cs) Transuranics (e.g., 237 Np, 239 Pu) Oil and Gas 226 Ra and progeny Optical Glass Facility Thorium series radionuclides Uranium series radionuclides Paint and Pigment

  10. Nuclear Technology Series. Course 22: Advanced Radionuclide Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

  11. A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions.

    PubMed

    Lanconelli, N; Pacilio, M; Lo Meo, S; Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Aroche, A Torres; Pérez, M A Coca; Cremonesi, M

    2012-01-21

    The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www.medphys.it. PMID:22217735

  12. A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanconelli, N.; Pacilio, M.; Lo Meo, S.; Botta, F.; Di Dia, A.; Torres Aroche, L. A.; Coca Pérez, M. A.; Cremonesi, M.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www.medphys.it.

  13. Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wobber, F.J. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Freeman and Johnson's clinical radionuclide imaging. Volume 3 update

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on radioisotope scanning. Topics considered include single photon emission computed tomography, radionuclide evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding, cell labelling, radiolabelled leukocytes, radiolabelled platelets, radiolabelled antibodies, gastrointestinal function, nuclear endocrinology, radionuclide diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer, and historical aspects of the radionuclide imaging of parathyroid tumors.

  15. Radionuclide Imaging of Neurohormonal System of the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinyu; Werner, Rudolf A.; Javadi, Mehrbod S.; Maya, Yoshifumi; Decker, Michael; Lapa, Constantin; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is one of the growing causes of death especially in developed countries due to longer life expectancy. Although many pharmacological and instrumental therapeutic approaches have been introduced for prevention and treatment of heart failure, there are still limitations and challenges. Nuclear cardiology has experienced rapid growth in the last few decades, in particular the application of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which allow non-invasive functional assessment of cardiac condition including neurohormonal systems involved in heart failure; its application has dramatically improved the capacity for fundamental research and clinical diagnosis. In this article, we review the current status of applying radionuclide technology in non-invasive imaging of neurohormonal system in the heart, especially focusing on the tracers that are currently available. A short discussion about disadvantages and perspectives is also included.

  16. Targets and methods for target preparation for radionuclide production

    DOEpatents

    Zhuikov, Boris L; Konyakhin, Nicolai A; Kokhanyuk, Vladimir M; Srivastava, Suresh C

    2012-10-16

    The invention relates to nuclear technology, and to irradiation targets and their preparation. One embodiment of the present invention includes a method for preparation of a target containing intermetallic composition of antimony Ti--Sb, Al--Sb, Cu--Sb, or Ni--Sb in order to produce radionuclides (e.g., tin-117 m) with a beam of accelerated particles. The intermetallic compounds of antimony can be welded by means of diffusion welding to a copper backing cooled during irradiation on the beam of accelerated particles. Another target can be encapsulated into a shell made of metallic niobium, stainless steel, nickel or titanium cooled outside by water during irradiation. Titanium shell can be plated outside by nickel to avoid interaction with the cooling water.

  17. Distribution of radionuclides in Dardanelle Reservoir sediments.

    PubMed

    Forgy, J R; Epperson, C E; Swindle, D L

    1984-02-01

    Natural and reactor-discharged gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Dardanelle Reservoir surface sediments taken near the Arkansas Nuclear One Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths and particle sizes, at 33 locations, in a field survey conducted in early September 1980. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: natural radioactivity (40K as well as uranium and thorium decay products) 661-1210 Bq/kg; and reactor discharged radioactivity (137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co,, 58Co, 54Mn), no detectable activity to 237 Bq/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with decreasing sediment particle size. The average external whole-body and skin doses from all measurable reactor-discharged radionuclides were calculated according to the mathematical formula for determining external dose from sediment given by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Inside the discharge embayment near the reactor discharge canal, the doses were 1.7 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and 2.0 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the skin. Outside this area, the doses were 0.15 X 10(-3) and 0.18 X 10(-3) mSv/yr to the whole body and skin, respectively. PMID:6693264

  18. Lichens as biomonitors of geothermal radionuclide pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Loppi; Alberto Malfatti; Mauro Sani; Neil E. Whitehead

    1997-01-01

    The epiphytic lichen Parmelia caperata was used systematically as a bioaccumulator of radionuclides in the Travale-Radicondoli geothermal field (central Italy). The results showed that radioactivity in this area is not different from that of other non-geothermal areas and that the exploitation of geothermal resources should not cause an enrichment in radioactivity. However, the survey also revealed a negative association between

  19. SOIL REDISTRIBUTION AND FALLOUT RADIONUCLIDE: A BACKGROUND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurements of the spatial patterns of environmental radionuclides can be used to measure soil erosion and sediment deposition on the landscape. This is the only technique that can be used to make actual measurements of soil loss and redeposition quickly and efficiently to design programs to conser...

  20. RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Magnuson

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  1. Radionuclide Imaging in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Brouwers; P. L. Jager

    Nowadays, a space-occupying lesion in the kidney is usually discovered with ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen. The benign or malignant nature of the lesion can usually accurately be assessed with these radiological procedures. Radionuclide imaging techniques do not play a major role in diagnosing kidney cancer, as currently there are no radiopharmaceuticals routinely

  2. Radionuclide evaluation of skeletal metastases: Practical considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H. Gold; Lawrence W. Bassett

    1986-01-01

    The indications for radionuclide bone scanning to evaluate possible metastatic disease are reviewed. The causes of false-positive and falsenegative interpretations are discussed and illustrated. Since breast cancer leads all malignant tumors in incidence of skeletal metastases found at autopsy, the efficacy of preoperative bone scans in patients with breast cancer is analyzed in detail. A routine preoperative bone scan for

  3. PROGRESS REPORT. RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors a...

  4. Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

    1982-12-01

    SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

  5. Transport of gas-phase radionuclides in a fractured, low-permeability reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Clay Cooper; Jenny Chapman

    2001-12-01

    The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy, DOE) oversaw a joint program between industry and government in the 1960s and 1970s to develop technology to enhance production from low-permeability gas reservoirs using nuclear stimulation rather than conventional means (e.g., hydraulic and/or acid fracturing). Project Rio Blanco, located in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, was the third experiment under the program. Three 30-kiloton nuclear explosives were placed in a 2,134-m-deep well at 1,780, 1,899, and 2,039 m below the land surface and detonated in May 1973. Although the reservoir was extensively fractured, complications such as radionuclide contamination of the gas prevented production and subsequent development of the technology. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were conducted to identify the main transport processes that have occurred and are currently occurring in relation to the detonations, and to estimate the extent of contamination in the reservoir. Minor modifications were made to TOUGH2, the multiphase, multicomponent reservoir simulator developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. The simulator allows the explicit incorporation of fractures, as well as heat transport, phase change, and first-order radionuclide decay. For a fractured, two-phase (liquid and gas) reservoir, the largest velocities are of gases through the fractures. In the gas phase, tritium and one isotope of krypton are the principal radionuclides of concern. However, in addition to existing as a fast pathway, fractures also permit matrix diffusion as a retardation mechanism. Another retardation mechanism is radionuclide decay. Simulations show that incorporation of fractures can significantly alter transport rates, and that radionuclides in the gas phase can preferentially migrate upward due to the downward gravity drainage of liquid water in the pores.

  6. Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

  7. 2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report

    SciTech Connect

    David P. Fuehne

    2007-06-30

    This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

  8. Neutron-induced dpa, transmutations, gas production, and helium embrittlement of fusion materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, M. R.; Dudarev, S. L.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Zheng, S.; Packer, L. W.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    2013-11-01

    In a fusion reactor materials will be subjected to significant fluxes of high-energy neutrons. As well as causing radiation damage, the neutrons also initiate nuclear reactions leading to changes in the chemical composition of materials (transmutation). Many of these reactions produce gases, particularly helium, which cause additional swelling and embrittlement of materials. This paper investigates, using a combination of neutron-transport and inventory calculations, the variation in displacements per atom (dpa) and helium production levels as a function of position within the high flux regions of a recent conceptual model for the 'next-step' fusion device DEMO. Subsequently, the gas production rates are used to provide revised estimates, based on new density-functional-theory results, for the critical component lifetimes associated with the helium-induced grain-boundary embrittlement of materials. The revised estimates give more optimistic projections for the lifetimes of materials in a fusion power plant compared to a previous study, while at the same time indicating that helium embrittlement remains one of the most significant factors controlling the structural integrity of fusion power plant components. The MCNP calculations conducted with the conceptual CCFE design of a DEMO fusion reactor show that the neutron irradiation conditions can vary significantly as a function of position within the reactor. Even in the same component, the flux can change dramatically over short distances. As a function of distance from the plasma-facing surface of the FW, the flux drops by several orders of magnitude and the energy spectrum becomes considerably softer. The FISPACT-inventory calculations reveal how the variation in conditions alters the rates of production of impurities from transmutation reactions. In particular, helium concentrations fall by many orders of magnitude from the thin FW-armor layer to the outer regions of the vessel, such as the shield. In Fe, for example, the production of He of up to 140 appm per fpy in the FW-armor is likely to be significant because concentrations in the range of 400 appm are known to cause a change in the fracture behavior of neutron-irradiated steels compared to those exposed to neutrons alone [22]. However, such considerations will quickly become unimportant in regions further from the plasma, since even within the blanket the He production rate in Fe falls below 10 appm per fpy. Furthermore, in some materials, such as W, the He production levels in the bulk (as opposed to direct implantation at the plasma-facing surface) are probably too low to have any impact on component lifetime. An integrated quantity, such as dpa, can sometimes obscure the true variation in irradiation environment, and the sensitivity of these dpa calculations to nuclear data, as highlighted in this work, casts doubt on the suitability of dpa as the ubiquitous measure of material damage under irradiation. The model for He-induced embrittlement of grain-boundaries described in [1] and presented here with revised critical time estimates, while extremely simple and subject to significant assumptions (including grain size and an absence of migration barriers), suggests that He production should not be ignored when designing components for fusion devices. While accepting the limitations of the materials modeling, the integrated approach in the present study demonstrates the potential to produce engineering relevant predictions - starting from a reactor design and using a variety of computational tools for modeling of material properties at the atomic-scale. Lethargy interval is a commonly used measure for spectra of this type, and is equal to the natural logarithm of the ratio of a given energy-interval's upper bound to its lower bound.

  9. A Study of Fast Reactor Fuel Transmutation in a Candidate Dispersion Fuel Design

    SciTech Connect

    Mark DeHart; Hongbin Zhang; Eric Shaber; Matthew Jesse

    2010-11-01

    Dispersion fuels represent a significant departure from typical ceramic fuels to address swelling and radiation damage in high burnup fuel. Such fuels use a manufacturing process in which fuel particles are encapsulated within a non-fuel matrix. Dispersion fuels have been studied since 1997 as part of an international effort to develop and test very high density fuel types for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program.[1] The Idaho National Laboratory is performing research in the development of an innovative dispersion fuel concept that will meet the challenges of transuranic (TRU) transmutation by providing an integral fission gas plenum within the fuel itself, to eliminate the swelling that accompanies the irradiation of TRU. In this process, a metal TRU vector produced in a separations process is atomized into solid microspheres. The dispersion fuel process overcoats the microspheres with a mixture of resin and hollow carbon microspheres to create a TRUC. The foam may then be heated and mixed with a metal power (e.g., Zr, Ti, or Si) and resin to form a matrix metal carbide, that may be compacted and extruded into fuel elements. In this paper, we perform reactor physics calculations for a core loaded with the conceptual fuel design. We will assume a “typical” TRU vector and a reference matrix density. We will employ a fuel and core design based on the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) design.[2] Using the CSAS6 and TRITON modules of the SCALE system [3] for preliminary scoping studies, we will demonstrate the feasibility of reactor operations. This paper will describe the results of these analyses.

  10. Phase Formation and Transformations in Transmutation Fuel Materials for the LIFE Engine Part I - Path Forward

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, P E; Kaufman, L; Fluss, M J

    2008-11-10

    The current specifications of the LLNL fusion-fission hybrid proposal, namely LIFE, impose severe constraints on materials, and in particular on the nuclear fissile or fertile nuclear fuel and its immediate environment. This constitutes the focus of the present report with special emphasis on phase formation and phase transformations of the transmutation fuel and their consequences on particle and pebble thermal, chemical and mechanical integrities. We first review the work that has been done in recent years to improve materials properties under the Gen-IV project, and with in particular applications to HTGR and MSR, and also under GNEP and AFCI in the USA. Our goal is to assess the nuclear fuel options that currently exist together with their issues. Among the options, it is worth mentioning TRISO, IMF, and molten salts. The later option will not be discussed in details since an entire report is dedicated to it. Then, in a second part, with the specific LIFE specifications in mind, the various fuel options with their most critical issues are revisited with a path forward for each of them in terms of research, both experimental and theoretical. Since LIFE is applicable to very high burn-up of various fuels, distinctions will be made depending on the mission, i.e., energy production or incineration. Finally a few conclusions are drawn in terms of the specific needs for integrated materials modeling and the in depth knowledge on time-evolution thermochemistry that controls and drastically affects the performance of the nuclear materials and their immediate environment. Although LIFE demands materials that very likely have not yet been fully optimized, the challenge are not insurmountable and a well concerted experimental-modeling effort should lead to dramatic advances that should well serve other fission programs such as Gen-IV, GNEP, AFCI as well as the international fusion program, ITER.

