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1

Development of long-lived radionuclide transmutation technology - Development of a code system for core analysis of the transmutation reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study is to develop a code system for core analysis= of the critical transmutation reactors utilizing fast neutrons. Core characteristics of the transmutation reactors were identified and four codes, HANCELL for pincell calculation, ...

N. Z. Cho Y. H. Kim T. H. Kim C. K. Jo C. J. Park

1996-01-01

2

Separations technology development to support accelerator-driven transmutation concepts  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project investigated separations technology development needed for accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) concepts, particularly those associated with plutonium disposition (accelerator-based conversion, ABC) and high-level radioactive waste transmutation (accelerator transmutation of waste, ATW). Specific focus areas included separations needed for preparation of feeds to ABC and ATW systems, for example from spent reactor fuel sources, those required within an ABC/ATW system for material recycle and recovery of key long-lived radionuclides for further transmutation, and those required for reuse and cleanup of molten fluoride salts. The project also featured beginning experimental development in areas associated with a small molten-salt test loop and exploratory centrifugal separations systems.

Venneri, F.; Arthur, E.; Bowman, C. [and others

1996-10-01

3

Separations technology development to support accelerator-driven transmutation concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project investigated separations technology development needed for accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) concepts, particularly those associated with plutonium disposition (accelerator-based conversion, ABC) and high-level radioactive waste transmutation (accelerator transmutation of waste, ATW). Specific focus areas included separations needed for

F. Venneri; E. Arthur; C. Bowman

1996-01-01

4

ACCELERATOR TRANSMUTATION OF WASTE TECHNOLOGY AND IMPLEMENTATION SCENARIOS  

SciTech Connect

During 1999, the U.S. Department of Energy, in conjunction with its nuclear laboratories, a national steering committee, and a panel of world experts, developed a roadmap for research, development, demonstration, and deployment of Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW). The ATW concept that was examined in this roadmap study was based on that developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) during the 1990s. The reference deployment scenario in the Roadmap was developed to treat 86,300 tn (metric tonnes initial heavy metal) of spent nuclear fuel that will accumulate through 2035 from existing U.S. nuclear power plants (without license extensions). The disposition of this spent nuclear reactor fuel is an issue of national importance, as is disposition of spent fuel in other nations. The U.S. program for the disposition of this once-through fuel is focused to characterize a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada for a geological repository for spent fuel and high-level waste. The ATW concept is being examined in the U.S. because removal of plutonium minor actinides, and two very long-lived isotopes from the spent fuel can achieve some important objectives. These objectives include near-elimination of plutonium, reduction of the inventory and mobility of long-lived radionuclides in the repository, and use of the remaining energy content of the spent fuel to produce power. The long-lived radionuclides iodine and technetium have roughly one million year half-lives, and they are candidates for transport into the environment via movement of ground water. The scientists and engineers who contributed to the Roadmap Study determined that the ATW is affordable, doable, and its deployment would support all the objectives. We report the status of the U.S. ATW program describe baseline and alternate technologies, and discuss deployment scenarios to support the existing U.S. nuclear capability and/or future growth with a variety of new fuel cycles.

D. BELLER; G. VAN TUYLE

2000-11-01

5

Definition of Technology Readiness Levels for Transmutation Fuel Development  

SciTech Connect

To quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Transmutation fuel development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the transmutation fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Transuranic Fuel Development Campaign.

Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171)

2008-01-01

6

Optimization of accelerator-driven technology for LWR waste transmutation  

SciTech Connect

The role of accelerator-driven transmutation technology is examined in the context of the destruction of actinide waste from commercial light water reactors. It is pointed out that the commercial plutonium is much easier to use for entry-level nuclear weapons than weapons plutonium. Since commercial plutonium is easier to use, since there is very much more of it already, and since it is growing rapidly, the permanent disposition of commercial plutonium is an issue of greater importance than weapons plutonium. The minor actinides inventory, which may be influenced by transmutation, is compared in terms of nuclear properties with commercial and weapons plutonium and for possible utility as weapons material. Fast and thermal spectrum systems are compared as means for destruction of plutonium and the minor actinides. it is shown that the equilibrium fast spectrum actinide inventory is about 100 times larger than for thermal spectrum systems, and that there is about 100 times more weapons-usable material in the fast spectrum system inventory compared to the thermal spectrum system. Finally it is shown that the accelerator size for transmutation can be substantially reduced by design which uses the accelerator-produced neutrons only to initiate the unsustained fission chains characteristic of the subcritical system. The analysis argues for devoting primary attention to the development of thermal spectrum transmutation technology. A thermal spectrum transmuter operating at a fission power of 750-MWth fission power, which is sufficient to destroy the actinide waste from one 3,000-MWth light water reactor, may be driven by a proton beam of 1 GeV energy and a current of 7 mA. This accelerator is within the range of realizable cyclotron technology and is also near the size contemplated for the next generation spallation neutron source under consideration by the US, Europe, and Japan.

Bowman, C.D.

1996-12-31

7

Transmutation detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed a new type of detectors, called transmutation detectors, which can be used primarily for neutron fluence measurement. The transmutation detector method differs from the commonly used activation detector method in evaluation of detector response after irradiation. Instead of radionuclide activity measurement using radiometric methods, the concentration of stable non-gaseous nuclides generated by transmutation in the detector is measured using analytical methods like mass spectrometry. Prospective elements and nuclear reactions for transmutation detectors are listed and initial experimental results are given. The transmutation detector method could be used primarily for long-term measurement of neutron fluence in fission nuclear reactors, but in principle it could be used for any type of radiation that can cause transmutation of nuclides in detectors. This method could also be used for measurement in accelerators or fusion reactors.

Viererbl, L.; Lahodová, Z.; Klupák, V.; Sus, F.; Ku?era, J.; K?s, P.; Marek, M.

2011-03-01

8

Chemistry technology base and fuel cycle of the Los Alamos accelerator-driven transmutation system  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a brief overview of the Los Alamos accelerator-driven transmutation system, a description of the pyrochemistry technology base and the fuel cycle for the system. The pyrochemistry technology base consists of four processes: direct oxide reduction, reductive extraction, electrorefining, and electrowinning. Each process and its utility is described. The fuel cycle is described for a liquid metal-based system with the focus being the conversion of commercial spent nuclear fuel to fuel for the transmutation system. Fission product separation and actinide recycle processes are also described.

Williamson, M.A.

1997-12-01

9

Development of Long-lived radionuclide partitioning technology -Development of Long-lived radionuclide transmutation technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study has been focused on the development of an indigenous partitioning process by modifying and complementing the reported processes. First of all, we tried to approach several unit separation processes in order to identify their adoptability to the...

J. H. Yoo Y. J. Shin I. H. Lee H. B. Yang K. U. Kim

1994-01-01

10

Fermilab Project X nuclear energy application: Accelerator, spallation target and transmutation technology demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The recent paper 'Accelerator and Target Technology for Accelerator Driven Transmutation and Energy Production' and report 'Accelerators for America's Future' have endorsed the idea that the next generation particle accelerators would enable technological breakthrough needed for nuclear energy applications, including transmutation of waste. In the Fall of 2009 Fermilab sponsored a workshop on Application of High Intensity Proton Accelerators to explore in detail the use of the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) accelerator technology for Nuclear Energy Applications. High intensity Continuous Wave (CW) beam from the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Linac (Project-X) at beam energy between 1-2 GeV will provide an unprecedented experimental and demonstration facility in the United States for much needed nuclear energy Research and Development. We propose to carry out an experimental program to demonstrate the reliability of the accelerator technology, Lead-Bismuth spallation target technology and a transmutation experiment of spent nuclear fuel. We also suggest that this facility could be used for other Nuclear Energy applications.

Gohar, Yousry; /Argonne; Johnson, David; Johnson, Todd; Mishra, Shekhar; /Fermilab

2011-04-01

11

Design of rf-cavities in the funnel of accelerators for transmutation technologies  

SciTech Connect

Funnels are a key component of accelerator structures proposed for transmutation technologies. In addition to conventional accelerator elements, specialized rf-cavities are needed for these structures. Simulations were done to obtain their electromagnetic field distribution and to minimize the rf-induced heat loads. Using these results a structural and thermal analysis of these cavities was performed to insure their reliability at high average power and to determine their cooling requirements. For one cavity the thermal expansion data in return was used to estimate the thermal detuning.

Krawczyk, F.L.; Bultman, N.K.; Chan, K.D.C.; Martineau, R.L.; Nath, S.; Young, L.M.

1994-09-01

12

Pyrochemical separations technologies envisioned for the U. S. accelerator transmutation of waste system  

SciTech Connect

A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The baseline process selected combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to enable the efficient separation of uranium, technetium, iodine, and the transuranic elements from LWR spent fuel. The diversity of processing methods was chosen for both technical and economic factors. A six-year technology evaluation and development program is foreseen, by the end of which an informed decision can be made on proceeding with demonstration of the ATW system.

Laidler, J. J.

2000-02-17

13

Assessment of General Atomics accelerator transmutation of waste concept based on gas-turbine-modular helium cooled reactor technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An assessment has been performed for an Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept based on the use of the high temperature gas reactor technology. The concept has been proposed by General Atomics for the ATW system. The assessment was jointly conducted at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Los Alamos national laboratory to assess and to define the potential candidates for

Y. Gohar; T. A. Taiwo; J. E. Cahalan; P. J. Finck

2001-01-01

14

Accelerator-driven transmutation technologies for resolution of long-term nuclear waste concerns  

SciTech Connect

The paper provides a rationale for resolution of the long-term waste disposition issue based on complete destruction of fissile material and all higher actinides. It begins with a brief history of geologic storage leading to the present impasse in the US. The proliferation aspects of commercial plutonium are presented in a new light as a further driver for complete destruction. The special problems in Russia and the US of the disposition of the highly enriched spent naval reactor fuel and spent research reactor fuel are also presented. The scale of the system required for complete destruction is also examined and it is shown that a practical system for complete destruction of commercial and defense fissile material must be widely dispersed rather than concentrated at a single site. Central tenants of the US National Academy of Sciences recommendations on waste disposition are examined critically and several technologies considered for waste destruction are described briefly and compared Recommendations for waste disposition based on Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology suitable for both the US and Russia are presented.

Bowman, C.D.

1996-10-01

15

A beamline systems model for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) facilities  

SciTech Connect

A beamline systems code, that is being developed for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology (ADTT) facility trade studies, is described. The overall program is a joint Grumman, G. H. Gillespie Associates (GHGA) and Los Alamos National Laboratory effort. The GHGA Accelerator Systems Model (ASM) has been adopted as the framework on which this effort is based. Relevant accelerator and beam transport models from earlier Grumman systems codes are being adapted to this framework. Preliminary physics and engineering models for each ADTT beamline component have been constructed. Examples noted include a Bridge Coupled Drift Tube Linac (BCDTL) and the accelerator thermal system. A decision has been made to confine the ASM framework principally to beamline modeling, while detailed target/blanket, balance-of-plant and facility costing analysis will be performed externally. An interfacing external balance-of-plant and facility costing model, which will permit the performance of iterative facility trade studies, is under separate development. An ABC (Accelerator Based Conversion) example is used to highlight the present models and capabilities.

Todd, Alan M. M.; Paulson, C. C.; Peacock, M. A.; Reusch, M. F. [Grumman Research and Development Center, 4 Independence Way, Princeton, New Jersey 08540-6620 (United States)

1995-09-15

16

Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology for Energy Production and Nuclear Waste Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

New concepts recently developed at Los Alamos show that the use of intense particle accelerators affords unique opportunities for electrical power generation, from plentiful fuel such as thorium, with little long term waste legacy. The concept can aLso effectively transmute existing actinide and fission product wastes. The physical processes to be used are different and more advanced than earlier ideas:

R. A. Jameson; G. P. Lawrence; S. O. Schriber

17

Transmuted Labs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes a first year high school chemistry lab program which its author has developed over the past fifteen years. It features laboratory exercises that have have been altered ("transmuted") so that students may be evaluated on the accuracy of their work. For example, a traditional lab may ask that students determine the amount of product obtained from a reaction and compare it to theoretical value. In its transmuted form this lab would require that students either deduce the mass of a reactant from a measured mass of product, or perhaps predict the mass of product from a known mass of reactant. The author reports that lab exercises transmuted in this way work well with beginning students because the labs 1) make immediate sense to scientifically unsophisticated students, 2) challenge students to do their best work, 3) motivate by enlisting students' desires for social recognition, and 4) appeal to students' love of games and play.

Plumsky, Roger

1996-05-01

18

Accelerator transmutation of sup 129 I  

SciTech Connect

Iodine-129 is one of several long-lived reactor products that is being considered for transmutation by the Los Alamos Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program. A reasonable rate of transmutation of 1291 is possible in this system because of the anticipated high neutron flux generated from the accelerator. This report summarizes previous papers dealing with the transmutation of 1291 where reactor technologies have been employed for neutron sources. The transmutation process is considered marginal under these conditions. Presented here are additional information concerning the final products that could be formed from the transmutation process in the ATW blanket. The transmutation scheme proposes the use of solid iodine as the target material and the escape of product xenon from the containers after van Dincklange (1981). Additional developmental plans are considered.

Attrep, M. Jr.

1992-01-01

19

Accelerator transmutation of {sup 129}I  

SciTech Connect

Iodine-129 is one of several long-lived reactor products that is being considered for transmutation by the Los Alamos Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program. A reasonable rate of transmutation of 1291 is possible in this system because of the anticipated high neutron flux generated from the accelerator. This report summarizes previous papers dealing with the transmutation of 1291 where reactor technologies have been employed for neutron sources. The transmutation process is considered marginal under these conditions. Presented here are additional information concerning the final products that could be formed from the transmutation process in the ATW blanket. The transmutation scheme proposes the use of solid iodine as the target material and the escape of product xenon from the containers after van Dincklange (1981). Additional developmental plans are considered.

Attrep, M. Jr.

1992-10-01

20

R&D activities based on fast reactor cycle technologies for transmutation of TRU and LLFP by JNC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development(R&D) activities on partitioning and transmutation of trans-uranium nuclides (TRU) and LLFP and future R&D program in JNC were summarized. Feasibility design studies have been conducting to investigate the characteristics of a fast reactor core with TRU and LLFP transmutation. It was reconfirmed that the fast reactor has a strong potential for transmuting TRU and LLFP, effectively. R&D

Kiyoto Aizawa

2002-01-01

21

Investigation of the feasibility of a small scale transmutation device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features necessary to optimize the device and render it practical for the transmutation of selected long-lived fission products and actinides. Four conceptual designs of a transmutation device were used to study the transformation of seven radionuclides:

Roger Carson Sit

2009-01-01

22

A low aspect ratio tokamak transmutation reactor 1 This work is sponsored by the national nature science fund and the national hi-technology program. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes that a low aspect ratio tokamak can be a driver of a subcritical blanket to breed fissile material and transmute high level waste (HLW). The transmutation and energy amplifying principle are described. Multifunctional blanket analysis shows that this kind of reactor offers possibilities to breed fissile material, transmute HLW, and produce high energy amplification as well. After

L. J. Qiu; B. J. Xiao; Y. P. Chen; O. Y. Huang; Z. Guo; L. L. Liu; S. J. Wang; Y. C. Wu; Q. Xu; M. H. Kong

1998-01-01

23

Innovative Fuel Types for Minor Actinides Transmutation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmutation of long-lived radio-nuclides is an option for reducing the hazards linked to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Previous studies have demonstrated that the main contributor to spent fuel radio-toxicity is by far Pu, followed by Am and Cm. Prerequisite for any efficient transmutation strategy is therefore Pu multiple recycling, whereas Am and Cm could be treated in different ways, including multiple recycling or once-through burning in dedicated targets. In all cases, however, the transmutation efficiency must be maximised, a condition best achieved if, firstly, uranium-free fuels are considered, and secondly, if multiple reprocessing and recycling is considered. In Europe, and in particular at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), extensive experimental work is being performed to develop fabrication processes for these innovative compounds, and to characterise their properties under irradiation. This work is mostly done within European collaborations, and is partially funded under the European Framework Programmes.

Haas, D.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.

2006-04-01

24

STUDIES ON ACCELERATOR-DRIVEN TRANSMUTATION SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development on transmutation of long-lived radioactive nuclides are being carried out with an emphasis placed on the dedicated accelerator-driven systems at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Japanese long-term program for research and development on partitioning and transmutation technology (OMEGA Programme). The preliminary design of the sodium-cooled solid system has been developed as a reference

T. Takizuka; T. Sasa; K. Tsujimoto; H. Takano

25

Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or ''getter'' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. ''Getter'' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion ''getters'' is presented. The benefits of the ''getter'' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined.

Hong-Nian Jow; R.C. Moore; K.B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A.R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

2005-01-14

26

Historical perspective, economic analysis, and regulatory analysis of the impacts of waste partitioning-transmutation on the disposal of radioactive wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partitioning-transmutation, sometimes called actinide burning, is an alternative approach to high-level radioactive waste management. It consists of removing long-lived radionuclides from wastes and destroying those radionuclides, thus reducing the long-t...

A. G. Croff C. W. Forsberg D. C. Kocher

1990-01-01

27

A new concept for accelerator driven transmutation of nuclear wastes  

SciTech Connect

A new concept for an accelerator-driven transmutation system is described. The central feature of the concept is generation of intense fluxes of thermal neutrons. In the system all long-lived radionuclides comprising high-level nuclear waste can be transmuted efficiently. Transmutation takes place in a unique, low material inventory environment. Presently two principal areas are being investigated for application of the concept. The first is associated with cleanup of defense high-level waste at DOE sites such as Hanford. The second, longer term area involves production of electric power using a coupled accelerator-multiplying blanket system. This system would utilize natural thorium or uranium and would transmute long-lived components of high-level waste concurrently during operation. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Arthur, E.D.

1991-01-01

28

Radioanalytical technology for 10 CFR Part 61 and other selected radionuclides: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive literature review and assessment was conducted to identify and evaluate radioanalytical technology and procedures used for measuring 10CFR61 radionuclides and other long-lived isotopes. This review evaluated radiochemical procedures currently in use at a number of laboratories in the US, as well as identifying new advanced methods and techniques which could be adapted for routine radiochemical analyses of low-level radioactive waste. The 10CFR61 radionuclides include {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Cl, {sup 59,63}Ni, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, and TRU isotopes with half lives greater than 5 years. Other low-level radionuclides of interest include {sup 7,10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 109,113m}Cd, and {sup 121m,126}Sn, which may be present in various types of waste streams from nuclear power stations.

Thomas, C.W.; Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-03-01

29

Study on MA and FP transmutation in fast reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feasibility studies have been performed to develop an optimized fast reactor core for reducing long-term radiotoxicity of nuclear waste by minor actinide(MA) and long-lived fission product(FP) transmutation, taking into consideration fuel cycle technology. Systematic parameter survey calculations were implemented to investigate the basic characteristics of MA and FP transmutation in a fast reactor core. The hybrid MA-loading method, where Np

T. Wakabayashi; N. Higano

1998-01-01

30

The Physics of transmutation systems : system capabilities and performances.  

SciTech Connect

This document is complementary to a document produced by Prof. Salvatores on ''The Physics of Transmutation in Critical or Subcritical Reactors and the Impact on the Fuel Cycle''. In that document, Salvatores describes the fundamental of transmutation, through basic physics properties and general parametric studies. In the present document we try to go one step further towards practical implementation (while recognizing that the practical issues such as technology development and demonstration, and economics, can only be mentioned in a very superficial manner). Section 1 briefly overviews the possible objectives of transmutation systems, and links these different objectives to possible technological paths. It also describes the overall constraints which have to be considered when developing and implementing transmutation systems. In section 2 we briefly overview the technological constraints which need to be accounted for when designing transmutation systems. In section 3 we attempt to provide a simplified classification of transmutation systems in order to clarify later comparisons. It compares heterogeneous and homogeneous recycle strategies, and single and multi-tier systems. Section 4 presents case analyses for assessing the transmutation performance of various individual systems, starting with LWR's (1. generic results; 2. multirecycle of plutonium; 3. an alternative: transmutation based on a Thorium fuel cycle), followed by Gas-Cooled Reactors (with an emphasis on the ''deep burn'' approach), and followed by Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven systems (1. generic results; 2. homogeneous recycle of transuranics; 3. practical limit between Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems) Section 5 summarizes recent results on integrated system performances. It focuses first on interface effects between the two elements of a dual tier system, and then summarizes the major lessons learned from recent global physics studies.

Finck, P. J.

2002-08-21

31

Breast imaging technology: Recent advances in imaging endogenous or transferred gene expression utilizing radionuclide technologies in living subjects - applications to breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of imaging technologies is being investigated as tools for studying gene expression in living subjects. Two technologies that use radiolabeled isotopes are single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). A relatively high sensitivity, a full quantitative tomographic capability, and the ability to extend small animal imaging assays directly into human applications characterize radionuclide approaches.

Frank Berger; Sanjiv Sam Gambhir

2001-01-01

32

Transmutation Fuel Campaign Description and Status  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a technical summary package in response to a Level 2 milestone in the transmutation fuel campaign (TFC) management work-package calling for input to the Secretarial decision. At present, the form of the Secretarial decision package is not fully defined, and it is not clear exactly what will be required from the TFC as a final input. However, it is anticipated that a series oftechnical and programmatic documents will need to be provided in support of a wider encompassing document on GNEP technology development activities. The TFC technical leadership team provides this report as initial input to the secretarial decision package which is being developed by the Technical Integration Office (TIO) in support of Secretarial decision. This report contains a summary of the TFC execution plan with a work breakdown structure, highlevel schedule, major milestones, and summary description of critical activities in support of campaign objectives. Supporting documents referenced in this report but provided under separate cover include: • An updated review of the state-of-the art for transmutation fuel development activities considering national as well as international fuel research and development testing activities. • A definition of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) used to systematically define and execute the transmutation fuel development activities.

Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

2008-01-01

33

CURRENT US PLANS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FUELS FOR ACCELERATOR TRANSMUTATION OF WASTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States is currently investigating the feasibility of proposed technologies for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept, which is funded as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) Program. The ATW concept is proposed as a means to transmute transuranic isotopes and, perhaps, long-lived fission products removed from light water reactor spent fuel to

D. C. CRAWFORD; S. L. HAYES; M. K. MEYER

34

Analysis of nuclear power transmutation potential at equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major issue to secure the development of nuclear energy in the future is the radioactive waste minimization, both inside the fuel cycle and in a deep geological storage. Most of the research activities have been devoted to assess the potential benefits of the so-called partitioning\\/transmutation technologies. The physical principles that provide an inherent minimization of the radioactive wastes is

M. Salvatores; I. Slessarev; A. Tchistiakov

1996-01-01

35

Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.  

PubMed

Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides. PMID:16604724

Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

2005-01-01

36

ACCELERATED SITE TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT COMPARABILITY OF ISOCS INSTRUMENT IN RADIONUCLIDE CHARACTERICATION AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a DOE Accelerated Site Technology Deployment project being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to deploy innovative, radiological, in situ analytical techniques. The technologies are being deployed in support of efforts to characterize the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) facility, which is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning. This report focuses on the deployment of the Canberra Industries In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) and assesses its data comparability to baseline methods of sampling and laboratory analysis. The battery-operated, field deployable gamma spectrometer provides traditional spectra of counts as a function of gamma energy. The spectra are then converted to radionuclide concentration by applying innovative efficiency calculations using monte carlo statistical methods and pre-defined geometry templates in the analysis software. Measurement of gamma emitting radionuclides has been accomplished during characterization of several BGRR components including the Pile Fan Sump, Above Ground Ducts, contaminated cooling fans, and graphite pile internals. Cs-137 is the predominant gamma-emitting radionuclide identified, with smaller quantities of Co-60 and Am-241 detected. The Project used the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual guidance and the Data Quality Objectives process to provide direction for survey planning and data quality assessment. Analytical results have been used to calculate data quality indicators (DQI) for the ISOCS measurements. Among the DQIs assessed in the report are sensitivity, accuracy, precision, bias, and minimum detectable concentration. The assessment of the in situ data quality using the DQIs demonstrates that the ISOCS data quality can be comparable to definitive level laboratory analysis when the field instrument is supported by an appropriate Quality Assurance Project Plan. A discussion of the results obtained by ISOCS analysis of objects that could not be analyzed readily by conventional methods demonstrates a powerful application of the instrument. In conclusion, a comparison of costs associated with the analysis on the ISOCS instrument to the costs of conventional sampling and laboratory analysis is presented.

KALB,P.; LUCKETT,L.; MILLER,K.; GOGOLAK,C.; MILIAN,L.

2001-03-01

37

A proposal for a Los Alamos international facility for transmutations (LIFT)  

SciTech Connect

The major groups engaged in transmutation research are converging towards a common objective and similar technology. It is now possible to envision an international program of research aimed at the destruction of reactor-generated (and other) nuclear waste using a series of multipurpose experimental facilities in the near future. Los Alamos National Laboratory, as the home of the highest power LINAC and a very active transmutation technology project, is the ideal host for the first of such facilities. The next step in the international program (a facility 10 times more powerful, for engineering-scale demonstrations) could be built in Europe, where there is substantial interest in the construction of such a device in the framework of international cooperation. A series of experiments at Las Alamos could explore the key transmutation technologies. Liquid lead loops, a liquid lead spallation target, and a large size liquid lead facility with provision for irradiation, cooling and diagnostics of several types of `transmutation assemblies`, where different transmutation concepts will be tested in different media and environments, from transmutation of fission products to destruction by fission of higher actinides, to other waste management applications. The engineering-scale facility, which will follow the initial testing phase, will extend the best concepts to full scale implementation.

Venneri, F.; Williamson, M.A.; Li, Ning; Doolen, G.

1996-11-22

38

Dual neutral particle transmutation in CINDER2008  

SciTech Connect

A capability has been built for the CINDER2008 (beta) transmutation code that expands the capability from only neutron induced reactions to photon induced reactions. This allows for two incident neutral particles to cause nuclear transmutation in a given material simultaneously. The CINDER2008 code, a modular rewrite of the CINDER'90 transmutation code from Los Alamos National Laboratory, was modified to allow for the dual sets of physics. A photonuclear cross section and photofission product yield library was also created using ENDF-B/VII data and translated neutron fission product yields. The code and library have been combined to create a unique transmutation code. The scope of use is broad; it is capable of modeling the transmutation caused by photons released from the decay of daughter and fission products as well as transmutation in photon rich environments. A brief code description and a verification and validation of the contributions are given. (authors)

Martin, W. J.; De Oliveira, C. R. E. [1 Univ. of New Mexico, MSC01 1120, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States)

2012-07-01

39

Radionuclide removal  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. During the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium, uranium and radon from drinking water. The research consisted of laboratory and field studies conducted by USEPA, universities and consultants. The paper summarizes the results of the most significant projects completed. General information is also presented on the general chemistry of the three radionuclides. The information presented indicates that the most practical treatment methods for radium are ion exchange and lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The methods tested for radon are aeration and granular activated carbon and the methods for uranium are anion exchange and reverse osmosis.

Sorg, T.J.

1991-01-01

40

Transmutation of Nuclear Waste and the future MYRRHA Demonstrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While a considerable and world-wide growth of the nuclear share in the global energy mix is desirable for many reasons, there are also, in particular in the "old world" major objections. These are both concerns about safety, in particular in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident and concerns about the long-term burden that is constituted by the radiotoxic waste from the spent fuel. With regard to the second topic, the present contribution will outline the concept of Partitioning & Transmutation (P&T), as scientific and technological answer. Deployment of P&T may use dedicated "Transmuter" or "Burner" reactors, using a fast neutron spectrum. For the transmutation of waste with a large content (up to 50%) of (very long-lived) Minor Actinides, a sub-critical reactor, using an external neutron source is a most attractive solution. It is constituted by coupling a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical core. This promising new technology is named ADS, for accelerator-driven system. The present paper aims at a short introduction into the field that has been characterized by a high collaborative activity during the last decade in Europe, in order to focus, in its later part, on the MYRRHA project as the European ADS technology demonstrator.

Mueller, Alex C.

2013-03-01

41

Radionuclide Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of ? and ? particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

Zalutsky, M. R.

42

The Reported Transmutation of Mercury into Gold  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN your account of the reported discovery, by Prof. Miethe, of the transmutation of mercury into gold (NATURE, Aug. 9, p. 197) by the prolonged action of a high-tension electric current upon it, you seem to consider only one way, and that not the more obvious way, of effecting such a transmutation, namely, by striking out a hydrogen ion from

Frederick Soddy

1924-01-01

43

Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear waste from commercial power plants contains large quantities of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and long-lived fission products that are potential proliferation concerns and create challenges for the long-term storage. Different strategies for dealing with nuclear waste are being followed by various countries because of their geologic situations and their views on nuclear energy, reprocessing and non-proliferation. The current United States policy is to store unprocessed spent reactor fuel in a geologic repository. Other countries are opting for treatment of nuclear waste, including partial utilization of the fissile material contained in the spent fuel, prior to geologic storage. Long-term uncertainties are hampering the acceptability and eventual licensing of a geologic repository for nuclear spent fuel in the US, and driving up its cost. The greatest concerns are with the potential for radiation release and exposure from the spent fuel for tens of thousands of years and the possible diversion and use of the actinides contained in the waste for weapons construction. Taking advantage of the recent breakthroughs in accelerator technology and of the natural flexibility of subcritical systems, the Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW) concept offers the United States and other countries the possibility to greatly reduce plutonium, higher actinides and environmentally hazardous fission products from the waste stream destined for permanent storage. ATW does not eliminate the need for, but instead enhances the viability of permanent waste repositories. Far from being limited to waste destruction, the ATW concept also brings to the table new technologies that could be relevant for next-generation power producing reactors. In the ATW concept, spent fuel would be shipped to the ATW site where the plutonium, transuranics and selected long-lived fission products would be destroyed by fission or transmutation in their first and only pass through the facility, using an accelerator-driven subcritical burner cooled by liquid lead/bismuth and limited pyrochemical treatment of the spent fuel and residual waste. This approach contrasts with the present-day practices of aqueous reprocessing (Europe and Japan), in which high purity plutonium is produced and used in the fabrication of fresh mixed oxide fuel (MOX) that is shipped off-site for use in light water reactors.

Venneri, Francesco

1998-04-01

44

Radionuclide trap  

DOEpatents

The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1978-01-01

45

IAEA activities in the area of partitioning and transmutation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four major challenges are facing the long-term development of nuclear energy: improvement of the economic competitiveness, meeting increasingly stringent safety requirements, adhering to the criteria of sustainable development, and public acceptance. Meeting the sustainability criteria is the driving force behind the topic of this paper. In this context, sustainability has two aspects: natural resources and waste management. IAEA's activities in the area of Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) are mostly in response to the latter. While not involving the large quantities of gaseous products and toxic solid wastes associated with fossil fuels, radioactive waste disposal is today's dominant public acceptance issue. In fact, small waste quantities permit a rigorous confinement strategy, and mined geological disposal is the strategy followed by some countries. Nevertheless, political opposition arguing that this does not yet constitute a safe disposal technology has largely stalled these efforts. One of the primary reasons cited is the long life of many of the radioisotopes generated from fission. This concern has led to increased R&D efforts to develop a technology aimed at reducing the amount and radio-toxicity of long-lived radioactive waste through transmutation in fission reactors or sub-critical systems. In the frame of the Project on Technology Advances in Fast Reactors and Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS), the IAEA initiated a number of activities on utilization of plutonium and transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste, ADS, and deuterium tritium plasma-driven sub-critical systems. The paper presents past accomplishments, current status and planned activities of this IAEA project.

Stanculescu, Alexander

2006-06-01

46

Incentives and recent proposals for partitioning and transmutation in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Partitioning and transmutation (P-T) is perhaps the most elegant means of high level waste disposal. Currently, the cost of fuel obtained from reprocessing spent fuel exceeds the cost of fuel obtained by mining. This has resulted in the once through fuel cycle dominating the US nuclear industry. Despite this fact P-T continues to be examined and debated by the US as well as abroad. The US first seriously considered P-T between approximately 1976 and 1982 but rejected the concept in favor of reprocessing. More recently, since about 1989, as a result of the once through fuel cycle and the growing problems of waste disposal, studies concerning P-T have resumed. This essay will seek to outline the incentives and goals of partitioning and transmutation as it would apply to the disposal of spent fuel in the US. Recent proposals by various US national laboratories for implementing partitioning and transmutation as a high level waste management and disposal device will also be discussed. The review will seek to examine the technical concepts utilized in each of the proposals and their feasibility. The major focus of this essay will be the transmutation methods themselves, while the partitioning methods will be discussed only briefly. This is because of the fact that partitioning methods fall under reprocessing as an already fairly well established and accepted technology while feasible methods for transmutation are still being advanced.

Donovan, T.J.

1995-05-01

47

Comparison of accelerator-based with reactor-based waste transmutation schemes  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator-based transmutation of waste (ATW) systems for the destruction of commercial LWR spent fuel are compared with systems based on thermal reactors accomplish the same objectives. When the same technology is assumed for the actinide-burning aspect of the two systems, it is seen that the size of the accelerator is determined only by the choice of how many of the long-lived fission products to burn. if none are transmuted, then the accelerator is not necessary. This result is independent of the choice of fluid carrier, and whether the actinides are destroyed in an ATW system or in a separate reactor.

Sailor, W.C.; Beard, C.A.; Venneri, F.; Davidson, J.W.

1993-12-01

48

Brief overview of the long-lived radionuclide separation processes developed in france in connection with the SPIN program  

SciTech Connect

To reduce the long-term potential hazards associated with the management of nuclear wastes generated by nuclear fuel reprocessing, one alternative is the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides into short-lived radionuclides by nuclear means (P and T strategy). In this context, according to the law passed by the French Parliament on 30 December 1991, the CEA launched the SPIN program for the design of long-lived radionuclide separation and nuclear incineration processes. The research in progress to define separation processes focused mainly on the minor actinides (neptunium, americium and curium) and some fission products, like cesium and technetium. To separate these long-lived radionuclides, two strategies were developed. The first involves research on new operating conditions for improving the PUREX fuel reprocessing technology. This approach concerns the elements neptunium and technetium (iodine and zirconium can also be considered). The second strategy involves the design of new processes; DIAMEX for the co-extraction of minor actinides from the high-level liquid waste leaving the PUREX process, An(III)/Ln(III) separation using tripyridyltriazine derivatives or picolinamide extracting agents; SESAME for the selective separation of americium after its oxidation to Am(IV) or Am(VI) in the presence of a heteropolytungstate ligand, and Cs extraction using a new class of extracting agents, calixarenes, which exhibit exceptional Cs separation properties, especially in the presence of sodium ion. This lecture focuses on the latest achievements in these research areas.

Madic, Charles; Bourges, Jacques; Dozol, Jean-Francois [CEA, Direction du Cycle du Combustible DRDD, CEN-FAR, B. P. No 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); CEA, Direction du Cycle du Combustible DESD, CEN-CAD. Cadarache (France)

1995-09-15

49

Cyclotron Production of Medical Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclotron products are gaining in significance in diagnostic investigations via PET and SPECT, as well as in some therapeutic studies. The scientific and technological background of radionuclide production using a cyclotron is briefly discussed. Production methods of the commonly used positron and photon emitters are described and developments in the production of some new positron emitters and therapeutic radionuclides outlined. Some perspectives of cyclotron production of medical radionuclides are considered.

Qaim, S. M.

50

Object relations and addiction: The role of “transmuting externalizations”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addiction is viewed as resulting from a failure in the separation-individuation process. Due to lack of reliable selfobjects and failure to make transmuting internalizations, the addict remains dependent upon “transmuting externalizations” in an attempt to incorporate soothing objects into the self. As comfort provided by transmuting externalizations cannot be internalized into the self, the process inevitably fails. Treatment of addiction

Alan Graham; Cheryl Glickauf-Hughes

1992-01-01

51

Gas Nuclear Transmutation Effects in Aluminum Nitride  

SciTech Connect

Gas nuclear transmutation effects in aluminum nitride were studied by the isotope tailoring method. In this method, nearly identical materials with two different radio-isotopes of nitrogen-14 (Al{sup 14}N) and 15(Al{sup 15}N) were prepared. The Al{sup 14}N and Al{sup 15}N specimens were irradiated in the JOYO fast reactor and the HFIR thermal reactor. The results were analyzed and compared to accumulated irradiation data from JMTR and JOYO. The data clearly shows the effects of gas nuclear transmutation on the linear dimension change.

Shikama, Tatsuo [Tohoku University (Japan); Yano, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Ukai, J. [Japan Institute of Nuclear Fuel Cycle (Japan); Onose, S. [Japan Institute of Nuclear Fuel Cycle (Japan); Itoh, M. [Japan Institute of Nuclear Fuel Cycle (Japan); Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Maruyama, T. [Wakasawan Energy Research Center (Japan); Nagata, S. [Tohoku University (Japan); Tsuchiya, B. [Tohoku University (Japan); Toh, K. [Tohoku University (Japan)

2003-09-15

52

Plutonium transmutation in thorium fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect

The HELIOS spectral code was used to study the application of the thorium fuel cycle with plutonium as a supporting fissile material in a once-through scenario of the light water reactors PWR and VVER-440 (Russian design). Our analysis was focused on the plutonium transmutation potential and the plutonium radiotoxicity course of hypothetical thorium-based cycles for current nuclear power reactors. The paper shows a possibility to transmute about 50% of plutonium in analysed reactors. Positive influence on radiotoxicity after 300 years and later was pointed out. (authors)

Necas, Vladimir [Slovak University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Ilkovicova 3, SK-812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia); Breza, Juraj [Slovak University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Ilkovicova 3, SK-812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)]|[VUJE, Inc., Okruzna 5, SK-918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Darilek, Petr [VUJE, Inc., Okruzna 5, SK-918 64 Trnava (Slovakia)

2007-07-01

53

Fusion-Fission Transmutation Scheme- Efficient Destruction of Nuclear Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fusion-assisted transmutation system for the destruction of transuranic (TRU) waste is presented. Subcritical fusion-fission hybrids burn the intransigent transuranic residues (with most of the long lived bio-hazard) of a new fuel cycle that uses cheap light water reactors (LWRs) for the easily burned majority of the TRU. In the new fuel cycle, the number of hybrids needed to destroy a given amount of original LWR waste is 5-10 times less than the corresponding number of critical fast reactors. (Fast reactors, due to stability constraints, cannot burn the very poor quality TRU residue.) The new system comparably reduces the expensive reprocessing throughput. Realization of these advantages should lead to a great reduction in the cost of transmutation. The time needed for 99% waste destruction would also be reduced from centuries to decades. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density compact fusion neutron source (CFNS-100 MW, with major radius + minor radius ˜ 2.5 m), which is made possible by a super-X divertor. The physics and technology requirements of the CFNS are much less than the requirements of a pure fusion power source. Advantages of the system as part of a timely strategy to combat global warming are briefly described.

