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1

Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal

E. Collins; J. Duguid; R. Henry; E. Karell; J. Laidler; S. McDeavitt; M. Thompson; M. Toth; M. Williamson; J. Willit

1999-01-01

2

Definition of Technology Readiness Levels for Transmutation Fuel Development  

SciTech Connect

To quantitatively assess the maturity of a given technology, the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) process is used. The TRL process has been developed and successfully used by the Department of Defense (DOD) for development and deployment of new technology and systems for defense applications. In addition, NASA has also successfully used the TRL process to develop and deploy new systems for space applications. Transmutation fuel development is a critical technology needed for closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Because the deployment of a new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the TRL concept to the transmutation fuel development program is very useful as a management and tracking tool. This report provides definition of the technology readiness level assessment process as defined for use in assessing nuclear fuel technology development for the Transuranic Fuel Development Campaign.

Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171)

2008-01-01

3

Optimization of accelerator-driven technology for LWR waste transmutation  

SciTech Connect

The role of accelerator-driven transmutation technology is examined in the context of the destruction of actinide waste from commercial light water reactors. It is pointed out that the commercial plutonium is much easier to use for entry-level nuclear weapons than weapons plutonium. Since commercial plutonium is easier to use, since there is very much more of it already, and since it is growing rapidly, the permanent disposition of commercial plutonium is an issue of greater importance than weapons plutonium. The minor actinides inventory, which may be influenced by transmutation, is compared in terms of nuclear properties with commercial and weapons plutonium and for possible utility as weapons material. Fast and thermal spectrum systems are compared as means for destruction of plutonium and the minor actinides. it is shown that the equilibrium fast spectrum actinide inventory is about 100 times larger than for thermal spectrum systems, and that there is about 100 times more weapons-usable material in the fast spectrum system inventory compared to the thermal spectrum system. Finally it is shown that the accelerator size for transmutation can be substantially reduced by design which uses the accelerator-produced neutrons only to initiate the unsustained fission chains characteristic of the subcritical system. The analysis argues for devoting primary attention to the development of thermal spectrum transmutation technology. A thermal spectrum transmuter operating at a fission power of 750-MWth fission power, which is sufficient to destroy the actinide waste from one 3,000-MWth light water reactor, may be driven by a proton beam of 1 GeV energy and a current of 7 mA. This accelerator is within the range of realizable cyclotron technology and is also near the size contemplated for the next generation spallation neutron source under consideration by the US, Europe, and Japan.

Bowman, C.D.

1996-12-31

4

[Radionuclides, technologies and quality control in brachytherapy].  

PubMed

Brachytherapy consists in placing radioactive sources directly in contact with the tumoral bed. The type of source, its characteristics and its use will be adapted regarding the kind of treatment foreseen. Modern brachytherapy techniques employ remote afterloading technologies allowing better quality and security in the delivery of treatment. This development of technology goes with an increase need of quality control of equipments, including radionuclides, and procedures. PMID:23474213

Marchesi, V; Gautier, M; Villani, N; Feuillade, J; Dejean, C

2013-04-01

5

Preparation of a technology development roadmap for the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) System : report of the ATW separations technologies and waste forms technical working group.  

SciTech Connect

In response to a Congressional mandate to prepare a roadmap for the development of Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) technology, a Technical Working Group comprised of members from various DOE laboratories was convened in March 1999 for the purpose of preparing that part of the technology development roadmap dealing with the separation of certain radionuclides for transmutation and the disposal of residual radioactive wastes from these partitioning operations. The Technical Working Group for ATW Separations Technologies and Waste Forms completed its work in June 1999, having carefully considered the technology options available. A baseline process flowsheet and backup process were identified for initial emphasis in a future research, development and demonstration program. The baseline process combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to permit the efficient separation of the uranium, technetium, iodine and transuranic elements from the light water reactor (LWR) fuel in the head-end step. The backup process is an all- pyrochemical system. In conjunction with the aqueous process, the baseline flowsheet includes a pyrochemical process to prepare the transuranic material for fabrication of the ATW fuel assemblies. For the internal ATW fuel cycle the baseline process specifies another pyrochemical process to extract the transuranic elements, Tc and 1 from the ATW fuel. Fission products not separated for transmutation and trace amounts of actinide elements would be directed to two high-level waste forms, one a zirconium-based alloy and the other a glass/sodalite composite. Baseline cost and schedule estimates are provided for a RD&D program that would provide a full-scale demonstration of the complete separations and waste production flowsheet within 20 years.

Collins, E.; Duguid, J.; Henry, R.; Karell, E.; Laidler, J.; McDeavitt, S.; Thompson, M.; Toth, M.; Williamson, M.; Willit, J.

1999-08-12

6

Fermilab Project X nuclear energy application: Accelerator, spallation target and transmutation technology demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The recent paper 'Accelerator and Target Technology for Accelerator Driven Transmutation and Energy Production' and report 'Accelerators for America's Future' have endorsed the idea that the next generation particle accelerators would enable technological breakthrough needed for nuclear energy applications, including transmutation of waste. In the Fall of 2009 Fermilab sponsored a workshop on Application of High Intensity Proton Accelerators to explore in detail the use of the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) accelerator technology for Nuclear Energy Applications. High intensity Continuous Wave (CW) beam from the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Linac (Project-X) at beam energy between 1-2 GeV will provide an unprecedented experimental and demonstration facility in the United States for much needed nuclear energy Research and Development. We propose to carry out an experimental program to demonstrate the reliability of the accelerator technology, Lead-Bismuth spallation target technology and a transmutation experiment of spent nuclear fuel. We also suggest that this facility could be used for other Nuclear Energy applications.

Gohar, Yousry; /Argonne; Johnson, David; Johnson, Todd; Mishra, Shekhar; /Fermilab

2011-04-01

7

1. "A Roadmap for Developing Accelerator Transmutation of Waste Technology," Report to Congress, DOE0RW-0519, U.S.  

E-print Network

1. "A Roadmap for Developing Accelerator Transmutation of Waste Technology," Report to Congress Technologies for an ATW System," Progress in Nuclear Energy, 38, 1­2, 65 ~2001!. 3. Available on the Internet in Jan. 2002!. 4. "Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies for a Long-Term Stable Supply of Nuclear Energy

Danon, Yaron

8

Pyrochemical separations technologies envisioned for the U. S. accelerator transmutation of waste system  

SciTech Connect

A program has been initiated for the purpose of developing the chemical separations technologies necessary to support a large Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW) system capable of dealing with the projected inventory of spent fuel from the commercial nuclear power stations in the United States. The baseline process selected combines aqueous and pyrochemical processes to enable the efficient separation of uranium, technetium, iodine, and the transuranic elements from LWR spent fuel. The diversity of processing methods was chosen for both technical and economic factors. A six-year technology evaluation and development program is foreseen, by the end of which an informed decision can be made on proceeding with demonstration of the ATW system.

Laidler, J. J.

2000-02-17

9

Georgia Institute of Technology research on the Gas Core Actinide Transmutation Reactor (GCATR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program reviewed is a study of the feasibility, design, and optimization of the GCATR. The program is designed to take advantage of initial results and to continue work carried out on the Gas Core Breeder Reactor. The program complements NASA's program of developing UF6 fueled cavity reactors for power, nuclear pumped lasers, and other advanced technology applications. The program comprises: (1) General Studies--Parametric survey calculations performed to examine the effects of reactor spectrum and flux level on the actinide transmutation for GCATR conditions. The sensitivity of the results to neutron cross sections are to be assessed. Specifically, the parametric calculations of the actinide transmutation are to include the mass, isotope composition, fission and capture rates, reactivity effects, and neutron activity of recycled actinides. (2) GCATR Design Studies--This task is a major thrust of the proposed research program. Several subtasks are considered: optimization criteria studies of the blanket and fuel reprocessing, the actinide insertion and recirculation system, and the system integration. A brief review of the background of the GCATR and ongoing research is presented.

Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.; Schneider, A.; Hohl, F.

1976-01-01

10

Prompt nuclear analytical techniques for material research in accelerator driven transmutation technologies: Prospects and quantitative analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerator driven transmutation technology (ADTT) is a promissing way toward liquidation of spent nuclear fuel, nuclear wastes and weapon grade Pu. The ADTT facility comprises a high current (proton) accelerator supplying a subcritical reactor assembly with spallation neutrons. The reactor part is supposed to be cooled by molten fluorides or metals which serve, at the same time, as a carrier of nuclear fuel. Assumed high working temperature (400-600°C) and high radiation load in the subcritical reactor and spallation neutron source put forward the problem of optimal choice of ADTT construction materials, especially from the point of their radiation and corrosion resistance when in contact with liquid working media. The use of prompt nuclear analytical techniques in ADTT related material research is considered and examples of preliminary analytical results obtained using neutron depth profiling method are shown for illustration.

Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; ?ervená, J.; Pe?ina, V.; Mach, R.; Peka, I.

1998-04-01

11

Accelerator-driven transmutation technologies for resolution of long-term nuclear waste concerns  

SciTech Connect

The paper provides a rationale for resolution of the long-term waste disposition issue based on complete destruction of fissile material and all higher actinides. It begins with a brief history of geologic storage leading to the present impasse in the US. The proliferation aspects of commercial plutonium are presented in a new light as a further driver for complete destruction. The special problems in Russia and the US of the disposition of the highly enriched spent naval reactor fuel and spent research reactor fuel are also presented. The scale of the system required for complete destruction is also examined and it is shown that a practical system for complete destruction of commercial and defense fissile material must be widely dispersed rather than concentrated at a single site. Central tenants of the US National Academy of Sciences recommendations on waste disposition are examined critically and several technologies considered for waste destruction are described briefly and compared Recommendations for waste disposition based on Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technology suitable for both the US and Russia are presented.

Bowman, C.D.

1996-10-01

12

Bioremediation: a genuine technology to remediate radionuclides from the environment.  

PubMed

Radionuclides in the environment are a major human and environmental health concern. Like the Chernobyl disaster of 1986, the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011 is once again causing damage to the environment: a large quantity of radioactive waste is being generated and dumped into the environment, and if the general population is exposed to it, may cause serious life-threatening disorders. Bioremediation has been viewed as the ecologically responsible alternative to environmentally destructive physical remediation. Microorganisms carry endogenous genetic, biochemical and physiological properties that make them ideal agents for pollutant remediation in soil and groundwater. Attempts have been made to develop native or genetically engineered (GE) microbes for the remediation of environmental contaminants including radionuclides. Microorganism-mediated bioremediation can affect the solubility, bioavailability and mobility of radionuclides. Therefore, we aim to unveil the microbial-mediated mechanisms for biotransformation of radionuclides under various environmental conditions as developing strategies for waste management of radionuclides. A discussion follows of '-omics'-integrated genomics and proteomics technologies, which can be used to trace the genes and proteins of interest in a given microorganism towards a cell-free bioremediation strategy. PMID:23617701

Prakash, Dhan; Gabani, Prashant; Chandel, Anuj K; Ronen, Zeev; Singh, Om V

2013-07-01

13

Laser transmutation of iodine-129  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first successful laser-induced transmutation of 129I, one of the key radionuclides in the nuclear fuel cycle. 129I with a half-life of 15.7 million years is transmuted into 128I with a half-life of 25 min through a (?, n) reaction using laser-generated Bremsstrahlung. The integral cross-section value for the (?, n) reaction is determined. These experiments offer a new

J. Magill; H. Schwoerer; F. Ewald; J. Galy; R. Schenkel; R. Sauerbrey

2003-01-01

14

Executive Summary The remediation of radionuclides and heavy metals using current technology is generally  

E-print Network

vii Executive Summary The remediation of radionuclides and heavy metals using current technology stages of development of nanotechnology applications for remediation of radionuclides and heavy metals radionuclides and heavy metals is a promising development. Though a recently-emerged technology, the LOC device

15

An intrinsically safe facility for forefront research and training on nuclear technologies — Burnup and transmutation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The currently dominant open fuel cycles have resulted in the gradual accumulation of (relatively) large quantities of highly radioactive or fertile materials in the form of depleted uranium, plutonium, minor actinides (MA) and long-lived fission products (LLFP). For low-activity wastes a heavily shielded surface repository is required. Spent fuel can be instead directly buried in deep geological repositories or reprocessed in order to separate U and Pu and eventually also MA and LLFP from other materials. These elements can be further burnt by modern reactors but not yet in sufficient quantities to slow down the steady accumulation of these materials in storage. Using ADS, the residual long-lifetime isotopes can be transmuted by nuclear reactions into shorter-lifetime isotopes again storable in surface repositories. However, in order to perform transmutations at a practical level, high-power reactors (and consequently high-power accelerators) are required; particularly, a significant transmutation can be reached not only by increasing the beam current to something of the order of a few tens of mA, but also by increasing the beam energy above 500MeV in order to reach the spallation regime. Such high-power infrastructures require intermediate test facilities with lower power and higher safety level for the investigation of their dynamics and transmutation capabilities: the ADS proposed in this study could accomplish many of these constraints.

Lomonaco, G.; Frasciello, O.; Osipenko, M.; Ricco, G.; Ripani, M.

2014-04-01

16

A versatile, high-power proton linac for accelerator driven transmutation technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are applying the new coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) to a conceptual design of a high-current, CW accelerator for transmutation applications. A 350-MHz RFQ followed by 700-MHz structures accelerates a 100-mA proton beam to 1 GeV. Several advantages stem from four key features: (1) a uniform focusing lattice from the start of the CCDTL at about 7 MeV to the

J. H. Billen; S. Nath; J. E. Stovall; H. Takeda; R. L. Wood; L. M. Young

1995-01-01

17

Transmutation in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Approaches and Impacts  

SciTech Connect

It is possible, through nuclear reactions, to transmute long-lived radionuclides into shorter-lived or stable nuclides. Much attention has recently been focused on approaches to transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and on the potential benefits and risks of transmutation. Drawing on findings from studies carried out in different countries, this paper assesses the potential impacts of transmutation in standard thermal and fast reactors. A parametric scoping using standard methods to analyze mass flows and waste hazards gives a sense of the limitations and key variables in transmutation. With respect to waste, the impacts of the transmutation effort are found to depend strongly on the separation efficiency of the reprocessing system, the performance of the disposal repository, and the transmutation rate in the reactor.

Lowenthal, Micah D. [University of California, Berkeley (United States)

2002-06-15

18

A prototype front-end accelerator for Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Technologies  

SciTech Connect

The Accelerator Performance Demonstration Facility is the front-end prototype of a CW accelerator useful for accelerator-driven technologies. Its purpose is for evaluating the reliability, availability, and maintainability of a high-current and high-power machine. In this paper, design and technology development of the facility will be described.

Chan, K.C.D.

1994-08-01

19

Vortex transmutation.  

PubMed

Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a "transmutation pass" determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials. PMID:16197074

Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel; Monsoriu, Juan A; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández

2005-09-16

20

Fabrication technology and characteristics of AmO2-MgO cercer materials for transmutation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the fabrication technology and the physico-chemical properties of target materials prepared for the ECRIX experiment in the French PHENIX reactor. The ECRIX target materials consisit of pellets made of a ceramic-ceramic type composite in which particles of americium oxide are microdispersed in an inert matrix of magnesium oxide.

Croixmarie, Y.; Mocellin, A.; Warin, D.

2000-07-01

21

Yucca Mountain Project - Science & Technology Radionuclide Absorbers Development Program Overview  

SciTech Connect

The proposed Yucca Mountain repository is anticipated to be the first facility for long-term disposal of commercial spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in the United States. The facility, located in the southern Nevada desert, is currently in the planning stages with initial exploratory excavations completed. It is an underground facility mined into the tuffaceous volcanic rocks that sit above the local water table. The focus of the work described in this paper is the development of radionuclide absorbers or ''getter'' materials for neptunium (Np), iodine (I), and technetium (Tc) for potential deployment in the repository. ''Getter'' materials retard the migration of radionuclides through sorption, reduction, or other chemical and physical processes, thereby slowing or preventing the release and transport of radionuclides. An overview of the objectives and approaches utilized in this work with respect to materials selection and modeling of ion ''getters'' is presented. The benefits of the ''getter'' development program to the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) are outlined.

Hong-Nian Jow; R.C. Moore; K.B. Helean; S. Mattigod; M. Hochella; A.R. Felmy; J. Liu; K. Rosso; G. Fryxell; J. Krumhansl; Y. Wang

2005-01-14

22

Radioanalytical technology for 10 CFR Part 61 and other selected radionuclides: Literature review  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive literature review and assessment was conducted to identify and evaluate radioanalytical technology and procedures used for measuring 10CFR61 radionuclides and other long-lived isotopes. This review evaluated radiochemical procedures currently in use at a number of laboratories in the US, as well as identifying new advanced methods and techniques which could be adapted for routine radiochemical analyses of low-level radioactive waste. The 10CFR61 radionuclides include {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Cl, {sup 59,63}Ni, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 137}Cs, and TRU isotopes with half lives greater than 5 years. Other low-level radionuclides of interest include {sup 7,10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 93}Mo, {sup 109,113m}Cd, and {sup 121m,126}Sn, which may be present in various types of waste streams from nuclear power stations.

Thomas, C.W.; Thomas, V.W.; Robertson, D.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1996-03-01

23

Innovative Fuel Types for Minor Actinides Transmutation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transmutation of long-lived radio-nuclides is an option for reducing the hazards linked to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Previous studies have demonstrated that the main contributor to spent fuel radio-toxicity is by far Pu, followed by Am and Cm. Prerequisite for any efficient transmutation strategy is therefore Pu multiple recycling, whereas Am and Cm could be treated in different ways, including multiple recycling or once-through burning in dedicated targets. In all cases, however, the transmutation efficiency must be maximised, a condition best achieved if, firstly, uranium-free fuels are considered, and secondly, if multiple reprocessing and recycling is considered. In Europe, and in particular at the Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), extensive experimental work is being performed to develop fabrication processes for these innovative compounds, and to characterise their properties under irradiation. This work is mostly done within European collaborations, and is partially funded under the European Framework Programmes.

Haas, D.; Fernandez, A.; Somers, J.

2006-04-01

24

STUDIES ON ACCELERATOR-DRIVEN TRANSMUTATION SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development on transmutation of long-lived radioactive nuclides are being carried out with an emphasis placed on the dedicated accelerator-driven systems at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Japanese long-term program for research and development on partitioning and transmutation technology (OMEGA Programme). The preliminary design of the sodium-cooled solid system has been developed as a reference

T. Takizuka; T. Sasa; K. Tsujimoto; H. Takano

25

A new approach to nuclear fuel safeguard enhancement through radionuclide profiling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States has led the effort to promote peaceful use of nuclear power amongst states actively utilizing it as well as those looking to deploy the technology in the near future. With the attraction being demonstrated by various countries towards nuclear power comes the concern that a nation may have military aspirations for the use of nuclear energy. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established nuclear safeguard protocols and procedures to mitigate nuclear proliferation. The work herein proposed a strategy to further enhance existing safeguard protocols by considering safeguard in nuclear fuel design. The strategy involved the use of radionuclides to profile nuclear fuels. Six radionuclides were selected as identifier materials. The decay and transmutation of these radionuclides were analyzed in reactor operation environment. MCNPX was used to simulate a reactor core. The perturbation in reactivity of the core due to the loading of the radionuclides was insignificant. The maximum positive and negative reactivity change induced was at day 1900 with a value of 0.00185 +/- 0.00256 and at day 2000 with -0.00441 +/- 0.00249, respectively. The mass of the radionuclides were practically unaffected by transmutation in the core; the change in radionuclide inventory was dominated by natural decay. The maximum material lost due to transmutation was 1.17% in Eu154. Extraneous signals from fission products identical to the radionuclide compromised the identifier signals. Eu154 saw a maximum intensity change at EOC and 30 days post-irradiation of 1260% and 4545%, respectively. Cs137 saw a minimum change of 12% and 89%, respectively. Mitigation of the extraneous signals is cardinal to the success of the proposed strategy. The predictability of natural decay provides a basis for the characterization of the signals from the radionuclide.

Peterson, Aaron Dawon

26

A new concept for accelerator driven transmutation of nuclear wastes  

SciTech Connect

A new concept for an accelerator-driven transmutation system is described. The central feature of the concept is generation of intense fluxes of thermal neutrons. In the system all long-lived radionuclides comprising high-level nuclear waste can be transmuted efficiently. Transmutation takes place in a unique, low material inventory environment. Presently two principal areas are being investigated for application of the concept. The first is associated with cleanup of defense high-level waste at DOE sites such as Hanford. The second, longer term area involves production of electric power using a coupled accelerator-multiplying blanket system. This system would utilize natural thorium or uranium and would transmute long-lived components of high-level waste concurrently during operation. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Arthur, E.D.

1991-01-01

27

Breast imaging technology: Recent advances in imaging endogenous or transferred gene expression utilizing radionuclide technologies in living subjects - applications to breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of imaging technologies is being investigated as tools for studying gene expression in living subjects. Two technologies that use radiolabeled isotopes are single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). A relatively high sensitivity, a full quantitative tomographic capability, and the ability to extend small animal imaging assays directly into human applications characterize radionuclide approaches.

Frank Berger; Sanjiv Sam Gambhir

2001-01-01

28

The Physics of transmutation systems : system capabilities and performances.  

SciTech Connect

This document is complementary to a document produced by Prof. Salvatores on ''The Physics of Transmutation in Critical or Subcritical Reactors and the Impact on the Fuel Cycle''. In that document, Salvatores describes the fundamental of transmutation, through basic physics properties and general parametric studies. In the present document we try to go one step further towards practical implementation (while recognizing that the practical issues such as technology development and demonstration, and economics, can only be mentioned in a very superficial manner). Section 1 briefly overviews the possible objectives of transmutation systems, and links these different objectives to possible technological paths. It also describes the overall constraints which have to be considered when developing and implementing transmutation systems. In section 2 we briefly overview the technological constraints which need to be accounted for when designing transmutation systems. In section 3 we attempt to provide a simplified classification of transmutation systems in order to clarify later comparisons. It compares heterogeneous and homogeneous recycle strategies, and single and multi-tier systems. Section 4 presents case analyses for assessing the transmutation performance of various individual systems, starting with LWR's (1. generic results; 2. multirecycle of plutonium; 3. an alternative: transmutation based on a Thorium fuel cycle), followed by Gas-Cooled Reactors (with an emphasis on the ''deep burn'' approach), and followed by Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven systems (1. generic results; 2. homogeneous recycle of transuranics; 3. practical limit between Fast Reactors and Accelerator Driven Systems) Section 5 summarizes recent results on integrated system performances. It focuses first on interface effects between the two elements of a dual tier system, and then summarizes the major lessons learned from recent global physics studies.

Finck, P. J.

2002-08-21

29

Master Thesis Transmutation Strategies -a Swedish  

E-print Network

Master Thesis Transmutation Strategies - a Swedish Perspective Student: Paul Bramson Supervisor. Transmuting all MA in Sweden is found to be unsustainable due to lack of availability of MA fuel. It is found.4 Transmutation of Nuclear Waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1

Haviland, David

30

Brane Transmutation in Supergravity  

E-print Network

We study a family of BPS solutions of type IIA supergravity that can be interpreted as describing the `transmutation' of a Neveu-Schwarz five-brane into a D4-brane in the presence of a D6-brane. The D4-brane, which terminates on the D6-brane, can be equally well interpreted as a `pure multipole' configuration of NS5-brane wrapped tightly around the D6-brane. Such a transmutation is a "near-core" version (i.e., near the D6-brane) of the brane-creation that can occur when two branes pass through each other, as in the Hanany-Witten construction. The work below highlights certain charge non-conservation features of type IIA supergravity.

Andres Gomberoff; Donald Marolf

1999-12-20

31

A Transmutable Telecom System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a novel transmutable system for telecommunications, which features both reconfigurability and high performance.\\u000a There are two key innovations. One is a board-level modularity concept that allows different functions to be implemented on\\u000a different boards individually. The other is a high-speed serial link mechanism that provides excellent inter-board communications\\u000a without sacrificing performance. Our system is distinguished from conventional

Toshiaki Miyazaki; Kazuhiro Shirakawa; Masaru Katayama; Takahiro Murooka; Atsushi Takahara

1998-01-01

32

A fusion transmutation of waste reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design concept and the performance characteristics for a fusion transmutation of waste reactor (FTWR)—a sub-critical fast reactor driven by a tokamak fusion neutron source—are presented. The present design concept is based on nuclear, processing and fusion technologies that either exist or are at an advanced stage of development and on the existing tokamak plasma physics database. A FTWR, operating

W. M Stacey; J Mandrekas; E. A Hoffman; G. P Kessler; C. M Kirby; A. N Mauer; J. J Noble; D. M Stopp; D. S Ulevich

2002-01-01

33

Proceedings of Soil Decon `93: Technology targeting radionuclides and heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective for convening this workshop was to exchange ideas and discuss with scientists and engineers methods for removing radionuclides and/or toxic metals from soils. Over the years there have been numerous symposia, conferences, and workshops directed at soil remediation. However, this may be the first where the scope was narrowed to the removal of radionuclides and toxic metals from soils. The intent was to focus on the separation processes controlling the removal of the radionuclide and/or metal from soil. Its purpose was not intended to be a soil washing/leaching workshop, but rather to identify a variety or combination of processes (chemical, physical, and biological) that can be used in concert with the applicable engineering approaches to decontaminate soils of radionuclides and toxic metals. Abstracts and visual aids used by the speakers of the workshop are presented in this document.

Not Available

1993-09-01

34

Transmutation Fuel Campaign Description and Status  

SciTech Connect

This report contains a technical summary package in response to a Level 2 milestone in the transmutation fuel campaign (TFC) management work-package calling for input to the Secretarial decision. At present, the form of the Secretarial decision package is not fully defined, and it is not clear exactly what will be required from the TFC as a final input. However, it is anticipated that a series oftechnical and programmatic documents will need to be provided in support of a wider encompassing document on GNEP technology development activities. The TFC technical leadership team provides this report as initial input to the secretarial decision package which is being developed by the Technical Integration Office (TIO) in support of Secretarial decision. This report contains a summary of the TFC execution plan with a work breakdown structure, highlevel schedule, major milestones, and summary description of critical activities in support of campaign objectives. Supporting documents referenced in this report but provided under separate cover include: • An updated review of the state-of-the art for transmutation fuel development activities considering national as well as international fuel research and development testing activities. • A definition of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) used to systematically define and execute the transmutation fuel development activities.

Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

2008-01-01

35

Nuclear data for nuclear transmutation  

SciTech Connect

Current status on nuclear data for the study of nuclear transmutation of radioactive wastes is reviewed, mainly focusing on neutron capture reactions. It is stressed that the highest-precision frontier research in nuclear data measurements should be a key to satisfy the target accuracies on the nuclear data requested for realizing the nuclear transmutation.

Harada, Hideo [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

2009-05-04

36

Transmute 1.67  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As January turns into February, some people may be in the market for a new web browser. Of course, some may be wondering: What do I do about my bookmarks? That's easy enough to solve by making use of Transmute 1.67. This tiny program transfers bookmarks from one browser to another. The program is compatible with seven different browsers, including Google Chrome, Opera, and Chromium. The program provides automatic backups and the support site includes screen shots and support suggestions. This version is compatible with computers running Windows 95 and newer.

2010-01-08

37

Down selection of partitioning routes and transmutation fuels for P and T strategies implementation  

SciTech Connect

A review of the role and objectives of Partitioning and Transmutation allows pointing out a limited number of well characterized strategies. Moreover, it is possible to show that the choice of the associated partitioning processes and transmutation fuels can also be limited and that a down selection of technologies is possible in order to focus future R and D efforts and resources. (authors)

Fazio, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Salvatores, M. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]|[CEA-Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Yang, W.S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne IL. 60439 (United States)

2007-07-01

38

SubCritical Transmutation Reactors with Tokamak Fusion Neutron Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal results of a series of design scoping studies of sub-critical fast transmutation reactors (based on the nuclear and processing technology being developed in the USDoE Generation IV, Advanced Fuel Cycle and Next Generation Nuclear Plant programs) coupled with a tokamak fusion neutron source (based on the ITER design basis physics and technology) are presented.

W. M. Stacey; J. Mandrekas; E. A. Hoffman

2005-01-01

39

ACCELERATED SITE TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT COMPARABILITY OF ISOCS INSTRUMENT IN RADIONUCLIDE CHARACTERICATION AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a DOE Accelerated Site Technology Deployment project being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to deploy innovative, radiological, in situ analytical techniques. The technologies are being deployed in support of efforts to characterize the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) facility, which is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning. This report focuses on the deployment of the Canberra Industries In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) and assesses its data comparability to baseline methods of sampling and laboratory analysis. The battery-operated, field deployable gamma spectrometer provides traditional spectra of counts as a function of gamma energy. The spectra are then converted to radionuclide concentration by applying innovative efficiency calculations using monte carlo statistical methods and pre-defined geometry templates in the analysis software. Measurement of gamma emitting radionuclides has been accomplished during characterization of several BGRR components including the Pile Fan Sump, Above Ground Ducts, contaminated cooling fans, and graphite pile internals. Cs-137 is the predominant gamma-emitting radionuclide identified, with smaller quantities of Co-60 and Am-241 detected. The Project used the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual guidance and the Data Quality Objectives process to provide direction for survey planning and data quality assessment. Analytical results have been used to calculate data quality indicators (DQI) for the ISOCS measurements. Among the DQIs assessed in the report are sensitivity, accuracy, precision, bias, and minimum detectable concentration. The assessment of the in situ data quality using the DQIs demonstrates that the ISOCS data quality can be comparable to definitive level laboratory analysis when the field instrument is supported by an appropriate Quality Assurance Project Plan. A discussion of the results obtained by ISOCS analysis of objects that could not be analyzed readily by conventional methods demonstrates a powerful application of the instrument. In conclusion, a comparison of costs associated with the analysis on the ISOCS instrument to the costs of conventional sampling and laboratory analysis is presented.

KALB,P.; LUCKETT,L.; MILLER,K.; GOGOLAK,C.; MILIAN,L.

2001-03-01

40

Fast neutrons for transmutation research within the EFNUDAT project  

SciTech Connect

As a Network for research on waste transmutation and on Generation IV nuclear systems within the 6{sup th} EU framework program funds are available for EFNUDAT: European effort to exploit up-to-date neutron beam technology for novel research on the transmutation of radioactive waste. They cover joint research activities on n-beams, targets, data collection and quality assurance as well as transnational access to 10 neutron research facilities. We intend to arouse interest in European research groups to approach the EFNUDAT consortium in case of interest in transmutation related research. As an example we give a brief overview of the new neutron beam of the Strahlungsquelle ELBE at Dresden-Rossendorf.

Beyer, R.; Junghans, A. R.; Matic, A.; Schilling, K. D.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Grosse, E.; Weiss, F. P. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

2009-01-28

41

Axial Neutron Flux Evaluation in a Tokamak System: a Possible Transmutation Blanket Position for a Fusion-Fission Transmutation System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sub-critical advanced reactor based on Tokamak technology with a D-T fusion neutron source is an innovative type of nuclear system. Due to the large number of neutrons produced by fusion reactions, such a system could be useful in the transmutation process of transuranic elements (Pu and minor actinides (MAs)). However, to enhance the MA transmutation efficiency, it is necessary to have a large neutron wall loading (high neutron fluence) with a broad energy spectrum in the fast neutron energy region. Therefore, it is necessary to know and define the neutron fluence along the radial axis and its characteristics. In this work, the neutron flux and the interaction frequency along the radial axis are evaluated for various materials used to build the first wall. W alloy, beryllium, and the combination of both were studied, and the regions more suitable to transmutation were determined. The results demonstrated that the best zone in which to place a transmutation blanket is limited by the heat sink and the shield block. Material arrangements of W alloy/W alloy and W alloy/beryllium would be able to meet the requirements of the high fluence and hard spectrum that are needed for transuranic transmutation. The system was simulated using the MCNP code, data from the ITER Final Design Report, 2001, and the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library/MC-2.1 nuclear data library.

Velasquez, Carlos E.; de P. Barros, Graiciany; Pereira, Claubia; Fortini Veloso, Maria A.; Costa, Antonella L.

2012-08-01

42

Radionuclide Therapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of ? and ? particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

Zalutsky, M. R.

43

TRANSMUTATION DES PARTICULES FONDAMENTALES. CHANGEMENT DE SPIN  

E-print Network

123. TRANSMUTATION DES PARTICULES FONDAMENTALES. CHANGEMENT DE SPIN Par A. PROCA. Institut Henri'entre elles, comme autant d'états distincts d'un seul et même corpus- cule et de regarder les transmutations

Boyer, Edmond

44

Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.  

PubMed

Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides. PMID:16604724

Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

2005-01-01

45

The enrichment of natural radionuclides in oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia--the impact of new circulating fluidized bed technology.  

PubMed

Burning oil shale to produce electricity has a dominant position in Estonia's energy sector. Around 90% of the overall electric energy production originates from the Narva Power Plants. The technology in use has been significantly renovated - two older types of pulverized fuel burning (PF) energy production units were replaced with new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. Additional filter systems have been added to PF boilers to reduce emissions. Oil shale contains various amounts of natural radionuclides. These radionuclides concentrate and become enriched in different boiler ash fractions. More volatile isotopes will be partially emitted to the atmosphere via flue gases and fly ash. To our knowledge, there has been no previous study for CFB boiler systems on natural radionuclide enrichment and their atmospheric emissions. Ash samples were collected from Eesti Power Plant's CFB boiler. These samples were processed and analyzed with gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations (Bq/kg) and enrichment factors were calculated for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides and for (40)K in different CFB boiler ash fractions. Results from the CFB boiler ash sample analysis showed an increase in the activity concentrations and enrichment factors (up to 4.5) from the furnace toward the electrostatic precipitator block. The volatile radionuclide ((210)Pb and (40)K) activity concentrations in CFB boilers were evenly distributed in finer ash fractions. Activity balance calculations showed discrepancies between input (via oil shale) and output (via ash fractions) activities for some radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb). This refers to a situation where the missing part of the activity (around 20% for these radionuclides) is emitted to the atmosphere. Also different behavior patterns were detected for the two Ra isotopes, (226)Ra and (228)Ra. A part of (226)Ra input activity, unlike (228)Ra, was undetectable in the solid ash fractions of the boiler. Most probably it is released to the surrounding environment. PMID:24462922

Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

2014-03-01

46

Neutron transmutation doped Ge bolometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some conclusions reached are as follow. Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) of high quality Ge single crystals provides perfect control of doping concentration and uniformity. The resistivity can be tailored to any given bolometer operating temperature down to 0.1 K and probably lower. The excellent uniformity is advantaged for detector array development.

Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.; Palaio, N. P.; Richards, P. L.; Rodder, M.

1983-01-01

47

A proposal for a Los Alamos international facility for transmutations (LIFT)  

SciTech Connect

The major groups engaged in transmutation research are converging towards a common objective and similar technology. It is now possible to envision an international program of research aimed at the destruction of reactor-generated (and other) nuclear waste using a series of multipurpose experimental facilities in the near future. Los Alamos National Laboratory, as the home of the highest power LINAC and a very active transmutation technology project, is the ideal host for the first of such facilities. The next step in the international program (a facility 10 times more powerful, for engineering-scale demonstrations) could be built in Europe, where there is substantial interest in the construction of such a device in the framework of international cooperation. A series of experiments at Las Alamos could explore the key transmutation technologies. Liquid lead loops, a liquid lead spallation target, and a large size liquid lead facility with provision for irradiation, cooling and diagnostics of several types of `transmutation assemblies`, where different transmutation concepts will be tested in different media and environments, from transmutation of fission products to destruction by fission of higher actinides, to other waste management applications. The engineering-scale facility, which will follow the initial testing phase, will extend the best concepts to full scale implementation.

Venneri, F.; Williamson, M.A.; Li, Ning; Doolen, G.

1996-11-22

48

Dual neutral particle transmutation in CINDER2008  

SciTech Connect

A capability has been built for the CINDER2008 (beta) transmutation code that expands the capability from only neutron induced reactions to photon induced reactions. This allows for two incident neutral particles to cause nuclear transmutation in a given material simultaneously. The CINDER2008 code, a modular rewrite of the CINDER'90 transmutation code from Los Alamos National Laboratory, was modified to allow for the dual sets of physics. A photonuclear cross section and photofission product yield library was also created using ENDF-B/VII data and translated neutron fission product yields. The code and library have been combined to create a unique transmutation code. The scope of use is broad; it is capable of modeling the transmutation caused by photons released from the decay of daughter and fission products as well as transmutation in photon rich environments. A brief code description and a verification and validation of the contributions are given. (authors)

Martin, W. J.; De Oliveira, C. R. E. [1 Univ. of New Mexico, MSC01 1120, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States)

2012-07-01

49

Industrial research for transmutation scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents the results of research scenarios for americium transmutation in a 22nd century French nuclear fleet, using sodium fast breeder reactors. We benchmark the americium transmutation benefits and drawbacks with a reference case consisting of a hypothetical 60 GWe fleet of pure plutonium breeders. The fluxes in the various parts of the cycle (reactors, fabrication plants, reprocessing plants and underground disposals) are calculated using EDF's suite of codes, comparable in capabilities to those of other research facilities. We study underground thermal heat load reduction due to americium partitioning and repository area minimization. We endeavor to estimate the increased technical complexity of surface facilities to handle the americium fluxes in special fuel fabrication plants, americium fast burners, special reprocessing shops, handling equipments and transport casks between those facilities.

Camarcat, Noel; Garzenne, Claude; Le Mer, Joël; Leroyer, Hadrien; Desroches, Estelle; Delbecq, Jean-Michel

2011-04-01

50

Requirements for GNEP Transmutation Fuels  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide a baseline set of requirements to guide fuel fabrication development and irradiation testing performed as part of the AFCRD Transmutation Fuel Development Program. This document can be considered a supplement to the GNEP TRU Fuel Development and Qualification Plan, and will be revised as necessary to maintain a documented set of fuel testing objectives and requirements consistent with programmatic decisions and advances in technical knowledge.

D. C. Crawford; M. K. Meyer; S. L. Hayes

2007-03-01

51

Anomaly Mediation and Dimensional Transmutation  

E-print Network

We show how a sparticle spectrum characteristic of anomaly mediation can arise from a theory whose Lagrangian contains no explicit mass scale. The scale of supersymmetry breaking is governed by the gravitino mass, which is the vacuum expectation value of the F-term of the conformal compensator field, and the tachyonic slepton problem is resolved by the breaking of a U(1) gauge symmetry at a scale determined by dimensional transmutation.

D. R. T. Jones; G. G. Ross

2006-09-20

52

Transmutation of Nuclear Waste and the future MYRRHA Demonstrator  

E-print Network

While a considerable and world-wide growth of the nuclear share in the global energy mix is desirable for many reasons, there are also, in particular in the "old world" major objections. These are both concerns about safety, in particular in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident and concerns about the long-term burden that is constituted by the radiotoxic waste from the spent fuel. With regard to the second topic, the present contribution will outline the concept of Partitioning & Transmutation (P&T), as scientific and technological answer. Deployment of P&T may use dedicated "Transmuter" or "Burner" reactors, using a fast neutron spectrum. For the transmutation of waste with a large content (up to 50%) of (very long-lived) Minor Actinides, a sub-critical reactor, using an external neutron source is a most attractive solution. It is constituted by coupling a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical core. This promising new technology is named ADS, for accelerator-driven system. The present paper aims at a short introduction into the field that has been characterized by a high collaborative activity during the last decade in Europe, in order to focus, in its later part, on the MYRRHA project as the European ADS technology demonstrator.