  11. Hardening neutron spectrum for advanced actinide transmutation experiments in the ATR.

    PubMed

    Chang, G S; Ambrosek, R G

    2005-01-01

    The most effective method for transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast test reactor in the United States, initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. Such a test facility, with a spectrum similar but somewhat softer than that of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), has been constructed in the INEEL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The radial fission power distribution of the actinide fuel pin, which is an important parameter in fission gas release modelling, needs to be accurately predicted and the hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum is compared. The comparison analyses in this study are performed using MCWO, a well-developed tool that couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and build-up code ORIGEN-2. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations and detailed radial fission power profile calculations for a typical fast reactor (LMFBR) neutron spectrum and the hardened neutron spectrum test region in the ATR. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the cadmium basket used in the advanced fuel test assembly in the ATR can effectively depress the linear heat generation rate in the experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum in the test region. PMID:16381683

  12. LWR fuel assembly designs for the transmutation of LWR Spent Fuel TRU with FCM and UO{sub 2}-ThO{sub 2} Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, G.; Hong, S. G. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, KyungHee University, 1732 Deokyoungdaero, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, transmutation of transuranic (TRU) nuclides from LWR spent fuels is studied by using LWR fuel assemblies which consist of UO{sub 2}-ThO{sub 2} fuel pins and FCM (Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated) fuel pins. TRU from LWR spent fuel is loaded in the kernels of the TRISO particle fuels of FCM fuel pins. In the FCM fuel pins, the TRISO particle fuels are distributed in SiC matrix having high thermal conductivity. The loading patterns of fuel pins and the fuel compositions are searched to have high transmutation rate and feasible neutronic parameters including pin power peaking, temperature reactivity coefficients, and cycle length. All studies are done only in fuel assembly calculation level. The results show that our fuel assembly designs have good transmutation performances without multi-recycling and without degradation of the safety-related neutronic parameters. (authors)

  13. Mapping Biological Behaviors by Application of Longer-Lived Positron Emitting Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yang; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2012-01-01

    With the technological development of positron emission tomography (PET) and the advent of novel antibody-directed drug delivery systems, longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides are moving to the forefront to take important roles in tracking the distribution of biotherapeutics such as antibodies, and for monitoring biological processes and responses. Longer half-life radionuclides possess advantages of convenient on-site preparation procedures for both clinical and non-clinical applications. The suitability of the long half-life radionuclides for imaging intact monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and their respective fragments, which have inherently long biological half-lives, has attracted increased interest in recent years. In this review, we provide a survey of the recent literature as it applies to the development of nine-selected longer-lived positron emitters with half-lives of 9–140 hours (e.g., 124I, 64Cu, 86Y and 89Zr), and describe the biological behaviors of radionuclide-labeled mAbs with respect to distribution and targeting characteristics, potential toxicities, biological applications, and clinical translation potentials. PMID:23123291

  14. Radioimmunoimaging with longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides: potentials and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Tapan K.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2012-01-01

    Radioimmunoimaging and therapy has been an area of interest for several decades. Steady progress has been made towards clinical translation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Tremendous advances have been made in imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET). However, these advances have so far eluded routine translation into clinical radioimmunoimaging applications due to the mismatch between the short half-lives of routinely used positron-emitting radionuclides such as 18F versus the pharmacokinetics of most intact monoclonal antibodies of interest. The lack of suitable positron-emitting radionuclides that match the pharmacokinetics of intact antibodies has generated interest in exploring the use of longer-lived positron emitters that are more suitable for radioimmunoimaging and dosimetry applications with intact monoclonal antibodies. In this review, we examine the opportunities and challenges of radioimmunoimaging with select longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as 124I, 89Zr and 86Y with respect to radionuclide production, ease of radiolabeling intact antibodies, imaging characteristics, radiation dosimetry and clinical translation potential. PMID:19125647

  15. Isolation of uranium mill tailings and their component radionuclides from the biosphere; some earth science perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling is an expanding activity in the. Western United States. Although the milling process yields a uranium concentrate, the large volume of tailings remaining contains about 85 percent of the radioactivity originally associated with the ore. By virtue of the physical and chemical processing of the ore and the redistribution of the contained radionuclides at the Earth's surface, these tailings constitute a technologically enhanced source of natural radiation exposure. Sources of potential human radiation exposure from uranium mill tailings include the emanation of radon gas, the transport of particles by wind and water, and the transport of soluble radionuclides, seeping from disposal areas, by ground water. Due to the 77,000 year half-life of thorium-230, the parent of radium-226, the environmental effects associated with radionuclides contained in these railings must be conceived of within the framework of geologic processes operating over geologic time. The magnitude of erosion of cover materials and tailings and the extent of geochemical mobilization of the contained radionuclides to the atmosphere and hydrosphere should be considered in the evaluation of the potential, long-term consequences of all proposed uranium mill tailings management plans.

  16. Sludge source term (PUREX process radionuclide dose impact)

    SciTech Connect

    Aponte, C.I.

    1994-06-28

    This report analyzes the radionuclide dose impact of the PUREX process waste stream. The radionuclide ingestion and inhalation pathways are analyzed. Two spent fuel assemblies processed in the Separation facilities are analyzed, the Mark 31A and Mark 31B. The individual radionuclide significance to dose is evaluated in terms of dose percentage. Comparing the radionuclide individual dose value allows the determination of those radionuclides whose dose impact is significant. The results of this analysis demonstrate that a limited number of radionuclides contribute 1% or more to the total dose and that the major contributor to the sludge source dose is strontium. The results obtained permit reducing the list of radionuclides to be considered in the development of source terms to support the High Level Waste Safety Analysis Report.

  17. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  18. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology is a treatment process for contaminated soils. he process was evaluated to determine its ability to destroy semivolatile organics and to isolate metals and simulated radionuclides into a non-leachable slag materi...

  19. Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2013-04-01

    Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

  20. Solvent extraction in nuclear technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Navratil

    1986-01-01

    Some aspects of solvent extraction chemistry in the field of nuclear technology are briefly reviewed. Applications of solvent extraction in actinide recovery and purification, radionuclide production, and reactor materials preparation are summarized. The need for new, more selective, solvent extraction reagents is presented via examples of recent work with bifunctional organophosphorus reagents applied to the removal of actinides from acidic

  1. FOREWORD: Special issue on radionuclide metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Bruce; Judge, Steven

    2007-08-01

    This special issue of Metrologia on radionuclide metrology is the first of a trilogy on the subject of ionizing radiation measurement, a field that is overseen by Sections I, II and III of the CIPM's Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI). The idea was first proposed at the 2003 series of CCRI Section meetings, with the general aim of showcasing the relevance and importance of metrology in ionizing radiation to a broader metrological audience. After the 2005 meeting of Section II (measurement of radionuclides), the radioactivity aspect of the project began to move forward in earnest. A working group was set up with the brief that the special issue should be of use by experienced metrologists as an overview of the 'state of the art' to compare progress and scientific content with those in other fields of metrology, as a resource for new metrologists joining the field and as a guide for users of radioactivity to explain how traceability to the international measurement system may be achieved. Since mankind first became aware of the existence of radioactivity just over a century ago (due to its discovery by Becquerel and further work by the Curies), much has been learnt and understood in the interim period. The field of radionuclide metrology that developed subsequently is broad-based and encompasses, amongst others, nuclear physics (experimental and theory), chemistry, mathematics, mathematical statistics, uncertainty analysis and advanced computing for data analysis, simulation and modelling. To determine the activity of radionuclides accurately requires elements of all of these subjects. In more recent decades the focus has been on the practical applications of radioactivity in industry and the health field in particular. In addition, low-level environmental radioactivity monitoring has taken on ever greater importance in the nuclear power era. These developments have required new detection instrumentation and techniques on an ongoing basis to ensure the improvement in accuracy and precision of measurement as demanded by the stringent requirements of the user community, such as the correct calibration of nuclear instrumentation. This leads into the need for traceability to national measurement standards maintained by the national metrology institutes. As part of the radioactivity traceability chain, as for all areas of metrology, it is vital that systems are in place to ensure that national standards can be checked for worldwide uniformity and measurement equivalence. Many of the resulting areas are covered by the topics in this special issue, although specifically excluded from the scope of the publication are topics that are widely covered in other publications due to their application in applied metrology—for example, radiochemistry, environmental gamma spectrometry and alpha spectrometry. There are three sections to this issue, starting with papers on how the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement has been implemented for radionuclide metrology, following into the bulk of the publication with articles on the `state of the art' in radionuclide metrology and ending with traceability to national/international standards in nuclear medicine, environmental monitoring, radiation protection and decommissioning. This special issue in essence follows on from earlier BIPM Monographies that were published in order to provide the base information for radionuclide metrology. In many respects they complement the special issue since much of their content is still valid today, particularly those published more recently as an aid to ensuring consistency of method and data. The BIPM Monographies are freely available to download from the BIPM website at http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/monographies-ri.html. The papers in the special issue draw on the experience of radionuclide metrologists who have been involved in their area of expertise for many years. The authors give readers an insightful account of the selected topics through in-depth review articles. We are indeed indebted to them for accepting this difficult and t

  2. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary vasculature resulting in intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cuntaeous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  3. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggrregated albumin (/sup 99m/Tc MAA) labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cutaneous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  4. Methods and systems for detection of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Coates Jr., John T.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2010-05-25

    Disclosed are materials and systems useful in determining the existence of radionuclides in an aqueous sample. The materials provide the dual function of both extraction and scintillation to the systems. The systems can be both portable and simple to use, and as such can beneficially be utilized to determine presence and optionally concentration of radionuclide contamination in an aqueous sample at any desired location and according to a relatively simple process without the necessity of complicated sample handling techniques. The disclosed systems include a one-step process, providing simultaneous extraction and detection capability, and a two-step process, providing a first extraction step that can be carried out in a remote field location, followed by a second detection step that can be carried out in a different location.

  5. Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

    1992-08-04

    This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

  6. Radionuclide transport in the Yenisei River

    E-print Network

    S. M. Vakulovsky; E. G. Tertyshnik; A. I. Kabanov

    2012-11-15

    Data characterizing the pollution of the Yenisei River (water and bottom sediment) by radionuclide resulting from the use of the river water for cooling industrial reactors in the Mining-Chemical Complex are presented. Studies have been made of the contamination of the river during the period when reactors with direct flow cooling were used and after these were shut down. Distinctive features of the migration of radionuclide in the Yenisei are noted, in particular, their distribution between the solid and liquid phases. The amounts of 137Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 152Eu in the channel are determined from the effluent discharge site to Dudinka port. The rate of continuous self removal of 137Cs is estimated to be 0.19 1/year, corresponding to a half purification time of 3.6 years for a 600 km long segment of the river bed.

  7. Radionuclide transport in the Yenisei River

    E-print Network

    Vakulovsky, S M; Kabanov, A I

    2012-01-01

    Data characterizing the pollution of the Yenisei River (water and bottom sediment) by radionuclide resulting from the use of the river water for cooling industrial reactors in the Mining-Chemical Complex are presented. Studies have been made of the contamination of the river during the period when reactors with direct flow cooling were used and after these were shut down. Distinctive features of the migration of radionuclide in the Yenisei are noted, in particular, their distribution between the solid and liquid phases. The amounts of 137Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn, and 152Eu in the channel are determined from the effluent discharge site to Dudinka port. The rate of continuous self removal of 137Cs is estimated to be 0.19 1/year, corresponding to a half purification time of 3.6 years for a 600 km long segment of the river bed.

  8. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

  9. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2009-05-21

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

  10. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea

    2010-06-01

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

  11. Biosorption of radionuclides by Rhizopus arrhizus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Dhami; V. Gopalakrishnan; R. Kannan; A. Ramanujam; Neeta Salvi; S. R. Udupa

    1998-01-01

    The sorption of various radionuclides viz. 233U, 239Pu, 241Am, 144Ce, 147Pm, 152+154Eu and 95Zr from aqueous nitrate medium has been studied using biomass Rhizopus arrhizus. The biosorption of 233U and 239Pu was found to be maximum at pH 6-7 whereas for other trivalent actinides and fission products viz. 241Am, 144Ce, 147Pm, 152+154Eu and tetravalent 95Zr, it was more effective at

  12. Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

    2008-06-13

    Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

  13. Radionuclide partitioning across great lakes natural interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Platford; S. R. Joshi

    1989-01-01

    Several water and surface microlayer samples from Lake St. Clair, the Niagara River, and the North Shore of Lake Ontario collected during 1983 1986 have been assayed for a variety of radionuclides. In addition, the foam accumulating in the pool just below Niagara Falls was also analyzed and found to be the most efficient aqueous phase collector of137Cs,210Pb, and226Ra. The

  14. Radionuclide partitioning across Great Lakes natural interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Platford; S. R. Joshi

    2009-01-01

    Several water and surface microlayer samples from Lake St. Clair, the Niagara River, and the North Shore of Lake Ontario collected during 1983-1986 have been assayed for a variety of radionuclides. In addition, the foam accumulating in the pool just below Niagara Falls was also analyzed and found to be the most efficient aqueous phase collector of ¹³⁷Cs, ²¹°Pb, and

  15. Radionuclide partitioning across great lakes natural interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Platford; S. R. Joshi

    1989-01-01

    Several water and surface microlayer samples from Lake St. Clair, the Niagara River, and the North Shore of Lake Ontario collected during 1983–1986 have been assayed for a variety of radionuclides. In addition, the foam accumulating in the pool just below Niagara Falls was also analyzed and found to be the most efficient aqueous phase collector of137Cs,210Pb, and226Ra.

  16. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of graphite tubes for the non-aqueous system of accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, R.C.; Venneri, F.; Trujillo, D.A.

    1993-10-01

    Accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste offers exciting possibilities for the disposal of nuclear waste by converting it into more benign Species. The non-aqueous system discussed here contains the materials to be transmuted within a lithium-fluoride salt. The system consists of bundles of graphite tubes containing the salt Solution. The tubes are cooled as lithium flows across their exterior. These circular graphite tubes have an inner circular passage and an outer annulus. Natural convection within the tubes causes the salt to circulate. This paper deals with the thermal-hydraulics of the system; it does not consider the neutronics in detail. Heat transfer and fluid flow were modeled using a custom computer program the system behavior of an graphite tube. Different geometries were tried, while keeping the system volume the same, to determine an optimize graphite tube geometry. I considered both the parallel flow and the counterflow of the lithium coolant, and allowed limited boiling to occur to facilitate circulation. I achieved power densities as high as 200 W/cm{sup 3} for the overall blanket.