Kotschenreuther, Mike; Mahajan, Swadesh; Valanju, Prashant; Schneider, Erich A.

2009-05-01

54

Optimal and near-optimal advection-diffusion finite-difference schemes. VII Radionuclide chain transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimally accurate numerical schemes are derived for the concentrations of successive isotopes in a radionuclide chain as they transmute, are sorbed into the rock matrix, are transported and spread out with the groundwater flow. A key step is a change of dependent variables, based on classical work of Bateman (1910). That non-local change of dependent variables can be performed numerically

Ronald Smith

2001-01-01

55

Heterogeneous sodium fast reactor designed for transmuting minor actinide waste isotopes into plutonium fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past several years there has been a renewed interest in sodium fast reactor (SFR) technology for the purpose of destroying transuranic waste (TRU) produced by light water reactors (LWR). The utility of SFRs as waste burners is due to the fact that higher neutron energies allow all of the actinides, including the minor actinides (MA), to contribute to fission. It is well understood that many of the design issues of LWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal in a geologic repository are linked to MAs. Because the probability of fission for essentially all the "non-fissile" MAs is nearly zero at low neutron energies, these isotopes act as a neutron capture sink in most thermal reactor systems. Furthermore, because most of the isotopes produced by these capture reactions are also non-fissile, they too are neutron sinks in most thermal reactor systems. Conversely, with high neutron energies, the MAs can produce neutrons by fast fission. Additionally, capture reactions transmute the MAs into mostly plutonium isotopes, which can fission more readily at any energy. The transmutation of non-fissile into fissile atoms is the premise of the plutonium breeder reactor. In a breeder reactor, not only does the non-fissile "fertile" U-238 atom contribute fast fission neutrons, but also transmutes into fissile Pu-239. The fissile value of the plutonium produced by MA transmutation can only be realized in fast neutron spectra. This is due to the fact that the predominate isotope produced by MA transmutation, Pu-238, is itself not fissile. However, the Pu-238 fission cross section is significantly larger than the original transmutation parent, predominately: Np-237 and Am-241, in the fast energy range. Also, Pu-238's fission cross section and fission-to-capture ratio is almost as high as that of fissile Pu-239 in the fast neutron spectrum. It is also important to note that a neutron absorption in Pu-238, that does not cause fission, will instead produce fissile Pu-239. Given this fast fissile quality and also the fact that Pu-238 is transmuted from Np-237 and Am-241, these MAs are regarded as fertile material in the SFR design proposed by this dissertation. This dissertation demonstrates a SFR design which is dedicated to plutonium breeding by targeting Am-241 transmutation. This SFR design uses a moderated axial transmutation target that functions primarily as a pseudo-blanket fuel, which is reprocessed with the active driver fuel in an integrated recycling strategy. This work demonstrates the cost and feasibility advantages of plutonium breeding via MA transmutation by adopting reactor, reprocessing and fuel technologies previously demonstrated for traditional breeder reactors. The fuel cycle proposed seeks to find a harmony between the waste management advantages of transuranic burning SFRs and the resource sustainability of traditional plutonium breeder SFRs. As a result, the enhanced plutonium conversion from MAs decreases the burner SFR's fuel costs, by extracting more fissile value from the initial TRU purchased through SNF reprocessing.

Bays, Samuel Eugene

56

SCWR Once-Through Calculations for Transmutation and Cross Sections  

SciTech Connect

It is the purpose of this report to document the calculation of (1) the isotopic evolution and of (2) the 1-group cross sections as a function of burnup of the reference Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR), in a format suitable for the Fuel Cycle Option Campaign Transmutation Data Library. The reference SCWR design was chosen to be that described in [McDonald, 2005]. Super Critical Water Reactors (SCWR) are intended to operate with super-critical water (i.e. H2O at a pressure above 22 MPa and a temperature above 373oC) as a cooling – and possibly also moderating – fluid. The main mission of the SCWR is to generate lower cost electricity, as compared to current standard Light Water Reactors (LWR). Because of the high operating pressure and temperature, SCWR feature a substantially higher thermal conversion efficiency than standard LWR – i.e. about 45% versus 33%, mostly due to an increase in the exit water temperature from ~300oC to ~500oC – potentially resulting in a lower cost of generated electricity. The coolant remains single phase throughout the reactor and the energy conversion system, thus eliminating the need for pressurizers, steam generators, steam separators and dryers, further potentially reducing the reactor construction capital cost. The SCWR concept presented here is based on existing LWR technology and on a large number of existing fossil-fired supercritical boilers. However, it was concluded in [McDonald, 2005], that: “Based on the results of this study, it appears that the reference SCWR design is not feasible.” This conclusion appears based on the strong sensitivity of the design to small deviations in nominal conditions leading to small effects having a potentially large impact on the peak cladding temperature of some fuel rods. “This was considered a major feasibility issue for the SCWR” [McDonald, 2005]. After a description of the reference SCWR design, the Keno V 3-D single assembly model used for this analysis, as well as the calculated results, are presented. Additionally, the follwing information, presented in the appendixes, is intended to provide enough guidance that a researcher repeating the same task in the future should be able to obtain a vector of nuclei and cross sections ready for insertion into the transmutation library without any need for further instructions: (1) Complete TRITON/KENO-V input used for the analysis; (2) Inputs and detailed description of the usage of the OPUS utility, used to postproces and to extract the nuclei concentrations for the transmutation library; (3) Inputs and detailed description of the usage of the XSECLIST utility, used to postproces and to extract the 1-group cross sections for the transmutation library; (4) Details of an ad-hoc utility program developed to sort the nuclei and cross sections for the transmutation library.

ganda, francesco (090771)

2012-07-01

57

A Subcritical, Gas-Cooled Fast Transmutation Reactor with a Fusion Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect

A design is presented for a subcritical, He-cooled fast reactor, driven by a tokamak D-T fusion neutron source, for the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The reactor is fueled with coated transuranic (TRU) particles and is intended for the deep-burn (>90%) transmutation of the TRUs in SNF without reprocessing of the coated fuel particles. The reactor design is based on the materials, fuel, and separations technologies under near-term development in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Program and on the plasma physics and fusion technologies under near-term development in the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program, with the objective of intermediate-term ({approx}2040) deployment. The physical and performance characteristics and research and development requirements of such a reactor are described.

Stacey, W.M. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Beavers, V.L. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Casino, W.A. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Cheatham, J.R. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Friis, Z.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Green, R.D. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Hamilton, W.R. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Haufler, K.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Hutchinson, J.D. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Lackey, W.J. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Lorio, R.A. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Maddox, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Mandrekas, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Manzoor, A.A. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Noelke, C.A. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Oliveira, C. de [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Park, M. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Tedder, D.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Terry, M.R. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Hoffman, E.A. [Argonne National Laboratory (United States)

2005-05-15

58

On Nuclear Transmutation Reactions in Solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on transmutation reactions in solids heavily loaded with H or D( high H/D atoms/metal atom) is rapidly growing. Previously it was thought that reactant energies were too low to overcome the coulombic field barrier. However, such reactions have been reported by a number of researchers. Earlier Miley, et al. studied multi-layer thin-film Ni/Pd electrodes loaded electrolytically Reaction products exhibited a yield vs. mass plot with four high yield peaks, above and below the base metal mass. Higher yield elements were well above max impurity limits while select products had non-natural isotopic abundances. Recent CR-39 foils and LED detector measurements reveal low-level emission of x-rays plus MeV-level protons and alpha particles during runs. Other laboratories also report transmutation reactions using a variety of electrode materials and a wide range of loading methods. Iwamura and Itoh reported a real-time measurement using XPS diagnostics where an atomic surface layer of Sr-88 was transmuted into Mo-96 over 200 hours, using diffusion of deuterium through a multi-layer thin-film Pd/CaO substrate. Cs-133 was also transmuted into Pr-141. Recently Miley explained these results by extending SEL concepts to include orbital mixing associated with charge accumulation and H/D flow at interfaces. These phenomena result in formation of a virtual neutron. Depending on lattice structure, local defects, and loading/flow rates, either an array or single element products are predicted. The array is associated with fission of a compound nucleus as opposed to single-step nuclear reactions.

Miley, George H.; Hora, Heinz; Luo, Nie

2004-05-01

59

Effects of an LMR-based partitioning-transmutation system on US nuclear fuel cycle health risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Health risks for the current US nuclear fuel cycle and for an illustrative partitioning and transmutation (P-T) fuel cycle based on Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) technology are calculated and compared. Health risks are calculated for all non-reactor fuel cyc...

G. E. Michaels W. J. Reich

1992-01-01

60

The Effect of Piracy on Markets for Consumer Transmutation Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have shown in a previous study that selling content-transmutation rights to consumers increases total surplus of both producers and consumers of digital products. Our results were conditional on the absence of piracy. There has been some research on the effect of online piracy in traditional content markets that do not consider consumer transmutation. Some claim that piracy damages producers'

Karl Reiner Lang; Richard D. Shang; Roumen Vragov

2009-01-01

61

Impact of transmutations in fusion environment on Flibe chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmutation rates of Li, Be and F are calculated for a typical flibe blanket. The results concluded that the transmutation rate of F is more than double that of Be. Because of the high destruction rate of fluorine, there will be no free fluorine in the molten salt. Therefore, experimental program to address the chemistry control of flibe does not

D. K. Sze; M. E. Sawan; E. T. Cheng

2000-01-01

62

The role of Z-pinch fusion transmutation of waste in the nuclear fuel cycle.  

SciTech Connect

The resurgence of interest in reprocessing in the United States with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has led to a renewed look at technologies for transmuting nuclear waste. Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver to burn actinide waste in a sub-critical reactor. The baseline design has been modified to solve some of the engineering issues that were identified in the first year of work, including neutron damage and fuel heating. An on-line control feature was added to the reactor to maintain a constant neutron multiplication with time. The transmutation modeling effort has been optimized to produce more accurate results. In addition, more attention was focused on the integration of this burner option within the fuel cycle including an investigation of overall costs. This report presents the updated reactor design, which is able to burn 1320 kg of actinides per year while producing 3,000 MWth.

Smith, James Dean; Drennen, Thomas E. (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Rochau, Gary Eugene; Martin, William Joseph; Kamery, William (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Grady, Ryan (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Guild-Bingham, Avery (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX)

2007-10-01

63

Radioactive Waste Partitioning and Transmutation within Advanced Fuel Cycles: Achievements and Challenges  

SciTech Connect

If nuclear power should become a sustainable source of energy, a safe, robust and acceptable solution must be pursued for existing and projected inventories of high-activity, long-lived radioactive waste. Remarkable progress in the last two decades has been made in the field of geological disposal. Some countries have reached important milestones and geological disposal (of spent fuel) is expected to start in 2020 in Finland and in 2022 in Sweden and in fact the licensing of the geological repositories in both countries is now entering into their final phases. In France disposal of Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) and vitrified High Level Wastes (HLW) is expected to start around 2025, according to the roadmap defined by a Parliament Act in 2006. In this context, transmutation of part of the waste through use of advanced fuel cycles, probably feasible in the coming decades, has the potential of reducing the burden on the geological repository. This article presents the physical principle of transmutation and reviews several strategies of P&T (Partitioning and Transmutation). Many recent studies have demonstrated that the impact of P&T on geological disposal concepts is not overwhelmingly high. However, by reducing waste heat production a more efficient utilization of repository space is likely. Moreover, even if radionuclide release from the waste to the environment and related calculated doses to the population are only partially reduced by P&T, it is important to point out that a clear reduction of the actinide inventory in the High Level Waste definitely reduces risks arising from less probable evolutions of a repository, i.e. increase of actinide mobility in certain geochemical situations and radiological impact by human intrusion.

M. Salvatores; G. Palmiotti

2011-01-01

64

Radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation within advanced fuel cycles: Achievements and challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If nuclear power becomes a sustainable source of energy, a safe, robust, and acceptable solution must be pursued for existing and projected inventories of high-activity, long-lived radioactive waste. Remarkable progress in the field of geological disposal has been made in the last two decades. Some countries have reached important milestones, and geological disposal (of spent fuel) is expected to start in 2020 in Finland and in 2022 in Sweden. In fact, the licensing of the geological repositories in both countries is now entering into its final phase. In France, disposal of intermediate-level waste (ILW) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is expected to start around 2025, according to the roadmap defined by an Act of Parliament in 2006. In this context, transmutation of part of the waste through use of advanced fuel cycles, probably feasible in the coming decades, can reduce the burden on the geological repository. This article presents the physical principle of transmutation and reviews several strategies of partitioning and transmutation (P&T). Many recent studies have demonstrated that the impact of P&T on geological disposal concepts is not overwhelmingly high. However, by reducing waste heat production, a more efficient utilization of repository space is likely. Moreover, even if radionuclide release from the waste to the environment and related calculated doses to the population are only partially reduced by P&T, it is important to point out that a clear reduction of the actinide inventory in the HLW definitely reduces risks arising from less probable evolutions of a repository (i.e., an increase of actinide mobility in certain geochemical situations and radiological impact by human intrusion).

Salvatores, M.; Palmiotti, G.

2011-01-01

65

Capabilities of a DT tokamak fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capabilities of a DT fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor are characterized by identifying limits on transmutation rates that would be imposed by tokamak physics and engineering limitations on fusion neutron source performance. The need for spent nuclear fuel transmutation and the need for a neutron source to drive subcritical fission transmutation reactors are

W. M. Stacey

2001-01-01

66

Radiotoxicity of Actinides During Transmutation in Final Stage of Atomic Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of a transmutation mode in final stage of atomic power are analyzed. In this stage, transmutation of actinides accumulated in transmutation reactors is performed without feed by actinides from other reactors. The radiotoxicity during first 20 years of transmutation is caused mainly by ²Cm. During following period of time, ²²Cf is main nuclide. Contribution of ²Cm and ²°Cf is

Aleksander S. Gerasimov; Boris R. Bergelson; Lidia A. Myrtsymova; Georgy V. Tikhomirov

2002-01-01

67

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

68

Tokamak transmutation of (nuclear) waste (TTW): Parametric studies  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste generated as part of the commercial-power and defense nuclear programs can be either stored or transmuted. The latter treatment requires a capital-intensive neutron source and is reserved for particularly hazardous and long-lived actinide and fission-product waste. A comparative description of fusion-based transmutation is made on the basis of rudimentary estimates of ergonic performance and transmutation capacities versus inventories for both ultra-low-aspect-ratio (spherical torus, ST) and conversional (aspect-ratio) tokamak fusion-power-core drivers. The parametric systems studies reported herein provides a preamble to more-detailed, cost-based systems analyses.

Cheng, E.T. [TSI Research, Inc., Solana Beach, CA (United States); Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Peng, Y.K.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1994-06-01

69

TOKAMAK TRANSMUTATION OF (NUCLEAR) WASTE (TTW) - PARAMETRIC STUDIES  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive waste generated as part of the commercial-power and defense nuclear programs can be either stored or transmuted. The latter treatment requires a capital-intensive neutron source and is reserved for particularly hazardous and long-lived actinide and fission-product waste. A comparative description of fusion-based transmutation is made on the basis of rudimentary estimates of energy-balance performance and transmutation capacities versus inventories for both ultra-low-aspect-ratio (spherical torus, ST) and conventional (aspect-ratio) tokamak fusion-power-core drivers. The parametric systems studies reported provides a preamble to more-detailed, cost-based systems analyses.

Krakowski, R.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Cheng, E.T. [TSI Research Inc.; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL

1994-01-01

70

Transmutation of Isotopes --- Ecological and Energy Production Aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes principles of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Wastes (ATW) and gives some flavour of the most important topics which are today under investigations in many countries. An assessment of the potential impact of ATW on a future of nuclear energy is also given. Nuclear reactors based on self-sustained fission reactions --- after spectacular development in fifties and sixties, that resulted in deployment of over 400 power reactors --- are wrestling today more with public acceptance than with irresolvable technological problems. In a whole spectrum of reasons which resulted in today's opposition against nuclear power few of them are very relevant for the nuclear physics community and they arose from the fact that development of nuclear power had been handed over to the nuclear engineers and technicians with some generically unresolved problems, which should have been solved properly by nuclear scientists. In a certain degree of simplification one can say, that most of the problems originate from very specific features of a fission phenomenon: self-sustained chain reaction in fissile materials and very strong radioactivity of fission products and very long half-life of some of the fission and activation products. And just this enormous concentration of radioactive fission products in the reactor core is the main problem of managing nuclear reactors: it requires unconditional guarantee for the reactor core integrity in order to avoid radioactive contamination of the environment; it creates problems to handle decay heat in the reactor core and finally it makes handling and/or disposal of spent fuel almost a philosophical issue, due to unimaginable long time scales of radioactive decay of some isotopes. A lot can be done to improve the design of conventional nuclear reactors (like Light Water Reactors); new, better reactors can be designed but it seems today very improbable to expect any radical change in the public perception of conventional nuclear power. In this context a lot of hopes and expectations have been expressed for novel systems called Accelerator-Driven Systems, Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Waste or just Hybrid Reactors. All these names are used for description of the same nuclear system combining a powerful particle accelerator with a subcritical reactor. A careful analysis of possible environmental impact of ATW together with limitation of this technology is presented also in this paper.

Gudowski, Waclaw

2000-01-01

71

Spherical tokamak (ST) transmutation of nuclear wastes  

SciTech Connect

The concept for an ST fusion core that drives a He-cooled, actinide-bearing, molten-salt blanket of moderate power density to generate electricity is examined for the first time. The results show that the fusion core is suited for this purpose and require a level of plasma, power density, engineering, and material performances moderate in comparison with what has been considered desirable for fusion-only power plants. The low aspect ratio of ST introduces a relatively thick, diverted scrape-off layer which leads to reduced heat fluxes at the limiter and divertor tiles. The use of a demountable, water-cooled, single-turn copper center leg for the toroidal field coils enables simplifications of the fusion core configuration and improves overall practicality for future power applications. These result in much reduced size and cost of the fusion core for the transmutation power plant relative to an optimized fusion-only fusion core. Surrounded by a separate tritium-breeding zone, the molten-salt blanket concept is in principle less complex and costly than the thermal breeding blankets for fusion. These combine to effect major reductions in the cost and weight of the power core equipment for the transmutation power plant. The minimum cost of electricity for such a power plant is thus reduced from the best fusion-only counterpart by more than 30%, based on consistent but approximate modeling. The key issues, development steps, and the potential value inherent in the ST fusion core in addressing the world needs for nuclear waste reduction and energy production are discussed.

Peng, Yueng Kay Martin [ORNL; Cheng, E.T. [TSI Research Inc.; Galambos, John D [ORNL; Cerbone, R. J. [TSI Research Inc.

1995-01-01

72

Transmutation of silicon carbide in fusion nuclear environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount and type of metallic transmutants produced in SiC/SiC when used in magnetic (MFE) and inertial (IFE) confinement fusion systems are determined and compared to those obtained following irradiation in fission reactors. Up to ˜1.3% metallic transmutants are generated at the expected lifetime of the fusion blanket. Irradiation in fission reactors to the same fast neutron fluence produces about an order of magnitude lower metallic transmutation products than in fusion systems. While the dominant component in fusion systems is Mg, P is the main transmutation product in fission reactors. The impact on the SiC/SiC properties is not fully understood. The results of this work will help guide irradiation experiments in fission reactors to properly simulate the conditions in fusion systems by possible ion implantation. In addition, the results represent a necessary input for modeling activities aimed at understanding the expected effects on properties.

Sawan, M. E.; Katoh, Y.; Snead, L. L.

2013-11-01

73

The status of nuclear data for transmutation calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

At this point, the accurate description of transmutation products in a radiation environment is more a nuclear data problem than a code development effort. We have used versions of the CINDER code for over three decades to describe the transmutation of nuclear reactor fuels in radiation environments. The need for the accurate description of reactor neutron-absorption, decay-power, and decay-spectra properties

W. B. Wilsonj; T. R. England; R. E. MacFarlane; D. W. Muir; P. G. Young

1995-01-01

74

Transmutations of nuclear waste in accelerator-driven subcritical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical preconditionings of transmutations are analysed. It has been suggested that one of the most viable incineration concepts is a symbiotic nuclear-energy system, consisting of a transmuter and a number of co-operating light-water reactors (LWRs). Closing of the fuel cycle is not easily achievable, since the minor actinides (MAs), unavoidably then produced in significant quantities, show disadvantageous safety properties

Stefan Taczanowski

2003-01-01

75

Development of radionuclide separation technologies for processing of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant spent fuel and HLW calcine  

SciTech Connect

Irradiated nuclear fuel has been reprocessed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), which is a part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), since 1953 to recover uranium-235 and krypton-85 for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The resulting acidic high-level liquid radioactive waste (HLLW) has been solidified to a high-level waste (HLW) calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless-steel bins enclosed in concrete vaults. Residual HLW and radioactive sodium-bearing waste are stored in stainless-steel underground tanks contained in concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also stored at INEL. In April 1992, DOE announced that spent fuel would no longer be reprocessed to recover enriched uranium. As a result of the decision to curtail reprocessing the ICPP Spent Fuel and Waste Management Technology Development plan has been implemented to identify acceptable options for disposing of the (1) sodium-bearing liquid radioactive waste, (2) radioactive calcine, and (3) irradiated spent fuel stored at the INEL. The plan was developed jointly by DOE and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO).

Olson, A.L.; Todd, T.A.; Ermold, L.F.; Knecht, D.A.; Hogg, G.W.

1993-10-01

76

Transmutation of alloys in MFE facilities as calculated by REAC (a computer code system for activation and transmutation)  

SciTech Connect

A computer code system for fast calculation of activation and transmutation has been developed. The system consists of a driver code, cross-section libraries, flux libraries, a material library, and a decay library. The code is used to predict transmutations in a Ti-modified 316 stainless steel, a commercial ferritic alloy (HT9), and a V-15%Cr-5%Ti alloy in various magnetic fusion energy (MFE) test facilities and conceptual reactors.

Mann, F.M.

1982-08-01

77

Radiation Effects on the Sorption and Mobilization of Radionuclide during Transport through the Geosphere  

SciTech Connect

Site restoration activities at DOE facilities and the permanent disposal of nuclear waste inevitably involve understanding the behavior of materials in a radiation field. Radionuclide decay and the associated radiation fields lead to physical and chemical changes that can degrade or enhance important material properties. Alpha-decay of the actinide elements and beta-decay of the fission products lead to atomic-scale changes in materials (radiation damage and transmutation).

L.M. Wang; R.C. Eqing; K.F. Hayes

2004-03-14

78

FISA2009 Conference on Euratom Research and Training Activities: Nuclear Fission – Past, Present and Future (Generation-II, -III and IV + Partitioning and Transmutation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an introduction to the research and training activities carried out under the Euratom 7th Framework Programme (FP7, 2007–2011) in the field of nuclear fission science and technology, covering in particular nuclear systems and safety, and including innovative reactor systems and partitioning and transmutation. It is based on the more than 40 invited lectures that were delivered by

V. Bhatnagar; M. Deffrennes; M. Hugon; P. Manolatos; K. Ptackova; G. Van Goethem; S. Webster

2011-01-01

79

65 FR 12981 - Subcommittee on Accelerator Transmutation of Waste of the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Transmutation of Waste of the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee AGENCY...Transmutation of Waste of the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee...Designated Federal Officer, Nuclear Energy Research Advisory...

2000-03-10

80

Irradiation testing of actinide transmutation fuels in the advanced test reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first irradiation experiment to evaluate the technical feasibility of proposed acitnide transmutation fuels for the US. Accelerator Transmutation of Waste program is currently under design. The goal of this irradiation experiment is to obtain initial irradiation performance data on candidate transmutation fuel concepts. The candidate fuels include non-fertile variations of (1) metallic alloys, (2) nitrides, (3) oxides, and (4)

S. L. Hayes; M. K. Meyer; D. C. Crawford

2001-01-01

81

FABRICATION OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES BY NEUTRON TRANSMUTATION DOPING. Annual Report, December 1961December 1962  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in the development of fabrication methods for semiconductor ; devices by neutron transmutation doping is described. Quantitative expressions ; are given for spatial control of the electronically active impurities (introduced ; by neutron transmutation) by means of radiation dies. Neutron transmutation ; reactions in germanium and silicon were surveyed. Required neutron flux levels ; were calculated. The electronic properties

1962-01-01

82

Accelerator-driven transmutation of high-level waste from the defense and commercial sectors  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The major goal has been to develop accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system designs that will thoroughly and rapidly transmute nuclear waste, including plutonium from dismantled weapons and spent reactor fuel, while generating useful electrical power and without producing a long-lived radioactive waste stream. We have identified and quantified the unique qualities of subcritical nuclear systems and their capabilities in bringing about the complete destruction of plutonium. Although the 1191 subcritical systems involved in our most effective designs radically depart from traditional nuclear reactor concepts, they are based on extrapolations of existing technologies. Overall, care was taken to retain the highly desired features that nuclear technology has developed over the years within a conservative design envelope. We believe that the ATW systems designed in this project will enable almost complete destruction of nuclear waste (conversion to stable species) at a faster rate and without many of the safety concerns associated with the possible reactor approaches.

Bowman, C.; Arthur, E.; Beard, C. [and others

1996-09-01

83

Radiochemical measurements of nuclear data for transmutation of minor actinides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to understand quantitatively the transmutation of minor actinides in irradiation location, the nuclear data of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium nuclides have been measured by radiochemical method: Several samples of the actinide nuclides irradiated in thermal and fast neutron reactors have been analyzed to determine the contents of actinides and fission products. Yields of the fission products in proton-induced fission of the minor actinides have been also measured by using a tandem accelerator. From the viewpoint of nuclear waste management, the transmutation process of the actinides in irradiation field is discussed quantitatively in this paper. .

Shinohara, N.

2001-04-01

84

Experiment on iodine transmutation by laser Compton scattering gamma ray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser Compton scattering gamma-ray based nuclear transmutation is proposed to reduce the hazards of long-lived activity nuclear waste. In accordance with this proposal, a laser Compton scattering gamma-ray facility has been built on NewSUABARU storage ring. The facility provides 17.6 MeV gamma-ray photons, which is applicable to the nuclear transmutation research. In order to investigate the reaction rate of Iodine material, the 23Na127I target is adopted for the irradiation experiment. The results show that the experimental data is close to the simulation result.

Li, D.; Imasaki, K.; Miyamoto, S.; Horikawa, K.; Amano, S.; Mochizuki, T.

2008-05-01

85

Impact of transmutations in fusion environment on Flibe chemistry.  

SciTech Connect

Transmutation rates of Li, Be and F are calculated for a typical flibe blanket. The results concluded that the transmutation rate of F is more than double that of Be. Because of the high destruction rate of fluorine, there will be no free fluorine in the molten salt. Therefore, experimental program to address the chemistry control of flibe does not have to worry about the issues associated with free fluorine. Also, this calculation defines the chemical of flibe after irradiation. This chemical state needs to be simulated closely for the flibe chemistry control experiment.

Sze, D. K.; Sawan, M. E.; Cheng, E. T.

2000-11-15

86

Radionuclide deposition control  

DOEpatents

The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA); McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

87

When outsourcing fragments: customer creativity and technological transmutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most fundamental decisions made in firms is about what functions or activities the firm should perform within its own hierarchy, and which of these it should rely on the market to perform. Outsourcing is ‘an agreement in which one company contracts out a part of their existing internal activity to another company’. However, this article contends that

Ekin Pehlivan; Pierre R. Berthon; Leyland F. Pitt; Ronika Chakrabarti

2012-01-01

88

Transmutation of momentum into position in magnetic vortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that transmutation of linear momentum into position may occur in a system of three magnetic vortices thanks to a direct link between topology and dynamics in a ferromagnet. This happens via an exchange between the linear momentum of a vortex antivortex (VA) pair and the position of a single vortex during a semi-elastic scattering process. Vortex polarity switching

Stavros Komineas; Nikos Papanicolaou

2008-01-01

89

Description of the Transmutation and Activation Data Library UKCTR3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nuclear cross-section data library UKCTRIII provides neutron reaction cross-section data for the energy range from thermal to 15 MeV. It is intended, primarily, for use in studies of transmutation and activation of fusion reactor structural and coolan...

O. N. Jarvis

1979-01-01

90

Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei  

DOEpatents

Insuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to medicine and industry. This invention addresses this problem, and helps to solve it by introducing a new apparatus for transmutation of isotopes which enables swift and flexible production on demand. 9 figs.

Maenchen, J.E.; Ruiz, C.L.

1998-12-08

91

Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei  

DOEpatents

Insuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to medicine and industry. This invention addresses this problem, and helps to solve it by introducing a new apparatus for transmutation of isotopes which enables swift and flexible production on demand. 9 figs.

Maenchen, J.E.; Ruiz, C.L.

1998-06-09

92

Accelerator-driven transmutation of spent fuel elements  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Uranium may also be enriched, thereby providing new fuel for use in conventional nuclear power plants. An accelerator provides the additional neutrons required to perform the processes. The size of the accelerator needed to complete fuel cycle closure depends on the neutron efficiency of the supported reactors and on the neutron spectrum of the actinide transmutation apparatus. Treatment of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs) using uranium-based fuel will require the largest accelerator power, whereas neutron-efficient high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) or CANDU reactors will require the smallest accelerator power, especially if thorium is introduced into the newly generated fuel according to the teachings of the present invention. Fast spectrum actinide transmutation apparatus (based on liquid-metal fuel) will take full advantage of the accelerator-produced source neutrons and provide maximum utilization of the actinide-generated fission neutrons. However, near-thermal transmutation apparatus will require lower standing

Venneri, Francesco (Los Alamos, NM); Williamson, Mark A. (Los Alamos, NM); Li, Ning (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

93

Transmutation of Isotopes --- Ecological and Energy Production Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes principles of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Wastes (ATW) and gives some flavour of the most important topics which are today under investigations in many countries. An assessment of the potential impact of ATW on a future of nuclear energy is also given. Nuclear reactors based on self-sustained fission reactions --- after spectacular development in fifties and sixties,

Waclaw Gudowski

2000-01-01

94

Fusion-Fission Transmutation Scheme-Efficient Destruction of Nuclear Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fusion-assisted transmutation system for the destruction of transuranic (TRU) waste is presented. Subcritical fusion-fission hybrids burn the intransigent transuranic residues (with most of the long lived bio-hazard) of a new fuel cycle that uses cheap light water reactors (LWRs) for the easily burned majority of the TRU. In the new fuel cycle, the number of hybrids needed to destroy a given amount of original LWR waste is 5-10 times less than the corresponding number of critical fast reactors. (Fast reactors, due to stability constraints, cannot burn the very poor quality TRU residue.) The new system comparably reduces the expensive reprocessing throughput. Realization of these advantages should lead to a great reduction in the cost of transmutation. The time needed for 99% waste destruction would also be reduced from centuries to decades. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density compact fusion neutron source (CFNS-100 MW, with major radius + minor radius ˜ 2.5 m), which is made possible by a super-X divertor. The physics and technology requirements of the CFNS are much less than the requirements of a pure fusion power source. Advantages of the system as part of a timely strategy to combat global warming are briefly described.

Kotschenreuther, Mike; Mahajan, Swadesh; Valanju, Prashant; Schneider, Erich A.

2009-05-01

95

Fusion transmutation of waste: design and analysis of the in-zinerator concept.  

SciTech Connect

Due to increasing concerns over the buildup of long-lived transuranic isotopes in spent nuclear fuel waste, attention has been given in recent years to technologies that can burn up these species. The separation and transmutation of transuranics is part of a solution to decreasing the volume and heat load of nuclear waste significantly to increase the repository capacity. A fusion neutron source can be used for transmutation as an alternative to fast reactor systems. Sandia National Laboratories is investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver for this application. This report summarizes the initial design and engineering issues of this ''In-Zinerator'' concept. Relatively modest fusion requirements on the order of 20 MW can be used to drive a sub-critical, actinide-bearing, fluid blanket. The fluid fuel eliminates the need for expensive fuel fabrication and allows for continuous refueling and removal of fission products. This reactor has the capability of burning up 1,280 kg of actinides per year while at the same time producing 3,000 MWth. The report discusses the baseline design, engineering issues, modeling results, safety issues, and fuel cycle impact.

Durbin, S. M.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Guild-Bingham, Avery (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Venneri, Francesco (General Atomics, San Diego, CA); Meier, Wayne (LLNL, Livermore, CA); Alajo, A.B. (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Johnson, T. R. (Argonne Mational Laboratory, Argonne, IL); El-Guebaly, L. A. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Youssef, M. E. (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Young, Michael F.; Drennen, Thomas E. (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Morrow, Charles W.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Wilson, Paul (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Grady, Ryan (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Keith, Rodney L.; Smith, James Dean; Cook, Jason T.; Sviatoslavsky, Igor N. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Willit, J. L. (Argonne Mational Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cleary, Virginia D.; Kamery, William (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene

2006-11-01

96

Quantitative radionuclide angiocardiography  

SciTech Connect

This study introduces a new method for calculating actual left ventricular volumes and cardiac output from data recorded during a single transit of a radionuclide bolus through the heart, and describes in detail current radionuclide angiocardiography methodology. A group of 64 healthy adults with a wide age range were studied to define the normal range of hemodynamic parameters determined by the technique. Radionuclide angiocardiograms were performed in patients undergoing cardiac catherization to validate the measurements. In 33 patients studied by both techniques on the same day, a close correlation was documented for measurement of ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume. To validate the method of volumetric cardiac output calcuation, 33 simultaneous radionuclide and indocyanine green dye determinations of cardiac output were performed in 18 normal young adults. These independent comparisons of radionuclide measurements with two separate methods document that initial transit radionuclide angiocardiography accurately assesses left ventricular function.

Scholz, P.M.; Rerych, S.K.; Moran, J.F.; Newman, G.E.; Douglas, J.M.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.; Jones, R.H.

1980-01-01

97

Separation of Transmutation - and Fission-Produced Radioisotopes from Irradiated Beryllium  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a two-step solvent extraction-precipitation process for separating transmutation and fission products from irradiated beryllium. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluoroboric acids. Isotopes of 241Am, 239Pu, 85Sr, 60Co, and 137Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed with the spiked simulant using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol diluted with sulfone to extract the isotopes of Cs and Sr. Another series of batch contacts was performed using a combination of octyl (phenyl)-N,Ndiisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide in tributyl phosphate diluted with dodecane for extracting the isotopes of Pu and Am. The 60Co was separated by first forming a cobalt complex and then selectively precipitating the beryllium as a hydroxide. The results indicate that greater than 99.9% removal can be achieved for each radionuclide. Transuranic isotope contamination levels are reduced to less than 100 nCi/g, and sources of high beta-gamma radiation (60Co, 137Cs, and 90Sr) are reduced to levels that will allow the beryllium to be contact handled. The separation process may be applicable to a recycle or waste disposition scenario.

Troy J. Tranter; RIchard D. Tillotson; Nick R. Mann; Glen R. Longhurst

2011-11-01

98

Cyclic Mode of Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Heavy-Water Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics of process of transmutation of americium and curium from spent nuclear fuel in heavy-water reactor during first 10 lifetimes and at transition to equilibrium mode are calculated. During transmutation, dangerous nuclides, first of all, {sup 244}Cm and {sup 238}Pu are accumulated. They cause an increase of radiotoxicity. At first 10 cycles of a transmutation, the radiotoxicity is increased by 11 times in comparison with initial load of transmuted actinides. Heavy-water reactor with thermal power of 1000 MW can transmute americium and curium extracted from 7-8 VVER-1000 type reactors. It means that the required power of transmutation reactor makes about 4 % of thermal power of VVER-1000 type reactors. (authors)

Gerasimov, Aleksander S.; Kiselev, Gennady V.; Myrtsymova, Lidia A.; Zaritskaya, Tamara S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, SSC RF ITEP, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya, 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2002-07-01

99

Fusion-fission hybrids for nuclear waste transmutation : a synergistic step between Gen-IV fission and fusion reactors.  

SciTech Connect

Energy demand and GDP per capita are strongly correlated, while public concern over the role of energy in climate change is growing. Nuclear power plants produce 16% of world electricity demands without greenhouse gases. Generation-IV advanced nuclear energy systems are being designed to be safe and economical. Minimizing the handling and storage of nuclear waste is important. NIF and ITER are bringing sustainable fusion energy closer, but a significant gap in fusion technology development remains. Fusion-fission hybrids could be a synergistic step to a pure fusion economy and act as a technology bridge. We discuss how a pulsed power-driven Z-pinch hybrid system producing only 20 MW of fusion yield can drive a sub-critical transuranic blanket that transmutes 1280 kg of actinide wastes per year and produces 3000 MW. These results are applicable to other inertial and magnetic fusion energy systems. A hybrid system could be introduced somewhat sooner because of the modest fusion yield requirements and can provide both a safe alternative to fast reactors for nuclear waste transmutation and a maturation path for fusion technology. The development and demonstration of advanced materials that withstand high-temperature, high-irradiation environments is a fundamental technology issue that is common to both fusion-fission hybrids and Generation-IV reactors.

Olson, Craig Lee; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Rochau, Gary Eugene

2007-09-01

100

Development of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometer material  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of lattice defects generated as a result of the neutron-transmutation-doping of germanium was studied as a function of annealing conditions using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and mobility measurements. DLTS and variable temperature Hall effect were also used to measure the activation of dopant impurities formed during the transmutation process. In additioon, a semi-automated method of attaching wires on to small chips of germanium (< 1 mm/sup 3/) for the fabrication of infrared detecting bolometers was developed. Finally, several different types of junction field effect transistors were tested for noise at room and low temperature (approx. 80 K) in order to find the optimum device available for first stage electronics in the bolometer signal amplification circuit.

Palaio, N.P.