Alex C. Mueller

2012-10-16

53

Radioactive waste from transmutation of technetium: a model for anticipating characteristics of high level waste from transmutation  

SciTech Connect

At this early stage in the conceptualization of fuel treatment and radioisotope transmutation for the disposition of nuclear wastes, it is possible to anticipate some characteristics of the waste stream resulting from the deployment of advanced technologies. Fission products and actinides cannot be completely destroyed by transmutation even with continuous purification and recycle. This is demonstrated for technetium in this analysis, but is true for all radioisotopes. Also, some of the reaction products are themselves long-lived radioactive isotopes. The purification and recycle steps produce nuclear wastes that must be planned for geologic disposal. Five radioisotopes have been identified to be produced in abundance by transmutation of technetium using fast neutrons. Four of these isotopes may be more benign than the original technetium-99 because of their longer half lives. However, one isotope, molybdenum-93 with a half life of four thousand years, may be troublesome. All of the isotopes arising from the transmutation process that end up in high level waste must be examined in terms of their behavior in geologic disposal. In selecting goals for chemical separations, the technologists must consider the entire cycle of separation and transmutation before applying the performance expected in a single separation to implications concerning a repository. A separation efficiency of 0.95 can translate into the disposal of as much as 30 to 60 percent of the technetium in the repository if down stream losses are not controlled. In this case, the treatment may have little impact on anticipated off site radiation from technetium. The destruction of technetium through continuous recycle requires the cost of increased neutron dose and increased space in reactors that must be considered in design of fuel treatment systems. (authors)

Seitz, M.G. [Booz Allen Hamilton, Washington DC (United States)

2007-07-01

54

Laser-driven photo-transmutation of 129I—a long-lived nuclear waste product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intense laser–plasma interactions produce high brightness beams of gamma rays, neutrons and ions and have the potential to deliver accelerating gradients more than 1000 times higher than conventional accelerator technology, and on a tabletop scale. This paper demonstrates one of the exciting applications of this technology, namely for transmutation studies of long-lived radioactive waste. We report the laser-driven photo-transmutation of

K W D Ledingham; J Magill; P McKenna; J Yang; J Galy; R Schenkel; J Rebizant; T McCanny; S Shimizu; L Robson; R P Singhal; M S Wei; S P D Mangles; P Nilson; K Krushelnick; R J Clarke; P A Norreys

2003-01-01

55

Transmutation of Nuclear Waste and the future MYRRHA Demonstrator  

E-print Network

While a considerable and world-wide growth of the nuclear share in the global energy mix is desirable for many reasons, there are also, in particular in the "old world" major objections. These are both concerns about safety, in particular in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident and concerns about the long-term burden that is constituted by the radiotoxic waste from the spent fuel. With regard to the second topic, the present contribution will outline the concept of Partitioning & Transmutation (P&T), as scientific and technological answer. Deployment of P&T may use dedicated "Transmuter" or "Burner" reactors, using a fast neutron spectrum. For the transmutation of waste with a large content (up to 50%) of (very long-lived) Minor Actinides, a sub-critical reactor, using an external neutron source is a most attractive solution. It is constituted by coupling a proton accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical core. This promising new technology is named ADS, for accelerator-driven syste...

Mueller, Alex C

2012-01-01

56

Note on the Transmutation Function for Deuterons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the effect of the finite size and ready polarizability of the deuteron on the probability of transmutations involving the capture of the neutron. These have as a consequence that the Coulomb repulsion of the nucleus is less effective than for alpha-particles or protons, and that the corresponding transmutation functions increase less rapidly with deuteron energy. We treat the

J. R. Oppenheimer; M. Phillips

1935-01-01

57

Transmuting coprocessors: dynamic loading of FPGA coprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field-programmable gates arrays (FPGAs) are increasingly used in general-purpose computing platforms to augment microprocessors, enabling runtime loading of coprocessors customized to speed up some applications. Such transmuting coprocessors create new dynamic management problems involving decisions as to when to load a coprocessor, where to place the coprocessor in the FPGA, or which resident coprocessor to replace. We define a transmuting

Chen Huang; Frank Vahid

2009-01-01

58

Analysis of advanced european nuclear fuel cycle scenarios including transmutation and economical estimates  

SciTech Connect

In this work the transition from the existing Light Water Reactors (LWR) to the advanced reactors is analyzed, including Generation III+ reactors in a European framework. Four European fuel cycle scenarios involving transmutation options have been addressed. The first scenario (i.e., reference) is the current fleet using LWR technology and open fuel cycle. The second scenario assumes a full replacement of the initial fleet with Fast Reactors (FR) burning U-Pu MOX fuel. The third scenario is a modification of the second one introducing Minor Actinide (MA) transmutation in a fraction of the FR fleet. Finally, in the fourth scenario, the LWR fleet is replaced using FR with MOX fuel as well as Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for MA transmutation. All scenarios consider an intermediate period of GEN-III+ LWR deployment and they extend for a period of 200 years looking for equilibrium mass flows. The simulations were made using the TR-EVOL code, a tool for fuel cycle studies developed by CIEMAT. The results reveal that all scenarios are feasible according to nuclear resources demand (U and Pu). Concerning to no transmutation cases, the second scenario reduces considerably the Pu inventory in repositories compared to the reference scenario, although the MA inventory increases. The transmutation scenarios show that elimination of the LWR MA legacy requires on one hand a maximum of 33% fraction (i.e., a peak value of 26 FR units) of the FR fleet dedicated to transmutation (MA in MOX fuel, homogeneous transmutation). On the other hand a maximum number of ADS plants accounting for 5% of electricity generation are predicted in the fourth scenario (i.e., 35 ADS units). Regarding the economic analysis, the estimations show an increase of LCOE (Levelized cost of electricity) - averaged over the whole period - with respect to the reference scenario of 21% and 29% for FR and FR with transmutation scenarios respectively, and 34% for the fourth scenario. (authors)

Merino Rodriguez, I.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Martin-Fuertes, F. [CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

2013-07-01

59

Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation and breeder applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work consists of design power plant studies for four types of reactor systems: uranium plasma core breeder, uranium plasma core actinide transmuter, UF6 breeder and UF6 actinide transmuter. The plasma core systems can be coupled to MHD generators to obtain high efficiency electrical power generation. A 1074 MWt UF6 breeder reactor was designed with a breeding ratio of 1.002 to guard against diversion of fuel. Using molten salt technology and a superheated steam cycle, an efficiency of 39.2% was obtained for the plant and the U233 inventory in the core and heat exchangers was limited to 105 Kg. It was found that the UF6 reactor can produce high fluxes (10 to the 14th power n/sq cm-sec) necessary for efficient burnup of actinide. However, the buildup of fissile isotopes posed severe heat transfer problems. Therefore, the flux in the actinide region must be decreased with time. Consequently, only beginning-of-life conditions were considered for the power plant design. A 577 MWt UF6 actinide transmutation reactor power plant was designed to operate with 39.3% efficiency and 102 Kg of U233 in the core and heat exchanger for beginning-of-life conditions.

Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

1978-01-01

60

Brief overview of the long-lived radionuclide separation processes developed in france in connection with the spin program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce the long-term potential hazards associated with the management of nuclear wastes generated by nuclear fuel reprocessing, one alternative is the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides into short-lived radionuclides by nuclear means (P & T strategy). In this context, according to the law passed by the French Parliament on 30 December 1991, the CEA launched the SPIN program for the design of long-lived radionuclide separation and nuclear incineration processes. The research in progress to define separation processes focused mainly on the minor actinides (neptunium, americium and curium) and some fission products, like cesium and technetium. To separate these long-lived radionuclides, two strategies were developed. The first involves research on new operating conditions for improving the PUREX fuel reprocessing technology. This approach concerns the elements neptunium and technetium (iodine and zirconium can also be considered). The second strategy involves the design of new processes; DIAMEX for the co-extraction of minor actinides from the high-level liquid waste leaving the PUREX process, An(III)/Ln(III) separation using tripyridyltriazine derivatives or picolinamide extracting agents; SESAME for the selective separation of americium after its oxidation to Am(IV) or Am(VI) in the presence of a heteropolytungstate ligand, and Cs extraction using a new class of extracting agents, calixarenes, which exhibit exceptional Cs separation properties, especially in the presence of sodium ion. This lecture focuses on the latest achievements in these research areas.

Madic, Charles; Bourges, Jacques; Dozol, Jean-François

1995-09-01

61

Brief overview of the long-lived radionuclide separation processes developed in france in connection with the SPIN program  

SciTech Connect

To reduce the long-term potential hazards associated with the management of nuclear wastes generated by nuclear fuel reprocessing, one alternative is the transmutation of long-lived radionuclides into short-lived radionuclides by nuclear means (P and T strategy). In this context, according to the law passed by the French Parliament on 30 December 1991, the CEA launched the SPIN program for the design of long-lived radionuclide separation and nuclear incineration processes. The research in progress to define separation processes focused mainly on the minor actinides (neptunium, americium and curium) and some fission products, like cesium and technetium. To separate these long-lived radionuclides, two strategies were developed. The first involves research on new operating conditions for improving the PUREX fuel reprocessing technology. This approach concerns the elements neptunium and technetium (iodine and zirconium can also be considered). The second strategy involves the design of new processes; DIAMEX for the co-extraction of minor actinides from the high-level liquid waste leaving the PUREX process, An(III)/Ln(III) separation using tripyridyltriazine derivatives or picolinamide extracting agents; SESAME for the selective separation of americium after its oxidation to Am(IV) or Am(VI) in the presence of a heteropolytungstate ligand, and Cs extraction using a new class of extracting agents, calixarenes, which exhibit exceptional Cs separation properties, especially in the presence of sodium ion. This lecture focuses on the latest achievements in these research areas.

Madic, Charles; Bourges, Jacques; Dozol, Jean-Francois [CEA, Direction du Cycle du Combustible DRDD, CEN-FAR, B. P. No 6, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); CEA, Direction du Cycle du Combustible DESD, CEN-CAD. Cadarache (France)

1995-09-15

62

Transmutation doping of silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Normal isotopic silicon contains 3.05% of Si-30 which transmutes to P-31 after thermal neutron absorption, with a half-life of 2.6 hours. This reaction is used to introduce extremely uniform concentrations of phosphorus into silicon, thus eliminating the areal and spatial inhomogeneities characteristic of chemical doping. Annealing of the lattice damage in the irradiated silicon does not alter the uniformity of dopant distribution. Transmutation doping also makes it possible to introduce phosphorus into polycrystalline silicon without segregation of the dopant at the grain boundaries. The use of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) silicon in solar cell research and development is discussed.

Wood, R. F.; Westbrook, R. D.; Young, R. T.; Cleland, J. W.

1977-01-01

63

Classical Dimensional Transmutation and Confinement  

E-print Network

We observe that probing certain classical field theories by external sources uncovers the underlying renormalization group structure, including the phenomenon of dimensional transmutation, at purely-classical level. We perform this study on an example of $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory and unravel asymptotic freedom and triviality for negative and positives signs of $\\lambda$ respectively. We derive exact classical $\\beta$ function equation. Solving this equation we find that an isolated source has an infinite energy and therefore cannot exist as an asymptotic state. On the other hand a dipole, built out of two opposite charges, has finite positive energy. At large separation the interaction potential between these two charges grows indefinitely as a distance in power one third.

Gia Dvali; Cesar Gomez; Slava Mukhanov

2011-07-05

64

Transmutation: The Roots of the Dream.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the history of alchemical attempts at transmutation and classifies them by differing approaches and techniques. Traces the development of alchemy in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East, and compares alchemy with craftsmanship. (18 references) (DDR)

Karpenko, Vladimir

1995-01-01

65

APT radionuclide production experiment  

SciTech Connect

Tritium ({sup 3}H, a heavy isotope of hydrogen) is produced by low energy neutron-induced reactions on various elements. One such reaction is n+{sup 3}He {yields}>{sup 3}H+{sup 1}H in which {sup 3}He is transmuted to tritium. Another reaction, which has been used in reactor production of tritium, is the n+{sup 6}Li {yields}> {sup 3}H+{sup 4}He reaction. Accelerator Production of Tritium relies on a high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy proton beam to produce these neutrons using the spallation reaction, in which high-energy protons reacting with a heavy nucleus produce a shower of low-energy neutrons and a lower-mass residual nucleus. It is important to quantify the residual radionuclides produced in the spallation target for two reasons. From an engineering point of view, one must understand short-lived isotopes that may contribute to decay heat. From a safety viewpoint, one must understand what nuclei and decay gammas are produced in order to design adequate shielding, to estimate ultimate waste disposal problems, and to predict possible effects due to accidental dispersion during operation. The authors have performed an experiment to measure the production of radioisotopes in stopping-length W and Pb targets irradiated by a 800 MeV proton beam, and are comparing the results to values obtained from calculations using LAHET and MCNP. The experiment was designed to pay particular attention to the short half-life radionuclides, which have not been previously measured. In the following, they present details of the experiment, explain how they analyzed the data and obtain the results, how they perform the calculations, and finally, how the experimental data agree with the calculations.

Ullmann, J.L.; Gavron, A.; King, J.D. [and others

1994-07-02

66

The transmutation of silver into gold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout the ages, man has been intrigued by the idea of transmuting base metals into the ‘king of metals’. Stephen H. Emmens,\\u000a a late 19th-century scientist and entrepreneur, living and working in America, claimed to have transmuted silver into gold\\u000a by his socalled Argentaurum process. His work in this area and his exchange of correspondence with the eminent scientist Sir

George B. Kauffman

1983-01-01

67

Transmutations for Darboux transformed operators with applications  

E-print Network

We solve the following problem. Given a continuous complex-valued potential q_1 defined on a segment [-a,a] and let q_2 be the potential of a Darboux transformed Schr\\"odinger operator. Suppose a transmutation operator T_1 for the potential q_1 is known such that the corresponding Schr\\"odinger operator is transmuted into the operator of second derivative. Find an analogous transmutation operator T_2 for the potential q_2. It is well known that the transmutation operators can be realized in the form of Volterra integral operators with continuously differentiable kernels. Given a kernel K_1 of the transmutation operator T_1 we find the kernel K_2 of T_2 in a closed form in terms of K_1. As a corollary interesting commutation relations between T_1 and T_2 are obtained which then are used in order to construct the transmutation operator for the one-dimensional Dirac system with a scalar potential.

Vladislav V. Kravchenko; Sergii M. Torba

2011-11-18

68

Fission Product Impact Reduction via Protracted In-core Retention in Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Transmutation Scenarios  

E-print Network

Oak Ridge National Laboratory OTOC Once-Through-and-Out Cycle P&T Partitioning and Transmutation PWR Pressurized Water Reactor SNF Spent Nuclear Fuel THTR Thorium High Temperature Reactor TRISO Tri-structural Isotropic TRU Transuranium Nuclide... content of the fuel. In discharged spent nuclear fuels (SNF), the reduction of radiotoxicity is mainly driven by the decay of the radionuclides. The time required to attain a tolerable level of toxicity is governed by the half lives of the radioactive...

Alajo, Ayodeji Babatunde

2011-08-08

69

Incentives and recent proposals for partitioning and transmutation in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Partitioning and transmutation (P-T) is perhaps the most elegant means of high level waste disposal. Currently, the cost of fuel obtained from reprocessing spent fuel exceeds the cost of fuel obtained by mining. This has resulted in the once through fuel cycle dominating the US nuclear industry. Despite this fact P-T continues to be examined and debated by the US as well as abroad. The US first seriously considered P-T between approximately 1976 and 1982 but rejected the concept in favor of reprocessing. More recently, since about 1989, as a result of the once through fuel cycle and the growing problems of waste disposal, studies concerning P-T have resumed. This essay will seek to outline the incentives and goals of partitioning and transmutation as it would apply to the disposal of spent fuel in the US. Recent proposals by various US national laboratories for implementing partitioning and transmutation as a high level waste management and disposal device will also be discussed. The review will seek to examine the technical concepts utilized in each of the proposals and their feasibility. The major focus of this essay will be the transmutation methods themselves, while the partitioning methods will be discussed only briefly. This is because of the fact that partitioning methods fall under reprocessing as an already fairly well established and accepted technology while feasible methods for transmutation are still being advanced.

Donovan, T.J.

1995-05-01

70

Comparison of accelerator-based with reactor-based waste transmutation schemes  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator-based transmutation of waste (ATW) systems for the destruction of commercial LWR spent fuel are compared with systems based on thermal reactors accomplish the same objectives. When the same technology is assumed for the actinide-burning aspect of the two systems, it is seen that the size of the accelerator is determined only by the choice of how many of the long-lived fission products to burn. if none are transmuted, then the accelerator is not necessary. This result is independent of the choice of fluid carrier, and whether the actinides are destroyed in an ATW system or in a separate reactor.

Sailor, W.C.; Beard, C.A.; Venneri, F.; Davidson, J.W.

1993-12-01

71

Observability of heat processes by transmutation without geometric restrictions  

E-print Network

Observability of heat processes by transmutation without geometric restrictions Sylvain Ervedoza and Enrique Zuazua March 22, 2011 Abstract The goal of this note is to explain how transmutation techniques

Ervedoza, Sylvain

72

High flux Particle Bed Reactor systems for rapid transmutation of actinides and long lived fission products  

SciTech Connect

An initial assessment of several actinide/LLFP burner concepts based on the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) is described. The high power density/flux level achievable with the PBR make it an attractive candidate for this application. The PBR based actinide burner concept also possesses a number of safety and economic benefits relative to other reactor based transmutation approaches including a low inventory of radionuclides, and high integrity, coated fuel particles which can withstand extremely high in temperatures while retaining virtually all fission products. In addition the reactor also posesses a number of ``engineered safety features,`` which, along with the use of high temperature capable materials further enhance its safety characteristics.

Powell, J.; Ludewig, H.; Maise, G.; Steinberg, M.; Todosow, M.

1993-08-01

73

Neutronics, reactor systems and fuels for transmutation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of transmutation is to reduce the mass and the radiotoxicity inventories of Minor Actinides and Long-Lived Fission Products of nuclear waste. In France, the law voted in 1991 for waste management has requested in particular the study of solutions and processes on the subject of transmutation. This review gives conclusions, at the end of the 15 year research period defined by the law, on the scientific and technical feasibility of transmutation based on neutronic aspects, reactor systems and possible fuels, from the CEA point of view. Important results are now available concerning the possibility of significantly reducing the quantity and the radiotoxicity of long-lived waste in association with a sustainable development of nuclear energy. As France has confirmed its long-term approach to nuclear energy, the most effective implementation of (recycling-)transmutation of Minor Actinides other than Plutonium and Uranium depends on the fast neutron GEN IV systems which are designed to recycle and manage their own actinides. The perspective to deploy a first series of such systems around 2040 supports the idea that progress is being made: the nuclear long-term waste would only be made up of Fission Products, whose radio toxicity considerably drops within a few hundred years. Future work will deal with pre industrial demonstrations of transmutation. (authors)

Warin, D. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Directorate DEN, Saclay Center, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Zaetta, A.; Varaine, F.; Grouiller, J. P.; Pillon, S. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Directorate DEN, Cadarache Center, 13108 Saint Paul les Durance (France)

2006-07-01

74

TRANSMUTATIVE VOICE CONVERSION Seyed Hamidreza Mohammadi and Alexander Kain  

E-print Network

TRANSMUTATIVE VOICE CONVERSION Seyed Hamidreza Mohammadi and Alexander Kain Center for Spoken@ohsu.edu ABSTRACT There are two types of voice conversion (VC) systems: generative and transmutative. A generative. On the other hand, a transmutative VC system modifies high-dimensional features of a high-fidelity speech model

Kain, Alexander

75

Nuclear fuel cycle strategies including Partitioning and Transmutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread concern about radioactive waste management has promoted interest during the last decade for the potential role of Partitioning and Transmutation strategies, in order to alleviate the burden on future deep geological repositories. The physics of transmutation allows to point-out preferential approaches, e.g., based on the use of a fast neutron spectrum. The practical implementation of Partitioning and Transmutation

M. Salvatores

2005-01-01

76

Transmutation Fuel Performance Code Conceptual Design  

SciTech Connect

One of the objectives of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is to facilitate the licensing and operation of Advanced Recycle Reactors (ARRs) for transmutation of the transuranic elements (TRU) present in spent fuel. A fuel performance code will be an essential element in the licensing process ensuring that behavior of the transmutation fuel elements in the reactor is understood and predictable. Even more important in the near term, a fuel performance code will assist substantially in the fuels research and development, design, irradiation testing and interpretation of the post-irradiation examination results.

Gregory K. Miller; Pavel G. Medvedev

2007-03-01

77

Fusion-Fission Transmutation Scheme- Efficient Destruction of Nuclear Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fusion-assisted transmutation system for the destruction of transuranic (TRU) waste is presented. Subcritical fusion-fission hybrids burn the intransigent transuranic residues (with most of the long lived bio-hazard) of a new fuel cycle that uses cheap light water reactors (LWRs) for the easily burned majority of the TRU. In the new fuel cycle, the number of hybrids needed to destroy a given amount of original LWR waste is 5-10 times less than the corresponding number of critical fast reactors. (Fast reactors, due to stability constraints, cannot burn the very poor quality TRU residue.) The new system comparably reduces the expensive reprocessing throughput. Realization of these advantages should lead to a great reduction in the cost of transmutation. The time needed for 99% waste destruction would also be reduced from centuries to decades. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density compact fusion neutron source (CFNS-100 MW, with major radius + minor radius ˜ 2.5 m), which is made possible by a super-X divertor. The physics and technology requirements of the CFNS are much less than the requirements of a pure fusion power source. Advantages of the system as part of a timely strategy to combat global warming are briefly described.

Kotschenreuther, Mike; Mahajan, Swadesh; Valanju, Prashant; Schneider, Erich A.

2009-05-01

78

Transmutation Fuels Campaign FY-09 Accomplishments Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the fiscal year 2009 (FY-08) accomplishments for the Transmutation Fuels Campaign (TFC). The emphasis is on the accomplishments and relevance of the work. Detailed description of the methods used to achieve the highlighted results and the associated support tasks are not included in this report.

Lori Braase

2009-09-01

79

Transmutation of singularities in optical instruments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method for eliminating a class of singularities in optical media where the refractive index goes to zero or infinity at one or more isolated points. Employing transformation optics, we find a refractive index distribution equivalent to the original one that is nonsingular but shows a slight anisotropy. In this way, the original singularity is 'transmuted' into another,

Tomás Tyc; Ulf Leonhardt

2008-01-01

80

A low aspect ratio tokamak transmutation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low aspect ratio tokamak transmutation system is proposed as an alternative application of fusion energy on the basis of a review of previous studies. This system includes: (1) a low aspect ratio tokamak as fusion neutron driver, (2) a radioactivity-clean nuclear power system as blanket, and (3) a novel concept of liquid metal centre conductor post as part of

L. J. Qiu; Y. C. Wu; B. J. Xiao; Q. Xu; Q. Y. Huang; B. Wu; Y. X. Chen; W. N. Xu; Y. P. Chen; X. P. Liu

2000-01-01

81

On the use of a molten salt fast reactor to apply an idealized transmutation scenario for the nuclear phase out.  

PubMed

In the view of transmutation of transuranium (TRU) elements, molten salt fast reactors (MSFRs) offer certain advantages compared to solid fuelled reactor types like sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). In the first part these advantages are discussed in comparison with the SFR technology, and the research challenges are analyzed. In the second part cycle studies for the MSFR are given for different configurations--a core with U-238 fertile, a fertile free core, and a core with Th-232 as fertile material. For all cases, the transmutation potential is determined and efficient transmutation performance for the case with thorium as a fertile material as well as for the fertile free case is demonstrated and the individual advantages are discussed. The time evolution of different important isotopes is analyzed. In the third part a strategy for the optimization of the transmutation efficiency is developed. The final aim is dictated by the phase out decision of the German government, which requests to put the focus on the determination of the maximal transmutation efficiency and on an as much as possible reduced leftover of transuranium elements at the end of the reactor life. This minimal leftover is achieved by a two step procedure of a first transmuter operation phase followed by a second deep burning phase. There the U-233, which is bred in the blanket of the core consisting of thorium containing salt, is used as feed. It is demonstrated, that transmutation rates up to more than 90% can be achieved for all transuranium isotopes, while the production of undesired high elements like californium is very limited. Additionally, the adaptations needed for the simulation of a MSFR, and the used tool HELIOS 1.10 is described. PMID:24690768

Merk, Bruno; Rohde, Ulrich; Glivici-Cotru??, Varvara; Litskevich, Dzianis; Scholl, Susanne

2014-01-01

82

Heterogeneous sodium fast reactor designed for transmuting minor actinide waste isotopes into plutonium fuel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past several years there has been a renewed interest in sodium fast reactor (SFR) technology for the purpose of destroying transuranic waste (TRU) produced by light water reactors (LWR). The utility of SFRs as waste burners is due to the fact that higher neutron energies allow all of the actinides, including the minor actinides (MA), to contribute to fission. It is well understood that many of the design issues of LWR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal in a geologic repository are linked to MAs. Because the probability of fission for essentially all the "non-fissile" MAs is nearly zero at low neutron energies, these isotopes act as a neutron capture sink in most thermal reactor systems. Furthermore, because most of the isotopes produced by these capture reactions are also non-fissile, they too are neutron sinks in most thermal reactor systems. Conversely, with high neutron energies, the MAs can produce neutrons by fast fission. Additionally, capture reactions transmute the MAs into mostly plutonium isotopes, which can fission more readily at any energy. The transmutation of non-fissile into fissile atoms is the premise of the plutonium breeder reactor. In a breeder reactor, not only does the non-fissile "fertile" U-238 atom contribute fast fission neutrons, but also transmutes into fissile Pu-239. The fissile value of the plutonium produced by MA transmutation can only be realized in fast neutron spectra. This is due to the fact that the predominate isotope produced by MA transmutation, Pu-238, is itself not fissile. However, the Pu-238 fission cross section is significantly larger than the original transmutation parent, predominately: Np-237 and Am-241, in the fast energy range. Also, Pu-238's fission cross section and fission-to-capture ratio is almost as high as that of fissile Pu-239 in the fast neutron spectrum. It is also important to note that a neutron absorption in Pu-238, that does not cause fission, will instead produce fissile Pu-239. Given this fast fissile quality and also the fact that Pu-238 is transmuted from Np-237 and Am-241, these MAs are regarded as fertile material in the SFR design proposed by this dissertation. This dissertation demonstrates a SFR design which is dedicated to plutonium breeding by targeting Am-241 transmutation. This SFR design uses a moderated axial transmutation target that functions primarily as a pseudo-blanket fuel, which is reprocessed with the active driver fuel in an integrated recycling strategy. This work demonstrates the cost and feasibility advantages of plutonium breeding via MA transmutation by adopting reactor, reprocessing and fuel technologies previously demonstrated for traditional breeder reactors. The fuel cycle proposed seeks to find a harmony between the waste management advantages of transuranic burning SFRs and the resource sustainability of traditional plutonium breeder SFRs. As a result, the enhanced plutonium conversion from MAs decreases the burner SFR's fuel costs, by extracting more fissile value from the initial TRU purchased through SNF reprocessing.

Bays, Samuel Eugene

2008-10-01

83

SCWR Once-Through Calculations for Transmutation and Cross Sections  

SciTech Connect

It is the purpose of this report to document the calculation of (1) the isotopic evolution and of (2) the 1-group cross sections as a function of burnup of the reference Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR), in a format suitable for the Fuel Cycle Option Campaign Transmutation Data Library. The reference SCWR design was chosen to be that described in [McDonald, 2005]. Super Critical Water Reactors (SCWR) are intended to operate with super-critical water (i.e. H2O at a pressure above 22 MPa and a temperature above 373oC) as a cooling – and possibly also moderating – fluid. The main mission of the SCWR is to generate lower cost electricity, as compared to current standard Light Water Reactors (LWR). Because of the high operating pressure and temperature, SCWR feature a substantially higher thermal conversion efficiency than standard LWR – i.e. about 45% versus 33%, mostly due to an increase in the exit water temperature from ~300oC to ~500oC – potentially resulting in a lower cost of generated electricity. The coolant remains single phase throughout the reactor and the energy conversion system, thus eliminating the need for pressurizers, steam generators, steam separators and dryers, further potentially reducing the reactor construction capital cost. The SCWR concept presented here is based on existing LWR technology and on a large number of existing fossil-fired supercritical boilers. However, it was concluded in [McDonald, 2005], that: “Based on the results of this study, it appears that the reference SCWR design is not feasible.” This conclusion appears based on the strong sensitivity of the design to small deviations in nominal conditions leading to small effects having a potentially large impact on the peak cladding temperature of some fuel rods. “This was considered a major feasibility issue for the SCWR” [McDonald, 2005]. After a description of the reference SCWR design, the Keno V 3-D single assembly model used for this analysis, as well as the calculated results, are presented. Additionally, the follwing information, presented in the appendixes, is intended to provide enough guidance that a researcher repeating the same task in the future should be able to obtain a vector of nuclei and cross sections ready for insertion into the transmutation library without any need for further instructions: (1) Complete TRITON/KENO-V input used for the analysis; (2) Inputs and detailed description of the usage of the OPUS utility, used to postproces and to extract the nuclei concentrations for the transmutation library; (3) Inputs and detailed description of the usage of the XSECLIST utility, used to postproces and to extract the 1-group cross sections for the transmutation library; (4) Details of an ad-hoc utility program developed to sort the nuclei and cross sections for the transmutation library.

ganda, francesco (090771)

2012-07-01

84

Statistical transmutation in doped quantum dimer models.  

PubMed

We prove a "statistical transmutation" symmetry of doped quantum dimer models on the square, triangular, and kagome lattices: the energy spectrum is invariant under a simultaneous change of statistics (i.e., bosonic into fermionic or vice versa) of the holes and of the signs of all the dimer resonance loops. This exact transformation enables us to define the duality equivalence between doped quantum dimer Hamiltonians and provides the analytic framework to analyze dynamical statistical transmutations. We investigate numerically the doping of the triangular quantum dimer model with special focus on the topological Z(2) dimer liquid. Doping leads to four (instead of two for the square lattice) inequivalent families of Hamiltonians. Competition between phase separation, superfluidity, supersolidity, and fermionic phases is investigated in the four families. PMID:23031119

Lamas, C A; Ralko, A; Cabra, D C; Poilblanc, D; Pujol, P

2012-07-01

85

Thermoelectric properties of transmutation doped silicon crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a method for determining the anisotropy parameter of thermoelectromotive force of electron-phonon drag (M) by deformation of n-Si in direction [001]; the experimental data on measuring of temperature dependence of the Hall effect, charge carrier lifetime, tensoresistance and tenso-thermoelectromotive force of transmutation doped n-Si crystals, which subjected to high-temperature annealing at T=1473K during 2 and 72 h, and cooled from the annealing temperature to the room one with 1, 15, 1000 K/min rates, were presented. It is shown that the anisotropy of drag thermoelectromotive force is greatly increased in the experiments with the transmutation doped silicon at 85 K, X?//?T//[001](X?0.6GPa) due to the action of high-temperature annealing.

Gaidar, G. P.; Baranskii, P. I.

2014-05-01

86

Sphere-Pac Evaluation for Transmutation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is sponsoring a project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with the objective of conducting the research and development necessary to evaluate the use of sphere-pac transmutation fuel. Sphere-pac fuels were studied extensively in the 1960s and 1970s. More recently, this fuel form is being studied internationally as a potential plutonium-burning fuel. For transmutation fuel, sphere-pac fuels have potential advantages over traditional pellet-type fuels. This report provides a review of development efforts related to the preparation of sphere-pac fuels and their irradiation tests. Based on the results of these tests, comparisons with pellet-type fuels are summarized, the advantages and disadvantages of using sphere-pac fuels are highlighted, and sphere-pac options for the AFCI are recommended. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory development activities are also outlined.

Icenhour, A.S.

2005-05-19

87

Energy transmutation in nonequilibrium quantum systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate particle and heat transport in quantum junctions with the geometry of star graphs. The system is in a non-equilibrium steady state, characterized by the different temperatures and chemical potentials of the heat reservoirs connected to the edges of the graph. We explore the Landauer–Büttiker state and its orbit under parity and time reversal transformations. Both particle number and total energy are conserved in these states. However, the heat and chemical potential energy are in general not separately conserved, which gives origin to a basic process of energy transmutation among them. We study both directions of this process in detail, introducing appropriate efficiency coefficients. For scale invariant interactions in the junction our results are exact and explicit. They cover the whole parameter space and take into account all nonlinear effects. The energy transmutation depends on the particle statistics.

Mintchev, Mihail; Santoni, Luca; Sorba, Paul

2015-02-01

88

Review of Transmutation Fuel Studies  

SciTech Connect

The technology demonstration element of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is aimed at demonstrating the closure of the fuel cycle by destroying the transuranic (TRU) elements separated from spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Multiple recycle through fast reactors is used for burning the TRU initially separated from light-water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel. For the initial technology demonstration, the preferred option to demonstrate the closed fuel cycle destruction of TRU materials is a sodium-cooled fast reactor (FR) used as burner reactor. The sodium-cooled fast reactor represents the most mature sodium reactor technology available today. This report provides a review of the current state of development of fuel systems relevant to the sodium-cooled fast reactor. This report also provides a review of research and development of TRU-metal alloy and TRU-oxide composition fuels. Experiments providing data supporting the understanding of minor actinide (MA)-bearing fuel systems are summarized and referenced.

Jon Carmack (062056); Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu (103171)

2008-01-01

89

Spacetime Emergence and General Covariance Transmutation  

E-print Network

Spacetime emergence refers to the notion that classical spacetime "emerges" as an approximate macroscopic entity from a non-spatio-temporal structure present in a more complete theory of interacting fundamental constituents. In this article, we propose a novel mechanism involving the "soldering" of internal and external spaces for the emergence of spacetime and the twin transmutation of general covariance. In the context of string theory, this mechanism points to a critical four dimensional spacetime background.

Chiu Man Ho; Thomas W. Kephart; Djordje Minic; Y. Jack Ng

2012-12-20

90

Spacetime Emergence and General Covariance Transmutation  

E-print Network

Spacetime emergence refers to the notion that classical spacetime "emerges" as an approximate macroscopic entity from a non-spatio-temporal structure present in a more complete theory of interacting fundamental constituents. In this article, we propose a novel mechanism involving the "soldering" of internal and external spaces for the emergence of spacetime and the twin transmutation of general covariance. In the context of string theory, this mechanism points to a critical four dimensional spacetime background.

Ho, Chiu Man; Minic, Djordje; Ng, Y Jack

2012-01-01

91

On Nuclear Transmutation Reactions in Solids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on transmutation reactions in solids heavily loaded with H or D( high H/D atoms/metal atom) is rapidly growing. Previously it was thought that reactant energies were too low to overcome the coulombic field barrier. However, such reactions have been reported by a number of researchers. Earlier Miley, et al. studied multi-layer thin-film Ni/Pd electrodes loaded electrolytically Reaction products exhibited a yield vs. mass plot with four high yield peaks, above and below the base metal mass. Higher yield elements were well above max impurity limits while select products had non-natural isotopic abundances. Recent CR-39 foils and LED detector measurements reveal low-level emission of x-rays plus MeV-level protons and alpha particles during runs. Other laboratories also report transmutation reactions using a variety of electrode materials and a wide range of loading methods. Iwamura and Itoh reported a real-time measurement using XPS diagnostics where an atomic surface layer of Sr-88 was transmuted into Mo-96 over 200 hours, using diffusion of deuterium through a multi-layer thin-film Pd/CaO substrate. Cs-133 was also transmuted into Pr-141. Recently Miley explained these results by extending SEL concepts to include orbital mixing associated with charge accumulation and H/D flow at interfaces. These phenomena result in formation of a virtual neutron. Depending on lattice structure, local defects, and loading/flow rates, either an array or single element products are predicted. The array is associated with fission of a compound nucleus as opposed to single-step nuclear reactions.

Miley, George H.; Hora, Heinz; Luo, Nie

2004-05-01

92

Neutronics analysis of the dual-cooled waste transmutation blanket for the FDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary conceptual design of dual-cooled long-lived radioactive waste transmutation blanket for the Fusion-Driven sub-critical hybrid System (FDS) is presented on the basis of feasible plasma physics and technology level i.e. the neutron wall loading is assumed to 0.5 MW\\/m2 with availability of 50%. The concept has the attractive advantages e.g. tritium is self-sustainable, plutonium for the purpose of neutron

Y. C Wu; X. X Zhu; S. L Zheng; Y Ke; Q. Y Huang; X. P Liu; S Wu; D Xu; H Liu

2002-01-01

93

Why Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Wastes Enables Future Nuclear Power?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criticality concerns, decay heat management and radioactive waste handling are perceived as the primary, unsatisfactorily resolved technological problems of nuclear reactors. They all originate from very specific features of a fission phenomenon: self-sustained chain reaction in fissile materials, very strong radioactivity of fission products and very long half-life of some of the radioactive fission and activation products Accelerator-driven transmutation systems

Waclaw Gudowski

2000-01-01

94

Neutron cross section sensitivity for minor actinide transmutation in energy amplifier systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear data sensitivity in 3D Monte Carlo burnup calculations of minor actinide transmutation in Energy Amplifier Systems is assessed. Ansaldo Nucleare’s 80MWth Energy Amplifier Demonstration Facility (EADF) design serves as a technical and geometrical platform for the analysis. The accelerator-driven EADF is a fast, subcritical system based on classical MOX-fuel technology and on molten lead–bismuth eutectic cooling. For Monte

Marcus Dahlfors; Yacine Kadi; Adonai Herrera-Martínez

2007-01-01

95

The role of Z-pinch fusion transmutation of waste in the nuclear fuel cycle.  

SciTech Connect

The resurgence of interest in reprocessing in the United States with the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership has led to a renewed look at technologies for transmuting nuclear waste. Sandia National Laboratories has been investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver to burn actinide waste in a sub-critical reactor. The baseline design has been modified to solve some of the engineering issues that were identified in the first year of work, including neutron damage and fuel heating. An on-line control feature was added to the reactor to maintain a constant neutron multiplication with time. The transmutation modeling effort has been optimized to produce more accurate results. In addition, more attention was focused on the integration of this burner option within the fuel cycle including an investigation of overall costs. This report presents the updated reactor design, which is able to burn 1320 kg of actinides per year while producing 3,000 MWth.

Smith, James Dean; Drennen, Thomas E. (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Rochau, Gary Eugene; Martin, William Joseph; Kamery, William (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Grady, Ryan (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Wilson, Paul Philip Hood (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Guild-Bingham, Avery (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX)

2007-10-01

96

Transmutation of nuclear wastes in a fusion breeder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the calculations and analyses on the transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste actinides minor actinides (MA) in a fusion experimental breeder (FEB) are reported. Actinides Np, Am, Cm were chosen for this transmutation study due to their ability to dominate the nuclear wastes in the spent fuel of PWR. Time-dependent neutronics and depletion calculations were performed through a

K. M. Feng; G. Hu

1998-01-01

97

General solution of Bateman equations for nuclear transmutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper concerns the linear chain method of solving Bateman equations for nuclear transmutation in derivation of the general solution for linear chain with repeated transitions and thus elimination of existing numerical problems. In addition, applications of derived equations for transmutation trajectory analysis method is presented.

Jerzy Cetnar

2006-01-01

98

Inversion of the Lions Transmutation Operators Using Generalized Wavelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider in this work the Lions transmutation operators associated with the Lions differential operator ? on ]o, +?[. Using these operators we give relations between the generalized continuous wavelet transform and the classical continuous wavelet transform on [o, +?[, and we deduce the formulas which give the inverse operators of the Lions transmutation operators.

K. Triméche

1997-01-01

99

Transmutations and Isotopic shifts in LENR Experiments: An Overview  

E-print Network

Abstract-- This overview presents a brief summary of observations of products of transmutation reactions which occur in a variety of LENR configurations wherein the “host metal ” nuclei react with loaded deuterium or hydrogen, resulting in the formation of new stable elements or isotopes not present prior to an experimental run. Index Terms—Transmutation reactions, Isotopic anomalies, multi-deuteron capture reactions.