  17. Compact, energy self-sustaining neutron source: Enabling technology for thorium breeder and accelerator transmutation of waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hershcovitch; W. Horak; B. Johnson; M. Todosow; T. Roser; M. Driscoll

    2009-01-01

    In this novel neutron source, a deuterium beam (energy of about 100 keV) is to be injected through a plasma window into a tube filled with tritium gas or tritium plasma to generate D-T fusion reactions whose products are 14.06 MeV neutrons and 3.52 MeV alpha particles. At the opposite end of the tube, the energy of deuterium ions that

  18. Sorption of radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, A.; Triay, I.; Knight, S.; Cisneros, M.

    1989-11-01

    A substantial database of sorption coefficients for important radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs has been obtained by Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past ten years. Current sorption studies are focussed on validation questions and augmentation of the existing database. Validation questions concern the effects of the use of crushed instead of solid rock samples in the batch experiments, the use of oversaturated stock solutions, and variations in water/rock ratios. Sorption mechanisms are also being investigated. Database augmentation activities include determination of sorption coefficients for elements with low sorption potential, sorption on psuedocolloids, sorption on fracture lining minerals, and sorption kinetics. Sorption can provide an important barrier to the potential migration of radionuclides from the proposed repository within Yucca Mountain to the accessible environment. In order to quantify this barrier, sorption coefficients appropriate for the Yucca Mountain groundwater system must be obtained for each of the important radionuclides in nuclear waste. Los Alamos National Laboratories has conducted numerous batch (crushed-rock) sorption experiments over the past ten years to develop a sorption coefficient database for the Yucca Mountain site. In the present site characterization phase, the main goals of the sorption test program will be to validate critical sorption coefficients and to augment the existing database where important data are lacking. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

    2006-08-28

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

  20. Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2008-10-01

    The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  1. Flibe blanket concept for transmuting transuranic elements and long lived fission products.

    SciTech Connect

    Gohar, Y.

    2000-11-15

    A Molten salt (Flibe) fusion blanket concept has been developed to solve the disposition problems of the spent nuclear fuel and the transuranic elements. This blanket concept can achieve the top rated solution, the complete elimination of the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products. Small driven fusion devices with low neutron wall loading and low neutron fluence can perform this function. A 344-MW integrated fusion power from D-T plasmas for thirty years with an availability factor of 0.75 can dispose of 70,000 tons of the US inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. In addition, the utilization of this blanket concept eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. This application provides an excellent opportunity to develop and to enhance the public acceptance of the fusion energy for the future. The energy from the transmutation process is utilized to produce revenue. Flibe, lithium-lead eutectic, and liquid lead are possible candidates. The liquid blankets have several features, which are suited for W application. It can operate at constant thermal power without interruption for refueling by adjusting the concentration of the transuranic elements and lithium-6. These liquids operate at low-pressure, which reduces the primary stresses in the structure material. Development and fabrication costs of solid transuranic materials are eliminated. Burnup limit of the transuranic elements due to radiation effects is eliminated. Heat is generated within the liquid, which simplifies the heat removal process without producing thermal stresses. These blanket concepts have large negative temperature coefficient with respect to the blanket reactivity, which enhances the safety performance. These liquids are chemically and thermally stable under irradiation conditions, which minimize the radioactive waste volume. The operational record of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor with Flibe was very successful, which established the technical bases for this application. This paper provides the technical analyses and the performance of the Flibe blanket concept as an example of this class of blankets.

  2. Fukushima's forgotten radionuclides: a review of the understudied radioactive emissions.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Georg

    2014-05-01

    In environmental monitoring campaigns for anthropogenic radionuclides released in the course of the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), most focus had been on gamma-emitting radionuclides. More than 99% of the released activity was due to radionuclides of the elements Kr, Te, I, Xe, and Cs. However, little work had been done on the monitoring of radionuclides other than (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (136)Cs, and (137)Cs. Radionuclides such as those of less volatile elements (e.g., (89)Sr, (90)Sr, (103)Ru, (106)Ru, plutonium), pure beta-emitters ((3)H, (14)C, (35)S), gaseous radionuclides ((85)Kr, (133)Xe, (135)Xe) or radionuclides with very long half-lives (e.g., (36)Cl, (99)Tc, (129)I, some actinides such as (236)U) have been understudied by comparison. In this review, we summarize previous monitoring work on these "orphan" radionuclides in various environmental media and outline further challenges for future monitoring campaigns. Some of the understudied radionuclides are of radiological concern, others are promising tracers for environmental, geochemical processes such as oceanic mixing. Unfortunately, the shorter-lived nuclides of radioxenon, (103)Ru, (89)Sr and (35)S will no longer exhibit detectable activities in the environment. Activity concentrations of other radionuclides such as tritium, (14)C, or (85)Kr will become blurred in the significant background of previous releases (nuclear explosions and previous accidents). Isotope ratios such as (240)Pu/(239)Pu will allow for the identification of Fukushima plutonium despite the plutonium background. PMID:24754713

  3. Lead-Bismuth-Eutectic Spallation Neutron Source for Nuclear Transmuter Y. Gohar, J. Herceg, L Krajtl, D. Pointer, J. Saiveau, T. Sofu, and P. Finck

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Lead-Bismuth-Eutectic Spallation Neutron Source for Nuclear Transmuter Y. Gohar, J. Herceg, L South Cass Avenue Argonne, IL 60439 Abstract A lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation target design in the target window to enhance its operating life. I. Introduction A lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) spallation

  4. Proposal for New Experimental Tests of the Bose-Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low Energy Nuclear Reaction and Transmutation Processes in Deuterium Loaded Micro and Nano Scale Cavities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeong E. Kim; David S. Koltick; Ronald G. Reifenberger; Alexander L. Zubarev

    Most of experimental results of low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) reported so far cannot be reproduced on demand. There have been persistent experimental results indicating that the LENR and transmutation processes in condensed matters (LENRTPCM) are surface phenomena rather than bulk phenomena. Recently proposed Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) mechanism may provide a suitable theoretical description of the surface phenomena. New experiments

  5. UNIFYING THEORY OF LOW-ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTION AND TRANSMUTATION PROCESSES IN DEUTERATED\\/HYDROGENATED METALS, ACOUSTIC CAVITATION, GLOW DISCHARGE, AND DEUTERON BEAM EXPERIMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YEONG E. KIM; ALEXANDER L. ZUBAREV

    The most basic theoretical challenge for understanding low energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation reaction (LETR) in condensed matters is to find mechanisms by which the large Coulomb barrier between fusing nuclei can be overcome. A unifying theory of LENR and LETR has been developed to provide possible mechanisms for the LENR and LETR processes in matters based on high-density

  6. National radioactivity standards for beta-emitting radionuclides used in intravascular brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Coursey, B M; Collé, R; Zimmerman, B E; Cessna, J T; Golas, D B

    1998-04-01

    The uses of beta-particle emitting radionuclides in therapeutic medicine are rapidly expanding. To ensure the accurate assays of these nuclides prior to administration, radioactivity standards are needed. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the national metrological standards laboratory for the United States, uses high-efficiency liquid scintillation counting to standardize solutions of such beta emitters, including 32P, 90Sr/90Y, and 188Re. Additional measurements are made on radionuclidic impurities, half lives, and other decay-scheme parameters (such as branching decay ratios or gamma-ray abundances) using HPGe detectors and reentrant ionization chambers. Following such measurements at NIST, standards are disseminated in three ways: Standard Reference Materials (SRMs), calibrations for source manufacturers, and calibration factors for commercial instruments. Uncertainties in the activity calibrations for these nuclides are of the order of +/-0.5% (at approximately 1-standard deviation confidence intervals). PMID:9588935

  7. Copper doping of ZnO crystals by transmutation of {sup 64}Zn to {sup 65}Cu: An electron paramagnetic resonance and gamma spectroscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Recker, M. C.; McClory, J. W., E-mail: John.McClory@afit.edu; Holston, M. S.; Golden, E. M.; Giles, N. C. [Department of Engineering Physics, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Halliburton, L. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2014-06-28

    Transmutation of {sup 64}Zn to {sup 65}Cu has been observed in a ZnO crystal irradiated with neutrons. The crystal was characterized with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) before and after the irradiation and with gamma spectroscopy after the irradiation. Major features in the gamma spectrum of the neutron-irradiated crystal included the primary 1115.5?keV gamma ray from the {sup 65}Zn decay and the positron annihilation peak at 511?keV. Their presence confirmed the successful transmutation of {sup 64}Zn nuclei to {sup 65}Cu. Additional direct evidence for transmutation was obtained from the EPR of Cu{sup 2+} ions (where {sup 63}Cu and {sup 65}Cu hyperfine lines are easily resolved). A spectrum from isolated Cu{sup 2+} (3d{sup 9}) ions acquired after the neutron irradiation showed only hyperfine lines from {sup 65}Cu nuclei. The absence of {sup 63}Cu lines in this Cu{sup 2+} spectrum left no doubt that the observed {sup 65}Cu signals were due to transmuted {sup 65}Cu nuclei created as a result of the neutron irradiation. Small concentrations of copper, in the form of Cu{sup +}-H complexes, were inadvertently present in our as-grown ZnO crystal. These Cu{sup +}-H complexes are not affected by the neutron irradiation, but they dissociate when a crystal is heated to 900?°C. This behavior allowed EPR to distinguish between the copper initially in the crystal and the copper subsequently produced by the neutron irradiation. In addition to transmutation, a second major effect of the neutron irradiation was the formation of zinc and oxygen vacancies by displacement. These vacancies were observed with EPR.

  8. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  9. Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

  10. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  11. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

  12. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

  13. Radionuclide scanning in pseudo-Kaposi's sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Rosen, T; Martin, S; Stern, J K

    1979-06-01

    Sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m radionuclide scanning is considered to be a sensitive indicator in detecting lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma, including occult infiltrations. This report describes a "false-positive" scan in a patient with acroanglodermatitis (pseudo-Kaposi's sarcoma); therefore, this technique may not be useful in the differential diagnosis of these two clinically and histologically similar diseases. We suggest, instead that the technetium scan may be helpful in deciding on the course of therapy in acroangiodermatitis by demonstrating the nature of the underlying vascular anomalies. PMID:453882

  14. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, M.J.

    1992-06-01

    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  15. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed Central

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2 x 10(2). Although these are hypothetical risks, they show that the radiologic impact of man-made sources is very small compared to the effects of normal background radiation. PMID:8635444

  16. Radionuclide evaluation of nonmalignant bone disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.

    1983-02-01

    Recent advances in nuclear imaging have improved the noninvasive evaluation of patients with nonmalignant bone disorders. When bone scanning agents are combined with bone marrow scanning agents and gallium-67 scintigraphy, a more accurate diagnosis can be obtained. By selecting the appropriate imaging sequence, it is often possible to distinguish cellulitis from underlying osteomyelitis. In patients with total hip replacements, it may be possible to separate postsurgical changes from prosthetic loosening or infection. Stress fractures in joggers may be detected by radionuclide bone scintigraphy before radiographs become abnormal. These nuclear imaging procedures can be done in most hospitals.

  17. Detection of gastrointestinal bleeding by radionuclide scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, S.; Luna, E.; Kingsley, S.; Prince, M.; Herrera, N.

    1984-01-01

    Scanning with Technetium /sup 99m/ labeled autologous red blood cells was performed in 59 patients with clinical suspicion of acute and/or intermittent, chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. In 36 patients (61%), a definite site of bleeding could be demonstrated. A strong correlation with other modalities such as upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy, contrast angiography, and surgical exploration was found. Overall sensitivity of the procedure was 91%; specificity 100% and accuracy 93.3%. It is suggested that radionuclide scintigraphy provides a completely noninvasive, simple, and sensitive procedure which may be routinely used for the detection and localization of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  18. Radionuclide partitioning across great lakes natural interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platford, R. F.; Joshi, S. R.

    1989-11-01

    Several water and surface microlayer samples from Lake St. Clair, the Niagara River, and the North Shore of Lake Ontario collected during 1983 1986 have been assayed for a variety of radionuclides. In addition, the foam accumulating in the pool just below Niagara Falls was also analyzed and found to be the most efficient aqueous phase collector of137Cs,210Pb, and226Ra. The order of radioisotope specific activities from highest to lowest is: Lake Ontario sediment, Niagara River suspended solids, Niagara River foam, surface microlayer water, and subsurface water. Radiological dose rates to the sediments from137Cs,226Ra, and228Th total about 5 mGy/y.

  19. Research remote laser methods for radionuclides monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kascheev, S. V.; Elizarov, Valentin V.; Grishkanich, Alexander S.; Bespalov, V. G.; Vasil'ev, Sergey K.; Zhevlakov, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Laser sensing can serve as a highly effective method of searching and monitoring of radioactive contamination. The first method is essence consists in definition the Sr90 and ?s137 concentration by excitation and registration of fluorescence at wavelength of ? = 0.347÷7.0 ?m at laser sounding. The second method experiments were carried out under the Raman-scattering circuit. Preliminary results of investigation show the real possibility to register of leakage of a radionuclide with concentration at level of 108÷109 ?m-3 on a safe distance from the infected object.