1983-08-01

101

Radionuclides in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impending new maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for radionuclides, plus increased concern for radon in the air inside homes, have sparked new interest in these substances. An assessment of research needs,* which also provided background information on completed and ongoing research projects, showed that Rn-222 represents the most serious threat to health of all the radionuclides in drinking water, leading to

Jerry D. Lowry; Sylvia B. Lowry

1988-01-01

102

Radionuclides Production, vol 2  

SciTech Connect

Twelve specialists present a comprehensive and integrated guide on the theory and practical aspects of radionuclide production. Vol. II: Special consideration is given to production techniques of short-lived positron radionuclides and labeling procedures. Illustrative examples combined with technical explanations on the biomedical studies are also included.

Helus, F.

1983-01-01

103

A Cost Benefit Analysis of an Accelerator Driven Transmutation System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract,v Acknowledgments,vi Disclaimer,vii Abbreviations,viii 1 Background,1 1.1 Nuclear wastes,1 1.2 The fission process,4 2 Goal and method,10 3 Present knowledge,12 4 Transmutation,14 4.1 Physical properties of ADS,14 4.2 System design,17 4.3 The Sing-Sing core design,19 5 Fuel cycles,23 6 Accelerators,25 6.1 Cyclotrons,25 6.2 Linear accelerators,27

Daniel Westlén

2001-01-01

104

PROPERTIES OF CERMET FUELS FOR MINOR ACTINIDES TRANSMUTATION IN ADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sub-critical Accelerator Driven System (ADS) is now being considered as a potential means to burn long-lived transuranium nuclides. The preferred fuel for such a fast neutron reactor is uranium-free, highly enriched with plutonium and minor actinides. Requirements for ADS transmuter fuels are linked with the core design and safety parameters, the fuel properties and the ease of reprocessing. This

D. Haas; A. Fernandez; D. Staicu; J. Somers; ForschungsZentrum Karlsruhe

2005-01-01

105

Optimisation of inert matrix fuel concepts for americium transmutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concepts of inert-matrix fuels for americium transmutation are discussed. It is demonstrated that a `hybrid' fuel design, consisting in a dispersion of an americium-bearing phase in an inert matrix, is desirable. More than a solid-solution is preferred in order to localise within a small volume the damage in the matrix due to fission fragments. Such a dispersion is composed of

N. Chauvin; R. J. M Konings; Hj Matzke

1999-01-01

106

Spin-Statistics Transmutation in Quantum Field Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin-statistics transmutation is the phenomenon occurring when a “dressing” transformation introduced for physical reasons (e.g. gauge invariance) modifies the “bare” spin and statistics of particles or fields. Historically, it first appeared in Quantum Mechanics and in semiclassical approximation to Quantum Field Theory. After a brief historical introduction, we sketch how to describe such phenomenon in Quantum Field Theory beyond the semiclassical approximation, using a path-integral formulation of euclidean correlation functions, exemplifying with anyons, dyons and skyrmions.

Marchetti, P. A.

2010-07-01

107

Composite weak bosons associated with transmuted gauge symmetry  

SciTech Connect

It is shown, from the complementarity viewpoint, that the ''flavor'' SU(2)/sub L/-invariant four Fermi interactions generating composite weak bosons, W and Z, possess a local ''color'' SU(2)/sub L//sup loc/ symmetry, which is confined. Through the transmutation of the ''color'' SU(2)/sub L//sup loc/ symmetry, the SU(2)/sub L//sup loc/-triplet gauge particles are converted into the SU(2)/sub L/-triplet composite weak bosons.

Yasue, M.

1989-01-01

108

Importance of Neutron Cross-Sections for Transmutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate neutron cross-section data is fundamental to the reliable design of any transmutation device, and, in particular, of an Accelerator-Driven System (ADS). Calculations of the behaviour of the core depend strongly on the cross-section data: parameters such as the multiplication coefficient, power densities or reactivity may vary significantly depending on the nuclear-data (ND) library used. These potential discrepancies justify the

A. HERRERA-MARTÍNEZ; M. DAHLFORS; Y. KADI; G. T. PARKS

109

Symbiosis system for transmutation on nitride fuel FBR and ADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual scheme for mass flow of transmuting Plutonium (Pu), minor actinides (MA) and long-lived fission products (LLFP) is studied. In this feature, the existing light-water reactors (LWRs) cycle will be main stream for nuclear electric generation during a long-term period more than 50 years, and Pu will be utilized in mixed oxide fuel (MOX)-LWRs. In future, when Pu recycling

Hideki Takano; Kenji Nishihara

2002-01-01

110

Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. I. Overall assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report is concerned with an overall assessment of the feasibility of and incentives for partitioning (recovering) long-lived nuclides from fuel reprocessing and fuel refabrication plant radioactive wastes and transmuting them to shorter-lived or stable nuclides by neutron irradiation. The principal class of nuclides considered is the actinides, although a brief analysis is given of the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I. The results obtained in this program permit us to make a comparison of the impacts of waste management with and without actinide recovery and transmutation. Three major conclusions concerning technical feasibility can be drawn from the assessment: (1) actinide P-T is feasible, subject to the acceptability of fuels containing recycle actinides; (2) technetium P-T is feasible if satisfactory partitioning processes can be developed and satisfactory fuels identified (no studies have been made in this area); and (3) iodine P-T is marginally feasible at best because of the low transmutation rates, the high volatility, and the corrosiveness of iodine and iodine compounds. It was concluded on the basis of a very conservative repository risk analysis that there are no safety or cost incentives for actinide P-T. In fact, if nonradiological risks are included, the short-term risks of P-T exceed the long-term benefits integrated over a period of 1 million years. Incentives for technetium and iodine P-T exist only if extremely conservative long-term risk analyses are used. Further RD and D in support of P-T is not warranted.

Croff, A.G.; Blomeke, J.O.; Finney, B.C.

1980-06-01

111

Radiotoxicity of Actinides During Transmutation in Final Stage of Atomic Power  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics of a transmutation mode in final stage of atomic power are analyzed. In this stage, transmutation of actinides accumulated in transmutation reactors is performed without feed by actinides from other reactors. The radiotoxicity during first 20 years of transmutation is caused mainly by {sup 244}Cm. During following period of time, {sup 252}Cf is main nuclide. Contribution of {sup 246}Cm and {sup 250}Cf is 5-7 times less than that of {sup 252}Cf. During 50 years of a transmutation, the total radiotoxicity falls by 50 times. Long-lived radiotoxicity decreases slowly. During the period between T=50 years and T=100 years, long-lived radiotoxicity falls by 3.7 times. For each following 50 years after this period, long-lived radiotoxicity falls by 3.2 times. These results corresponding to neutron flux density 10{sup 14} neutr/(cm{sup 2}s) in transmutation reactor demonstrate that the final stage of a transmutation should be performed with use of high flux transmutation facilities which provide shorter time of transmutation. (authors)

Gerasimov, Aleksander S.; Bergelson, Boris R.; Myrtsymova, Lidia A.; Tikhomirov, Georgy V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, SSC RF ITEP, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya, 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2002-07-01

112

Chemical separations schemes for partitioning and transmutation systems.  

SciTech Connect

In the initial phase of the U.S. Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program, a single-tier system was foreseen in which the transuranics and long-lived fission products (specifically, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I) recovered from spent LWR oxide fuel would be sent directly to an accelerator-driven transmuter reactor [1]. Because the quantity of fuel to be processed annually was so large (almost 1,500 tons per year), an aqueous solvent extraction process was chosen for LWR fuel processing. Without the need to separate transuranics from one another for feed to the transmuter, it became appropriate to develop an advanced aqueous separations method that became known as UREX. The UREX process employs an added reagent (acetohydroxamic acid) that suppresses the extraction of plutonium and promotes the extraction of technetium together with uranium. Technetium can then be efficiently removed from the uranium; the recovered uranium, being highly decontaminated, can be disposed of as a low-level waste or stored in an unshielded facility for future use. Plutonium and the other transuranic elements, plus the remaining fission products, are directed to the liquid waste stream. This stream is calcined, converting the transuranics and fission products to their oxides. The resulting oxide powder, now representing only about four percent of the original mass of the spent fuel, is reduced to metallic form by means of a pyrometallurgical process. Subsequently, the transuranics are separated from the fission products in another pyro-metallurgical step involving molten salt electrorefining.

Laidler, J.

2002-05-02

113

Radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation within advanced fuel cycles: Achievements and Challenges  

SciTech Connect

In the last decades, numerous studies have been performed in order to identify appropriate “Partitioning and Transmutation” (P&T) strategies, aiming to the reduction of the burden on a geological storage (see, among many others, Salvatores, 2005). P&T strategies are very powerful and unique tools to reduce drastically the radiotoxicity level of the wastes and to reduce the time needed to reach the reference level (from ~100,000 years to few hundred years, i.e. comparable to the period in which technological and engineering means allow reasonably to control the radioactivity confinement). Moreover, P&T allows, in principle, also the reduction of the residual heat in a geological repository, with a potential significant impact on the repository size and characteristics. The first requirement of P&T strategies is the deployment of spent fuel reprocessing techniques (aqueous or dry), which are both in the continuity of today technologies (e.g. as implemented at La Hague in France, where Pu is separated up to 99.9 %) or which represent innovative, adapted approaches (e.g. pyrochemistry). The requirement is to extend the performance of Pu separation to 99.9 % also to Np, Am and Cm kept together or separated and in any case decontaminated from the lanthanides as much as possible. The separated TRU should then be “transmuted” (or “burned”) in a neutron field. The essential mechanism is to fission them, transforming them into much shorter lived or stable fission products. However, the fission process is always in competition with other processes, and, in particular, with neutron capture, which does eliminate isotope A, but transforms it into isotope A+1, which can still be radioactive. Isotope A+1 can in turn be fissioned or transmuted into isotope A+2, and so on. The neutron field has to be provided by a fission reactor. The requirement for this (dedicated) reactor is to be able to privilege the fission process with respect to the capture process and to be able to be loaded with fuels with potentially very different mixtures of Pu and minor actinides (MA), according to the chosen approach and the objective of the P&T strategy, and this without affecting its safety or penalizing its operability. A major issue of any P&T implementation strategy is a detailed evaluation of the impact of each strategy on the different features and installations of the fuel cycle, and a discussion of this issue will be provided in chapter 6. Chapter 7 will tackle the problem of nuclear data uncertainties and their impact on the nominal performances of the different transmutation systems. Finally, in chapter 8 it will be discussed in more detail the role of the different types of fast reactors described in the previous chapters, according to the different P&T objectives and implementation scenarios.

M. Salvatores; G. Palmiotti

2011-01-01

114

U.S. Plans for the Next Fast Reactor Transmutation Fuels Irradiation Test  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and the long-term radiotoxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. One important component of the technology development is actinide-bearing transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. Metallic alloy and oxide fuel forms are being developed as the near term options for fast reactor implementation. There are limited irradiation performance data available on metallic and oxide fuels with high concentrations of Pu, Np and Am, as are envisioned for use as actinide transmutation fuels. Initial scoping level irradiation tests of such metallic fuels are underway in the INL's Advanced Test Reactor (AFC-1B, -1D, -1F and - 1H). Non-fertile and low-fertile metallic fuels in the AFC-1B and -1F tests have already been discharged from the reactor at 8 at.% burnup and are nearing the completion of postirradiation examination; performance of all the fuel alloys included in these tests indicated actinide-bearing transmutation metallic fuels are feasible. Similar fuel alloys continue to be irradiated in the AFC- 1D and -1H tests and are currently over 20 at.% burnup. Irradiation testing of metallic fuel alloys of U, Pu, Np, Am and Zr, with minor additions of rare earth elements meant to simulate expected fission product carry-over from pyro-metallurgical reprocessing, are planned for the AFC-2A and AFC-2B experiments, which will begin in late 2007. Irradiation testing of oxide fuels of different stoichiometries with high concentrations of Pu, Np and Am are planned for the AFC-2C and AFC-2D experiments, which will begin in early 2008. The proposed GNEP-1A, and GNEP-1B irradiation experiments in Joyo are a continuation of the metallic and oxide fuel test series in progress in the ATR and the metallic alloy irradiation tests in Phenix.3 They are designed as fast reactor test analogs of the AFC-2A, -2B, -2C and -2D experiments. The GNEP-1A and -1B experiments will consist of metallic fuel alloys of U, Pu, Np, Am and Zr, some with minor additions of rare earth elements meant to simulate expected fission product carry-over from pyro-metallurgical reprocessing, to be irradiated to burnup levels of 12-15 at.% burnup. The GNEP-1C and -1D experiments will consist of oxide fuels of U, Pu, Np, and Am with two different oxide-to-metal (O/M) ratios, which are candidate values for the fabrication process. (authors)

Hilton, B.A.; Carmack, W.J.; Hayes, S.L.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 (United States); Voit, S.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States)

2007-07-01

115

Radionuclide Cystogram (Bladder Scan)  

MedlinePLUS

... as bladder scan, radionuclide cystogram is a diagnostic nuclear test that uses a solution containing radioactive material ... Kidney (Renal) Failure Kidney (Renal) Infection Kidney (Renal) Nuclear Medicine Scan Kidney (Renal) Transplantation Kidney (Renal) Trauma ...

116

Fuel design for the U.S. accelerator driven transmutation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. concept for actinide transmutation is currently envisioned as a system to destroy plutonium as well as minor actinides in a single or two tier system. In order to maximize the actinide destruction rate, an inert matrix fuel is used. The effectiveness of transmutation in reducing the actinide inventory is linked to the development of a robust fuel system,

M. K. Meyer; S. L. Hayes; D. C. Crawford; R. G. Pahl; H. Tsai

2002-01-01

117

Transmutation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu and 241Am Using Neutrons Produced in Target-Blanket System ``Energy & Transmutation'' Bombarded by Relativistic Protons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Target-blanket facility ``Energy & Transmutation'' was irradiated by a 2 GeV proton beam extracted from the Nuclotron Accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Radioactive samples made from iodine, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated by spallation neutrons produced in the ``E&T'' facility. Transmutation reaction yields (residual nuclei production yields) have been determined using methods of ?-spectroscopy. The energy spectrum of the neutron field has been studied by using a set of threshold detectors.

Adam, J.; Katovsky, K.; Balabekyan, A.; Solnyshkin, A. A.; Kalinnikov, V. G.; Stegailov, V. I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Stetsenko, S. G.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Pronskikh, V. S.; Vladimirova, N. M.; Kumawat, H.

2005-05-01

118

Carrier doping into boron nanobelts by neutron transmutation  

SciTech Connect

We report the effects of a neutron-capture reaction of isotope {sup 10}B on the structure and electrical transport of {sup 10}B-enriched single-crystalline boron nanobelts. Partial amorphization, particularly at the surface of the nanobelt, was observed after thermal neutron irradiation with a dose of 2x10{sup 19} cm{sup -2}. Carrier doping into the nanobelts by neutron transmutation is expected after postannealing. The change in conductance is discussed based on the distribution of localized states in the band gap of {alpha}-tetragonal boron.

Kirihara, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koshizaki, Naoto [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Yamada, Yoichi [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Esaka, Fumitaka [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Shamoto, Shin-ichi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kimura, Kaoru [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

2010-11-22

119

Magnetic Fusion driven Transmutation of nuclear Waste (FTW)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of magnetic Fusion driven Transmutation of Waste (FTW) was revisited and discussed recently. Nuclear wastes include all transuranium elements: Pu isotopes (Pu²³⁹⁻²⁴¹), minor actinides separated from the spent fission fuel (Np²³⁷, Am{sup 241,243}, Cm²⁴⁴, etc.), and fissile products (Tc⁹⁹, I¹²⁹). Elimination of these long-life nuclear wastes is necessary for the long-term viability of fission power.

Yueng Kay Martin Peng; Edward T. Cheng

1993-01-01

120

Muonic alchemy: Transmuting elements with the inclusion of negative muons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter we present a theoretical study of atoms in which one electron has been replaced by a negative muon. We have treated these muonic systems with the Any Particle Molecular Orbital (APMO) method. A comparison between the electronic and muonic radial distributions revealed that muons are much more localized than electrons. Therefore, the muonic cloud is screening effectively one positive charge of the nucleus. Our results have revealed that by replacing an electron in an atom by a muon there is a transmutation of the electronic properties of that atom to those of the element with atomic number Z - 1.

Moncada, Félix; Cruz, Daniel; Reyes, Andrés

2012-06-01

121

LDRD 140639 final report : investigation of transmutation claims.  

SciTech Connect

The Proton-21 Laboratory in the Ukraine has been publishing results on shock-induced transmutation of several elements, including Cobalt 60 into non-radioactive elements. This report documents exploratory characterization of a shock-compressed Aluminum-6061 sample, which is the only available surrogate for the high-purity copper samples in the Proton-21 experiments. The goal was to determine Sandia's ability to detect possible shock-wave-induced transmutation products and to unambiguously validate or invalidate the claims in collaboration with the Proton-21 Laboratory. We have developed a suitable characterization process and tested it on the surrogate sample. Using trace elemental analysis capabilities, we found elevated and localized concentrations of impurity elements like the Ukrainians report. All our results, however, are consistent with the ejection of impurities that were not in solution in our alloy or were deposited from the cathode during irradiation or possibly storage. Based on the detection capabilities demonstrated and additional techniques available, we are positioned to test samples from Proton-21 if funded to do so.

Reich, Jeffrey E.; Van Devender, J. Pace; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Grant, Richard P.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

2009-11-01

122

Practising alchemy: the transmutation of evidence into best health care.  

PubMed

Alchemy was the synthesis or transmutation of all elements in perfect balance to obtain the philosopher's stone, the key to health. Just as alchemists sought this, so health practitioners always seek the best possible practice for optimal health outcomes for our patients. Best practice requires full knowledge--a little information can be dangerous. We need to serve our apprenticeship before we master our profession. Our profession is about improving health care. While the journey may start at medical school, the learning never ceases. It is not only about practising medicine, it is about the development of the practitioner. Professional practice requires systematic thinking combined with capacity to deal morally and creatively in areas of complexity and uncertainty appropriate to a specific context. It requires exemplary communication skills to interact with patients to facilitate collaborative decision making resulting in best practice. The synthesis of scientific and contextual evidence is a concept which applies to all disciplines where theoretical knowledge needs to be transferred to action to inform best practice. Decisions need to be made which take into account a complex array of factors, such as social and legal issues and resource constraints. Therefore, journey towards best practice involves transmutation of these three elements: scientific knowledge, the context in which it is applied and phronesis, the practical wisdom of the practitioner. All science has its limitations and we can never know all possible contextual information. Hence, like the philosopher's stone, best practice is a goal to which we aspire but never quite attain. PMID:21127021

Goodyear-Smith, Felicity

2010-12-01

123

Roadmap for Developing ATW Technology: Target-Blanket Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a roadmap to develop Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) target and blanket technology for an ATW system that would be deployable in about 25 years. The roadmap was developed for a deployment-driven scenario that was selected as...

F. Venneri D. Crawford H. Khalil N. Li T. Allen

1999-01-01

124

Characterization of Individual Fission Products in Terms of Their Production and Transmutation  

SciTech Connect

In order to establish a simple and common basis which can be referred for the specific studies on the fission products (FP) transmutation and its strategies, the general characteristics of the dominant individual FPs in terms of their production and transmutation in the fast reactor have been studied with an ideal model in the present paper. The potential hazard of each nuclide in long-term utilization of nuclear energy in human society has been quantitatively evaluated. During utilization of fission energy, two short half-life FPs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs, almost determine the total toxicity of FP nuclides in spite of the effort of transmuting them in fast reactors. The innovative transmuters (such as High Flux Reactor, Accelerator-driven system and Fusion Neutron Source) are needed to reduce these 2 toxicities. In case of 1000-year fission energy utilization with transmutation in fast reactors, the total toxicity of FP nuclides except {sup 126}Sn go down below the level of {sup 238}U toxicity consumed. The more detailed study of transmutation of {sup 126}Sn is a very important in future. However, in the case of 10,000-year fission energy utilization with transmutation in fast reactor, total toxicities of all FP nuclides go down below the level of {sup 238}U toxicity consumed. (authors)

Hiroshi Sagara; Tadashi Yoshida; Masaki Saito [Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152 (Japan)

2002-07-01

125

Targeted Radionuclide Therapy  

PubMed Central

Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

2011-01-01

126

Multi-Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU,alpha1): Verification  

SciTech Connect

Multi-Reactor Transmutation Utility (MRTAU) is a general depletion/decay algorithm under development at INL to support quick assessment of off-normal fuel cycle scenarios of similar nature to well studied reactor and fuel cycle concepts for which isotopic and cross-section data exists. MRTAU has been used in the past for scoping calculations to determine actinide composition evolution over the course of multiple recycles in Light Water Reactor Mixed Oxide and Sodium cooled Fast Reactor. In these applications, various actinide partitioning scenarios of interest were considered. The code has recently been expanded to include fission product generation, depletion and isotopic evolution over multiple recycles. The capability was added to investigate potential partial separations and/or limited recycling technologies such as Melt-Refining, AIROX, DUPIC or other fuel recycle technology where the recycled fuel stream is not completely decontaminated of fission products prior to being re-irradiated in a subsequent reactor pass. This report documents the code's solution methodology and algorithm as well as its solution accuracy compared to the SCALE6.0 software suite.

Andrea Alfonsi; Samuel E. Bays; Cristian Rabiti; Steven J. Piet

2011-02-01

127

Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste by a charged particle accelerator  

SciTech Connect

Transmutation of minor actinides and fission products using proton accelerators has many advantages over a transmutor operated in a critical condition. The energy required for this transmutation can be reduced by multiplying the spallation neutrons in a subcritical assembly surrounding the spallation target. The authors have studied the relation between the energy requirements and the multiplication factor, k, of the subcritical assembly, while varying the range of several parameters in the spallation target. A slightly subcritical reactor is superior to a reactor with large subcriticality in the context of the energy requirement of a small proton accelerator, the extent of radiation damage, and other safety problems. To transmute the fission products, the transmutor reactor must have a good neutron economy, which can be provided by a transmutor operated by a proton accelerator. The paper discusses the use of minor actinides to improve neutronics characteristics, such as a long fuel burn-up rather than simply transmuting this valuable material.

Takahashi, Hiroshi

1993-12-31

128

DEVELOPMENT OF ACCELERATORDRIVEN TRANSMUTATION SYSTEM CONCEPT AND RELATED R&D ACTIVITIES AT JAERI  

Microsoft Academic Search

JAERI has carried out R&D on transmutation of long-lived nuclides with a special emphasis placed on accelerator-driven systems (ADS) under the Japanese OMEGA Program. The ADS is designed to be introduced as a dedicated transmutation system into the second stratum of a double-strata nuclear fuel cycle concept. Early ADS concepts employed sodium coolant and solid tungsten target. A chloride molten-salt

T. TAKIZUKA; T. OSUGI; H. TAKANO

129

Long-lived radioactive waste transmutation and the role of accelerator driven (hybrid) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partitioning and transmutation strategies are studied in several countries within the framework of R&D programs devoted to the management of high-level radioactive wastes. One option is to use accelerator-driven reactors in order to transmute Pu and minor actinides and\\/or long-lived fission products. Conceptual studies underway in France and Japan are illustrated in the present paper. Some basic ideas of a

M. Salvatores; I. Slessarev; G. Ritter; P. Fougeras; A. Tchistiakov; G. Youinou; A. Zaetta

1998-01-01

130

Transmutation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu, and 241Am using neutrons produced in target-blanket system 'Energy plus Transmutation' by relativistic protons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Target-blanket facility `Energy + Transmutation' was irradiated by proton beam extracted from the Nuclotron Accelerator in Laboratory of High Energies of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Neutrons generated by the spallation reactions of 0.7, 1.0, 1.5 and 2 GeV protons and lead target interact with subcritical uranium blanket. In the neutron field outside the blanket, radioactive iodine, neptunium, plutonium and americium samples were irradiated and transmutation reaction yields (residual nuclei production yields) have been determined using g-spectroscopy. Neutron field's energy distribution has also been studied using a set of threshold detectors. Results of transmutation studies of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu and 241Am are presented.

Adam, J.; Katovsky, K.; Balabekyan, A.; Kalinnikov, V. G.; Krivopustov, M. I.; Kumawat, H.; Solnyshkin, A. A.; Stegailov, V. I.; Stetsenko, S. G.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M.; Westmeier, W.

2007-02-01

131

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other elements of the TSPA-SR model. The scope of the EBS RT Abstraction also does not include computational or numerical procedures for solving the process-level equations; rather, it identifies the important processes that must then be evaluated with process-level or component-level software using analytical or numerical solutions.

R. Schreiner

2001-06-27

132

Transmutation of americium and curium using zirconia-based host materials  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the incorporation of americium and curium in selected zirconia-based materials in conjunction with a research program at the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'' that addresses transmutation of long-lived radioactive elements. Both cubic zirconia and pyrochlore oxides An{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (An = Am, Cm) are considered in the work reported here. The strategy proposed is to treat americium and curium together in the same transmutation process. There are several incentives for this approach. One is the radiotoxicity benefits while another is avoiding the difficult separation of Am and Cm. A third point is that curium must already be considered as it is generated in large amounts as a result of irradiating pure americium targets. Outlined here are our efforts to examine the behavior of Am and Cm in selected uranium-free hosts, which avoids the generation of additional actinide products. The general concept consists of irradiating the host targets for extended periods, which would be then disposed in a suitable repository (the so-called ''once through option''). The host matrix selected for Am and Cm must meet various criteria, such as a low neutron capture cross-section, a high melting point, phase stability, low oxygen potential, etc. Several potential candidates have been envisioned but the ultimate material may be a suitable ''rock-like'' product able to sustain harsh irradiation conditions as well as the long-term repository environment. We initiated our studies for a host material with ZrO{sub 2}-based compounds and concluded that the cubic forms, obtained by stabilizing zirconia with about 25mol% of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, should be attractive for this technological application. We have demonstrated that (Zr{sub 0.6}Y{sub 0.4})O{sub 1.8}, or similar compositions, can incorporate significant amounts of americium dioxide by forming fluorite-type cubic solid solutions. It was also found that evolution of the cell parameters of these products is linear with the americium content.

Raison, P.E.

2001-04-03

133

Transmutation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu and 241Am Using Neutrons Produced in Target-Blanket System 'Energy and Transmutation' Bombarded by Relativistic Protons  

SciTech Connect

Target-blanket facility 'Energy and Transmutation' was irradiated by a 2 GeV proton beam extracted from the Nuclotron Accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Radioactive samples made from iodine, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated by spallation neutrons produced in the 'E and T' facility. Transmutation reaction yields (residual nuclei production yields) have been determined using methods of {gamma}-spectroscopy. The energy spectrum of the neutron field has been studied by using a set of threshold detectors.

Adam, J. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna near Moscow, 141 980 (Russian Federation); Czech Academy of Science, Nuclear Physics Institute, Rez, 250 68 (Czech Republic); Katovsky, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna near Moscow, 141 980 (Russian Federation); Czech Technical University, Department of Nuclear Reactors, Prague, 180 00 (Czech Republic); Balabekyan, A. [Yerevan State University (Armenia); Solnyshkin, A.A.; Kalinnikov, V.G.; Stegailov, V.I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.M.; Stetsenko, S.G.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Vladimirova, N.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna near Moscow, 141 980 (Russian Federation); Pronskikh, V.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna near Moscow, 141 980 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg State Institute of Technology, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kumawat, H. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna near Moscow, 141 980 (Russian Federation); HENP Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India)

2005-05-24

134

Radionuclide Migration: Prediction Experience  

SciTech Connect

Many different methods of calculating radionuclide migration (transfer) with groundwater-from very simple handmade calculations to use of sophisticated computer models, - exist and are in use. There is no doubt whether we can solve a particular problem in this area; the question is how can we find means of doing this in a fast, precise and economical way. According to practical experience of MosSIA 'Radon' specialists it is useful at the first stage to assess the degree to which various parameters affect the final result. Then the relevance of modeling parameters is usually assessed. SUE MosSIA 'Radon' has applied this complex approach to assessing possible radionuclide transfer from the long term storage facilities located within one of the sites in Moscow. Questions of model verification, computer realization, the analysis of obtained results, a role and a place of these calculations in safety assessment and safety case are beyond the scope of this paper. (authors)

Martianov, V.V.; Sheglov, M.Yu.; Guskov, A.V. [State Unitary Enterprise MosSIA 'Radon', 2/14, 7th Rostovsky pereulok, Moscow 119121 (Russian Federation)

2006-07-01

135

Effects of an LMR-based partitioning-transmutation system on US nuclear fuel cycle health risk  

SciTech Connect

Health risks for the current US nuclear fuel cycle and for an illustrative partitioning and transmutation (P-T) fuel cycle based on Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) technology are calculated and compared. Health risks are calculated for all non-reactor fuel cycle steps, including reprocessing, transportation, and high-level waste (HLW) disposal. Uranium mining and milling health risks have been updated to include recent occupational injury and death statistics, and the radiological health risk to the general public posed by the uranium mining overburden. In addition, the radiological health risks for transportation have been updated to include latent cancer fatalities associated with both normal transport and accidents. Given the assumptions of the study, it is shown that the deployment of an LMR-based P-T system is expected to reduce overall nuclear fuel cycle health risk.

Michaels, G.E.; Reich, W.J.

1992-11-06

136

Radionuclides production. Volumes 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on isotope production. Topics considered include historical aspects of radioisotope production, nuclear physics fundamentals, activation techniques, the radiochemical processing of activated targets, reactor-produced radionuclides, short-lived positron emitting radionuclides, other cyclotron radionuclides, nuclear medicine, the production of radionuclides by a 14 MeV neutron generator, and radionuclides and labelled compounds produced at an electron linear accelerator.

Not Available

1983-01-01

137

Optimisation of composite metallic fuel for minor actinide transmutation in an accelerator-driven system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A potential option for neutralization of minor actinides (MA) accumulated in spent nuclear fuel of light water reactors (LWRs) is their transmutation in dedicated accelerator-driven systems (ADS). A promising fuel candidate dedicated to MA transmutation is a CERMET composite with Mo metal matrix and (Pu, Np, Am, Cm)O2-x fuel particles. Results of optimisation studies of the CERMET fuel targeting to increasing the MA transmutation efficiency of the EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) core are presented. In the adopted strategy of MA burning the plutonium (Pu) balance of the core is minimized, allowing a reduction in the reactivity swing and the peak power form-factor deviation and an extension of the cycle duration. The MA/Pu ratio is used as a variable for the fuel optimisation studies. The efficiency of MA transmutation is close to the foreseen theoretical value of 42 kg TW-1 h-1 when level of Pu in the actinide mixture is about 40 wt.%. The obtained results are compared with the reference case of the EFIT core loaded with the composite CERCER fuel, where fuel particles are incorporated in a ceramic magnesia matrix. The results of this study offer additional information for the EFIT fuel selection.

Uyttenhove, W.; Sobolev, V.; Maschek, W.

2011-09-01

138

Radionuclides in nephrology  

SciTech Connect

In 47 expert contributions, this volume provides a summary of the latest research on radionuclides in nephro-urology together with current and new clinical applications especially in renovascular hypertension, kidney transplantation, and metabolic and urological diseases. In addition, attention is given to aspects of basic renal physiology and function and possible applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy in nephro-urology. New testing procedures which promise to improve diagnosis, and new radiopharmaceuticals are described. The reports are divided into eight sections, the first of which features studies on the renin-angiotensin system, cisplatin, atrial natriuretic factor and determining plasma oxalate. Four papers describe a number of new radiopharmaceuticals which have the potential to replace hippuran. In the third section, radionuclide methods for the measurement of renal function parameters are discussed. The book then focuses on the potential role of captopril in the improved diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy are demonstrated in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, kidney assessment after lithotripsy, kidney evaluation prior to transplantation, and in monitoring renal ischemia during hypotension.

Lausanne, A.B.D.

1987-01-01

139

MEASUREMENT OF RADIONUCLIDES USING ION CHROMATOGRAPHY AND FLOW-CELL SCINTILLATION COUNTING WITH PULSE SHAPE DISCRIMINATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiological characterization and monitoring is an important component of environmental management activities throughout the Department of Energy complex. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is the technology most often used for the detection of radionuclides. However, radionuclides which cannot easily be detected by gamma-ray spectroscopy, such as pure beta emitters and transuranics, pose special problems because their quantification generally requires labor intensive radiochemical separations

R. A. Fjeld; T. A. DeVol; J. D. Leyba

2000-01-01

140

Liquid-scintillation counting techniques for the standardization of radionuclides used in therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclides are increasingly used in therapeutic nuclear medicine. The CIEMAT/NIST method of standardizing high-energy beta-particle emitters is being applied to a list of candidate radionuclides developed by the US nuclear medicine community. Standards and standard methods are needed by the pharmaceutical manufacturers in North America before these nuclides can be widely distributed. Solutions standardized by liquid-scintillation counting are used to establish counting efficiencies for Cerenkov counting and NaI(T1) well crystals, and potentiometer settings for commercial radionuclide calibrators. Results are presented for a number of beta-particle-emitting radionuclides. Physics Laboratory, Technology Administration, US Department of Commerce.

Coursey, B. M.; Calhoun, J. M.; Cessna, J.; Golas, D. B.; Schima, F. J.; Unterweger, M. P.

1994-01-01

141

Transmutability: Digital Decontextualization, Manipulation, and Recontextualization as a New Source of Value in the Production and Consumption of Culture Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a fundamental characteristic of digital culture goods, transmutability, which has not previously been studied in IS research as a driver of value. Transmutability refers to the fact that digital files of culture goods such as music and movies can easily be altered, unlike the analog culture products which preceded the digital age. Both creators and consumers of

Jerald Hughes; Karl Reiner Lang

2006-01-01

142

Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology, and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by ?- emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for the production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

Mirzadeh, S.; Mausner, L. F.; Garland, M. A.

143

Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

Mirzadeh, Saed [ORNL; Mausner, Leonard [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Garland, Marc A [ORNL

2011-01-01

144

Radionuclides' Content Speciation and Fingerprinting of Nigerian Tin Mining Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment and process-waste samples rich in cassiterite, monazite and zircon, which are of industrial interest, were analysed for the natural series radionuclides, 232Th and 238U and the non-series radionuclide, 40K using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. The natural radionuclides' radioactivity in the samples from the tin-rich areas of Jos, Nigeria was determined using K0-INAA. The obtained results have a high degree of reliability judging from the techniqués accuracy, precision and its non-dependence on secular equilibrium and density correction problems inherent in gamma spectrometry as well as rigorous contamination-prone sample preparation requirements of other methods. Radionuclides speciation and ratios, giving radionuclide fingerprinting of the tin mining tailings is reported. The measured radionuclides activity levels are several orders of magnitude higher than UNSCEAR reference values, revealing the pollution potential of the tin mining and process activities on the surrounding areas, vis-à-vis heavy particulate matter load, leaching into various water channels and direct exposure to gamma rays emitted from the houses and facilities built from the generated wastes. The observed activity levels reflects possible worst scenario situation and the data would not only be of use to the government in its remediation plan for the study area but will also serve as important information for the nuclear science and technology programme about to be embarked upon. Methods of checking exposure have also been suggested.

Olise, F. S.; Oladejo, O. F.; Owoade, O. K.; Almeida, S. M.; Ho, M. D.; Olaniyi, H. B.

2012-04-01

145

Simulation of radionuclide transport in U. S. agriculture  

SciTech Connect

Because of the recent concern about the impact of energy technologies on man and related health effects, there has emerged a need for models to calculate or predict the effects of radionuclides on man. A general overview is presented of a model that calculates the ingrowth of radionuclides into man's food chain. The FORTRAN IV computer program TERRA, Transport of Environmentally Released Radionuclides in Agriculture, simulates the build-up of radionuclides in soil, four plant food compartments, in meat and milk from beef, and in the livestock food compartments that cause radionuclide build-up in milk and meat from beef. A large data set of spatially oriented parameters has been developed in conjunction with TERRA. This direct-access data set is called SITE, Specific Information on the Terrestrial Environment, and contains 35 parameters for each of 3525 half-degree longitude-latitude cells which define the lower 48 states. TERRA and SITE are used together as a package for determining radionuclide concentrations in man's food anywhere within the conterminous 48 states due to atmospheric releases.

Sharp, R.D.; Baes, C.F. III

1982-01-01

146

The Minor Actinide Transmutation-Incineration Potential Studies in High Intensity Neutron Fluxes  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of nuclear waste transmutation studies, the Mini-INCA project has been initiated at CEA/DSM with objectives to determine optimal conditions for transmutation and incineration of Minor Actinides (MA) in high intensity neutron fluxes. Our experimental tools based on alpha- and gamma-spectroscopy of irradiated samples and the development of fission micro-chambers could gather both microscopic information on nuclear reactions (total and partial cross sections for neutron capture and/or fission reactions) and macroscopic information on transmutation and incineration potentials. Cross sections of selected actinides (241Am, 242Am, 242Pu, 237Np, 238Np) have already been measured at ILL, showing some discrepancies when compared to evaluated data libraries but in overall good agreement with recent experimental data.

Letourneau, A.; Chabod, S.; Foucher, Y.; Marie, F.; Ridikas, D.; Veyssiere, Ch. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Al Mahamid, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, E.H. and S Division - CA (United States); Blandin, Ch. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX - Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Chartier, F. [CEA/Saclay/DEN/DPC/SECR - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Faust, H.; Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

2005-05-24

147

Accelerator-driven sub-critical target concept for transmutation of nuclear wastes  

SciTech Connect

A means of transmuting key long-lived nuclear wastes, primarily the minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and iodine, using a hybrid proton accelerator and sub-critical lattice, is proposed. By partitioning the components of the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and by transmuting key elements, such as the plutonium, the minor actinides, and a few of the long-lived fission products, some of the most significant challenges in building a waste repository can be substantially reduced. The proposed machine, based on the described PHOENIX Concept, would transmute the minor actinides and the iodine produced by 75 LWRs, and would generate usable electricity (beyond that required to run the large accelerator) of 850 MW{sub e}. 19 refs., 20 figs.