Mahadeva Srinivasan

100

Radioactive Waste Partitioning and Transmutation within Advanced Fuel Cycles: Achievements and Challenges  

SciTech Connect

If nuclear power should become a sustainable source of energy, a safe, robust and acceptable solution must be pursued for existing and projected inventories of high-activity, long-lived radioactive waste. Remarkable progress in the last two decades has been made in the field of geological disposal. Some countries have reached important milestones and geological disposal (of spent fuel) is expected to start in 2020 in Finland and in 2022 in Sweden and in fact the licensing of the geological repositories in both countries is now entering into their final phases. In France disposal of Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) and vitrified High Level Wastes (HLW) is expected to start around 2025, according to the roadmap defined by a Parliament Act in 2006. In this context, transmutation of part of the waste through use of advanced fuel cycles, probably feasible in the coming decades, has the potential of reducing the burden on the geological repository. This article presents the physical principle of transmutation and reviews several strategies of P&T (Partitioning and Transmutation). Many recent studies have demonstrated that the impact of P&T on geological disposal concepts is not overwhelmingly high. However, by reducing waste heat production a more efficient utilization of repository space is likely. Moreover, even if radionuclide release from the waste to the environment and related calculated doses to the population are only partially reduced by P&T, it is important to point out that a clear reduction of the actinide inventory in the High Level Waste definitely reduces risks arising from less probable evolutions of a repository, i.e. increase of actinide mobility in certain geochemical situations and radiological impact by human intrusion.

M. Salvatores; G. Palmiotti

2011-01-01

101

Neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six slices of ultra-pure germanium were irradiated with thermal neutron fluences between 7.5 x 10 to the 16th and 1.88 x 10 to the 18th per sq cm. After thermal annealing the resistivity was measured down to low temperatures (less than 4.2 K) and found to follow the relationship rho = rho sub 0 exp(Delta/T) in the hopping conduction regime. Also, several junction FETs were tested for noise performance at room temperature and in an insulating housing in a 4.2 K cryostat. These FETs will be used as first stage amplifiers for neutron-transmutation-doped germanium bolometers.

Palaio, N. P.; Rodder, M.; Haller, E. E.; Kreysa, E.

1983-01-01

102

Spin Transmutation in (2+1) Dimensions  

E-print Network

We study a relativistic anyon model with a spin-$j$ matter field minimally coupled to a statistical gauge potential governed by the Chern-Simons dynamics with a statistical parameter $\\alpha$. A spin and statistics transmutation is shown in terms of a continuous random walk method. An integer or odd-half-integer part of $\\alpha$ can be reabsorbed by change of $j$. We discuss the equivalence of a large class of (infinite number) Chern-Simons matter models for given $j$ and $\\alpha$.

Wei Chen; Chigak Itoi

1994-04-18

103

Coherent photonuclear reactions for isotope transmutation  

E-print Network

Coherent photonuclear isotope transmutation (CPIT) produces exclusively radioactive isotopes (RIs) by coherent photonuclear reactions via E1 giant resonances. Photons to be used are medium energy photons produced by laser photons backscattered off GeV electrons. The cross sections are as large as 0.2 - 0.6 b, being independent of individual nuclides. A large fraction of photons is effectively used for the photonuclear reactions, while the scattered GeV electrons remain in the storage ring to be re-used. CPIT with medium energy photons provides specific/desired RIs with the high rate and the high density for nuclear science, molecular biology and for nuclear medicines.

H. Ejiri; S. Date

2011-02-22

104

Cu-doping of ZnO by nuclear transmutation F. A. Selim,1,a)  

E-print Network

Cu-doping of ZnO by nuclear transmutation F. A. Selim,1,a) M. C. Tarun,1 D. E. Wall,2 L. A. Boatner with copper acceptors by means of the nuclear transmutation doping method, which gives highly uniform dopant using the nuclear transmutation doping (NTD) method11 in which a number of Zn atoms are transmuted to Cu

McCluskey, Matthew

105

Capabilities of a DT tokamak fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capabilities of a DT fusion neutron source for driving a spent nuclear fuel transmutation reactor are characterized by identifying limits on transmutation rates that would be imposed by tokamak physics and engineering limitations on fusion neutron source performance. The need for spent nuclear fuel transmutation and the need for a neutron source to drive subcritical fission transmutation reactors are

W. M. Stacey

2001-01-01

106

A Los Alamos concept for accelerator transmutation of waste and energy production (ATW)  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the diagrams presented at the ATW (Accelerator Transmutation of Waste and Energy Production) External Review, December 10-12, 1990, held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Included are the charge to the committee and the presentations for the committee`s review. Topics of the presentations included an overview of the concept, LINAC technology, near-term application -- high-level defense wastes (intense thermal neutron source, chemistry and materials), advanced application of the ATW concept -- fission energy without a high-level waste stream (overview, advanced technology, and advanced chemistry), and a summary of the research issues.

Not Available

1990-12-31

107

Natural Radionuclides in Ground Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are the natural trace radionuclides in ground water. Indicates the geologic origin of these radionuclides. Discusses the importance of these radionuclides. Suggests future uses of a number of additional radionuclides. (CW)

Davis, Stanley N.

1988-01-01

108

Transmutations and spectral parameter power series in eigenvalue problems  

E-print Network

We give an overview of recent developments in Sturm-Liouville theory concerning operators of transmutation (transformation) and spectral parameter power series (SPPS). The possibility to write down the dispersion (characteristic) equations corresponding to a variety of spectral problems related to Sturm-Liouville equations in an analytic form is an attractive feature of the SPPS method. It is based on a computation of certain systems of recursive integrals. Considered as families of functions these systems are complete in the $L_{2}$-space and result to be the images of the nonnegative integer powers of the independent variable under the action of a corresponding transmutation operator. This recently revealed property of the Delsarte transmutations opens the way to apply the transmutation operator even when its integral kernel is unknown and gives the possibility to obtain further interesting properties concerning the Darboux transformed Schr\\"{o}dinger operators. We introduce the systems of recursive integrals and the SPPS approach, explain some of its applications to spectral problems with numerical illustrations, give the definition and basic properties of transmutation operators, introduce a parametrized family of transmutation operators, study their mapping properties and construct the transmutation operators for Darboux transformed Schr\\"{o}dinger operators.

Vladislav V. Kravchenko; Sergii M. Torba

2012-03-16

109

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux  

DOEpatents

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01

110

Radionuclide deposition control  

DOEpatents

The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

Brehm, William F. (Richland, WA); McGuire, Joseph C. (Richland, WA)

1980-01-01

111

Infrared absorption study of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using high-resolution far-infrared Fourier transform absorption spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements, the evolution of the shallow acceptor and donor impurity levels in germanium during and after the neutron transmutation doping process was studied. The results show unambiguously that the gallium acceptor level concentration equals the concentration of transmutated Ge-70 atoms during the whole process indicating that neither recoil during transmutation nor gallium-defect complex formation play significant roles. The arsenic donor levels appear at full concentration only after annealing for 1 h at 450 C. It is shown that this is due to donor-radiation-defect complex formation. Again, recoil does not play a significant role.

Park, I. S.; Haller, E. E.

1988-01-01

112

Subsurface Characterization To Support Evaluation Of Radionuclide Transport And Attenuation  

EPA Science Inventory

Remediation of ground water contaminated with radionuclides may be achieved using attenuation-based technologies. These technologies may rely on engineered processes (e.g., bioremediation) or natural processes (e.g., monitored natural attenuation) within the subsurface. In gene...

113

Microstructural Characterization of Cast Metallic Transmutation Fuels  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), the US Department of Energy (DOE) is participating in an international collaboration to irradiate prototypic actinide-bearing transmutation fuels in the French Phenix fast reactor (FUTURIX-FTA experiment). The INL has contributed to this experiment by fabricating and characterizing two compositions of metallic fuel; a non-fertile 48Pu-12Am-40Zr fuel and a low-fertile 35U-29Pu-4Am-2Np-30Zr fuel for insertion into the reactor. This paper highlights results of the microstructural analysis of these cast fuels, which were reasonably homogeneous in nature, but had several distinct phase constituents. Spatial variations in composition appeared to be more pronounced in the low-fertile fuel when compared to the non-fertile fuel.

J. I. Cole; D. D. Keiser; J. R. Kennedy

2007-09-01

114

Transmutation of silicon carbide in fusion nuclear environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount and type of metallic transmutants produced in SiC/SiC when used in magnetic (MFE) and inertial (IFE) confinement fusion systems are determined and compared to those obtained following irradiation in fission reactors. Up to ˜1.3% metallic transmutants are generated at the expected lifetime of the fusion blanket. Irradiation in fission reactors to the same fast neutron fluence produces about an order of magnitude lower metallic transmutation products than in fusion systems. While the dominant component in fusion systems is Mg, P is the main transmutation product in fission reactors. The impact on the SiC/SiC properties is not fully understood. The results of this work will help guide irradiation experiments in fission reactors to properly simulate the conditions in fusion systems by possible ion implantation. In addition, the results represent a necessary input for modeling activities aimed at understanding the expected effects on properties.

Sawan, M. E.; Katoh, Y.; Snead, L. L.

2013-11-01

115

Investigation of the Feasibility of a Small Scale Transmutation Device.  

E-print Network

??This dissertation presents the design and feasibility of a small-scale, fusion-based transmutation device incorporating a commercially available neutron generator. It also presents the design features… (more)

Sit, Roger Carson

2009-01-01

116

Minor Actinides Transmutation Scenario Studies in PWR with Innovative Fuels  

SciTech Connect

With the innovative fuels (CORAIL, APA, MIX, MOX-UE) in current PWRs, it is theoretically possible to obtain different plutonium and minor actinides transmutation scenarios, in homogeneous mode, with a significant reduction of the waste radio-toxicity inventory and of the thermal output of the high level waste. Regarding each minor actinide element transmutation in PWRs, conclusions are : neptunium : a solution exists but the gain on the waste radio-toxicity inventory is not significant, americium : a solution exists but it is necessary to transmute americium with curium to obtain a significant gain, curium: Cm244 has a large impact on radiation and residual power in the fuel cycle; a solution remains to be found, maybe separating it and keeping it in interim storage for decay into Pu240 able to be transmuted in reactor.

Grouiller, J. P.; Boucher, L.; Golfier, H.; Dolci, F.; Vasile, A.; Youinou, G.

2003-02-26

117

Electron linac based mixed-field transmutation of 129I  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this work was to determine the feasibility of using electron linacs for transmutation of selective long-lived fission products (LLFPs), particularly 129I. We have designed a converter system that produces both photons and neutrons, thus creating a mixed radiation field. The strength of the field depends on electron beam energy and current, as well as the converter material and geometry. The converter was optimized to maximize transmutation rate of 129I via two channels: 129I(?,n)128I and 129I(n,?)130I. The optimum electron beam energy was found to be around 100 MeV. Computer simulations were benchmarked by experimental data on 133Cs (129I surrogate) photon-induced and neutron-induced transmutation rates. While further optimization of the system is necessary, we have demonstrated that accelerator-driven photonuclear reactions can be practical for 129I transmutation.

Mamtimin, Mayir; Harmon, Frank; Starovoitova, Valeriia

2015-02-01

118

Accelerator driven systems for transmutation: Fuel development, design and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

European R&D for ADS design and fuel development is driven in the 6th FP of the EU by the EUROTRANS Programme. In EUROTRANS two ADS design routes are followed, the XT-ADS and the EFIT. The XT-ADS is designed to provide the experimental demonstration of transmutation. The EFIT, the European Facility for Industrial Transmutation, aims at a conceptual design of a

W. Maschek; X. Chen; F. Delage; A. Fernandez-Carretero; D. Haas; C. Matzerath Boccaccini; A. Rineiski; P. Smith; V. Sobolev; R. Thetford; J. Wallenius

2008-01-01

119

The U.S. accelerator transmutation of waste program  

Microsoft Academic Search

A national project to develop a future capability to separate actinides and long-lived fission products from spent fuel, to transmute them, and to dispose off the remaining waste in optimal waste forms has begun in the United States. This project is based on the Accelerator-driven Transmutation of Waste (ATW) program developed during the 1990s at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and

Denis E Beller; Gregory J Van Tuyle; Deborah Bennett; George Lawrence; Kimberly Thomas; Kemal Pasamehmetoglu; Ning Li; David Hill; James Laidler; Phillip Fink

2001-01-01

120

Transmutation of planar media singularities in a conformal cloak.  

PubMed

Invisibility cloaking based on optical transformation involves materials singularity at the branch cut points. Many interesting optical devices, such as the Eaton lens, also require planar media index singularities in their implementation. We show a method to transmute two singularities simultaneously into harmless topological defects formed by anisotropic permittivity and permeability tensors. Numerical simulation is performed to verify the functionality of the transmuted conformal cloak consisting of two kissing Maxwell fish eyes. PMID:24322926

Liu, Yichao; Mukhtar, Musawwadah; Ma, Yungui; Ong, C K

2013-11-01

121

Construction of transmutation operators and hyperbolic pseudoanalytic functions  

E-print Network

A representation for integral kernels of Delsarte transmutation operators is obtained in the form of a functional series with the exact formulas for the terms of the series. It is based on the application of hyperbolic pseudoanalytic function theory and recent results on mapping properties of the transmutation operators. The kernel $K_1$ of the transmutation operator relating $A=-\\frac{d^2}{dx^2}+q_1(x)$ and $B=-\\frac{d^2}{dx^2}$ results to be one of the complex components of a bicomplex-valued hyperbolic pseudoanalytic function satisfying a Vekua-type hyperbolic equation of a special form. The other component of the pseudoanalytic function is the kernel of the transmutation operator relating $C=-\\frac{d^2}{dx^2}+q_2(x)$ and $B$ where $q_2$ is obtained from $q_1$ by a Darboux transformation. We prove the expansion theorem and a Runge-type theorem for this special hyperbolic Vekua equation and using several known results from hyperbolic pseudoanalytic function theory together with the recently discovered mapping properties of the transmutation operators obtain the new representation for their kernels. Several examples are given. Moreover, based on the presented results approaches for numerical computation of the transmutation kernels and for numerical solution of spectral problems are proposed.

Vladislav V. Kravchenko; Sergii M. Torba

2012-08-30

122

Radionuclide bone imaging and densitometry  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclides and the Normal Bone Scan; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Malignant Disease; Pediatric Applications of Radionuclide Bone Imaging; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Arthritis and Metabolic and Miscellaneous Disorders; and Soft Tissue Activity on the Radionuclide Bone Scan.

Mettler, F.A.

1988-01-01

123

From Planck to GUT via Dimensional Transmutation  

E-print Network

Consider a gauge singlet superfield S coupled to a pair of adjoint fields in a SUSY-GUT. If the tree-level vacuum is flat in S, the vev which defines the GUT scale will be determined via dimensional transmutation at a scale M where the soft-breaking (mass)^2 vanishes as a result of running from $M_{Pl} = (8 \\pi G_N)^{-1/2}$. Because of the large number of adjoint fields $N_A$ coupled to S, one finds that M can be generically close to $M_{GUT} = 2 \\times 10^{16} GeV$: $M \\simeq M_{Pl} \\exp[-16 \\pi^2 \\log(3/2) / (N_A+4) \\lambda^2]$, where $\\lambda$ is a Yukawa $\\sim$ 0.7. This work examines the symmetries and dynamical constraints required in a SUSY-GUT in order that the desired flatness in S is achieved, and that this flatness may survive in a supergravity framework.

Haim Goldberg

1997-01-24

124

Numerical approximation of null controls for the heat equation through transmutation  

E-print Network

Numerical approximation of null controls for the heat equation through transmutation Arnaud M of this paper is to develop the numerical version of the so-called transmutation method that allows writing

Sart, Remi

125

PROOF COPY 038413JAP Neutron transmutation doped far-infrared p-Ge laser  

E-print Network

PROOF COPY 038413JAP PROOF COPY 038413JAP Neutron transmutation doped far-infrared p-Ge laser E. W single-crystal Ge by neutron transmutation doping NTD is demonstrated. Calculations show that the high

Peale, Robert E.

126

Dual neutral particle induced transmutation in CINDER2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although nuclear transmutation methods for fission have existed for decades, the focus has been on neutron-induced reactions. Recent novel concepts have sought to use both neutrons and photons for purposes such as active interrogation of cargo to detect the smuggling of highly enriched uranium, a concept that would require modeling the transmutation caused by both incident particles. As photonuclear transmutation has yet to be modeled alongside neutron-induced transmutation in a production code, new methods need to be developed. The CINDER2008 nuclear transmutation code from Los Alamos National Laboratory is extended from neutron applications to dual neutral particle applications, allowing both neutron- and photon-induced reactions for this modeling with a focus on fission. Following standard reaction modeling, the induced fission reaction is understood as a two-part reaction, with an entrance channel to the excited compound nucleus, and an exit channel from the excited compound nucleus to the fission fragmentation. Because photofission yield data-the exit channel from the compound nucleus-are sparse, neutron fission yield data are used in this work. With a different compound nucleus and excitation, the translation to the excited compound state is modified, as appropriate. A verification and validation of these methods and data has been performed. This has shown that the translation of neutron-induced fission product yield sets, and their use in photonuclear applications, is appropriate, and that the code has been extended correctly.

Martin, W. J.; de Oliveira, C. R. E.; Hecht, A. A.

2014-12-01

127

Accelerator-driven transmutation of high-level waste from the defense and commercial sectors  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The major goal has been to develop accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system designs that will thoroughly and rapidly transmute nuclear waste, including plutonium from dismantled weapons and spent reactor fuel, while generating useful electrical power and without producing a long-lived radioactive waste stream. We have identified and quantified the unique qualities of subcritical nuclear systems and their capabilities in bringing about the complete destruction of plutonium. Although the 1191 subcritical systems involved in our most effective designs radically depart from traditional nuclear reactor concepts, they are based on extrapolations of existing technologies. Overall, care was taken to retain the highly desired features that nuclear technology has developed over the years within a conservative design envelope. We believe that the ATW systems designed in this project will enable almost complete destruction of nuclear waste (conversion to stable species) at a faster rate and without many of the safety concerns associated with the possible reactor approaches.

Bowman, C.; Arthur, E.; Beard, C. [and others

1996-09-01

128

Residual radioactivity of silicon doped by transmutation V. K. Agrawal (*) and F. Benire  

E-print Network

L-49 Residual radioactivity of silicon doped by transmutation V. K. Agrawal (*) and F. Benière possible de prédire la radioactivité du silicium dopé par transmutation nucléaire pour toute dose et à tout with the classical value. It is then possible to predict the radioactivity of silicon doped by nuclear transmutation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

129

Existence and construction of the transmutation A. Boumenir and Vu Kim Tuan  

E-print Network

Existence and construction of the transmutation operator A. Boumenir and Vu Kim Tuan Abstract. We prove the existence of a transmutation operator between two weighted Sturm-Liouville operators. We also provide an explicit formula for the transmutation operator and a construction algorithm. An example

Tuan, Vu

130

I. PRODUCTION ARTIFICIELLE D'LMENTS RADIOACTIFS II. PREUVE CHIMIQUE DE LA TRANSMUTATION DES LMENTS  

E-print Network

I. PRODUCTION ARTIFICIELLE D'�L�MENTS RADIOACTIFS II. PREUVE CHIMIQUE DE LA TRANSMUTATION DES transmutation. Leur destruction suit une loi exponentielle; la décroissance de moitié a lieu en 14 min., 2 min doute à la transmutation de deux isotopes de Mg. Ces éléments radioactifs nouveaux sont probablement des

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

Vol. 31 (2000) ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA B No 1 TRANSMUTATION OF ISOTOPES ECOLOGICAL AND ENERGY PRODUCTION  

E-print Network

Vol. 31 (2000) ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA B No 1 TRANSMUTATION OF ISOTOPES ­ ECOLOGICAL AND ENERGY-mail:wacek@neutron.kth.se Abstract. This paper describes principles of Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Nuclear Wastes (ATW Accelerator- Driven Systems, Accelerator-Driven Transmutation of Waste or just Hybrid Reactors. All

132

Transmutation operators and efficient solution of Sturm-Liouville spectral problems Sergii Torba  

E-print Network

Transmutation operators and efficient solution of Sturm-Liouville spectral problems Sergii Torba An operator T is called a transmutation operator [1] for a pair of operators A and B if it is continuous. Transmutation operators, introduced by Delsarte, were used mostly as a theoretical tool in the solution

Knobloch,Jürgen

133

LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE LES SPECTRES D'LECTRONS DE CONVERSION MIS DANS LES TRANSMUTATIONS  

E-print Network

TRANSMUTATIONS RADIOTHORIUM~ THORIUM X~ THORON. Par SALOMON ROSENBLUM, MANUEL VALADARES et MARCEL GUILLOT transmutation ThX ~ Tn; c. de conclure que les rayonnements 03B3 émis dans la désexcitation des premiers niveaux niveau des noyaux pairs-pairs provenant de transmutations (3 avait,à quelques exceptions près, toujours

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

134

Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives  

E-print Network

In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

2014-01-01

135

LENR-Induced Transmutation of Nuclear Waste  

E-print Network

Abstract — Quantum Rabbit (QR) research on the low-energy fusion and fission (low-energy nuclear reactions, or LENR) of various elements indicates possible pathways for applying that process to reducing nuclear materials. In a New Energy Foundation (NEF)-funded test conducted at Quantum Rabbit lab in Owls Head, Maine, QR researchers initiated a possible low-energy fission reaction in which 204 Pb fissioned into 7 Li and 197 Au ( 204 Pb ? 7 Li + 197 Au). 1 This reaction may have been triggered by a low-energy fusion reaction in which 7 Li fused with 32 S to form 39 K ( 7 Li + 32 S ? 19 K). These results confirmed earlier findings showing apparent low-energy fusion and fission reactions. 2 Moreover, subsequent research with boron indicates apparent low-energy fusion reactions in which boron fuses with oxygen to form aluminum and with sulfur to form scandium. 3 At the same time, the QR group has achieved what appear to be low-energy transmutations of carbon using carbon-arc under vacuum and in open air. 4 The research group at QR believes these processes can be adapted to accelerate the natural decay cycle of uranium-235, plutonium-239, radium-226 and the fission products cesium-137, iodine-129, technetium-99 and strontium-90 with the long-term potential of reducing the threat posed by radioactive isotopes to human health and the environment. Uranium-235 In addition to the uranium stored at nuclear reactors (the U.S. inventory is shown in Figure 1), there are about 2,000 tons of highly enriched uranium in the world, produced

Edward Esko

136

Impact of transmutations in fusion environment on Flibe chemistry.  

SciTech Connect

Transmutation rates of Li, Be and F are calculated for a typical flibe blanket. The results concluded that the transmutation rate of F is more than double that of Be. Because of the high destruction rate of fluorine, there will be no free fluorine in the molten salt. Therefore, experimental program to address the chemistry control of flibe does not have to worry about the issues associated with free fluorine. Also, this calculation defines the chemical of flibe after irradiation. This chemical state needs to be simulated closely for the flibe chemistry control experiment.

Sze, D. K.; Sawan, M. E.; Cheng, E. T.

2000-11-15

137

Radionuclides in US coals  

SciTech Connect

The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

1984-03-01

138

Transmutation analysis of realistic low-activation steels for magnetic fusion reactors and IFMIF  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive transmutation study for steels considered in the selection of structural materials for magnetic and inertial fusion reactors has been performed in the IFMIF neutron irradiation scenario, as well as in the ITER and DEMO ones for comparison purposes. An element-by-element transmutation approach is used in the study, addressing the generation of: (1) H and He and (2) solid transmutants. The IEAF-2001 activation library and the activation code ACAB were applied to the IFMIF transmutation analysis, after proving the applicability of ACAB for transmutation calculations of this kind of intermediate energy systems.

Cabellos, O; Sanz, J; Garc?a-Herranz, N; D?az, S; Reyes, S; Piedloup, S

2005-11-22

139

Radionuclides in Diagnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

Williams, E. D.

1989-01-01

140

Fusion transmutation of waste: design and analysis of the in-zinerator concept.  

SciTech Connect

Due to increasing concerns over the buildup of long-lived transuranic isotopes in spent nuclear fuel waste, attention has been given in recent years to technologies that can burn up these species. The separation and transmutation of transuranics is part of a solution to decreasing the volume and heat load of nuclear waste significantly to increase the repository capacity. A fusion neutron source can be used for transmutation as an alternative to fast reactor systems. Sandia National Laboratories is investigating the use of a Z-Pinch fusion driver for this application. This report summarizes the initial design and engineering issues of this ''In-Zinerator'' concept. Relatively modest fusion requirements on the order of 20 MW can be used to drive a sub-critical, actinide-bearing, fluid blanket. The fluid fuel eliminates the need for expensive fuel fabrication and allows for continuous refueling and removal of fission products. This reactor has the capability of burning up 1,280 kg of actinides per year while at the same time producing 3,000 MWth. The report discusses the baseline design, engineering issues, modeling results, safety issues, and fuel cycle impact.

Durbin, S. M.; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Olson, Craig Lee; Guild-Bingham, Avery (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Venneri, Francesco (General Atomics, San Diego, CA); Meier, Wayne (LLNL, Livermore, CA); Alajo, A.B. (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Johnson, T. R. (Argonne Mational Laboratory, Argonne, IL); El-Guebaly, L. A. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Youssef, M. E. (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Young, Michael F.; Drennen, Thomas E. (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Tsvetkov, Pavel Valeryevich (Texas A& M University, College Station, TX); Morrow, Charles W.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Wilson, Paul (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Phruksarojanakun, Phiphat (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Grady, Ryan (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Keith, Rodney L.; Smith, James Dean; Cook, Jason T.; Sviatoslavsky, Igor N. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Willit, J. L. (Argonne Mational Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Cleary, Virginia D.; Kamery, William (Hobart & William Smith College, Geneva, NY); Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Rochau, Gary Eugene

2006-11-01

141

Fusion-Fission Transmutation Scheme-Efficient Destruction of Nuclear Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fusion-assisted transmutation system for the destruction of transuranic (TRU) waste is presented. Subcritical fusion-fission hybrids burn the intransigent transuranic residues (with most of the long lived bio-hazard) of a new fuel cycle that uses cheap light water reactors (LWRs) for the easily burned majority of the TRU. In the new fuel cycle, the number of hybrids needed to destroy a given amount of original LWR waste is 5-10 times less than the corresponding number of critical fast reactors. (Fast reactors, due to stability constraints, cannot burn the very poor quality TRU residue.) The new system comparably reduces the expensive reprocessing throughput. Realization of these advantages should lead to a great reduction in the cost of transmutation. The time needed for 99% waste destruction would also be reduced from centuries to decades. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density compact fusion neutron source (CFNS-100 MW, with major radius + minor radius ˜ 2.5 m), which is made possible by a super-X divertor. The physics and technology requirements of the CFNS are much less than the requirements of a pure fusion power source. Advantages of the system as part of a timely strategy to combat global warming are briefly described.

Kotschenreuther, Mike; Mahajan, Swadesh; Valanju, Prashant; Schneider, Erich A.

2009-05-01

142

Transmutation in ADS and needs for nuclear data, with an introduction to the n-TOF at CERN  

SciTech Connect

Transmutation can help in the nuclear waste problem by reducing seriously the life and amount of the most dangerous isotopes (radiotoxicity, heat, packing volume and neutron multiplication reductions). ADS are one of the best technologies for nuclear waste transmutation at large scale. Although enough information is available to prepare conceptual designs and make assessments on their performance, a large R and D campaign is required to obtain the precision data required to optimize the detailed engineering design and refine our expectations calculations on waste reduction by the different transmutation strategies being proposed. In particular a large R and D effort is required in nuclear physics, where fundamental differential measurements and integral verification experiments are required. In this sense, the PS213 n-TOF at CERN PS (at Switzerland) will become one of the largest installations to perform the fundamental differential measurements and a wide international collaboration has been setup to perform the cross section measuring campaign. Similarly, the MUSE and several other experiments taking place and in preparation in Europe, USA and Japan will provide the integral verification.

Gonzalez, E.; Embid, M.; Fernandez, R.; Garcia, J.; Villamarin, D. [FACET project, Department of Nuclear Fission, Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Project supported by Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivod, S.A. (ENRESA) (Spain)

1999-11-16

143

Fermion transmutation - a renormalization effect in gauge theory  

E-print Network

A new category of phenomena is predicted in which fermions of different flavours can transmute into one another, for example $e \\to \\mu$ or $e \\to \\tau$, as a consequence of the `rotating' mass matrix due to renormalization. As examples, calculations will be presented for various such processes. Some of these could be accessible to experiments in the near future.

S. T. Tsou; H. M. Chan

2000-08-30

144

Statistical Transmutation and Phases of Two-Dimensional Quantum Matter  

E-print Network

After surveying the quantum kinematics and dynamics of statistical transmutation, I show how this concept suggests a phase diagram for the two-dimensional matter in a magnetic field, as a function of quantum statistics. I discuss the fundamental properties of quasiparticles in the different phases, and briefly suggest {\\it gedanken\\/} -- but not manifestly infeasible -- experiments to show up these properties.

Frank Wilczek

1995-09-14

145

Method and apparatus for transmutation of atomic nuclei  

DOEpatents

Insuring a constant supply of radioisotopes is of great importance to medicine and industry. This invention addresses this problem, and helps to solve it by introducing a new apparatus for transmutation of isotopes which enables swift and flexible production on demand.

Maenchen, John Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Ruiz, Carlos Leon (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01

146

Controllability cost of conservative systems: resolvent condition and transmutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article concerns the exact controllability of unitary groups on Hilbert spaces with unbounded control operator. It provides a necessary and sufficient condition not involving time which blends a resolvent estimate and an observability inequality. By the transmutation of controls in some time L for the corresponding second-order conservative system, it is proved that the cost of controls in time

Luc Miller; Laurent Schwartz

2005-01-01

147

Linear accelerator for plutonium conversion and transmutation of NPP wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conclusion of an agreement between Russia and the USA for significantly reducing the number of nuclear warheads has made the effective peaceful use of the stockpiles of weapons-grade plutonium, a very urgent problem. Another relevant problem for all advanced countries is the transmutation of long-lived high level NPP wastes. One of the most promising ecologically pure and safe methods

I. M. Kapchinskiy; I. V. Chuvilo; A. A. Kolomiets; N. V. Lazarev; I. M. Lipkin; V. K. Plotnikov; I. A. Vorobjov

1993-01-01

148

Transmutation Method for Solving Erdélyi–Kober Fractional Differintegral Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of fractional calculus techniques we find explicit solutions of Volterra integral equations of the second kind and fractional differential and differintegral equations, involving Erdélyi–Kober fractional integrals and derivatives. Also, some hypergeometric integral equations have been considered and solved as double Erdélyi–Kober equations of the second kind. We use the transmutation method to reduce the solutions of all these

Virginia S. Kiryakova; Bader N. Al-Saqabi

1997-01-01

149

Application of gaseous core reactors for transmutation of nuclear waste  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acceptable management scheme for high-level radioactive waste is vital to the nuclear industry. The hazard potential of the trans-uranic actinides and of key fission products is high due to their nuclear activity and/or chemical toxicity. Of particular concern are the very long-lived nuclides whose hazard potential remains high for hundreds of thousands of years. Neutron induced transmutation offers a promising technique for the treatment of problem wastes. Transmutation is unique as a waste management scheme in that it offers the potential for "destruction" of the hazardous nuclides by conversion to non-hazardous or more manageable nuclides. The transmutation potential of a thermal spectrum uranium hexafluoride fueled cavity reactor was examined. Initial studies focused on a heavy water moderated cavity reactor fueled with 5% enriched U-235-F6 and operating with an average thermal flux of 6 times 10 to the 14th power neutrons/sq cm-sec. The isotopes considered for transmutation were I-129, Am-241, Am-242m, Am-243, Cm-243, Cm-244, Cm-245, and Cm-246.

Schnitzler, B. G.; Paternoster, R. R.; Schneider, R. T.

1976-01-01

150

A stable nuclide transmutation procedure free of numerical roundoff  

SciTech Connect

One of the classical problems faced by developers of nuclear reactor physics codes is that of finding suitable numerical procedures for solving the system of first-order ordinary differential equations of nuclide transmutation. An efficient, accurate and reliable method that places no restriction on the nuclide transmutation paths is generally sought. A crucial requirement is that the method must be stable and free of catastrophic roundoff error. Virtually all methods currently in use are susceptible to serious numerical roundoff error and require some form of approximation to mitigate such problems. The penalty for these approximations is a potential loss of accuracy and more often than not a loss of generality. Recently, a method that is free from catastrophic roundoff and that fulfills all the requirements for stability, accuracy, reliability and generality was proposed for application in both lattice physics and core simulator codes. The method is based on approximating the matrix exponential by a truncated Taylor series expansion and the application of the uniformization technique to eliminate catastrophic roundoff. By adopting a compact data representation for the nuclide transmutation matrix, numerical operations with zero-valued elements of the matrix can be avoided so as to achieve a high level of efficiency. This nuclide transmutation solution method, as implemented in the MGRAC nodal core simulator, is described and numerical results are presented to illustrate the salient features of the method. (authors)

Mueller, E. [CompuSim AB, SE-723 34 Vaesteraas (Sweden); Reitsma, F.; Kruger, P. P. [Radiation and Reactor Theory Group, Necsa, P.O. Box 582, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)

2006-07-01

151

Analysis of the Gas Core Actinide Transmutation Reactor (GCATR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design power plant studies were carried out for two applications of the plasma core reactor: (1) As a breeder reactor, (2) As a reactor able to transmute actinides effectively. In addition to the above applications the reactor produced electrical power with a high efficiency. A reactor subsystem was designed for each of the two applications. For the breeder reactor, neutronics calculations were carried out for a U-233 plasma core with a molten salt breeding blanket. A reactor was designed with a low critical mass (less than a few hundred kilograms U-233) and a breeding ratio of 1.01. The plasma core actinide transmutation reactor was designed to transmute the nuclear waste from conventional LWR's. The spent fuel is reprocessed during which 100% of Np, Am, Cm, and higher actinides are separated from the other components. These actinides are then manufactured as oxides into zirconium clad fuel rods and charged as fuel assemblies in the reflector region of the plasma core actinide transmutation reactor. In the equilibrium cycle, about 7% of the actinides are directly fissioned away, while about 31% are removed by reprocessing.

Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.

1977-01-01

152

Accelerator-driven transmutation of spent fuel elements  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Uranium may also be enriched, thereby providing new fuel for use in conventional nuclear power plants. An accelerator provides the additional neutrons required to perform the processes. The size of the accelerator needed to complete fuel cycle closure depends on the neutron efficiency of the supported reactors and on the neutron spectrum of the actinide transmutation apparatus. Treatment of spent fuel from light water reactors (LWRs) using uranium-based fuel will require the largest accelerator power, whereas neutron-efficient high temperature gas reactors (HTGRs) or CANDU reactors will require the smallest accelerator power, especially if thorium is introduced into the newly generated fuel according to the teachings of the present invention. Fast spectrum actinide transmutation apparatus (based on liquid-metal fuel) will take full advantage of the accelerator-produced source neutrons and provide maximum utilization of the actinide-generated fission neutrons. However, near-thermal transmutation apparatus will require lower standing

Venneri, Francesco (Los Alamos, NM); Williamson, Mark A. (Los Alamos, NM); Li, Ning (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

153

Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides  

DOEpatents

In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

Harp, Richard J. (18746 Viking Way, Cerritos, CA 90701)

1990-01-01

154

Factors Affecting the Stability of Matrix Materials for Actinides Transmutation and Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

The minimization of the long-term radiotoxicity of high level nuclear waste is an important criterion adopted for the development of advanced fuel cycles for the new generations of nuclear reactors. Pu recycling as fuel, and transmutation of Minor Actinides (MA: Np, Am, and in some concepts also Cm) in reactors and/or MA burners are the steps considered to achieve this goal. U-free compounds are considered as matrices for Pu, MA burning. In some cases, these matrices are envisaged also for the conditioning and immobilization of radionuclides in final disposal concepts. The list of properties of a good inert matrix includes good chemical compatibility with the actinides, easy and economical processes of fabrication and, if required, reprocessing, and good thermo-mechanical performance in-pile, in terms of thermal transport, swelling and high temperature stability. In addition, the material must retain the good properties under the cumulative effect of radiation damage, and fission product accumulation. Since good radiation resistance materials usually exhibit poor thermal transport, in some concepts the actinides are stabilized in a host phase (e.g. zirconia) dispersed in a high thermal conductivity matrix (either ceramic or metallic).

Rondinella, Vincenzo V.; Wiss, Thierry A.; Hiernaut, J-P; Lutique, Stphanie; Raison, P.; Staicu, D.; Weber, William J.; Fanghanel, T.

2008-12-01

155

Initial Radionuclide Inventories  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as 2030 and 2033, depending on the type of waste. TSPA-LA uses the results of this analysis to decay the inventory to the year of repository closure projected for the year of 2060.

H. Miller

2004-09-19

156

Initial Radionuclide Inventories  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as 2030 and 2033, depending on the type of waste. TSPA-LA uses the results of this analysis to decay the inventory to the year of repository closure projected for the year of 2060.

Miller, H

2005-07-12

157

Irradiation of Metallic Fuels with Rare Earth Additions for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR. Experiment Description for AFC-2A and AFC-2B  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), now within the broader context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. One important component of the technology development is actinide-bearing metallic transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. The proposed AFC-2A and AFC-2B irradiation experiments are a continuation of the metallic fuel test series in progress in the ATR. This report documents the experiment description and test matrix of the proposed experiments and the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) and fabrication schedule.

Irradiation of Metallic Fuels with Rare Earth Addi

2006-12-01

158

Irradiation of Metallic Fuels with Rare Earth Additions for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR. Experiment Description for AFC-2A and AFC-2B  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), now within the broader context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. One important component of the technology development is actinide-bearing metallic transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. The proposed AFC-2A and AFC-2B irradiation experiments are a continuation of the metallic fuel test series in progress in the ATR. This report documents the experiment description and test matrix of the proposed experiments and the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) and fabrication schedule.

S. L. Hayes; D. J. Utterbeck; T. A. Hyde

2007-03-01

159

Irradiation of Metallic Fuels with Rare Earth Additions for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR. Experiment Description for AFC-2A and AFC-2B  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), now within the broader context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. One important component of the technology development is actinide-bearing metallic transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. The proposed AFC-2A and AFC-2B irradiation experiments are a continuation of the metallic fuel test series in progress in the ATR. This report documents the experiment description and test matrix of the proposed experiments and the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) and fabrication schedule.

S. L. Hayes; D. J. Utterbeck; T. A. Hyde

2006-11-01

160

Transmutation of nuclear waste with a low-aspect-ratio tokamak neutron source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transmutation characteristics of transuranics (TRUs) in a transmutation reactor based on a LAR (Low-aspect-ratio) tokamak as a neutron source are investigated. The optimum radial build of a transmutation reactor is found by using a coupled analysis of the tokamak systems and the neutron transport. The dependences of the transmutation characteristics on the aspect ratio A in the range of 1.5 to 2.5 and on the fusion power in the range of 150 to 500 MW are investigated. An equilibrium fuel cycle is developed for effective transmutation, and show that with one unit of the transmutation reactor based on the LAR tokamak producing fusion power in the range of a few hundred MWs, up to 3 PWRs (1.0 GWe capacity) can be supported with a burn-up fraction larger than 50%.

Hong, Bong Guen; Moon, Se Youn

2014-10-01

161

Cyclic Mode of Transmutation of Minor Actinides in Heavy-Water Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics of process of transmutation of americium and curium from spent nuclear fuel in heavy-water reactor during first 10 lifetimes and at transition to equilibrium mode are calculated. During transmutation, dangerous nuclides, first of all, {sup 244}Cm and {sup 238}Pu are accumulated. They cause an increase of radiotoxicity. At first 10 cycles of a transmutation, the radiotoxicity is increased by 11 times in comparison with initial load of transmuted actinides. Heavy-water reactor with thermal power of 1000 MW can transmute americium and curium extracted from 7-8 VVER-1000 type reactors. It means that the required power of transmutation reactor makes about 4 % of thermal power of VVER-1000 type reactors. (authors)

Gerasimov, Aleksander S.; Kiselev, Gennady V.; Myrtsymova, Lidia A.; Zaritskaya, Tamara S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, SSC RF ITEP, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya, 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2002-07-01

162

Transmutation and Bosonisation of Quasi-Hopf Algebras  

E-print Network

Let $H$ be a quasitriangular quasi-Hopf algebra, we construct a braided group $\\underline{H}$ in the quasiassociative category of left $H$-modules. Conversely, given any braided group $B$ in this category, we construct a quasi-Hopf algebra $B\\rtimes H$ in the category of vector spaces. We generalise the transmutation and bosonisation theory of [10] to the quasi case. As examples, we bosonise the octonion algebra to an asoociative one, obtain the twisted quantum double $D^{\\phi}(G)$ of a finite group as a bosonisation, and obtain its transmutation. Finally, we show that $\\underline{H}\\rtimes H$ is isomorphic to $H_\\Rcal\\blackbowtie H$ as quasi-Hopf algebras.