  20. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2 x 10(2). Although these are hypothetical risks, they show that the radiologic impact of man-made sources is very small compared to the effects of normal background radiation. PMID:8635444

  1. Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

  2. Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works (2nd Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmisano, Anna; Hazen, Terry

    2003-09-30

    This primer is intended for people interested in environmental problems of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. The second edition of the primer incorporates recent findings by researchers in DOE's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on the physical-chemical environment, microbial communities, and nature of the contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through the addition of nutrients (biostimulation) or inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation). Over the past few years, interest in bioremediation has increased. It has become clear that many organic contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels can be degraded to relatively harmless products such as CO{sub 2} (the end result of the degradation process). Waste water managers and scientists have also found that microorganisms can interact with metals and convert them from one chemical form to another. Laboratory tests and ex situ bioremediation applications have shown that microorganisms can change the valence, or oxidation state, of some heavy metals (e.g., chromium and mercury) and radionuclides (e.g., uranium) by using them as electron acceptors. In some cases, the solubility of the altered species decreases and the contaminant is immobilized in situ, i.e., precipitated into an insoluble salt in the sediment. In other cases, the opposite occurs--the solubility of the altered species increases, increasing the mobility of the contaminant and allowing it to be more easily flushed from the environment. Both of these kinds of transformations present opportunities for bioremediation of metals and radionuclides--either to lock them in place, or to accelerate their removal. DOE's goal is to reduce the risk and related exposure to ground water, sediment, and soil contamination at Department of Energy facilities. Subsurface bioremediation of metals and radionuclides at the site of contamination (in situ bioremediation) is not yet in widespread use. However, successful in situ applications of bioremediation to petroleum products and chlorinated solvents provide experience from which scientists can draw. Taken together, the accomplishments in these areas have led scientists and engineers to be optimistic about applying this technology to the mixtures of metals and radionuclides that are found at some of the most contaminated DOE sites. This primer examines some of the basic microbial and chemical processes that are a part of bioremediation, specifically the bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. The primer is divided into six sections, with the information in each building on that of the previous. The sections include features that highlight topics of interest and provide background information on specific biological and chemical processes and reactions. The first section briefly examines the scope of the contamination problem at DOE facilities. The second section gives a summary of some of the most commonly used bioremediation technologies, including successful in situ and ex situ techniques. The third discusses chemical and physical properties of metals and radionuclides found in contaminant mixtures at DOE sites, including solubility and the most common oxidation states in which these materials are found. The fourth section is an overview of the basic microbial processes that occur in bioremediation. The fifth section looks at specific in s

  3. COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CPFM technology is designed to remove trace to moderate levels of nontritium radionuclides and heavy metal pollutants from water. The technology uses a proprietary compound that consists of inorganic, oxide-based granules. This mixed is designed to remove heavy metals and rad...

  4. COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CPFM technology is designed to remove trace to moderate levels of nontritium radionuclides and heavy metal pollutants from water. he technology uses a proprietary compound that consists of inorganic, oxide-based granules. his mixed is designed to remove heavy metals and radio...

  5. The effect of gravel size fraction on the distribution coefficients of selected radionuclides radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Glossbrenner, Ellwood T.

    2009-06-26

    This manuscript addresses the consequences of the common practice of assuming that the gravel fraction of sediments does not participate in sorption reactions and thus sorption quantified by the distribution coefficient (Kd) construct can be estimated from laboratory tests on < 2mm fraction of sediments. As shown within the use of this common assumption can lead to inaccurate estimates of the mobility and sorption capacity of key radionuclides (Tc, U, and Np) at the Hanford Site where gravel dominates the lower Hanford formation and upper Ringold Formation. Batch sorption and column experiments showed that the distribution coefficient measured using only < 2mm fraction were not in agreement with those obtained from the bulk sediments depending on the radionuclide. The least reactive radionuclide, Tc showed the lowest effects from the presence of gravel. However, differences between measured Kds using < 2mm fractions of the sediment and the Kds measured on the bulk sediment were significant for strongly reactive radionuclides such as Np, especially on the sediment with gravel fractions that contained highly reactive sites. Highly reactive sites in the gravel fraction were attributed to the presence of Fe oxides coatings and/or reactive fracture faces on the gravel surfaces. Gravel correction factors that use the sum of the Kd,<2 mm and Kd,>2 mm values to estimate the Kd for the bulk sediment were found to best describe Kds for radionuclides on the bulk sediment. However, more detailed characterization of gravel surfaces should be also conducted to identify those gravels with higher reactive sorbents, if present. Gravel correction factors should be considered to predict precisely the sorption capacity of bulk sediments that contain more than 10% gravel and to estimate the mobility of contaminants in subsurface environments.

  6. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: summary

    SciTech Connect

    Fullwood, R.; Jackson, R.

    1980-03-01

    A Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle is being compared to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the risk, which is RAC code. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts, also using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. Result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. The nonradiological risk which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. If the radiological risk is consdered alone, the ratio of PT to Reference risk is 3, composed as follows: radiological operations affecting the public 5, radiological operations affecting the workers 1.7, and radiological accidents affecting the public 1.4, all in the order of decreasing risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatality/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatality/GWe-year for the reference cycle; this compares with 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year.

  7. Radionuclide measurement of differential glomerular filtration rate

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.A.; Stone, W.J.; Grove, R.B.; Plunkett, J.M.; Kadir, S.; Patton, J.A.; Bowen, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The authors sought to determine whether radionuclides could provide a reasonable estimate of differential renal function in five normal dogs and six dogs with unilateral segmental renal infarction. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of each kidney was measured by the standard technique using constant infusions of 99mTc-DTPA, iothalamate, and creatinine following ureteral catheterization. These results were correlated with total GFR estimated by bolus injection of 99mTc-DTPA and analysis of the plasma 99mTc-DTPA disappearance curve obtained by blood sampling. Differential GFR was then calculated by multiplying the total GFR from double exponential analysis of this curve (DTPA2) by each of three measures of differential function. These include the percent differential uptake of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-DMSA in the posterior projection as well as the geometric mean of 99mTc-DMSA uptake. There were good correlations between differential GFR calculated from iothalamate clearances obtained at ureteral catheterization and all noninvasive methods involving radionuclides and DTPA2 (r = 0.85 - 0.99). Single exponential analysis of the 99mTc-DTPA plasma disappearance curve was less satisfactory. The authors suggest that measurement of total and differential GFR calculated from plasma clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and external counting may be a useful method with potential clinical applications.

  8. Radionuclide complexation in xylem exudates of plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; McFadden, D.M.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1985-04-01

    The plant xylem is the primary avenue for transport of nutrient and pollutant elements from the roots of aerial portions of the plant. It is proposed that the transport of reactive or hydrolyzable ions is facilitated by the formation of stable/soluble complexes with organic metabolites. The xylem exudates of soybean (Glycine max cv. Williams) were characterized as to their inorganic and organic components, complexation patterns for radionuclides, both in vivo and in vitro, and for class fractions of exudates using thin-layer electrophoresis. The radionuclides Pu-238 and Fe-59 were found primarily as organic acid complexes, while Ni-63 and Cd-109 were associated primarily with components of the amono acid fraction. Technetium-99 was found to be uncomplexed and transported as the pertechnetate ion. It was not possible to duplicate fully complexes formed in vivo by back reaction with whole exudates or class fractions, indicating the possible importance of plant induction processes, reaction kinetics and/or the formation of mixed ligand complexes. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Application of radionuclide ventriculography to cardiac screening

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, J. Jr.; Milner, M.R.; Chandeysson, P.L.; Rodman, D.J.; Okin, P.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1989-05-01

    Screening asymptomatic individuals for latent coronary disease often requires sequential testing because exercise electrocardiography typically produces more false positive than true positive results in a population with a low prevalence of coronary disease. Cardiac scintigraphy is a technique that may be employed as a confirmatory test in lieu of coronary arteriography to further evaluate the significance of a positive exercise electrocardiogram. Radionuclide ventriculography was employed in 98 asymptomatic individuals who were considered to be at moderate risk of heart disease after risk factor analysis and exercise electrocardiography. Seventeen (17%) patients had an abnormal study and underwent cardiac catheterization. Seven had coronary artery disease, two had cardiomyopathy, and eight were normal. Eighty-one (83%) patients had a normal study. Because the sensitivity of radionuclide ventriculography is 63-80%, it was postulated that 2 to 5 individuals with disease were missed. Thus, from a population with an 11-14% prevalence of disease, two subsets were identified. A large subset in which a prevalence of 2-6% could be estimated was separated from a much smaller one in which a prevalence of approximately 50% was demonstrated.

  10. Radionuclide exercise testing for coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, G.A.

    1984-08-01

    It is obvious that the indication and clinical applications of radionuclide stress testing have been expanded and that both techniques described in this article are useful for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The sensitivity and specificity of noninvasive stress testing have been significantly enhanced by the introduction of these radionuclide approaches for detecting ischemia in patients with undiagnosed chest pain. High-risk patients with either stable CAD or recent myocardial infarction can be identified by the severity of the abnormal response elicited. Patients with multiple thallium defects, particularly of the redistribution type, appear to be at the highest risk for subsequent cardiac events. Similarly, patients with a greater than 10 per cent fall in ejection fraction with development of multiple wall motion abnormalities and an increase in end-systolic volume seem to be in a high risk subset. Further developments with single photon emission tomography and computer quantitation of thallium or ventriculographic images should make these tests even more reliable in obtaining useful information in patients with CAD. 34 references.

  11. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; da Silveira, Marcilei A. Guazzelli; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) ?Sv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) ?Sv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) ?Sv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 ?Sv/year.

  12. Current status of radionuclide scrotal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.; Chen, D.

    1981-10-01

    Scrotal imaging with technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate consists of a radionuclide angiogram and static scrotal scans. Utilization of this study in patients presenting with an acute scrotum can dramatically reduce the number of surgical explorations for acute epididymitis. It can also aid in other aspects of differential diagnosis in patients presenting with either an acutely enlarged and/or painful scrotum or a scrotal mass. Ambiguities in previous descriptions of perfusion through the spermatic and extraspermatic cord vessels are described and distinguished from scrotal perfusion. The clinical and scintigraphic spectrum of testicular torsion, including spontaneous detorsion, early acute testicular torsion, midphase testicular torsion, and late phase or ''missed testicular torsion,'' is discussed and illustrated. The variety of patterns seen in acute epididymitis, including lateral and medial epididymal location, and focal epididymitis are described, as is the appearance of hydrocele as both a primary and secondary entity. The relationship of scrotal imaging to the overall clinical presentation and evaluation of these patients is emphasized in testicular torsion, torsion of the testicular appendages, epididymitis, abscess, trauma, tumor, spermatocele, and varicocele. The techniques, clinical utility, and relationship to radionuclide imaging of Doppler ultrasound and gray scale ultrasound scanning are reviewed. Doppler ultrasound results in many false negative studies in testicular torsion. Gray scale ultrasound is useful in clarifying the nature of scrotal masses.

  13. Radionuclide imaging of bone marrow disorders

    PubMed Central

    Agool, Ali; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Boersma, Hendrikus H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo

    2010-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging techniques have been used in the past for visualization the functional activity of the bone marrow compartment. Imaging with radiolabelled compounds may allow different bone marrow disorders to be distinguished. These imaging techniques, almost all of which use radionuclide-labelled tracers, such as 99mTc-nanocolloid, 99mTc-sulphur colloid, 111In-chloride, and radiolabelled white blood cells, have been used in nuclear medicine for several decades. With these techniques three separate compartments can be recognized including the reticuloendothelial system, the erythroid compartment and the myeloid compartment. Recent developments in research and the clinical use of PET tracers have made possible the analysis of additional properties such as cellular metabolism and proliferative activity, using 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT. These tracers may lead to better quantification and targeting of different cell systems in the bone marrow. In this review the imaging of different bone marrow targets with radionuclides including PET tracers in various bone marrow diseases are discussed. PMID:20625724

  14. Radionuclide release from research reactor spent fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtius, H.; Kaiser, G.; Müller, E.; Bosbach, D.

    2011-09-01

    Numerous investigations with respect to LWR fuel under non oxidizing repository relevant conditions were performed. The results obtained indicate slow corrosion rates for the UO 2 fuel matrix. Special fuel-types (mostly dispersed fuels, high enriched in 235U, cladded with aluminium) are used in German research reactors, whereas in German nuclear power plants, UO 2-fuel (LWR fuel, enrichment in 235U up to 5%, zircaloy as cladding) is used. Irradiated research reactor fuels contribute less than 1% to the total waste volume. In Germany, the state is responsible for fuel operation and for fuel back-end options. The institute for energy research (IEF-6) at the Research Center Jülich performs investigation with irradiated research reactor spent fuels under repository relevant conditions. In the study, the corrosion of research reactor spent fuel has been investigated in MgCl 2-rich salt brine and the radionuclide release fractions have been determined. Leaching experiments in brine with two different research reactor fuel-types were performed in a hot cell facility in order to determine the corrosion behaviour and the radionuclide release fractions. The corrosion of two dispersed research reactor fuel-types (UAl x-Al and U 3Si 2-Al) was studied in 400 mL MgCl 2-rich salt brine in the presence of Fe 2+ under static and initially anoxic conditions. Within these experimental parameters, both fuel types corroded in the experimental time period of 3.5 years completely, and secondary alteration phases were formed. After complete corrosion of the used research reactor fuel samples, the inventories of Cs and Sr were quantitatively detected in solution. Solution concentrations of Am and Eu were lower than the solubility of Am(OH) 3(s) and Eu(OH) 3(s) solid phases respectively, and may be controlled by sorption processes. Pu concentrations may be controlled by Pu(IV) polymer species, but the presence of Pu(V) and Pu(IV) oxyhydroxides species due to radiolytic effects cannot completely be ruled out. Solution concentrations of U were within the range of the solubility limits of the solid phase U(OH) 4(am). The determined concentrations of U and Am in solution were about one order of magnitude higher for the U 3Si 2-Al fuel sample. Here, the formation of U/Si containing secondary phase components and their influence on radionuclide solubility cannot be ruled out. Results of this work show that the U 3Si 2-Al and UAl x-Al dispersed research reactor spent fuel samples dissolved completely within the test period of 3.5 years in MgCl 2-rich brine in the presence of Fe 2+. In view of final disposal this means that these fuel matrices represent no barrier. The radionuclides will be released instantaneously. Cs (the long-lived isotope 135Cs is of special concern with respect to final disposal) and Sr were classified as mobile radionuclide species. For U, Am, Pu and Eu, a reimmobilization was observed. Sorption is the process which is assumed to be responsible for the reimmobilization of the long-lived actinide Am and the lanthanide Eu. Solution concentrations of U and Pu seem to be controlled by their solubility controlling solid phases.