Van Tuyle, G.J.; Todosow, M.; Aronson, A.L.; Takahashi, H. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Geiger, M.J. (Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States))

1991-01-01

148

Natural radionuclides in groundwaters  

SciTech Connect

The U-234 and Th-230 radionuclides are highly retarded by factors of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} in basalt groundwater (Hanford) and briny groundwaters from Texas and geothermal brine from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF). In basalt groundwaters (low ionic strength), Ra is highly sorbed, while in brines (high ionic strength), Ra is soluble. This is probably because the sorption sites are saturated with Na{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}} ions and RaCl{sub 2} is soluble in brines. Pb-210 is soluble in SSGF brine, probably as a chloride complex. The U-234/Th-230 ratios in basalt groundwaters and brines from Texas and SSGF are nearly unity, indicating that U is in the +4 state, suggesting a reducing environment for these aquifers. 19 refs., 3 figs.

Laul, J.C.

1990-01-01

149

Practical combinations of light-water reactors and fast reactors for future actinide transmutation  

SciTech Connect

Multicycle partitioning-transmutation (P-T) studies continue to show that use of existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and new advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) can effectively transmute transuranic (TRU) actinides, enabling initiation of full actinide recycle much earlier than waiting for the development and deployment of sufficient fast reactor (FR) capacity. The combination of initial P-T cycles using LWRs/ALWRs in parallel with economic improvements to FR usage for electricity production, and a follow-on transition period in which FRs are deployed, is a practical approach to near-term closure of the nuclear fuel cycle with full actinide recycle. (authors)

Collins, Emory D.; Renier, John-Paul [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6170 (United States)

2007-07-01

150

Practical Combinations of Light-Water Reactors and Fast-Reactors for Future Actinide Transmutation  

SciTech Connect

Multicycle partitioning-transmutation (P-T) studies continue to show that use of existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and new advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) can effectively transmute transuranic (TRU) actinides, enabling initiation of full actinide recycle much earlier than waiting for the development and deployment of sufficient fast reactor (FR) capacity. The combination of initial P-T cycles using LWRs/ALWRs in parallel with economic improvements to FR usage for electricity production, and a follow-on transition period in which FRs are deployed, is a practical approach to near-term closure of the nuclear fuel cycle with full actinide recycle.

Collins, Emory D [ORNL; Renier, John-Paul [ORNL

2007-01-01

151

Irradiaton of Metallic and Oxide Fuels for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR  

SciTech Connect

Metallic fuels containing minor actinides and rare earth additions have been fabricated and are prepared for irradiation in the ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2007. Oxide fuels containing minor actinides are being fabricated and will be ready for irradiation in ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2008. Fabrication and irradiation of these fuels will provide detailed studies of actinide transmutation in support of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. These fuel irradiations include new fuel compositions that have never before been tested. Results from these tests will provide fundamental data on fuel irradiation performance and will advance the state of knowledge for transmutation fuels.

Heather J. MacLean; Steven L. Hayes

2007-09-01

152

4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

153

Multimodality Radionuclide, Fluorescence, and Bioluminescence Small-Animal Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The imaging of molecular events in the complex physiological interplay between organelles, cells, tissues, and organs in the whole organism is now more practical through the use of small-animal imaging technologies. Radionuclide based molecular imaging using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have been used for imaging intracellular enzymes, receptors, transporters, reporter gene expression,

SANJIV S. GAMBHIR

2005-01-01

154

Radionuclide therapy for arthritic knees  

SciTech Connect

A new radionuclide therapeutic approach for rheumatoid arthritis of the knee is described. This therapy combines a short-lived radionuclide with a carrier whose physical and chemical characteristics aid retention of the radioactive particles within the joint. Joining a radionuclide to a particulate carrier had not been explored previously as a potential method for inhibiting radiation leakage. The treatment couples the rare earth element dysprosium 165 to ferric hydroxide in macroaggregate form (size range: 3 to 10 ..mu..m). After the relatively inert iron complex penetrates the synovium, it causes cell death. Macrophages and phagocytes clear away the cellular debris, essentially eliminating the synovium.

Doepel, L.K.

1985-02-08

155

Particle count monitoring of reverse osmosis water treatment for removal of low-level radionuclides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laser diode particle counting technology and analytical measurements were used to evaluate a pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment system for removal of particulate matter and sub-picocurie low-level radionuclides. Stormwater mixed with Waste W...

E. J. Moritz C. R. Hoffman T. R. Hergert

1995-01-01

156

Radionuclide Generators for Biomedical Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document reviews the chemical literature of those radionuclide generators that have gained or appear to possess utility in medical imaging. The text represents a conscientious effort to peruse the scientific literature through 1980. The intent of thi...

R. D. Finn V. J. Molinski H. B. Hupf H. Kramer

1983-01-01

157

Is there a statistics transmutation due to interaction with Chern-Simons field.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The classical mechanics of a scalar particle interacting with a Chern-Simons field in the (2+1)-dimensional space-time has been considered. The geometric quantization of this system does not lead to particle statistics transmutation. 6 refs. (Atomindex ci...

G. G. Nanobashvili G. P. Pron'ko

1989-01-01

158

A Review on Safety Issues and Analysis Tools for Accelerator Driven Systems and Transmuters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accelerator driven transmuter systems (ADTs) introduce three innovations, compared e.g. to critical sodium cooled fast spectrum burner reactors. A subcritical reactor driven by an external neutron source, the heavy metal coolant and the new dedicated fuels. All three innovations introduce new interrelated safety issues. Besides the dynamics of the subcritical system and the chosen Pb\\/Bi or Pb coolant, especially

W. Maschek; X. Chen; T. Suzuki; A. Rineiski; C. Matzerath Boccaccini; Koji Morita

159

Recent progress in fusion reactor materials studies: Focus on transmutation and radioactivation aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is presented of recent progress attained in the understanding of the influence of transmutation on the development of fusion-relevant property change data. It is shown that early experiments on helium effects on void swelling, irradiation creep, and tensile properties of austenitic stainless steels were often misleading, and the influence of helium is much smaller than originally expected. Similar

F. A. Garner; L. R. Greenwood

1993-01-01

160

Comparative Fuel Cycle Analysis of Critical and Sub-Critical Fast Reactor Transmutation Systems  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fuel cycle analyses are performed to evaluate the impacts of further transmutation of spent nuclear fuel on high-level and low-level waste mass flows into repositories, on the composition and toxicity of the high-level waste, on the capacity of high-level...

E. A. Hoffman W. M. Stacey

2002-01-01

161

KINETICS AND CROSS-SECTION DEVELOPMENTS FOR ANALYSES OF REACTOR TRANSMUTATION CONCEPTS WITH SIMMER  

Microsoft Academic Search

SIMMER is a coupled (neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, structure) code for nuclear reactor safety studies. The paper is devoted to recent neutronics, in particular kinetics and cross-section preparation developments, which were performed at FZK to extend the code capabilities to analyses of reactor transmutation concepts. In the first part of the paper, a spatial kinetics model based on the improved quasistatic scheme,

A. Rineiski; V. Sinitsa; W. Maschek; S. Wang

2005-01-01

162

Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron

A. Abánades; C. García; L. García; A. Escrivá; A. Pérez-Navarro; J. Rosales

2011-01-01

163

Electrical and thermal properties of neutron-transmutation-doped Ge at 20 mK  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on hot-electron effects in neutron-transmutation-doped Ge (NTD Ge) near 20 mK. Both static and dynamic electrical properties were measured and compared with a model including both variable-range-hopping conduction and hot-electron effects.

Ning Wang; F. C. Wellstood; B. Sadoulet; E. E. Haller; J. Beeman

1990-01-01

164

Blanket Design Studies of a Lead-Bismuth Eutectic-Cooled Accelerator Transmutation of Waste System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of blanket design studies for a lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE)-cooled accelerator transmutation of waste system are presented. These studies focused primarily on achieving two important and somewhat contradictory performance objectives: First, maximizing discharge burnup, so as to minimize the number of successive recycle stages and associated recycle losses, and second, minimizing burnup reactivity loss over an operating cycle, to

Won Sik Yang; Hussein S. Khalil

2001-01-01

165

The place of man in the development of Darwin's theory of transmutation. Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The place of man in Darwin's development of a theory of transmutation has been obscured by his manner of disclosure. Comparing the 1837–1839 period to his entire career as a theorist suggests that it was Darwin's practice to present himself and his work only before the most select scientific audiences, and then in accordance with their expectations. The negative implications

Sandra Herbert

1977-01-01

166

Nuclear Transmutations in HFIR's Beryllium Reflector and Their Impact on Reactor Operation and Reflector Disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The High Flux Isotope Reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory utilizes a large cylindrical beryllium reflector that is subdivided into three concentric regions and encompasses the compact reactor core. Nuclear transmutations caused by neutron activation occur in the beryllium reflector regions, which leads to unwanted neutron absorbing and radiation emitting isotopes. During the past year, two topics related

G Ivan Maldonado; Trent Primm; Larry Duane Proctor

2012-01-01

167

Accelerator driven systems (ADS) for energy production and waste transmutation: International trends in R&D  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is a content analysis of references and abstracts from three international CDROM databases: INIS, INSPEC and Chemical Abstracts (CA). A total of 2336 bibliographic records on Accelerator Driven Systems for Energy Production and Waste Transmutation were downloaded and analyzed. These records were grouped under six separate categories (1) target systems. (2) Blanket\\/fuel systems. (3) Materials studies. (4)

Pratibha A. Gokhale; Sangeeta Deokattey; Vijai Kumar

2006-01-01

168

Transmutation and Production Rates of Elements in Flibe and Flinabe with Impact on Chemistry Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neutronics calculations were performed for blanket designs using the molten salts Flibe and Flinabe to determine the transmutation rates of constituent elements and the rates of production of other elements. At least from mass balance considerations no free fluorine will be left provided that the recombination reactions with freed Be, Li, Na, and tritium are fast enough. However, more than

Mohamed E. Sawan; D.-K. Sze

2003-01-01

169

[Teratogenic effects of incorporated radionuclides].  

PubMed

Experimental data on teratogenic effects induced by incorporated alpha, beta and gamma-emitters were analyzed. It was found that the radioactive substances as well as external irradiation induced teratogenic effects. Teratogenesis caused by incorporated radionuclides has some peculiarities compared to the effect caused by fetus exposure to external radiation. These peculiarities are related to the fact of the limited penetration of incorporated radionuclides via placenta barrier so the radiation fetal doses are accumulated within long period of time and radiation dose rates are relatively low. The exposure to incorporated radionuclides does not induce severe developmental defects. Most frequent developmental defects of fetus include its death, general retardation of the development and growth. In such case the earlier pregnancy term was affected by radionuclide the more severe fetal damages occur in fetus because of the gradual increase of absorbed dose even in case of single intake of radionuclide. RBEs of radionuclides if compared to that for external gamma radiation are evaluated as follows: 2-4 (tritium oxide), 20 (241Am), 50 (238Pu) and 3-5 (131I in thyroid). PMID:11898639

Liaginskaia, A M; Osipov, V A

170

Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, ?-, ?-, and ?-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients.

Ting, Gann; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Lee, Te-Wei

2010-01-01

171

Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particle s in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

2004-06-29

172

Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of the short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector. Automated microfluidics is used for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field and in situ measurements.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

2003-06-01

173

Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem requiring monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to the analytical laboratory where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc, and various actinides of interest. The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors are based on radiometric detection. As a means to address the fundamental challenge of short ranges of beta and alpha particles in water, our overall approach is based on localization of preconcentration/separation chemistries directly on or within the active area of a radioactivity detector, using automated microfluidics for sample manipulation and sensor regeneration or renewal. The outcome of these investigations will be the knowledge necessary to choose appropriate chemistries for selective preconcentration of radionuclides from environmental samples, new materials that combine chemical selectivity with scintillating properties, new materials that add chemical selectivity to solid-state diode detectors, new preconcentrating column sensors, and improved instrumentation and signal processing for selective radionuclide sensors. New knowledge will provide the basis for designing effective probes and instrumentation for field analytical chemistry.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

2001-06-01

174

Radionuclide injury to the lung.  

PubMed

Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

1984-04-01

175

Radionuclide injury to the lung.  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed.

Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

1984-01-01

176

Neutronics-processing interface analyses for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) aqueous-based blanket system  

SciTech Connect

Neutronics-processing interface parameters have large impacts on the neutron economy and transmutation performance of an aqueous-based Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system. A detailed assessment of the interdependence of these blanket neutronic and chemical processing parameters has been performed. Neutronic performance analyses require that neutron transport calculations for the ATW blanket systems be fully coupled with the blanket processing and include all neutron absorptions in candidate waste nuclides as well as in fission and transmutation products. The effects of processing rates, flux levels, flux spectra, and external-to-blanket inventories on blanket neutronic performance were determined. In addition, the inventories and isotopics in the various subsystems were also calculated for various actinide and long-lived fission product transmutation strategies.

Davidson, J.W.; Battat, M.E.

1993-07-01

177

Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides (153samarium-ethylenediaminetetrameth-ylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and 89strontium) deliver high radiation doses to bone metastases and micrometastases in the bone marrow, but only negligible doses to the hematopoietic marrow. The response rate regarding pain syndrome is about 75%; about 25% of the patients may even become pain free. The therapy is repeatable, depending on cell counts. Concomitant treatment with modern bisphosphonates does not interfere with the treatment effects. Clinical trials using a new, not yet approved nuclide (223Radium) and/or combinations of chemotherapy and radionuclides are aiming at a more curative approach.

Fischer, Manfred; Kampen, Willm U.

2012-01-01

178

Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases.  

PubMed

The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides ((153)samarium-ethylenediaminetetrameth-ylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and (89)strontium) deliver high radiation doses to bone metastases and micrometastases in the bone marrow, but only negligible doses to the hematopoietic marrow. The response rate regarding pain syndrome is about 75%; about 25% of the patients may even become pain free. The therapy is repeatable, depending on cell counts. Concomitant treatment with modern bisphosphonates does not interfere with the treatment effects. Clinical trials using a new, not yet approved nuclide ((223)Radium) and/or combinations of chemotherapy and radionuclides are aiming at a more curative approach. PMID:22740795

Fischer, Manfred; Kampen, Willm U

2012-04-24

179

(Environmental technology)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

Boston, H.L.

1990-10-12

180

Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use  

DOEpatents

Lymphocytes labelled with .beta.-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

Srivastava, Suresh C. (Setauket, NY); Fawwaz, Rashid A. (Pelham, NY); Richards, Powell (Bayport, NY)

1985-01-01

181

Movement of Radionuclides past a Redox Front.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is assumed that radiolysis of water in a penetrated canister containing spent fuel has occured. Radionuclides and oxidizing agents are diffusing from the corroded canister and out through the clay barrier. A concentration front of radionuclides as well...

I. Neretnieks B. Aaslund

1983-01-01

182

Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use  

DOEpatents

Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

1983-05-03

183

MIRD Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes  

SciTech Connect

For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides.

Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Endo, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)

2007-01-01

184

Radionuclide Sensors for Subsurface Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Contamination of the subsurface by radionuclides is a persistent and vexing problem for the Department of Energy. These radionuclides must be measured in field studies and monitoed in the long term when they cannot be removed. However, no radionuclide sensors existed for groundwater monitoring prior to this team's research under the EMSP program Detection of a and b decays from radionuclides in water is difficult due to their short ranges in condensed media.

Timothy DeVol

2006-06-30

185

High-power proton linac for transmuting the long-lived fission products in nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

High power proton linacs are being considered at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux spallation neutron sources that can be used to transmute the troublesome long-lived fission products in defense nuclear waste. The transmutation scheme being studied provides a high flux (> 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}{minus}s) of thermal neutrons, which efficiently converts fission products to stable or short-lived isotopes. A medium-energy proton linac with an average beam power of about 110 MW can burn the accumulated Tc99 and I129 inventory at the DOE's Hanford Site within 30 years. Preliminary concepts for this machine are described. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Lawrence, G.P.

1991-01-01

186

Application of neutron transmutation doping method to initially p-type silicon material.  

PubMed

The neutron transmutation doping (NTD) method was applied to the initially p-type silicon in order to extend the NTD applications at HANARO. The relationship between the irradiation neutron fluence and the final resistivity of the initially p-type silicon material was investigated. The proportional constant between the neutron fluence and the resistivity was determined to be 2.3473x10(19)nOmegacm(-1). The deviation of the final resistivity from the target for almost all the irradiation results of the initially p-type silicon ingots was at a range from -5% to 2%. In addition, the burn-up effect of the boron impurities, the residual (32)P activity and the effect of the compensation characteristics for the initially p-type silicon were studied. Conclusively, the practical methodology to perform the neutron transmutation doping of the initially p-type silicon ingot was established. PMID:19318259

Kim, Myong-Seop; Kang, Ki-Doo; Park, Sang-Jun

2009-02-20

187

Detailed studies of Minor Actinide transmutation-incineration in high-intensity neutron fluxes  

SciTech Connect

The Mini-INCA project is dedicated to the measurement of incineration-transmutation chains and potentials of minor actinides in high-intensity thermal neutron fluxes. In this context, new types of detectors and methods of analysis have been developed. The {sup 241}Am and {sup 232}Th transmutation-incineration chains have been studied and several capture and fission cross sections measured very precisely, showing some discrepancies with existing data or evaluated data. An impact study was made on different based-like GEN-IV reactors. It underlines the necessity to proceed to precise measurements for a large number of minor-actinides that contribute to these future incineration scenarios. (authors)

Bringer, O. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Al Mahamid, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, E.H. and S. Div., CA (United States); Blandin, C. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Chabod, S. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Chartier, F. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dupont, E.; Fioni, G. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Isnard, H. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DPC/SECR, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Letourneau, A.; Marie, F. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mutti, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Oriol, L. [CEA/Cadarache/DEN/DER/SPEX, Saint-Paul-lez-Durances (France); Panebianco, S.; Veyssiere, C. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/DAPNIA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

2006-07-01

188

On two-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics, pseudoanalytic functions and transmutation operators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pseudoanalytic function theory is considered to study a two-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics system. Hamiltonian components of the superHamiltonian are factorized in terms of one Vekua and one Bers derivative operators. We show that imaginary and real solutions of a Vekua equation and its Bers derivative are ground state solutions for the superHamiltonian. The two-dimensional Darboux and pseudo-Darboux transformations correspond to Bers derivatives in the complex plane. Results on the completeness of the ground states are obtained. Finally, the superpotential is studied in the separable case in terms of transmutation operators. We show how Hamiltonian components of the superHamiltonian are related to the Laplacian operator using these transmutation operators.

Bilodeau, Alex; Tremblay, Sébastien

2013-10-01

189

Progress of nitride fuel cycle research for transmutation of minor actinides  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress of nitride fuel cycle research for transmutation of MA is summarized. Preparation of MA-bearing nitride pellets, such as (Np,Am)N, (Am,Pu)N and (Np,Pu,Am,Cm)N, was carried out. Irradiation behavior of U-free nitride fuel was investigated by the irradiation test of (Pu,Zr)N and PuN+TiN fuels, in which ZrN and TiN were added as a possible diluent material. Further, pyrochemical process of spent nitride fuel was developed by electrorefining in a molten chloride salt and subsequent re-nitridation of actinides in liquid Cd cathode electro-deposits. Nitride fuel cycle for transmutation of MA has been demonstrated in a laboratory scale by the experimental study with MA and Pu. (authors)

Arai, Yasuo; Akabori, Mitsuo; Minato, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

2007-07-01

190

Transmutation of Matter in Byzantium: The Case of Michael Psellos, the Alchemist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is thus nothing paradoxical about the inclusion of alchemy in the ensemble of the physical sciences nor in the preoccupation with it on the part of learned men engaged in scientific study. In the context of the Medieval model, where discourse on the physical world was ambiguous, often unclear, and lacking the support of experimental verification, the transmutation of matter, which was the subject of alchemy, even if not attended by a host of occult features, was a process that was thought to have a probable basis in reality. What is interesting in this connection is the utilization of the scientific categories of the day for discussion of transmutation of matter and the attempt to avoid, in most instances in the texts that survive, of methods reminiscent of magic.

Katsiampoura, Gianna

2008-06-01

191

Accelerator Technology Division  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

1992-04-01

192

Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler\\/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by

Mark Harris; Pres Herrington; Harry Miley; J. Edward Ellis; David McKinnon; Devon St. Pierre

1999-01-01

193

Denaturing of Plutonium by Transmutation of Minor-Actinides for Enhancement of Proliferation Resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feasibility study for the plutonium denaturing by utilizing minor-actinide transmutation in light water reactors has been performed. And the intrinsic feature of proliferation resistance of plutonium has been discussed based on IAEA's publication and Kessler's proposal. The analytical results show that not only Pu but also other plutonium isotopes with even-mass-number have very important role for denaturing of plutonium due

Hiroshi SAGARA; Masaki SAITO; Yoga PERYOGA; Alexey EZOUBTCHENKO; Alan TAKIVAYEV

2005-01-01

194

Zirconate pyrochlore as a transmutation target: thermal behaviour and radiation resistance against fission fragment impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zirconates with the pyrochlore structure (A2Zr2O7) are investigated at ITU for use as an actinide host in inert matrix fuels for transmutation. Zirconate pyrochlores with A=Nd as an inactive stand in for the trivalent actinides Am and Cm were fabricated and characterised, and their thermal transport properties measured. The low thermal conductivity indicates that zirconate pyrochlore can only be used

S. Lutique; D. Staicu; R. J. M. Konings; V. V. Rondinella; J. Somers; T. Wiss

2003-01-01

195

Inert matrices for the transmutation of actinides: fabrication, thermal properties and radiation stability of ceramic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, ceramic binary or ternary compounds were tested for their suitability to serve as inert matrices for transmutation of the minor actinides Np and Am, i.e. to achieve a reduction in their quantities by irradiation in nuclear reactors without formation of new actinides from the matrix. Five materials (MgAl2O4, ZrSiO4, CeO2, SiC and Si3N4) were selected and produced

M. Burghartz; Hj. Matzke; C. Léger; G. Vambenepe; M. Rome

1998-01-01

196

Hydrogen production potential of APEX fusion transmuter fueled minor actinide fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main aim of this study is to investigate hydrogen production potential of Advanced Power EXtraction (APEX) fusion reactor cooled with the molten-salt mixtures, as well as its neutronic performance to transmute minor actinides (MAs). In the original APEX reactor concept, fusion power (Pf) is quite high (4000 MW), and the FLiBe molten-salt flows as molten-salt wall. The FLiBe molten-salt is mixed

Gamze Genç

2010-01-01

197

Probabilistic safety assessment of the dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket for the FDS-I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subcritical dual-cooled waste transmutation (DWT) blanket is one of the key components of fusion-driven subcritical system (FDS-I). The probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) can provide valuable information on safety characteristics of FDS-I to give recommendations for the optimization of the blanket concepts and the improvement of the design. Event tree method has been adopted to probabilistically analyze the safety of

L. Hu; Y. Wu

2006-01-01

198

Design study of lead-bismuth cooled ADS dedicated to nuclear waste transmutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development on nuclear waste transmutation are being carried out with a special emphasis placed on dedicated accelerator-driven systems at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute under the Japanese OMEGA Program. The reference accelerator-driven system design employs eutectic lead-bismuth as spallation target material and coolant. The fuel for the subcritical core is minor-actinide mononitride. The system consists of a

Takakazu Takizuka; Kazufumi Tsujimoto; Toshinobu Sasa; Kenji Nishihara; Hideki Takano

2002-01-01

199

Fast Reactor Core Concepts for Minor Actinide Transmutation Using Hydride Fuel Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast reactor core concepts are studied which reduce long-term radiotoxicity of nuclear waste by using minor actinides (MAs) in the form of zirconium-hydride fuel targets. A systematic parameter survey is carried out to investigate the fundamental characteristics of MA transmutation and the core safety parameters such as sodium void reactivity in a 1,000 MWe-class fast reactor core. Two core concepts

Toshio SANDA; Koji FUJIMURA; Kaoru KOBAYASHI; Katsuyuki KAWASHIMA; Michio YAMAWAKI; Kenji KONASHI

2000-01-01

200

Separation of Transmutation - and Fission-Produced Radioisotopes from Irradiated Beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a two-step solvent extraction-precipitation process for separating transmutation and fission products from irradiated beryllium. Beryllium metal was dissolved in nitric and fluoroboric acids. Isotopes of 241Am, 239Pu, 85Sr, 60Co, and 137Cs were then added to make a surrogate beryllium waste solution. A series of batch contacts was performed

Troy J. Tranter; RIchard D. Tillotson; Nick R. Mann; Glen R. Longhurst

2011-01-01

201

Transmutation of americium and curium using zirconia-based host materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the incorporation of americium and curium in selected zirconia-based materials in conjunction with a research program at the ''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'' that addresses transmutation of long-lived radioactive elements. Both cubic zirconia and pyrochlore oxides AnâZrâOâ (An = Am, Cm) are considered in the work reported here. The strategy proposed is to treat americium and curium together

Raison

2001-01-01

202

Comparative Fuel Cycle Analysis of Critical and Subcritical Fast Reactor Transmutation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cycle analyses are performed to evaluate the impacts of further transmutation of spent nuclear fuel on high-level and low-level waste mass flows into repositories, on the composition and toxicity of the high-level waste, on the capacity of high-level waste repositories, and on the proliferation resistance of the high-level waste. Storage intact of light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel,

Edward A. Hoffman; Weston M. Stacey

2003-01-01

203

Neutron Cross Section of Pd107, I-129 and Cs135 for Nuclear Waste Transmutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron induced nuclear data for Pd-107, I-129 and Cs-135 were calculated and evaluated from 10 keV to 20 MeV for nuclear waste transmutation, using a modular typed Empire code package. The energy dependent optical model potential was investigated and applied up to 20 MeV. The optical model, the full feature Hauser-Feshbach model and the multistep direct and multistep compound

Y. D. Lee; J. H. Chang

204

Neutronics parameters optimization of the improved dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket for FDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutronic analyses of the improved dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket (I-DWTB) for the fusion-driven sub-critical system (FDS) with a neutron wall loading of 0.5 MW\\/cm2 are preformed on the basis of 3-D transport calculations with MCNP and 1-D burnup calculations with home-developed code BUS and the multi-group (175 neutron groups - 42 Gamma groups coupled) data library originated from the

S. L. Zheng; C. J. Gao; D. Z. Xu; X. X. Zhu; H. Lin; J. J. Li; Y. C. Wu

2003-01-01

205

Behavior of Transmuter Fuels of Accelerator Driven Systems under Severe Accident Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

For exploiting the generic features of accelerator driven systems (ADS) in multi-strata fuel cycle strategies, innovative fuels have to be developed. These so-called dedicated fuels should allow a maximization of incineration\\/transmutation rates. They are characterized by a high MA content and possibly by the lack of classical fertile materials as U238 or Th232. Generally, these fuels will be subjected to

W. Maschek; T. Suzuki; X. Chen; C. Matzerath Boccaccini; M. Flad; K. Morita

206

Spallation Reactions: A Tool for RNB Production and a Neutron Source for Nuclear Waste Transmutation  

SciTech Connect

A large experimental program was initiated at GSI to study in detail the spallation reactions. The use of the inverse kinematics allows to determine the production cross section and recoil momentum of the spallation residues with high accuracy. The comparison of the experimental data with model calculation gives valuable information about the reaction mechanism and the application of these reactions to RNB production and to the problematic of nuclear waste transmutation.

Benlliure, J.; Armbruster, P.; Bernas, M.; Boudard, A.; Casarejos, E.; Czajkowski, S.; Enqvist, T.; Farget, F.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Pravikoff, M.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Stephan, C.; Taieb, J.; Tassan-Got, L.; Volant, C.

1999-12-31

207

Spallation reactions: A tool for RNB production and a neutron source for nuclear waste transmutation  

SciTech Connect

A large experimental program was initiated at GSI to study in detail the spallation reactions. The use of the inverse kinematics allows to determine the production cross section and recoil momentum of the spallation residues with high accuracy. The comparison of the experimental data with model calculation gives valuable information about the reaction mechanism and the application of these reactions to RNB production and to the problematic of nuclear waste transmutation.

Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E. [University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Armbruster, P.; Enqvist, T.; Schmidt, K.-H. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Bernas, M.; Farget, F.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L. [IPN Orsay (France); Boudard, A.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Volant, C. [SPhN Saclay (France); Czajkowski, S.; Pravikoff, M. [CENBG Bordeaux (France); Taieb, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); IPN Orsay (France)

1999-11-16

208

Transmutation of Matter in Byzantium: The Case of Michael Psellos, the Alchemist  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is thus nothing paradoxical about the inclusion of alchemy in the ensemble of the physical sciences nor in the preoccupation\\u000a with it on the part of learned men engaged in scientific study. In the context of the Medieval model, where discourse on the\\u000a physical world was ambiguous, often unclear, and lacking the support of experimental verification, the transmutation of

Gianna Katsiampoura

2008-01-01

209

Solubility Limits on Radionuclide Dissolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Moun...

J. F. Kerrisk

1984-01-01

210

Radionuclide evaluation in childhood injuries  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide techniques serve an important role in evaluating childhood injuries. Frequently, they can be employed as the initial and definitive examination. At times they represent the only modality that will detect specific injuries such as the skeletal system. Familiarity with the advantages and limitations of tracer techniques will insure appropriate management of childhood injuries.

Sty, J.R.; Starshak, R.J.; Hubbard, A.M.

1983-07-01

211

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in

Steinhaeusler Friedrich; Zaitseva Lyudmila

2008-01-01

212

RADIONUCLIDE RISK COEFFICIENT UNCERTAINTY REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA has published excess cancer risk coefficients for the US population in Federal Guidance Report 13 (FGR 13). FGR 13 gives separate risk coefficients for food ingestion, water ingestion, inhalation, and external exposure for each of over 800 radionuclides. Some information on...

213

GETOUT; Radionuclide Transport Geologic Media.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

GETOUT is a set of four FORTRAN programs and associated subroutines developed as an aid to investigate the migration of radionuclide chains from an underground source. The model to be analyzed is an underground nuclear waste disposal site and a uniform on...

M. O. Cloninger W. V. DeMier P. J. Liddell H. C. Burkholder

1984-01-01

214

Terrestrial radionuclide cycling and effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ; ending September 30, 1973. Research progress on radionuclide cycling includes ; studies of the mechanism of strontium sorption-desorption by soils from the ; southeastern United States. Results indicate that strontium adsorption by clays ; may be related to the same sites which bond organic matter. The Aspergillus ; niger technique

R. C. Dahlman; S. H. Anderson; H. H. Andrews

1974-01-01

215

RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

We propose a research program directed toward developing novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. In order to meet the requirements for isotope specific detection at ultra-low re...

216

Modification of PROMETHEUS Reactor as a Fusion Breeder and Fission Product Transmuter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the analyses of the fissile breeding and long-lived fission product (LLFP) transmutation potentials of PROMETHEUS reactor. For this purpose, a fissile breeding zone (FBZ) fueled with the ceramic uranium mono-carbide (UC) and a LLFP transmutation zone (TZ) containing the 99TC and 129I and 135Cs isotopes are separately placed into the breeder zone of PROMETHEUS-H design. The neutronic calculations are performed by using two different computer codes, the XSDRNPM/SCALE4.4a neutron transport code and the MCNP4B Monte Carlo code. A range of analyses are examined to determine the effects of the FF, the fraction of 6Li in lithium (Li) and the theoretical density (TD) of Li2O in the tritium breeder zone (TBZ) on the neutronic parameters. It is observed that the numerical results obtained from both codes are consistent with each other. It is carried out that the profiles of fission power density (FPD) are flattened individually for each FF (from 3 to 10%). Only, in the cases of FF ? 8%, the system is self sufficient from the point of view of tritium generation. The results bring out that the modified PROMETHEUS fusion reactor has capabilities of effective fissile breeding and LLFP transmutation, as well as the energy generation.

Yap?c?, Hüseyin; Öz???k, Gül?ah

2008-12-01

217

A potential photo-transmutation of fission products triggered by Compton backscattering photons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the transmutation of some fission product nuclides I129, Cs135, Sn126, Zr93, Pd107, Cs137 and Sr90, induced by the Compton backscattering (CBS) photons generated from the future Shanghai Laser Electron Gamma Source (SLEGS) facility. The evaluated photo-transmutation rates for I129, Cs135, Sn126, Zr93, Pd107, Cs137 and Sr90 can achieve 2.5×10, 1.3×10, 4.8×10, 2.7×10, 9.4×10, 1.3×10 and1.6×10 per second, respectively, improving 4-5 orders of magnitude compared with those via the bremsstrahlung photons by a 10W/cm laser. The maximum transmutation coupling efficiencies of the CBS photons were estimated to be 1.36% for I129, 1.70% for Cs135, 2.02% for Sn126, 1.03% for Zr90, 1.52% for Pd107, 1.62% for Cs137 and 1.72% for Sr90, which are 2-6 times as those via the bremsstrahlung method by the 10W/cm laser. Moreover, we presented a possible experimental method for the future SLEGS facility to check the estimated results.

Chen, J. G.; Xu, W.; Wang, H. W.; Guo, W.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Lu, G. C.; Xu, Y.; Pan, Q. Y.; Fan, G. T.; Shen, W. Q.

2009-02-01

218

Transmutation capabilities of the CERN Energy Amplifier System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in particle accelerator technology makes it possible to use a proton accelerator to produce energy and to destroy nuclear waste efficiently. Energy Amplifier (EA) systems consist of a sub-critical fast neutron core driven by a proton accelerator. If well designed, they prevent any possible criticality accidents. It has been proposed to take advantage of this sub-criticality in order to

Yacine Kadi

2007-01-01

219

Identification of CSF fistulas by radionuclide counting  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide counting method, performed with the patient prone and the neck flexed, was used successfully to diagnose CSF rhinorrhea in two patients. A normal radionuclide ratio (radionuclide counts in pledget/radionuclide counts in 1-ml blood sample) was obtained in 11 normal control subjects. Significance was determined to be a ratio greater than 0.37. Use of radionuclide counting method of determining CSF rhinorrhea is recommended when other methods have failed to locate a site of leakage or when posttraumatic meningitis suggests subclinical CSF rhinorrhea.

Yamamoto, Y.; Kunishio, K.; Sunami, N.; Yamamoto, Y.; Satoh, T.; Suga, M.; Asari, S. (Matsuyama Shimin Hospital (Japan))

1990-07-01

220

General Environmental Corporation CURE Electrocoagulation Technology. Innovative Technology Evaluation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CURE electrocoagulation system was evaluated for removal of low levels of the radionuclides uranium, plutonium, and americium as well as other contaminants in wastewater. Economic data from the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) demonst...

1998-01-01

221

The application of gas-cooled reactor technologies to the transmutation of nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear waste from commercial power plants contains large quantities of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and long-lived fission products that pose long-term safe storage problems. Along with materials from weapons decommissioning programs, they are also a proliferation concern. Based on current levels of global nuclear power generation, it is estimated that by 2015 there will be more than 250,000 tons of

Alan Baxter; Carmelo Rodriguez

2001-01-01

222

Feasibility study of minor actinide transmutation in light-water reactors with various AM/CM separation efficiencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implementing a viable solution for the disposition of used nuclear fuel (UNF) raises concerns due its high radiotoxicity and decay heat generation over long time periods. The major contributors to these are the minor actinides (MA) that are contained in the UNF. The strategy of Partition and Transmutation (P&T) separates the components of UNF to treat each separated stream in the manner that is most appropriate. The MA stream can be reprocessed and fabricated with MOX fuel and recycled in a reactor. Through transmutation, reductions in the radiotoxicity and decay heat of UNF can be achieved, which reduces the length of time that UNF must be sequestered from the environment. Because of the greater fission to capture cross section ratio in a fast neutron spectrum, the transmutation of MA is most effective in fast spectrum systems. However, MA transmutation can be carried out, albeit less effectively, in a thermal spectrum. This work examines MA transmutation in a thermal spectrum because there are no currently operating commercial fast spectrum reactors in the U.S. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility of americium transmutation in a typical light water reactor. Due to similar chemical properties of americium and curium and the difficulty associated with their chemical separation, the separation efficiency of these two elements was also considered. Three separation efficiencies for the MA content were considered, and these were 99.9%, 99.0%, and 90.0% separation of Cm from Am. In addition, the homogeneous and heterogeneous additions of MA to MOX fuel were considered. Similar to current MOX loading schemes, the study simulated a reactor core with 30% of the fuel assemblies composed of MOX fuel bearing MA. This study measured the feasibility of MA transmutation by the reactivity of individual MOX+MA fuel assemblies and full cores, the coefficients of reactivity such as the Doppler Coefficient, Moderator Temperature Coefficient, and Moderator Void Coefficient, MA transmutation efficiency, and attainable burnup. Results show that the transmutation of MA in a light water reactor is feasible from a reactor safety and operation point of view. The reductions of the Am inventory in the UNF were between 40% and 60%. Despite these reductions, there was a significant increase in the Cm inventory, mostly due to the neutron capture of Am in the thermal spectrum.

Tincher, Daniell

223

MASCOT. Radionuclide Decay Chain Transport  

SciTech Connect

MASCOT computes the two- and three-dimensional space-time dependent, convective-dispersive transport of a four-member radionuclide decay chain in unbounded homogeneous porous media for constant (step and band) and radionuclide-dependent release. A steady-state isothermal groundwater flow regime is assumed with parallel streamlines along the direction of flow. The solutions are designed for an unbounded medium flow field assumed to be semi-infinite normal to the source and infinite orthogonal to the source with a variety of boundary conditions, including a single or multiple finite line source or a Gaussian-distributed source in the two-dimensional case, and a single or multiple patch source or bivariate-normal distributed source in the three-dimensional case. A postprocessor program, MAS-GRF, which produces tables and/or graphs from MASCOT output, is included.

Gureghian, A.B. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

1989-03-29

224

Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this Model Report is to document two models for drift-scale radionuclide transport. This has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) 2002 [160819]), which includes planning documents for the technical work scope, content, and management of this Model Report in Section 1.15, Work Package AUZM11, ''Drift-Scale

P. R. Dixon

2004-01-01

225

Chernobyl radionuclide distribution and migration.  