J Klim

2009-03-24

163

Actinide transmutation properties of thermal and fast fission reactors including multiple recycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

To decrease the long-term radiotoxicity risk from nuclear waste, investigations were performed to transmute long-lived radwaste nuclides: actinides, in particular isotopes of Pu, Np, Am, and fission products, to short-lived or stable nuclei. First, from neutron spectra and resulting neutron reaction cross-sections, transmutation half-lives, and fission-to-capture ratios, the priority of fast over thermal reactors with respect to transmutation is derived.

H. W. Wiese

1998-01-01

164

Conceptual study on high performance blanket in a spherical tokamak fusion-driven transmuter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary conceptual design on high performance dual-cooled blanket of fusion-driven transmuter is presented based on neutronic calculation. The dual-cooled system has some attractive advantages when utilized in transmutation of HLW (High Level Wastes). The calculation results show that this kind of blanket could safely transmute about 6 ton minor actinides (produced by 170 GW(e) Year PWRs approximately) and 0.4

Yixue Chen; Yican Wu

2000-01-01

165

Impurity Conduction in Transmutation-Doped p-Type Germanium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hall coefficient and resistivity of germanium single crystals bombarded with slow neutrons were measured between 1.2 and 300°K. Slow neutron capture and subsequent nuclear transmutation produce majority impurities, gallium atoms, and compensating impurities, arsenic and selenium atoms. p-type samples with a gallium concentration ranging from 8×1014 to 5×1017 per cc with a fixed compensation ratio of 0.40 were thus

H. Fritzsche; M. Cuevas

1960-01-01

166

Optimisation of inert matrix fuel concepts for americium transmutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concepts of inert-matrix fuels for americium transmutation are discussed. It is demonstrated that a `hybrid' fuel design, consisting in a dispersion of an americium-bearing phase in an inert matrix, is desirable. More than a solid-solution is preferred in order to localise within a small volume the damage in the matrix due to fission fragments. Such a dispersion is composed of

N. Chauvin; R. J. M Konings; Hj Matzke

1999-01-01

167

Experimenting with Transmutation: Darwin, the Beagle , and Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed analysis of Darwin’s scientific notes and other writings from the Beagle voyage reveals a focus on endemism and replacement of allied taxa in time and in space that began early in the journey. Though\\u000a it is impossible to determine exactly when Darwin became a transmutationist, the evidence suggests that he was conversant\\u000a with the transmutational ideas of Lamarck and

Niles Eldredge

2009-01-01

168

Biological Nuclear Transmutations as a Source of Biophotons  

E-print Network

Soft multi-photon radiation from hard higher energy reaction sources can be employed to describe three major well established properties of biophoton radiation; Namely, (i) the mild radiation intensity decreases for higher frequencies, (ii) the coherent state Poisson counting statistics, and (iii) the time delayed luminescence with a hyperbolic time tail. Since the soft photon frequencies span the visible to the ultraviolet frequency range, the hard reaction sources have energies extending into the nuclear transmutation regime.

A. Widom; Y. N. Srivastava; S. Sivasubramanian

2011-02-20

169

Shock-wave initiation of nuclear transmutation of chemical elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental data are given about the synthesis of chemical elements Mn, S, Na, Cu, Al, Ne, Rn etc. during superdeep penetration of lead particles into targets of Armco iron (the SDP phenomenon). It is supposed that flows of dense high-temperature plasma occur at the interface between the penetrating microparticle and the target. Consolidation of the internal energy of the plasma flows as a result of such collisions can cause nuclear transmutation of chemical elements.

Sobolev, V. V.; Usherenko, S. M.

2006-08-01

170

Radiation and transmutation effects relevant to solid nuclear waste forms  

SciTech Connect

Radiation effects in insulating solids are discussed in a general way as an introduction to the quite sparse published work on radiation effects in candidate nuclear waste forms other than glasses. Likely effects of transmutation in crystals and the chemical mitigation strategy are discussed. It seems probable that radiation effects in solidified HLW will not be serious if the actinides can be wholly incorporated in such radiation-resistant phases as monazite or uraninite.

Vance, E.R.; Roy, R.; Pillay, K.K.S.

1981-03-15

171

Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We

Q Hu; J Weng; J Wang

2007-01-01

172

Radiotoxicity of Actinides During Transmutation in Final Stage of Atomic Power  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics of a transmutation mode in final stage of atomic power are analyzed. In this stage, transmutation of actinides accumulated in transmutation reactors is performed without feed by actinides from other reactors. The radiotoxicity during first 20 years of transmutation is caused mainly by {sup 244}Cm. During following period of time, {sup 252}Cf is main nuclide. Contribution of {sup 246}Cm and {sup 250}Cf is 5-7 times less than that of {sup 252}Cf. During 50 years of a transmutation, the total radiotoxicity falls by 50 times. Long-lived radiotoxicity decreases slowly. During the period between T=50 years and T=100 years, long-lived radiotoxicity falls by 3.7 times. For each following 50 years after this period, long-lived radiotoxicity falls by 3.2 times. These results corresponding to neutron flux density 10{sup 14} neutr/(cm{sup 2}s) in transmutation reactor demonstrate that the final stage of a transmutation should be performed with use of high flux transmutation facilities which provide shorter time of transmutation. (authors)

Gerasimov, Aleksander S.; Bergelson, Boris R.; Myrtsymova, Lidia A.; Tikhomirov, Georgy V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, SSC RF ITEP, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya, 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2002-07-01

173

Lattice distortions and the transmuted-Ge related luminescence in neutron-transmutation-doped GaN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lattice distortion and the transmuted-Ge related luminescence in neutron-transmutation-doped (NTD) GaN are studied by combining Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy/channeling, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence methods. The lattice displacement of Ga atoms of ˜0.12 Å from the <0001> row is estimated from the normalized angular yield profiles, preserving the single crystallinity in as-irradiated GaN with a minimum yield (?min) of 7%. A 2.84 eV emission band observed in 600 °C annealed NTD-GaN is associated with the Ga interstitial, supporting the lattice distortion. Two emission bands at 2.90 eV and 2.25 eV observed in 1000 °C annealed NTD-GaN are assigned to a negatively charged DX-like center of Ge at Ga site and a complex defect attributed to Ge at Ga site and Ga vacancy, respectively.

Kuriyama, K.; Tokumasu, T.; Takahashi, Jun; Kondo, H.; Okada, M.

2002-05-01

174

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other elements of the TSPA-SR model. The scope of the EBS RT Abstraction also does not include computational or numerical procedures for solving the process-level equations; rather, it identifies the important processes that must then be evaluated with process-level or component-level software using analytical or numerical solutions.

R. Schreiner

2001-06-27

175

EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport from a breached waste package. Advective transport occurs when radionuclides that are dissolved or sorbed onto colloids (or both) are carried from the waste package by the portion of the seepage flux that passes through waste package breaches. Diffusive transport occurs as a result of a gradient in radionuclide concentration and may take place while advective transport is also occurring, as well as when no advective transport is occurring. Diffusive transport is addressed in detail because it is the sole means of transport when there is no flow through a waste package, which may dominate during the regulatory compliance period in the nominal and seismic scenarios. The advective transport rate, when it occurs, is generally greater than the diffusive transport rate. Colloid-facilitated advective and diffusive transport is also modeled and is presented in detail in Appendix B of this report.

J. Prouty

2006-07-14

176

Radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation within advanced fuel cycles: Achievements and Challenges  

SciTech Connect

In the last decades, numerous studies have been performed in order to identify appropriate “Partitioning and Transmutation” (P&T) strategies, aiming to the reduction of the burden on a geological storage (see, among many others, Salvatores, 2005). P&T strategies are very powerful and unique tools to reduce drastically the radiotoxicity level of the wastes and to reduce the time needed to reach the reference level (from ~100,000 years to few hundred years, i.e. comparable to the period in which technological and engineering means allow reasonably to control the radioactivity confinement). Moreover, P&T allows, in principle, also the reduction of the residual heat in a geological repository, with a potential significant impact on the repository size and characteristics. The first requirement of P&T strategies is the deployment of spent fuel reprocessing techniques (aqueous or dry), which are both in the continuity of today technologies (e.g. as implemented at La Hague in France, where Pu is separated up to 99.9 %) or which represent innovative, adapted approaches (e.g. pyrochemistry). The requirement is to extend the performance of Pu separation to 99.9 % also to Np, Am and Cm kept together or separated and in any case decontaminated from the lanthanides as much as possible. The separated TRU should then be “transmuted” (or “burned”) in a neutron field. The essential mechanism is to fission them, transforming them into much shorter lived or stable fission products. However, the fission process is always in competition with other processes, and, in particular, with neutron capture, which does eliminate isotope A, but transforms it into isotope A+1, which can still be radioactive. Isotope A+1 can in turn be fissioned or transmuted into isotope A+2, and so on. The neutron field has to be provided by a fission reactor. The requirement for this (dedicated) reactor is to be able to privilege the fission process with respect to the capture process and to be able to be loaded with fuels with potentially very different mixtures of Pu and minor actinides (MA), according to the chosen approach and the objective of the P&T strategy, and this without affecting its safety or penalizing its operability. A major issue of any P&T implementation strategy is a detailed evaluation of the impact of each strategy on the different features and installations of the fuel cycle, and a discussion of this issue will be provided in chapter 6. Chapter 7 will tackle the problem of nuclear data uncertainties and their impact on the nominal performances of the different transmutation systems. Finally, in chapter 8 it will be discussed in more detail the role of the different types of fast reactors described in the previous chapters, according to the different P&T objectives and implementation scenarios.

M. Salvatores; G. Palmiotti

2011-01-01

177

Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VII. Long-term risk analysis of the geologic repository  

SciTech Connect

This report supports the overall assessment by Oak Ridge National Laboratory of actinide partitioning and transmutation by providing an analysis of the long-term risks associated with the terminal storage of wastes from a fuel cycle which incorporates partitioning and transmutation (P-T) and wastes from a cycle which does not. The system model and associated computer code, called AMRAW (Assessment Method for Radioactive Waste), are used for the analysis and are applied to the Los Medanos area in southeastern New Mexico. Because a conservative approach is used throughout, calculated results are believed to be consistently higher than reasonable expectations from actual disruptive incidents at the site and therefore are not directly suited for comparison with other analyses of the particular geologic location. The assessment is made with (1) the probabilistic, or risk, mode that uses combinations of reasonable possible release incidents with their probability of occurrence distributed and applied throughout the assessment period, and (2) the consequence mode that forces discrete release events to occur at specific times. An assessment period of 1 million years is used. The principal results are: (1) In all but the expulsive modes, /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I completely dominate cumulative effects based on their transport to man through leaching and movement with groundwater, effecting about 33,000 health effects (deaths) over the 1 million years; (2) P-T has only limited effectiveness in reducing long-term risk from a radionuclide waste repository under the conditions studied, and such effectiveness is essentially confined to the extremely unlikely (probability of occurrence 10/sup -12//year) expulsive events; (3) Removal or immobilization of /sup 99/Tc and /sup 129/I might provide benefits sufficiently tangible to warrant special consideration.

Logan, S.E.; Conarty, R.L.; Ng, H.S.; Rahal, L.J.; Shirley, C.G.

1980-09-01

178

Radionuclide voiding cystography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclide voiding cystography is a sensitive and accurate method for diagnosing vesicoureteric reflux. This method allows\\u000a for continuous monitoring of bladder filling and emptying, permits detection of reflux at any time during the study, and evaluates\\u000a its dynamics. Since it results in very low amounts of radiation to the patient, it is an ideal method for the diagnosis and\\u000a follow-up

Ulrich Willi; S. Treves

1983-01-01

179

LECTRONS DE MATRIALISATION ET DE TRANSMUTATION Par I. CURIE et F. JOLIOT.  

E-print Network

�LECTRONS DE MAT�RIALISATION ET DE TRANSMUTATION Par I. CURIE et F. JOLIOT. Sommaire. - Les auteurs on observe l'émission d'électrons positifs lors de la transmutation par les rayons 03B1 de cer- tains

Boyer, Edmond

180

LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE NOTE PRLIMINAIRE SUR LA TRANSMUTATION DU MERCURE EN OR  

E-print Network

LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE RADIUM NOTE PR�LIMINAIRE SUR LA TRANSMUTATION DU MERCURE EN OR par M travers des gouttes de mercure qui tombent dans de l'huile. La transmutation simultanée du mercure en

Boyer, Edmond

181

Fermi-Bose Transmutation for Stringlike Excitations of Maxwell-Higgs Systems  

E-print Network

We show that a closed Nielsen-Olesen string in presence of a point scalar source exhibits the phenomenon of Fermi-Bose transmutation. This provides physical support to previous claims about transmutation between bosonic and fermionic one-dimensional structures in (3+1) dimensions. In order to render the computations mathematically rigorous we have resorted to an Euclidean lattice regularization.

H. Fort; R. Gambini

1995-02-01

182

EASY-II: a system for modelling of n, d, p, ? and ? activation and transmutation processes  

E-print Network

EASY-II is designed as a functional replacement for the previous European Activation System, EASY-2010. It has extended nuclear data and new software, FISPACT-II, written in object-style Fortran to provide new capabilities for predictions of activation, transmutation, depletion and burnup. The new FISPACT-II code has allowed us to implement many more features in terms of energy range, up to GeV; incident particles: alpha, gamma, proton, deuteron and neutron; and neutron physics: self-shielding effects, temperature dependence, pathways analysis, sensitivity and error estimation using covariance data. These capabilities cover most application needs: nuclear fission and fusion, accelerator physics, isotope production, waste management and many more. In parallel, the maturity of modern general-purpose libraries such as TENDL-2012 encompassing thousands of target nuclides, the evolution of the ENDF format and the capabilities of the latest generation of processing codes PREPRO-2012, NJOY2012 and CALENDF-2010 have allowed the FISPACT-II code to be fed with more robust, complete and appropriate data: cross-sections with covariance, probability tables in the resonance ranges, kerma, dpa, gas and radionuclide production and 24 decay types. All such data for the five most important incident particles are placed in evaluated data files up to an incident energy of 200 MeV. The resulting code and data system, EASY-II, includes many new features and enhancements. It has been extensively tested, and also benefits from the feedback from wide-ranging validation and verification activities performed with its predecessor.

Jean-Christophe Sublet; James Eastwood; Guy Morgan; Arjan Koning; Dimitri Rochman

2013-09-27

183

EASY-II: a system for modelling of n, d, p, ? and ? activation and transmutation processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EASY-II is designed as a functional replacement for the previous European Activation System, EASY-2010. It has extended nuclear data and new software, FISPACT-II, written in object-style Fortran to provide new capabilities for predictions of activation, transmutation, depletion and burnup. The new FISPACT-II code has allowed us to implement many more features in terms of energy range, up to GeV; incident particles: alpha, gamma, proton, deuteron and neutron; and neutron physics: self-shielding effects, temperature dependence, pathways analysis, sensitivity and error estimation using covariance data. These capabilities cover most application needs: nuclear fission and fusion, accelerator physics, isotope production, waste management and many more. In parallel, the maturity of modern general-purpose libraries such as TENDL-2012 encompassing thousands of target nuclides, the evolution of the ENDF format and the capabilities of the latest generation of processing codes PREPRO-2012, NJOY2012 and CALENDF-2010 have allowed the FISPACT-II code to be fed with more robust, complete and appropriate data: cross-sections with covariance, probability tables in the resonance ranges, kerma, dpa, gas and radionuclide production and 24 decay types. All such data for the five most important incident particles are placed in evaluated data files up to an incident energy of 200 MeV. The resulting code and data system, EASY-II, includes many new features and enhancements. It has been extensively tested, and also benefits from the feedback from wide-ranging validation and verification activities performed with its predecessor

Sublet, Jean-Christophe; Eastwood, James; Morgan, Guy; Koning, Arjan; Rochman, Dimitri

2014-06-01

184

Muonic alchemy: Transmuting elements with the inclusion of negative muons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Letter we present a theoretical study of atoms in which one electron has been replaced by a negative muon. We have treated these muonic systems with the Any Particle Molecular Orbital (APMO) method. A comparison between the electronic and muonic radial distributions revealed that muons are much more localized than electrons. Therefore, the muonic cloud is screening effectively one positive charge of the nucleus. Our results have revealed that by replacing an electron in an atom by a muon there is a transmutation of the electronic properties of that atom to those of the element with atomic number Z - 1.

Moncada, Félix; Cruz, Daniel; Reyes, Andrés

2012-06-01

185

Magnetic Fusion driven Transmutation of nuclear Waste (FTW)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of magnetic Fusion driven Transmutation of Waste (FTW) was revisited and discussed recently. Nuclear wastes include all transuranium elements: Pu isotopes (Pu²³⁹⁻²⁴¹), minor actinides separated from the spent fission fuel (Np²³⁷, Am{sup 241,243}, Cm²⁴⁴, etc.), and fissile products (Tc⁹⁹, I¹²⁹). Elimination of these long-life nuclear wastes is necessary for the long-term viability of fission power.

Yueng Kay Martin Peng; Edward T. Cheng

1993-01-01

186

Small Reactor for Semiconductor Production by Neutron Transmutation Doping  

SciTech Connect

New concept of small size nuclear reactor is proposed for Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD). The reactor core consists of conventional PWR type fuel elements with light water moderator/coolant unlike conventional research reactors. Graphite reflector is employed for large neutron irradiation volume. Silicon ingots are put into the reflector region for irradiation. Neutronic analysis results show that this concept has possibility to product large amount of silicon ingots which have large diameter. An optimal reactor design and its performance are shown as a result of analysis in the paper.

Obara, Toru; Hong, Liem Peng [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1-N1-19, Ookayama Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

2010-06-22

187

Cu-Doping of ZnO by Nuclear Transmutation  

SciTech Connect

Zinc oxide single crystals were doped with copper acceptors by means of the nuclear transmutation doping (NTD) method, which gives highly uniform dopant distributions and has a much higher probability of controlling the dopant locations in the lattice. The Cu doping was confirmed by the infrared absorption signature of Cu2+ at 5780 cm-1. Hall-effect measurements were performed to study the effect of CuZn on the electrical properties of ZnO. These measurements indicated that the Cu acceptor level lies 0.126 eV below the conduction-band minimum.

Selim, F. A. [Washington State University; Tarun, M. C. [Washington State University; Wall, D. E. [Washington State University; Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; McCluskey, M. D. [Washington State University

2011-01-01

188

Impact of Including Higher Actinides in Fast Reactor Transmutation Analyses  

SciTech Connect

Previous fast reactor transmutation studies generally disregarded higher mass minor actinides beyond Cm-246 due to various considerations including deficiencies in nuclear cross-section data. Although omission of these higher mass actinides does not significantly impact the neutronic calculations and fuel cycle performance parameters follow-on neutron dose calculations related to fuel recycling, transportation and handling are significantly impacted. This report shows that including the minor actinides in the equilibrium fast reactor calculations will increase the predicted neutron emission by about 30%. In addition a sensitivity study was initiated by comparing the impact of different cross-section evaluation file for representing these minor actinides.

B. Forget; M. Asgari; R. Ferrer; S. Bays

2007-09-01

189

Carrier doping into boron nanobelts by neutron transmutation  

SciTech Connect

We report the effects of a neutron-capture reaction of isotope {sup 10}B on the structure and electrical transport of {sup 10}B-enriched single-crystalline boron nanobelts. Partial amorphization, particularly at the surface of the nanobelt, was observed after thermal neutron irradiation with a dose of 2x10{sup 19} cm{sup -2}. Carrier doping into the nanobelts by neutron transmutation is expected after postannealing. The change in conductance is discussed based on the distribution of localized states in the band gap of {alpha}-tetragonal boron.

Kirihara, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Koshizaki, Naoto [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Yamada, Yoichi [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Esaka, Fumitaka [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Shamoto, Shin-ichi [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kimura, Kaoru [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

2010-11-22

190

Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest.

Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

2005-09-01

191

Osteopetrosis: Radiological & Radionuclide Imaging  

PubMed Central

Osteopetrosis is a rare inherited bone disease where bones harden and become abnormally dense. While the diagnosis is clinical, it also greatly relies on appearance of the skeleton radiographically. X-ray, radionuclide bone scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging have been reported to identify characteristics of osteopetrosis. We present an interesting case of a 59-year-old man with a history of bilateral hip fractures. He underwent 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate whole body scan supplemented with single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography of spine, which showed increased uptake in the humeri, tibiae and femora, which were in keeping with osteopetrosis. PMID:25589808

Sit, Cherry; Agrawal, Kanhaiyalal; Fogelman, Ignac; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath

2015-01-01

192

LDRD 140639 final report : investigation of transmutation claims.  

SciTech Connect

The Proton-21 Laboratory in the Ukraine has been publishing results on shock-induced transmutation of several elements, including Cobalt 60 into non-radioactive elements. This report documents exploratory characterization of a shock-compressed Aluminum-6061 sample, which is the only available surrogate for the high-purity copper samples in the Proton-21 experiments. The goal was to determine Sandia's ability to detect possible shock-wave-induced transmutation products and to unambiguously validate or invalidate the claims in collaboration with the Proton-21 Laboratory. We have developed a suitable characterization process and tested it on the surrogate sample. Using trace elemental analysis capabilities, we found elevated and localized concentrations of impurity elements like the Ukrainians report. All our results, however, are consistent with the ejection of impurities that were not in solution in our alloy or were deposited from the cathode during irradiation or possibly storage. Based on the detection capabilities demonstrated and additional techniques available, we are positioned to test samples from Proton-21 if funded to do so.

Reich, Jeffrey E.; Van Devender, J. Pace; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Grant, Richard P.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

2009-11-01

193

Defects and transmutations in reactor-irradiated copper  

SciTech Connect

From measurements made at 4.2 K, the residual resisitivity increases produced by reactor irradiation near room temperature were studied in pure Cu up to fluences of 4.2 x 10/sup 23/ n/m/sup 2/ > 1 MeV and 12 x 10/sup 23/ thermal n/m/sup 2/ by methods which resolved the effects due to transmutations and to defects. While the increase in resistivity due to transmutations is linear, that due to defects falls off rapidly with increasing fluence. The defect damage rates at low doses depend upon initial sample conditions that are related to impurities, but they become equal above approx. 6 x 10/sup 21/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 1 MeV). Computations of defect concentrations using these resistivity data and earlier x-ray results, which measure dislocation loops, can be brought into reasonable agreement if the specific resistivity attributed to a single defect is decreased when that defect becomes part of a dislocation loop.

Chaplin, R.L.

1981-11-01

194

Practising alchemy: the transmutation of evidence into best health care.  

PubMed

Alchemy was the synthesis or transmutation of all elements in perfect balance to obtain the philosopher's stone, the key to health. Just as alchemists sought this, so health practitioners always seek the best possible practice for optimal health outcomes for our patients. Best practice requires full knowledge--a little information can be dangerous. We need to serve our apprenticeship before we master our profession. Our profession is about improving health care. While the journey may start at medical school, the learning never ceases. It is not only about practising medicine, it is about the development of the practitioner. Professional practice requires systematic thinking combined with capacity to deal morally and creatively in areas of complexity and uncertainty appropriate to a specific context. It requires exemplary communication skills to interact with patients to facilitate collaborative decision making resulting in best practice. The synthesis of scientific and contextual evidence is a concept which applies to all disciplines where theoretical knowledge needs to be transferred to action to inform best practice. Decisions need to be made which take into account a complex array of factors, such as social and legal issues and resource constraints. Therefore, journey towards best practice involves transmutation of these three elements: scientific knowledge, the context in which it is applied and phronesis, the practical wisdom of the practitioner. All science has its limitations and we can never know all possible contextual information. Hence, like the philosopher's stone, best practice is a goal to which we aspire but never quite attain. PMID:21127021

Goodyear-Smith, Felicity

2011-04-01

195

Monte Carlo simulations of models for accelerator transmutation of waste  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) program is directed toward the dual goals of alleviating problems associated with existing high-level radioactive defense waste and of developing systems for the generation of fission energy with minimal production of high-level, long-lived nuclear wastes. In the LANL ATW concept, a high-current, high-energy proton accelerator creates an intense flux of neutrons through spallation in heavy-metal targets. The high neutron flux levels available in such systems allow the rapid burning even of nuclides with small cross sections, the design of systems with dilute inventories, and the operation of systems far from criticality. A crucial tool for ATW simulations is the LAHET Code System (LCS), which consists of the LANL version of the HETC Monte Carlo code, a special version of the MCNP code, and several tallying and postprocessing utilities. Using LCS, the authors predict in detail the performance of spallation targets. Here the authors present results for a baseline system designed to transmute technetium.

Hughes, H.G.; Engel, L.N. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1991-01-01

196

Multi-Reactor Transmutation Analysis Utility (MRTAU,alpha1): Verification  

SciTech Connect

Multi-Reactor Transmutation Utility (MRTAU) is a general depletion/decay algorithm under development at INL to support quick assessment of off-normal fuel cycle scenarios of similar nature to well studied reactor and fuel cycle concepts for which isotopic and cross-section data exists. MRTAU has been used in the past for scoping calculations to determine actinide composition evolution over the course of multiple recycles in Light Water Reactor Mixed Oxide and Sodium cooled Fast Reactor. In these applications, various actinide partitioning scenarios of interest were considered. The code has recently been expanded to include fission product generation, depletion and isotopic evolution over multiple recycles. The capability was added to investigate potential partial separations and/or limited recycling technologies such as Melt-Refining, AIROX, DUPIC or other fuel recycle technology where the recycled fuel stream is not completely decontaminated of fission products prior to being re-irradiated in a subsequent reactor pass. This report documents the code's solution methodology and algorithm as well as its solution accuracy compared to the SCALE6.0 software suite.

Andrea Alfonsi; Samuel E. Bays; Cristian Rabiti; Steven J. Piet

2011-02-01

197

Radionuclide imaging in morbid obesity  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract have been useful in many gastrointestinal disorders. However, the literature relating to radionuclide techniques in morbid obesity is limited and, at times, controversial. It is hoped that this brief review will stimulate interest in the use of tracer techniques in this complex disorder. 23 references.

DeRogatis, A.J.

1987-06-01

198

SUR LES RAYONNEMENTS MIS AU COURS DE LA TRANSMUTATION RAc ~ AcX DEUXIME PARTIE (1).  

E-print Network

378. SUR LES RAYONNEMENTS �MIS AU COURS DE LA TRANSMUTATION RAc ~ AcX DEUXI�ME PARTIE (1). Par rayonnements y d'énergie inférieure à 10o keV de la transmutation RAc -+ AcX. Des résultats nouveaux avaient pu'autres transmutations conduisant également à un élément Z' = 88 auront été étudiées. 30 NATURE ET POLARIT� DES

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

199

An improved transmutation method for quantitative determination of the components in multicomponent overlapping chromatograms.  

PubMed

An improved method is proposed for the quantitative determination of multicomponent overlapping chromatograms based on a known transmutation method. To overcome the main limitation of the transmutation method caused by the oscillation generated in the transmutation process, two techniques--wavelet transform smoothing and the cubic spline interpolation for reducing data points--were adopted, and a new criterion was also developed. By using the proposed algorithm, the oscillation can be suppressed effectively, and quantitative determination of the components in both the simulated and experimental overlapping chromatograms is successfully obtained. PMID:15164155

Shao, Xueguang; Yu, Zhengliang; Ma, Chaoxiong

2004-06-01

200

Experimental demonstration of free-space optical vortex transmutation with polygonal lenses.  

PubMed

Vortex transmutation was predicted to take place when vortices interact with systems possessing discrete rotational symmetries of finite order [Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 123901 (2005)]. Here we report what is believed to be the first experimental demonstration of vortex transmutation. We show that in free space, by simply inserting polygonal lenses into the optical path, the central vorticity of a coaxially incident optical vortex can be changed following the modular transmutation rule. We generate the wavefront at the exit face of the lenses with computer generated holograms and measure the output vorticity using the interference patterns at the focal plane. The results agree well with theoretical predictions. PMID:22859150

Gao, Nan; Xie, Changqing

2012-08-01

201

Radionuclides' Content Speciation and Fingerprinting of Nigerian Tin Mining Tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment and process-waste samples rich in cassiterite, monazite and zircon, which are of industrial interest, were analysed for the natural series radionuclides, 232Th and 238U and the non-series radionuclide, 40K using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique. The natural radionuclides' radioactivity in the samples from the tin-rich areas of Jos, Nigeria was determined using K0-INAA. The obtained results have a high degree of reliability judging from the techniqués accuracy, precision and its non-dependence on secular equilibrium and density correction problems inherent in gamma spectrometry as well as rigorous contamination-prone sample preparation requirements of other methods. Radionuclides speciation and ratios, giving radionuclide fingerprinting of the tin mining tailings is reported. The measured radionuclides activity levels are several orders of magnitude higher than UNSCEAR reference values, revealing the pollution potential of the tin mining and process activities on the surrounding areas, vis-à-vis heavy particulate matter load, leaching into various water channels and direct exposure to gamma rays emitted from the houses and facilities built from the generated wastes. The observed activity levels reflects possible worst scenario situation and the data would not only be of use to the government in its remediation plan for the study area but will also serve as important information for the nuclear science and technology programme about to be embarked upon. Methods of checking exposure have also been suggested.

Olise, F. S.; Oladejo, O. F.; Owoade, O. K.; Almeida, S. M.; Ho, M. D.; Olaniyi, H. B.

2012-04-01

202

Significant Radionuclides Determination  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

Jo A. Ziegler

2001-07-31

203

An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities.  

PubMed

Transformation optics is a concept used in some metamaterials to guide light on a predetermined path. In this approach, the materials implement coordinate transformations on electromagnetic waves to create the illusion that the waves are propagating through a virtual space. Transforming space by appropriately designed materials makes devices possible that have been deemed impossible. In particular, transformation optics has led to the demonstration of invisibility cloaking for microwaves, surface plasmons and infrared light. Here, on the basis of transformation optics, we implement a microwave device that would normally require a dielectric singularity, an infinity in the refractive index. To fabricate such a device, we transmute a dielectric singularity in virtual space into a mere topological defect in a real metamaterial. In particular, we demonstrate an omnidirectional retroreflector, a device for faithfully reflecting images and for creating high visibility from all directions. Our method is robust, potentially broadband and could also be applied to visible light using similar techniques. PMID:19561598

Ma, Yun Gui; Ong, C K; Tyc, Tomás; Leonhardt, Ulf

2009-08-01

204

Radiation measurements after irradiation of silicon for neutron transmutation doping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron transmutation doping of semiconductors is an important method for applications that require high dopant homogeneity. For silicon, it is based on the conversion of 30Si into 31P through a 30Si (n,?) 31Si reaction during neutron irradiation following beta decay of 31Si to 31P. Neutron irradiation is usually performed in research reactors. The main characteristics of a doped silicon sample are (1) purity of the original silicon, (2) average phosphorus concentration and (3) phosphorus concentration homogeneity (uniformity). This paper describes measurement methods that utilise radiation induced during doping irradiation to measure these characteristics. The first two parameters can be measured using gamma spectrometry. The main part of the paper deals with homogeneity measurement. It describes a measurement method that is based on the detection of beta radiation from 31Si. Examples of experimental results are given. The experiments were performed in the LVR-15 research reactor.

Viererbl, L.; Klupák, V.; Vinš, M.; Lahodová, Z.; Kolmistr, A.; Stehno, J.

2014-02-01

205

Anyons and transmutation of statistics via vacuum induced Berry phase  

E-print Network

We show that bosonic fields may present anyonic behavior when interacting with a fermion in a Jaynes-Cummings-like model. The proposal is accomplished via the interaction of a two-level system with two quantized modes of a harmonic oscillator; under suitable conditions, the system acquires a fractional geometric phase. A crucial role is played by the entanglement of the system eigenstates, which provides a two-dimensional confinement in the effective evolution of the system, leading to the anyonic behavior. For a particular choice of parameters, we show that it is possible to transmute the statistics of the system continually from fermions to bosons. We also present an experimental proposal, in an ion-trap setup, in which fractional statistical features can be generated, controlled, and measured.

Roberto M. Serra; Angelo Carollo; Marcelo Franca Santos; Vlatko Vedral

2004-03-30

206

Utilization of accelerators for transmutation and energy production  

SciTech Connect

Given the increased concern over reliable, emission-free power, nuclear power has experienced a resurgence of interest. A sub-critical accelerator driven system (ADS) can drive systems that have either safety constraints (waste transmutation) or reduced fissile content (thorium reactor). The goals of ADS are some or all of the following: (1) to significantly reduce the generation or impacts due to the minor actinides on the packing density and long-term radiotoxicity in the repository design, (2) preserve/use the energy-rich component of used nuclear fuel, and (3) reduce proliferation risk. ADS systems have been actively studied in Europe and Asia over the past two decades and renewed interest is occurring in the U.S. This talk will cover some of the history, possible applicable fuel cycle scenarios, and general issues to be considered in implementing ADS systems.

Sheffield, Richard L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-09-24

207

Description of Transmutation Library for Fuel Cycle System Analyses  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the Transmutation Library that is used in Fuel Cycle System Analyses. This version replaces the 2008 version.[Piet2008] The Transmutation Library has the following objectives: • Assemble past and future transmutation cases for system analyses. • For each case, assemble descriptive information such as where the case was documented, the purpose of the calculation, the codes used, source of feed material, transmutation parameters, and the name of files that contain raw or source data. • Group chemical elements so that masses in separation and waste processes as calculated in dynamic simulations or spreadsheets reflect current thinking of those processes. For example, the CsSr waste form option actually includes all Group 1A and 2A elements. • Provide mass fractions at input (charge) and output (discharge) for each case. • Eliminate the need for either “fission product other” or “actinide other” while conserving mass. Assessments of waste and separation cannot use “fission product other” or “actinide other” as their chemical behavior is undefined. • Catalog other isotope-specific information in one place, e.g., heat and dose conversion factors for individual isotopes. • Describe the correlations for how input and output compositions change as a function of UOX burnup (for LWR UOX fuel) or fast reactor (FR) transuranic (TRU) conversion ratio (CR) for either FR-metal or FR-oxide. This document therefore includes the following sections: • Explanation of the data set information, i.e., the data that describes each case. In no case are all of the data presented in the Library included in previous documents. In assembling the Library, we return to raw data files to extract the case and isotopic data, into the specified format. • Explanation of which isotopes and elements are tracked. For example, the transition metals are tracked via the following: two Zr isotopes, Zr-other, Tc99, Tc-other, two Mo-Ru-Rh-Pd isotopes, Mo-Ru-Rh-Pd-other, four other specific TM isotopes, and TM-other. Mo-Ru-Rh-Pd are separated because their content constrains the loading of waste in glass, so we have to know the mass of those elements independent of others. • Rules for collapsing long lists of isotopes (~1000) to the 81 items in the library. For each tracked isotope, we define which short-lived isotopes’ mass (at t=0) is included with the mass of the tracked isotope at t=0, which short-lived radioactive progeny must be accounted for when the tracked isotope decays, and to which of the other 80 items the mass of the tracked isotope goes when it decays. • Explanation of where raw data files can be found on the fuel cycle data portal. • Explanation of generic cross section sets • Explanation of isotope-specific parameters such as heat and dose conversion factors • Explanation of the LWR UOX burnup and FR TRU CR correlations.

Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Edward A. Hoffman

2010-08-01

208

4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

209

Optimization of actinide transmutation in innovative lead-cooled fast reactors  

E-print Network

The thesis investigates the potential of fertile free fast lead-cooled modular reactors as efficient incinerators of plutonium and minor actinides (MAs) for application to dedicated fuel cycles for transmutation. A methodology ...

Romano, Antonino, 1972-

2003-01-01

210

Differential-geometric and topological structure of multidimensional Delsarte transmutation operators  

E-print Network

A differential geometrical and topological structure of Delsarte transmutation operators in multidimension is studied, the relationships with De Rham-Hodge-Skrypnik theory of generalized differential complexes is stated.

Yarema Prykarpatsky; Anatoliy Samoilenko; Anatoliy K. Prykarpatsky

2004-03-29

211

Spectral problems in inhomogeneous media, spectral parameter power series and transmutation operators  

E-print Network

We give a brief overview of recent developments in Sturm-Liouville theory concerning operators of transmutation (transformation) and spectral parameter power series (SPPS) and propose a new method for numerical solution of corresponding spectral problems.

Vladislav V. Kravchenko; Sergii M. Torba

2012-07-11

212

Transmutation of Transuranic Elements in Advanced MOX and IMF Fuel Assemblies Utilizing Multi-recycling Strategies  

E-print Network

are the preferred modality for transuranic element transmutation, such fast spectrum systems are in very short supply. It is therefore legitimate to investigate the recycling potential of thermal spectrum systems, which constitute the overwhelming majority...

Zhang, Yunhuang

2011-02-22

213

Research and development on accelerator-driven transmutation system at JAERI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute carries out research and development on accelerator-driven system (ADS) to transmute minor actinides and long-lived fission products in high-level radioactive waste. The system is composed of high intensity proton accelerator, lead-bismuth spallation target and lead-bismuth cooled subcritical core with nitride fuel. About 2500kg of minor actinide is loaded into the subcritical core. Annual transmutation amount

Toshinobu Sasa; Hiroyuki Oigawa; Kazufumi Tsujimoto; Kenji Nishihara; Kenji Kikuchi; Yuji Kurata; Shigeru Saito; Masatoshi Futakawa; Makoto Umeno; Nobuo Ouchi; Yasuo Arai; Kazuo Minato; Hideki Takano

2004-01-01

214

Nuclear and fuel cycle analysis for a fusion transmutation of waste reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two metal fuel sub-critical fast reactor concepts, cooled by PbLi and PbBi, respectively, for a fusion transmutation of waste reactor are introduced. Analyses of the nuclear-thermal stability and potential for a criticality event in these reactors are discussed. The results of equilibrium nuclear fuel cycle analyses of these reactors and the impact of transmutation on the characteristics of radioactive waste

E. A Hoffman; W. M Stacey

2002-01-01

215

Transmutation of long-lived radioactive waste based on double-strata concept  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable attention is directed toward the reduction in the long-term potential hazard by partitioning and transmutation (P-T): separating long-lived nuclides from the waste stream and converting them into either shorter-lived or non-radioactive ones. The effects of higher Pu and minor actinide (MA) compositions on the transmutation rates have been studied for a typical mixed oxide (MOX)-fuel fast breeder reactor

H. Takano; K. Nishihara; K. Tsujimoto; T. Sasa; H. Oigawa; T. Takizuka

2000-01-01

216

Transmutation of minor actinides in a spherical torus tokamak fusion reactor, FDTR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a concept of transmutation minor actinide (MA) nuclear waste based on the spherical torus (ST) tokamak reactor, FDTR, was put forward. A set of plasma parameter was decided suitable for the ST transmutation nuclear waste blanket. Using the 2-D neutron transport code TWODANT, the 3-D Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B and the 1-D burn-up calculation code BISON3.0 and

K. M Feng; G. S Zhang; M. G Deng

2002-01-01

217

Long-lived radioactive waste transmutation and the role of accelerator driven (hybrid) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partitioning and transmutation strategies are studied in several countries within the framework of R&D programs devoted to the management of high-level radioactive wastes. One option is to use accelerator-driven reactors in order to transmute Pu and minor actinides and\\/or long-lived fission products. Conceptual studies underway in France and Japan are illustrated in the present paper. Some basic ideas of a

M. Salvatores; I. Slessarev; G. Ritter; P. Fougeras; A. Tchistiakov; G. Youinou; A. Zaetta

1998-01-01

218

High power linear accelerators for tritium production and transmutation of nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

Proton linacs driving high-flux spallation neutron sources are being considered for transmutation of nuclear waste and production of tritium. Advances in high-current linac technology have provided a basis for the development of credible designs for the required accelerator, which has a nominal 1.6-GeV energy, and a 250-mA cw current. A beam with these parameters incident on a liquid lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) target can generate a thermal neutron flux of up to 5 {times} 10{sup 16} n/cm{sup 2}-s in a cylindrical blanket surrounding the spallation source. This high flux can produce tritium through the {sup 6}Li(n,{alpha})T or {sup 3}He(n,{gamma})T reactions, or can burn long-lived actinides and fission products from nuclear waste through capture and fission processes. In some system scenarios, waste actinides and/or other fissile materials in the blanket can produce sufficient fission energy to power the accelerator.