  15. Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qin-Hong; Weng, Jian-Qing; Wang, Jin-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current developments that have lead, or could potentially contribute, to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) uranium mining and milling; (5) commercial fuel reprocessing; (6) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes that include radionuclides might be released in the future, and (7) nuclear accidents. Then, we briefly summarize the inventory of radionuclides (99)Tc and (129)I, as well as geochemical behavior for radionuclides (99)Tc, (129)I, and (237)Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment; biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides. PMID:18819734

  16. Selection and manipulation of immunoglobulins for radionuclide delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Steplewski, Z.; Curtis, P. [The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hainfeld, J.; Mausner, L.; Mease, R.; Srivastava, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1992-12-31

    This report describes a collection of monoclonal antibodies that are candidates for use in radioimmunotherapy towards neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, or of astrocytomas. In addition a large series of candidate radionuclides to conjugate to antibodies for therapeutic uses are discussed with respect to potential therapeutic utility and to means of radionuclide production.

  17. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Bs. As. (1429) (Argentina)

    2008-08-07

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  18. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with low concentrations of radionuclides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Entry; Nan C. Vance; Melinda A. Hamilton; Darlene Zabowski; Lidia S. Watrud; Domy C. Adriano

    1996-01-01

    Ecosystems throughout the world have been contaminated with radionuclides by above-ground nuclear testing, nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear power generation. Radioisotopes characteristic of nuclear fission, such as 137Cs and 90Sr, that are released into the environment can become more concentrated as they move up the food chain often becoming human health hazards. Natural environmental processes will redistribute long lived radionuclides

  19. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...radionuclide brachytherapy source is a device that consists of a radionuclide which may be enclosed in a sealed container made of gold, titanium, stainless steel, or platinum and intended for medical purposes to be placed onto a body surface or into a body cavity...

  20. Removal of radionuclides by analcime-bearing rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shushkov, D.; Kotova, O.; Shuktomova, I.

    2013-12-01

    The study of the removal of radionuclides (uranium, radium and thorium) in static conditions from aqueous solutions by analcime-bearing rocks and pure analcime was carried out. The high removal efficiency of all studied radionuclides by analcime-bearing rocks was determined. Analcime was efficient in removing of thorium only.

  1. WORKSHOP ON DEVELOPMENT OF RADIONUCLIDE GETTERS FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    K.C. Holt

    2006-03-13

    One of the important that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently undertaking is the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository to be located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Concern is generated by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is due to potential releases as groundwater contamination, as described in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The dose to an off-site individual using this groundwater for drinking and irrigation is dominated by four radionuclides: Tc-99, I-127, Np-237, and U-238. Ideally, this dose would be limited to a single radionuclide, U-238; in other words, YMP would resemble a uranium ore body, a common geologic feature in the Western U.S. For this reason and because of uncertainties in the behavior of Tc-99, I-127, and Np-237, it would be helpful to limit the amount of Tc, I, and Np leaving the repository, which would greatly increase the confidence in the long-term performance of YMP. An approach to limiting the migration of Tc, I, and Np that is complementary to the existing YMP repository design plans is to employ sequestering agents or ''getters'' for these radionuclides such that their migration is greatly hindered, thus decreasing the amount of radionuclide leaving the repository. Development of such getters presents a number of significant challenges. The getter must have a high affinity and high selectivity for the radionuclide in question since there is approximately a 20- to 50-fold excess of other fission products and a 1000-fold excess of uranium in addition to the ions present in the groundwater. An even greater challenge is that the getters must function over a period greater than the half-life of the radionuclide (greater than 5 half-lives would be ideal). Typically, materials with a high affinity for Tc, I, or Np are not sufficiently durable. For example, strong-base ion exchange resins have a very high affinity for TcO{sub 4}{sup -} but are not expected to be durable. On the other hand, durable materials, such as hydrotalcite, do not have sufficient affinity to be useful getters. Despite these problems, the great increase in the repository performance and corresponding decrease in uncertainty promised by a useful getter has generated significant interest in these materials. This report is the result a workshop sponsored by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management and Office of Science and Technology and International of the DOE to assess the state of research in this field.

  2. REMOVAL OF RADIONUCLIDES BY ELECTROKINETIC SOIL PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program was authorized as part of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. his program addresses the need for an alternative or innovative treatment technology research and demonstration program to assi...

  3. A Coincidence Signature Library for Multicoincidence Radionuclide Analysis Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Leon E.; Ellis, J E.; Valsan, Andrei B.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Miley, Harry S.

    2003-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is currently developing multicoincidence systems to perform trace radionuclide analysis at or near the sample collection point, for applications that include emergency response, nuclear forensics, and environmental monitoring. Quantifying radionuclide concentrations with these systems requires a library of accurate emission intensities for each detected signature, for all candidate radionuclides. To meet this need, a Coincidence Lookup Library (CLL) is being developed to calculate the emission intensities of coincident signatures from a user-specified radionuclide, or conversely, to determine the radionuclides that may be responsible for a specific detected coincident signature. The algorithms used to generate absolute emission intensities and various query modes for our developmental CLL are described.

  4. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  5. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  6. Radionuclide migration in groundwater. Annual progress report for 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Research has continued at a low-level waste disposal facility to characterize the physicochemical species of radionuclides migrating in groundwater. This facility consists of an unlined basin and connecting trench which receives effluent water containing low levels of a wide variety of fission and activation products and trace amounts of transuranic radionuclides. The effluent water percolates through the soil and a small fraction of it emerges at seepage springs located some 260 meters from the trench. The disposal basin and trench are very efficient in retaining most of the radionuclides, but trace amounts of a number of radionuclides existing in mobile chemical forms migrate in the groundwater from the trench to the springs. This facility provides the opportunity for characterizing the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration in groundwaters, identifying retardation processes, and validating geochemical models. 13 references, 25 figures, 23 tables.

  7. Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1981-03-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ([sup 238]Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

  8. Atmospheric radionuclide concentrations measured by Pacific Northwest Laboratory since 1961

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.; Thomas, C.W.

    1981-03-01

    The atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, radon and thoron decay and the SNAP-9A burn-up ({sup 238}Pu) have been measured at Richland, Washington, since 1961; at Barrow, Alaska, since 1964; and at other stations for shorter periods of time. There has been considerable concern over the health hazard presented by these radionuclides, but it has also been recognized that atmospheric mixing and deposition rates can be determined from their measurement. Therefore, Pacific Northwest Laboratory began the continuous measurement of the atmospheric concentrations of a wide spectrum of radionuclides produced by nuclear weapons, nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, and radon and thoron decay. This report will discuss the concentrations of the longer-lived radionuclides (T 1/2 > 12 days). The concentrations of shorter-lived radionuclides measured following Chinese nuclear tests since 1972 are discussed in another report.

  9. Liquid scintillation determination of low level components in complex mixtures of radionuclides

    PubMed

    Kashirin; Ermakov; Malinovskiy; Belanov; Sapozhnikov; Efimov; Tikhomirov; Sobolev

    2000-07-01

    A new approach to simultaneous activity measurements of the complex radionuclide mixtures using liquid scintillation counting, which is applicable to the analysis of the environmental and technological samples, is presented. The method is based on specially developed software 'SpectraDec', realized on a Windows 95/98/NT platform and a spectra library created for different kinds and levels of quenching. The method allows analysis of complex mixtures when the activity ratios of the individual components vary considerably. For example, the radionuclide concentrations were successfully determined in the following complex mixture: 3H, 63Ni, 90Sr + 90Y, 137Cs, 241Am (model mixture), where the 90Sr + 90Y/3H activity ratio was 1/2500 (0.2 Bq/500 Bq) and 90Sr, 137Cs, 134Cs, 232Th, 226Ra (IAEA-reference sample), where the 90Sr/137Cs activity ratio was 1/50 (92 Bq/4515 Bq) with an accuracy of about 20%. The limitations of the given approach to the LS analysis of the radionuclide mixtures are considered. PMID:10879877

  10. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. M.; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R and D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  11. Determination of the optimal plutonium fraction in transuranium discharged from pressured water reactor (PWR) spent fuel for a flat fission power generation in the force-free helical reactor (FFHR) along the transmutation period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hüseyin Yap?c?

    2003-01-01

    Transmutation of transuranium (TRU) discharged from PWR spent fuel and the possibility of a flat fission power (FFP) generation along the transmutation process have been investigated in the force-free helical reactor (FFHR), which is a demo relevant helical-type D-T fusion reactor, for an operation period (OP) of up to 10 years by 75% plant factor (?) under a neutron wall

  12. Accumulation of radionuclides by plants as a monitor system.

    PubMed Central

    Koranda, J J; Robison, W L

    1978-01-01

    The accumulation of radionuclides by plants acting as a monitoring system in the environment may occur by two modes; foliar absorption by the leaves and shoot of the plant, or by root uptake from the soil. Data on plant accumulation of radionuclides may be obtained from studies of fission product radionuclides deposited as worldwide fallout, and from tracer studies of plant physiology. The epidermal features of plant foliage may exert an effect upon particle retention by leaves, and subsequent uptake of radionuclides from the surface. The transport of radionuclides across the cuticle and epidermis of plant leaves is determined in part by the anatomy of the leaf, and by physiological factors. The foliar uptake of fallout radionuclides, 99Sr, 131I, and 137Cs, is described with examples from the scientific literature. The environmental half-life of 131I, for example, is considerably shorter than its physical half-life because of physical and biological factors which may produce a half-life as short as 0.23/day. 99Sr and 137Cs are readily taken up by the leaf, but 137Cs undergoes more translocation into fruit and seeds than 99Sr which tends to remain in the plant part in which it was initially absorbed. Soil-root uptake is conditioned primarily by soil chemical and physical factors which may selectively retain a radionuclide, such as 137Cs. The presence of organic matter, inorganic colloids (clay), and competing elements will strongly affect the uptake of 99Sr and 137Cs by plants from the soil. The role of plants as monitors of radionuclides is twofold: as monitors of recent atmospheric releases of radionuclides; and as indicators of the long-term behavior of aged deposits of radionuclides in the soil. PMID:367767

  13. The IAEA CRP on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maschek, W.; Chen, X.; Rineiski, A.; Schikorr, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O.Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Stanculescu, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, Post Office Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Arien, B.; Malambu, E. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Bai, Y.; Li, J.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, S. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, ASIPP, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Chabert, C.; Peneliau, Y. [CEA Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Chebeskov, A.; Dekoussar, V.; Vorotyntsev, M. [SSC-IPPE, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk 249033, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); da Cruz, D.F. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group - NRG, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Devan, K.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Harish, R.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Pandikumar, G. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Dulla, S.; Ravetto, P. [Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 2, 10129 Torino (Italy); Feynberg, O.; Ignatiev, V.; Subbotin, V.; Surenkov, A.; Zakirov, R. [RRC - Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq., 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kophazi, J.; Szieberth, M. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp. 9, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Morita, K. [Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Srivenkatesan, R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Taczanowski, S. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Tucek, K.; Wider, H. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Vertes, P. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O.Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Uhlir, J. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc., CZ-250 68 Husinec - Rez 13 (Czech Republic)

    2007-07-01

    In 2003, the IAEA has initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors, is to increase the capability of Member States in developing and applying advanced technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. Twenty institutions from 15 Member States and one international organization participated in this CRP. The CRP concentrated on the assessment of the dynamic behavior of various transmutation systems. The reactor systems investigated comprise critical reactors, sub-critical accelerator driven systems with heavy liquid metal and gas cooling, critical molten salt systems, and hybrid fusion/fission systems. Both fertile and fertile-free fuel options have been investigated. Apart from the benchmarking of steady state core configurations (including the investigation of transmutation potential, burn-up behavior and decay heat of minor actinide (MA) bearing fuels), the CRP participants determined the safety coefficients for the individual systems and, in a second stage, performed transient analyses which reflected the generic safety related behavior of the various reactors types. (authors)

  14. Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides: What it is and How itWorks

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, J.; Hazen, Terry; Benson, Sally

    1999-01-01

    This primer is intended for people interested in DOE environmental problems and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on physical environment, microbial communities, and nature of contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation) or the addition of nutrients (biostimulation).

  15. A systematic investigation of PET Radionuclide Specific Activity on Miniaturization of Radiochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanne M Link, PhD

    2012-03-08

    The PET radionuclides, 18F and 11C consist of very high radiation to mass amounts and should be easily adapted to new technologies such as �chip chemistry� with nanofluidics. However, environmental contamination with nonradioactive fluorine, carbon and other trace contaminants add sufficient mass, micrograms to milligrams, to prevent adapting PET radiochemistry to the nanochip technologies. In addition, the large volumes of material required for beam irradiation make it necessary to also remove the 18F and 11C from their chemical matrices. These steps add contaminants. The work described in this report was a systematic investigation of sources of these contaminants and methods to reduce these contaminants and the reaction volumes for radiochemical synthesis. Several methods were found to lower the contaminants and matrices to within a factor of 2 to 100 of those needed to fully implement chip technology but further improvements are needed.