PubMed

The accident at Unit No. 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant on 26 April 1986 presented severe challenges in radiation protection. Early activity measurements defined the contaminated areas in order to determine what persons should be evacuated on the basis of the exposure limit at that time of 100 mSv (10 rem) for accidents. The immediate definition of these areas was accomplished with specially equipped aircraft capable of measuring external gamma-exposure rate and radionuclide spectra. Over time, maps of 137Cs contamination (the most important long-lived radionuclide) have become more and more sophisticated and have been used for further determinations of the control of the consequences of the accident. About 70% of the total release of 137Cs was deposited in Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine; but there was also widespread deposition throughout the countries of Western Europe. Two atlases of contamination throughout Europe were prepared, and the Russian atlas included data on other radionuclides and on external gamma-exposure rates. The radiocesiums behaved as volatile radionuclides because of the volatility of cesium. In contrast to the typical pattern after nuclear weapons tests, 90Sr behaved only as a refractory element, as its volatile precursors krypton and rubidium had already decayed within the reactor. Nearly all of the refractory elements (strontium, plutonium, etc.) released by the accident were confined to the 30-km zone around the reactor. A proposal is made to develop a more complete atlas of 137Cs deposition from the accident that would include the entire Northern Hemisphere. Water was not an important vector of exposure to human beings following the accident. PMID:18049217

Izrael, Yury A

2007-11-01

226

Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

Premuzic, E.T.

1983-08-25

227

Nuclear transmutation doping of GaAs. Final technical report 1 Jun 80-30 Jun 81  

SciTech Connect

Shallow donors have been introduced into GaAs crystals by irradiation with thermal neutrons and subsequent nuclear transmutation. Good agreement was found between the measured concentrations of added donors and the values expected from the neutron capture cross sections and the neutron fluences used. This doping method is approximately 1000 times more efficient in GaAs than in Si because of the higher abundances and neutron capture cross sections of the transmutable isotopes in GaAs. In epitaxially grown GaAs of high purity, the recoil and radiation damage associated with transmutation doping can be removed by annealing at about 600 C which is below the critical temperature for As effusion. The electronic transport properties of transmutation doped GaAs samples were studied between 1.4 and 450K of concentrations both above and below the metal-nonmetal transition. We found that transmutation doping is a convenient method for introducing a desired concentration of shallow donors into GaAs crystals for modifying their electronic properties.

Fritzsche, H.

1981-09-01

228

Radionuclide behavior in the environment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))

1991-09-01

229

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1998-09-15

230

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

1998-01-01

231

Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

2009-01-07

232

Use of Natural Radionuclides to Predict the Behavior of Radwaste Radionuclides in Far-Field Aquifiers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In appropriate aquifers the natural radionuclides of the U and Th decay series are important sources of information about the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers. The Wolfcamp Carbonate, Pennsylvanian Carbonate and Granite Wash aquife...

N. Hubbard J. C. Laul R. W. Perkins

1983-01-01

233

DKPRO: A radionuclide decay and reprocessing code  

SciTech Connect

The DKPRO code solves the general problem of modeling complex nuclear wastes streams using ORIGEN2 radionuclide production files. There is a continuing need for estimates of Hanford radionuclides. Physical measurements are one basis; calculational estimates, the approach represented here, are another. Given a known nuclear fuel history, it is relatively straightforward to calculate radionuclide inventories with codes such as the widely-used Oak Ridge National Laboratory code ORIGEN2.

Wootan, D.; Schmittroth, F.A.

1997-07-14

234

Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages  

DOEpatents

A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

1984-09-12

235

Flowsheet report for baseline actinide blanket processing for accelerator transmutation of waste  

SciTech Connect

We provide a flowsheet analysis of the chemical processing of actinide and fission product materials form the actinide blanket of an accelerator-based transmutation concept. An initial liquid ion exchange step is employed to recover unburned plutonium and neptunium, so that it can be returned quickly to the transmitter. The remaining materials, consisting of fission products and trivalent actinides (americium, curium), is processed after a cooling period. A reverse Talspeak process is employed to separate these trivalent actinides from lanthanides and other fission products.

Walker, R.B.

1992-04-08

236

Design considerations and evaluations of an accelerator-driven fluid fuel transmuter  

SciTech Connect

A fluid fuel transmuter is proposed on the basis of circulating lead forming the fluid carrier material for long-lived actinides. Thermalization of neutrons is achieved by the use of graphite in the blanket leading to low actinide concentrations, typically around 100 g/l. An eigenvalue of 0.95 is aimed at and the extraneous source neutrons are provided by the interaction of 1.6 GeV protons with a central lead target (spallation process). Fuel depletion and neutron transport calculations are discussed with a view to the technical feasibility and possible advantageous design modifications.

Lizana, P.; Lypsch, F.; Jansen, Ch.; Phlippen, P. W. [Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology, Research Centre Juelich 52425 Juelich (Germany)

1995-09-15

237

Proton-beam window design for a transmutation facility operating with a liquid lead target  

SciTech Connect

The proton beam target of an accelerator-driven transmutation facility can be designed as a vertical liquid lead column. To prevent lead vapor from entering the accelerator vacuum, a proton-beam window has to separate the area above the lead surface from the accelerator tube. Two radiation-cooled design alternatives have been investigated which should withstand a proton beam of 1.6 GeV and 25 mA. Temperature calculations based on energy deposition calculations with the Monte Carlo code HETC, stability analysis and spallation-induced damage calculations have been performed showing the applicability of both designs.

Jansen, Christoph; Lypsch, Frank; Lizana, Pablo; Phlippen, Peter W. [Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology, Research Centre Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

1995-09-15

238

Transmutation of {sup 241}Am in a high thermal neutron flux  

SciTech Connect

Amongst the minor actinides issued from the spent nuclear fuel, {sup 241}Am is present in high concentration and contributes significantly to the long-term radiotoxicity of nuclear waste. A major uncertainty was present in the transmutation chain of {sup 241}Am when irradiated by a high intensity thermal neutron flux. This uncertainty was brought about by the poor knowledge of the {sup 242gs}Am neutron capture cross section. A dedicated experiment has been performed at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, which gives a definitive experimental answer to this problem.

Fioni, G.; Bolognese, T.; Cribier, M.; Gunsing, F.; Lelievre, F.; Marie, F.; Martino, J.; Pluquet, A.; Spiro, M.; Veyssiere, C. [DSM/DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France) (France); Aubert, M.; Cavedon, J.-M.; Chartier, F.; Doneddu, F. [DCC/DPE, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France) (France); Ayrault, S.; Gaudry, A. [DSM/DRECAM-CNRS, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France) (France); Faust, H.; Leconte, Ph.; Oliver, R. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38042 Grenoble (France) (France)

1998-10-26

239

RF system considerations for accelerator production of tritium and the transmutation of nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

RF driven proton accelerators for the transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW) or for the production of tritium (APT) require unprecedented amounts of CW RF power at UHF frequencies. For both systems, the baseline design is for 246 MW at 700 MHz and 8,5 MW at 350 MHz. The main technical challenges are how to design and build such a large system so that it has excellent reliability, high efficiency, and reasonable capital cost. The issues associated with the selection of the RF amplifier and the sizes of the power supplies are emphasized in this paper.

Tallerico, P.J.; Lynch, M.T.

1993-11-01

240

Transmutation of skyrmions to half-solitons driven by the nonlinear optical spin Hall effect.  

PubMed

We show that the spin domains, generated in the linear optical spin Hall effect by the analog of spin-orbit interaction for exciton polaritons, are associated with the formation of a Skyrmion lattice. In the nonlinear regime, the spin anisotropy of the polariton-polariton interactions results in a spatial compression of the domains and in a transmutation of the Skyrmions into oblique half-solitons. This phase transition is associated with both the focusing of the spin currents and the emergence of a strongly anisotropic emission pattern. PMID:23383815

Flayac, H; Solnyshkov, D D; Shelykh, I A; Malpuech, G

2013-01-03

241

Analyses in Support of Z-Pinch IFE and Actinide Transmutation - LLNL Progress Report for FY-06  

SciTech Connect

This report documents results of LLNL's work in support of two studies being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL): the development of the Z-pinch driven inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE), and the use of Z-pinch driven inertial fusion as a neutron source to destroy actinides from fission reactor spent fuel. LLNL's efforts in FY06 included: (1) Development of a systems code for Z-IFE and use of the code to examine the operating parameter space in terms of design variables such as the Z-pinch driver energy, the chamber pulse repetition rate, the number of chambers making up the power plant, and the total net electric power of the plant. This is covered in Section 3 with full documentation of the model in Appendix A. (2) Continued development of innovative concepts for the design and operation of the recyclable transmission line (RTL) and chamber for Z-IFE. The work, which builds on our FY04 and FY05 contributions, emphasizes design features that are likely to lead to a more attractive power plant including: liquid jets to protect all structures from direct exposure to neutrons, rapid insertion of the RTL to maximize the potential chamber rep-rate, and use of cast flibe for the RTL to reduce recycling and remanufacturing costs and power needs. See Section 4 and Appendix B. (3) Description of potential figures of merit (FOMs) for actinide transmutation technologies and a discussion of how these FOMs apply and can be used in the ongoing evaluation of the Z-pinch actinide burner, referred to as the In-Zinerator. See Section 5. (4) A critique of, and suggested improvements to, the In-Zinerator chamber design in response to the SNL design team's request for feedback on its preliminary design. This is covered in Section 6.

Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Abbott, R

2006-09-19

242

Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need  

SciTech Connect

In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

Smith, V.H.

1981-03-01

243

Microstructural Changes In Thermally Cycled U-Pu-Zr-Am-Np Metallic Transmutation Fuel With 1.5% Lanthanides  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is developing metallic actinide-zirconium alloy fuels for the transmutation of minor actinides as part of a closed fuel cycle. The molten salt electrochemical process to be used for fuel recycle has the potential to carry over up to 2% fission product lanthanide content into the fuel fabrication process. Within the scope of the fuel irradiation testing program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), candidate metal alloy transmutation fuels containing quantities of lanthanide elements have been fabricated, characterized, and delivered to the Advanced Test Reactor for irradiation testing.

Dawn E. Janney; J. Rory Kennedy

2008-06-01

244

Use of natural radionuclides to predict the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In appropriate aquifers the natural radionuclides of the U and Th decay series are important sources of information about the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers. The Wolfcamp Carbonate, Pennsylvanian Carbonate and Granite Wash aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle are prime examples of such aquifers. Sampling and analysis for key radionuclides in the ground

N. Hubbard; J. C. Laul; R. W. Perkins

1984-01-01

245

Use of natural radionuclides to predict the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In appropriate aquifers the natural radionuclides of the U and Th decay series are important sources of information about the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers. The Wolfcamp Carbonate, Pennsylvanian Carbonate and Granite Wash aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle are prime examples of such aquifers. Sampling and analysis for key radionuclides in the ground

N. Hubbard; J. C. Laul; R. W. Perkins

1983-01-01

246

Radionuclide Imaging of Musculoskeletal Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Conventional nuclear medicine offers a variety of different methods for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal infections, including\\u000a three-phase bone scintigraphy, gallium imaging, and labeled leukocyte imaging with indium-111 (111In)-oxine or Tc-99-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and labeled antibodies against leukocyte surface antigens (antigranulocyte\\u000a antibodies). However, most of the conventional radionuclide imaging techniques are of low specificity in the detection of\\u000a low-grade and chronic

Katrin D. M. Stumpe

247

Investigation of the generation of several long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology: Report on a Coordinated Research Program sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The IAEA initiated a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) in 1988 to obtain reliable information for 16 long-lived activation reactions of special importance to fusion reactor technology: (sup 27)Al (n, 2n)(sup 26)Al, (sup 63)Cu(n,p)(sup 63)Ni, (sup 94)Mo(n...

D. L. Smith A. B. Pashchenko

1994-01-01

248

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system...Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator...surface of the body for radiation therapy. This generic type of...

2010-04-01

249

21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system...Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator...surface of the body for radiation therapy. This generic type of...

2009-04-01

250

21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section...Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A radionuclide radiation therapy system is a device...

2013-04-01

251

R and D of On-line Reprocessing Technology for Molten-Salt Reactor Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) represents one of promising future nuclear reactor concept included in the Generation IV reactors family. The reactor can be operated as the thorium breeder or as the actinide transmuter. However, the future deployment of Molten-Salt Reactors will be significantly dependent on the successful mastering of advanced reprocessing technologies dedicated to their fuel cycle. Here the

Jan Uhlir; Radka Tulackova; Karolina Chuchvalcova Bimova

2006-01-01

252

Radionuclide evaluation of tubal function  

SciTech Connect

The tubal capacity to transport radioactively labeled human albumin microspheres deposited in the vaginal fornix and cervical canal and to concentrate them on the ovarian surface was evaluated in a group of 34 patient-volunteers. One millicurie of /sup 99m/Tc was used to label human albumin microspheres of 20 ..mu.. in diameter, suspended in 1 ml of saline. The distribution of the radioactive material was imaged on a gamma camera at different intervals between 15 and 240 minutes. The radiation dose to the ovaries was estimated to be similar to that of a hysterosalpingogram. The results of the radionuclide evaluation were compared with the surgical findings at the time of laparoscopy or laparotomy performed for diagnostic or therapeutic reasons. The overall correlation was 87.1%. It would appear that as opposed to the traditional hysterosalpingogram, a radionuclide test may give a better understanding of the functional capacity of the tube and may also prove a useful method in the evaluation of the results of tubal microsurgical procedures.

Stone, S.C.; McCalley, M.; Braunstein, P.; Egbert, R.

1985-05-01

253

Monitoring of the Irradiated Neutron Fluence in the Neutron Transmutation Doping Process of Hanaro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron transmutation doping (NTD) for silicon is a process of the creation of phosphorus impurities in intrinsic or extrinsic silicon by neutron irradiation to obtain silicon semiconductors with extremely uniform dopant distribution. HANARO has two vertical holes for the NTD, and the irradiation for 5 and 6 inch silicon ingots has been going on at one hole. In order to achieve the accurate neutron fluence corresponding to the target resistivity, the real time neutron flux is monitored by self-powered neutron detectors. After irradiation, the total irradiation fluence is confirmed by measuring the absolute activity of activation detectors. In this work, a neutron fluence monitoring method using zirconium foils with the mass of 10 ~ 50 mg was applied to the NTD process of HANARO. We determined the proportional constant of the relationship between the resistivity of the irradiated silicon and the neutron fluence determined by using zirconium foils. The determined constant for the initially n-type silicon was 3.126 × 1019 n·?/cm. It was confirmed that the difference between this empirical value and the theoretical one was only 0.5%. Conclusively, the practical methodology to perform the neutron transmutation doping of silicon was established.

Kim, Myong-Seop; Park, Sang-Jun

2009-08-01

254

Radionuclide distribution in olympic national park, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of radionuclides in air, precipitation, streams, sediments, soils, and selected plants was conducted in the Olympic National Park, Northwestern Washington State. Thirty-one radionuclides were observed in concentrations that were 3 to 4 fold higher than those observed in arctic Alaska.

C. E. Jenkins; N. A. Wogman; H. G. Rieck

1972-01-01

255

Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic

Johanna Sabine Becker

2003-01-01

256

Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis and interpretation of the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu in the Caspian Sea water are presented. These radionuclides are shown to be of environmental importance and to be useful for studying water mass dynamics.

B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud; M. K. Pham; P. P. Povinec

2003-01-01

257

Sensors and Automated Analyzers for Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The production of nuclear weapons materials has generated large quantities of nuclear waste and significant environmental contamination. We have developed new, rapid, automated methods for determination of radionuclides using sequential injection methodologies to automate extraction chromatographic separations, with on-line flow-through scintillation counting for real time detection. This work has progressed in two main areas: radionuclide sensors for water monitoring and automated radiochemical analyzers for monitoring nuclear waste processing operations. Radionuclide sensors have been developed that collect and concentrate radionuclides in preconcentrating minicolumns with dual functionality: chemical selectivity for radionuclide capture and scintillation for signal output. These sensors can detect pertechnetate to below regulatory levels and have been engineered into a prototype for field testing. A fully automated process monitor has been developed for total technetium in nuclear waste streams. This instrument performs sample acidification, speciation adjustment, separation and detection in fifteen minutes or less.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.

2003-03-27

258

Radionuclide Releases During Normal Operations for Ventilated Tanks  

SciTech Connect

This calculation estimates the design emissions of radionuclides from Ventilated Tanks used by various facilities. The calculation includes emissions due to processing and storage of radionuclide material.

Blunt, B.

2001-09-24

259

Fusion-driven transmutations of nuclear waste—a misconception or an incentive for promotion of fusion energy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion-driven system of transmutation of nuclear waste is presented. The main positive aspect of this fusion power option, thanks to energy release from fission, is the prospect of a radical reduction of necessary plasma energy gain, Q, to levels achievable in relatively simple mirror devices. Further advantages of the system include lower FW load and homogeneous heating distribution. The

Stefan Taczanowski; Gra?yna Doma?ska; Jerzy Cetnar

1998-01-01

260

Preliminary neutronics design of china lead-alloy cooled demonstration reactor (CLEAR-III) for nuclear waste transmutation  

SciTech Connect

China Lead-Alloy cooled Demonstration Reactor (CLEAR-III), which is the concept of lead-bismuth cooled accelerator driven sub-critical reactor for nuclear waste transmutation, was proposed and designed by FDS team in China. In this study, preliminary neutronics design studies have primarily focused on three important performance parameters including Transmutation Support Ratio (TSR), effective multiplication factor and blanket thermal power. The constraint parameters, such as power peaking factor and initial TRU loading, were also considered. In the specific design, uranium-free metallic dispersion fuel of (TRU-Zr)-Zr was used as one of the CLEAR-III fuel types and the ratio between MA and Pu was adjusted to maximize transmutation ratio. In addition, three different fuel zones differing in the TRU fraction of the fuel were respectively employed for this subcritical reactor, and the zone sizes and TRU fractions were determined such that the linear powers of these zones were close to each other. The neutronics calculations and analyses were performed by using Multi-Functional 4D Neutronics Simulation System named VisualBUS and nuclear data library HENDL (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library). In the preliminary design, the maximum TSRLLMA was {approx}11 and the blanket thermal power was {approx}1000 MW when the effective multiplication factor was 0.98. The results showed that good performance of transmutation could be achieved based on the subcritical reactor loaded with uranium-free fuel. (authors)

Chen, Z. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Southwest Science and Technology Univ., No.350 Shushanhu Road, Shushan District, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Chen, Y.; Bai, Y.; Wang, W.; Chen, Z.; Hu, L.; Long, P. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

2012-07-01

261

Zirconia-based materials for transmutation of americium and curium: cubic stabilized zirconia and zirconium oxide pyrochlores  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here experimental results involving the incorporation of americium and curium elements in zirconia-based compounds, applicable for reactor transmutation schemes. Two materials are considered: Cubic-Stabilized Zirconia (CSZ) and the pyrochlore oxides having the formula An2Zr2O7, where An = Am, Cm.

P. E. Raison; R. G. Haire

2001-01-01

262

FABRICATION OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES BY NEUTRON TRANSMUTATION DOPING. Quarterly Progress Report No. 2, March 1962June 1962  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress is reported in the detailed development of fabrication methods ; for semiconductor devices by neutron transmutation doping. The degree of precise ; spatial control which can be obtained in the impurity distribution within the ; semiconductor is investigated. Several slit patterns were calculated. The ; magnitude of the potential barrier attainable in the P-N junctions was estimated, ; and

1962-01-01

263

High precision trace neutron transmutation doping of detector-grade high resistance zone-refined silicon mono-crystal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technique of high precision trace neutron transmutation doping of detector grade high resistance zone-refined Si mono-crystal is introduced. The key technique is to precisely control the doping element. It includes the determination of (rho)(sub 0) va...

B. Chen J. Gao X. Gao H. Dong S. Li

1993-01-01

264

Transverse section radionuclide scanning system  

DOEpatents

This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three-dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program.

Kuhl, David E. (Rosemont, PA); Edwards, Roy Q. (Plymouth Township, PA)

1976-01-01

265

AFCI Transmutation Fuel Processes and By-Products Planning: Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program are to reduce high-level waste volume, reduce long-lived and radiotoxic elements, and reclaim valuable energy content of spent nuclear fuel. The AFCI chartered the Fuel Development Working Group (FDWG) to develop advanced fuels in support of the AFCI goals. The FDWG organized a phased strategy of fuel development that is designed to match the needs of the AFCI program: Phase 1 - High-burnup fuels for light-water reactors (LWRs) and tri-isotopic (TRISO) fuel for gas-cooled reactors Phase 2 – Mixed oxide fuels with minor actinides for LWRs, Am transmutation targets for LWRs, inert matrix fuels for LWRs, and TRISO fuel containing Pu and other transuranium for gas-cooled reactors Phase 3 – Fertile free or low-fertile metal, ceramic, ceramic dispersed in a metal matrix (CERMET), and ceramics dispersed in a ceramic matrix (CERCER) that would be used primarily in fast reactors. Development of advanced fuels requires the fabrication, assembly, and irradiation of prototypic fuel under bounding reactor conditions. At specialized national laboratory facilities small quantities of actinides are being fabricated into such fuel for irradiation tests. Fabrication of demonstration quantities of selected fuels for qualification testing is needed but not currently feasible, because existing manual glovebox fabrication approaches result in significant radiation exposures when larger quantities of actinides are involved. The earliest demonstration test fuels needed in the AFCI program are expected to be variants of commercial mixed oxide fuel for use in an LWR as lead test assemblies. Manufacture of such test assemblies will require isolated fabrication lines at a facility not currently available in the U.S. Such facilities are now being planned as part of an Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). Adequate planning for and specification of actinide fuel fabrication facilities capable of producing transmutation fuels dictates the need for detailed process flows, mass balances, batch size data, and radiological dose estimates. Full definition of the materials that will need to be handled in the facility as feed material inputs, in-process fuel, scrap recycle, scrap requiring recovery, and by-product wastes is required. The feed material for demonstrating transmutation fuel fabrication will need to come from the separations of actinides from spent nuclear fuel processed in the same AFCF.

Eric L. Shaber

2005-09-01

266

Natural radionuclides in ground waters and cores  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of natural radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series in site-specific ground waters and cores (water/rock interaction) can provide information on the expected migration behavior of their radioactive waste and analog radionuclides in the unlikely event of radioactive releases from a repository. These data in ground waters can provide in situ retardation and sorption/desorption parameters for transport models and their associated kinetics (residence time). These data in cores can also provide information on migration or leaching up to a period of about one million years. Finally, the natural radionuclide data can provide baseline information for future monitoring of possible radioactive waste releases. The natural radionuclides of interest are {sup 238}U, {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}U, {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 222}Rn, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, and {sup 224}Ra. The half-lives of the daughter radionuclides range from 3 days to 2.5 x 10{sup 5} yr. The data discussed are for low ionic strength ground waters from the Hanford (basalt) site and briny ground waters (high ionic strength) and cores from the Deaf Smith salt site. Similar applications of the natural radionuclide data can be extended to the Nevada Tuff repository site and subseabed disposal site. The concentrations of uranium, thorium, radium, lead, and polonium radionuclides are generally very low in ground waters. However, significant differences in disequilibrium exist between basalt and briny ground waters.

Laul, J.C.; Smith, M.R.; Maiti, T.C.

1988-01-01

267

Accelerator Technology Division annual report, FY 1991  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; {Phi} Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

Not Available

1992-04-01

268

Radionuclide analysis using solid phase extraction disks  

SciTech Connect

The use of solid phase extraction disks was studied for the quantification of selected radionuclides in aqueous solutions. The extraction of four radionuclides using six types (two commercial, four test materials) of 3M Empore{trademark} RAD disks was studied. The radionuclides studied were: technetium-99 (two types of disks), cesium-137 (two types), strontium-90 (one type), plutonium-238 (one type). Extractions were tested from DI water, river water and seawater. Extraction efficiency, kinetics (flow rate past the disk), capacity, and potential interferences were studied as well as quantification methods.

Beals, D.M; Britt, W.G.; Bibler, J.P.; Brooks, D.A.

1996-12-31

269

2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /  

SciTech Connect

The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

Fuehne, David P.

2011-06-01

270

Therapeutic Radionuclides: Biophysical and Radiobiologic Principles  

PubMed Central

Although the general radiobiologic principles underlying external beam therapy and radionuclide therapy are the same, there are significant differences in the biophysical and radiobiologic effects from the two types of radiation. In addition to the emission of particulate radiation, targeted radionuclide therapy is characterized by (i) extended exposures and, usually, declining dose rates; (ii) nonuniformities in the distribution of radioactivity and, thus, absorbed dose; and (iii) particles of varying ionization density and, hence, quality. This chapter explores the special features that distinguish the biologic effects consequent to the traversal of charged particles through mammalian cells. It also highlights what has been learned when these radionuclides and radiotargeting pharmaceuticals are used to treat cancers.

Kassis, Amin I.

2008-01-01

271

Transmutation of rotational motion into translational diffusion in 3D rotary powered random walkers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimenters have for several years been studying motors with sizes in the 10-1--10^0 micron range which execute circular motion on scales as small as the motor dimensions in an aqueous environment. Previously, we have studied the normal situation wherein the motor is confined to a plane. Here we consider the case where such confinement is absent. The orbital motion of a particle undergoing regular circular motion in 3D has three rotational degrees of freedom. The introduction of stochasticity into them gives rise to 3D translational motion. A special, and apparently experimentally relevant, case is that of an orbiter in the plane which can flip over, reversing its chirality. We present analytical and simulation results on these transmutations of rotational motion into translational motion

Nourhani, Amir; Lammert, Paul; Borhan, Ali; Crespi, Vincent

2013-03-01

272

Transmutation and Production Rates of Elements in Flibe and Flinabe with Impact on Chemistry Control  

SciTech Connect

Neutronics calculations were performed for blanket designs using the molten salts Flibe and Flinabe to determine the transmutation rates of constituent elements and the rates of production of other elements. At least from mass balance considerations no free fluorine will be left provided that the recombination reactions with freed Be, Li, Na, and tritium are fast enough. However, more than 95% of the tritium bred will be in the form of TF. In addition, O and N are produced. A REDOX reaction needs to be established to control the TF activities. The Be used for neutron multiplication can be used for the REDOX control to reduce TF to T{sub 2}. The thermodynamics for the reaction between TF and Be is an important process to be demonstrated.

Sawan, Mohamed E. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Sze, D.-K. [University of California-San Diego (United States)

2003-07-15

273

Radionuclide Transport in Fractured Tuff under Episodic Flow Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current conceptual model of radionuclide transport in unsaturated fractured rock includes water movement in fractures, with migration of the entrained radionuclides being retarded by diffusion into and sorption within the rock matrix. Water infiltration and radionuclide transport through low-permeability unsaturated fractured rock are episodic and intermittent in nature, at least at local scales. Under episodic flow conditions, the matrix is constantly imbibing or draining, and this fluctuating wetness both drives two-way advective movement of radionuclides, and forces changes in the matrix diffusivity. This work is intended to examine, both experimentally and numerically, how radionuclide transport under episodic flow conditions is affected by the interacting processes of imbibition and drainage, diffusion, and matrix sorption. Using Topopah Spring welded volcanic tuff, collected from the potential repository geologic unit at Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste, we prepared a saw-cut fracture core (length 10.2 cm, diameter 4.4 cm, and fracture aperture 100 microns). The dry core was packed into a flow reactor, flushed with CO2, then saturated via slow pumping (0.01 mL/min) of synthetic groundwater. The fractured core was then flushed with air at 97% relative humidity (to simulate in situ unsaturated fractured rock conditions at Yucca Mountain), then the episodic transport experiment was conducted. Episodic flow involved 4 cycles of tracer solution flow within the fracture, followed by flushing with high humidity air. Each flow episode contained a different suite of non-sorbing and sorbing tracers, which included 3H, ReO4- (a chemical analog for 99TcO4-), I- (for 129I-), Sr and Cs (for 90Sr and 137Cs), plus the radionuclides 235U, 237Np, and 241Pu. These radionuclides span a variety of sorption strengths and represent a large fraction of the radionuclides of concern at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. Meanwhile, the non-sorbing 3H and ReO4- serve as diffusivity tracers with different aqueous diffusion coefficients. Liquid effluent from the flow reactor was collected for multi-elemental analyses using ICP-MS, as well as liquid scintillation counting for 3H, to obtain the breakthrough curves of non- or less-retarded tracers. After the flow-tests were complete, the flow reactor was opened and the distribution of strongly retarded tracers within the fractured core characterized by laser ablation coupled with ICP-MS. A numerical model was developed, based on the NUFT (Non-isothermal, Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport) computer code, to describe the experimental system, compare with, and interpret experimental results. This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Science and Technology and International (OST&I). This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

Hu, Q.; Sun, Y.; Ewing, R. P.

2005-12-01

274

A Heterogeneous Sodium Fast Reactor Designed to Transmute Minor Actinide Actinide Waste Isotopes into Plutonium Fuel  

SciTech Connect

An axial heterogeneous sodium fast reactor design is developed for converting minor actinide waste isotopes into plutonium fuel. The reactor design incorporates zirconium hydride moderating rods in an axial blanket above the active core. The blanket design traps the active core’s axial leakage for the purpose of transmuting Am-241 into Pu-238. This Pu-238 is then co-recycled with the spent driver fuel to make new driver fuel. Because Pu-238 is significantly more fissile than Am-241 in a fast neutron spectrum, the fissile worth of the initial minor actinide material is upgraded by its preconditioning via transmutation in the axial targets. Because, the Am-241 neutron capture worth is significantly stronger in a moderated epithermal spectrum than the fast spectrum, the axial targets serve as a neutron trap which recovers the axial leakage lost by the active core. The sodium fast reactor proposed by this work is designed as an overall transuranic burner. Therefore, a low transuranic conversion ratio is achieved by a degree of core flattening which increases axial leakage. Unlike a traditional “pancake” design, neutron leakage is recovered by the axial target/blanket system. This heterogeneous core design is constrained to have sodium void and Doppler reactivity worth similar to that of an equivalent homogeneous design. Because minor actinides are irradiated only once in the axial target region; elemental partitioning is not required. This fact enables the use of metal targets with electrochemical reprocessing. Therefore, the irradiation environment of both drivers and targets was constrained to ensure applicability of the established experience database for metal alloy sodium fast reactor fuels.

Samuel E. Bays

2011-02-01

275

Partitioning and transmutation: Near-term solution or long-term option?  

SciTech Connect

Starting in 1989, the concept that partitioning and transmuting actinides from spent nuclear fuel could be a {open_quotes}solution{close_quotes} to the apparent lack of progress in the high-level waste disposal program began to be heard from a variety of sources, both in the US and internationally. There have been numerous papers and sessions at scientific conferences and several conferences devoted to this subject in the last three years. At the request of the US Department of Energy, the National Research Council is evaluating the feasibility of this concept. Because either plutonium or highly enriched uranium is needed to startup breeder reactors, there is a sound rationale for using Pu from reprocessing spent light-water reactor fuel to start a conversion to Pu-breeding liquid metal reactors (LMRs), once society makes the determination that adding a large component of LMRs to the electricity-generating grid is desirable. This is the long-term option referred to in the title. It is compatible with the current and likely future high-level waste program, as well as the current nuclear power industry in the US. However, the thesis of this paper is that partitioning and transmutation (P-T) does not offer a near term solution to high-level waste disposal in the US for numerous reasons, the most important of which is that a repository will be needed even with P-T. Other important reasons include: (1) lack of evidence that the public will be more likely to accept a repository that has a reduced inventory, (2) the waste disposal program delays do not result from technical evidence of lack of safety, (3) the economics of reprocessing and/or P-T are unfavorable, and (4) obtaining the benefits from P-T requires a long-term commitment to nuclear power.

Ramspott, L.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (US); Isaacs, T. [USDOE, Washington, DC (US)

1993-02-25

276

Neutron Transmutation of Transuranium Isotopes in the Fast Reactor of a Power Plant (Trasmutazione Neutronica di Isotopi Transuranici in un reattore Veloce di Potenza).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Starting from the theoretical basis of the transmutation, calculations of homogeneous recycling and heterogeneous configurations for a 1200 MWe LMFBR are executed. The most important aspects examined are: (1) determination of the amounts of transuranium i...

G. Oliva

1981-01-01

277

Particle count monitoring of reverse osmosis water treatment for removal of low-level radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser diode particle counting technology and analytical measurements were used to evaluate a pilot-scale reverse osmosis (RO) water treatment system for removal of particulate matter and sub-picocurie low-level radionuclides. Stormwater mixed with Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) effluent from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), formerly a Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons production facility, were treated. No chemical

E. J. Moritz; C. R. Hoffman; T. R. Hergert

1995-01-01

278

Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions,...

2004-01-01

279

Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and chara...

D. Robertson A. Schilk K. Abel E. Lepel C. Thomas

1994-01-01

280

RADionuclide Transport, Removal, and Dose (RADTRAD) code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The RADionuclide Transport, Removal, And Dose (RADTRAD) code is designed for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) use to calculate the radiological consequences to the offsite population and to control room operators following a design-basis accident ...

L. A. Miller D. I. Chanin J. Lee

1993-01-01

281

Reconcentration Phenomenon of Radionuclide Chain Migration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The potential reconcentration of radionuclide decay products during their transport by flowing groundwater from underground geologic nuclear waste disposal sites to the biosphere is analyzed. The calculations show that the predicted maximum (but not the a...

H. C. Burkholder M. O. Cloninger

1976-01-01

282

Sorption of Radionuclides on Yucca Mountain Tuffs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A substantial database of sorption coefficients for important radionuclides on Yucca Mountain tuffs has been obtained by Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past ten years. Current sorption studies are focussed on validation questions and augmentation...

A. Meijaer I. Triay S. Knight M. Cisneros

1989-01-01

283

Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer  

PubMed Central

This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential.

Sofou, Stavroula

2008-01-01

284

Radionuclide Geomicrobiology of the Deep Biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes research into interactions between microorganisms and radionuclides under conditions typical of a repository for high-level radioactive waste in deep hard rock environments at a depth of approximately 500 m. The cell–radionuclide interactions of strains of two bacterial species (i.e., Shewanella putrefaciens and Desulfovibrio aespoeensis) with Cm, Pm, and Pu were investigated in vitro and the results were

Craig Anderson; Anna Johnsson; Henry Moll; Karsten Pedersen

2011-01-01

285

Air kerma rate constants for radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conversion to SI units requires that the exposure rate constant which was usually quoted in R·h-1·mCi-1· cm2 be replaced by the air kerma rate constant with units m2·Gy·Bq-1·s-1. The conversion factor is derived and air kerma rate constants for 30 radionuclides used in nuclear medicine and brachytherapy are listed. A table for calculation of air kerma rates for other radionuclides

Herman Wasserman; Wilhelm Groenewald

1988-01-01

286

Radionuclide evaluation of lung trauma  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear medicine imaging procedures can play a significant role in evaluating the pulmonary complications that are seen in trauma patients. A quantitative method for measuring increased pulmonary capillary permeability that uses Tc-99m HSA allows early diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and accurately differentiates this condition from pneumonia or cardiogenic pulmonary edema. This technique may be of great value in following the response to therapy. The use of 133Xe to diagnose inhalation injury remains an important diagnostic tool, particularly at hospitals with specialized burn units. Regional decreases in ventilation-perfusion images reliably localize aspirated foreign bodies. Radionuclide techniques that are used to demonstrate gastropulmonary aspiration remain controversial and require further clinical evaluation. Pulmonary perfusion imaging, although nonspecific, may provide the earliest clue for correct diagnosis of fat embolism, air embolism, contusion, or laceration. Furthermore, the possibility of perfusion abnormality due to these uncommon conditions must be remembered whenever trauma patients are evaluated for pulmonary thromboembolism with scintigraphy. Occasionally, liver or spleen scintigraphy may be the most appropriate procedure when penetrating chest trauma also involves these subdiaphragmatic organs.

Lull, R.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Sugerman, H.J.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Boll, D.A.; Kaplan, K.A.

1983-07-01

287

Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

2012-04-01

288

AFC-1 Transmutation Fuels Post-Irradiation Hot Cell Examination 4-8 at.% - Final Report (Irradiation Experiments AFC-1B, -1F and -1Æ)  

SciTech Connect

The AFC-1B, AFC-1F and AFC-1Æ irradiation tests are part of a series of test irradiations designed to evaluate the feasibility of the use of actinide bearing fuel forms in advanced fuel cycles for the transmutation of transuranic elements from nuclear waste. The tests were irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to an intermediate burnup of 4 to 8 at% (2.7 - 6.8 x 1020 fiss/cm3). The tests contain metallic and nitride fuel forms with non-fertile (i.e., no uranium) and low-fertile (i.e., uranium bearing) compositions. Results of postirradiation hot cell examinations of AFC-1 irradiation tests are reported for eleven metallic alloy transmutation fuel rodlets and five nitride transmutation fuel rodlets. Non-destructive examinations included visual examination, dimensional inspection, gamma scan analysis, and neutron radiography. Detailed examinations, including fission gas puncture and analysis, metallography / ceramography and isotopics and burnup analyses, were performed on five metallic alloy and three nitride transmutation fuels. Fuel performance of both metallic alloy and nitride fuel forms was best correlated with fission density as a burnup metric rather than at.% depletion. The actinide bearing transmutation metallic alloy compositions exhibit irradiation performance very similar to U-xPu-10Zr fuel at equivalent fission densities. The irradiation performance of nitride transmutation fuels was comparable to limited data published on mixed nitride systems.

Bruce Hilton; Douglas Porter; Steven Hayes

2006-09-01

289

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems  

SciTech Connect

Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.

Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. M.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

2009-04-08

290

Workshop on development of radionuclide getters for the Yucca Mountain waste repository: proceedings.  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository, located in southern Nevada, is to be the first facility for permanent disposal of spent reactor fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analysis has indicated that among the major radionuclides contributing to dose are technetium, iodine, and neptunium, all of which are highly mobile in the environment. Containment of these radionuclides within the repository is a priority for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). These proceedings review current research and technology efforts for sequestration of the radionuclides with a focus on technetium, iodine, and neptunium. This workshop also covered issues concerning the Yucca Mountain environment and getter characteristics required for potential placement into the repository.

Moore, Robert Charles; Lukens, Wayne W. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

2006-03-01

291

Evaluation of Transmutation of 137Cs(?,n) 136Cs Using Ultra-Intense Lasers in Solid Targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relativistic electrons produced in ultra-intense laser-solid interaction generate highly collimated ?-ray beams through Bremsstrahlung that can be used to induce photonuclear reactions. Photonuclear transmutation (of (?,n) type) of 137Cs, one of the hazardous nuclear wastes with half-life of 30.17 years which cannot be transmuted practically with neutron bombardment due to its very low neutron capture cross section, has been considered. Nuclear activity of produced 136Cs with half-life of 13.16 days has been evaluated analytically using available experimental data. With irradiating a 137Cs sample by p-polarized laser light of 1020 Wcm-2 and the repetition rate of 10 Hz for 30 min, the activity of 0.24 Bq is obtained. It is found that intensity has a large effect in yield around 1021 Wcm-2. For similar laser with intensity of 5×1021 Wcm-2, the activity increases with a factor of 105.

Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Kokabee, O.

2006-06-01

292

Measurement of electron-phonon decoupling time in Neutron-Transmutation Doped Germanium at 20 mK  

SciTech Connect

The authors have studied the electron-phonon decoupling in Neutron-Transmutation Doped (NTD) Germanium thermistors below 50 mK, and measured a characteristic time constant of this phenomenon. They discuss how their decoupling model accounts for observed non-linearities in I-V characteristics of NTD Ge and for the time structure of phonon pulses detected in a Ge crystal operated at 20 mK.

Aubourg, E.; Yvon, D. (DAPNIA-SPP, Cen Saclay, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)); Cummings, A.; Shutt, T.; Stockwell, W.; Barnes, P.D.; Lange, A.E.; Sadoulet, B.; White, S.; Young, B.A. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)); Emes, J.; Smith, G. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Silva, A. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)); Haller, E.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States)); Ross, R.R. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States) Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)); Wang, Ning (CALTECH, Pasadena, CA (United States))

1993-11-01

293

Fusion transmutation of waste and the role of the In-Zinerator in the nuclear fuel cycle.  

SciTech Connect

The Z-Pinch fusion experiment at Sandia National Laboratories has been making significant progress in developing a high-energy fusion neutron source. This source has the potential to be used for the transmutation of nuclear waste. The goal of this research was to do a scoping-level design of a fusion-based transmuter to determine potential transmutation rates along with the fusion yield requirements. Two ''In-Zinerator'' designs have been developed to transmute the long-lived actinides that dominate the heat production in spent fuel. The first design burns up all transuranics (TRU) in spent fuel (Np, Pu, Am, Cm), and the second is focused only on burning up Am and Cm. The TRU In-Zinerator is designed for a fuel cycle requiring burners to get rid of all the TRU with no light water reactor (LWR) recycle. The Am/Cm In-Zinerator is designed for a fuel cycle with Np/Pu recycling in LWRs. Both types of In-Zinerators operate with a moderate fusion source driving a sub-critical actinide blanket. The neutron multiplication is 30, so a great deal of energy is produced in the blanket. With the design goal of generating 3,000 MW{sub th}, about 1,200 kg/yr of actinides can be destroyed in each In-Zinerator. Each TRU In-Zinerator will require a 20 MW fusion source, and it will take a total of 20 units (each producing 3,000 MWth) to burn up the TRU as fast as the current LWR fleet can produce it. Each Am/Cm In-Zinerator will require a 24 MW fusion source, and it will take a total of 2 units to burn up the Am/Cm as fast as the current LWR fleet can produce it. The necessary fusion yield could be achieved using a 200-240 MJ target fired once every 10 seconds.

Cipiti, Benjamin B.

2006-06-01

294

Increasing the Acceptance of Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal by the Transmutation of Minor Actinides Using an Accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main challenge in nuclear fuel cycle closure is the reduction of the potential radiotoxicity of spent LWR nuclear fuel, or the length of time in which that potential hazard exists. Partitioning and accelerator-based transmutation in combination with geological disposal can lead to an acceptable societal solution for the nuclear spent fuel management problem. Nuclear fuel seems ideally suited for recycling. Only a small fraction of the available energy in the fuel is extracted in a single pass and the problem isotopes, consisting of the transuranic elements plutonium, neptunium, americium, curium and the long-lived fission products iodine and technetium, could be burned in fast-neutron spectrum reactors or sub-critical accelerator driven transmuters. Most of the remaining wastes have half-lives of a few hundred years and can be safely stored in man-made containment structures (casks or glass). The very small amount of remaining long-lived waste could be safely stored in a small geologic repository. The problem for the next 100 years is that a sufficient number of fast reactors are unlikely to be built by industry to burn its own waste and the waste from existing and new light water reactors (LWRs). So an interim solution is required to transition to a fast reactor economy. The goals of accelerator transmutation are some or all of the following: 1) to significantly reduce the impacts due to the minor actinides on the packing density and long-term radiotoxicity in the repository design, 2) preserve/use the energy-rich component of used nuclear fuel, and 3) reduce proliferation risk. Accelerator-based transmutation could lead to a greater percentage of our power coming from greenhouse-gas emission-free nuclear power and provide a long-term strategy enabling the continuation and growth of nuclear power in the U.S. )

Sheffield, Richard L.

2010-02-01

295

Experience with Alloys Compatibility with Fuel and Coolant Salts and their Application to Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes results of recent work and the present state of knowledge about materials for molten salt reactors. The central focus is placed on the compatibility of container alloys with molten salt for Molten Salt Actinide Recycler and Transmuter. Preliminary results from recent thermal convection loop studies are presented. Methods for purification of molten salt composition and improvement of Ni- base container alloys compatibility by maintaining the salt at low redox potential are discussed. (authors)

Ignatiev, Victor; Surenkov, Aleksandr; Gnidoi, Ivan; Fedulov, Vladimir [RRC-Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Afonichkin, Valery; Bovet, Andrei [Institute of High Temperature Electrochemisty, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Subbotin, Vladimir; Panov, Aleksandr; Toropov, Andrei [Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation)

2006-07-01

296

Hydrology and radionuclide migration program  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's participation in the Hydrology and Radionuclide Migration Program at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during fiscal year 1988. The report discusses studies at a new well 100 m down the hydrologic gradient from the previous sampling point at the Cheshire site; laboratory investigations of the mineralogical composition of NTS colloids; the strength of colloidal deposits and parameters affecting their formation and release; accelerator mass spectrometric measurements of {sup 129}I in water from the Cheshire stie; {sup 222}Rn concentrations in water from several pumped wells at the NTS; and a description of a new well (PM3) drilled off the NTS near Area 20. Further studies on groundwater sampled show that both technetium and iodine are quite mobile; both closely track the trend of the decreasing tritium concentration with increasing distance. Antimony and cesium concentrations decrease much more rapidly than tritium, and europium was not detected at all in the new well. Colloidal particles found in water collected from the Cheshire cavity are in size range of 0.050 to 0.003 {mu}m and are dominated by quartz and (Ca, K) feldspars. A new well was drilled on US Air Force land adjacent to the NTS Area 20. Static water level measurements and geochemical data from this well will help to determine the extent to which Pahute Mesa base flow infiltrates Oasis Valley. Preliminary results indicate tritium concentrations in water samples from this well to be in the range of 0.1 to 0.4 pCi/ml as measured under field conditions.

Marsh, K.V. (comp.)

1992-02-01

297

Performance analysis of a Pb-Bi cooled fast reactor - PEACER-300 in proliferation resistance and transmutation aspects  

SciTech Connect

A design study of 850 MWt lead-bismuth cooled reactor cores is performed to maximize the transmutation of both TRU nuclides in homogeneous fuel pin and long-lived fission products in separate target pins. Transmutation of minor actinide under a closed recycling was analyzed with assumption that decontamination factors in pyro-reprocessing plant data be reasonably high. The optimized design parameter were chosen as of a flat core shape with 50 cm in active core height and 5 m in core diameter, loaded with 17 x 17 arrayed fuel assemblies. A pitch to diameter ratio is 2.2, operating coolant temperature range is 300 deg. C-400 deg. C, and core consists of 3 different enrichment zones with one year cycle length. In safety aspects, this core design satisfied large negative temperature feedback coefficients, and sufficient shutdown margin by primary shutdown system with 20 B{sub 4}C control assemblies and by secondary shutdown system with 40 w/o enriched 12 B{sub 4}C control assemblies. Performance of designed core showed a high transmutation capability with support ratio of 2.085 and less TEX values than other reactor types. Better proliferation resistance could be achieved than other reactor types. (authors)

Lim, J. Y.; Kim, M. H. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin-shi, Gyeonggi-do, 449-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

298

Idaho radionuclide exposure study: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

Phosphate ores contain elevated levels of natural radioactivity, some of which is released to the environment during processing or use of solid byproducts. The effect of radionuclides from Idaho phosphate processing operations on the local communities has been the subject of much research and study. The literature is reviewed in this report. Two primary radionuclide pathways to the environment have been studied in detail: (1) airborne release of volatile radionuclides, primarily /sup 210/Po, from calciner stacks at the two elemental phosphorus plants; and (2) use of byproduct slag as an aggregate for construction in Soda Springs and Pocatello. Despite the research, there is still no clear understanding of the population dose from radionuclide emissions, effluents, and solid wastes from phosphate processing plants. Two other potential radionuclide pathways to the environment have been identified: radon exhalation from phosphogypsum and ore piles and contamination of surface and ground waters. Recommendations on further study needed to develop a data base for a complete risk assssment are given in the report.

Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.

1987-10-01

299

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are produced, handled, stored, and potentially emitted. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H. Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2011, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.01 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included about 90 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned airborne radionuclide emissions from Berkeley lab operations. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer codes, CAP88-PC and COMPLY, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI).

Wahl, Linnea

2012-06-04

300

Radionuclide transfer from soil to fruit.  

PubMed

The available literature on the transfer of radionuclides from soil to fruit has been reviewed with the aim of identifying the main variables and processes affecting the behaviour of radionuclides in fruit plants. Where available, data for transfer of radionuclides from soil to other components of fruit plant have also been collected, to help in understanding the processes of translocation and storage in perennial plants. Soil-to-fruit transfer factors were derived from agricultural ecosystems, both from temperate and subtropical or tropical zones. Aggregated transfer factors have also been collected from natural or semi-natural ecosystems. The data concern numerous fruits and various radionuclides. Soil-to-fruit transfer is nuclide specific. The variability for a given radionuclide is first of all ascribable to the different properties of soils. Fruit plant species are very heterogeneous, varying from woody trees and shrubs to herbaceous plants. In temperate areas the soil-to-fruit transfer is higher in woody trees for caesium and in shrubs for strontium. Significant differences between the values obtained in temperate and subtropical and tropical regions do not necessarily imply that they are ascribable to climate. Transfer factors for caesium are higher in subtropical and tropical fruits, while those for strontium, as well as for plutonium and americium, in the same fruits, are lower; these results can be interpreted taking into account different soil characteristics. PMID:11202699

Carini, F

2001-01-01

301

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2010-09-30

302

PUREX low-level waste radionuclide characterization  

SciTech Connect

The PUREX low-level waste (LLW) radionuclide characterization document describes the methodology for the characterization of solid LLW and solid low-level mixed waste (MW) with the respect to radiological characteristics. This document only serves as an overview of the PUREX radionuclide characterization methodology and provides specific examples for how the radionuclide distribution is derived. It would be impractical to provide all background information in this document. If further clarification and background information is required, consult the PUREX Regulatory Compliance group files. This document applies to only that waste generated in or is the responsibility of the PUREX facilities. The US Department of Energy (DOE) establishes the requirements for radioactive solid waste in DOE Order 5820.2A Radioactive Waste Management. Chapters 2 and 3 from DOE Order 5820.2A requires that generators of solid wastes in the LLW categories and the radioactive mixed waste subcategories: (1) identify the major radionuclides in each solid waste matrix and (2) determine the radionuclide concentrations and waste classes of their solid wastes. In addition, the Order also requires each generator to carry out a compliance program that ensures the proper certification of the solid waste generated.

Ellis, M.W.; LeBaron, G.J.

1995-01-16

303

Radiological assessment of target materials for accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation issues the first published document of the radiation absorbed dose rate (rad-h-1) to tissue from radioactive spallation products in Ta, W, Pb, Bi, and LBE target materials used in Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) applications. No previous works have provided an estimate of the absorbed dose rate (rad-h-1) from activated targets for ATW applications. The results of this dissertation are useful for planning the radiological safety assessment to personnel, and for the design, construction, maintenance, and disposition of target materials of high-energy particle accelerators for ATW applications (Charlton, 1996). In addition, this dissertation provides the characterization of target materials of high-energy particle accelerators for the parameters of: (1) spallation neutron yield (neutrons/proton), (2) spallation products yield (nuclides/proton), (3) energy-dependent spallation neutron fluence distribution, (4) spallation neutron flux, (5) identification of radioactive spallation products for consideration in safety of personnel to high radiation dose rates, and (6) identification of the optimum geometrical dimensions for the target applicable to the maximum radial spallation neutron leakage from the target. Pb and Bi target materials yielded the lowest absorbed dose rates (rad-h -1) for a 10-year irradiation/50-year decay scheme, and would be the preferred target materials for consideration of the radiological safety of personnel during ATW operations. A beneficial characteristic of these target materials is that they do not produce radioactive transuranic isotopes, which have very long half-lives and require special handling and disposition requirements. Furthermore, the targets are not considered High-Level Waste (HLW) such as reactor spent fuel for disposal purposes. It is a basic ATW system requirement that the spallation target after it has been expended should be disposable as Class C low-level radioactive waste. Therefore, the disposal of Pb and Bi targets would be optimally beneficial to the economy and environment. Future studies should relate the target performance to other system parameters, specifically solid and liquid blanket systems that contain the radioactive waste to be transmuted. The methodology of this dissertation may be applied to any target material of a high-energy particle accelerator.

Vickers, Linda Diane

304

Determination of transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. 1997 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'A team from two national laboratories is studying transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. Analyses are being done with 18 year old samples of {sup 137}Cs-bearing pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} \\267 0.5 H{sub 2}O) obtained from a French company. These samples are unique in that the pollucite was made with various amounts of {sup 137}Cs, which was then sealed in welded stainless- steel capsules to be used as tumor irradiation sources. Over the past 18 years, the {sup 137}Cs has been decaying to stable Ba in the capsules, i.e., in the absence of atmospheric effects. This material serves as an analogue to a crystalline waste form in which such a transmutation occurs to possibly disrupt the integrity of the original waste form. Work this year consisted of determining the construction of the capsule and state of the pollucite in the absence of details about these components from the French company. The authors have opened one capsule containing nonradioactive pollucite. The information on the construction of the stainless-steel capsule is useful for the work that the authors are preparing to do on capsules containing radioactive pollucite. Microscopic characterization of the nonradioactive pollucite revealed that there are at least two compounds in addition to pollucite: a Cs-silicate and a Cs-aluminosilicate (CsAlSiO{sub 4}). These findings may complicate the interpretation of the planned experiments using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (flourescence) have been used to characterize the nonradioactive pollucite. They have investigated the stability of the nonradioactive pollucite to {beta} radiation damage by use of 200 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope. The samples were found to become amorphous in less than 10 minutes with loss of Cs. This is equivalent to many more years of {beta} radiation damage than under normal decay of the {sup 137}Cs. In fact, the dose was equivalent to several thousand years of normal radiation damage from the decay of {sup 137}Cs. Of course, there would not be any {sup 137}Cs remaining after that length of time because the half-life of {sup 137}Cs is 30 y. Preparations have been started to study the radioactive pollucite samples at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. The calculations show that by thinning the base of the capsules the authors should be able to obtain about a factor of ten increase in the fluorescence signal. Procedures for thinning capsules containing the radioactive pollucite and examining the samples at the Stanford synchrotron are in place.'

Strachan, D.M.; Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Hess, N.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1997-01-01

305

Nuclear Technology Series. Course 22: Advanced Radionuclide Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

306

Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit

Hong-Nian Jow; R. C. Moore; K. B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A. R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

2005-01-01

307

Leaching of accelerator-produced radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Leaching of radionuclides produced in soil and rock by high energy proton-induced radiation was studied for the SSC site. Comparison was made with predictions of a Monte Carlo code CASIM and previous results for the Fermilab site. The principal long-lived radionuclides were {sup 3}H and {sup 22}Na in agreement with Fermilab results. A few other radionuclides were present at lower concentrations in a subset of the samples. For example, {sup 134}Cs was detected in a few SSC water samples. Leaching from SSC chalk was dependent on previous weathering and on leaching time. The more soil-like marl and shale were leached more rapidly. Results of this study, in conjunction with the SSC groundwater model, show that adequate groundwater protection would have been maintained for an accidental loss of the entire proton beam at a point in the SSC Collider tunnel. Early warning techniques developed are directly applicable to soil activation monitoring at other facilities.

Baker, S.I.; Bull, J.S. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Waxahachie, TX (United States); Goss, D.L. [Nebraska Wesleyan Univ., Lincoln, NE (United States)

1997-12-01

308

Radionuclide sorption on well construction materials  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the extent to which trace concentrations of radioactive materials would sorb on well construction materials and to assess the rapidity with which sorption would occur. The radionuclides employed in these studies were tritium, Cs-137, and Co-57. Solutions with trace concentrations of these radionuclides were contacted with casings of PVC, fiber-glass-epoxy, stainless steel, carbon steel, and steel rods coated with epoxy. The PVC showed no interaction with the tritium or Cs-137 during contact times of two hours to three weeks ; however, it did sorb Co-57. The fiber-glass-epoxy also interacted only with the cobalt. The stainless steel sorbed cesium and cobalt. The epoxy-coated steel rods did not interact measurably with any of the radionuclides so long as the coating was intact. The sorption reactions generally were apparent after a few days of contact; in the case of carbon steel, they were detectable in a few hours.

Thompson, J.L.

1996-11-01

309

Leaching of accelerator-produced radionuclides.  

PubMed

Leaching of radionuclides produced in soil and rock by high energy proton-induced radiation was studied for the SSC site. Comparison was made with predictions of a Monte Carlo code CASIM and previous results for the Fermilab site. The principal long-lived radionuclides were 3H and 22Na in agreement with Fermilab results. A few other radionuclides were present at lower concentrations in a subset of the samples. For example, 134Cs was detected in a few SSC water samples. Leaching from SSC chalk was dependent on previous weathering and on leaching time. The more soil-like marl and shale were leached more rapidly. Results of this study, in conjunction with the SSC groundwater model, show that adequate groundwater protection would have been maintained for an accidental loss of the entire proton beam at a point in the SSC Collider tunnel. Early warning techniques developed are directly applicable to soil activation monitoring at other facilities. PMID:9373069

Baker, S I; Bull, J S; Goss, D L

1997-12-01

310

Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.  

PubMed

An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

2004-12-01

311

Therapeutic radionuclides: Making the right choice  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in nuclear medicine therapeutic procedures. Using unsealed sources for therapy is not a new concept; it has been around since the beginnings of nuclear medicine. Treatment of thyroid disorders with radioiodine is a classic example. The availability of radionuclides with suitable therapeutic properties for specific applications, as well as methods for their selective targeting to diseased tissue have, however, remained the main obstacles for therapy to assume a more widespread role in nuclear medicine. Nonetheless, a number of new techniques that have recently emerged, (e.g., tumor therapy with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, treatment of metastatic bone pain, etc.) appear to have provided a substantial impetus to research on production of new therapeutic radionuclides. Although there are a number of new therapeutic approaches requiring specific radionuclides, only selected broad areas will be used as examples in this article.

Srivastava, S.C.

1996-08-01

312

Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil  

SciTech Connect

One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

2012-04-25

313

Radionuclide imaging of abomasal emptying in sheep.  

PubMed

A liquid radionuclide tracer was administered to nine sheep in order to visualise the abomasum with a gamma camera computer system. The aim was to develop a method of studying gastric emptying, with minimal surgical intervention. Oral administration of the tracer gave good images of the whole complex stomach, but quantifying abomasal emptying was not possible because of the superimposition of the stomach compartments. When the reticular groove reflex was stimulated with oral copper sulphate the radionuclide bypassed the reticulorumen, allowing quantitative analysis of abomasal activity. However, the repeatability of the reflex activation was low. Radionuclide administered directly into the abomasum produced good images of abomasal outflow and provided digital data which were analysed quantitatively. A wide range of emptying rates was observed, generally with a stepped pattern. PMID:9160420

Nicholson, T; Stockdale, H R; Critchley, M; Grime, J S; Jones, R S; Maltby, P

314

Data Authentication Demonstration for Radionuclide Stations  

SciTech Connect

Data authentication is required for certification of sensor stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS). Authentication capability has been previously demonstrated for continuous waveform stations (seismic and infrasound). This paper addresses data surety for the radionuclide stations in the IMS, in particular the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) system developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Radionuclide stations communicate data by electronic mail using formats defined in IMS 1.0, Formats and Protocols for Messages. An open message authentication standard exists, called S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions), which has been proposed for use with all IMS radionuclide station message communications. This standard specifies adding a digital signature and public key certificate as a MIME attachment to the e-mail message. It is advantageous because it allows authentication to be added to all IMS 1.0 messages in a standard format and is commercially supported in e-mail software. For command and control, the RASA system uses a networked Graphical User Interface (GUI) based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) communications, which requires special authentication procedures. The authors have modified the RASA system to meet CTBTO authentication guidelines, using a FORTEZZA card for authentication functions. They demonstrated signing radionuclide data messages at the RASA, then sending, receiving, and verifying the messages at a data center. They demonstrated authenticating command messages and responses from the data center GUI to the RASA. Also, the particular authentication system command to change the private/public key pair and retrieve the new public key was demonstrated. This work shows that data surety meeting IMS guidelines may be immediately applied to IMS radionuclide systems.

Harris, Mark; Herrington, Pres; Miley, Harry; Ellis, J. Edward; McKinnon, David; St. Pierre, Devon

1999-08-03

315

Numerical and Statistical Analysis of FR Spent Fuel Transmutation in a Thorium Fusion Breeder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a numerical analysis and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) are applied to find the best suitable neutronic parameters for the performance analysis in a thorium fusion rector. The numerical and ANOVA approach are employed to investigate the neutronic characteristics of a fusion reactor using ThO2 90% + FR spent fuel 10% fuel mixtures. Three different neutronic parameters for the ANOVA and numerical approach, namely, moderator/fuel volume fractions (Vm/Vf), plasma chamber dimensions (PCD) and neutron wall loading (NWLs) as time dependent are selected for neutronic performance characteristics including tritium breeding ratio (TBR), multiplication factor (M), total fission rate (?f), 232Th(n,?) reaction, burn up and/or transmutation (B/T) and fissile fuel breeding (FFBR). Moreover, effects of the NWLs, Vm/Vf fractions and PCD in the B/T of FR spent fuel mixed thorium are investigated. Numerical and statistics approach results are evaluated for TBR, M, ?f fission rate, 232Th(n,?) reaction, B/T and FFBR.

Ac?r, Adem

2009-09-01

316

Neutron-induced dpa, transmutations, gas production, and helium embrittlement of fusion materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a fusion reactor materials will be subjected to significant fluxes of high-energy neutrons. As well as causing radiation damage, the neutrons also initiate nuclear reactions leading to changes in the chemical composition of materials (transmutation). Many of these reactions produce gases, particularly helium, which cause additional swelling and embrittlement of materials. This paper investigates, using a combination of neutron-transport and inventory calculations, the variation in displacements per atom (dpa) and helium production levels as a function of position within the high flux regions of a recent conceptual model for the 'next-step' fusion device DEMO. Subsequently, the gas production rates are used to provide revised estimates, based on new density-functional-theory results, for the critical component lifetimes associated with the helium-induced grain-boundary embrittlement of materials. The revised estimates give more optimistic projections for the lifetimes of materials in a fusion power plant compared to a previous study, while at the same time indicating that helium embrittlement remains one of the most significant factors controlling the structural integrity of fusion power plant components.

Gilbert, M. R.; Dudarev, S. L.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Zheng, S.; Packer, L. W.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

2013-11-01

317

Impact of Transmutation Issues on Interpretation of Data Obtained From Fast Reactor Irradiation Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The subject of fission-fusion correlation is usually cast in terms of reactor-to-reactor differences, but recently the fusion community has become aware of the impact of differences within a given surrogate facility, especially in constant time experiments when different dose levels are attained in different positions of one reactor. For some materials, it is not safe to assume that in-reactor spectral variations are small and of no consequence. This point is illustrated using calculations for fusion-relevant materials that were irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility – Materials Open Test Assembly (FFTF-MOTA) over a wide range of in-core and out of core positions spanning more than two orders of magnitude in dpa rate. It is shown that although both the neutron spectrum and flux changes, the spectral effectiveness factor, dpa/10(22) superscript n/cm(2) superscript (E > 0.1 MeV), remains remarkably constant over this range. The transmutation rate per dpa varies strongly with reactor position, however.

Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Garner, Francis A.

2004-04-15

318

Impact of Transmutation Issues on Interpretation of Data Obtained from Fast Reactor Irradiation Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The subject of fission-fusion correlation is usually cast in terms of reactor-to-reactor differences, but recently the fusion community has become aware of the impact of differences within a given surrogate facility, especially in constant time experiments when different dose levels are attained in different positions of one reactor. For some materials, it is not safe to assume that in-reactor spectral variations are small and of no consequence. This point is illustrated using calculations for fusion-relevant materials that were irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility-Materials Open Test Assembly (FFTF-MOTA) over a wide range of in-core and out of core positions spanning two and a half orders of magnitude in dpa rate. It is shown that although both the neutron spectrum and flux changes, the spectral effectiveness factor, dpa/1022 n/cm2 (E > 0.1 MeV), remains remarkably constant over this range. The transmutation rate per dpa can vary strongly, however.

Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Garner, Francis A.

2004-08-01

319

The role of multiple regression and exploratory data analysis in the development of leukemia incidence risk models for comparison of radionuclide air stack emissions from nuclear and coal power industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risks associated with power generation must be identified to make intelligent choices between alternate power technologies. Radionuclide air stack emissions for a single coal plant and a single nuclear plant are used to compute the single plant leukemia incidence risk and total industry leukemia incidence risk. Leukemia incidence is the response variable as a function of radionuclide bone dose for

Victor R. Prybutok

1995-01-01

320

Radionuclide imaging of the urinary tract  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the genitourinary tract. The technical aspects of radionuclide imaging (radiopharmaceuticals, radiation dosimetry, instrumentation, and method) are briefly presented, and each of the indications for renal scintigraphy--including the evaluation of differential renal function, hypertension, obstruction, renal transplants, masses, trauma, congenital anomalies, vesicoureteral reflux, and infection--are discussed. The relative advantages and disadvantages of radionuclide imaging with respect to alternative radiographic examinations (such as intravenous urography, ultrasonography, CT, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging) are emphasized wherever applicable. 136 references.

Velchik, M.G.

1985-11-01

321

Electromigration radionuclide generator: working principles and testing  

SciTech Connect

An electromigration radionuclide generator can be built in which the daughter product is separated from the parent one because of differences in ion migration rates in an electric field. Two types are described in which the daughter after separation is eluted either as a result of hydrostatic pressure of by electrical migration. The barium 140-lanthanum 140 pair has been used to examine the working characteristics (yield, radiochemical purity, specific activity, and so on), and it has been found that the decisive effect comes from the distance between the peaks; the prospects for using the method to make short-lived radionuclides are considered.

Gedeonov, A.D.; Bulatenkov, Yu.V.

1988-09-01

322

Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2010-01-04

323

Detector technology challenges for nuclear medicine and PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges facing the development of new detector technology for single photon imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) are considered. There is currently great interest in functional imaging with radionuclides, particularly PET, triggered by new clinical applications and developments in molecular and cell biology. Multi-modality systems that combine radionuclide imaging with CT present new challenges, as do very high resolution

Paul K. Marsden

2003-01-01

324

Measuring and Modeling Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material: Interpreting the Relationship Between the Natural Radionuclides Present  

SciTech Connect

The regulatory release of sites and facilities (property) for restricted or unrestricted use has evolved beyond prescribed levels to model-derived dose and risk based limits. Dose models for deriving corresponding soil and structure radionuclide concentration guidelines are necessarily simplified representations of complex processes. A conceptual site model is often developed to present a reasonable and somewhat conservative representation of the physical and chemical properties of the impacted material. Dose modeling software is then used to estimate resulting dose and/or radionuclide specific acceptance criteria (activity concentrations). When the source term includes any or all of the uranium, thorium or actinium natural decay series radionuclides the interpretation of the relationship between the individual radionuclides of the series is critical to a technically correct and complete assessment of risk and/or derivation of radionuclide specific acceptance criteria. Unlike man-made radionuclides, modeling and measuring naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) source terms involves the interpretation of the relationship between the radionuclide present, e.g., secular equilibrium, enrichment, depletion or transient equilibrium. Isotopes of uranium, radium, and thorium occur in all three natural decay series. Each of the three series also produces a radon gas isotope as one of its progeny. In nature, the radionuclides in the three natural decay series are in a state that is approaching or has achieved secular equilibrium, in which the activities of all radionuclides within each series are nearly equal. However, ores containing the three natural decay series may begin in approximate secular equilibrium, but after processing, equilibrium may be broken and certain elements (and the radioactive isotopes of that element) may be concentrated or removed. Where the original ore may have contained one long chain of natural decay series radionuclides, the resulting TENORM source term may contain several smaller decay chains, each headed by a different longer lived member of the original series. This paper presents the anatomy of common TENORM source terms and the pitfalls of measuring, interpreting and modeling these source terms. Modeling TENORM with common software such as RESRAD is discussed. In summary: RESRAD modeling (dose assessments) to derive single radionuclide, dose based acceptance criteria, requires a good understanding of the physical, chemical and biological factors/input parameters applicable to the selected exposure scenario(s). When NORM or TENORM source terms are modeled, an additional understanding of the status of equilibrium, is necessary to accurately perform a dose assessment in support of dose based acceptance criteria. Historical information about the site processes/ores, selection of appropriate analytical analyses to identify key decay series radionuclide and a comprehensive review of the characterization data are needed to understand the equilibrium status of the decay series present. Once the source term has been characterized (in regards to relative activities of the radionuclides within a decay series) the source term must be input into RESRAD to reflect that status of equilibrium at time zero, or at the time since placement, if the characterization data reflects the equilibrium status of dated material. When the RESRAD output file is reviewed, depending on the time of maximum dose, DCGL values may be artificially high in value. Sum of fraction calculations, based on the status of equilibrium of each decay series, can also be used to assess the RESRAD results and develop an appropriate MARSSIM final status survey protocol. (authors)

Lombardo, A.J.; Mucha, A.F. [Safety and Ecology Corporation, 2800 Solway Road, Knoxville, TN (United States)

2008-07-01

325

Review of Distribution Coefficients for Radionuclides in Carbonate Minerals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An understanding of the transport of radionuclides in carbonate minerals is necessary to be able to predict the fate of (and potentially remediate) radionuclides in the environment. In some environments, carbonate minerals such as calciate, aragonite, dol...

M. Sutton

2009-01-01

326

Survey of the Use of Radionuclides in Medicine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Phase I study, which was a national survey of all licensed and registered medical users of radionuclides, required the compilation of a comprehensive registry of physicians using radionuclides for medical purposes, and the development of a survey ques...

R. M. Rodden B. E. Suta L. W. Weisbecker

1969-01-01

327

A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions.  

PubMed

The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www.medphys.it. PMID:22217735

Lanconelli, N; Pacilio, M; Lo Meo, S; Botta, F; Di Dia, A; Aroche, A Torres; Pérez, M A Coca; Cremonesi, M

2012-01-21

328

Migration of radionuclides in geologic media: Fundamental research needs  

SciTech Connect

An assessment of the fundamental research needs in understanding and predicting the migration of radionuclides in the subsurface is provided. Emphasis is on the following three technical areas: (1) aqueous speciation of radionuclides, (2) the interaction of radionuclides with substrates, and (3) intermediate-scale interaction studies. This research relates to important issues associated with environmental restoration and remediation of DOE sites contaminated with mixed radionuclide-organic wastes. 64 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Reed, D.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Zachara, J.M.; Wildung, R.E. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Wobber, F.J. (USDOE, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-01-01

329

Production cross sections of short-lived silver radionuclides from natPd(p,xn) nuclear processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Production cross-sections of short-lived 103Ag, 104mAg and 104gAg radionuclides from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium (Pd) were measured up to 41 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution ?-ray spectrometry. The present results are compared with the available literature values as well as theoretical data calculated by the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE computer codes. Note that production cross-sections of the 104mAg radionuclide from natPd(p,xn) processes has been measured here for the first time. Physical thick target yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced from the respective threshold energy to 41 MeV taking into account that the total energy is absorbed in the targets. Measured data of the short-lived 103Ag radionuclide are noteworthy due to its possible applications as a precursor for the indirect production of widely used therapeutic 103Pd radionuclide via natPd(p,xn)103Ag ? 103Pd processes. On the other hand, the investigated 104Ag radionuclide finds importance due to its potential use as a diagnostic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging analogue. Above all, measured data will enrich the literature database leading to various applications in science and technology.

Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun

2012-03-01

330

MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of waste streams containing radionuclides, the remediation of contaminated materials, soils, and water, and the safe and economical disposal of radionuclides and toxic metals containing wastes is a major concern. Radionuclides may exist in various oxidation states and may be present as oxide, coprecipitates, inorganic, and organic complexes depending on the process and waste stream. Unlike organic contaminants, the

2006-01-01

331

Review of Distribution Coefficients for Radionuclides in Carbonate Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the transport of radionuclides in carbonate minerals is necessary to be able to predict the fate of (and potentially remediate) radionuclides in the environment. In some environments, carbonate minerals such as calciate, aragonite, dolomite and limestone are present and an understanding of the sorption of radionuclides in these carbonate minerals is therefore advantageous. A list of the

2009-01-01

332

Freeman and Johnson's clinical radionuclide imaging. Volume 3 update  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on radioisotope scanning. Topics considered include single photon emission computed tomography, radionuclide evaluation of gastrointestinal bleeding, cell labelling, radiolabelled leukocytes, radiolabelled platelets, radiolabelled antibodies, gastrointestinal function, nuclear endocrinology, radionuclide diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer, and historical aspects of the radionuclide imaging of parathyroid tumors.

Freeman, L.M.

1986-01-01

333

Radionuclide detection of iatrogenic arteriovenous fistulas of the genitourinary system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide angiography is a valuable screening test for arteriovenous (AV) fistulas. Seven iatrogenic AV communications of the genitourinary system were initially diagnosed by radionuclide imaging, and untreated patients are being followed up by yearly nuclear examinations. Contrast arteriography is reserved for patients requiring interventional therapy and for symptomatic patients with a negative radionuclide study.

R. Lisbona; M. J. Palayew; R. Satin; B. B. Hyams

1980-01-01

334

Radionuclide bone imaging: an illustrative review.  

PubMed

Bone scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled diphosphonates is one of the most frequently performed of all radionuclide procedures. Radionuclide bone imaging is not specific, but its excellent sensitivity makes it useful in screening for many pathologic conditions. Moreover, some conditions that are not clearly depicted on anatomic images can be diagnosed with bone scintigraphy. Bone metastases usually appear as multiple foci of increased activity, although they occasionally manifest as areas of decreased uptake. Traumatic processes can often be detected, even when radiographic findings are negative. Most fractures are scintigraphically detectable within 24 hours, although in elderly patients with osteopenia, further imaging at a later time is sometimes indicated. Athletic individuals are prone to musculoskeletal trauma, and radionuclide bone imaging is useful for identifying pathologic conditions such as plantar fasciitis, stress fractures, "shin splints," and spondylolysis, for which radiographs may be nondiagnostic. A combination of focal hyperperfusion, focal hyperemia, and focally increased bone uptake is virtually diagnostic for osteomyelitis in patients with nonviolated bone. Bone scintigraphy is also useful for evaluating disease extent in Paget disease and for localizing avascular necrosis in patients with negative radiographs. Radionuclide bone imaging will likely remain a popular and important imaging modality for years to come. PMID:12640151

Love, Charito; Din, Anabella S; Tomas, Maria B; Kalapparambath, Tomy P; Palestro, Christopher J

335

Radionuclide assessment of pulmonary microvascular permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature has been reviewed to evaluate the technique and clinical value of radionuclide measurements of microvascular permeability and oedema formation in the lungs. Methodology, modelling and interpretation vary widely among studies. Nevertheless, most studies agree on the fact that the measurement of permeability via pulmonary radioactivity measurements of intravenously injected radiolabelled proteins versus that in the blood pool, the

A. B. Johan Groeneveld

1997-01-01

336

RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

S. Magnuson

2004-11-01

337

Radionuclide partitioning in the modified Unex process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Universal Extraction (UNEX) process has been developed for simultaneous extraction of long-lived radionuclides (cesium, strontium, actinides, and lanthanides) from acidic solutions in one extraction cycle. Modification of this organic solvent through the use of diamides of dipicolinic acid instead of CMPO increases the extraction capacity of UNEX solvent toward lanthanides and actinide metals, allowing for the processing of spent

V. Babain; I. Smirnov; M. Alyapyshev; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst; A. Paulenova

2008-01-01

338

Interaction between water, sediments and radionuclides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model-based measurements program was carried out to evaluate the primary mechanisms controlling transport of uranium 238 and thorium 232 decay chain radionuclides in Quirke Lake, a water body draining much of the uranium mining and milling district near...

W. J. Snodgrass P. McKee J. Garnett L. Stieff

1988-01-01

339

Radionuclide cerebral imaging confirming brain death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by portable radionuclide cerebral imaging (RCI) and by four-vessel cerebral contrast arteriography in 15 clinically brain-dead patients, including six children. Neither technique showed evidence of CBF, although four RCI scans showed sagittal sinus activity. Portable scanning techniques are therefore considered valid determinants of brain death and may be useful in lieu of contrast cerebral

J. A. Schwartz; J. Baxter; D. Brill; J. R. Burns

1983-01-01

340

Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy: Potential new areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation oncology is entering an exciting new era with therapies being delivered in a targeted fashion through an increasing number of novel approaches. External beam radiotherapy now integrates functional and anatomic tumor imaging to guide delivery of conformal radiation to the tumor target. Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT) adds an important new dimension by making available to Radiation oncologist biologically

Jeffrey Y. C. Wong

2006-01-01

341

PROGRESS REPORT. RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors a...

342

Radionuclide imaging of abomasal emptying in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquid radionuclide tracer was administered to nine sheep in order to visualise the abomasum with a gamma camera computer system. The aim was to develop a method of studying gastric emptying, with minimal surgical intervention. Oral administration of the tracer gave good images of the whole complex stomach, but quantifying abomasal emptying was not possible because of the superimposition

P Maltby

1997-01-01

343

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses a ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected r...