Lawrence, G.P.

1990-01-01

219

FIRST-PRINCIPLES CALCULATIONS OF INTRINSIC DEFECTS AND Mg TRANSMUTANTS IN 3C-SiC  

SciTech Connect

Silicon carbide (SiC) possesses many desirable attributes for applications in high-temperature and neutron radiation environments. These attributes include excellent dimensional and thermodynamic stability, low activation, high strength, and high thermal conductivity. Therefore, SiC based materials draw broad attention as structural materials for the first wall (FW) and blanket in fusion power plants. Under the severe high-energy neutron environment of D-T fusion systems, SiC suffers significant transmutation resulting in both gaseous and metallic transmutants. Recent calculations by Sawan, et al. [2] predict that at a fast neutron dose of ~100 dpa, there will be about 0.5 at% Mg generated in SiC through nuclear transmutation. Other transmutation products, including 0.15 at% Al, 0.2 at% Be and 2.2 at% He, also emerge. Formation and migration energies of point defects in 3C-SiC have been widely investigated using density functional theory (DFT). However, the properties of defects associated with transmutants are currently not well understood. Fundamental understanding of where the transmutation products go and how they affect microstructure evolution of SiC composites will help to predict property evolution and performance of SiC-based materials in fusion reactors.

Hu, Shenyang Y.; Setyawan, Wahyu; Van Ginhoven, Renee M.; Jiang, Weilin; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.

2013-09-25

220

Radionuclide imaging of osteomyelitis.  

PubMed

Radionuclide procedures frequently are performed as part of the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. Degenerative joint disease, fracture, and orthopedic hardware decrease the specificity of the bone scan, making it less useful in these situations. Gallium-67 scintigraphy was often used as an adjunct to bone scintigraphy for diagnosing osteomyelitis. However, now it is used primarily for spinal infections when (18)F-FDG imaging cannot be performed. Except for the spine, in vitro-labeled leukocyte imaging is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing complicating osteomyelitis. Leukocytes accumulate in bone marrow as well as in infection. Performing complementary bone marrow imaging with (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid facilitates the differentiation between osteomyelitis and normal marrow and improves test overall accuracy. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments, such as (99m)Tc-besilesomab and (99m)Tc-sulesomab, were developed to eliminate the disadvantages associated with in vitro-labeled leukocytes. These agents, however, have their own shortcomings and are not widely available. As biotin is used as a growth factor by certain bacteria, (111)In-biotin is useful to diagnose spinal infections. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of ubiquicidin, a naturally occurring human antimicrobial peptide that targets bacteria, can differentiate infection from sterile inflammation and may be useful to monitor response to treatment. (18)F-FDG is extremely useful in the diagnostic workup of osteomyelitis. Sensitivity in excess of 95% and specificity ranging from 75%-99% have been reported. (18)F-FDG is the radionuclide test of choice for spinal infection. The test is sensitive, with a high negative predictive value, and reliably differentiates degenerative from infectious vertebral body end-plate abnormalities. Data on the accuracy of (18)F-FDG for diagnosing diabetic pedal osteomyelitis are contradictory, and its role for this indication remains to be determined. Initial investigations suggested that (18)F-FDG accurately diagnoses prosthetic joint infection; more recent data indicate that it cannot differentiate infection from other causes of prosthetic failure. Preliminary data on the PET agents gallium-68 and iodine-124 fialuridine indicate that these agents may have a role in diagnosing osteomyelitis. PMID:25475377

Palestro, Christopher J

2015-01-01

221

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2011-09-30

222

Transmutation of 129I, 237Np, 238Pu, 239Pu and 241Am Using Neutrons Produced in Target-Blanket System 'Energy and Transmutation' Bombarded by Relativistic Protons  

SciTech Connect

Target-blanket facility 'Energy and Transmutation' was irradiated by a 2 GeV proton beam extracted from the Nuclotron Accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Radioactive samples made from iodine, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated by spallation neutrons produced in the 'E and T' facility. Transmutation reaction yields (residual nuclei production yields) have been determined using methods of {gamma}-spectroscopy. The energy spectrum of the neutron field has been studied by using a set of threshold detectors.

Adam, J. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna near Moscow, 141 980 (Russian Federation); Czech Academy of Science, Nuclear Physics Institute, Rez, 250 68 (Czech Republic); Katovsky, K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna near Moscow, 141 980 (Russian Federation); Czech Technical University, Department of Nuclear Reactors, Prague, 180 00 (Czech Republic); Balabekyan, A. [Yerevan State University (Armenia); Solnyshkin, A.A.; Kalinnikov, V.G.; Stegailov, V.I.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.M.; Stetsenko, S.G.; Krivopustov, M.I.; Vladimirova, N.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna near Moscow, 141 980 (Russian Federation); Pronskikh, V.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna near Moscow, 141 980 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg State Institute of Technology, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kumawat, H. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna near Moscow, 141 980 (Russian Federation); HENP Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India)

2005-05-24

223

Radionuclide salivary gland imaging  

SciTech Connect

Salivary gland imaging with 99mTc as pertechnetate provides functional information concerning trapping and excretion of the parotid and submandibular glands. Anatomic information gained often adds little to clinical evaluation. On the other hand, functional information may detect subclinical involvement, which correlates well with biopsy of the minor labial salivary glands. Salivary gland abnormalities in systemic disease such as sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and other collagenvascular disorders may be detected before they result in the clinical manifestaions of Sjoegren's syndrome. Such glands, after initially demonstrating increased trapping in the acute phase, tend to have decreased trapping and failure to discharge pertechnetate in response to an appropriate physiologic stimulus. Increased uptake of gallium-67 citrate often accompanies these findings. Inflammatory parotitis can be suspected when increased perfusion is evident on radionuclide angiography with any agent. The ability of the salivary gland image to detect and categorize mass lesions, which result in focal areas of diminished activity such as tumors, cysts, and most other masses, is disappointing, while its ability to detect and categorize Warthin's tumor, which concentrates pertechnetate, is much more valuable, although not specific.

Mishkin, F.S.

1981-10-01

224

Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

2007-11-15

225

LE SPECTRE D'LECTRONS DE CONVERSION MIS AU COURS DE LA TRANSMUTATION 233Pa ~ 233U  

E-print Network

816. LE SPECTRE D'�LECTRONS DE CONVERSION �MIS AU COURS DE LA TRANSMUTATION 233Pa ~ 233U Par Mlle conversion émis- au cours de la transmutation 233Pa __e> 233U a fait l'objet de plusieurs recherches au cours de la transmutation 233Pa - 233U a été effectuée par Ong [10] employant un spectrographe à

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

226

Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

1998-07-01

227

Nanotargeted Radionuclides for Cancer Nuclear Imaging and Internal Radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Current progress in nanomedicine has exploited the possibility of designing tumor-targeted nanocarriers being able to deliver radionuclide payloads in a site or molecular selective manner to improve the efficacy and safety of cancer imaging and therapy. Radionuclides of auger electron-, ?-, ?-, and ?-radiation emitters have been surface-bioconjugated or after-loaded in nanoparticles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of cancer imaging and therapy in preclinical and clinical studies. This article provides a brief overview of current status of applications, advantages, problems, up-to-date research and development, and future prospects of nanotargeted radionuclides in cancer nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. Passive and active nanotargeting delivery of radionuclides with illustrating examples for tumor imaging and therapy are reviewed and summarized. Research on combing different modes of selective delivery of radionuclides through nanocarriers targeted delivery for tumor imaging and therapy offers the new possibility of large increases in cancer diagnostic efficacy and therapeutic index. However, further efforts and challenges in preclinical and clinical efficacy and toxicity studies are required to translate those advanced technologies to the clinical applications for cancer patients. PMID:20811605

Ting, Gann; Chang, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Lee, Te-Wei

2010-01-01

228

Optimizing SFR transmutation performance through direct adjoining control theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed the CORTANA code to optimize the transmutation performance of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs). We obtain the necessary conditions for optimal fuel and burnable absorber loadings using Pontryagin's maximum principle with a direct adjoining approach to explicitly account for either a flat flux or a power peaking inequality constraint providing a set of coupled system, Euler-Lagrange (E-L), and optimality equations which are iteratively solved with the method of conjugate gradients until no further improvement in the objective function is achieved. To satisfy the inequality constraints throughout the operating cycle, we have implemented a backwards diffusion theory (BDT) to establish a relationship between fuel loading and the relative assembly power distribution during the cycle and systematically eliminate the constraint violations with each conjugate gradient iteration. The CORTANA SFR optimization code uses multi-group, three-dimensional neutron diffusion theory, with a microscopic depletion scheme. We solve the system equations in a quasi-static fashion forward in time from beginning-of-cycle (BOC) to end-of-cycle (EOC), while we solve the E-L equations backwards in time from EOC to BOC, reflecting the adjoint nature of the Lagrange multipliers. A two enrichment-zone SFR problem verifies our formulation, yielding a TRU enrichment distribution nearly identical to that of the reference SFR core in the Generation IV Roadmap. Using a full heavy metal recycling mode, we coupled our optimization methodology with the REBUS-3 equilibrium cycle methodology to optimize an SFR operating as a second tier transmuter. We model the system using a three-dimensional triangular-z finite differencing scheme with full core symmetry and a time-independent 33-group microscopic cross section library. Beginning from a uniform TRU distribution, our CORTANA improves the SFR performance by reducing the maximum relative assembly power from 1.7 to 1.25, minimizes reactivity swing over the cycle from 2.12 to 1.47 %Deltak/k, and through the use of thorium fuels maximizes the TRU destruction rate from 167 kgTRU/yr to 181 kgTRU/yr.

Davis, Jeffrey C.

2007-12-01

229

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2012-09-24

230

Radionuclide injury to the lung.  

PubMed Central

Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

1984-01-01

231

Radionuclide detection devices and associated methods  

DOEpatents

Radionuclide detection devices comprise a fluid cell comprising a flow channel for a fluid stream. A radionuclide collector is positioned within the flow channel and configured to concentrate one or more radionuclides from the fluid stream onto at least a portion of the radionuclide collector. A scintillator for generating scintillation pulses responsive to an occurrence of a decay event is positioned proximate at least a portion of the radionuclide collector and adjacent to a detection system for detecting the scintillation pulses. Methods of selectively detecting a radionuclide are also provided.

Mann, Nicholas R. (Rigby, ID); Lister, Tedd E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-03-08

232

Study of Radioactive Impurities in Neutron Transmutation Doped Germanium  

E-print Network

A program to develop low temperature (mK) sensors with neutron transmutation doped Ge for rare event studies with a cryogenic bolometer has been initiated. For this purpose, semiconductor grade Ge wafers are irradiated with thermal neutron flux from Dhruva reactor at BARC, Mumbai. Spectroscopic studies of irradiated samples have revealed that the environment of the capsule used for irradiating the sample leads to significant levels of $^{65}$Zn, $^{110}$Ag and $^{182}$Ta impurities, which can be reduced by chemical etching of approximately $\\sim50 \\mu$m thick surface layer. From measurements of the etched samples in the low background counting setup, activity due to trace impurities of $^{123}$Sb in bulk Ge is estimated to be $\\sim$ 1 Bq/gm after irradiation. These estimates indicate that in order to use the NTD Ge sensors for rare event studies, a cool down period of $\\sim$ 2 years would be necessary to reduce the radioactive background to $\\le$ 1 mBq/gm.

Mathimalar, S; Singh, V; Nanal, V; Pillay, R G; Shrivastava, A; Jagadeesan, K C; Thakare, S V

2014-01-01

233

Naturalness and Dimensional Transmutation in Classically Scale-Invariant Gravity  

E-print Network

We discuss the nature of quantum field theories involving gravity that are classically scale-invariant. We show that gravitational radiative corrections are crucial in the determination of the nature of the vacuum state in such theories, which are renormalisable, technically natural, and can be asymptotically free in all dimensionless couplings. In the pure gravity case, we discuss the role of the Gauss-Bonnet term, and we find that Dimensional Transmutation (DT) \\`a la Coleman-Weinberg leads to extrema of the effective action corresponding to nonzero values of the curvature, but such that these extrema are local maxima. In even the simplest extension of the theory to include scalar fields, we show that the same phenomenon can lead to extrema that are local minima of the effective action, with both non-zero curvature and non-zero scalar vacuum expectation values, leading to spontaneous generation of the Planck mass. Although we find an asymptotically free (AF) fixed point exists, unfortunately, no running of ...

Einhorn, Martin B

2014-01-01

234

Naturalness and Dimensional Transmutation in Classically Scale-Invariant Gravity  

E-print Network

We discuss the nature of quantum field theories involving gravity that are classically scale-invariant. We show that gravitational radiative corrections are crucial in the determination of the nature of the vacuum state in such theories, which are renormalisable, technically natural, and can be asymptotically free in all dimensionless couplings. In the pure gravity case, we discuss the role of the Gauss-Bonnet term, and we find that Dimensional Transmutation (DT) \\`a la Coleman-Weinberg leads to extrema of the effective action corresponding to nonzero values of the curvature, but such that these extrema are local maxima. In even the simplest extension of the theory to include scalar fields, we show that the same phenomenon can lead to extrema that are local minima of the effective action, with both non-zero curvature and non-zero scalar vacuum expectation values, leading to spontaneous generation of the Planck mass. Although we find an asymptotically free (AF) fixed point exists, unfortunately, no running of the couplings connect the region of DT to the basin of attraction of the AF fixed point. We also find there remains a flat direction for one of the conformal modes. We suggest that in more realistic models AF and DT could be compatible, and that the same scalar vacuum expectation values could be responsible both for DT and for spontaneous breaking of a Grand Unified gauge group.

Martin B. Einhorn; D. R. Timothy Jones

2014-10-30

235

Study of Radioactive Impurities in Neutron Transmutation Doped Germanium  

E-print Network

A program to develop low temperature (mK) sensors with neutron transmutation doped Ge for rare event studies with a cryogenic bolometer has been initiated. For this purpose, semiconductor grade Ge wafers are irradiated with thermal neutron flux from Dhruva reactor at BARC, Mumbai. Spectroscopic studies of irradiated samples have revealed that the environment of the capsule used for irradiating the sample leads to significant levels of $^{65}$Zn, $^{110}$Ag and $^{182}$Ta impurities, which can be reduced by chemical etching of approximately $\\sim50 \\mu$m thick surface layer. From measurements of the etched samples in the low background counting setup, activity due to trace impurities of $^{123}$Sb in bulk Ge is estimated to be $\\sim$ 1 Bq/gm after irradiation. These estimates indicate that in order to use the NTD Ge sensors for rare event studies, a cool down period of $\\sim$ 2 years would be necessary to reduce the radioactive background to $\\le$ 1 mBq/gm.

S. Mathimalar; N. Dokania; V. Singh; V. Nanal; R. G. Pillay; A. Shrivastava; K. C. Jagadeesan; S. V. Thakare

2014-06-06

236

Electrical properties of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium  

SciTech Connect

Electrical properties of neutron-transmutation-doped germanium (NTD Ge) and nearly uncompensated gallium-doped germanium have been measured as functions of net-impurity concentration (2 x 10/sup 15/cm/sup -3/ less than or equal to N/sub A/ - N/sub D/ less than or equal to 5 x 10/sup 16/cm/sup -3/) and temperature (0.3 K less than or equal to T less than or equal to 300 K). The method of impurity conduction as a function of carrier concentration and compensation was investigated in the low temperature hopping regime. For nearest neighbor hopping, the resistivity is expected to vary as rho = rho/sub 0/exp(..delta../T) while Mott's theory of variable range hopping predicts that rho = rho/sub 0/exp(..delta../T)/sup 1/4/ in the low temperature limit. In contrast, our results show that the resistivity can best be approximated by rho = rho/sub 0/exp(..delta../T)/sup 1/2/ in the hopping regime down to 0.3 K.

Rodder, M.

1982-08-01

237

Transmutation of nuclear waste in accelerator-driven systems  

E-print Network

Today more than ever energy is not only a cornerstone of human development, but also a key to the environmental sustainability of economic activity. In this context, the role of nuclear power may be emphasized in the years to come. Nevertheless, the problems of nuclear waste, safety and proliferation still remain to be solved. It is believed that the use of accelerator-driven systems (ADSs) for nuclear waste transmutation and energy production would address these problems in a simple, clean and economically viable, and therefore sustainable, manner. This thesis covers the major nuclear physics aspects of ADSs, in particular the spallation process and the core neutronics specific to this type of systems. The need for accurate nuclear data is described, together with a detailed analysis of the specific isotopes and energy ranges in which this data needs to be improved and the impact of their uncertainty. Preliminary experimental results for some of these isotopes, produced by the Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) ...

Herrera-Martínez, A

2004-01-01

238

Gas core reactors for actinide transmutation. [uranium hexafluoride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The preliminary design of a uranium hexafluoride actinide transmutation reactor to convert long-lived actinide wastes to shorter-lived fission product wastes was analyzed. It is shown that externally moderated gas core reactors are ideal radiators. They provide an abundant supply of thermal neutrons and are insensitive to composition changes in the blanket. For the present reactor, an initial load of 6 metric tons of actinides is loaded. This is equivalent to the quantity produced by 300 LWR-years of operation. At the beginning, the core produces 2000 MWt while the blanket generates only 239 MWt. After four years of irradiation, the actinide mass is reduced to 3.9 metric tonnes. During this time, the blanket is becoming more fissile and its power rapidly approaches 1600 MWt. At the end of four years, continuous refueling of actinides is carried out and the actinide mass is held constant. Equilibrium is essentially achieved at the end of eight years. At equilibrium, the core is producing 1400 MWt and the blanket 1600 MWt. At this power level, the actinide destruction rate is equal to the production rate from 32 LWRs.

Clement, J. D.; Rust, J. H.; Wan, P. T.; Chow, S.

1979-01-01

239

Radionuclides in Chesapeake Bay sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural and manmade gamma-ray emitting radionuclides were measured in Chesapeake Bay sediments taken near the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site. Samples represented several water depths, at six locations, for five dates encompassing a complete seasonal cycle. Radionuclide contents of dry sediments ranged as follows: Tl-208, 40 to 400 pCi/kg; Bi-214, 200 to 800 pCi/kg; K, 0.04 to 2.1 percent; Cs-137 5 to 1900 pCi/kg; Ru106, 40 to 1000 pCikg Co60, 1 to 27 pCi/kg. In general, radionuclide contents were positively correlated with each other and negatively correlated with sediment grain size.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

240

Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases  

PubMed Central

The skeleton is a potential metastatic target of many malignant tumors. Up to 85% of prostate and breast cancer patients may develop bone metastases causing severe pain syndromes in many of them. In patients suffering from multilocular, mainly osteoblastic lesions and pain syndrome, radionuclide therapy is recommended for pain palliation. Low-energy beta-emitting radionuclides (153samarium-ethylenediaminetetrameth-ylenephosphonate (EDTMP) and 89strontium) deliver high radiation doses to bone metastases and micrometastases in the bone marrow, but only negligible doses to the hematopoietic marrow. The response rate regarding pain syndrome is about 75%; about 25% of the patients may even become pain free. The therapy is repeatable, depending on cell counts. Concomitant treatment with modern bisphosphonates does not interfere with the treatment effects. Clinical trials using a new, not yet approved nuclide (223Radium) and/or combinations of chemotherapy and radionuclides are aiming at a more curative approach. PMID:22740795

Fischer, Manfred; Kampen, Willm U.

2012-01-01

241

Transmutation abilities of the SFR low void effect core concept 'CFV' 3600 MWth  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an evaluation of the potential of minor actinide transmutation in a 3600 MWth SFR core designed with the low void effect core concept (namely 'CFV concept'). This concept is based upon an axially heterogeneous design with an internal fertile zone, and two radial fuel zones with different heights. Two modes of minor actinide transmutation are considered. The homogeneous mode where the minor actinides (MA) are diluted in the fuel is studied considering different options: - MA diluted in the whole core, - MA diluted in the internal and external fuel zone, - MA diluted in the internal fertile zone, for which different isotopic vectors and contents in fuel are analyzed. The heterogeneous mode is also studied with MA placed in external blanket bearings, with contents of 20%. The results are compared to those obtained with a traditional homogenous core concept (SFRV2B type) in terms of transmutation performances. Impacts of the transmutation assumptions on transmutation performances, on fuel cycle and safety parameters (void effect, Doppler) are also presented. (authors)

Buiron, L.; Fontaine, B.; Andriolo, L. [CEA, DEN DER SPRC/LEDC, Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

2012-07-01

242

Study on partitioning and transmutation as a possible option for spent fuel management within a nuclear phase-out scenario  

SciTech Connect

Most Partitioning and Transmutation (PT) studies implicitly presuppose the continuous use of nuclear energy. In this case the development of new facilities or the modification of the fuel cycle can be justified in the long-term as an important feature in order to improve sustainability by minimizing radioactive waste and reducing the burden at waste disposal. In the case of a country with nuclear energy phase-out policy, the PT option might have also an important role for what concerns the final disposal strategies of the spent fuel. In this work three selected scenarios are analyzed in order to assess the impact of PT implementation in a nuclear energy phase out option. The scenarios are: -) Scenario 1: Identification of Research/Development activities needs for a technological development of PT while postponing the decision of PT implementation; -) Scenario 2: Isolated application of PT in a phase-out context; and -) Scenario 3: Implementation of PT in a European context. In order to facilitate the discrimination among the 3 scenarios, a number of figures of indicators have been evaluated for each scenario. The selected indicators are: the mass of High Level Waste (HLW), Uranium inventory, thermal output of HLW, Radiotoxicity, Fuel cycle secondary waste associated to the PT operation, and Facility capacity/number requirements. The reduction, due to PT implementation, of high level wastes masses and their associated volumes can be significant. For what concerns the thermal output and radiotoxicity a significant impact can be also expected. However, when assessing these two indicators the contribution coming from already vitrified waste should also not be neglected. Moreover, an increase of secondary waste inventory is also expected. On the contrary, the increase of fission product inventories due to the operation of the transmutation system has a relatively limited impact on the fuel cycle.

Fazion, C.; Rineiski, A.; Salvatores, M.; Schwenk-Ferrero, A.; Romanello, V.; Vezzoni, B.; Gabrielli, F. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2013-07-01

243

Extinct radionuclides. [in solar system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extinct radionuclides, or radioactive isotopes with lifetimes of the order of 1 to 100 Myr that are now extinct in the solar system are discussed. Evidence is presented for the presence of such radionuclides in the early solar system, including Al-26, Mn-53, Pd-107, I-129, Pu-244, and Sm-146. It is suggested that the abundances of these species provide constraints on nucleosynthetic time scales and the history of solar system materials before they became the solar system. The shortest-lived species is Al-26, which may have been sufficiently abundant to be the major heat source for meteorite parent-body metamorphism or igneous differentiation.

Podosek, F. A.; Swindle, T. D.

1988-01-01

244

Radionuclide labeled lymphocytes for therapeutic use  

DOEpatents

Lymphocytes labelled with ..beta..-emitting radionuclides are therapeutically useful, particularly for lymphoid ablation. They are prepared by incubation of the lymphocytes with the selected radionuclide-oxine complex.

Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Richards, P.

1983-05-03

245

The concept of the volumetric neutron source on the basis of the JUST-T tokamak for minor actinides transmutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

By concept development of the compact volumetric neutron source on the spherical tokamak JUST basis for minor actinides transmutation with aspect ratio A?=?2, some key plasma physics problems are arising: start of discharge; plasma current maintenance in stationary stage; appropriate neutron fluence for transmutation. On the basis of accepted physical and technical preconditions of the concept the combined scenario of

E. A. Azizov; Yu. P. Arefiev; G. G. Gladush; V. N. Dokuka; V. V. Filatov; O. G. Filatov; R. R. Khayrutdinov; V. M. Komarov; V. A. Korotkov; V. A. Krylov; E. G. Kuzmin; A. V. Lopatkin; I. V. Mazul; A. B. Mineev; V. G. Muratov; N. A. Obysov; V. A. Yagnov

2003-01-01

246

TUDE DE LA TRANSMUTATION 195mHg + 195Hg ~ 195Au Ch. VIEU, A. PEGHAIRE et J. S. DIONISIO  

E-print Network

231 �TUDE DE LA TRANSMUTATION 195mHg + 195Hg ~ 195Au Ch. VIEU, A. PEGHAIRE et J. S. DIONISIO Centre Classification Physics Abstracts 12.20 1. Introduction. - La transmutation du mercure 195 dans son état

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on technology, on advances in such areas as aeronautics, electronics, physics, the space sciences, as well as computers and the attendant progress in medicine, robotics, and artificial intelligence. Describes educational resources for elementary and middle school students, including Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videotapes, books,…

Online-Offline, 1998

1998-01-01

248

Waves in a reaction-transport system with memory, long-range interactions, and transmutations.  

PubMed

We develop a theory of wave propagation into an unstable state for a system of integral equations with memory, long-range interactions, and transmutations. In particular we use continuous-time random walk theory to describe the transport and transmutation processes. We use a hyperbolic scaling and Hamilton-Jacobi formalism to derive formulas for the speed of propagation of the traveling wave generated by the system in the long-time large-distance limit. Our theory is valid for arbitrary waiting-time, jump-length and, transmutation probability density functions and the propagation speed can generally be found numerically. However, we illustrate our theory by considering an example where analytic results are possible--that is, for a system of Markovian reaction-transport equations. We derive formulas to determine the propagation speed in both the so-called weakly coupled and strongly coupled cases. PMID:15600591

Fedotov, Sergei; Okuda, Yuki

2004-11-01

249

Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages  

DOEpatents

A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

Brodzinski, R.L.; Perkins, R.W.; Rieck, H.G.; Wogman, N.A.

1984-09-12

250

Measurement of radionuclides in waste packages  

DOEpatents

A method is described for non-destructively assaying the radionuclide content of solid waste in a sealed container by analysis of the waste's gamma-ray spectrum and neutron emissions. Some radionuclides are measured by characteristic photopeaks in the gamma-ray spectrum; transuranic nuclides are measured by neutron emission rate; other radionuclides are measured by correlation with those already measured.

Brodzinski, Ronald L. (Richland, WA); Perkins, Richard W. (Richland, WA); Rieck, Henry G. (Richland, WA); Wogman, Ned A. (Richland, WA)

1986-01-01

251

RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

We propose a research program directed toward developing novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. In order to meet the requirements for isotope specific detection at ultra-low re...

252

Practical Combinations of Light-Water Reactors and Fast-Reactors for Future Actinide Transmutation  

SciTech Connect

Multicycle partitioning-transmutation (P-T) studies continue to show that use of existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and new advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs) can effectively transmute transuranic (TRU) actinides, enabling initiation of full actinide recycle much earlier than waiting for the development and deployment of sufficient fast reactor (FR) capacity. The combination of initial P-T cycles using LWRs/ALWRs in parallel with economic improvements to FR usage for electricity production, and a follow-on transition period in which FRs are deployed, is a practical approach to near-term closure of the nuclear fuel cycle with full actinide recycle.

Collins, Emory D [ORNL] [ORNL; Renier, John-Paul [ORNL] [ORNL

2007-01-01

253

Irradiaton of Metallic and Oxide Fuels for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR  

SciTech Connect

Metallic fuels containing minor actinides and rare earth additions have been fabricated and are prepared for irradiation in the ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2007. Oxide fuels containing minor actinides are being fabricated and will be ready for irradiation in ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2008. Fabrication and irradiation of these fuels will provide detailed studies of actinide transmutation in support of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. These fuel irradiations include new fuel compositions that have never before been tested. Results from these tests will provide fundamental data on fuel irradiation performance and will advance the state of knowledge for transmutation fuels.

Heather J. MacLean; Steven L. Hayes

2007-09-01

254

Dimensional Transmutation and Dimensional Regularization in Quantum Mechanics. I. General Theory  

E-print Network

This is the first in a series of papers addressing the phenomenon of dimensional transmutation in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics within the framework of dimensional regularization. Scale-invariant potentials are identified and their general properties are derived. A strategy for dimensional renormalization of these systems in the strong-coupling regime is presented, and the emergence of an energy scale is shown, both for the bound-state and scattering sectors. Finally, dimensional transmutation is explicitly illustrated for the two-dimensional delta-function potential.

Horacio E. Camblong; Luis N. Epele; Huner Fanchiotti; Carlos A. Garcia Canal

2000-03-28

255

Irradiation of Metallic and Oxide Fuels for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR  

SciTech Connect

Metallic fuels containing minor actinides and rare earth additions have been fabricated and are prepared for irradiation in the ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2007. Oxide fuels containing minor actinides are being fabricated and will be ready for irradiation in ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2008. Fabrication and irradiation of these fuels will provide detailed studies of actinide transmutation in support of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. These fuel irradiations include new fuel compositions that have never before been tested. Results from these tests will provide fundamental data on fuel irradiation performance and will advance the state of knowledge for transmutation fuels. (authors)

MacLean, Heather J.; Hayes, Steven L. [Idaho National Laboratory: P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 (United States)

2007-07-01

256

On two-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics, pseudoanalytic functions and transmutation operators  

E-print Network

Pseudoanalytic function theory is considered to study a two-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics system. Hamiltonian components of the superhamiltonian are factorized in terms of one Vekua and one Bers derivative operators. We show that imaginary and real solutions of a Vekua equation and its Bers derivative are ground state solutions for the superhamiltonian. The two-dimensional Darboux and pseudo-Darboux transformations correspond to Bers derivatives in the complex plane. Results on the completeness of the ground states are obtained. Finally, superpotential is studied in the separable case in terms of transmutation operators. We show how Hamiltonian components of the superhamiltonian are related to the Laplacian operator using these transmutation operators.

Alex Bilodeau; Sébastien Tremblay

2013-07-01

257

The radionuclide assessment of left ventricular diastolic filling: methodology and clinical significance.  

PubMed

The radionuclide measurement of diastolic performance may provide a rapid noninvasive index available in the clinical setting. These measurements may be used to detect coronary artery disease, manifestations of hypertensive heart disease, isolated diastolic heart failure, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The various radionuclide methods to measure diastolic filling are influenced by technological considerations, as well as applying the results in the appropriate clinical context. The importance of these derived measurements and how they correspond to various pathophysiological presentations will be discussed. PMID:10149890

Soufer, R; Dey, H

1992-05-01

258

The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants.  

PubMed

The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11-12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides as well as (40)K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides in the oil shale combustion products. PMID:24661430

Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

2014-12-01

259

Electrochemical separation is an attractive strategy for development of radionuclide generators for medical applications.  

PubMed

Electrochemical separation techniques are not widely used in radionuclide generator technology and only a few studies have been reported [1-4]. Nevertheless, this strategy is useful when other parent-daughter separation techniques are not effective or not possible. Such situations are frequent when low specific activity (LSA) parent radionuclides are used for instance with adsorption chromatographic separations, which can result in lower concentration of the daughter radionuclide in the eluent. In addition, radiation instability of the column matrix in many cases can affect the performance of the generator when long lived parent radionuclides are used. Intricate knowledge of the chemistry involved in the electrochemical separation is crucial to develop a reproducible technology that ensures that the pure daughter radionuclide can be obtained in a reasonable time of operation. Crucial parameters to be critically optimized include the applied potential, choice of electrolyte, selection of electrodes, temperature of electrolyte bath and the time of electrolysis in order to ensure that the daughter radionuclide can be reproducibly recovered in high yields and high purity. The successful electrochemical generator technologies which have been developed and are discussed in this paper include the (90)Sr/(90)Y, (188)W/(188)Re and (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generators. Electrochemical separation not only acts as a separation technique but also is an effective concentration methodology which yields high radioactive concentrations of the daughter products. The lower consumption of reagents and minimal generation of radioactive wastes using such electrochemical techniques are compatible with 'green chemistry' principles. PMID:22642386

Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh; Pillai, M R A

2012-07-01

260

Containment of Toxic Metals and Radionuclides in Porous and Fractured  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is to provide an improved understanding and predictive capability of the mechanisms that allow metal-reducing bacteria to be effective in the bioremediation of subsurface environments contaminated with toxic metals and radionuclides. The study is motivated by the likelihood that subsurface microbial activity can effectively alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides so that they are immobilized for long time periods. Our objectives are to (1) develop an improved understanding of the rates and mechanisms of competing geochemical oxidation and microbiological reduction reactions that govern the fate and transport of redox-sensitive metals and radionuclides in the subsurface, and (2) quantify the conditions that optimize the microbial reduction of toxic metals and radionuclides, for the purpose of contaminant containment and remediation in heterogeneous systems that have competing geochemical oxidation, sorption, and organic ligands. The overall goal of this project is to use basic research to develop a cost effective remediation strategy that employs in situ contaminant immobilization. Specifically, we will develop active biowall technologies to contain priority EM contaminant plumes in groundwater.

Jardine, Philip M.; Saiers, James; Fendorf, Scott E.

1999-06-01

261

Reuse of Material Containing Natural Radionuclides - 12444  

SciTech Connect

Disposal of and use of wastes containing natural radioactive material (NORM) or technologically enhanced natural radioactive material (TENORM) with excessive natural background as a building material is very important in the supervision body activity. At the present time, the residents of Octyabrsky village are under resettlement. This village is located just near the Priargunsky mining and chemical combine (Ltd. 'PPGHO'), one of the oldest uranium mines in our country. The vacated wooden houses in the village are demolished and partly used as a building material. To address the issue of potential radiation hazard of the wooden beams originating from demolition of houses in Octyabrsky village, the contents of the natural radionuclides (K-40, Th-232, Ra-226, U- 238) are being determined in samples of the wooden beams of houses. The NORM contents in the wooden house samples are higher, on average, than their content in the reference sample of the fresh wood shavings, but the range of values is rather large. According to the classification of waste containing the natural radionuclides, its evaluation is based on the effective specific activity. At the effective specific activity lower 1.5 kBq/kg and gamma dose rate lower 70 ?R/h, the material is not considered as waste and can be used in building by 1 - 3 classes depending upon A{sub eff} value. At 1.5 kBq/kg < A{sub eff} ? 4 kBq/kg (4 class), the wooden beams might be used for the purpose of the industrial building, if sum of ratios between the radionuclide specific activity and its specific activity of minimum significance is lower than unit. The material classified as the waste containing the natural radionuclides has A{sub eff} higher 1.5 kBq /kg, and its usage for the purpose of house-building and road construction is forbidden. As for the ash classification and its future usage, such usage is unreasonable, because, according to the provided material, more than 50% of ash samples are considered as radioactive waste containing natural radionuclides. All materials originated from demolition of houses in Octyabrsky village are subjected to the obligatory radiation control. The decision to use the wooden beams shall enter into force after agreement with the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision bodies. Conclusions: 1 - The wooden beam originated from the house demolition in Octyabrsky village might be used as the construction material only in case of compliance with the requirements of the regulatory documents, as well as under approval of the authorities responsible for the state sanitary and epidemiological supervision in this area. 2 - The industrial control is introduced to verify the compliance with the current regulations. 3 - The material originated from the house demolition might be used only if such usage does not cause increasing radiation exposure to the public. (authors)

Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.J. [Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01

262

Systematic method for optimizing plutonium transmutation in LWRs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed the Systematic Reactor Optimization in 2-Dimensions (SRO2D) code to maximize the transmutation of plutonium in light water reactors (LWRs). The necessary conditions for optimal fuel and burnable absorber loadings are obtained with Pontryagin's maximum principle and a direct adjoining approach to explicitly account for a power peaking inequality constraint. The resulting set of coupled system, Euler-Lagrange (E-L), and optimality equations are solved iteratively with the method of conjugate gradients until no further improvement is achieved in the objective function. To satisfy the power peaking inequality constraint throughout the operating cycle we have employed a backwards diffusion theory (BDT) technique as part of the conjugate gradient optimization package. The BDT approach establishes a relationship between the burnable absorber loading and the power distribution during the cycle, such that constraint violations are reduced with each conjugate gradient iteration and eventually eliminated. Our in-core optimization methodology has been implemented in the SRO2D code, assuming two-group, two-dimensional neutron diffusion theory. The system equations are solved in a quasi-static fashion forward in time from beginning-of-cycle (BOC) to end-of-cycle (EOC), while the E-L equations are solved backwards in time from EOC to BOC to reflect the adjoint nature of the Lagrange multipliers. Cycle length extension calculations of a first cycle AP600 plant verify our implementation effort, yielding a nearly identical loading pattern to that issued by Westinghouse in the AP600 Safety Analysis Report. Utilizing a self-generated Pu recycling mode, our in-core optimization methodology is coupled with an equilibrium cycle methodology to arrive at an optimized asymptotic Pu inventory and composition. Beginning with a poor loading pattern, our LWR optimization package improves the core performance by reducing the maximum power peaking factor from 2.0 to 1.4, yielding a net increase of 7 days from the initial cycle length. Our LWR optimization package also improves the path to Pu inventory stabilization by yielding a 7% lower Pu inventory at equilibrium for our optimized case.

Sorensen, Reuben T.

263

The fast-spectrum transmutation experimental facility FASTEF: Main design achievements (Part 1: Core and primary system) within the FP7-CDT collaborative project of the European Commission  

SciTech Connect

MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hybrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is the flexible experimental accelerator-driven system (ADS) in development at SCK CEN in replacement of its material testing reactor BR2. SCK CEN in association with 17 European partners from industry, research centres and academia, responded to the FP7 (Seventh Framework Programme) call from the European Commission to establish a Central Design Team (CDT) for the design of a Fast Spectrum Transmutation Experimental Facility (FASTEF) able to demonstrate efficient transmutation and associated technology through a system working in subcritical and/or critical mode. The project has started on April 01, 2009 for a period of three years. In this paper, we present the latest configuration of the reactor core and primary system. The FASTEF facility has evolved quite a lot since the intermediate reporting done at the ICAPP'10 and ICAPP'11 conferences 1 2. If it remains a small-scale facility, the core power amounts now up to 100 MWth in critical mode. In a companion paper 3, we present the concept of the reactor building and the plant layout. (authors)

De Bruyn, D.; Fernandez, R. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Mansani, L. [ANSALDO, Corso Perrone 25, 16152 Genova (Italy); Woaye-Hune, A. [AREVA-NP, rue Juliette Recamier 10, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France); Sarotto, M. [ENEA, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Bubelis, E. [KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2012-07-01

264

Fuel design for the U.S. accelerator driven transmutation system.  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. concept for actinide transmutation is currently envisioned as a system to destroy plutonium as well as minor actinides in a single or two tier system. In order to maximize the actinide destruction rate, an inert matrix fuel is used. The effectiveness of transmutation in reducing the actinide inventory is linked to the development of a robust fuel system, capable of achieving very high burnup. Very little fuel performance data has been generated to date on inert matrix systems, and there are several issues specific to the behavior of higher actinides that do not allow extension of the existing uranium-plutonium fuel database to these new fuels. These issues include helium production, fuel-cladding-chemical-interaction, and americium migration. In the early 1990's, two U-Pu-Zr metal alloy fuel elements containing 1.2 wt.% Am and 1.3 wt.% Np were fabricated and irradiated to approximately 6 at.% burnup in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. Postirradiation examination results were not published; however the recent interest in fuel for actinide transmutation has prompted a reexamination of this data. The results of the postirradiation examination of this experiment, including gas sampling, metallography, and gamma scanning are discussed. Available data on inert matrix fuels and other fuels incorporating actinides are used to assess the implications of minor-actinide specific issues on transmuter fuel. Considerations for the design of nitride and oxide fuels, metallic fuels, and metal-matrix dispersion fuels are discussed.