  16. Natural radionuclides in drinking waters in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Jankovi?, Marija M; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Todorovi?, Nataša A; Nikolov, Jovana

    2012-12-01

    Gross alpha and beta activities, (3)H, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities were measured in bottled mineral water produced in Serbia in order to assess its radiological quality. In 11 samples of tap water and in 1 sample of spring waters gross alpha and beta activity were determined. The natural activity concentration of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides are within the range recommended by World Health Organization. The tritium concentration in bottled mineral waters ranged from 0.023 ± 0.012 to 0.046 ± 0.006 Bq l(-1). The activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were below the minimum detectable activity. In order to evaluate the annual effective dose for different classes of age, a conservative dosimetric calculation was carried out. PMID:23041389

  17. Graphene oxide for effective radionuclide removal.

    PubMed

    Romanchuk, Anna Yu; Slesarev, Alexander S; Kalmykov, Stepan N; Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Tour, James M

    2013-02-21

    Here we show the efficacy of graphene oxide (GO) for rapid removal of some of the most toxic and radioactive long-lived human-made radionuclides from contaminated water, even from acidic solutions (pH < 2). The interaction of GO with actinides including Am(III), Th(IV), Pu(IV), Np(V), U(VI) and typical fission products Sr(II), Eu(III) and Tc(VII) were studied, along with their sorption kinetics. Cation/GO coagulation occurs with the formation of nanoparticle aggregates of GO sheets, facilitating their removal. GO is far more effective in removal of transuranium elements from simulated nuclear waste solutions than other routinely used sorbents such as bentonite clays and activated carbon. These results point toward a simple methodology to mollify the severity of nuclear waste contamination, thereby leading to effective measures for environmental remediation. PMID:23296256

  18. The investigation of renal disease using radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Harold L.; Freeman, Leonard M.

    1973-01-01

    The use of radioactive labels for tracers is an important part of the investigation of renal disease. These techniques seldom replace, but often complement radiographic techniques. Generally, the radionuclide methods provide functional and dynamic information in a non-invasive, non-traumatic type of examination. The examinations usually are relatively simple to perform and carry a very low risk of untoward reaction. The past decade has seen significant advances in radiopharmaceutical design and instrumentation. It is expected that the next decade will produce an even greater advance in this field. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 7Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13 PMID:4602129

  19. Radionuclide evaluation of spontaneous femoral osteonecrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Greyson, N.D. (St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada); Lotem, M.M.; Gross, A.E.; Houpt, J.B.

    1982-03-01

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle in 40 knees was followed by sequential radiographs and three-phase bone scans using /sup 99//sup m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate. The characteristic bone scan appearance of focal increased uptake by the medial femoral condyle in blood flow, blood pool, and delayed images helped to make the specific diagnosis in 11 knees that had no characteristic radiographic findings at the time of presentation. The three phases of the bone scan demonstrated a pattern that was useful in determining the activity of the process. There was a gradual loss of hyperemia as healing progressed. Late bone scans were normal or showed nonspecific findings. Radionuclide bone scans were able to confirm or exclude this disease and were superior to radiographs in demonstrating the disease in the acute phase.

  20. Radionuclide localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Waltman, A.C.; Greenfield, A.J.; Athanasoulis, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1981-05-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated the usefulness of abdominal radionuclide scintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells as a means of monitoring for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding over a 24-hour period in both control and actively bleeding populations. Of 32 patients with documented hemorrhage, 29 had positive scintiscans (sensitivity, 91%; 9% false negatives). Of 18 nonbleeding patients, 17 had negative scintiscans (specificity, 95%; 5% false positives). 12 of 29 patients bled from 6 to 24 hours after the study was begun. Scintiscans were positive in patient with transfusion requirements of greater than or equal to 500 ml/24 hr. The authors conclude that abdominal scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells is an effective method of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding.

  1. Radionuclide localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Waltman, A.C.; Greenfield, A.J.; Athanasoulis, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1981-05-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated the usefulness of abdominal radionuclide scintigraphy using 99mTc-labeled red cells as a means of monitoring for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding over a 24-hour period in both control and actively bleeding populations. Of 32 patients with documented hemorrhage, 29 had positive scintiscans (sensitivity, 91%; 9% false negatives). Of 18 nonbleeding patients, 17 had negative scintiscans (specificity, 95%; 5% false positives). 12 of 29 patients bled from 6 to 24 hours after the study was begun. Scintiscans were positive in patients with transfusion requirements of greater than or equal to 500 ml/24 hr. The authors conclude that abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red cells is an effective method of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding.

  2. Characterization of hydrofracture grouts for radionuclide migration

    SciTech Connect

    Stinton, D.P.; McDaniel, E.W.; Weeren, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed characterization of hydrofracture grouts was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. Laboratory-produced samples containing simulated wastes as well as actual radioactive samples of hydrofracture grout sheets obtained by core drilling were examined in this work. X-ray diffraction results revealed that both laboratory-produced samples and a core-drilled sample consisted primarily of calcium carbonate phases. Both sample types contained very small amounts of strontium or cesium wastes, neither of which could be detected by microscopic techniques. The core-drilled sample contained radioactive /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 60/Co that could be detected by ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. The autoradiograph revealed that these radionuclides were still present in the 20-year-old grout and that they had not migrated into the trapped shale fragments.

  3. Endoprobe: A system for radionuclide-guided endoscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Srinivasan, Amarnath [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-9236 (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Methods to guide the surgical treatment of cancer utilizing handheld beta-sensitive probes in conjunction with tumor-avid radiopharmaceuticals [such as {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)] have previously been developed. These technologies could also potentially be used to assist in minimally invasive techniques for the diagnosis of cancer. The goal of this project is to develop and test a system for performing radionuclide-guided endoscopies. This system (called Endoprobe) has four major subsystems: beta detector, position tracker, endoscope, and user interface. The beta detection unit utilizes two miniaturized solid state detectors to preferentially detect beta particles. The position tracking system allows real-time monitoring of the unit's location. The beta detector and position tracking system's receiver are mounted on the tip of an endoscope. Information from the beta detector and tracking system, in addition to the video signal from the endoscope, are combined and presented to the user via a computer interface. The system was tested in a simulated search for radiotracer-avid areas of esophageal cancer. The search for esophageal cancer was chosen because this type of cancer is often diagnosed with endoscopic procedures and has been reported to have good affinity for FDG. Accumulations of FDG in the normal organs of the abdomen were simulated by an anthropomorphic torso phantom filled with the appropriate amounts of radioactivity. A 1.5-mm-thick gelatin film containing FDG was used to simulate radiotracer uptake in the lining of normal esophagus. Esophageal lesions (both benign and malignant) were simulated by thin disks of gelatin (diameters=3.5-12 mm) containing appropriate concentrations of FDG embedded in the gelatin film simulating normal esophagus. Endoprobe facilitated visual identification and examination of the simulated lesions. The position tracking system permitted the location of the Endoprobe tip to be monitored and plotted in real time on a previously acquired positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) image of the phantom. The detection system successfully acquired estimates of the beta flux emitted from areas chosen by the user. Indeed, Endoprobe was able to assist in distinguishing simulated FDG-avid areas as small as 3.5 mm in diameter from normal esophagus (p value <0.025). In addition to FDG, Endoprobe can be used with other positron or electron-emitting radionuclides such as {sup 11}C or {sup 131}I. The next phase of this project will focus on modification of the prototype to make it more suitable for clinical use.

  4. Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mertz

    2000-12-21

    The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types.

  5. Introduction to Radiobiology of Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Jean-Pierre; Lozza, Catherine; Deshayes, Emmanuel; Boudousq, Vincent; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, new radionuclide-based targeted therapies have emerged as efficient tools for cancer treatment. Targeted radionuclide therapies (TRTs) are based on a multidisciplinary approach that involves the cooperation of specialists in several research fields. Among them, radiobiologists investigate the biological effects of ionizing radiation, specifically the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the radiation response. Most of the knowledge about radiation effects concerns external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and radiobiology has then strongly contributed to the development of this therapeutic approach. Similarly, radiobiology and dosimetry are also assumed to be ways for improving TRT, in particular in the therapy of solid tumors, which are radioresistant. However, extrapolation of EBRT radiobiology to TRT is not straightforward. Indeed, the specific physical characteristics of TRT (heterogeneous and mixed irradiation, protracted exposure, and low absorbed dose rate) differ from those of conventional EBRT (homogeneous irradiation, short exposure, and high absorbed dose rate), and consequently the response of irradiated tissues might be different. Therefore, specific TRT radiobiology needs to be explored. Determining dose–effect correlation is also a prerequisite for rigorous preclinical radiobiology studies because dosimetry provides the necessary referential to all TRT situations. It is required too for developing patient-tailored TRT in the clinic in order to estimate the best dose for tumor control, while protecting the healthy tissues, thereby improving therapeutic efficacy. Finally, it will allow to determine the relative contribution of targeted effects (assumed to be dose-related) and non-targeted effects (assumed to be non-dose-related) of ionizing radiation. However, conversely to EBRT where it is routinely used, dosimetry is still challenging in TRT. Therefore, it constitutes with radiobiology, one of the main challenges of TRT in the future. PMID:25853132

  6. Chancellor Water Colloids: Characterization and Radionuclide Association

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Fattah, Amr I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    Concluding remarks about this paper are: (1) Gravitational settling, zeta potential, and ultrafiltration data indicate the existence of a colloidal phase of both the alpha and beta emitters in the Chancellor water; (2) The low activity combined with high dispersion homogeneity of the Chancellor water indicate that both alpha and beta emitters are not intrinsic colloids; (3) Radionuclides in the Chancellor water, particularly Pu, coexist as dissolved aqueous and sorbed phases - in other words the radionuclides are partitioned between the aqueous phase and the colloidal phase; (4) The presence of Pu as a dissolved species in the aqueous phase, suggests the possibility of Pu in the (V) oxidation state - this conclusion is supported by the similarity of the k{sub d} value of Pu determined in the current study to that determined for Pu(V) sorbed onto smectite colloids, and the similar electrokinetic behavior of the Chancellor water colloids to smectite colloids; (5) About 50% of the Pu(V) is in the aqueous phase and 50% is sorbed on colloids (mass concentration of colloids in the Chancellor water is 0.12 g/L); (6) The k{sub d} of the Pu and the beta emitters (fission products) between aqueous and colloidal phases in the Chancellor water is {approx}8.0 x 10{sup 3} mL/g using two different activity measurement techniques (LSC and alpha spectroscopy); (7) The gravitational settling and size distributions of the association colloids indicate that the properties (at least the physical ones) of the colloids to which the alpha emitters are associated with seem to be different that the properties of the colloids to which the beta emitters are associated with - the beta emitters are associated with very small particles ({approx}50 - 120 nm), while the alpha emitters are associated with relatively larger particles; and (8) The Chancellor water colloids are extremely stable under the natural pH and ionic strength conditions, indicating high potential for transport in the subsurface.

  7. Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

    2000-06-01

    Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

  8. Removal of radionuclides at a waterworks.

    PubMed

    Gäfvert, T; Ellmark, C; Holm, E

    2002-01-01

    A waterworks with an average production rate of 1.3 m3 s(-1), providing several large cities in the province of Scania with drinking water has been studied regarding its capacity to remove several natural and anthropogenic radionuclides. The raw water is surface water from lake Bolmen which is transported through an 80 km long tunnel in the bedrock before it enters the waterworks. The method used for purification is a combination of coagulation-flocculation and filtration in sand filters. Two different purification lines are currently in use, one using Al2(SO4)3 as a coagulant and one using FeCl3. After coagulation and flocculation the precipitate is removed and the water is passed through two different sand filters (rapid filtration and slow filtration). Water samples were collected at the lake, the inlet to the waterworks, after each of the flocculation basins (Al2(SO4)3 and FeCl3), after rapid filtration and from the municipal distribution network. The samples were analysed with respect to their content of uranium, thorium, polonium, radium, plutonium and caesium. The results show a high removal capacity for uranium (about 85%), thorium (>90%), plutonium (>95%) and polonium (>90% in the coagulation-flocculation process) while caesium, strontium and radium pass through the purification process with almost unchanged activity concentrations. During transportation of the water in the tunnel it was also observed that infiltration of groundwater leads to a change in isotopic ratios and/or activity concentrations for the naturally occurring radionuclides and plutonium. PMID:12363265

  9. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 2, Methods and Dose Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-02-25

    This paper is part two of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. Part one reviewed, summarized, characterized, and grouped all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Assumptions about equilibrium with long-lived parents are made for the 28 other radionuclides in these series lacking data. This paper describes the methods developed to group the collected data into source regions described in the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) dosimetric methodology. Methods for converting the various units of data published over 50 years into a standard form are developed and described. Often, meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements were not published so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. A description of the methods developed to estimate variability is included in this paper. The data described in part one are grouped by gender and age to match the RADAR dosimetric phantoms. Within these phantoms, concentration values are grouped into source tissue regions by radionuclide, and they are imputed for source regions lacking tissue data. Radionuclide concentrations are then imputed for other phantoms’ source regions with missing concentration values, and the uncertainties of the imputed values are increased. The content concentrations of hollow organs are calculated, and activities are apportioned to the bone source regions using assumptions about each radionuclide’s bone-seeking behavior. The data sets are then ready to be used to estimate equivalent doses to target tissues from these source regions. The target tissues are then mapped to lists of tissues with International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) tissue weighting factors, or they are mapped to surrogate tissue regions when there is no direct match. Effective doses, using ICRP tissue weighting factors recommended in 1977, 1990, and 2007, are calculated from tissue and organ equivalent doses.

  10. Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 (131I), phosphorous-32 (32P), strontium-90 (90Sr), and yttrium-90 (90Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

  11. Therapeutic radionuclides in nuclear medicine: current and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Yeong, Chai-Hong; Cheng, Mu-hua; Ng, Kwan-Hoong

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of radionuclides in therapy has been recognized for many decades. A number of radionuclides, such as iodine-131 ((131)I), phosphorous-32 ((32)P), strontium-90 ((90)Sr), and yttrium-90 ((90)Y), have been used successfully for the treatment of many benign and malignant disorders. Recently, the rapid growth of this branch of nuclear medicine has been stimulated by the introduction of a number of new radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of metastatic bone pain and neuroendocrine and other malignant or non-malignant tumours. Today, the field of radionuclide therapy is enjoying an exciting phase and is poised for greater growth and development in the coming years. For example, in Asia, the high prevalence of thyroid and liver diseases has prompted many novel developments and clinical trials using targeted radionuclide therapy. This paper reviews the characteristics and clinical applications of the commonly available therapeutic radionuclides, as well as the problems and issues involved in translating novel radionuclides into clinical therapies. PMID:25294374

  12. Unifying Theory of Low-Energy Nuclear Reaction and Transmutation Processes in Deuterated\\/hydrogenated Metals, Acoustic Cavitation, Glow Discharge, and Deuteron Beam Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeong E. Kim; Alexander L. Zubarev

    2006-01-01

    The most basic theoretical challenge for understanding low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation reaction (LETR) in condensed matters is to find mechanisms by which the large Coulomb barrier between fusing nuclei can be overcome. A unifying theory of LENR and LETR has been developed to provide possible mechanisms for the LENR and LETR processes in matters based on high-density nano-scale

  13. Consequence ranking of radionuclides in Hanford tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Schmittroth, F.A.; De Lorenzo, T.H.