R. W. Atcher J. J. Hines

1989-01-01

344

Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York  

SciTech Connect

SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction with the sediment transport, SERATRA computed radionuclide levels in dissolved, suspended sediment, and bed sediment forms for four radionuclides (/sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 239/ /sup 240/Pu, and /sup 3/H). By accounting for time-dependent sediment-radionuclide interaction in the water column and bed, SERATA is a physically explicit model of radionuclide fate and migration. Sediment and radionuclide concentrations calculated by SERATA in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system are in reasonable agreement with measured values. SERATRA is in the field performance phase of an extensive testing program designed to establish the utility of the model as a site assessment tool. The model handles not only radionuclides but other contaminants such as pesticides, heavy metals and other toxic chemicals. Now that the model has been applied to four field sites, including the latest study of the Cattaraugus Creek stream system, it is recommended that a final model be validated through comparison of predicted results with field data from a carefully controlled tracer test at a field site. It is also recommended that a detailed laboratory flume be tested to study cohesive sediment transport, deposition, and erosion characteristics. The lack of current understanding of these characteristics is one of the weakest areas hindering the accurate assessment of the migration of radionuclides sorbed by fine sediments of silt and clay.

Onishi, Y.; Yabusaki, S.B.; Kincaid, C.T.; Skaggs, R.L.; Walters, W.H.

1982-12-01

345

Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening  

SciTech Connect

The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and high-level waste (HLW). Average and outlying (high burnup, high initial enrichment, low age, or otherwise exceptional) forms of each waste-form type are considered. This analysis has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (BSC 2002c). In a review of Revision 00 of this radionuclide screening analysis, the NRC found that ''processes that affect transport in the biosphere, such as uptake by plants and bioaccumulation are not accounted for'' and that ''the direct exposure pathway is not accounted for'' (Beckman 2001, Section 5.3.2.1). The NRC also found that the solubility and sorption classes were too broadly defined, noting, for example, that Se is in the same solubility and sorptivity groups as Np and U, yet is ''more soluble than Np and U by several orders of magnitude'' (Beckman 2001, Section 5.3.2.1). This revision seeks to build upon the strengths of the earlier screening method while responding to the specific concerns raised by the NRC and other reviewers. In place of simple inhalation and ingestion dose conversion factors, the revised radionuclide screening uses screening factors that also take into account soil accumulation, uptake by plants, exposure to contaminated ground, and other features of the biosphere that were neglected in the previous screening. Whereas the previous screening analysis allowed only two solubility classes (soluble and insoluble), the revised screening introduces an intermediate solubility class to better segregate the radionuclides into transport groups.

G. Ragan

2002-08-09

346

Transport of gas-phase radionuclides in a fractured, low-permeability reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the U.S. Department of Energy, DOE) oversaw a joint program between industry and government in the 1960s and 1970s to develop technology to enhance production from low-permeability gas reservoirs using nuclear stimulation rather than conventional means (e.g., hydraulic and/or acid fracturing). Project Rio Blanco, located in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, was the third experiment under the program. Three 30-kiloton nuclear explosives were placed in a 2,134-m-deep well at 1,780, 1,899, and 2,039 m below the land surface and detonated in May 1973. Although the reservoir was extensively fractured, complications such as radionuclide contamination of the gas prevented production and subsequent development of the technology. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were conducted to identify the main transport processes that have occurred and are currently occurring in relation to the detonations, and to estimate the extent of contamination in the reservoir. Minor modifications were made to TOUGH2, the multiphase, multicomponent reservoir simulator developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. The simulator allows the explicit incorporation of fractures, as well as heat transport, phase change, and first-order radionuclide decay. For a fractured, two-phase (liquid and gas) reservoir, the largest velocities are of gases through the fractures. In the gas phase, tritium and one isotope of krypton are the principal radionuclides of concern. However, in addition to existing as a fast pathway, fractures also permit matrix diffusion as a retardation mechanism. Another retardation mechanism is radionuclide decay. Simulations show that incorporation of fractures can significantly alter transport rates, and that radionuclides in the gas phase can preferentially migrate upward due to the downward gravity drainage of liquid water in the pores.

Clay Cooper; Jenny Chapman

2001-12-01

347

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology is a treatment process for contaminated soils. he process was evaluated to determine its ability to destroy semivolatile organics and to isolate metals and simulated radionuclides into a non-leachable slag materi...

348

2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

David P. Fuehne

2007-06-30

349

Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. (Albert Einstein College of Medicine-Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY (USA))

1989-07-01

350

Radionuclide removal for small public water systems. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

This document has been prepared to aid water utility owners, engineers, operators and municipal managers in understanding and dealing with excessive radionuclide levels in their water supply. It is intended to be used for defining the problem, developing or evaluating proposed solutions, and explaining to water consumers why radionuclides are controlled and what the approximate cost of control will be. This handbook is designed as a technical guide to radionuclide removal for those smaller size systems that have decided that radionuclide control is desirable. This document contains no regulatory policy and does not obligate systems to use any treatment or nontreatment technique to reduce radionuclide concentrations.

Not Available

1983-06-01

351

Hardening neutron spectrum for advanced actinide transmutation experiments in the ATR.  

PubMed

The most effective method for transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast test reactor in the United States, initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. Such a test facility, with a spectrum similar but somewhat softer than that of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), has been constructed in the INEEL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The radial fission power distribution of the actinide fuel pin, which is an important parameter in fission gas release modelling, needs to be accurately predicted and the hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum is compared. The comparison analyses in this study are performed using MCWO, a well-developed tool that couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and build-up code ORIGEN-2. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations and detailed radial fission power profile calculations for a typical fast reactor (LMFBR) neutron spectrum and the hardened neutron spectrum test region in the ATR. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the cadmium basket used in the advanced fuel test assembly in the ATR can effectively depress the linear heat generation rate in the experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum in the test region. PMID:16381683

Chang, G S; Ambrosek, R G

2005-01-01

352

Damages in ceramics for nuclear waste transmutation by irradiation with swift heavy ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inert matrices are proposed for advanced nuclear fuels or for the transmutation of the actinides that is an effective solution for the nuclear waste management. The behaviour of inert matrix ceramics like MgO, MgAl2O4 and cubic ZrO2 oxides under irradiation is presented in this study. The alumina Al2O3 has been also studied as a reference for the ceramic materials. These oxides have been irradiated with swift heavy ions at CIRIL/GANIL to simulate the fragment fission effects. The irradiations with the different heavy ions (from S to Pb) with energy between 91 and 820 MeV, have been realised at room temperature or 500 °C. The fluencies were between 5 × 1010 and 5 × 1015 ions/cm2. The polished faces of sintered polycrystalline disks or single crystal slices have been characterized before and after irradiation by X-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy. The apparent swelling evaluated from surface profile measurements after irradiation is very important for spinel and zirconia, comparatively with those of magnesia or alumina. The amorphisation seems to be at the origin of this swelling, and the electronic stopping power of the ions is the most influent parameter for the irradiation damages. The point defects characterized by optical spectroscopy show a significant amount of damage on the oxygen sub-lattice in the irradiated oxides. F+ centres are present in all irradiated oxides. However, new absorption bands are observed and cation clusters cannot be excluded in magnesia and spinel after irradiation.

Beauvy, Michel; Dalmasso, Chrystelle; Thiriet-Dodane, Catherine; Simeone, David; Gosset, Dominique

2006-01-01

353

Hardening Neutron Spectrum for Advanced Actinides Transmutation Experiments in the ATR  

SciTech Connect

The most effective method for transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast rest reactor in the United States, initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. Such a test facility, with a spectrum similar but somewhat softer than that of the liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), has been constructed in the INEEL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The radial fission power distribution of the actinide fuel pin, which is an important parameter in fission gas released modelling, needs to be accurately predicted and the hardened neturon spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum is compared. The comparison analyses in this study are peformed using MCWO, a well-developed tool that couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and build-up code ORIGEN-2. MCWO analysis yields time-dependent and neutron-spectrum-dependent minor actinide and Pu concentrations and detailed radial fission power profile calculations for a typical fast reactor (LMFBR) neutron spectrum and the hardened neturon spectrum test region in the ATR. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the cadmium basket used in the advanced fuel test assembly in the ATR can effectively depress the linear heat generation rate in the experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum in the test region.

G. S. Chang; R. G. Ambrosek

2004-05-01

354

A Study of Fast Reactor Fuel Transmutation in a Candidate Dispersion Fuel Design  

SciTech Connect

Dispersion fuels represent a significant departure from typical ceramic fuels to address swelling and radiation damage in high burnup fuel. Such fuels use a manufacturing process in which fuel particles are encapsulated within a non-fuel matrix. Dispersion fuels have been studied since 1997 as part of an international effort to develop and test very high density fuel types for the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program.[1] The Idaho National Laboratory is performing research in the development of an innovative dispersion fuel concept that will meet the challenges of transuranic (TRU) transmutation by providing an integral fission gas plenum within the fuel itself, to eliminate the swelling that accompanies the irradiation of TRU. In this process, a metal TRU vector produced in a separations process is atomized into solid microspheres. The dispersion fuel process overcoats the microspheres with a mixture of resin and hollow carbon microspheres to create a TRUC. The foam may then be heated and mixed with a metal power (e.g., Zr, Ti, or Si) and resin to form a matrix metal carbide, that may be compacted and extruded into fuel elements. In this paper, we perform reactor physics calculations for a core loaded with the conceptual fuel design. We will assume a “typical” TRU vector and a reference matrix density. We will employ a fuel and core design based on the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) design.[2] Using the CSAS6 and TRITON modules of the SCALE system [3] for preliminary scoping studies, we will demonstrate the feasibility of reactor operations. This paper will describe the results of these analyses.

Mark DeHart; Hongbin Zhang; Eric Shaber; Matthew Jesse

2010-11-01

355

Thermal issues with the US high-level waste repository and the potential benefits of waste transmutation  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a qualitative update of the thermal issues arising from the decay heat in the proposed U.S. high level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Significant questions about the ability to license this site are envisioned due to the difficulties in predicting perturbations to the site that arise from the decay heat. The hydrology of Yucca Mountain would be affected. It is suggested that waste transmutation (fuel reprocessing and use of Pu and other transuranic elements as fuel) may provide significant benefits to the repository by removing the long-term heat source posed by actinides.

Michaels, G.E.

1995-12-31

356

Biohydrometallurgical technologies  

SciTech Connect

The theme of the International Biohydrometallurgy Symposium held in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, August 22-25, 1993, is Biohydrometallurgy: An Industry Matures.'' This is a developing technology which made important contributions to the minerals industry. Biohydrometallurgical technology was first introduced into the copper industry and subsequently to the uranium industry for the production of metal values from low-grade mineral resources. Currently, biotechnology has advanced a step further. It is now commercially applied for the treatment of high-grade refractory gold ores in aerated stirred reactors to liberate precious metals for cyanidation. In addition, the industrial applications of biotechnology involve bioenhanced tertiary oil recovery processes, which contribute to an increase in oil production from previously exhausted wells. Furthermore, many bioremediation technologies are being developed for the removal of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from contaminated soils and aqueous mining and industrial effluents. This volume contains papers selected for publication which are predominantly dealing with subjects related to laboratory and industrial scale bioleaching of base and precious metals, biocorrosion phenomena, diverse bioreduction processes and electrochemical reactions. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Torma, A.E.; Wey, J.E.; Lakshmanan, V.I. (eds.)

1993-01-01

357

Improvement on the prediction accuracy of transmutation properties for fast reactor core using the minor actinides irradiation test data on the Joyo MK-II CORE  

SciTech Connect

For a validation of MA nuclear data and improvement on the prediction accuracy of MA transmutation properties in fast reactor cores, MA sample irradiation test data of Joyo were utilized. Adopting MA cross-sections in JENDL-3.3, result of their evaluations showed good agreement with experimental data. Further, the present study clarified that utilization of these data with cross-section adjustment technique has a potential to reduce uncertainty of MA transmutation properties in fast reactor cores to less than half. (author)

Sugino, Kazuteru [Advanced Nuclear System Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA, 4002, Narita-Cho, Oarai-Machi, Higashi-Ibaraki-Gun, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan)

2007-07-01

358

Sludge source term (PUREX process radionuclide dose impact)  

SciTech Connect

This report analyzes the radionuclide dose impact of the PUREX process waste stream. The radionuclide ingestion and inhalation pathways are analyzed. Two spent fuel assemblies processed in the Separation facilities are analyzed, the Mark 31A and Mark 31B. The individual radionuclide significance to dose is evaluated in terms of dose percentage. Comparing the radionuclide individual dose value allows the determination of those radionuclides whose dose impact is significant. The results of this analysis demonstrate that a limited number of radionuclides contribute 1% or more to the total dose and that the major contributor to the sludge source dose is strontium. The results obtained permit reducing the list of radionuclides to be considered in the development of source terms to support the High Level Waste Safety Analysis Report.

Aponte, C.I.

1994-06-28

359

Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

Knight, M.J.

1983-04-01

360

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

361

Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

2013-04-01

362

Radionuclide Sensors and Systems for Environmental Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

We have developed automated sensor and monitoring devices for trace radionuclides in water, using preconcentrating columns and radiometric detection. The preconcentrating minicolumn sensor concept combines selective capture and detection in a single functional unit. We have demonstrated quantification of radionuclides such as technetium-99 to levels below drinking water standards in an equilibration-based process that produces steady state signals, signal proportional to concentration, and easy re-equilibration to new concentration levels. Alternatively, monitors can be developed with separate separation and detection units that are fluidically linked. We have demonstrated detection of strontium-90 to levels below drinking water standards by this approach. We are developing autonomous systems for at-site monitoring on the Hanford Site in Washington State.

Grate, Jay W.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Egorov, Oleg; Burge, Scott R.

2009-05-18

363

Radionuclide metrology using liquid scintillation counting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) techniques can be used for radionuclide standardization when the calculation of detection efficiency is possible. This is done using a model of the physicochemical processes involved in light emission and also of the statistics of photon emission: the free parameter model. This model can then be applied in two ways: by deducing the free parameter from the measurement of a tracer (the CIEMAT/NIST method) or by calculating this free parameter from coincidence ratio in a specific LS counter (the TDCR method). The purpose of this paper is to describe both these models and some practical issues that need to be addressed if LSC is to be effectively used in radionuclide metrology.

Broda, Ryszard; Cassette, Philippe; Kossert, Karsten

2007-08-01

364

Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

1992-08-04

365

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2008  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2008, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources include more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2008 is 5.2 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (5.2 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2008.

Wahl, Linnea

2009-05-21

366

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2007  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radioactive air emission regulations in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). The EPA regulates radionuclide emissions that may be released from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or that may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2007, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor stack or building emissions sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]), there were no diffuse emissions, and there were no unplanned emissions. Emissions from minor sources either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities received for use or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, Version 3.0, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2007 is 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mrem/yr (1.2 x 10{sup -4} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) EPA dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 3.1 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (3.1 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2007.

Wahl, Linnea; Wahl, Linnea

2008-06-13

367

Detection of osteoporotic sacral fractures with radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Osteoporotic sacral fractures usually occur in elerly patients as a result of mild trauma. Clinical symptoms range from localized sacral tenderness to neurologic problems attributable to sacral nerve root irritation or cauda equina compression. Although the radiographic diagnosis is difficult to establish, bone scans show a characteristic H-shaped pattern of radionuclide uptake across the sacrum and sacroiliac joints. Four cases of osteoporotic sacral fracture with confirmation by computed tomography are included in this report.

Ries, T.

1983-03-01

368

Radionuclide technique in mechanical engineering in Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subject of increasing application of cyclotron machines is the RadionuclideTechnique inMechanical Engineering (RTM), a measuring system that enables wear and corrosion diagnostics of components of operating machines, apparatus or processing plants. The three components of the RTM-system, the thin layer-activation at the cyclotron, the measuring methods and the measuring instruments for application in industry, have been developed systematically at

P. Fehsenfeld; A. Kleinrahm; H. Schweickert

1992-01-01

369

Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references.

Conway, J.J.

1986-12-01

370

Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics.  

PubMed

Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the "toddler's fracture," sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. PMID:3537946

Conway, J J

1986-12-01

371

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

Wahl, Linnea

2010-06-01

372

Sedimentation rate determination by radionuclides mass balances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, uranium mining activity took place in the area around Limoges, France. Even nowadays, this activity results in an increase in the input and availability of radionuclides in aquifer reservoirs, making of this area a suitable site to better understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the surficial environment. Water was sampled monthly over the entire year 2001 in a brook that collects mine water and in a lake fed by this brook. Samples were filtered through 0.45?m filters to remove particles. Activities of 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 228Th and 228Ra were measured on particulate (>0.45?m), dissolved (<0.45?m) and total (unfiltered) fractions by gamma spectrometry in the well of a high efficiency, low background, germanium detector settled in an underground laboratory, protected from cosmic rays by 1700 m of rocks (LSM, CNRS-CEA, French Alps). Activities measured in particulate and dissolved fractions were summed and compared to the one measured in unfiltered water to test the filtration yield. No significant loss or contamination were detected. In the brook water, 70% of 238U, 60% of 226Ra and 80% of 210Pb are associated with particles. Activities associated with particles decrease drastically along with the velocity of current when the stream enters the lake. An annual mass balance of radionuclides carried by particles from the stream to the lake was used to determine the sedimentation rate in the lake. The flux of particles deduced from mass balance calculations based on five isotopes corresponds to the thickness of sediment accumulated since the creation of this artificial lake (that is, 1976). This study emphasises the usefulness of radionuclides as tracers for environmental investigations.

Cazala, C.; Reyss, J. L.; Decossas, J. L.; Royer, A.

2003-04-01

373

Leaching of accelerator-produced radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Leaching of radionuclides produced in soil and rock by high energy proton-induced radiation was studied for the SCC and CEBAF sites. Comparison was made with predictions of a Monte-Carlo code CASIM and previous results for the Fermilab site. The principal long-lived radionuclides were {sup 3}H and {sup 22}Na in agreement with Fermilab results. A few other radionuclides were present at lower concentrations in a subset of the samples. For example, {sup 134}Cs was detected in a few SSC water samples and {sup 7}Be and {sup 54}Mn were present at higher concentrations in a CEBAF sample. Leaching from SSC chalk was dependent on previous weathering and on leaching time. The more soil-like marl and shale were leached more rapidly. Results of this study in conjunction with the SSC ground-water model show that adequate ground-water protection would result for loss of the entire proton beam in the SSC Collider tunnel.

Baker, S.; Bull, J.; Goss, D.

1994-05-01

374

UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

2006-08-28

375

Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters  

SciTech Connect

The study objective of "The Mathematical Simulation of Sediment and Radionuclide Transport in Surface Waters" is to synthesize and test radionuclide transport models capable of realistically assessing radionuclide transport in various types of surface water bodies by including the sediment-radionuclide interactions. These interactions include radionuclide adsorption by sediment; desorption from sediment into water; and transport, deposition, and resuspension of sorbed radionuclides controlled by the sediment movements. During FY-1979, the modification of sediment and contaminant (radionuclide) transport model, FETRA, was completed to make it applicable to coastal waters. The model is an unsteady, two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral) model that consists of three submodels (for sediment, dissolved-contaminant, and particulate-contaminant transport), coupled to include the sediment-contaminant interactions. In estuaries, flow phenomena and consequent sediment and radionuclide migration are often three-dimensional in nature mainly because of nonuniform channel cross-sections, salinity intrusion, and lateral-flow circulation. Thus, an unsteady, three-dimensional radionuclide transport model for estuaries is also being synthesized by combining and modifying a PNL unsteady hydrothermal model and FETRA. These two radionuclide transport models for coastal waters and estuaries will be applied to actual sites to examine the validity of the codes.

,

1981-04-01

376

Flibe blanket concept for transmuting transuranic elements and long lived fission products.  

SciTech Connect

A Molten salt (Flibe) fusion blanket concept has been developed to solve the disposition problems of the spent nuclear fuel and the transuranic elements. This blanket concept can achieve the top rated solution, the complete elimination of the transuranic elements and the long-lived fission products. Small driven fusion devices with low neutron wall loading and low neutron fluence can perform this function. A 344-MW integrated fusion power from D-T plasmas for thirty years with an availability factor of 0.75 can dispose of 70,000 tons of the US inventory of spent nuclear fuel generated up to the year 2015. In addition, the utilization of this blanket concept eliminates the need for a geological repository site, which is a major advantage. This application provides an excellent opportunity to develop and to enhance the public acceptance of the fusion energy for the future. The energy from the transmutation process is utilized to produce revenue. Flibe, lithium-lead eutectic, and liquid lead are possible candidates. The liquid blankets have several features, which are suited for W application. It can operate at constant thermal power without interruption for refueling by adjusting the concentration of the transuranic elements and lithium-6. These liquids operate at low-pressure, which reduces the primary stresses in the structure material. Development and fabrication costs of solid transuranic materials are eliminated. Burnup limit of the transuranic elements due to radiation effects is eliminated. Heat is generated within the liquid, which simplifies the heat removal process without producing thermal stresses. These blanket concepts have large negative temperature coefficient with respect to the blanket reactivity, which enhances the safety performance. These liquids are chemically and thermally stable under irradiation conditions, which minimize the radioactive waste volume. The operational record of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor with Flibe was very successful, which established the technical bases for this application. This paper provides the technical analyses and the performance of the Flibe blanket concept as an example of this class of blankets.

Gohar, Y.

2000-11-15

377

Use of natural radionuclides to predict the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers  

SciTech Connect

In appropriate aquifers the natural radionuclides of the U and Th decay series are important sources of information about the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers. The Wolfcamp Carbonate, Pennsylvanian Carbonate and Granite Wash aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle are prime examples of such aquifers. Sampling and analysis for key radionuclides in the ground waters of these aquifers are quite feasible and have been accomplished. Key early results are: (1) Ra does not appear to be retarded by sorption, (2) Th appears to be strongly sorbed, (3) kinetics seem to be different on time scales of days to months than on ones of hundreds of thousands of years, and (4) U and Th behave similarly when the time scales (half-lives) are similar, leading to the suggestion that uranium is in the +4 valence state in these aquifers. 10 references, 3 figures.

Hubbard, N.; Laul, J.C.; Perkins, R.W.

1984-01-01

378

Use of natural radionuclides to predict the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifiers  

SciTech Connect

In appropriate aquifers the natural radionuclides of the U and Th decay series are important sources of information about the behavior of radwaste radionuclides in far-field aquifers. The Wolfcamp Carbonate, Pennsylvanian Carbonate and Granite Wash aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle are prime examples of such aquifers. Sampling and analysis for key radionuclides in the ground waters of these aquifers are quite feasible and have been accomplished. Key early results are: (1) Ra does not appear to be retarded by sorption, (2) Th appears to be strongly sorbed, (3) kinetics seem to be different on time scales of days to months than on ones of hundreds of thousands of years, and (4) U and Th behave similarily when the time scales (half-lives) are similar, leading to the suggestion that uranium is in the +4 valence state in these aquifers. 10 references, 9 figures.

Hubbard, N.; Laul, J.C.; Perkins, R.W.

1983-10-01

379

Neutronic and Logistic Proposal for Transmutation of Plutonium from Spent Nuclear Fuel as Mixed-Oxide Fuel in Existing Light Water Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of light water reactors (LWRs) for the destruction of plutonium and other actinides [especially those in spent nuclear fuel (SNF)] is being examined worldwide. One possibility for transmutation of this material is the use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, which is a combination of uranium and plutonium oxides. MOX fuel is used in nuclear reactors worldwide, so a large

Trellue; Holly R

2004-01-01

380

Radiation doses to members of the U.S. population from ubiquitous radionuclides in the body: Part 1, autopsy and in vivo data.  

PubMed

This paper is Part 1 of a three-part series investigating steady-state effective dose rates to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling (222)Rn, (220)Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. In this work, it is assumed that instantaneous dose rates in target organs are proportional to steady-state radionuclide concentrations in source regions. The goal of Part 1 of this work was to review, summarize, and characterize all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Forty-five papers and reports were obtained and their data reviewed, and three data sets were obtained via private communication. The 45 radionuclides of interest are the (238)U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by (235)U; 11 nuclides), and the (232)Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides (87)Rb and (40)K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides (14)C and (3)H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs-(137m)Ba, (129)I, and (90)Sr-(90)Y. Measurements judged to be relevant were available for only 15 of these radionuclides: (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (232)Th, (230)Th, (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (137)Cs, (87)Rb, (40)K, (14)C, and (3)H. Recent and relevant measurements were not available for (129)I and (90)Sr-(90)Y. A total of 11,741 radionuclide concentration measurements were found in one or more tissues or organs from 14 states. Data on age, gender, geographic locations, height, and weight of subjects were available only sporadically. Too often authors did not provide meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements, so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. The following papers detail how these shortcomings are overcome to achieve the goals of the three-part series. PMID:21350344

Watson, David J; Strom, Daniel J

2011-04-01

381

Idaho radionuclide study (radionuclide exposure study, Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho)  

SciTech Connect

The report gives the results of a radionuclide exposure study conducted by EPA in southeastern Idaho to estimate the radiation dose resulting from the elemental phosphorus industry. The dispersion of radionuclides through the environs of Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho were investigated together with the relative importance of their sources and pathways affecting the populations of both towns and the magnitude of the attendant risks. Gamma ray exposures to the populations of Soda Springs and Pocatello, with the attendant risks, and the corresponding values for average and maximally exposed individuals in both communities are listed.

Not Available

1990-04-01

382

Transfer coefficients of radionuclides secreted in milk of dairy cows.  

PubMed

This study simulated experimentally the transfer of radionuclides to milk of dairy cows on a worst-case situation using various radionuclides known to emanate from nuclear power stations and which have been detected on particulates. Two lactating Holstein cows were administered orally one gelatin capsule containing 10 radionuclides in water-soluble form per day for 14 consecutive days. Milk samples were collected and aliquots analyzed in a germanium lithium-drifted detector coupled to a 2048-multichannel gamma-ray analyzer to measure small amounts of complex mixtures of radionuclides. The transfer coefficients of the radionuclides were calculated when their secretion in milk reached or approached a plateau of concentration. The radionuclides and their transfer coefficients to milk were: chromium51 less than .01%; manganese54 .033 +/- .005%; cobalt60 .01 +/- .002%; iron59 .0048 +/- .002%; zinc65 .31 +/- .07%; selenium75 .29 +/- .1%; antimony125 .011 +/- .003%; iodine131 .88 +/- .05%; and cesium137 .79 +/- .08%. PMID:7430486

Sam, D; Williams, W F; Rockmann, D D; Allen, J T

1980-09-01

383

Babcock and Wilcox cyclone furnace vitrification technology: Applications analysis report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The document is an evaluation of the performance of the Babcock Wilcox (B W) Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for soils contaminated with heavy metals, radionuclides, and organics. Both the technical and economic aspects of the technology were examined. A demonstration of the B W vitrification technology was conducted in the fall of 1991

Staley

1992-01-01

384

Measurement of nuclear-physical characteristics of radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides the revised data for the nuclear-physical characteristics (NPC) measurements of seven radionuclides: 238Pu, 239pu, SSFe, ~25mTe, ~SmSn, ?SSe, and ~V~ These radionuclides are widely used in the preparation of various radionuclide products, standard sources of ionizing radiation, and standard solutions. The emission characteristics data for the nuclides may be used for calibration of semiconductor spectrometers with regard

A. M. Geidel'man; Yu. S. Egorov; V. G. Nedovesov; G. E. Shchukin

1987-01-01

385

Radionuclides associated with potential phosphate mining and their possible hazards  

SciTech Connect

Phosphate deposits exist in several regions in Saudi Arabia. Uranium and thorium and their decay products are known to be in phosphate rocks. Radionuclides of the uranium decay series are the more significant in terms of potential radiation hazard to people. Some of these radionuclides are leachable by acidic solutions. Since the local deposits will eventually be mined and processed, it is important to assay the concentrations of uranium and leachable daughter radionuclides in these ores.

AbdulFattah, A.R.F.; Mamoon, A.; Addas, Y.; Sohsah, M. [King Abdulaziz Univ. (Saudi Arabia)

1994-12-31

386

COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The CPFM technology is designed to remove trace to moderate levels of nontritium radionuclides and heavy metal pollutants from water. he technology uses a proprietary compound that consists of inorganic, oxide-based granules. his mixed is designed to remove heavy metals and radio...

387

COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The CPFM technology is designed to remove trace to moderate levels of nontritium radionuclides and heavy metal pollutants from water. The technology uses a proprietary compound that consists of inorganic, oxide-based granules. This mixed is designed to remove heavy metals and rad...

388

Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

NONE

1996-11-01

389

Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M. [and others

1994-04-01

390

Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in estuaries  

SciTech Connect

The finite element model LFESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment and Contaminant Transport Model) was synthesized under this study to simulate radionuclide transport in estuaries to obtain accurate radionuclide distributions which are affected by these factors: time variance, three-dimensional flow, temperature, salinity, and sediments. Because sediment transport and radionuclide adsorption/desorption depend strongly on sizes or types of sediments, FLESCOT simulates sediment and a sediment-sorbed radionuclide for the total of three sediment-size fractions (or sediment types) of both cohesive and noncohesive sediments. It also calculates changes of estuarine bed conditions, including bed elevation changes due to sediment erosion/deposition, and three-dimensional distributions of three bed sediment sizes and sediment-sorbed radionuclides within the bed. Although the model was synthesized for radionuclide transport, it is general enough to also handle other contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, or toxic chemicals. The model was checked for its capability for flow, water surface elevation change, salinity, sediment and radionuclide transport under various simple conditions first, confirming the general validity of the model's computational schemes. These tests also revealed that FLESCOT can use large aspect ratios of computational cells, which are necessary in handling long estuarine study areas. After these simple tests, FLESCOT was applied to the Hudson River estuary between Chelsea and the mouth of the river to examine how well the model can predict radionuclide transport through simulating tidally influenced three-dimensional flow, salinity, sediment and radionuclide movements with their interactions.

Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

1982-11-01

391

Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E. [and others

1994-04-01

392

Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

1999-01-01

393

Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1999-03-23

394

Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.  

PubMed

The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2 x 10(2). Although these are hypothetical risks, they show that the radiologic impact of man-made sources is very small compared to the effects of normal background radiation. PMID:8635444

Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

1995-12-01

395

Radionuclide evaluation of nonmalignant bone disorders  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in nuclear imaging have improved the noninvasive evaluation of patients with nonmalignant bone disorders. When bone scanning agents are combined with bone marrow scanning agents and gallium-67 scintigraphy, a more accurate diagnosis can be obtained. By selecting the appropriate imaging sequence, it is often possible to distinguish cellulitis from underlying osteomyelitis. In patients with total hip replacements, it may be possible to separate postsurgical changes from prosthetic loosening or infection. Stress fractures in joggers may be detected by radionuclide bone scintigraphy before radiographs become abnormal. These nuclear imaging procedures can be done in most hospitals.

Winzelberg, G.G.

1983-02-01

396

Bioremediation of Metals and Radionuclides: What It Is and How It Works (2nd Edition)  

SciTech Connect

This primer is intended for people interested in environmental problems of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. The second edition of the primer incorporates recent findings by researchers in DOE's Natural and Accelerated Bioremediation Research (NABIR) Program. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on the physical-chemical environment, microbial communities, and nature of the contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through the addition of nutrients (biostimulation) or inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation). Over the past few years, interest in bioremediation has increased. It has become clear that many organic contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels can be degraded to relatively harmless products such as CO{sub 2} (the end result of the degradation process). Waste water managers and scientists have also found that microorganisms can interact with metals and convert them from one chemical form to another. Laboratory tests and ex situ bioremediation applications have shown that microorganisms can change the valence, or oxidation state, of some heavy metals (e.g., chromium and mercury) and radionuclides (e.g., uranium) by using them as electron acceptors. In some cases, the solubility of the altered species decreases and the contaminant is immobilized in situ, i.e., precipitated into an insoluble salt in the sediment. In other cases, the opposite occurs--the solubility of the altered species increases, increasing the mobility of the contaminant and allowing it to be more easily flushed from the environment. Both of these kinds of transformations present opportunities for bioremediation of metals and radionuclides--either to lock them in place, or to accelerate their removal. DOE's goal is to reduce the risk and related exposure to ground water, sediment, and soil contamination at Department of Energy facilities. Subsurface bioremediation of metals and radionuclides at the site of contamination (in situ bioremediation) is not yet in widespread use. However, successful in situ applications of bioremediation to petroleum products and chlorinated solvents provide experience from which scientists can draw. Taken together, the accomplishments in these areas have led scientists and engineers to be optimistic about applying this technology to the mixtures of metals and radionuclides that are found at some of the most contaminated DOE sites. This primer examines some of the basic microbial and chemical processes that are a part of bioremediation, specifically the bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. The primer is divided into six sections, with the information in each building on that of the previous. The sections include features that highlight topics of interest and provide background information on specific biological and chemical processes and reactions. The first section briefly examines the scope of the contamination problem at DOE facilities. The second section gives a summary of some of the most commonly used bioremediation technologies, including successful in situ and ex situ techniques. The third discusses chemical and physical properties of metals and radionuclides found in contaminant mixtures at DOE sites, including solubility and the most common oxidation states in which these materials are found. The fourth section is an overview of the basic microbial processes that occur in bioremediation. The fifth section looks at specific in s

Palmisano, Anna; Hazen, Terry

2003-09-30

397

Critical review: Radionuclide transport, sediment transport, and water quality mathematical modeling; and radionuclide adsorption/desorption mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a detailed literature review of radionuclide transport models applicable to rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and impoundments. Some representatives sediment transport and water quality models were also reviewed to evaluate if they can be readily adapted to radionuclide transport modeling. The review showed that most available transport models were developed for dissolved radionuclide in rivers. These models include the mechanisms of advection, dispersion, and radionuclide decay. Since the models do not include sediment and radionuclide interactions, they are best suited for simulating short-term radionuclide migration where: (1) radionuclides have small distribution coefficients; (2) sediment concentrations in receiving water bodies are very low. Only 5 of the reviewed models include full sediment and radionuclide interactions: CHMSED developed by Fields; FETRA SERATRA, and TODAM developed by Onishi et al, and a model developed by Shull and Gloyna. The 5 models are applicable to cases where: (1) the distribution coefficient is large; (2) sediment concentrations are high; or (3) long-term migration and accumulation are under consideration. The report also discusses radionuclide absorption/desorption distribution ratios and addresses adsorption/desorption mechanisms and their controlling processes for 25 elements under surface water conditions. These elements are: Am, Sb, C, Ce, Cm, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, I, Fe, Mn, Np, P, Pu, Pm, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, Th, {sup 3}H, U, Zn and Zr.

Onishi, Y.; Serne, R.J.; Arnold, E.M.; Cowan, C.E.; Thompson, F.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1981-01-01

398

The IAEA CRP on Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste  

SciTech Connect

In 2003, the IAEA has initiated the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Studies of Advanced Reactor Technology Options for Effective Incineration of Radioactive Waste'. The overall objective of the CRP, performed within the framework of IAEA's Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors, is to increase the capability of Member States in developing and applying advanced technologies in the area of long-lived radioactive waste utilization and transmutation. Twenty institutions from 15 Member States and one international organization participated in this CRP. The CRP concentrated on the assessment of the dynamic behavior of various transmutation systems. The reactor systems investigated comprise critical reactors, sub-critical accelerator driven systems with heavy liquid metal and gas cooling, critical molten salt systems, and hybrid fusion/fission systems. Both fertile and fertile-free fuel options have been investigated. Apart from the benchmarking of steady state core configurations (including the investigation of transmutation potential, burn-up behavior and decay heat of minor actinide (MA) bearing fuels), the CRP participants determined the safety coefficients for the individual systems and, in a second stage, performed transient analyses which reflected the generic safety related behavior of the various reactors types. (authors)

Maschek, W.; Chen, X.; Rineiski, A.; Schikorr, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, P.O.Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Stanculescu, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, Post Office Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Arien, B.; Malambu, E. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Bai, Y.; Li, J.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, S. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, ASIPP, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Chabert, C.; Peneliau, Y. [CEA Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Chebeskov, A.; Dekoussar, V.; Vorotyntsev, M. [SSC-IPPE, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk 249033, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); da Cruz, D.F. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group - NRG, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Devan, K.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Harish, R.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Pandikumar, G. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam-603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Dulla, S.; Ravetto, P. [Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 2, 10129 Torino (Italy); Feynberg, O.; Ignatiev, V.; Subbotin, V.; Surenkov, A.; Zakirov, R. [RRC - Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq., 1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kophazi, J.; Szieberth, M. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Muegyetem rkp. 9, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Morita, K. [Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Srivenkatesan, R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Taczanowski, S. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Tucek, K.; Wider, H. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Vertes, P. [Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O.Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Uhlir, J. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc., CZ-250 68 Husinec - Rez 13 (Czech Republic)

2007-07-01

399

A theoretical model for the production of Ac-225 for cancer therapy by neutron capture transmutation of Ra-226.  

PubMed

Radium needles that were once implanted into tumours as a cancer treatment are now obsolete and constitute a radioactive waste problem, as their half-life is 1600 years. We are investigating the reduction of radium by transmutation by bombarding Ra-226 with high-energy neutrons from a neutron source to produce Ra-225 and hence Ac-225, which can be used as a generator to produce Bi-213 for use in 'Targeted Alpha Therapy' for cancer. This paper examines the possibility of producing Ac-225 by neutron capture using a theoretical model in which neutron energy is convoluted with the corresponding neutron cross sections of Ra-226. The total integrated yield can then be obtained. This study shows that an intense beam of high-energy neutrons could initiate neutron capture on Ra-226 to produce Ra-225 and hence practical amounts of Ac-225 and a useful reduction of Ra-226. PMID:23220026

Melville, G; Melville, P

2012-10-16

400

Technologies using accelerator-driven targets under development at BNL  

SciTech Connect

Recent development work conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory on technologies which use particle accelerator-driven targets is summarized. These efforts include development of the Spallation-Induced Lithium Conversion (SILC) Target for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT), the Accelerator-Driven Assembly for Plutonium Transformation (ADAPT) Target for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of excess weapons plutonium, The PHOENIX Concept for the accelerator-driven transmutation of minor actinides and fission products from the waste stream of commercial nuclear power plants, and other potential applications.