Meyer, M. K.; Hayes, S. L.; Crawford, D. C.; Pahl, R. G.; Tsai, H.

2002-02-18

265

Plasmon Transmutation: Inducing New Modes in Nanoclusters by Adding Dielectric Nanoparticles  

E-print Network

GP-A-19 Plasmon Transmutation: Inducing New Modes in Nanoclusters by Adding in the metallodielectric nanocluster response. These examples illustrate that adding dielectric nanoparticles to metallic nanoclusters expands the number and types of plasmon modes supported by these new mixed-media nanoscale

266

A study of the nuclear transmutations of light elements by the photographic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photographic method has been employed in a study of the transmutation of lithium, beryllium, boron and oxygen by 900 keV. deuterons using the new Ilford Nuclear Research emulsion, type B1, for recording the tracks of the disintegration particles. The relation between the energy of a homogeneous group of particles and the mean range of the corresponding tracks in the

C M G Lattes; P H Fowler; P Cuer

1947-01-01

267

The Effects of Flux Spectrum Perturbation on Transmutation of Actinides: Optimizing the Production of Transcurium Isotopes  

SciTech Connect

This research presented herein involves the optimization of transcurium production in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Due to the dependence of isotope cross sections on incoming neutron energy, the efficiency with which an isotope is transmuted is highly dependent upon the flux spectrum. There are certain energy bands in which the rate of fission of transcurium production feedstock materials is minimized, relative to the rate of non-fission absorptions. It is proposed that by perturbing the flux spectrum, it is possible to increase the amount of key isotopes, such as 249Bk and 252Cf, that are produced during a transmutation cycle, relative to the consumption of feedstock material. This optimization process is carried out by developing an iterative objective framework involving problem definition, flux spectrum and cross section analysis, simulated transmutation, and analysis of final yields and transmutation parameters. It is shown that it is possible to perturb the local flux spectrum in the transcurium target by perturbing the composition of the target. It is further shown that these perturbations are able to alter the target yields in a non-negligible way. Future work is necessary to develop the optimization framework, and identify the necessary algorithms to update the problem definition based upon progress towards the optimization goals.

Hogle, Susan L [ORNL] [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL] [ORNL; Alexander, Charles W [ORNL] [ORNL

2012-01-01

268

Charles Darwin's biological species concept and theory of geographic speciation: the transmutation notebooks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common view has been that Darwin regarded species as artificial and arbitrary constructions of taxonomists, not as distinct natural units. However, in his transmutation notebooks he clearly subscribed to the reality of species, on the basis of the criterion of non-interbreeding. A consequence of this biological species concept was his identification of the acquisition of reproductive isolation as the

Malcolm J. Kottler

1978-01-01

269

Accelerator-driven system for transmutation of high-level waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accelerator-driven transmutation system has been studied at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. This system is a hydrid system which consists of a high intensity accelerator, a spallation target and a subcritical core region. In the conceptual design study, two types of system concepts, sodium cooled and lead-bismuth cooled system, are being studied. In this study, we fucus on

Kazufumi Tsujimoto; Toshinobu Sasa; Kenji Nishihara; Takakazu Takizuka; Hideki Takano

2000-01-01

270

Transmutation Characteristics in a Pb-Bi Cooled Fast Reactor, PEACER-300  

SciTech Connect

A design study of 850 MWt lead-bismuth cooled reactor cores is performed to maximize the transmutation of both TRU nuclides in homogeneous fuel pin and long-lived fission products in separate target pins. Transmutation of minor actinide under a closed recycling was analyzed with assumption that decontamination factors in pyro-reprocessing plant data be reasonably high. A parametric study is performed to acquire high transmutation performance by changing feed fuel composition, P/D ratio, active core height and fuel cycle strategy. The optimized design parameter were chosen as of a flat core shape with 50 cm in active core height and 5 m in core diameter, loaded with 17 x 17 arrayed fuel assemblies. A pitch to diameter ratio is 2.2, operating coolant temperature range is 300 deg C {approx} 400 deg C, and core consists of 3 different enrichment zones with one year cycle length. Performance of designed core showed a high transmutation capability with support ratio of 2.085, large negative temperature feedback coefficients, and sufficient shutdown margin with 20 B{sub 4}C control assemblies. (authors)

Lim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Myung-Hyun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, YoungIn-shi, Gyeonggi-do, 449-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01

271

Dimensional transmutation and symmetry breaking in Maxwell- Chern-Simons scalar QED  

E-print Network

The mechanism of dimensional transmutation is discussed in the context of Maxwell-Chern-Simons scalar QED. The method used is non-perturbative. The effective potential describes a broken symmetry state. It is found that the symmetry breaking vacuum is more stable when the Chern-Simons mass is different from zero. Pacs number: 11.10.Ef, 11.10.Gh.

F. S. Nogueira; N. F. Svaiter

1995-09-21

272

Electrical and thermal properties of neutron-transmutation-doped Ge at 20 mK  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on hot-electron effects in neutron-transmutation-doped Ge (NTD Ge) near 20 mK. Both static and dynamic electrical properties were measured and compared with a model including both variable-range-hopping conduction and hot-electron effects.

Ning Wang; F. C. Wellstood; B. Sadoulet; E. E. Haller; J. Beeman

1990-01-01

273

Transmutation of minor actinides discharged from LMFBR spent fuel in a high power density fusion reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant amounts of nuclear wastes consisting of plutonium, minor actinides and long lived fission products are produced during the operation of commercial nuclear power plants. Therefore, the destruction of these wastes is very important with respect to public health, environment and also the future of nuclear energy. In this study, transmutation of minor actinides (MAs) discharged from LMFBR spent fuel

Mustafa Übeyli

2004-01-01

274

Nuclear transmutation by negative stopped muons and the activity induced by the cosmic-ray muons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear transmutation and the involved factors when negative muons are stopped in matter are discussed. Some uncertainties about the atomic capture of muons in compounds and about the neutron emission probability following muon capture still exist. The stopping rate of negative cosmic-ray muons in the atmosphere and in the lithosphere up to large depths is reviewed. The activities of some

S. Charalambus

1971-01-01

275

JAERI R&D on accelerator-based transmutation under OMEGA program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overview of the Japanese long-term research and development program on nuclide partitioning and transmutation, called ``OMEGA,'' is presented. Under this national program, major R&D activities are being carried out at JAERI, PNC, and CRIEPI. Accelerator-based transmutation study at JAERI is focused on a dedicated transmutor with a subcritical actinide-fueled subcritical core coupled with a spallation target driven by a high intensity proton accelerator. Two types of system concept, solid system and molten-salt system, are discussed. The solid system consists of sodium-cooled tungsten target and metallic actinide fuel. The molten-salt system is fueled with molten actinide chloride that acts also as a target material. The proposed plant transmutes about 250 kg of minor actinide per year, and generates enough electricity to power its own accelerator. JAERI is proposing the development of an intense proton linear accelerator ETA with 1.5 GeV-10 mA beam for engineering tests of accelerator-based transmutation. Recent achievements in the accelerator development are described.

Takizuka, T.; Nishida, T.; Mizumoto, M.; Yoshida, H.

1995-09-01

276

Accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste: Towards the elimination of long-lived radioactive waste  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at Los Alamos have been developing transmutation concepts involving accelerator-driven nuclear systems. A medium energy, high current proton beam strikes a heavy metal target, producing a high flux of spallation neutrons. These neutrons are moderated to near-thermal energies in a blanket surrounding the target. Materials to be transmuted flow through the blanket region where they are fissioned or transmuted to stable nuclides. Stable or short-lived nuclides are separated while the long-lived radioactive species are returned to the blanket. For most applications the fission energy produced is much greater than that required to power the accelerator and can be directed to the commercial power grid. A number of possible applications are envisioned for accelerator-driven nuclear systems. These include destruction of surplus weapons-grade plutonium, production of tritium, transmutation of commercial spent fuel, and even commercial power generation in next-generation nuclear power plants. Some of these applications will be discussed with particular emphasis on the required chemical separations for such systems.

Dewey, H.J.

1993-09-29

277

Scent Transmutation: A New Way to Teach on Chemical Equilibrium, Distillation, and Dynamic Combinatorial Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Esters are volatile and pleasantly smelling compounds, commonly used as food additives. Using Ti(OBu)[subscript 4]-catalyzed acyl exchange, we demonstrate a scent transmutation experiment, in which two fragrant esters swap their acyl and alkoxy substituents and are, during the course of a reactive distillation, quantitatively converted into two…

Ji, Qing; El-Hamdi, Nadia S.; Miljanic´, Ognjen S?.

2014-01-01

278

An accelerator technology legacy  

SciTech Connect

Accelerator technology has been a major beneficiary of the investment made over the last decade. It is the intention of this paper to provide the reader with a glimpse of the broad nature of those advances. Development has been on a broad front and this paper can highlight only a few of those. Two spin-off applications will be outlined -- a concept for a compact, active, beam probe for solar body exploration and the concept for an accelerator-driven transmutation system for energy production.

Heighway, E.A.

1994-11-01

279

Natural chelates for radionuclide decorporation  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to the method and resulting chelates of desorbing a radionuclide selected from thorium, uranium, and plutonium containing cultures in a bioavailable form involving pseudomonas or other microorganisms. A preferred microorganism is Pseudomonas aeruginosa which forms multiple chelates with thorium in the range of molecular weight 1000 to 1000 and also forms chelates with uranium of molecular weight in the area of 100 to 1000 and 1000 to 2000.

Premuzic, E.T.

1983-08-25

280

Radionuclide behavior in the environment  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to document the results of the following task: Review for quality and consistency the available data on measurements of initial ground contamination of Chernobyl radionuclides in various parts of Norway and subsequent concentrations of these radionuclides in various environmental media as functions of time. Utilize the data obtained to verify the existing models, or to improve them, for describing radionuclide behavior in the environment. Some of the processes standard were: migration into soil; weathering; resuspension; food-chain contamination; and loss or reconcentration by run-off. The task performed within this contract has been to use post-Chernobyl data from Norway to verify or find areas for possible improvement in the chronic exposure pathway models utilized in MACCS. Work has consisted mainly of collecting and evaluating post-Chernobyl information from Norway or other countries when relevant; but has also included experimental work performed specifically for the current task. In most connections the data available show the models and data in MACCS to be appropriate. A few areas where the data indicate that the MACCS approach is faulty or inadequate are, however, pointed out in the report. These should be examined carefully, and appropriate modifications should eventually be made. 14 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

Tveten, U. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, Kjeller (Norway))

1991-09-01

281

Radionuclide daughter inventory generator code: DIG  

SciTech Connect

The Daughter Inventory Generator (DIG) code accepts a tabulation of radionuclide initially present in a waste stream, specified as amounts present either by mass or by activity, and produces a tabulation of radionuclides present after a user-specified elapsed time. This resultant radionuclide inventory characterizes wastes that have undergone daughter ingrowth during subsequent processes, such as leaching and transport, and includes daughter radionuclides that should be considered in these subsequent processes or for inclusion in a pollutant source term. Output of the DIG code also summarizes radionuclide decay constants. The DIG code was developed specifically to assist the user of the PRESTO-II methodology and code in preparing data sets and accounting for possible daughter ingrowth in wastes buried in shallow-land disposal areas. The DIG code is also useful in preparing data sets for the PRESTO-EPA code. Daughter ingrowth in buried radionuclides and in radionuclides that have been leached from the wastes and are undergoing hydrologic transport are considered, and the quantities of daughter radionuclide are calculated. Radionuclide decay constants generated by DIG and included in the DIG output are required in the PRESTO-II code input data set. The DIG accesses some subroutines written for use with the CRRIS system and accesses files containing radionuclide data compiled by D.C. Kocher. 11 refs.

Fields, D.E.; Sharp, R.D.

1985-09-01

282

Microgamma Scan System for analyzing radial isotopic profiles of irradiated transmutation fuels  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership / Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (GNEP/AFCI) is developing metallic transmutation alloys as a fuel form to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products. The AFCI program has irradiated and examined eleven metallic alloy transmutation fuel specimens to evaluate the feasibility of actinide transmutation in advanced sodium-cooled fast reactors and thermal reactor implementation. Initial results of postirradiation examinations indicated the irradiation performance of the actinide-bearing compositions is similar to uranium-plutonium-zirconium ternary metallic alloy fuels (U-xPu-10Zr). Further studies to characterize radial burnup profile, constituent migration, and fuel cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) are in progress. A microgamma scan system is being developed to analyze the radial distribution of fission products, such as Cs-137, Cs-134, Ru-106, and Zr-95, in irradiated fuel cross-sections. The microgamma scan system consists of a set of indexed sample collimator blocks and a sample holder, which interfaces with the INL Analytical Laboratory Hot Cell (ALHC) Gamma Scan System high purity germanium detector, multichannel analyzer, and removable collimators. The microgamma scan results will be used to evaluate radial burnup profile, cesium migration to the sodium bond and constituent migration within the fuel. These data will further clarify the comparative irradiation performance of actinide-bearing metallic transmutation fuel forms and uranium-plutonium-zirconium alloys. Preliminary measurements of the microgamma scan system will be discussed. A simplified model of the microgamma scan system was developed in MCNP and used to investigate the system performance and to interpret data from the scoping studies. Recommendations for improving the MCGS analyses are discussed.

Bruce A. Hilton; Christopher A. McGrath

2008-05-01

283

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of {sup 223}Ra and {sup 225}Ac, from a radionuclide ``cow`` of {sup 227}Ac or {sup 229}Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of (a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide ``cow`` forming an ingrown mixture; (b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; (c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the ``cow`` from at least one radionuclide daughter; (d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; (e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and (f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the ``cow``. In one embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 227}Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 227}Th and the product radionuclide is the {sup 223}Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the {sup 227}Ac and retains the {sup 227}Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide ``cow`` is the {sup 229}Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a {sup 225}Ra and said product radionuclide is the {sup 225}Ac and the {sup 225}Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the {sup 229}Th and passes the {sup 225}Ra/Ac. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1998-09-15

284

Methods of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of obtaining a radionuclide product selected from the group consisting of .sup.223 Ra and .sup.225 Ac, from a radionuclide "cow" of .sup.227 Ac or .sup.229 Th respectively. The method comprises the steps of a) permitting ingrowth of at least one radionuclide daughter from said radionuclide "cow" forming an ingrown mixture; b) insuring that the ingrown mixture is a nitric acid ingrown mixture; c) passing the nitric acid ingrown mixture through a first nitrate form ion exchange column which permits separating the "cow" from at least one radionuclide daughter; d) insuring that the at least one radionuclide daughter contains the radionuclide product; e) passing the at least one radionuclide daughter through a second ion exchange column and separating the at least one radionuclide daughter from the radionuclide product and f) recycling the at least one radionuclide daughter by adding it to the "cow". In one embodiment the radionuclide "cow" is the .sup.227 Ac, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.227 Th and the product radionuclide is the .sup.223 Ra and the first nitrate form ion exchange column passes the .sup.227 Ac and retains the .sup.227 Th. In another embodiment the radionuclide "cow"is the .sup.229 Th, the at least one daughter radionuclide is a .sup.225 Ra and said product radionuclide is the .sup.225 Ac and the .sup.225 Ac and nitrate form ion exchange column retains the .sup.229 Th and passes the .sup.225 Ra/Ac.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

1998-01-01

285

Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with toxic elements and radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

At many US Department of Energy (US DOE) facilities and other sites, surface soils over relatively large areas are contaminated with heavy metals, radionuclides, and other toxic elements, often at only a relatively small factor above regulatory action levels. Cleanup of such sites presents major challenges, because currently available soil remediation technologies can be very expensive. In response, the US DOE`s Office of Technology Development, through the Western Environmental Technology Office, is sponsoring research in the area of phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses higher plants to transfer toxic elements and radionuclides from surface soils into aboveground biomass. Some plants, termed hyperaccumulators, take up toxic elements in substantial amounts, resulting in concentrations in aboveground biomass over 100 times those observed with conventional plants. After growth, the plant biomass is harvested, and the toxic elements are concentrated and reclaimed or disposed of. As growing, harvesting, and processing plant biomass is relatively inexpensive, phytoremediation can be a low-cost technology for remediation of extensive areas having lightly to moderately contaminated soils. This paper reviews the potential of hyper- and moderate accumulator plants in soil remediation, provides some comparative cost estimates, and outlines ongoing work initiated by the US DOE.

Cornish, J.E.; Goldberg, W.C. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Levine, R.S. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Technology Development; Benemann, J.R.

1995-12-31

286

Microbial Transformations of Actinides and Other Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides and other radionuclides released from nuclear fuel cycle and from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution in the environment and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been extensively investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes and biochemical mechanisms which affect the stability and mobility of radionuclides. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, the fission products and other radionuclides such as Ra, Tc, I, Cs, Sr, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

Francis,A.J.; Dodge, C. J.

2009-01-07

287

Chemical speciation of radionuclides migrating in groundwaters  

SciTech Connect

In order to more accurately predict the rates and mechanisms of radionuclide migration from low-level waste disposal facilities via groundwater transport, ongoing studies are being conducted at field sites at Chalk River Laboratories to identify and characterize the chemical speciation of mobile, long-lived radionuclides migrating in groundwaters. Large-volume water sampling techniques are being utilized to separate and concentrate radionuclides into particular, cationic, anionic, and nonionic chemical forms. Most radionuclides are migrating as soluble, anionic species that appear to be predominantly organoradionuclide complexes. Laboratory studies utilizing anion exchange chromatography have separated several anionically complexed radionuclides, e.g., {sup 60}Co and {sup 106}Ru, into a number of specific compounds or groups of compounds. Further identification of the anionic organoradionuclide complexes is planned utilizing high resolution mass spectrometry. Large-volume ultra-filtration experiments are characterizing the particulate forms of radionuclides being transported in these groundwaters.

Robertson, D.; Schilk, A.; Abel, K.; Lepel, E.; Thomas, C.; Pratt, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cooper, E.; Hartwig, P.; Killey, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

1994-04-01

288

Method of making colloid labeled with radionuclide  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

1991-01-01

289

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints. No Drawings

Atcher, R.W.; Hines, J.J.

1990-11-13

290

Colloid labelled with radionuclide and method  

DOEpatents

A ferric hydroxide colloid having an alpha-emitting radionuclide essentially on the outer surfaces and a method of forming same. The method includes oxidizing a ferrous hydroxide to ferric hydroxide in the presence of a preselected radionuclide to form a colloid having the radionuclide on the outer surface thereof, and thereafter washing the colloid, and suspending the washed colloid in a suitable solution. The labelled colloid is useful in cancer therapy and for the treatment of inflamed joints.

Atcher, Robert W. (Chicago, IL); Hines, John J. (GlenEllyn, IL)

1990-01-01

291

Therapy for incorporated radionuclides: scope and need  

SciTech Connect

In the United States the recent termination of funding for research on therapy for incorporated radionuclides has virtually halted progress on improved or new agents and procedures for removing radioactivity from the body. Research was eliminated, but is still needed on new removal agents, improved delivery system, in vitro test systems, and the toxicology of treatments. For many radionuclides, no adequate therapy exists. The relationship between radionuclide removal and reduction in cancer risk is still unanswered. Without proper research support, needed improvements in the treatment for incorporated radionuclides in the US are uncertain.

Smith, V.H.

1981-03-01

292

Ion binding compounds, radionuclide complexes, methods of making radionuclide complexes, methods of extracting radionuclides, and methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations  

DOEpatents

The invention pertains to compounds for binding lanthanide ions and actinide ions. The invention further pertains to compounds for binding radionuclides, and to methods of making radionuclide complexes. Also, the invention pertains to methods of extracting radionuclides. Additionally, the invention pertains to methods of delivering radionuclides to target locations. In one aspect, the invention includes a compound comprising: a) a calix[n]arene group, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene group comprising an upper rim and a lower rim; b) at least one ionizable group attached to the lower rim; and c) an ion selected from the group consisting of lanthanide and actinide elements bound to the ionizable group. In another aspect, the invention includes a method of extracting a radionuclide, comprising: a) providing a sample comprising a radionuclide; b) providing a calix[n]arene compound in contact with the sample, wherein n is an integer greater than 3; and c) extracting radionuclide from the sample into the calix[n]arene compound. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a method of delivering a radionuclide to a target location, comprising: a) providing a calix[n]arene compound, wherein n is an integer greater than 3, the calix[n]arene compound comprising at least one ionizable group; b) providing a radionuclide bound to the calix[n]arene compound; and c) providing an antibody attached to the calix[n]arene compound, the antibody being specific for a material found at the target location.

Chen, Xiaoyuan (Syracuse, NY); Wai, Chien M. (Moscow, ID); Fisher, Darrell R. (Richland, WA)

2000-01-01

293

Transmutation operators associated with a dunkl type differential-difference operator on the real line and certain of their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a singular differential-difference operator ? on the real line which generalizes the Dunkl operator associated with the reflection group Z2 on R. We construct transmutation operators between ? and the first derivative operator d\\/dx. We exploit these transmutation operators, firstly to determine the elementary solution of certain classes of singular differential-difference operators on a product of Euclidean spaces,

Mohamed Ali Mourou

2001-01-01

294

The influence of transmutation, void swelling, and flux/spectra uncertainties on the electrical properties of copper and copper alloys  

SciTech Connect

A comparison of the predicted and measured electrical conductivities of MARZ copper and two copper alloys irradiated in FFTF shows that the calculated transmutation rates agree within 15% with those required to produce the observed changes. It also appears that the contribution of transmutants and void swelling to conductivity changes are directly additive. Of the three models studied, Euken`s model has been found to best describe the contribution of void swelling to conductivity loss.

Edwards, D.J.; Garner, F.A.; Greenwood, L.R.

1993-09-01

295

Evaluation of transuranium isotopes inventory for Candu/ACR standard and SEU spent fuel and the possibility to transmute them  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The main disadvantage of nuclear energy is the quantity of long lived radioactive waste produced in a NPP. Transmutation could be one of the solutions to reduce it. Waste transmutation will require a suitable deployment of techniques for spent fuel reprocessing. At present, reprocessing is done by aqueous methods that are very efficient for Pu separation (up to 99.9%). For transmutation applications, new partitioning processes must be developed for minor actinides separation from the high level waste. Although these processes are still very much at the research stage, industrial scale-up will result in the deployment of new, more specific separation techniques for transmutation applications. Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) techniques could contribute to reduce the radioactive inventory and its associated radio-toxicity. Scientists are looking for ways to drastically reduce both the mass and the radio-toxicity of the nuclear waste to be stored in a deep geological repository, and to reduce the time needed to reach the radioactivity level of the raw material originally used to produce energy. The first stage in the transmutation process is the isotopes inventory formed in the spent fuel. In this paper is made an intercomparison evaluation using WIMS 5B.12 and ORIGEN computer codes. Using these two codes, there is evaluated the isotopes released by a fuel standard from a Candu reactor. Moreover, there is simulated an inventory released by a Candu-SEU reactor and an ACR reactor. (authors)

Ghizdeanu, Elena Nineta; Pavelescu, Alexandru [University Politehnica of Bucharest - Faculty of Power Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independentei, RO-060042, Bucharest 6 (Romania); Balaceanu, Victoria [Institute for Nuclear Research, Campului Str., 1, Mioveni P.O. Box 78, 0300 Pitesti (Romania)

2007-07-01

296

Hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS)  

SciTech Connect

A radionuclide procedure, hysterosalpingo-radionuclide scintigraphy (HERS), was designed to evaluate the migration of a particulate radioactive tracer from the vagina to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries as well as to image and functionally outline the patency of the pathways between these two extremes of the female reproductive system. Technetium-99m human albumin microspheres (99mTc-HAM) were deposited in the posterior fornices of patients who were divided into two specific groups. Group I consisted of patients who were to undergo different elective gynecologic operations, in which besides obtaining sequential images, radioactivity levels were measured in the removed organs and tissues. Group II consisted of patients referred by the Infertility Clinic for evaluation of their reproductive system pathways patency. In this latter group, HERS was compared with contrast hysterosalpingography (HSG) and peritoneoscopy (PCP). The results obtained from measurements of radioactivity levels on the removed surgical specimens and comparison with other conventional gynecologic diagnostic procedures provide accurate evidence of the migration of 99mTc-HAM from the vagina, through the uterus and tubes, to the peritoneal cavity and ovaries, and show that HERS is a simple noninvasive method for functionally imaging and assessing the patency of the female reproductive system pathways.

Iturralde, M.; Venter, P.F.

1981-10-01

297

Anthropogenic Radionuclides in the Caspian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis and interpretation of the distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, and 239,240Pu in the Caspian Sea water are presented. These radionuclides are shown to be of environmental importance and to be useful for studying water mass dynamics.

B. Oregioni; J. Gastaud; M. K. Pham; P. P. Povinec

2003-01-01

298

Transmutation of Matter in Byzantium: The Case of Michael Psellos, the Alchemist  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is thus nothing paradoxical about the inclusion of alchemy in the ensemble of the physical sciences nor in the preoccupation with it on the part of learned men engaged in scientific study. In the context of the Medieval model, where discourse on the physical world was ambiguous, often unclear, and lacking the support of experimental verification, the transmutation of matter, which was the subject of alchemy, even if not attended by a host of occult features, was a process that was thought to have a probable basis in reality. What is interesting in this connection is the utilization of the scientific categories of the day for discussion of transmutation of matter and the attempt to avoid, in most instances in the texts that survive, of methods reminiscent of magic.

Katsiampoura, Gianna

2008-06-01

299

Hydrogen bond disruption in DNA base pairs from (14)C transmutation.  

PubMed

Recent ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have shown that radioactive carbon does not normally fragment DNA bases when it decays. Motivated by this finding, density functional theory and Bader analysis have been used to quantify the effect of C ? N transmutation on hydrogen bonding in DNA base pairs. We find that (14)C decay has the potential to significantly alter hydrogen bonds in a variety of ways including direct proton shuttling (thymine and cytosine), thermally activated proton shuttling (guanine), and hydrogen bond breaking (cytosine). Transmutation substantially modifies both the absolute and relative strengths of the hydrogen bonding pattern, and in two instances (adenine and cytosine), the density at the critical point indicates development of mild covalent character. Since hydrogen bonding is an important component of Watson-Crick pairing, these (14)C-induced modifications, while infrequent, may trigger errors in DNA transcription and replication. PMID:25127298

Sassi, Michel; Carter, Damien J; Uberuaga, Blas P; Stanek, Christopher R; Mancera, Ricardo L; Marks, Nigel A

2014-09-01

300

MA Transmutation Performance Simulation and Accompanied Burning-up Analysis for C-ADS  

E-print Network

An accelerator-driven subcritical reactor functions well in incinerating high-level radiotoxic waste (HLW) as well as providing energy. China is on his way to establish such a facility to transmutate the annual 1000 tons of HLW. A neutronic analysis has been performed for a reference core with a special task of burning minor actinides 237Np, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm. Instant operation parameters are determined, including neutron energy spectra, thermal power distribution and transmutation validation. Burning-up analysis is carried out to further confirm the incineration efficiency. The core parameters optimized in this work will be applied to simulate in-core fuel behavior in future research.

Ji-Lang Miao; Zi-Chen Zhao; Zhen-Qi Chang

2012-12-12

301

MA Transmutation Performance Simulation and Accompanied Burning-up Analysis for C-ADS  

E-print Network

An accelerator-driven subcritical reactor functions well in incinerating high-level radiotoxic waste (HLW) as well as providing energy. China is on his way to establish such a facility to transmutate the annual 1000 tons of HLW. A neutronic analysis has been performed for a reference core with a special task of burning minor actinides 237Np, 241Am, 243Am and 244Cm. Instant operation parameters are determined, including neutron energy spectra, thermal power distribution and transmutation validation. Burning-up analysis is carried out to further confirm the incineration efficiency. The core parameters optimized in this work will be applied to simulate in-core fuel behavior in future research.

Miao, Ji-Lang; Chang, Zhen-Qi

2012-01-01

302

Application of neutron transmutation doping method to initially p-type silicon material.  

PubMed

The neutron transmutation doping (NTD) method was applied to the initially p-type silicon in order to extend the NTD applications at HANARO. The relationship between the irradiation neutron fluence and the final resistivity of the initially p-type silicon material was investigated. The proportional constant between the neutron fluence and the resistivity was determined to be 2.3473x10(19)nOmegacm(-1). The deviation of the final resistivity from the target for almost all the irradiation results of the initially p-type silicon ingots was at a range from -5% to 2%. In addition, the burn-up effect of the boron impurities, the residual (32)P activity and the effect of the compensation characteristics for the initially p-type silicon were studied. Conclusively, the practical methodology to perform the neutron transmutation doping of the initially p-type silicon ingot was established. PMID:19318259

Kim, Myong-Seop; Kang, Ki-Doo; Park, Sang-Jun

2009-01-01

303

Progress of nitride fuel cycle research for transmutation of minor actinides  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress of nitride fuel cycle research for transmutation of MA is summarized. Preparation of MA-bearing nitride pellets, such as (Np,Am)N, (Am,Pu)N and (Np,Pu,Am,Cm)N, was carried out. Irradiation behavior of U-free nitride fuel was investigated by the irradiation test of (Pu,Zr)N and PuN+TiN fuels, in which ZrN and TiN were added as a possible diluent material. Further, pyrochemical process of spent nitride fuel was developed by electrorefining in a molten chloride salt and subsequent re-nitridation of actinides in liquid Cd cathode electro-deposits. Nitride fuel cycle for transmutation of MA has been demonstrated in a laboratory scale by the experimental study with MA and Pu. (authors)

Arai, Yasuo; Akabori, Mitsuo; Minato, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency - JAEA, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

2007-07-01

304

TUDE DE LA TRANSMUTATION DU CUIVRE PAR L'AZOTE, L'OXYGNE ET LE NON Par Mmes H. FARAGGI, J. OLKOWSKY, Mlles J. BEYDON, M. CRUT  

E-print Network

519. �TUDE DE LA TRANSMUTATION DU CUIVRE PAR L'AZOTE, L'OXYG�NE ET LE N�ON Par Mmes H. FARAGGI, J. Abstract. 2014 We have studied the relative yields of the radioelement formed in the transmutation »).° Nous avons étudié, à Saclay, la transmutation du cuivre par l'azote et l'oxygène [2]. Nous avons pu

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

305

SUR LE RAYONNEMENT 03B3 MIS AU COURS DE LA TRANSMUTATION RaD ~ RaE Par MARCEL FRILLEY et MANUEL VALADARES,  

E-print Network

468. SUR LE RAYONNEMENT 03B3 �MIS AU COURS DE LA TRANSMUTATION RaD ~ RaE Par MARCEL FRILLEY et rayonnement y 6mis au cours de la transmutation RaD - RaE a d6jh fait l'objet de travaux tres nombreux. Il est de BR a ete faite par comparaison avec le spectre correspondant à la transmutation Th C --> Th e

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

306

RADIONUCLIDE BIOLOGICAL REMEDIATION RESOURCE GUIDE  

EPA Science Inventory

Identifying and accessing pertinent information resources that will help site cleanup managers evaluate innovative technologies is key to the broader use of these technologies. This guide is intended to increase awareness about technical information and specialized resources rel...

307

Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

2000-01-01

308

SSNTD and radiochemical studies on the transmutation of nuclei using relativistic ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extended targets were irradiated for transmutation studies with relativistic heavy ions. For this, a metal core was surrounded by a paraffin moderator. The metal is either copper or lead and it was irradiated with deuterium, alpha, or carbon beams of 1.5 or 3.7 GeV\\/u at the SYNCHROPHASOTRON, LHE, JINR, Dubna, Russia. During this irradiation copious amounts of secondary neutrons are

M. Ochs; I. G. Abdullaev; I. Adam; J. C. Adloff; I. G. Bersina; V. Bradnova; R. Brandt; M. Bognitzki; V. S. Butsev; M. Debeauvais; K. K. Dwivedi; F. Fernandes; S.-L. Guo; M. I. Krivopustov; B. A. Kulakov; E.-J. Langrock; G. Modolo; R. Odoj; V. P. Perelygin; A. N. Priemyshev; V. S. Pronskich; T. Schmidt; A. N. Sosnin; V. I. Stegailov; R. Sudowe; P. Vater; J.-S. Wan; M. Zamani; V. M. Zupko-Sitnikov

1997-01-01

309

Transmutation of Matter in Byzantium: The Case of Michael Psellos, the Alchemist  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is thus nothing paradoxical about the inclusion of alchemy in the ensemble of the physical sciences nor in the preoccupation\\u000a with it on the part of learned men engaged in scientific study. In the context of the Medieval model, where discourse on the\\u000a physical world was ambiguous, often unclear, and lacking the support of experimental verification, the transmutation of

Gianna Katsiampoura

2008-01-01

310

Dimensional transmutation in the longitudinal sector of equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theory  

E-print Network

We study the pure-gauge sector of an $SU(N)$ gauge theory, equivariantly gauge fixed to $SU(N-1)\\times U(1)$, which is an asymptotically free non-linear sigma model in four dimensions. We show that dimensional transmutation takes place in the large-$N$ limit, and elaborate on the relevance of this result for a speculative scenario in which the strong longitudinal dynamics gives rise to a novel Higgs-Coulomb phase.

Maarten Golterman; Yigal Shamir

2014-03-14

311

Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) germanium thermistors for sub-mm bolometer applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in the development of neutron transmutation doped (NTD) semiconductor thermistors fabricated from natural and controlled isotopic composition germanium are reported. The near ideal doping uniformity that can be achieved with the NTD process, the device simplicity of NTD Ge thermistors and the high performance of cooled junction field effect transistor preamplifiers led to the widespread acceptance of these thermal sensors in ground-based, airborne and spaceborne radio telescopes. These features made possible the development of efficient bolometer arrays.

Haller, E. E.; Itoh, K. M.; Beeman, J. W.

1996-01-01

312

Dimensional transmutation in the longitudinal sector of equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theory  

E-print Network

We study the pure-gauge sector of an $SU(N)$ gauge theory, equivariantly gauge fixed to $SU(N-1)\\times U(1)$, which is an asymptotically free non-linear sigma model in four dimensions. We show that dimensional transmutation takes place in the large-$N$ limit, and elaborate on the relevance of this result for a speculative scenario in which the strong longitudinal dynamics gives rise to a novel Higgs-Coulomb phase.

Golterman, Maarten

2014-01-01

313

Design study of lead-bismuth cooled ADS dedicated to nuclear waste transmutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development on nuclear waste transmutation are being carried out with a special emphasis placed on dedicated accelerator-driven systems at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute under the Japanese OMEGA Program. The reference accelerator-driven system design employs eutectic lead-bismuth as spallation target material and coolant. The fuel for the subcritical core is minor-actinide mononitride. The system consists of a

Takakazu Takizuka; Kazufumi Tsujimoto; Toshinobu Sasa; Kenji Nishihara; Hideki Takano

2002-01-01

314

Safety aspects of oxide fuels for transmutation and utilization in accelerator driven systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

General safety aspects of fuels under development for accelerator driven systems (ADS) are reviewed and discussed. These fuels should allow a maximization of transmutation and incineration rates, which excludes fertile UO2 as a component or matrix. The accumulated knowledge on data, phenomena and scenarios of fast reactors with (U,Pu)O2 oxide fuels and sodium cooling serves as background for this review.

W. Maschek; A. Rineiski; T. Suzuki; M. G. Mori; X. Chen; M. Flad

2003-01-01

315

Analytic approximation of transmutation operators and applications to highly accurate solution of spectral problems  

E-print Network

A method for approximate solution of spectral problems for Sturm-Liouville equations based on the construction of the Delsarte transmutation operators is presented. In fact the problem of numerical approximation of solutions and eigenvalues is reduced to approximation of a primitive of the potential by a finite linear combination of generalized wave polynomials introduced in arXiv:1208.5984, arXiv:1208.6166. The method allows one to compute both lower and higher eigendata with an extreme accuracy.

Vladislav V. Kravchenko; Sergii M. Torba

2013-06-12

316

Run-time instruction set selection in a transmutable embedded processor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are presenting a new concept of an application-specific pro- cessor that is capable of transmuting its instruction set according to non-predictive application behavior during run-time. In those scenarios, current (extensible) embedded processors are less effi- cient since they are not run-time adaptive. We have identified the instruction set selection to be a critical step to perform at run time

Lars Bauer; Muhammad Shafique; Jörg Henkel

2008-01-01

317

Fabrication of transmutation and incineration targets by infiltration of porous pellets by radioactive solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infiltration of metal nitrate solutions into porous pellets, followed by thermal conversion of the nitrate to oxide and sintering of the pellets, provides an alternative procedure for the fabrication of targets for the transmutation and incineration of actinides and fission products. The infiltration rate of metal (Ce and Pu) nitrate solutions into porous spinel (MgAl2O4) pellets depends on the viscosity

A. Fernandez; K. Richter; J. Somers

1998-01-01

318

Minor actinide transmutation in thorium and uranium matrices in heavy water moderated reactors  

SciTech Connect

The irradiation of Th{sup 232} breeds fewer of the problematic minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) than the irradiation of U{sup 238}. This characteristic makes thorium an attractive potential matrix for the transmutation of these minor actinides, as these species can be transmuted without the creation of new actinides as is the case with a uranium fuel matrix. Minor actinides are the main contributors to long term decay heat and radiotoxicity of spent fuel, so reducing their concentration can greatly increase the capacity of a long term deep geological repository. Mixing minor actinides with thorium, three times more common in the Earth's crust than natural uranium, has the additional advantage of improving the sustainability of the fuel cycle. In this work, lattice cell calculations have been performed to determine the results of transmuting minor actinides from light water reactor spent fuel in a thorium matrix. 15-year-cooled group-extracted transuranic elements (Np, Pu, Am, Cm) from light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel were used as the fissile component in a thorium-based fuel in a heavy water moderated reactor (HWR). The minor actinide (MA) transmutation rates, spent fuel activity, decay heat and radiotoxicity, are compared with those obtained when the MA were mixed instead with natural uranium and taken to the same burnup. Each bundle contained a central pin containing a burnable neutron absorber whose initial concentration was adjusted to have the same reactivity response (in units of the delayed neutron fraction ?) for coolant voiding as standard NU fuel. (authors)

Bhatti, Zaki; Hyland, B.; Edwards, G.W.R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, 1 Plant Road, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

2013-07-01

319

Comparative Fuel Cycle Analysis of Critical and Subcritical Fast Reactor Transmutation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel cycle analyses are performed to evaluate the impacts of further transmutation of spent nuclear fuel on high-level and low-level waste mass flows into repositories, on the composition and toxicity of the high-level waste, on the capacity of high-level waste repositories, and on the proliferation resistance of the high-level waste. Storage intact of light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel,

Edward A. Hoffman; Weston M. Stacey

2003-01-01

320

Dimensional transmutation in the longitudinal sector of equivariantly gauge-fixed Yang-Mills theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the pure-gauge sector of an SU(N) gauge theory, equivariantly gauge fixed to SU(N-1)×U(1), which is an asymptotically free nonlinear sigma model in four dimensions. We show that dimensional transmutation takes place in the large-N limit and elaborate on the relevance of this result for a speculative scenario in which the strong longitudinal dynamics gives rise to a novel Higgs-Coulomb phase.