    1995-09-01

    Radionuclides in the Hanford tank waste are ranked relative to their consequences for the Low-Level Tank Waste program. The ranking identifies key radionuclides where further study is merited. In addition to potential consequences for intrude and drinking-water scenarios supporting low-level waste activities, a ranking based on shielding criteria is provided. The radionuclide production inventories are based on a new and independent ORIGEN2 calculation representing the operation of all Hanford single-pass reactors and the N Reactor.

  14. Selection of plants for phytoremediation of soils contaminated with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Entry J.A. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Vance, N.C. [PNW Research Station, Corvallis, OR (United States); Watrud, L.S. [National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Remediation of soil contaminated with radionuclides typically requires that soil be removed from the site and treated with various dispersing and chelating chemicals. Numerous studies have shown that radionuclides are generally not leached from the top 0.4 meters of soil, where plant roots actively accumulate elements. Restoration of large areas of land contaminated with low levels of radionuclides may be feasible using phytoremediation. Criteria for the selection of plants for phytoremediation, molecular approaches to increase radio nuclide uptake, effects of cultural practices on uptake and assessment of environmental effects of phytoremediation will be discussed.

  15. Survey of radionuclides in foods, 1978-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Stroube, W.B. Jr.; Jelinek, C.F.; Baratta, E.J.

    1985-11-01

    Samples from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's total-diet, market-basket program, samples of imported foods, and samples collected near nuclear power plants were analyzed for radionuclides. Most radionuclides were below the limit of detection for a majority of the samples; however, data are reported for 3H, 90Sr and 137Cs in certain samples. Generally a downward trend is observed for 90Sr when data for the 5-yr period were compared. The total dietary intake of either 90Sr or 137Cs is well within Range I of the Federal Radiation Council (FRC) radiation protection guides for these radionuclides.

  16. Radionuclide Migration at the Rio Blanco Site, A Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Clay A. Cooper; Ming Ye; Jenny Chapman; Craig Shirley

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies conducted a program in the 1960s and 1970s that evaluated technology for the nuclear stimulation of low-permeability gas reservoirs. The third and final project in the program, Project Rio Blanco, was conducted in Rio Blanco County, in northwestern Colorado. In this experiment, three 33-kiloton nuclear explosives were simultaneously detonated in a single emplacement well in the Mesaverde Group and Fort Union Formation, at depths of 1,780, 1,899, and 2,039 m below land surface on May 17, 1973. The objective of this work is to estimate lateral distances that tritium released from the detonations may have traveled in the subsurface and evaluate the possible effect of postulated natural-gas development on radionuclide migration. Other radionuclides were considered in the analysis, but the majority occur in relatively immobile forms (such as nuclear melt glass). Of the radionuclides present in the gas phase, tritium dominates in terms of quantity of radioactivity in the long term and contribution to possible whole body exposure. One simulation is performed for {sup 85}Kr, the second most abundant gaseous radionuclide produced after tritium.

  17. MEASUREMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES USING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND FLOW-CELL SCINTILLATION COUNTING WITH PULSE SHAPE DISCRIMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Fjeld; T.A. DeVol; J.D. Leyba

    2000-03-30

    Radiological characterization and monitoring is an important component of environmental management activities throughout the Department of Energy complex. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is the technology most often used for the detection of radionuclides. However, radionuclides which cannot easily be detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy, such as pure beta emitters and transuranics, pose special problems because their quantification generally requires labor intensive radiochemical separations procedures that are time consuming and impractical for field applications. This project focused on a technology for measuring transuranics and pure beta emitters relatively quickly and has the potential of being field deployable. The technology combines ion exchange liquid chromatography and on-line alpha/beta pulse shape discriminating scintillation counting to produce simultaneous alpha and beta chromatograms. The basic instrumentation upon which the project was based was purchased in the early 1990's. In its original commercial form, the instrumentation was capable of separating select activation/fission products in ionic forms from relatively pure aqueous samples. We subsequently developed the capability of separating and detecting actinides (thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium) in less than 30 minutes (Reboul, 1993) and realized that the potential time savings over traditional radiochemical methods for isolating some of these radionuclides was significant. However, at that time, the technique had only been used for radionuclide concentrations that were considerably above environmental levels and for aqueous samples of relatively high chemical purity. For the technique to be useful in environmental applications, development work was needed in lowering detection limits; to be useful in applications involving non-aqueous matrices such as soils and sludges or complex aqueous matrices such as those encountered in waste samples, development work was needed in sample preparation and processing. The general goal of this project was to address the issues mentioned above, and in so doing transform an interesting laboratory technique of limited applicability into a robust field instrument suitable for environmental restoration and waste management applications. The project consisted of the following tasks: (1) development of a low background, flow-cell detector, (2) identification of sample chemical and radiological interferences, (3) development of protocols for processing waste and/or environmental samples, and (4) integration and testing of the prototype system. The scope of work associated with these tasks has been completed and the report for Tasks 1-3 was submitted previously. Presented here are the results for Task 4.

  18. Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    G. Moridis; Q. Hu

    2000-03-12

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids, and to determine the processes, mechanisms, and geologic features that have a significant effect on it. They evaluate the contributions of daughter products of radioactive decay to transport from the bottom of the potential repository to the water table. The effect of the various conceptual models of perched water bodies on transport is also evaluated. Note that a more thorough study of perched water bodies can be found in another AMR (CRWMS M and O 1999d, Sections 6.2 and 6.6). The primary caveat for using the modeling results documented here is that the input transport parameters were based on limited site data. For some input parameters, best estimates were used because no specific data were available. An additional caveat is that the RTM is based on the conceptual models and numerical approaches used for developing the flow fields and infiltration maps, and thus they share the same limitations.

  19. Establishing equivalence for activity standards of short-lived radionuclides using the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator.

    PubMed

    Woods, M J; Baker, M

    2004-01-01

    Conventional comparison techniques used between National Metrology Institutes are not practicable for short-lived radionuclides because of geographical separations and transport difficulties. The NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator provides an alternative approach and a comparison was conducted with 18F to investigate its feasibility. The exercise was successful and the paper details the protocol used, the quality assurance mechanisms introduced to underpin the comparison and an analysis of the results. It was also demonstrated that this approach could be linked to the BIPM SIR system. Recommendations are presented for the extension of this work to other suitable, short-lived radionuclides. PMID:14987692

  20. Monitoring release of disposable radionuclides in the Kara sea: Bioaccumulation of long-lived radionuclides in echinoderms and molluscs

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present proposal is to continue and extend our research on the trophic transfer of important radionuclides in benthic fauna of the Kara Sea. This project is assessing the extent to which select species of seastars, brittle stars, and clams typical of the Kara Sea concentrate and retain a variety of long-lived radionuclides known to be (or suspected to be) present in the disposed wastes in the Russian Arctic. The rates and routes of uptake and depuration of isotopes in the same or in closely related species are being quantified so that endemic benthic organisms can be assessed as potential bioindicators of released radionuclides in Arctic waters.

  1. Developments in Bioremediation of Soils and Sediments Pollutedwith Metals and Radionuclides: 2. Field Research on Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, Terry C.; Tabak, Henry H.

    2007-03-15

    Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides has had manyfield tests, demonstrations, and full-scale implementations in recentyears. Field research in this area has occurred for many different metalsand radionuclides using a wide array of strategies. These strategies canbe generally characterized in six major categories: biotransformation,bioaccumulation/bisorption, biodegradation of chelators, volatilization,treatment trains, and natural attenuation. For all field applicationsthere are a number of critical biogeochemical issues that most beaddressed for the successful field application. Monitoring andcharacterization parameters that are enabling to bioremediation of metalsand radionuclides are presented here. For each of the strategies a casestudy is presented to demonstrate a field application that uses thisstrategy.

  2. Using environmental radionuclides as fingerprints to study streambank erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of sediment source areas in the watershed is a key component for designing management strategies to reduce sediment and chemical loads from watersheds. Potential sediment sources in watersheds can be characterized (fingerprinted) using diagnostic environmental radionuclides, chem...

  3. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    SciTech Connect

    J.P. Adams; M.L. Carboneau; W.E. Allred

    1999-02-01

    The National Low Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has published a report containing key information about selected radionuclides that are most likely to contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility. The information includes physical and chemical characteristics, production means, waste forms, behavior of the radionuclide in soils, plants, groundwater, and air, and biological effects in animals and humans. The radionuclides included in this study comprise all of the nuclides specifically listed in 10CFR61.55, Tables 1 and 2, 3 H, 14 C, 59 Ni, 60 Co, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 241 Pu, and 242 Cm. Other key radionuclides addressed in the report include 237 Np, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. This paper summarizes key information contained within this report.

  4. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, James Paul; Carboneau, Michael Leonard; Allred, William Edgar

    1999-03-01

    The National Low Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory has published a report containing key information about selected radionuclides that are most likely to contribute significantly to the radiation exposures estimated from a performance assessment of a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility. The information includes physical and chemical characteristics, production means, waste forms, behavior of the radionuclide in soils, plants, groundwater, and air, and biological effects in animals and humans. The radionuclides included in this study comprise all of the nuclides specifically listed in 10CFR61.55, Tables 1 and 2, 3 H, 14 C, 59 Ni, 60 Co, 63 Ni, 90 Sr, 94 Nb, 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 241 Pu, and 242 Cm. Other key radionuclides addressed in the report include 237 Np, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 241 Am. This paper summarizes key information contained within this report.

  5. Modeling the Dispersal and Deposition of Radionuclides: Lessons from Chernobyl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ApSimon, H. M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Described are theoretical models that simulate the dispersion of radionuclides on local and global scales following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Discusses the application of these results to nuclear weapons fallout. (CW)

  6. SRNL RADIONUCLIDE FIELD LYSIMETER EXPERIMENT: BASELINE CONSTRUCTION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Bagwell, L.; Powell, B.; Almond, P.; Emerson, H.; Hixon, A.; Jablonski, J.; Buchanan, C.; Waterhouse, T.

    2012-10-17

    The purpose of this document is to compile information regarding experimental design, facility design, construction, radionuclide source preparation, and path forward for the ten year Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Radionuclide Field Lysimeter Experiment at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This is a collaborative effort by researchers at SRNL and Clemson University. The scientific objectives of this study are to: Study long-term radionuclide transport under conditions more representative of vadose zone conditions than laboratory experiments; Provide more realistic quantification of radionuclide transport and geochemistry in the vadose zone, providing better information pertinent to radioactive waste storage solutions than presently exists; Reduce uncertainty and improve justification for geochemical models such as those used in performance assessments and composite analyses.

  7. A rugged continuous air monitor for sampling radionuclides

    E-print Network

    Martinez, Joseph Thaddeus

    2002-01-01

    ) developed a new CAM (Model EL-900) to monitor airborne beta and gamma emitting radionuclides (e. g. , cesium and snontium) from high level waste area farm ventilation stacks at Westinghouse Savaruxah River Company (WSRC). Parulian (1995) tested the EL-900...

  8. Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program: the Galileo area

    SciTech Connect

    McArthur, R.D.; Kordas, J.F.

    1983-12-28

    The Galileo area is the first region of the Nevada Test Site to be surveyed by the Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP). This report describes in detail the use of soil sampling and in situ spectrometry to estimate radionuclide activities at selected sampling locations; the descriptions of these methods will be used as a reference for future RIDP reports. The data collected at Galileo were analyzed by kriging and the polygons of influence method to estimate the total inventory and the distribution of six man-made radionuclides. The results of the different statistical methods agree fairly well, although the data did not give very good estimates of the variogram for kriging, and further study showed the results of kriging to be highly dependent on the variogram parameters. The results also showed that in situ spectrometry gives better estimates of radionuclide activity than soil sampling, which tends to miss highly radioactive particles associated with vegetation. 18 references, 28 figures, 11 tables.

  9. COLLABORATION: INTERFACIAL SOIL CHEMISTRY OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE UNSATURATED ZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mobility of radionuclides (Cs+, Sr2+) in the vadose zone is controlled by sorptive interactions with natural soil particles. Weathering of silicates and intercalation of clay minerals with hydroxy -aluminum and -aluminosilicate species under the intense geochemical conditions in...

  10. Site Characterization for MNA of Radionuclides in Ground Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored natural attenuation is often evaluated as a component of the remedy for ground water contaminated with radionuclides. When properly employed, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) may provide an effective knowledge-based remedy where a thorough engineering analysis inform...

  11. Numerical modeling of radionuclide migration through a borehole disposal site.

    PubMed

    Yeboah, Serwaa; Akiti, Thomas T; Fletcher, John J

    2014-01-01

    The migration of radionuclides from a borehole repository located about 20 km from the Akwapim fault line which lies in an area of high seismicity was analyzed for some selected radionuclides. In the event of a seismic activity, fractures and faults could be rejuvenated or initiated resulting in container failure leading to the release of radionuclides. A numerical model was solved using a two-dimensional finite element code (Comsol Multiphysics) by taking into account the effect of heterogeneities. Results showed that, the fractured medium created preferential pathways indicating that, fault zones generated potential paths for released radionuclides from a radioactive waste repository. The results obtained showed that variations in hydraulic conductivity as a result of the heterogeneity considered within the domain significantly affected the direction of flow. PMID:24790811

  12. Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B

    2005-09-28

    The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.