Van Tuyle, Gregory J. [Dept. of Advanced Technologies Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

1995-09-15

401

Finite Element Research of Self-Supporting Technology in Construction of Underground Structures Adjacent to Existing Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sedimentation of adjacent buildings and the transmutation of supporting piles were simulated by large-scale finite element engineering software ANSYS according to a residential community foundation-pit excavation practice. Then the data was compared with monitoring data in the actual construction process, and innovative technology programs were designed. It relied on the underground engineering structure self-stiffness to provide supporting points for

Wang Yun; Yao Jitao; Yan Yuting; Shang Xuguang

2011-01-01

402

Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VI. Short-term risk analysis of reprocessing, refabrication, and transportation: summary  

SciTech Connect

A Partitioning-Transmutation (PT) fuel cycle is being compared to a Reference cycle employing conventional fuel-material recovery methods. The PT cycle uses enhanced recovery methods so that most of the long-lived actinides are recycled to nuclear power plants and transmuted thereby reducing the waste toxicity. This report compares the two fuel cycles on the basis of the short-term radiological and nonradiological risks. The accidental radiological risk to the public is analyzed by estimating the probabilities of sets of accidents; the consequences are calculated using the risk, which is RAC code. Routine radiological risks to the public are estimated from the calculated release amounts, also using the CRAC code. Radiological occupational risks are determined from prior experience, projected standards, and estimates of accident risk. Nonradiological risks are calculated from the number of personnel involved, historical experience, and epidemiological studies. Result of this analysis is that the short-term risk of PT is 2.9 times greater than that of the Reference cycle, primarily due to the larger amount of industry. The nonradiological risk which is about 150 times greater than the radiological risk. If the radiological risk is consdered alone, the ratio of PT to Reference risk is 3, composed as follows: radiological operations affecting the public 5, radiological operations affecting the workers 1.7, and radiological accidents affecting the public 1.4, all in the order of decreasing risk. The absolute risk as estimated for the fuel cycle portions considered in this report is 0.91 fatality/GWe-year for the PT cycle and 0.34 fatality/GWe-year for the reference cycle; this compares with 1.5 for nuclear and 150 for coal. All of the risks assumed here are associated with the production of one billion watts of electricity (GWe) per year.

Fullwood, R.; Jackson, R.

1980-03-01

403

Radionuclide studies in paediatric nephro-urology.  

PubMed

The main tool of radionuclide techniques applied to paediatric uro-nephrology is the quantitation of function, which is an information not easily obtained by other diagnostic modalities. The radiation burden is low. Drug sedation is only rarely needed, whatever the age of the patient. Accurate determination of glomerular filtration rate can be obtained by means of an intravenous injection of Cr-51 EDTA and one or two blood samples. Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy is an accurate method for evaluation of regional cortical impairment during acute pyelonephritis and later on, for detection of permanent scarring. Tc-99m MAG3 renography is nowadays a well-standardized method for accurate estimation of the split renal function and of renal drainage with or without furosemide challenge. This technique is particularly indicated in uni- or bilateral uropathies with or without renal and/or ureteral dilatation. Direct and indirect radionuclide cystography are two alternative modalities for X-ray MCUG. Their relative place in the strategy of management of vesicoureteral reflux is discussed. PMID:12127212

Piepsz, Amy

2002-08-01

404

Estimation of radionuclide content in contaminated laundry.  

PubMed

Radioactively contaminated laundry is normally sent off site for processing. Laundry is defined as radiologically contaminated anti-cs and respirators. This laundry is shipped as "limited quantity," in accordance with 49CFR173.421. This requires that 95% of the radionuclides shipped are characterized and quantified. In addition, the total quantity must be 10(-3) below the A2 limits specified in 49CFR173. In any facility evaluated, the most conservative (highest activity) waste stream was used as the source term. If a new waste stream is established for a facility, its normalized activity should be compared to the evaluated waste stream to ensure the limits are not exceeded. This article documents a method used for estimating the radionuclide content in contaminated laundry. The maximum values were compared to 49CFR173. Itwas determined that if the contaminated laundry/respirators are shipped in an Interstate Nuclear Services (INS), L-59, limited quantity shipping container and the highest contact radiation level on any side, as measured with an ion chamber, does not exceed 0.5 mR h(-1), the container complies with the requirements of 49CFR173 and could be shipped "limited quantity" from any of the facilities evaluated. PMID:11480863

Schrader, B J

2001-08-01

405

Radionuclide release from research reactor spent fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous investigations with respect to LWR fuel under non oxidizing repository relevant conditions were performed. The results obtained indicate slow corrosion rates for the UO2 fuel matrix. Special fuel-types (mostly dispersed fuels, high enriched in 235U, cladded with aluminium) are used in German research reactors, whereas in German nuclear power plants, UO2-fuel (LWR fuel, enrichment in 235U up to 5%, zircaloy as cladding) is used. Irradiated research reactor fuels contribute less than 1% to the total waste volume. In Germany, the state is responsible for fuel operation and for fuel back-end options. The institute for energy research (IEF-6) at the Research Center Jülich performs investigation with irradiated research reactor spent fuels under repository relevant conditions. In the study, the corrosion of research reactor spent fuel has been investigated in MgCl2-rich salt brine and the radionuclide release fractions have been determined. Leaching experiments in brine with two different research reactor fuel-types were performed in a hot cell facility in order to determine the corrosion behaviour and the radionuclide release fractions. The corrosion of two dispersed research reactor fuel-types (UAlx-Al and U3Si2-Al) was studied in 400 mL MgCl2-rich salt brine in the presence of Fe2+ under static and initially anoxic conditions. Within these experimental parameters, both fuel types corroded in the experimental time period of 3.5 years completely, and secondary alteration phases were formed. After complete corrosion of the used research reactor fuel samples, the inventories of Cs and Sr were quantitatively detected in solution. Solution concentrations of Am and Eu were lower than the solubility of Am(OH)3(s) and Eu(OH)3(s) solid phases respectively, and may be controlled by sorption processes. Pu concentrations may be controlled by Pu(IV) polymer species, but the presence of Pu(V) and Pu(IV) oxyhydroxides species due to radiolytic effects cannot completely be ruled out. Solution concentrations of U were within the range of the solubility limits of the solid phase U(OH)4(am). The determined concentrations of U and Am in solution were about one order of magnitude higher for the U3Si2-Al fuel sample. Here, the formation of U/Si containing secondary phase components and their influence on radionuclide solubility cannot be ruled out. Results of this work show that the U3Si2-Al and UAlx-Al dispersed research reactor spent fuel samples dissolved completely within the test period of 3.5 years in MgCl2-rich brine in the presence of Fe2+. In view of final disposal this means that these fuel matrices represent no barrier. The radionuclides will be released instantaneously. Cs (the long-lived isotope 135Cs is of special concern with respect to final disposal) and Sr were classified as mobile radionuclide species. For U, Am, Pu and Eu, a reimmobilization was observed. Sorption is the process which is assumed to be responsible for the reimmobilization of the long-lived actinide Am and the lanthanide Eu. Solution concentrations of U and Pu seem to be controlled by their solubility controlling solid phases.

Curtius, H.; Kaiser, G.; Müller, E.; Bosbach, D.

2011-09-01

406

Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with low concentrations of radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystems throughout the world have been contaminated with radionuclides by above-ground nuclear testing, nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear power generation. Radioisotopes characteristic of nuclear fission, such as 137Cs and 90Sr, that are released into the environment can become more concentrated as they move up the food chain often becoming human health hazards. Natural environmental processes will redistribute long lived radionuclides

James A. Entry; Nan C. Vance; Melinda A. Hamilton; Darlene Zabowski; Lidia S. Watrud; Domy C. Adriano

1996-01-01

407

Risk Due to Radiological Terror Attacks With Natural Radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The naturally occurring radionuclides radium (Ra-226) and polonium (Po-210) have the potential to be used for criminal acts. Analysis of international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (CSTO), operated at the University of Salzburg, shows that several acts of murder and terrorism with natural radionuclides have already been carried out in Europe

Steinhaeusler Friedrich; Rydell Stan; Zaitseva Lyudmila

2008-01-01

408

Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina  

SciTech Connect

Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Av. Del Libertador 8250, Ciudad de Bs. As. (1429) (Argentina)

2008-08-07

409

Reactor-released radionuclides in Susquehanna River sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Mile Island (TMI) and Peach Bottom (PB) reactors have introduced 137Cs, 134Cs, 60Co, 58Co and several other anthropogenic radionuclides into the lower Susquehanna River. Here we present the release history for these nuclides (Table 1) and radionuclide concentration data (Table 2) for sediment samples collected in the river and upper portions of the Chesapeake Bay (Fig. 1) within a

C. R. Olsen; I. L. Larsen; N. H. Cutshall; J. F. Donoghue; O. P. Bricker; H. J. Simpson

1981-01-01

410

Exercise radionuclide ejection fraction: correlation with exercise contrast ventriculography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease or aortic valvular disease were studied at rest and during supine bicycle exercise with radionuclide and contrast left ventriculography. The radionuclide ejection fractions calculated independently by three observers correlated well at rest (r = 0.96) and with exercise (r = 0.94). The calculated values also correlated well with those obtained for

T. J. Brady; K. Lo; J. H. Thrall; J. A. Walton; J. F. Brymer; B. Pitt

1979-01-01

411

Radionuclides in fruit systems: Model–model intercomparison study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling is widely used to predict radionuclide distribution following accidental radionuclide releases. Modeling is crucial in emergency response planning and risk communication, and understanding model uncertainty is important not only in conducting analysis consistent with current regulatory guidance, but also in gaining stakeholder and decision-maker trust in the process and confidence in the results. However, while methods for dealing with

I. Linkov; F. Carini; C. Collins; K. Eged; N. G. Mitchell; C. Mourlon; Z. Ould-Dada; B. Robles; L. Sweeck; A. Venter

2006-01-01

412

Nevada test site radionuclide inventory and distribution: project operations plan  

SciTech Connect

This document is the operational plan for conducting the Radionuclide Inventory and Distribution Program (RIDP) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The basic objective of this program is to inventory the significant radionuclides of NTS origin in NTS surface soil. The expected duration of the program is five years. This plan includes the program objectives, methods, organization, and schedules.

Kordas, J.F.; Anspaugh, L.R.

1982-06-01

413

Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review.  

PubMed

Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current developments that have lead, or could potentially contribute, to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) uranium mining and milling; (5) commercial fuel reprocessing; (6) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes that include radionuclides might be released in the future, and (7) nuclear accidents. Then, we briefly summarize the inventory of radionuclides (99)Tc and (129)I, as well as geochemical behavior for radionuclides (99)Tc, (129)I, and (237)Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment; biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides. PMID:18819734

Hu, Qin-Hong; Weng, Jian-Qing; Wang, Jin-Sheng

2008-09-25

414

REMOVAL OF RADIONUCLIDES BY ELECTROKINETIC SOIL PROCESSING  

EPA Science Inventory

The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program was authorized as part of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. his program addresses the need for an alternative or innovative treatment technology research and demonstration program to assi...

415

Determination of the optimal plutonium fraction in transuranium discharged from pressured water reactor (PWR) spent fuel for a flat fission power generation in the force-free helical reactor (FFHR) along the transmutation period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmutation of transuranium (TRU) discharged from PWR spent fuel and the possibility of a flat fission power (FFP) generation along the transmutation process have been investigated in the force-free helical reactor (FFHR), which is a demo relevant helical-type D-T fusion reactor, for an operation period (OP) of up to 10 years by 75% plant factor (?) under a neutron wall

Hüseyin Yap?c?

2003-01-01

416

WORKSHOP ON DEVELOPMENT OF RADIONUCLIDE GETTERS FOR THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE REPOSITORY  

SciTech Connect

One of the important that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently undertaking is the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository to be located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Concern is generated by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) is due to potential releases as groundwater contamination, as described in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The dose to an off-site individual using this groundwater for drinking and irrigation is dominated by four radionuclides: Tc-99, I-127, Np-237, and U-238. Ideally, this dose would be limited to a single radionuclide, U-238; in other words, YMP would resemble a uranium ore body, a common geologic feature in the Western U.S. For this reason and because of uncertainties in the behavior of Tc-99, I-127, and Np-237, it would be helpful to limit the amount of Tc, I, and Np leaving the repository, which would greatly increase the confidence in the long-term performance of YMP. An approach to limiting the migration of Tc, I, and Np that is complementary to the existing YMP repository design plans is to employ sequestering agents or ''getters'' for these radionuclides such that their migration is greatly hindered, thus decreasing the amount of radionuclide leaving the repository. Development of such getters presents a number of significant challenges. The getter must have a high affinity and high selectivity for the radionuclide in question since there is approximately a 20- to 50-fold excess of other fission products and a 1000-fold excess of uranium in addition to the ions present in the groundwater. An even greater challenge is that the getters must function over a period greater than the half-life of the radionuclide (greater than 5 half-lives would be ideal). Typically, materials with a high affinity for Tc, I, or Np are not sufficiently durable. For example, strong-base ion exchange resins have a very high affinity for TcO{sub 4}{sup -} but are not expected to be durable. On the other hand, durable materials, such as hydrotalcite, do not have sufficient affinity to be useful getters. Despite these problems, the great increase in the repository performance and corresponding decrease in uncertainty promised by a useful getter has generated significant interest in these materials. This report is the result a workshop sponsored by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management and Office of Science and Technology and International of the DOE to assess the state of research in this field.

K.C. Holt

2006-03-13

417

Radionuclide migration in groundwater. Annual progress report for 1982  

SciTech Connect

Research has continued at a low-level waste disposal facility to characterize the physicochemical species of radionuclides migrating in groundwater. This facility consists of an unlined basin and connecting trench which receives effluent water containing low levels of a wide variety of fission and activation products and trace amounts of transuranic radionuclides. The effluent water percolates through the soil and a small fraction of it emerges at seepage springs located some 260 meters from the trench. The disposal basin and trench are very efficient in retaining most of the radionuclides, but trace amounts of a number of radionuclides existing in mobile chemical forms migrate in the groundwater from the trench to the springs. This facility provides the opportunity for characterizing the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration in groundwaters, identifying retardation processes, and validating geochemical models. 13 references, 25 figures, 23 tables.

Robertson, D.E.; Toste, A.P.; Abel, K.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.

1984-01-01

418

Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

1992-09-01

419

Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

1992-09-01

420

Intravenous radionuclide cystography for the detection of vesicorenal reflux  

SciTech Connect

Intravenous radionuclide cystography using a single intravenous injection of 99mtechnetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, provides information on individual kidney function, coarse anatomy and vesicorenal reflux. This study investigates the effectiveness of intravenous radionuclide cystography in detecting reflux. In 58 children intravenous radionuclide cystography detected 53 ureters with reflux compared to 32 detected by voiding cystography. This difference was investigated further with patients in whom other test suggested reflux. While there was no statistically significant difference for patients having pyelonephritis or hydronephrosis, intravenous radionuclide cystography detected significantly more ureters with reflux in patients with abnormal ureteral orifices or infected urine and, therefore, predisposed to reflux. Intravenous radionuclide cystography is a more comprehensive and sensitive test for vesicorenal reflux than voiding cystography.

Pollet, J.E.; Sharp, P.F.; Smith, F.W.; Davidson, A.I.; Miller, S.S.

1981-01-01

421

Development and demonstration of solvent extraction processes for the separation of radionuclides from acidic radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

The presence of long-lived radionuclides presents a challenge to the management of radioactive wastes. Immobilization of these radionuclides must be accomplished prior to long-term, permanent disposal. Separation of the radionuclides from the waste solutions has the potential of significantly decreasing the costs associated with the immobilization and disposal of the radioactive waste by minimizing waste volumes. Several solvent extraction processes have been developed and demonstrated at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for the separation of transuranic element (TRUs), {sup 90}Sr, and/or {sup 137}Cs from acidic radioactive waste solutions. The Transuranic Extraction (TRUEX) and phosphine oxide (POR) processes for the separation of TRUs, the Strontium Extraction (SREX) process for the separation of {sup 90}Sr, the chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide (ChCoDiC) process for the separation of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, and a universal solvent extraction process for the simultaneous separation of TRUs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs have all been demonstrated in centrifugal contactors using actual radioactive waste solutions. This article summarizes the most recent results of each of the flowsheet demonstrations and allows for comparison of the technologies. The successful demonstration of these solvent extraction processes indicates that they are all viable for the treatment of acidic radioactive waste solutions.

Law, J.D.; Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Todd, T.A.; Wood, D.J. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

1999-06-01

422

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems  

SciTech Connect

Battelle-Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R and D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

Barnett, J. M.; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

2012-04-01

423

A limiting factor for the progress of radionuclide-based cancer diagnostics and therapy--availability of suitable radionuclides.  

PubMed

Advances in diagnostics and targeted radionuclide therapy of haematological and neuroendocrine tumours have raised hope for improved radionuclide therapy of other forms of disseminated tumours. New molecular target structures are characterized and this stimulates the efforts to develop new radiolabelled targeting agents. There is also improved understanding of factors of importance for choice of appropriate radionuclides. The choice is determined by physical, chemical, biological, and economic factors, such as a character of emitted radiation, physical half-life, labelling chemistry, chemical stability of the label, intracellular retention time, and fate of radiocatabolites and availability of the radionuclide. There is actually limited availability of suitable radionuclides and this is a limiting factor for further progress in the field and this is the focus in this article. The probably most promising therapeutic radionuclide, 211At, requires regional production and distribution centres with dedicated cyclotrons. Such centres are, with a few exceptions in the world, lacking today. They can be designed to also produce beta- and Augeremitters of therapeutic interest. Furthermore, emerging satellite PET scanners will in the near future demand long-lived positron emitters for diagnostics with macromolecular radiopharmaceuticals, and these can also be produced at such centres. To secure continued development and to meet the foreseen requirements for radionuclide availability from the medical community it is necessary to establish specialized cyclotron centres for radionuclide production. PMID:15244250

Tolmachev, Vladimir; Carlsson, Jörgen; Lundqvist, Hans

2004-01-01

424

Experimental determination of calibration settings of a commercially available radionuclide calibrator for various clinical measurement geometries and radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the approach of the National Primary Laboratory of the UK (NPL) for the calibration of radionuclide calibrators, but using a commercially available instrument with no data available in the literature, the radionuclide calibrator response was investigated as a function of different measurement geometries at the “Regina Elena” National Cancer Institute (IRE) in Rome.Working with Italian National Metrology Institute for

A. Ceccatelli; M. Benassi; M. D’Andrea; P. De Felice; A. Fazio; S. Nocentini; L. Strigari

2007-01-01

425

Radionuclide Decay and In-growth Technical Basis Document  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to assess the decay and in-growth of radionuclides from the radionuclide source term (RST) deposited by underground nuclear weapons tests conducted at the NTS from 1951 through 1992. A priority of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project, administered by the Environmental Restoration Division of NNSA/NV, was to determine as accurately as possible a measure of the total radionuclide inventory for calculation of the RST deposited in the subsurface at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The motivation for the development of a total radionuclide inventory is driven by a need to calculate the amount of radioactivity that will move away from the nuclear test cavities over time, referred to as the hydrologic source term (HST). The HST is a subset of the RST and must be calculated using knowledge of the geochemistry and hydrology of the subsurface environment. This will serve the regulatory process designed to protect human health from exposures to contaminated groundwater. Following the detonation of an underground nuclear test, and depending on the presence of water at the location of the detonation, the residual radionuclides may be found in aqueous or gaseous states, precipitated or chemically sorbed states, or incorporated in melt glass produced by the nuclear test. The decay and in-growth of radionuclides may have geochemical implications for the migration of radionuclides away from underground nuclear test cavities. For example, in the case of a long-lived mobile parent decaying to a shorter-lived and less mobile daughter, the geochemical properties of the parent element may control the migration potential of the daughter nuclide. It becomes important to understand the evolution of the RST in terms of effects on the mobility, solubility, or abundance of radionuclides in the HST that are created by decay and in-growth processes. The total radionuclide inventory and thus the RST changes with time due to radioactive decay. The abundance of a specific radionuclide at any given time is a function of the initial amount of radioactivity, the decay rate and in-growth from parent radionuclides. The in-growth of radioactivity is the additional amount of radioactivity for a given radionuclide that comes from the decay of the parent isotopes. In this report, decay and in-growth of radionuclides from the RST are evaluated over the 1000-year time frame in order to determine whether coupled in-growth and decay affect the relative abundance of any RST radionuclide. In addition, it is also necessary to identify whether any new derivative radionuclides not initially produced by the nuclear test but exist now as a result of in-growth from a parent radionuclide One of the major goals of this report is to simplify the transport modeler's task by pointing out where in-growth is unimportant and where it needs to be considered. The specific goals of this document are to evaluate radionuclide decay chains and provide specific recommendations for incorporating radionuclide daughters of concern in the calculation of the radionuclide inventory.

Kersting, A B; Finnegan, D L; Tompson, A F B; Esser, B K; Smith, D K; Zavarin, M; Bruton, C J; Pawloski, G A

2003-07-01

426

Bioremediation of metals and radionuclides: What it is and How itWorks  

SciTech Connect

This primer is intended for people interested in DOE environmental problems and in their potential solutions. It will specifically look at some of the more hazardous metal and radionuclide contaminants found on DOE lands and at the possibilities for using bioremediation technology to clean up these contaminants. Bioremediation is a technology that can be used to reduce, eliminate, or contain hazardous waste. Over the past two decades, it has become widely accepted that microorganisms, and to a lesser extent plants, can transform and degrade many types of contaminants. These transformation and degradation processes vary, depending on physical environment, microbial communities, and nature of contaminant. This technology includes intrinsic bioremediation, which relies on naturally occurring processes, and accelerated bioremediation, which enhances microbial degradation or transformation through inoculation with microorganisms (bioaugmentation) or the addition of nutrients (biostimulation).

McCullough, J.; Hazen, Terry; Benson, Sally

1999-01-01

427

Sediment and radionuclide transport in rivers: radionuclide transport modeling for Cattaraugus and Buttermilk Creeks, New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

SERATRA, a transient, two-dimensional (laterally-averaged) computer model of sediment-contaminant transport in rivers, satisfactorily resolved the distribution of sediment and radionuclide concentrations in the Cattaraugus Creek stream system in New York. By modeling the physical processes of advection, diffusion, erosion, deposition, and bed armoring, SERATRA routed three sediment size fractions, including cohesive soils, to simulate three dynamic flow events. In conjunction

Y. Onishi; S. B. Yabusaki; C. T. Kincaid; R. L. Skaggs; W. H. Walters

1982-01-01

428

Computer models track atmospheric radionuclides worldwide  

SciTech Connect

The big sponge is what initiates call ARAC-the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability-and it is vital to the clean-up after a nuclear accident. But this sobriquet doesn't refer to a propensity for mopping up radiation. It alludes to ARAC's ability to soak up data on weather conditions, regional geography, and the release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at thousands of sites around the globe. ARAC is a contingent of about 30 physicists, meteorologists, electronic engineers, computer scientists, and technicians who work at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory across the bay from San Francisco. The ARAC staff employs computer models to estimate the extent of surface contamination as well as radiation doses to population centers after hypothetical or real nuclear accidents. ARAC works fast. Within 15 minutes of an accident, it can produce a contour map estimating levels of radiation exposure within a 20-km radius of the accident site.

Not Available

1986-08-01

429

Graphene oxide for effective radionuclide removal.  

PubMed

Here we show the efficacy of graphene oxide (GO) for rapid removal of some of the most toxic and radioactive long-lived human-made radionuclides from contaminated water, even from acidic solutions (pH < 2). The interaction of GO with actinides including Am(III), Th(IV), Pu(IV), Np(V), U(VI) and typical fission products Sr(II), Eu(III) and Tc(VII) were studied, along with their sorption kinetics. Cation/GO coagulation occurs with the formation of nanoparticle aggregates of GO sheets, facilitating their removal. GO is far more effective in removal of transuranium elements from simulated nuclear waste solutions than other routinely used sorbents such as bentonite clays and activated carbon. These results point toward a simple methodology to mollify the severity of nuclear waste contamination, thereby leading to effective measures for environmental remediation. PMID:23296256

Romanchuk, Anna Yu; Slesarev, Alexander S; Kalmykov, Stepan N; Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Tour, James M

2013-01-08

430

Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy: Potential new areas  

SciTech Connect

Radiation oncology is entering an exciting new era with therapies being delivered in a targeted fashion through an increasing number of novel approaches. External beam radiotherapy now integrates functional and anatomic tumor imaging to guide delivery of conformal radiation to the tumor target. Systemic targeted radionuclide therapy (STaRT) adds an important new dimension by making available to Radiation oncologist biologically targeted radiation therapy. Impressive clinical results with antibody-targeted radiotherapy, leading to the Food and Drug Administration's approval of two anti-CD20 radiolabeled antibodies, highlight the potential of STaRT. Optimization strategies will further improve the efficacy of STaRT by improving delivery systems, modifying the tumor microenvironment to increase targeted dose, and maximizing dose effect. Ultimately, the greatest potential for STaRT will not be as monotherapy, but as therapy integrated into established multimodality regimens and used as adjuvant or consolidative therapy in patients with minimal or micrometastatic disease.

Wong, Jeffrey Y.C. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Research, City of Hope National Medical Center and Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, CA (United States)]. E-mail: jwong@coh.org

2006-10-01

431

Characterization of hydrofracture grouts for radionuclide migration  

SciTech Connect

Detailed characterization of hydrofracture grouts was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. Laboratory-produced samples containing simulated wastes as well as actual radioactive samples of hydrofracture grout sheets obtained by core drilling were examined in this work. X-ray diffraction results revealed that both laboratory-produced samples and a core-drilled sample consisted primarily of calcium carbonate phases. Both sample types contained very small amounts of strontium or cesium wastes, neither of which could be detected by microscopic techniques. The core-drilled sample contained radioactive /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 60/Co that could be detected by ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. The autoradiograph revealed that these radionuclides were still present in the 20-year-old grout and that they had not migrated into the trapped shale fragments.

Stinton, D.P.; McDaniel, E.W.; Weeren, H.O.

1983-01-01

432

Radioimmunotherapy of malignancy using antibody targeted radionuclides.  

PubMed Central

Antibodies directed against tumour associated antigens provide a means for delivering preferentially cytotoxic radionuclides to the cells of primary and secondary tumours. The factors that influence the effectiveness of the radiation in the tumour compared with its effect on the radiosensitive normal tissues include the specificity of the antibody, the distribution of targeted energy within the tumour and the host's response to the injected foreign antibody. Recently some encouraging results from clinical trials of radioimmunotherapy have been reported in the literature. There is a continual search for more avid and specific antibodies, and the techniques of genetic engineering are being applied to the problem of reducing the antigenicity and mass of the carrier antibody. The improved efficiency of the labelled antibody needs to be supplemented by an identification of those tumours most likely to respond to this form of therapy.

Cobb, L. M.; Humm, J. L.

1986-01-01

433

Fracture occurrence from radionuclides in the skeleton  

SciTech Connect

Because skeletal fractures were an important finding among persons contaminated with {sup 226}Ra, experience with fractures among dogs in the colony was summarized to determine the projected significance for persons contaminated with bone-seeking radionuclides. Comparison by Fisher's Exact Test of lifetime fracture occurrence in the skeletons of beagles injected as young adults suggested that for animals given {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 228}Th, or {sup 239}Pu citrate, there was probably an excess over controls in fractures of the ribs, leg bones, spinous processes, and pelvis (os coxae) plus the mandible for dogs given {sup 226}Ra and the scapulae for dogs given {sup 228}Ra or 228 Th. Regression analysis indicated that significantly elevated fracture occurrence was especially notable at the higher radiation doses, at about 50 Gy average skeletal dose for {sup 239}Pu, 140 Gy for {sup 226}Ra, about 40 Gy for {sup 228}Ra, and more than 15 Gy for {sup 228}Th. The average number of fractures per dog was significantly elevated over that noted in controls for the highest radiation doses of {sup 239}Pu and {sup 226}Ra and for the higher doses of {sup 228}Ra and {sup 228}Th. For those dogs given {sup 90}Sr citrate, there was virtually no important difference from control beagles not given radionuclides, even at group mean cumulative skeletal radiation doses up to 101 Gy. Because of a large proportion of dogs with fractures that died with bone malignancy (even at dosage levels lower than those exhibiting an excess average number of fractures per dog), they conclude that fracture would not be an important endpoint at lower levels of plutonium contamination in humans such as would be expected to occur from occupational or environmental exposure.

Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Miller, S.C.

2000-06-01

434

Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL  

SciTech Connect

The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types.

C. Mertz

2000-12-21

435

Laboratory studies of radionuclide distributions between selected groundwaters and geologic media. Progress report, October 1, 1979September 30, 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

During FY-1980, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory contributions to the Waste\\/Rock Interactions Technology program were primarily in the areas of migration-rate studies using crushed rock, whole core, and fractured core columns; parametric studies of variables which may influence radionuclide sorption-desorption behavior; and initial studies of actinide chemistry in near-neutral solutions and Eh control. Batch experiments in both air and a controlled

Daniels

1981-01-01

436

Task summary: Hot demonstration of proposed commercial nuclide removal technology  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides represent only a small fraction of the components in millions of gallons of storage tank supernatant at various sites, including Oak Ridge, Hanford, Savannah River, and Idaho. Most of the radioactivity is contributed by cesium, strontium, and technetium along with high concentrations of sodium and potassium salts. The purpose of this task is to test and select sorbents and commercial removal technologies supplied by ESP for removing and concentrating the radionuclides, thereby reducing the volume of waste to be stored or disposed.

Lee, D.D.; Travis, J.R.

1995-11-01

437

Effect of beta-decay of radionuclides incorporated into influenza virus RNA and proteins on the infectivity of the virus and antigenicity of its nucleoprotein.  

PubMed

The effect of beta-decay of radionuclides incorporated into influenza virus on the properties of the two closely adjacent structures--RNA and nucleoprotein (NP)--was studied. The long-term storage of 3H-uridine labelled influenza virus was shown to lead to the loss of infectivity. This effect may be explained by lethal intra-molecular modifications of viral RNA, caused by beta-decay of 3H incorporated into the molecule. There was an accompanying decrease of monoclonal antibody (MAB) binding activity, this also being a plausible result of beta-decay. The different rates of inactivation of MAB binding activity of different epitopes of NP of the 3H-labelled virus shown in our studies suggest that there are different types of structural organization or different location of these epitopes in the NP. The effect of 3H-decay on the intracellular RNA of reproducing virus lead to a decrease in virus yield; this may be due to radiation- and transmutation-induced damage of messenger and progeny RNA populations synthesized during the infection. The storage of influenza virus labelled with 14C-aminoacids lead to a decrease in MAB binding activity of the NP that was unaccompanied by a decrease in infectivity. Furthermore, 14C-decay in proteins of reproducing virus had no adverse effect. PMID:3426399

Prokudina, E N; Semyonova, N P; Yamnikova, S S; Zhdanov, V M

1987-01-01

438

Improvement on the prediction accuracy of transmutation properties for fast reactor core using the minor actinides irradiation test data on the Joyo MK-II CORE  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a validation of MA nuclear data and improvement on the prediction accuracy of MA transmutation properties in fast reactor cores, MA sample irradiation test data of Joyo were utilized. Adopting MA cross-sections in JENDL-3.3, result of their evaluations showed good agreement with experimental data. Further, the present study clarified that utilization of these data with cross-section adjustment technique has

Sugino; Kazuteru

2007-01-01

439

The numerical simulation of two-phase flow heat transfer of the dual-coolant waste transmutation blanket for the FDS-I  

Microsoft Academic Search

The numerical simulation of two-phase flow heat transfer of the dual-coolant waste transmutation blanket for the FDS-I are studied using the computational fluid dynamics FLUENT code. The Eulerian-Eulerian model has been used taking into account fuel particle distribution, variability of viscosity, and velocity slippage between phases. The energy equations are modified to describe the unique characteristics of the two-phase flow.

W. Wang; X. Yuan; S. Liua; Y. Baia; T. Zhang

2007-01-01

440

One step U-Pu-Cs-Ln-steel separation using TRU preconditioned extraction resins from Eichrom for application on transmutation targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one step Cs, lanthanides (Ln), Pu and U separation using TRU resin (Eichrom), for subsequent isotopic analyses, is presented\\u000a for samples of transmutation targets containing a predominant matrix of steel elements. Cs, Ln, Pu and U are successively\\u000a eluted using minor volumes (3, 4M HCl, 0.075M oxalic acid in 1M HCl media and 0.1M ammonium hydrogen oxalate in 0.02M

S. Quidelleur; M. Granet; I. Laszak; H. Isnard; E. Pons-Branchu; R. Brennetot; C. Caussignac

2009-01-01

441

Radionuclide Purity of Deliveries of Tc Sodium Pertechnate from the Extraction Generator of the Institute of Nuclear Research, ?ež, Compared with Imported Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented of a random control of the radionuclide purity of deliveries of Tc sodium pertechnate pro inj. from the extraction generator of the Institute of Nuclear Research in ?ež. Results are shown of measuring values of activities (in percentage) of the contaminants Mo, I, Co and Re from 1983 to 1986 and after adjusting the technology of

J. Šilar; J. Prokop

1989-01-01

442

Dynamics and transformations of radionuclides in soils and ecosystem health  

SciTech Connect

The chemical behavior of radionuclides can vary widely in soil and sediment environments. Equally important, for a given radionuclide the physico-chemical properties of the solids and aqueous phase can greatly influence a radionuclides behavior. Radionuclides can conceivably occur in soils as soluble-free, inorganic-soluble-complexed, organic-soluble, complexed, adsorbed, precipitated, coprecipitated, or solid structural species. While it is clear that an assessment of a radionuclide?s soil chemistry and potential shifts in speciation will yield a considerable understanding of its behavior in the natural environment, it does not directly translate to bioavailability or its impact on ecosystems health. The soil chemical factors have to be linked to food chain considerations and other ecological parameters that directly tie to an analysis of ecosystem health. In general, the movement of radionuclides from lower to higher trophic levels diminishes with each trophic level in both aqua tic and terrestrial systems. In some cases, transfer is limited because of low absorption/assimilation by successive trophic organisms (Pu, U); for other radionuclides (Tc, H) assimilation may be high but rapid metabolic turnover and low retention greatly reduce tissue concentrations available to predator species. Still others are chemical analogs of essential elements whose concentrations are maintained under strict metabolic control in tissues (Cs) or are stored in tissues seldom consumed by other organisms (Sr storage in exoskeleton, shells, and bone). Therefore, the organisms that receive the greatest ingestion exposures are those in lower trophic positions or are in higher trophic levels but within simple, short food chains. Food source, behavior, and habitat influence the accumulation of radionuclides in animals.

Fellows, Robert J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Ainsworth, Calvin C. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Driver, Crystal J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Cataldo, Dominic A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

1998-12-01

443

Specific features of transmutational doping of {sup 30}Si-enriched silicon crystals with phosphorus: Studies by the method of electron spin resonance  

SciTech Connect

Electron spin resonance (ESR) is used to study the neutron transmutation doping of silicon crystals enriched with {sup 30}Si isotope: phosphorus donors and radiation defects produced in the course of transmutational doping are observed. The ESR signals related to the phosphorus uncontrolled impurity in {sup 30}Si before transmutational doping (the P concentration is {approx}10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}) and phosphorus introduced by neutron irradiation with doses {approx}1 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} and {approx}1 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2} (the P concentrations are {approx}5 x 10{sup 16} and {approx}7 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}, respectively) are studied. As a result of drastic narrowing of the phosphorus ESR lines in {sup 30}Si, the intensity of lines increased appreciably, which made it possible to measure the phosphorus concentration in the samples with a small volume (down to 10{sup -6} mm{sup -3}). The methods for determining the concentration of P donors from hyperfine structure in the ESR spectra of isolated P atoms, exchange-related pairs, and clusters that consist of three, four, and more P donors are developed. In the region of high concentrations of P donors, in which case the hyperfine structure disappears, the concentration of P donors was estimated from the exchange-narrowed ESR line.

Baranov, P. G.; Ber, B. Ya. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Godisov, O. N. [Centrotech Research Center (Russian Federation); Il'in, I. V., E-mail: Ivan.ilyin@mail.ioffe.ru; Ionov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Kaliteevskii, A. K. [Centrotech Research Center (Russian Federation); Kaliteevskii, M. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Lazebnik, I. M. [Konstantinov Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Safronov, A. Yu. [Centrotech Research Center (Russian Federation); Pohl, H.-J. [VITCON Projectconsult Gmbh (Germany); Riemann, H.; Abrosimov, N. V. [Leibniz Institute of Crystal Growth (Germany); Kop'ev, P. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Bulanov, A. D.; Gusev, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry of High-Purity Substances (Russian Federation)

2006-08-15

444

Consequence ranking of radionuclides in Hanford tank waste  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides in the Hanford tank waste are ranked relative to their consequences for the Low-Level Tank Waste program. The ranking identifies key radionuclides where further study is merited. In addition to potential consequences for intrude and drinking-water scenarios supporting low-level waste activities, a ranking based on shielding criteria is provided. The radionuclide production inventories are based on a new and independent ORIGEN2 calculation representing the operation of all Hanford single-pass reactors and the N Reactor.

Schmittroth, F.A.; De Lorenzo, T.H.

1995-09-01

445

An economic study of the radionuclides industry. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

The NRC has a broad responsibility to regulate the civilian use of nuclear materials and facilities to ensure public health and safety, national security, and environmental quality. To develop a data base necessary to the effective handling of this responsibility, the NRC has sponsored studies to examine the economic activity associated with the nuclear power industry and the nuclear medicine portion of the radio-nuclides industry. This study addresses the industrial and consumer areas of the radionuclides industry and revises earlier estimates for the nuclear medicine portions of the radionuclides industry.

Birdsong, J.G.

1981-07-01

446

[Radionuclide techniques in early diagnosis of pulmonary artery thromboembolism].  

PubMed

A combined procedure of indirect radionuclide phlebography and emission tomography of the lung with human serum albumin microspheres was employed to diagnose thromboembolism of pulmonary arterial branches (TPAB) and thrombosis in the inferior cava system. Four hundred and forty nine patients suspected for TPAB were examined. The data characteristic of pulmonary thromboembolism were obtained in 21.6% of cases. In 75 (17.6%) of 432 patients, indirect radionuclide phlebography revealed signs of thrombosis in the inferior cava at various sites. The radionuclide study of pulmonary perfusion is the only technique that assesses the degree of recovery of pulmonary perfusion after TPAB. PMID:10067352

Sychev, V K; Zolotareva, L A

1998-01-01