Golterman, Maarten; Shamir, Yigal

2014-08-01

321

Fusion-Driven SubCritical Dual-Cooled Waste Transmutation Blanket: Design and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fusion-Driven Sub-critical System (FDS) is one of the Chinese programs to be further developed for fusion application. Its Dual-cooled Waste Transmutation Blanket (DWTB), as one the most important part of the FDS is cooled by helium and liquid metal, and have the features of safety, tritium self-sustaining, high efficiency and feasibility. Its conceptual design has been finished. This paper

Weihua Wang; Yican Wu; Yan Ke; Zhicheng Kang; Hongyang Wang; Qunying Huang

2003-01-01

322

A Heterogeneous Sodium Fast Reactor Designed to Transmute Minor Actinide Actinide Waste Isotopes into Plutonium Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An axial heterogeneous sodium fast reactor design is developed for converting minor actinide waste isotopes into plutonium fuel. The reactor design incorporates zirconium hydride moderating rods in an axial blanket above the active core. The blanket design traps the active cores axial leakage for the purpose of transmuting Am-241 into Pu-238. This Pu-238 is then co-recycled with the spent driver

Samuel E. Bays

2011-01-01

323

Spallation reactions: A tool for RNB production and a neutron source for nuclear waste transmutation  

SciTech Connect

A large experimental program was initiated at GSI to study in detail the spallation reactions. The use of the inverse kinematics allows to determine the production cross section and recoil momentum of the spallation residues with high accuracy. The comparison of the experimental data with model calculation gives valuable information about the reaction mechanism and the application of these reactions to RNB production and to the problematic of nuclear waste transmutation.

Benlliure, J.; Casarejos, E. [University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Armbruster, P.; Enqvist, T.; Schmidt, K.-H. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Bernas, M.; Farget, F.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L. [IPN Orsay (France); Boudard, A.; Legrain, R.; Leray, S.; Volant, C. [SPhN Saclay (France); Czajkowski, S.; Pravikoff, M. [CENBG Bordeaux (France); Taieb, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); IPN Orsay (France)

1999-11-16

324

Characterization of neutron transmuted zinc traces in pure copper materials by isotope dilution mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of highly pure copper with zinc was investigated as a promising means of achieving\\u000a controlled gradation of the zinc content in the range 1–20 ?g g–1. The doping process leads to the enrichment of two stable isotopes 64Zn and 66Zn in a ratio which differs from that of natural isotopic distribution. Mass spectrometric investigations by

G. Wermann; D. Alber; W. Pritzkow; G. Riebe; W. Görner

2001-01-01

325

Neutron-induced transmutation effects in W and W-alloys in a fusion environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

W and W-alloys are among the primary candidate materials for plasma-facing components in the design of fusion reactors, particularly in high-heat-flux regions such as the divertor. Under neutron irradiation W undergoes transmutation to its near-neighbours in the periodic table. Additionally He and H are particles emitted from certain neutron-induced reactions, and this is particularly significant in fusion research since the presence of helium in a material can cause both swelling and a strong increase in brittleness. This paper presents the results of inventory burn-up calculations on pure W and gives quantitative estimates for He production rates in both a fusion-reactor environment and under conditions expected in the ITER experimental device. Transmutation reactions in possible alloying elements (Re, Ta, Ti and V), which could be used to reduce the brittleness of pure W, are also considered. Additionally, for comparison, the transmutation of other fusion-relevant materials, including Fe and SiC, are presented.

Gilbert, M. R.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

2011-04-01

326

Status of development of actinide blanket processing flowsheets for accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

An accelerator-driven subcritical nuclear system is briefly described that transmutes actinides and selected long-lived fission products. An application of this accelerator transmutation of nuclear waste (ATW) concept to spent fuel from a commercial nuclear power plant is presented as an example. The emphasis here is on a possible aqueous processing flowsheet to separate the actinides and selected long-lived fission products from the remaining fission products within the transmutation system. In the proposed system the actinides circulate through the thermal neutron flux as a slurry of oxide particles in heavy water in two loops with different average residence times: one loop for neptunium and plutonium and one for americium and curium. Material from the Np/Pu loop is processed with a short cooling time (5-10 days) because of the need to keep the total actinide inventory, low for this particular ATW application. The high radiation and thermal load from the irradiated material places severe constraints on the separation processes that can be used. The oxide particles are dissolved in nitric acid and a quarternary, ammonium anion exchanger is used to extract neptunium, plutonium, technetium, and palladium. After further cooling (about 90 days), the Am, Cm and higher actinides are extracted using a TALSPEAK-type process. The proposed operations were chosen because they have been successfully tested for processing high-level radioactive fuels or wastes in gram to kilogram quantities.

Dewey, H.J.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Schroeder, N.C.; Smith, B.F.; Villarreal, R.; Walker, R.B.; Yarbro, S.L.; Yates, M.A.

1993-09-01

327

Computational methods in radionuclide dosimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The various approaches in radionuclide dosimetry depend on the size and spatial relation of the sources and targets considered in conjunction with the emission range of the radionuclide used. We present some of the frequently reported computational techniques on the basis of the source/target size. For whole organs, or for sources or targets bigger than some centimetres, the acknowledged standard was introduced 30 years ago by the MIRD committee and is still being updated. That approach, based on the absorbed fraction concept, is mainly used for radioprotection purposes but has been updated to take into account the dosimetric challenge raised by therapeutic use of vectored radiopharmaceuticals. At this level, the most important computational effort is in the field of photon dosimetry. On the millimetre scale, photons can often be disregarded, and or electron dosimetry is generally reported. Heterogeneities at this level are mainly above the cell level, involving groups of cell or a part of an organ. The dose distribution pattern is often calculated by generalizing a point source dose distribution, but direct calculation by Monte Carlo techniques is also frequently reported because it allows media of inhomogeneous density to be considered. At the cell level, and electron (low-range or Auger) are the predominant emissions examined. Heterogeneities in the dose distribution are taken into account, mainly to determine the mean dose at the nucleus. At the DNA level, Auger electrons or -particles are considered from a microdosimetric point of view. These studies are often connected with radiobiological experiments on radionuclide toxicity.

Bardiès, M.; Myers, M. J.

1996-10-01

328

The application of gas-cooled reactor technologies to the transmutation of nuclear waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear waste from commercial power plants contains large quantities of plutonium, other fissionable actinides, and long-lived fission products that pose long-term safe storage problems. Along with materials from weapons decommissioning programs, they are also a proliferation concern. Based on current levels of global nuclear power generation, it is estimated that by 2015 there will be more than 250,000 tons of

Alan Baxter; Carmelo Rodriguez

2001-01-01

329

Accelerator-driven transmutation technology for incinerating radioactive waste and for advanced application to power production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work at Los Alamos has revealed new techniques leading to greatly enhanced feasibility for using intense particle accelerators to drive systems for burning existing radioactive waste, and for electrical power generation with a much reduced waste stream in the future. The system requires the intense flux levels that can only be provided by an accelerator to exploit thermal energy

R. A. Jameson; G. P. Lawrence; C. D. Bowman

1992-01-01

330

Radionuclide production for therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals.  

PubMed

A fundamental task within the framework of a project searching for new radiopharmaceuticals for systemic therapy was the evaluation of the capabilities of the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI) for the production of several important radionuclides. The feasibility of producing 64Cu, 77As, 153Sm, 165Dy, 166Ho, 170Tm, 177Lu, 186Re, 199Au and 111Ag in useful quantities was evaluated for the present RPI operation schedule (12 h cycles) and for continuous operation. The main evaluation criteria are expressed in terms of specific activity for continuous irradiation and/or 12 h cycle and the use of natural or enriched targets if necessary. Selected samples were irradiated and a comparison between measured activities and values calculated according to the irradiation schedule and using the same software was performed. PMID:12433039

Neves, M; Kling, A; Lambrecht, R M

2002-11-01

331

Cosmogenic radionuclides in stone meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document presents the techniques and compilation of results of cosmogenic Al-26 measurements at Goddard Space Flight Center on 91 samples of 76 stone meteorites. Short-lived radionuclides, including Na-22, Sc-46, Mn-54, and Co-60, were measured in 13 of these meteorites. About one-third of these data has not previously been published. The results are discussed briefly in terms of (1) depletion of Al-26 and natural potassium due to weathering, (2) possible exposure of several chondrites to an unusually high cosmic-ray flux, (3) comparison of Al-26, Na-22, Sc-46, and Mn5-54 in chondrites with the spallation Ne-22/Ne-21 ratio as a shielding indicator, and (4) comparison of (Al-26)-(Ne-22)/Ne-21 data for achondrite classes with the chondrite trend.

Cressy, P. J., Jr.

1976-01-01

332

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva [Div. of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg Hellbrunnerstr. 34, A 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

2008-08-07

333

Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

2008-08-01

334

Gastroesophageal reflux in children: radionuclide gastroesophagography  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-five symptomatic infants and children underwent radionuclide gastroesophagography, acid reflux testing, and barium esophagography with water-siphon testing to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the scintigraphic technique in detecting gastroesophageal reflux. After ingesting /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid in fruit juice, patients rested beneath the gamma camera for 30 to 60 min while esophageal activity was monitored continuously. By using the acid reflux test as a standard of comparison, the senstivity of radionuclide gastroesophagography was 75%. Because of its physiologic nature, low radiation exposure, and convenience, radionuclide gastroesophagography warrants further evaluation as a screening test for gastroesophageal reflux.

Blumhagen, J.D. (Univ. of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle); Rudd, T.G.; Christie, D.L.

1980-11-01

335

2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /  

SciTech Connect

The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

Fuehne, David P.

2011-06-01

336

Radionuclide Transport in Fractured Tuff under Episodic Flow Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current conceptual model of radionuclide transport in unsaturated fractured rock includes water movement in fractures, with migration of the entrained radionuclides being retarded by diffusion into and sorption within the rock matrix. Water infiltration and radionuclide transport through low-permeability unsaturated fractured rock are episodic and intermittent in nature, at least at local scales. Under episodic flow conditions, the matrix is constantly imbibing or draining, and this fluctuating wetness both drives two-way advective movement of radionuclides, and forces changes in the matrix diffusivity. This work is intended to examine, both experimentally and numerically, how radionuclide transport under episodic flow conditions is affected by the interacting processes of imbibition and drainage, diffusion, and matrix sorption. Using Topopah Spring welded volcanic tuff, collected from the potential repository geologic unit at Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste, we prepared a saw-cut fracture core (length 10.2 cm, diameter 4.4 cm, and fracture aperture 100 microns). The dry core was packed into a flow reactor, flushed with CO2, then saturated via slow pumping (0.01 mL/min) of synthetic groundwater. The fractured core was then flushed with air at 97% relative humidity (to simulate in situ unsaturated fractured rock conditions at Yucca Mountain), then the episodic transport experiment was conducted. Episodic flow involved 4 cycles of tracer solution flow within the fracture, followed by flushing with high humidity air. Each flow episode contained a different suite of non-sorbing and sorbing tracers, which included 3H, ReO4- (a chemical analog for 99TcO4-), I- (for 129I-), Sr and Cs (for 90Sr and 137Cs), plus the radionuclides 235U, 237Np, and 241Pu. These radionuclides span a variety of sorption strengths and represent a large fraction of the radionuclides of concern at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. Meanwhile, the non-sorbing 3H and ReO4- serve as diffusivity tracers with different aqueous diffusion coefficients. Liquid effluent from the flow reactor was collected for multi-elemental analyses using ICP-MS, as well as liquid scintillation counting for 3H, to obtain the breakthrough curves of non- or less-retarded tracers. After the flow-tests were complete, the flow reactor was opened and the distribution of strongly retarded tracers within the fractured core characterized by laser ablation coupled with ICP-MS. A numerical model was developed, based on the NUFT (Non-isothermal, Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport) computer code, to describe the experimental system, compare with, and interpret experimental results. This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), Office of Science and Technology and International (OST&I). This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

Hu, Q.; Sun, Y.; Ewing, R. P.

2005-12-01

337

Feasibility study of minor actinide transmutation in light-water reactors with various AM/CM separation efficiencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implementing a viable solution for the disposition of used nuclear fuel (UNF) raises concerns due its high radiotoxicity and decay heat generation over long time periods. The major contributors to these are the minor actinides (MA) that are contained in the UNF. The strategy of Partition and Transmutation (P&T) separates the components of UNF to treat each separated stream in the manner that is most appropriate. The MA stream can be reprocessed and fabricated with MOX fuel and recycled in a reactor. Through transmutation, reductions in the radiotoxicity and decay heat of UNF can be achieved, which reduces the length of time that UNF must be sequestered from the environment. Because of the greater fission to capture cross section ratio in a fast neutron spectrum, the transmutation of MA is most effective in fast spectrum systems. However, MA transmutation can be carried out, albeit less effectively, in a thermal spectrum. This work examines MA transmutation in a thermal spectrum because there are no currently operating commercial fast spectrum reactors in the U.S. The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility of americium transmutation in a typical light water reactor. Due to similar chemical properties of americium and curium and the difficulty associated with their chemical separation, the separation efficiency of these two elements was also considered. Three separation efficiencies for the MA content were considered, and these were 99.9%, 99.0%, and 90.0% separation of Cm from Am. In addition, the homogeneous and heterogeneous additions of MA to MOX fuel were considered. Similar to current MOX loading schemes, the study simulated a reactor core with 30% of the fuel assemblies composed of MOX fuel bearing MA. This study measured the feasibility of MA transmutation by the reactivity of individual MOX+MA fuel assemblies and full cores, the coefficients of reactivity such as the Doppler Coefficient, Moderator Temperature Coefficient, and Moderator Void Coefficient, MA transmutation efficiency, and attainable burnup. Results show that the transmutation of MA in a light water reactor is feasible from a reactor safety and operation point of view. The reductions of the Am inventory in the UNF were between 40% and 60%. Despite these reductions, there was a significant increase in the Cm inventory, mostly due to the neutron capture of Am in the thermal spectrum.

Tincher, Daniell

338

Radionuclide carriers for targeting of cancer  

PubMed Central

This review describes strategies for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides to tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches are summarized in terms of tumor location in the body, and tumor morphology. These determine the radionuclides of choice for suggested targeting ligands, and the type of delivery carriers. This review is not exhaustive in examples of radionuclide carriers for targeted cancer therapy. Our purpose is two-fold: to give an integrated picture of the general strategies and molecular constructs currently explored for the delivery of therapeutic radionuclides, and to identify challenges that need to be addressed. Internal radiotherapies for targeting of cancer are at a very exciting and creative stage. It is expected that the current emphasis on multidisciplinary approaches for exploring such therapeutic directions should enable internal radiotherapy to reach its full potential. PMID:18686778

Sofou, Stavroula

2008-01-01

339

Basic Information about the Radionuclides Rule  

MedlinePLUS

... Top of page What radionuclides are regulated in drinking water and what are their health effects? The regulated radioactive drinking water contaminants are: Contaminant MCL (year promulgated) Source Health ...

340

System and method for assaying a radionuclide  

DOEpatents

A system for assaying a radionuclide includes a liquid scintillation detector, an analyzer connected to the liquid scintillation detector, and a delay circuit connected to the analyzer. A gamma detector and a multi-channel analyzer are connected to the delay circuit and the gamma detector. The multi-channel analyzer produces a signal reflective of the radionuclide in the sample. A method for assaying a radionuclide includes selecting a sample, detecting alpha or beta emissions from the sample with a liquid scintillation detector, producing a first signal reflective of the alpha or beta emissions, and delaying the first signal a predetermined time. The method further includes detecting gamma emissions from the sample, producing a second signal reflective of the gamma emissions, and combining the delayed first signal with the second signal to produce a third signal reflective of the radionuclide.

Cadieux, James R; King, III, George S; Fugate, Glenn A

2014-12-23

341

Calculation of dose coefficients for radionuclides produced in a spallation neutron source utilizing NUBASE and the evaluated nuclear structure data file databases.  

PubMed

Based on a mercury spallation neutron source target, the UNLV Transmutation Research Program has identified 72 radionuclides with a half-life greater than or equal to a minute as lacking an appropriate reference for a published dose coefficient according to existing radiation safety dose coefficient databases. A method was developed to compare the nuclear data presented in the ENSDF and NUBASE databases for these 72 radionuclides. Due to conflicting or lacking nuclear data in one or more of the databases, internal and external dose coefficient values have been calculated for only 14 radionuclides, which are not currently presented in Federal Guidance Reports Nos. 11, 12, and 13 or Publications 68 and 72 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Internal dose coefficient values are reported for inhalation and ingestion of 1 microm and 5 microm AMAD particulates along with the f1 values and absorption types for the adult worker. Internal dose coefficient values are also reported for inhalation and ingestion of 1 microm AMAD particulates as well as the f1 values and absorption types for members of the public. Additionally, external dose coefficient values for air submersion, exposure to contaminated ground surface, and exposure to soil contaminated to an infinite depth are also presented. PMID:16340608

Shanahan, J; Eckerman, K; Arndt, A; Gold, C; Patton, P; Rudin, M; Brey, R; Gesell, T; Rusetski, V; Pagava, S

2006-01-01

342

Enhancement of Transmutation Characteristics of the Minor Actinide Burning Fast Reactor Core Concept Using Hydride Fuel Targets and Its Introduction Scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmutation characteristics of the minor actinide (MA) burning fast reactor core using hydride fuel targets are enhanced to reduce long-term radiotoxicity of nuclear waste. A scenario which introduces the concept is investigated. (1) The MA burner core with plutonium (Pu) multi-recycling can transmute a large amount of MAs; the amount is about that produced in 21 LWRs per year. The

Koji FUJIMURA; Toshio SANDA; Michio YAMAWAKI; Kenji KONASHI

2001-01-01

343

Neutron transmutation doped far-infrared p-Ge laser E. W. Nelson, M. V. Dolguikh, A. V. Muravjov, E. S. Flitsiyan, T. W. Du Bosq, R. E. Peale, S. H. Kleckley, C. J.  

E-print Network

Neutron transmutation doped far-infrared p- Ge laser E. W. Nelson, M. V. Dolguikh, A. V. Muravjov://scitation.aip.org/termsconditions. Downloaded to ] IP: 132.170.83.1 On: Tue, 08 Jul 2014 15:25:12 #12;Neutron transmutation doped far-infrared p from ultra pure single-crystal Ge by neutron transmutation doping NTD is demonstrated. Calculations

Peale, Robert E.

344

(Radiological assessments of radionuclide releases)  

SciTech Connect

As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, data have been obtained throughout the Northern Hemisphere on the concentrations of radionuclides in air, vegetation, soil, water, and foodstuffs that could be important means of human exposure. At the IAEA's invitation, the traveler reviewed recently published data and handbook summaries. The traveler evaluated the need for revising the default values recommended in Chapter 5, Terrestrial and Aquatic Food Chain Transport,'' of IAEA Safety Series No. 57. All attempts at revision were made to keep the mathematical complexity of the models to a minimum without substantial underestimation of dose to critical population subgroups. The traveler also served as chairman of the Multiple Pathways Working Group of the Coordinated Research Program on VAMP. This group has been established to test predictions of models assessing multiple exposure pathways potentially leading to human exposure to {sup 137}Cs. Testing is carried out for major components of assessment models that predict deposition, environmental transport, food chain bioaccumulation, and subsequent uptake and retention in the human body and dose due to exposure to external gamma radiation.

Hoffman, F.O.

1990-12-28

345

Vertical distribution of natural radionuclides in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level alpha spectrometry techniques using semiconductor detectors (PIPS) and liquid scintillation counters (LKB Quantulus 1220™) were used in order to determine the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, 234U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb in soil samples. The soils were collected from an old disused uranium mine located in southwest Spain. The soils were selected with different levels of influence from the installation, in such a way that they had different levels of radioactive contamination. The vertical profiles in the soils (down to 40 cm depth) were studied in order to evaluate the vertical distribution of the natural radionuclides. The possible contamination of subsurface waters depends strongly on vertical migration, and the transfer to plants (herbs, shrubs, and trees) also will depend on the distribution of the radionuclides in the root zone. The study of the activity ratios between radionuclides belonging to the same series allowed us to assess the differing behaviour of the radionuclides involved. The vertical profiles for these radionuclides were different at each sampling point, showing the local impact of the installation. However, the profiles per point were similar for the long-lived radionuclides of the 238TJ series (238U, 234U, 230Th, and 226Ra). Also, a major disequilibrium was observed between 210Pb and 226Ra in the surface layer, due to 222Rn emanation and subsequent surface deposition of 210Pb.

Blanco Rodríguez, P.; Tomé, F. Vera; Lozano, J. C.

2012-04-01

346

On-Going Nuclear Physics and Technology Research Programmes in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innovative nuclear technology applications have emerged in recent years and triggered an unprecedented interest of different communities of scientists worldwide, concerned by the multidisciplinary scientific, technical and engineering aspects of such applications. ADS (Accelerator Driven Systems, for the transmutation of highly radiotoxic nuclear waste), EA (Energy Amplifiers, for the production of energy), Spallation Neutron Sources (for multiple applications such as

Pedro Vaz; Pedro

2007-01-01

347

Spin-statistics transmutation in relativistic quantum field theories of dyons  

E-print Network

We analyse spin and statistics of quantum dyon fields, i.e. fields carrying both electric and magnetic charge, in 3+1 space-time dimensions. It has been shown long time ago that, at the quantum mechanical level, a composite dyon made out of a magnetic pole of charge g and a particle of electric charge e possesses half-integral spin and fermionic statistics, if the constituents are bosons and the Dirac quantization condition $eg=2\\pi n$ holds, with n odd. This phenomenon is called spin-statistics transmutation. We show that the same phenomenon occurs at the quantum field theory level for an elementary dyon. This analysis requires the construction of gauge invariant charged dyon fields. Dirac's proposal for such fields, relying on a Coulomb-like photon cloud, leads to quantum correlators exhibiting an unphysical dependence on the Dirac-string. Recently Froehlich and Marchetti proposed a recipe for charged dyon fields, based on a sum over Mandelstam-strings, which overcomes this problem. Using this recipe we derive explicit expressions for the quantum field theory correlators and we provide a proof of the occurrence of spin-statistics transmutation. The proof reduces to a computation of the self-linking numbers of dyon worldlines and Mandelstam strings, projected on a fixed time three-space. Dyon composites are also analysed. The transmutation discussed in this paper bares some analogy with the appearance of anomalous spin and statistics for particles or vortices in Chern-Simons theories in 2+1 dimensions. However, peculiar features appear in 3+1 dimensions e.g. in the spin addition rule.

K. Lechner; P. A. Marchetti

2000-10-31

348

Transmutation Analysis of Enriched Uranium and Deep Burn High Temperature Reactors  

SciTech Connect

High temperature reactors (HTRs) have been under consideration for production of electricity, process heat, and for destruction of transuranics for decades. As part of the transmutation analysis efforts within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) campaign, a need was identified for detailed discharge isotopics from HTRs for use in the VISION code. A conventional HTR using enriched uranium in UCO fuel was modeled having discharge burnup of 120 GWd/MTiHM. Also, a deep burn HTR (DB-HTR) was modeled burning transuranic (TRU)-only TRU-O2 fuel to a discharge burnup of 648 GWd/MTiHM. For each of these cases, unit cell depletion calculations were performed with SCALE/TRITON. Unit cells were used to perform this analysis using SCALE 6.1. Because of the long mean free paths (and migration lengths) of neutrons in HTRs, using a unit cell to represent a whole core can be non-trivial. The sizes of these cells were first set by using Serpent calculations to match a spectral index between unit cell and whole core domains. In the case of the DB-HTR, the unit cell which was arrived at in this way conserved the ratio of fuel to moderator found in a single block of fuel. In the conventional HTR case, a larger moderator-to-fuel ratio than that of a single block was needed to simulate the whole core spectrum. Discharge isotopics (for 500 nuclides) and one-group cross-sections (for 1022 nuclides) were delivered to the transmutation analysis team. This report provides documentation for these calculations. In addition to the discharge isotopics, one-group cross-sections were provided for the full list of 1022 nuclides tracked in the transmutation library.

Michael A. Pope

2012-07-01

349

Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 1, Autopsy and In Vivo Data  

SciTech Connect

This paper is part one of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. The goal of part one of this work was to review, summarize, and characterize all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Forty-five papers and reports were obtained and their data reviewed, and three data sets were obtained via private communication. The 45 radionuclides of interest are the 238U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by 235U; 11 nuclides), and the 232Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides 87Rb and 40 K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides 14C and 3H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs-137mBa, 129I, and 90Sr-90Y. Measurements judged to be relevant were available for only 15 of these radionuclides: 238U, 235U, 234U, 232Th, 230Th, 228Th, 228Ra, 226Ra, 210Pb, 210Po, 137Cs, 87Rb, 40K, 14C, and 3H. Recent and relevant measurements were not available for 129I and 90Sr-90Y. A total of 11,714 radionuclide concentration measurements were found in one or more tissues or organs from 14 States. Data on age, sex, geographic locations, height, and weight of subjects were available only sporadically. Too often authors did not provide meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. The following papers detail how these shortcomings are overcome to achieve the goals of the three-part series.

Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

2011-02-25

350

Wave polynomials, transmutations and Cauchy's problem for the Klein-Gordon equation  

E-print Network

We prove a completeness result for a class of polynomial solutions of the wave equation called wave polynomials and construct generalized wave polynomials, solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation with a variable coefficient. Using the transmutation (transformation) operators and their recently discovered mapping properties we prove the completeness of the generalized wave polynomials and use them for an explicit construction of the solution of the Cauchy problem for the Klein-Gordon equation. Based on this result we develop a numerical method for solving the Cauchy problem and test its performance.

Kira V. Khmelnytskaya; Vladislav V. Kravchenko; Sergii M. Torba; Sébastien Tremblay

2012-08-29

351

Transmutation of skyrmions to half-solitons driven by the nonlinear optical spin Hall effect.  

PubMed

We show that the spin domains, generated in the linear optical spin Hall effect by the analog of spin-orbit interaction for exciton polaritons, are associated with the formation of a Skyrmion lattice. In the nonlinear regime, the spin anisotropy of the polariton-polariton interactions results in a spatial compression of the domains and in a transmutation of the Skyrmions into oblique half-solitons. This phase transition is associated with both the focusing of the spin currents and the emergence of a strongly anisotropic emission pattern. PMID:23383815

Flayac, H; Solnyshkov, D D; Shelykh, I A; Malpuech, G

2013-01-01

352

The key role of off-axis singularities in free-space vortex transmutation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally demonstrate the generation of off-axis phase singularities in a vortex transmutation process induced by the breaking of rotational symmetry. The process takes place in free space by launching a highly charged vortex, owning full rotational symmetry, into a linear thin diffractive element presenting discrete rotational symmetry. It is shown that off-axis phase singularities follow straight dark rays bifurcating from the symmetry axis. This phenomenon may provide new routes toward the spatial control of multiple phase singularities for applications in atom trapping and particle manipulation.

Novoa, David; Sola, Iñigo J.; García-March, Miguel Angel; Ferrando, Albert

2014-09-01

353

Observation of off-axis singularities in free-space vortex transmutation  

E-print Network

We experimentally demonstrate the generation of off-axis phase singularities in a vortex transmutation process induced by the breaking of rotational symmetry. The process takes place in free space by launching a highly-charged vortex, owning full rotationally symmetry, into a linear thin diffractive element presenting discrete rotational symmetry. It is shown that off-axis phase singularities follow straight dark rays bifurcating from the symmetry axis. This phenomenon may provide new routes towards the spatial control of multiple phase singularities for applications in atom trapping and particle manipulation.

Novoa, David; Garcia-March, Miguel Angel; Ferrando, Albert

2013-01-01

354

Einstein Condensation Mechanism for Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Transmutation Processes in Condensed Matter  

E-print Network

A mixture of two different species of positively charged bosons in harmonic traps is considered in the mean-field approximation. It is shown that depending on the ratio of parameters, the two components may coexist in same regions of space, in spite of the Coulomb repulsion between the two species. Application of this result is discussed for the generalization of the Bose-Einstein condensation mechanism for low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR) and transmutation processes in condensed matters. For the case of deutron-lithium (d+Li) LENR, the 6 result indicates that (d ? Li) reactions may dominate over (d+d) reactions in LENR experiments. 1.

Yeong E. Kim; Er L. Zubarev

355

Synthesis of (Zr, Y, Am)O2-x transmutation targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A process consisting of sol gel external gelation and infiltration steps has been developed for the synthesis of oxide fuels and targets for the transmutation of minor actinides, in this case americium. Carbon has been introduced into the sol gel produced beads, removal of which leads to higher porosity. In addition, the beads are softer enabling better pressing characteristics and most importantly an optimised microstructure devoid of lenticular pores. This microstructure improvement has a strong positive effect on the thermal conductivity, which is increased by 40%. Thus, the margin between operating temperature and melting temperature of the fuel is increased, improving significantly safety aspects of the fuel in the reactor.

Nästren, C.; Staicu, D.; Somers, J.; Fernandez, A.

2013-02-01

356

Transmutation of {sup 241}Am in a high thermal neutron flux  

SciTech Connect

Amongst the minor actinides issued from the spent nuclear fuel, {sup 241}Am is present in high concentration and contributes significantly to the long-term radiotoxicity of nuclear waste. A major uncertainty was present in the transmutation chain of {sup 241}Am when irradiated by a high intensity thermal neutron flux. This uncertainty was brought about by the poor knowledge of the {sup 242gs}Am neutron capture cross section. A dedicated experiment has been performed at the Institut Laue-Langevin in Grenoble, which gives a definitive experimental answer to this problem.

Fioni, G.; Bolognese, T.; Cribier, M.; Gunsing, F.; Lelievre, F.; Marie, F.; Martino, J.; Pluquet, A.; Spiro, M.; Veyssiere, C. [DSM/DAPNIA, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France) (France); Aubert, M.; Cavedon, J.-M.; Chartier, F.; Doneddu, F. [DCC/DPE, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France) (France); Ayrault, S.; Gaudry, A. [DSM/DRECAM-CNRS, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France) (France); Faust, H.; Leconte, Ph.; Oliver, R. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38042 Grenoble (France) (France)

1998-10-26

357

Neutron transmutation doped (Ntd) germanium thermistors for sub-Mm bolometer applications  

SciTech Connect

The authors report on recent advances in the development of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) semiconductor thermistors fabricated from germanium of natural and controlled isotopic composition. The near ideal doping uniformity which can be achieved with the NTD process, the device simplicity of NTD Ge thermistors and the high performance of cooled junction field effect transistor (FET) preamplifiers have led to the widespread acceptance of these thermal sensors in many radiotelescopes operating on the ground, on high altitude aircraft and on spaceborne satellites. These features also have made possible the development of efficient bolometer arrays which are beginning to produce exciting results.

Haller, E.E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Engineering Div.; Itoh, K.M. [Keio Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Dept. of Instrumental Engineering; Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Engineering Div.

1996-09-01

358

Transuranic Transmutation and Criticality Calculation Sensitivity to Heterogeneous Lattice Effects - 12391  

SciTech Connect

Using Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel in traditional Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies has been researched at length and has shown to provide the benefit of transmutation and targets the amount and toxicity of high level waste needed to be managed. Advanced MOX concepts using enriched Uranium Dioxide (UO{sub 2}) are required for multiple recycling of plutonium. The use of MOX and ordinary UO{sub 2} fuel in the same assembly as well as unfueled rods and assembly edge effects contrasts with the unit cell computational assumption of a uniform infinite array of rods. While a deterministic method of calculating the Dancoff factor has traditionally been employed in fuel assembly analysis due to the lighter computational and modeling requirements, this research seeks to determine the validity of the uniform, infinite lattice assumption with respect to Dancoff factor and determine the magnitude of the impact of nonuniform lattice effects on fuel assembly criticality calculations as well as transuranic isotope production and transmutation. This research explored the pin-to-pin interaction in a non-uniform lattice of MOX fuel rods and UO{sub 2} fuel rods through the impact of the calculated Dancoff factors from the deterministic method used in SCALE versus the Monte Carlo method used in the code DANCOFF-MC. Using the Monte Carlo method takes into account the non-uniform lattice effects of having neighboring fuel rods with different cross-sectional spectra whereas the Dancoff factor calculated by SCALE assumes a uniform, infinite lattice of one fuel rod type. Differences in eigenvalue calculations as a function of burnup are present between the two methods of Dancoff factor calculation. The percent difference is greatest at low burnup and then becomes smaller throughout the cycle. Differences in the transmutation rate of transuranic isotopes in the MOX fuel are also present between the Dancoff factor calculation methods. The largest difference is in Pu-239, Pu-242, and Am-241 composition whereas U-238, Pu-242, and Pu-238 composition was not changed by taking into account the non-homogenous lattice effects. Heterogeneous lattice effects do change the calculated eigenvalue and transmutation rate in a non-uniform lattice of MOX fuel rods and UO{sub 2} fuel. However, the uncertainty in the ENDF data used by SCALE in these calculations is large enough that the infinite lattice assumption remains valid. (authors)

Barbaras, Sean A. [United States Military Academy, West Point, New York 10996 (United States); Knight, Travis W. [University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States)

2012-07-01

359

Microstructural Changes In Thermally Cycled U-Pu-Zr-Am-Np Metallic Transmutation Fuel With 1.5% Lanthanides  

SciTech Connect

The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is developing metallic actinide-zirconium alloy fuels for the transmutation of minor actinides as part of a closed fuel cycle. The molten salt electrochemical process to be used for fuel recycle has the potential to carry over up to 2% fission product lanthanide content into the fuel fabrication process. Within the scope of the fuel irradiation testing program at Idaho National Laboratory (INL), candidate metal alloy transmutation fuels containing quantities of lanthanide elements have been fabricated, characterized, and delivered to the Advanced Test Reactor for irradiation testing.

Dawn E. Janney; J. Rory Kennedy

2008-06-01

360

Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the oxygen retention of the tissue and the significantly greater retention amounting in hypoxic tissue. This hypothesis was confirmed in a series of animal studies. Cu-64 can be used both as an imaging radionuclide and a therapeutic radionuclide. The therapeutic efficacy of Cu-64 ATSM was proven in hamsters bearing the CW39 human colorectal tumors. The administration of Cu-64 ATSM significantly increased the survival time of tumor-bearing animals with no acute toxicity. This copper agent therefore shows promise for radiotherapy. The flow tracer Cu-64 PTSM also demonstrates therapeutic potential by inhibiting cancer cells implanted in animal models. Again, this inhibition occurred at doses which showed no sign of toxicity to the animals. Cu-ATSM was translated to humans, under other support a series of tumors were investigated; these included head and neck cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, cervical cancer and renal cancer. Another radionuclide that was investigated was titanium 45. This radionuclide was successfully produced by radiation of a scandium foil with 15 MeV protons. The titanium 45 was processed and separated from residual scandium by high exchange chomotrophy. Titanium titanocene has been utilized as a therapeutic agent; this compound was prepared and studied in vitro and in vivo. Another project was the preparation of cyclodextrin dimers as a new pre-targeting approach for tumor uptake. Beta-cyclodextradin and two other dimers were synthesized. These dimers were studied for the in vivo application. Work continued on the application of the radionuclide already discussed. Technetium 94m, a positron emitting radionuclide of the widely used 99m Tc nuclide was also prepared. This allows the quantification of the uptake of technetium radiopharmaceuticals. In collaboration with Professor David Piwnica-Worms, technetium 94m, sestamibi was studied in animal models and in a limited number of human subjects.

Welch, M.J.

2012-02-16

361

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

2013-10-15

362

Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms  

SciTech Connect

Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

2010-09-30

363

Thermal conductivity changes upon neutron transmutation of 10B doped diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

10B doped p-type diamond samples were subjected to neutron transmutation reaction using thermal neutron flux of 0.9 × 1013 cm-2 s-1 and fast neutron flux of 0.09 × 1013 cm-2 s-1. Another sample of epilayer grown on type IIa (110) single crystal diamond substrate was subjected to equal thermal and fast neutron flux of 1014 cm-2 s-1. The defects in the diamond samples were previously characterized by different methods. In the present work, thermal conductivity of these diamond samples was determined at room temperature by transient thermoreflectance method. The thermal conductivity change in the samples as a function of neutron fluence is explained by the phonon scattering from the point defects and disordered regions. The thermal conductivity of the diamond samples decreased more rapidly initially and less rapidly for larger neutron fluence. In addition, the thermal conductivity in type IIb diamond decreased less rapidly with thermal neutron fluence compared to the decrease in type IIa diamond subjected to fast neutron fluence. It is concluded that the rate of production of defects during transmutation reaction is slower when thermal neutrons are used. The thermal conductivity of epilayer of diamond subjected to high thermal and fast neutron fluence is associated with the covalent carbon network in the composite structure consisting of disordered carbon and sp2 bonded nanocrystalline regions.

Jagannadham, K.; Verghese, K.; Butler, J. E.

2014-08-01

364

Monitoring of the Irradiated Neutron Fluence in the Neutron Transmutation Doping Process of Hanaro  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron transmutation doping (NTD) for silicon is a process of the creation of phosphorus impurities in intrinsic or extrinsic silicon by neutron irradiation to obtain silicon semiconductors with extremely uniform dopant distribution. HANARO has two vertical holes for the NTD, and the irradiation for 5 and 6 inch silicon ingots has been going on at one hole. In order to achieve the accurate neutron fluence corresponding to the target resistivity, the real time neutron flux is monitored by self-powered neutron detectors. After irradiation, the total irradiation fluence is confirmed by measuring the absolute activity of activation detectors. In this work, a neutron fluence monitoring method using zirconium foils with the mass of 10 ~ 50 mg was applied to the NTD process of HANARO. We determined the proportional constant of the relationship between the resistivity of the irradiated silicon and the neutron fluence determined by using zirconium foils. The determined constant for the initially n-type silicon was 3.126 × 1019 n·?/cm. It was confirmed that the difference between this empirical value and the theoretical one was only 0.5%. Conclusively, the practical methodology to perform the neutron transmutation doping of silicon was established.

Kim, Myong-Seop; Park, Sang-Jun

2009-08-01

365

Radionuclide migration as a function of mineralogy  

SciTech Connect

The migration of radionuclides is studied as a function of mineralogy utilizing batch sorption and column experiments. The transport behavior of alkaline, alkaline-earth, and transition metals, and actinide species is studied in pure mineral separates. The solid phases utilized for these investigations are silicates, alumino-silicates, carbonates, and metal oxides and oxyhydroxides. The results of this effort are utilized to aid in the elucidation of the dominant chemical mechanisms of radionuclide migration, the prediction of radionuclide transport in conditions similar to those expected at the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the identification of materials that act as natural geological barriers or that can be utilized as strong sorbers in engineered barriers. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Triay, I.R.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.

1991-02-01

366

Therapeutic Radionuclides: Biophysical and Radiobiologic Principles  

PubMed Central

Although the general radiobiologic principles underlying external beam therapy and radionuclide therapy are the same, there are significant differences in the biophysical and radiobiologic effects from the two types of radiation. In addition to the emission of particulate radiation, targeted radionuclide therapy is characterized by (i) extended exposures and, usually, declining dose rates; (ii) nonuniformities in the distribution of radioactivity and, thus, absorbed dose; and (iii) particles of varying ionization density and, hence, quality. This chapter explores the special features that distinguish the biologic effects consequent to the traversal of charged particles through mammalian cells. It also highlights what has been learned when these radionuclides and radiotargeting pharmaceuticals are used to treat cancers. PMID:18662557

Kassis, Amin I.

2008-01-01

367

Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.  