  13. Biomolecular Mechanisms Controlling Metal and Radionuclide Transformations in Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans

    SciTech Connect

    Beliaev, Alexander S.; Fredrickson, James K.; Loeffler, Frank E.; Sanford, Robert A.

    2006-06-01

    Microbiological reduction and immobilization of U(VI) and Tc(VII) has been proposed as a strategy for remediating radionuclide-contaminated environments. Numerous studies focusing on the reduction kinetics and speciation of these metals have been carried out using contaminated sediment samples, microbial consortia, and pure bacterial cultures. While previous work with model organisms has increased the general understanding of radionuclide transformation processes, fundamental questions regarding radionuclide reduction mechanisms by indigenous microorganisms are poorly understood, especially under the commonly encountered scenario where multiple electron acceptors are present. Therefore, the overall goal of the proposed research is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of radionuclide biotransformation by Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans, a predominant member of indigenous microorganism commonly found in contaminated subsurface environments, and to assess the effects of relevant environmental factors affecting these transformation reactions.

  14. Colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport in fractured porous rock

    E-print Network

    Baek, Inseok

    1994-01-01

    -equilibrium model was developed to describe the transport and fate of the radionuclides in the fracture. Sorption onto rock matrix, fracture surface and sorption into mobile and immobile colloids are included. The effect of colloidal particle size was also...

  15. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

  17. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

  19. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

  4. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

  9. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

  11. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

  12. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

  14. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

  15. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

  19. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom. (a) Identification. A...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

  1. Using environmental radionuclides as fingerprints to study streambank erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of sediment source areas in the watershed is a key component for designing management strategies to reduce sediment and chemical loads from the watershed. Potential sediment sources in a watershed can be characterized (fingerprinted) using diagnostic environmental radionuclides, ...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator. (a) Identification. A...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing system. (a) Identification. A...

  4. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide brachytherapy source. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. (a)...

  8. TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE INTERIM PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS FOR INORGANICS: PART 5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fifth in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations, this report describes current methods for removing barium and radionuclides from drinking water....

  9. Compositions and methods for removal of toxic metals and radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuero, Raul G. (Inventor); McKay, David S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for the removal of toxic metals or radionuclides from source materials. Toxic metals may be removed from source materials using a clay, such as attapulgite or highly cationic bentonite, and chitin or chitosan. Toxic metals may also be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan. Radionuclides may be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan.

  10. Short-lived radionuclides in the early Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming-Chang

    2012-11-01

    Short-lived radionuclides are radioactive elements with half-lives <= 100 Myr. They have all decayed away from their initial abundances, but their presence in the early Solar System could be inferred from radiogenic excesses of daughter products in meteoritic components. A detailed understanding of the initial abundance and distribution of short-lived radionuclides can shed light on the formation condition and immediate astrophysical environment of the early Solar System.

  11. Naturally occurring radionuclides in agricultural products: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, E.A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Low levels of naturally occurring radionuclides exist in phosphatic clays, a by-product of phosphatic mining and beneficiation processes. Concerns about these radionuclides entering the human food chain were an immediate research priority before the phosphate clays could be reclaimed for intensive agricultural purposes. Efforts included the assembly of a large body of data from both sons and plants, part of which were produced by the Polk County (Florida) Mined Lands Agricultural Research/Demonstration Project MLAR/DP. Additional detailed studies involving dairy and beef cattle (Bos taurus) were conducted by researchers working with the MLAR/DP. A national symposium was conducted in which data concerning the MLAR/DP work and other research projects also dealing with naturally occurring radionuclides in agriculture could be discussed. The symposium included invited review papers dealing with the identification of radionuclide geological origins, the geochemistry and movement of radionuclides within the environment, mechanisms of plant uptake, entry points into the food chain, and evaluation of dose and risk assessment to the consumer of low levels of radionuclides. The risk to human health of an individual obtaining 0.1 of his or her dietary intake from crops produced on phosphatic clays increased by 1 in 5 x 10{sup 6}/yr above a control individual consuming no food grown on phosphatic clays. Leaf tissues were found to be generally higher than fruit, grain, or root tissues. The natural range in radionuclide content among various food types was greater than the difference in radionuclides content between the same food produced on phosphatic clays vs. natural soils. 19 refs.

  12. Influence of Finite Absorption of Radionuclides on Radionuclide Migration in an Engineered Barrier System

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, Toshiaki [Power and Industrial Systems Research and Development Laboratory (Japan); Yoshida, Takuma [Hitachi Ltd. (Japan)

    2001-12-15

    This study, which develops a safety assessment code for radioactive waste disposal, consists of two-dimensional analyses of underground water infiltrated flow and near-field radionuclide migration, one-dimensional analyses of far-field migration, and the dose equivalent. The study takes into account the influence of a finite absorption amount of radionuclides in an engineered barrier system (EBS).The safety assessment code is applied to {sup 14}C migration calculations. The near-field cylindrical model consists of an equally mixed region of wasteforms and backfill, bentonite, and rock. Carbon-14 coexists with 3.1 x 10{sup 6} times as much {sup 12}C in the wasteforms. The distribution coefficient, maximum absorption amount, and solubility of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} against the equally mixed region are assumed to be 2.0 m{sup 3}/kg, 3.06 mol/kg, and 544 mol/m{sup 3}, respectively. Then, the release rate from the wasteforms (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -6}/yr) and underground water detachment period from the wasteforms are examined to lower the dose equivalent by the intake of well water.The {sup 14}C concentration on the EBS boundary is 20 times as large in the case of EBS finite absorption as in the case of infinite absorption. So, the EBS finite absorption leads to absorption saturation and accelerated release of the radionuclides. The influence of the absorption saturation could not be prevented by lowering the release rate. A 3 x 10{sup 4}/yr detachment lowered the dose equivalent to 1/40 of the original case.

  13. Effects of alloying and transmutation impurities on stability and mobility of helium in tungsten under a fusion environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuebang; Kong, Xiang-Shan; You, Yu-Wei; Liu, C. S.; Fang, Q. F.; Chen, Jun-Ling; Luo, G.-N.; Wang, Zhiguang

    2013-07-01

    The behaviour of helium in metals is particularly significant in fusion research due to the He-induced degradation of materials. A small amount of impurities introduced either by intentional alloying or by transmutation reactions, will interact with He and lead the microstructure and mechanical properties of materials to change. In this paper, we present the results of first-principles calculations on the interactions of He with impurities and He diffusion around them in tungsten (W), including the interstitials Be, C, N, O, and substitutional solutes Re, Ta, Tc, Nb, V, Os, Ti, Si, Zr, Y and Sc. We find that the trapping radii of interstitial atoms on He are much larger than those of substitutional solutes. The binding energies between the substitutional impurities and He increase linearly with the relative charge densities at the He occupation site, indicating that He atoms easily aggregate at the low charge density site. The sequence of diffusion energy barriers of He around the possible alloying elements is Ti > V > Os > Ta > Re. The present results suggest that Ta might be chosen as a relatively suitable alloying element compared with other possible ones.

  14. Theoretical and Experimental Research in Neutron Spectra and Nuclear Waste Transmutation on Fast Subcritical Assembly with MOX Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, D. A.; Buttsev, V. S.; Chigrinov, S. E.; Kutuev, R. Kh.; Polanski, A.; Rakhno, I. L.; Sissakian, A.; Zulkarneev, R. Ya.; Zulkarneeva, Yu. R.

    2003-07-01

    The paper deals with theoretical and experimental investigation of transmutation rates for a number of long-lived fission products and minor actinides, as well as with neutron spectra formed in a subcritical assembly driven with the following monodirectional beams: 660-MeV protons and 14-MeV neutrons. In this work, the main objective is the comparison of neutron spectra in the MOX assembly for different external driving sources: a 660-MeV proton accelerator and a 14-MeV neutron generator. The SAD project (JINR, Russia) has being discussed. In the context of this project, a subcritical assembly consisting of a cylindrical lead target surrounded by a cylindrical MOX fuel layer will be constructed. Present conceptual design of the subcritical assembly is based on the core with a nominal unit capacity of 15 kW (thermal). This corresponds to a multiplication coefficient, keff= 0.945, and an accelerator beam power of 0.5 kW. The results of theoretical investigations on the possibility of incinerating long-lived fission products and minor actinides in fast neutron spectrum and formation of neutron spectra with different hardness in subcritical systems based on the MOX subcritical assembly are discussed. Calculated neutron spectra emitted from a lead target irradiated by a 660-MeV protons are also presented.

  15. Radionuclide Retention Mechanisms in Secondary Waste-Form Testing: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Yang, Jungseok; Engelhard, Mark H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Parker, Kent E.; Wang, Guohui; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-09-26

    This report describes the results from laboratory tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate candidate stabilization technologies that have the potential to successfully treat liquid secondary waste stream effluents produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). WRPS is considering the design and construction of a Solidification Treatment Unit (STU) for the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at Hanford. The ETF, a multi-waste, treatment-and-storage unit that has been permitted under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), can accept dangerous, low-level, and mixed wastewaters for treatment. The STU needs to be operational by 2018 to receive secondary liquid waste generated during operation of the WTP. The STU will provide the additional capacity needed for ETF to process the increased volume of secondary waste expected to be produced by WTP. This report on radionuclide retention mechanisms describes the testing and characterization results that improve understanding of radionuclide retention mechanisms, especially for pertechnetate, {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in four different waste forms: Cast Stone, DuraLith alkali aluminosilicate geopolymer, encapsulated fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) product, and Ceramicrete phosphate bonded ceramic. These data and results will be used to fill existing data gaps on the candidate technologies to support a decision-making process that will identify a subset of the candidate waste forms that are most promising and should undergo further performance testing.

  16. ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Engineering Technology

    E-print Network

    ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY Engineering Technology Program The Bachelor of Science in Engineering Technology (BSET) is a hands-on program based upon engineering technology fundamentals, engineering for employment or further education. The focus is on current engineering technology issues and applications used

  17. Diffusion of sorbing and non-sorbing radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Triay, I.R.; Birdsell, K.H.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

    1993-02-01

    Diffusion is considered one of the most important retardation mechanisms in fractured media. The diffusion experiments conducted involved solid tuff and groundwater from Yucca Mountain. The uptake of radionuclides by the tuff was studied utilizing containers made of tuff in the form of beakers. The solution containing the radionuclides of interest was placed in the tuff beaker cavity and the uptake of the radionuclides by the tuff was measured as a function of time. Our results indicate that the diffusion coefficient for nonsorbing radionuclides into saturated Yucca Mountain tuff is on the order of 10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 2}/s. Large anions, such as pertechnetate are excluded from tuff pores and their diffusion coefficients are on the order of 10{sup {minus}7}cm{sup 2}/s. Comparison of the predictions for the uptake of sorbing radionuclides by the tuff with the actual data obtained indicates that conservative transport calculations will result from predicting diffusion using the batch sorption coefficient for the sorbing radionuclide and the diffusion coefficient obtained for tritiated water.

  18. Natural chelating agents for radionuclide decorporation

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1985-06-11

    This invention relates to the production of metal-binding compounds useful for the therapy of heavy metal poisoning, for biological mining and for decorporation of radionuclides. The present invention deals with an orderly and effective method of producing new therapeutically effective chelating agents. This method uses challenge biosynthesis for the production of chelating agents that are specific for a particular metal. In this approach, the desired chelating agents are prepared from microorganisms challenged by the metal that the chelating agent is designed to detoxify. This challenge induces the formation of specific or highly selective chelating agents. The present invention involves the use of the challenge biosynthetic method to produce new complexing/chelating agents that are therapeutically useful to detoxify uranium, plutonium, thorium and other toxic metals. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa family of organisms is the referred family of microorganisms to be used in the present invention to produce the new chelating agent because this family is known to elaborate strains resistant to toxic metals.

  19. GEPNETs update: Radionuclide therapy in neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    van der Zwan, Wouter A; Bodei, Lisa; Mueller-Brand, Jan; de Herder, Wouter W; Kvols, Larry K; Kwekkeboom, Dik J

    2015-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is a promising new treatment modality for inoperable or metastasized gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEPNETs) patients. Most studies report objective response rates in 15-35% of patients. Also, outcome in terms of progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival compares very favorably with that for somatostatin analogs, chemotherapy, or new, 'targeted' therapies. They also compare favorably to PFS data for liver-directed therapies. Two decades after the introduction of PRRT, there is a growing need for randomized controlled trials comparing PRRT to 'standard' treatment, that is treatment with agents that have proven benefit when tested in randomized trials. Combining PRRT with liver-directed therapies or with targeted therapies could improve treatment results. The question to be answered, however, is whether a combination of therapies performed within a limited time-span from one another results in a better PFS than a strategy in which other therapies are reserved until after (renewed) tumor progression. Randomized clinical trials comparing PRRT with other treatment modalities should be undertaken to determine the best treatment options and treatment sequelae for patients with GEPNETs. PMID:25117465

  20. Somatostatin Receptor Based Imaging and Radionuclide Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Somatostatin (SST) receptors (SSTRs) belong to the typical 7-transmembrane domain family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Five distinct subtypes (termed SSTR1-5) have been identified, with SSTR2 showing the highest affinity for natural SST and synthetic SST analogs. Most neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) have high expression levels of SSTRs, which opens the possibility for tumor imaging and therapy with radiolabeled SST analogs. A number of tracers have been developed for the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of NETs with impressive results, which facilitates the applications of human SSTR subtype 2 (hSSTr2) reporter gene based imaging and therapy in SSTR negative or weakly positive tumors to provide a novel approach for the management of tumors. The hSSTr2 gene can act as not only a reporter gene for in vivo imaging, but also a therapeutic gene for local radionuclide therapy. Even a second therapeutic gene can be transfected into the same tumor cells together with hSSTr2 reporter gene to obtain a synergistic therapeutic effect. However, additional preclinical and especially translational and clinical researches are needed to confirm the value of hSSTr2 reporter gene based imaging and therapy in tumors.