PubMed

An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

2004-12-01

368

The Fast-spectrum Transmutation Experimental Facility FASTEF: Main design achievements (part 2: Reactor building design and plant layout) within the FP7-CDT collaborative project of the European Commission  

SciTech Connect

MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hybrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is the flexible experimental accelerator-driven system (ADS) in development at SCK-CEN in replacement of its material testing reactor BR2. SCK-CEN in association with 17 European partners from industry, research centres and academia, responded to the FP7 (Seventh Framework Programme) call from the European Commission to establish a Central Design Team (CDT) for the design of a Fast Spectrum Transmutation Experimental Facility (FASTEF) able to demonstrate efficient transmutation and associated technology through a system working in subcritical and/or critical mode. The project has started on April 01, 2009 for a period of three years. In this paper, we present the latest concept of the reactor building and the plant layout. The FASTEF facility has evolved quite a lot since the intermediate reporting done at the ICAPP'10 and ICAPP'11 conferences 1,2. Many iterations have been performed to take into account the safety requirements. The present configuration enables an easy operation and maintenance of the facility, including the possibility to change large components of the reactor. In a companion paper 3, we present the latest configuration of the reactor core and primary system. (authors)

De Bruyn, D.; Engelen, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Ortega, A.; Aguado, M. P. [Empresarios Agrupados A.I.E., Magallanes 3, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

2012-07-01

369

Neutron-transmuted carbon-14 in neutron-irradiated GaN: Compensation of DX-like center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transmuted-C related luminescence and net carrier concentration are studied by combining photoluminescence, liquid scintillation, and Raman scattering. GaN single crystal films grown by metalorganic-vapor-phase epitaxy are irradiated with fast and thermal neutrons at fluxes of 3.9 × 1013 cm-2s-1 and 8.15 × 1013 cm-2s-1, respectively. Irradiation time is 48 hours. The calculated 72Ge and 14C concentrations are 1.24 × 1018 cm-3 and 1.13 × 1018 cm-3, respectively. The transmuted 14C is detected by the liquid scintillation method to survey ?-rays emitted in the process of 14C decays from 14N. Tritium (3H) is also emitted by a (n,t) reaction of 14N due to the neutron irradiation above 4.5 MeV. Photoluminescence relating to C, DX-like center of Ge and yellow luminescence band are observed in 1000 °C annealed NTD-GaN. The free electron concentration estimated from Raman scattering is 4.97 × 1017 cm-3. This value is lower than that from the transmuted Ge concentration, suggesting the compensation due to the transmuted 14C acceptors.

Ida, T.; Oga, T.; Kuriyama, K.; Kushida, K.; Xu, Q.; Fukutani, S.

2013-12-01

370

Fusion-driven transmutations of nuclear waste—a misconception or an incentive for promotion of fusion energy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion-driven system of transmutation of nuclear waste is presented. The main positive aspect of this fusion power option, thanks to energy release from fission, is the prospect of a radical reduction of necessary plasma energy gain, Q, to levels achievable in relatively simple mirror devices. Further advantages of the system include lower FW load and homogeneous heating distribution. The

Stefan Taczanowski; Gra?yna Doma?ska; Jerzy Cetnar

1998-01-01

371

Preliminary neutronics design of china lead-alloy cooled demonstration reactor (CLEAR-III) for nuclear waste transmutation  

SciTech Connect

China Lead-Alloy cooled Demonstration Reactor (CLEAR-III), which is the concept of lead-bismuth cooled accelerator driven sub-critical reactor for nuclear waste transmutation, was proposed and designed by FDS team in China. In this study, preliminary neutronics design studies have primarily focused on three important performance parameters including Transmutation Support Ratio (TSR), effective multiplication factor and blanket thermal power. The constraint parameters, such as power peaking factor and initial TRU loading, were also considered. In the specific design, uranium-free metallic dispersion fuel of (TRU-Zr)-Zr was used as one of the CLEAR-III fuel types and the ratio between MA and Pu was adjusted to maximize transmutation ratio. In addition, three different fuel zones differing in the TRU fraction of the fuel were respectively employed for this subcritical reactor, and the zone sizes and TRU fractions were determined such that the linear powers of these zones were close to each other. The neutronics calculations and analyses were performed by using Multi-Functional 4D Neutronics Simulation System named VisualBUS and nuclear data library HENDL (Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library). In the preliminary design, the maximum TSRLLMA was {approx}11 and the blanket thermal power was {approx}1000 MW when the effective multiplication factor was 0.98. The results showed that good performance of transmutation could be achieved based on the subcritical reactor loaded with uranium-free fuel. (authors)

Chen, Z. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Southwest Science and Technology Univ., No.350 Shushanhu Road, Shushan District, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Chen, Y.; Bai, Y.; Wang, W.; Chen, Z.; Hu, L.; Long, P. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Safety Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

2012-07-01

372

Zirconia-based materials for transmutation of americium and curium: cubic stabilized zirconia and zirconium oxide pyrochlores  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here experimental results involving the incorporation of americium and curium elements in zirconia-based compounds, applicable for reactor transmutation schemes. Two materials are considered: Cubic-Stabilized Zirconia (CSZ) and the pyrochlore oxides having the formula An2Zr2O7, where An = Am, Cm.

P. E. Raison; R. G. Haire

2001-01-01

373

Nuclear Technology Series. Course 22: Advanced Radionuclide Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical specialty course is one of thirty-five courses designed for use by two-year postsecondary institutions in five nuclear technician curriculum areas: (1) radiation protection technician, (2) nuclear instrumentation and control technician, (3) nuclear materials processing technician, (4) nuclear quality-assurance/quality-control…

Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

374

External accumulation of radionuclide in hepatic hydrothorax  

SciTech Connect

Hepatic hydrothorax is a complication in approximately 5% of patients with cirrhosis. Ascites is almost always present and helps to suggest the correct diagnosis. However, when ascites is absent, radionuclide imaging has proven to be helpful in establishing that the pleural effusion originated from ascitic fluid. When pleural fluid is rapidly removed, such as by thoracostomy tube drainage, the radioisotope may accumulate outside the thorax and produce a negative scan of the chest. When the radionuclide scan is nondiagnostic and the pleural space is being rapidly drained, the pleural fluid collecting system should always be imaged before rejecting a diagnosis of hepatic hydrothorax.

Albin, R.J.; Johnston, G.S.

1989-05-01

375

Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

2010-01-04

376

First experiments on transmutation studies of 129 I and 237 Np using relativistic protons of 3.7 GeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

First experiments on the transmutation of long-lived129I and237Np using relativistic protons of 3.7 GeV are described. Relativistic protons generate in extended Pb-targets substancial neutron fluences. These neutrons get moderated in paraffin and are used for transmutation as follows:129I(n,)130I and237Np(n,)238Np. The isotopes130I (T\\u000a1\\/2-12.36 h) and238Np (T\\u000a1\\/2=2.117 d) were identified radiochemically. One can estimate the transmutation cross-section (n,) in the

M. I. Krivopustov; J. Adam; V. Bradnova; R. Brandt; V. S. Butsev; P. I. Golubev; V. G. Kalinnikov; J. Karachuk; B. A. Kulakov; E.-J. Langrock; G. Modolo; M. Ochs; R. Odoj; A. N. Premyshev; V. S. Pronskich; Th. Schmidt; V. I. Stegailov; J. S. Wan; V. M. Zupko-Sitnikov

1997-01-01

377

A free database of radionuclide voxel S values for the dosimetry of nonuniform activity distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing availability of SPECT/CT devices with advanced technology offers the opportunity for the accurate assessment of the radiation dose to the biological target volume during radionuclide therapy. Voxel dosimetry can be performed employing direct Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations, based on both morphological and functional images of the patient. On the other hand, for voxel dosimetry calculations the voxel S value method can be considered an easier approach than patient-specific Monte Carlo simulations, ensuring a good dosimetric accuracy at least for anatomic regions which are characterized by uniform density tissue. However, this approach has been limited because of the lack of tabulated S values for different voxel dimensions and radionuclides. The aim of this work is to provide a free dataset of values which can be used for voxel dosimetry in targeted radionuclide studies. Seven different radionuclides (89Sr, 90Y, 131I, 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, 188Re), and 13 different voxel sizes (2.21, 2.33, 2.4, 3, 3.59, 3.9, 4, 4.42, 4.8, 5, 6, 6.8 and 9.28 mm) are considered. Voxel S values are calculated performing simulations of monochromatic photon and electron sources in two different homogeneous tissues (soft tissue and bone) with DOSXYZnrc code, and weighting the contributions on the basis of the radionuclide emission spectra. The outcomes are validated by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations obtained with other codes (PENELOPE and MCNP4c) performing direct simulation of the radionuclide emission spectra. The differences among the different Monte Carlo codes are of the order of a few per cent when considering the source voxel and the bremsstrahlung tail, whereas the highest differences are observed at a distance close to the maximum continuous slowing down approximation range of electrons. These discrepancies would negligibly affect dosimetric assessments. The dataset of voxel S values can be freely downloaded from the website www.medphys.it.

Lanconelli, N.; Pacilio, M.; Lo Meo, S.; Botta, F.; Di Dia, A.; Torres Aroche, L. A.; Coca Pérez, M. A.; Cremonesi, M.

2012-01-01

378

AFCI Transmutation Fuel Processes and By-Products Planning: Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

The goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program are to reduce high-level waste volume, reduce long-lived and radiotoxic elements, and reclaim valuable energy content of spent nuclear fuel. The AFCI chartered the Fuel Development Working Group (FDWG) to develop advanced fuels in support of the AFCI goals. The FDWG organized a phased strategy of fuel development that is designed to match the needs of the AFCI program: Phase 1 - High-burnup fuels for light-water reactors (LWRs) and tri-isotopic (TRISO) fuel for gas-cooled reactors Phase 2 – Mixed oxide fuels with minor actinides for LWRs, Am transmutation targets for LWRs, inert matrix fuels for LWRs, and TRISO fuel containing Pu and other transuranium for gas-cooled reactors Phase 3 – Fertile free or low-fertile metal, ceramic, ceramic dispersed in a metal matrix (CERMET), and ceramics dispersed in a ceramic matrix (CERCER) that would be used primarily in fast reactors. Development of advanced fuels requires the fabrication, assembly, and irradiation of prototypic fuel under bounding reactor conditions. At specialized national laboratory facilities small quantities of actinides are being fabricated into such fuel for irradiation tests. Fabrication of demonstration quantities of selected fuels for qualification testing is needed but not currently feasible, because existing manual glovebox fabrication approaches result in significant radiation exposures when larger quantities of actinides are involved. The earliest demonstration test fuels needed in the AFCI program are expected to be variants of commercial mixed oxide fuel for use in an LWR as lead test assemblies. Manufacture of such test assemblies will require isolated fabrication lines at a facility not currently available in the U.S. Such facilities are now being planned as part of an Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF). Adequate planning for and specification of actinide fuel fabrication facilities capable of producing transmutation fuels dictates the need for detailed process flows, mass balances, batch size data, and radiological dose estimates. Full definition of the materials that will need to be handled in the facility as feed material inputs, in-process fuel, scrap recycle, scrap requiring recovery, and by-product wastes is required. The feed material for demonstrating transmutation fuel fabrication will need to come from the separations of actinides from spent nuclear fuel processed in the same AFCF.

Eric L. Shaber

2005-09-01

379

Radionuclide release from high-level nuclear-waste packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engineered barrier subsystem (EBS) in an important component in limiting the release of radionuclides from a geologic repository for disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the key processes that affect the release of radionuclides from nuclear waste forms and migration of these radionuclides through the nuclear-waste packages of the EBS

M. J. Apted

1990-01-01

380

Radionuclide and electric accelerator sources for food irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation processing of food requires radiation sources with high intensity, penetrability, reliability, and the flexibility to be adapted to current food processing techniques. Current proposed regulations limit the radiation sources which can be utilized to radionuclides (i.e. 5.27-y Co-60; or 30.2-y Cs-137) or electrically-driven accelerators (i.e. X rays up to 5 MeV, electron beams up to 10 MeV). Therefore, the power; throughput; and use efficiency of these sources are important factors affecting the design; installation; operation; and economics of large-scale food-processing facilities. An analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these sources is presented here, with special attention to the current status of both technologies, and with emphasis on the needs of the food-processing industry.

Lagunas-Solar, Manuel C.; Matthews, Stephen M.

381

Targets and methods for target preparation for radionuclide production  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to nuclear technology, and to irradiation targets and their preparation. One embodiment of the present invention includes a method for preparation of a target containing intermetallic composition of antimony Ti--Sb, Al--Sb, Cu--Sb, or Ni--Sb in order to produce radionuclides (e.g., tin-117 m) with a beam of accelerated particles. The intermetallic compounds of antimony can be welded by means of diffusion welding to a copper backing cooled during irradiation on the beam of accelerated particles. Another target can be encapsulated into a shell made of metallic niobium, stainless steel, nickel or titanium cooled outside by water during irradiation. Titanium shell can be plated outside by nickel to avoid interaction with the cooling water.

Zhuikov, Boris L; Konyakhin, Nicolai A; Kokhanyuk, Vladimir M; Srivastava, Suresh C

2012-10-16

382

PROGRESS REPORT. RADIONUCLIDE SENSORS FOR WATER MONITORING  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this project is to investigate novel sensor concepts and materials for sensitive and selective determination of beta- and alpha-emitting radionuclide contaminants in water. To meet the requirements for low-level, isotope-specific detection, the proposed sensors a...

383

Radionuclide bone images in hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy.  

PubMed

Hypertrophic Pulmonary Osteoarthropathy (HPO) can be differentiated from osseous metastasis on conventional bone images using technetium 99m radiopharmaceuticals. Periosteal new bone formation appears as symmetric circumferential deposition of radionuclide in the diaphyseal cortex of tubular bones. In contrast, asymmetrical deposits in the medullary canal are indicative of metastatic disease. The etiologies of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy are discussed. PMID:1163719

Terry, D W; Isitman, A T; Holmes, R A

1975-08-01

384

Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.  

PubMed

The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. PMID:24508949

Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

2014-06-01

385

Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening  

SciTech Connect

The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and high-level waste (HLW). Average and outlying (high burnup, high initial enrichment, low age, or otherwise exceptional) forms of each waste-form type are considered. This analysis has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (BSC 2002c). In a review of Revision 00 of this radionuclide screening analysis, the NRC found that ''processes that affect transport in the biosphere, such as uptake by plants and bioaccumulation are not accounted for'' and that ''the direct exposure pathway is not accounted for'' (Beckman 2001, Section 5.3.2.1). The NRC also found that the solubility and sorption classes were too broadly defined, noting, for example, that Se is in the same solubility and sorptivity groups as Np and U, yet is ''more soluble than Np and U by several orders of magnitude'' (Beckman 2001, Section 5.3.2.1). This revision seeks to build upon the strengths of the earlier screening method while responding to the specific concerns raised by the NRC and other reviewers. In place of simple inhalation and ingestion dose conversion factors, the revised radionuclide screening uses screening factors that also take into account soil accumulation, uptake by plants, exposure to contaminated ground, and other features of the biosphere that were neglected in the previous screening. Whereas the previous screening analysis allowed only two solubility classes (soluble and insoluble), the revised screening introduces an intermediate solubility class to better segregate the radionuclides into transport groups.

G. Ragan

2002-08-09

386

Mass spectrometry of long-lived radionuclides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capability of determining element concentrations at the trace and ultratrace level and isotope ratios is a main feature of inorganic mass spectrometry. The precise and accurate determination of isotope ratios of long-lived natural and artificial radionuclides is required, e.g. for their environmental monitoring and health control, for studying radionuclide migration, for age dating, for determining isotope ratios of radiogenic elements in the nuclear industry, for quality assurance and determination of the burn-up of fuel material in a nuclear power plant, for reprocessing plants, nuclear material accounting and radioactive waste control. Inorganic mass spectrometry, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as the most important inorganic mass spectrometric technique today, possesses excellent sensitivity, precision and good accuracy for isotope ratio measurements and practically no restriction with respect to the ionization potential of the element investigated—therefore, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), which has been used as the dominant analytical technique for precise isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides for many decades, is being replaced increasingly by ICP-MS. In the last few years instrumental progress in improving figures of merit for the determination of isotope ratio measurements of long-lived radionuclides in ICP-MS has been achieved by the application of a multiple ion collector device (MC-ICP-MS) and the introduction of the collision cell interface in order to dissociate disturbing argon-based molecular ions, to reduce the kinetic energy of ions and neutralize the disturbing noble gas ions (e.g. of 129Xe + for the determination of 129I). The review describes the state of the art and the progress of different inorganic mass spectrometric techniques such as ICP-MS, laser ablation ICP-MS vs. TIMS, glow discharge mass spectrometry, secondary ion mass spectrometry, resonance ionization mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry for the determination of long-lived radionuclides in quite different materials.

Becker, Johanna Sabine

2003-10-01

387

2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

David P. Fuehne

2007-06-30

388

Transport of Gas Phase Radionuclides in a Fractured, Low-Permeability Reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the Department of Energy, DOE) oversaw a joint program between industry and government in the 1960s and 1970s to develop technology to enhance production from low-permeability gas reservoirs using nuclear stimulation rather than conventional means (e.g., hydraulic and/or acid fracturing). Project Rio Blanco, located in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, was the third experiment under the program. Three 30-kiloton nuclear explosives were placed in a 2134 m deep well at 1780, 1899, and 2039 m below the land surface and detonated in May 1973. Although the reservoir was extensively fractured, complications such as radionuclide contamination of the gas prevented production and subsequent development of the technology. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were conducted to identify the main transport processes that have occurred and are currently occurring in relation to the detonations, and to estimate the extent of contamination in the reservoir. Minor modifications were made to TOUGH2, the multiphase, multicomponent reservoir simulator developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories. The simulator allows the explicit incorporation of fractures, as well as heat transport, phase change, and first order radionuclide decay. For a fractured two-phase (liquid and gas) reservoir, the largest velocities are of gases through the fractures. In the gas phase, tritium and one isotope of krypton are the principle radionuclides of concern. However, in addition to existing as a fast pathway, fractures also permit matrix diffusion as a retardation mechanism. Another retardation mechanism is radionuclide decay. Simulations show that incorporation of fractures can significantly alter transport rates, and that radionuclides in the gas phase can preferentially migrate upward due to the downward gravity drainage of liquid water in the pores. This project was funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Operations Office, under DOE Contract no. DE-AC08-00NV13609.

Cooper, C. A.; Chapman, J.

2001-12-01

389

Modulated electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous media, hyperbolic pseudoanalytic functions and transmutations  

E-print Network

The time-dependent Maxwell system describing electromagnetic wave propagation in inhomogeneous isotropic media in the one-dimensional case reduces to a Vekua-type equation for bicomplex-valued functions of a hyperbolic variable (see arXiv:1001.0552). Using this relation we solve the problem of the transmission through an inhomogeneous layer of a normally incident electromagnetic time-dependent plane wave. The solution is written in terms of a pair of Darboux-associated transmutation operators (see arXiv:1111.4449), and combined with the recent results on their construction (see arXiv:1208.6166, arXiv:1306.2914) can be used for efficient computation of the transmitted modulated signals. We develop the corresponding numerical method and illustrate its performance with examples.

Kira V. Khmelnytskaya; Vladislav V. Kravchenko; Sergii M. Torba

2014-10-17

390

Transmutation of singularities and zeros in graded index optical instruments: a methodology for designing practical devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a design methodology for modifying the refractive index profile of graded-index optical instruments that incorporate singularities or zeros in their refractive index. The process maintains the device performance whilst resulting in graded profiles that are all-dielectric, do not require materials with unrealistic values, and that are impedance matched to the bounding medium. This is achieved by transmuting the singularities (or zeros) using the formalism of transformation optics, but with an additional boundary condition requiring the gradient of the co- ordinate transformation be continuous. This additional boundary condition ensures that the device is impedance matched to the bounding medium when the spatially varying permittivity and permeability profiles are scaled to realizable values. We demonstrate the method in some detail for an Eaton lens, before describing the profiles for an "invisible disc" and "multipole" lenses.

Hooper, I. R.; Philbin, T. G.

2013-12-01

391

Transmutation of singularities and zeros in graded index optical instruments: a methodology for designing practical devices.  

PubMed

We describe a design methodology for modifying the refractive index profile of graded-index optical instruments that incorporate singularities or zeros in their refractive index. The process maintains the device performance whilst resulting in graded profiles that are all-dielectric, do not require materials with unrealistic values, and that are impedance matched to the bounding medium. This is achieved by transmuting the singularities (or zeros) using the formalism of transformation optics, but with an additional boundary condition requiring the gradient of the co-ordinate transformation be continuous. This additional boundary condition ensures that the device is impedance matched to the bounding medium when the spatially varying permittivity and permeability profiles are scaled to realizable values. We demonstrate the method in some detail for an Eaton lens, before describing the profiles for an "invisible disc" and "multipole" lenses. PMID:24514824

Hooper, I R; Philbin, T G

2013-12-30

392

Classical Dimensional Transmutation and Renormalization in Massive lambda phi^4 Model  

E-print Network

Recently Dvali, Gomez, and Mukhanov has investigated a classical lambda phi^4 model with external source and without mass and they have clarified that there are underlying renormalization group structure, including the phenomenon of the dimensional transmutation, at purely classical level. Especially when the coupling lambda is negative, the classical beta function shows the property of asymptotic freedom as in QCD. In this paper, we investigate the lambda phi^4 model with mass, and clarify the role of the mass. The obtained classical beta function is identical with that of the massless lambda phi^4 model up to the corrections of the ratio of the IR cutoff to UV cutoff, and describe the renormalization flow same as the massless theory. We also found that the dynamically generated scale of massive theory is larger than that of massless theory, which could be due to the screening effect of the mass term.

Yoda, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

393

Transmutation of N=2 fractional D3 branes into twisted sector fluxes  

E-print Network

We study the prototype of fractional D3 branes at non-isolated singularities in gauge/gravity duality at the nonperturbative level. We embed the quantum moduli space of N=2 SU(M) pure SYM, the gauge theory on fractional D3 branes at the A_1 singularity, into that of the cascading quiver gauge theory on regular and fractional D3 branes at the same singularity, for which a gravity dual description exists. We deduce a simple analytic expression for the exact twisted sector fields in the type IIB string dual, which encodes the full quantum dynamics of the gauge theory. Nonperturbative effects in the gauge theory translate into the transmutation of fractional D3 branes into twisted sector fluxes.

Stefano Cremonesi

2009-04-15

394

Neutron-induced dpa, transmutations, gas production, and helium embrittlement of fusion materials  

E-print Network

In a fusion reactor materials will be subjected to significant fluxes of high-energy neutrons. As well as causing radiation damage, the neutrons also initiate nuclear reactions leading to changes in the chemical composition of materials (transmutation). Many of these reactions produce gases, particularly helium, which cause additional swelling and embrittlement of materials. This paper investigates, using a combination of neutron-transport and inventory calculations, the variation in displacements per atom (dpa) and helium production levels as a function of position within the high flux regions of a recent conceptual model for the "next-step" fusion device DEMO. Subsequently, the gas production rates are used to provide revised estimates, based on new density-functional-theory results, for the critical component lifetimes associated with the helium-induced grain-boundary embrittlement of materials. The revised estimates give more optimistic projections for the lifetimes of materials in a fusion power plant co...

Gilbert, M R; Nguyen-Manh, D; Zheng, S; Packer, L W; Sublet, J -Ch

2013-01-01

395

Dimensional Transmutation and Dimensional Regularization in Quantum Mechanics. II: Rotational Invariance  

E-print Network

A thorough analysis is presented of the class of central fields of force that exhibit: (i) dimensional transmutation and (ii) rotational invariance. Using dimensional regularization, the two-dimensional delta-function potential and the $D$-dimensional inverse square potential are studied. In particular, the following features are analyzed: the existence of a critical coupling, the boundary condition at the origin, the relationship between the bound-state and scattering sectors, and the similarities displayed by both potentials. It is found that, for rotationally symmetric scale-invariant potentials, there is a strong-coupling regime, for which quantum-mechanical breaking of symmetry takes place, with the appearance of a unique bound state as well as of a logarithmic energy dependence of the scattering with respect to the energy.

Horacio E. Camblong; Luis N. Epele; Huner Fanchiotti; Carlos A. Garcia Canal

2000-03-29

396

Duality and an Operator Realization for the Fermi-Bose Transmutation in 3+1 Dimensions  

E-print Network

We consider the Maxwell-Higgs system in the broken phase, described in terms of a Kalb-Ramond field interacting with the electromagnetic field through a topological coupling. We then study the creation operators of states which respectively carry a point charge and a closed magnetic string in the electromagnetic language or a point topological charge and a closed Kalb-Ramond charged string in the Kalb-Ramond dual language. Their commutation relation is evaluated, implying they satisfy a dual algebra and their composite possesses generalized statistics. In the local limit where the radius of the string vanishes, only Fermi or Bose statistics are allowed. This provides an explicit operator realization for statistical transmutation in 3+1D.

E. C. Marino

1996-09-30

397

Transmutation of singularities and zeros in graded index optical instruments: a methodology for designing practical devices  

E-print Network

We describe a design methodology for modifying the refractive index profile of graded-index optical instruments that incorporate singularities or zeros in their refractive index. The process maintains the device performance whilst resulting in graded profiles that are all-dielectric, do not require materials with unrealistic values, and that are impedance matched to the bounding medium. This is achieved by transmuting the singularities (or zeros) using the formalism of transformation optics, but with an additional boundary condition requiring the gradient of the co- ordinate transformation be continuous. This additional boundary condition ensures that the device is impedance matched to the bounding medium when the spatially varying permittivity and permeability profiles are scaled to realizable values. We demonstrate the method in some detail for an Eaton lens, before describing the profiles for an "invisible disc" and "multipole" lenses.

Hooper, I R

2014-01-01

398

Classical Dimensional Transmutation and Renormalization in Massive lambda phi^4 Model  

E-print Network

Recently, Dvali, Gomez, and Mukhanov have investigated a classical lambda phi^4 model with external source and without mass and they have clarified that there are underlying renormalization group structure, including the phenomenon of the dimensional transmutation, at purely classical level. Especially when the coupling lambda is negative, the classical beta function shows the property of asymptotic freedom as in QCD. In this paper, we investigate the lambda phi^4 model with mass, and clarify the role of the mass. The obtained classical beta function is identical with that of the massless lambda phi^4 model up to the corrections of the ratio of the IR cutoff to UV cutoff, and describes the renormalization flow same as the massless theory. We also found that the dynamically generated scale of massive theory is larger than that of massless theory, which could be due to the screening effect of the mass term.

Hiroshi Yoda; Shin'ichi Nojiri

2012-08-08

399

Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. IV. Miscellaneous aspects. [Transport; fuel fabrication; decay; policy; economics  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses seven aspects of actinide partitioning-transmutation (P-T) which are important in any complete evaluation of this waste treatment option but which do not fall within other major topical areas concerning P-T. The so-called miscellaneous aspects considered are (1) the conceptual design of a shipping cask for highly neutron-active fresh and spent P-T fuels, (2) the possible impacts of P-T on mixed-oxide fuel fabrication, (3) alternatives for handling the existing and to-be-produced spent fuel and/or wastes until implementation of P-T, (4) the decay and dose characteristics of P-T and standard reactor fuels, (5) the implications of P-T on currently existing nuclear policy in the United States, (6) the summary costs of P-T, and (7) methods for comparing the risks, costs, and benefits of P-T.

Alexander, C.W.; Croff, A.G.

1980-09-01

400

Accurate method for neutron fluence control used in improving neutron-transmutation-doped silicon for detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron transmutation doping (NTD) of silicon (Si) in nuclear reactors is known as a successful way of obtaining high-quality material for power devices. Using NTD of Si in order to obtain high-quality material for detectors requires an accurate neutron fluence control. The paper presents results obtained in this field using silicon slices as neutron calibration material. Irradiation was done in a vertical channel of the VVR-S nuclear reactor in Bucharest, Romania. Final resistivity of slices used for calibration was between 20 and 50 ohm X cm. Special attention was paid to the accuracy of initial and final characterization of the slices concerning resistivity, lifetime, and defects, as well as to the neutron fluence calibration and control used during exposure. High-performance detectors were obtained using this material.

Halmagean, Eugenia T.; Lazarovici, Doina N.; Udrea-Spinea, Marian N.

1991-08-01

401

A Heterogeneous Sodium Fast Reactor Designed to Transmute Minor Actinide Actinide Waste Isotopes into Plutonium Fuel  

SciTech Connect

An axial heterogeneous sodium fast reactor design is developed for converting minor actinide waste isotopes into plutonium fuel. The reactor design incorporates zirconium hydride moderating rods in an axial blanket above the active core. The blanket design traps the active core’s axial leakage for the purpose of transmuting Am-241 into Pu-238. This Pu-238 is then co-recycled with the spent driver fuel to make new driver fuel. Because Pu-238 is significantly more fissile than Am-241 in a fast neutron spectrum, the fissile worth of the initial minor actinide material is upgraded by its preconditioning via transmutation in the axial targets. Because, the Am-241 neutron capture worth is significantly stronger in a moderated epithermal spectrum than the fast spectrum, the axial targets serve as a neutron trap which recovers the axial leakage lost by the active core. The sodium fast reactor proposed by this work is designed as an overall transuranic burner. Therefore, a low transuranic conversion ratio is achieved by a degree of core flattening which increases axial leakage. Unlike a traditional “pancake” design, neutron leakage is recovered by the axial target/blanket system. This heterogeneous core design is constrained to have sodium void and Doppler reactivity worth similar to that of an equivalent homogeneous design. Because minor actinides are irradiated only once in the axial target region; elemental partitioning is not required. This fact enables the use of metal targets with electrochemical reprocessing. Therefore, the irradiation environment of both drivers and targets was constrained to ensure applicability of the established experience database for metal alloy sodium fast reactor fuels.

Samuel E. Bays

2011-02-01

402

Partitioning and transmutation: Near-term solution or long-term option?  

SciTech Connect

Starting in 1989, the concept that partitioning and transmuting actinides from spent nuclear fuel could be a {open_quotes}solution{close_quotes} to the apparent lack of progress in the high-level waste disposal program began to be heard from a variety of sources, both in the US and internationally. There have been numerous papers and sessions at scientific conferences and several conferences devoted to this subject in the last three years. At the request of the US Department of Energy, the National Research Council is evaluating the feasibility of this concept. Because either plutonium or highly enriched uranium is needed to startup breeder reactors, there is a sound rationale for using Pu from reprocessing spent light-water reactor fuel to start a conversion to Pu-breeding liquid metal reactors (LMRs), once society makes the determination that adding a large component of LMRs to the electricity-generating grid is desirable. This is the long-term option referred to in the title. It is compatible with the current and likely future high-level waste program, as well as the current nuclear power industry in the US. However, the thesis of this paper is that partitioning and transmutation (P-T) does not offer a near term solution to high-level waste disposal in the US for numerous reasons, the most important of which is that a repository will be needed even with P-T. Other important reasons include: (1) lack of evidence that the public will be more likely to accept a repository that has a reduced inventory, (2) the waste disposal program delays do not result from technical evidence of lack of safety, (3) the economics of reprocessing and/or P-T are unfavorable, and (4) obtaining the benefits from P-T requires a long-term commitment to nuclear power.

Ramspott, L.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (US); Isaacs, T. [USDOE, Washington, DC (US)

1993-02-25

403

Ionizing radiation and tritium transmutation both cause formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine in cellular DNA.  

PubMed Central

HeLa cells grown in the presence of [methyl-3H]thymidine contained large amounts of 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (HMdU) in their DNA. When the cells were grown in [6-3H]thymidine and their DNA was labeled to the same specific activity, no HMdU was present. When such [6-3H]thymidine-labeled cells were exposed to increasing amounts of gamma-radiation, small but increasing amounts of HMdU were formed in their DNA. This indicates that HMdU can be formed in DNA by two distinct mechanisms. The first is the result of the transmutation of 3H to 3He (beta decay) in the methyl group of thymidine, leading to formation of a carbocation. This short-lived ion reacts with hydroxide ions of water, yielding the hydroxymethyl group. HMdU that is formed by this mechanism is formed at the rate of beta decay of 3H. It appears only in [methyl-3H]thymidine residues and is present in the DNA of both nonirradiated and gamma-irradiated cells. The second mechanism is the result of the radiolysis of water caused by ionizing radiation. The resultant radical species, particularly hydroxyl radicals, may react with many sites on DNA. When the methyl group of thymine is attacked by hydroxyl radicals, the hydroxymethyl group is formed. The formation of HMdU by this mechanism was detected only when [6-3H]thymidine-labeled cells were used, since transmutation of 3H in position 6 of thymine cannot yield HMdU. PMID:6582490

Teebor, G W; Frenkel, K; Goldstein, M S

1984-01-01

404

Interception of dry and wet deposited radionuclides by vegetation.  

PubMed

Interception of dry and wet deposited radionuclides by vegetation is a key process in radioecological models that assess ingestion doses to the population following releases of radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radionuclides may be deposited during precipitation or as dry particles. Interception of wet deposited radionuclides is the result of a complex interaction of the vegetative development of the plant canopy, the amount of rainfall, and the chemical form of radionuclides. For the interception of dry deposits, particle size is a key parameter; interception is more effective for small particles and reactive gases. Due to the dependence on plant development, interception of both dry and wet deposits is subject to pronounced seasonality. PMID:19027204

Pröhl, Gerhard

2009-09-01

405

TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: BABCOCK AND WILCOX CYCLONE FURNACE VITRIFICATION TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Cyclone Furnace Vitrification Technology is a treatment process for contaminated soils. he process was evaluated to determine its ability to destroy semivolatile organics and to isolate metals and simulated radionuclides into a non-leachable slag materi...

406

Burning and\\/or transmutation of transuraniums discharged from PWR-UO 2 spent fuel and power flattening along the operation period in the force free helical reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burning and\\/or transmutation (B\\/T) of transuraniums (TRUs) in the force free helical reactor (FFHR), which is a demo relevant helical type D–T fusion reactor, has been investigated for an operation period (OP) of up to ten years by 75% plant factor (?) under a neutron wall load (P) of 1.5 MW\\/m2. The transmutation zone (TZ), containing the mixture of

Hüseyin Yap?c?

2003-01-01

407

Acceptor and donor production in Hg b1 s[subscript -x]Cd[subscript x]Te by neutron transmutation doping  

E-print Network

ACCEPTOR AND DONOR PRODUCTION IN Hgi ?Cd?Te BY NEUTRON TRANSMUTATION DOPING A Thesis by KEVIN DOUGLAS SEAGFR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1985 Majon Subject: Nuclear Fngineer ing ACCEPTOR AND DONOR PRODUCTION IN Hgl-xCdxTe BY NEUTRON TRANSMUTATION DOPING A Thesis by KEVIN DOUGLAS SEAGER Approved as to style and content by: Ron R. Hart (Chairman of Committee...

Seager, Kevin Douglas

2012-06-07

408

Mapping Biological Behaviors by Application of Longer-Lived Positron Emitting Radionuclides  

PubMed Central

With the technological development of positron emission tomography (PET) and the advent of novel antibody-directed drug delivery systems, longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides are moving to the forefront to take important roles in tracking the distribution of biotherapeutics such as antibodies, and for monitoring biological processes and responses. Longer half-life radionuclides possess advantages of convenient on-site preparation procedures for both clinical and non-clinical applications. The suitability of the long half-life radionuclides for imaging intact monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and their respective fragments, which have inherently long biological half-lives, has attracted increased interest in recent years. In this review, we provide a survey of the recent literature as it applies to the development of nine-selected longer-lived positron emitters with half-lives of 9–140 hours (e.g., 124I, 64Cu, 86Y and 89Zr), and describe the biological behaviors of radionuclide-labeled mAbs with respect to distribution and targeting characteristics, potential toxicities, biological applications, and clinical translation potentials. PMID:23123291

Zhou, Yang; Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

2012-01-01

409

Applying insights from repository safety assessments to evaluating impacts of partitioning and transmutation.  

SciTech Connect

Published analyses of geologic repositories indicate potential for excellent long-term performance for a range of disposal concepts. Estimates of peak dose may be dominated by different radionuclides in different disposal concepts. Thermal loading issues can be addressed by design and operational choices. Impact of waste form lifetime on estimates of peak dose varies for different disposal concepts.

Nutt, W. Mark (Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL); Swift, Peter N.

2010-10-01

410

AFC-1 Transmutation Fuels Post-Irradiation Hot Cell Examination 4-8 at.% - Final Report (Irradiation Experiments AFC-1B, -1F and -1Æ)  

SciTech Connect

The AFC-1B, AFC-1F and AFC-1Æ irradiation tests are part of a series of test irradiations designed to evaluate the feasibility of the use of actinide bearing fuel forms in advanced fuel cycles for the transmutation of transuranic elements from nuclear waste. The tests were irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to an intermediate burnup of 4 to 8 at% (2.7 - 6.8 x 1020 fiss/cm3). The tests contain metallic and nitride fuel forms with non-fertile (i.e., no uranium) and low-fertile (i.e., uranium bearing) compositions. Results of postirradiation hot cell examinations of AFC-1 irradiation tests are reported for eleven metallic alloy transmutation fuel rodlets and five nitride transmutation fuel rodlets. Non-destructive examinations included visual examination, dimensional inspection, gamma scan analysis, and neutron radiography. Detailed examinations, including fission gas puncture and analysis, metallography / ceramography and isotopics and burnup analyses, were performed on five metallic alloy and three nitride transmutation fuels. Fuel performance of both metallic alloy and nitride fuel forms was best correlated with fission density as a burnup metric rather than at.% depletion. The actinide bearing transmutation metallic alloy compositions exhibit irradiation performance very similar to U-xPu-10Zr fuel at equivalent fission densities. The irradiation performance of nitride transmutation fuels was comparable to limited data published on mixed nitride systems.

Bruce Hilton; Douglas Porter; Steven Hayes

2006-09-01

411

Transfer of fallout radionuclides derived from Fukushima NPP accident: 1 year study on transfer of radionuclides through hydrological processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous experiences such as Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident have confirmed that fallout radionuclides on the ground surface migrate through natural environment including soils and rivers. Therefore, in order to estimate future changes in radionuclide deposition, migration process of radionuclides in forests, soils, ground water, rivers should be monitored. However, such comprehensive studies on migration through forests, soils, ground water and rivers have not been conducted so far. Here, we present the following comprehensive investigation was conducted to confirm migration of radionuclides through natural environment including soils and rivers. 1)Study on depth distribution of radiocaesium in soils within forests, fields, and grassland 2)Confirmation of radionuclide distribution and investigation on migration in forests 3)Study on radionuclide migration due to soil erosion under different land use 4)Measurement of radionuclides entrained from natural environment including forests and soils 5)Investigation on radionuclide migration through soil water, ground water, stream water, spring water under different land use 6)Study on paddy-to-river transfer of radionuclides through suspended sediments 7)Study on river-to-ocean transfer of radionuclides via suspended sediments 8)Confirmation of radionuclide deposition in ponds and reservoirs

Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki; Patin, Jeremy; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Tsujimura, Maki; Wakahara, Taeko; Fukushima, Takehiko

2013-04-01

412

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Filter Flow Technology, Inc. (FFT) Colloid Polishing Filter Method (CPFM) was tested as a transportable, trailer mounted, system that uses sorption and chemical complexing phenomena to remove heavy metals and nontritium radionuclides from water. Contaminated waters can be pro...

413

Improving cancer treatment with cyclotron produced radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the author's continuing long term goal of promoting nuclear medicine applications by improving the scientific basis for tumor diagnosis treatment and treatment follow-up based on the use of cyclotron produced radiotracers in oncology. The program has 3 interactive components: Radiochemistry /Cyclotron; Pharmacology; and Immunology. An essential strategy is as follows: novel radionuclides and radiotracers developed in the Radiochemistry/Cyclotron section under the DOE grant during the 1989--1992 grant period, will be employed in the Pharmacology and Immunology sections of the DOE grant during the 1992--1995 grant period. The development of novel radionuclides and tracers is of course useful in and of itself, but their utility is greatly enhanced by the interaction with the immunology and pharmacology components of the program.

Larson, S.M. Finn, R.D.

1992-08-04

414

Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis  

SciTech Connect

The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary vasculature resulting in intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cuntaeous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

1983-05-01

415

Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis  

SciTech Connect

The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggrregated albumin (/sup 99m/Tc MAA) labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cutaneous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

1983-05-01

416

Radionuclide cerebral imaging confirming brain death  

SciTech Connect

Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured by portable radionuclide cerebral imaging (RCI) and by four-vessel cerebral contrast arteriography in 15 clinically brain-dead patients, including six children. Neither technique showed evidence of CBF, although four RCI scans showed sagittal sinus activity. Portable scanning techniques are therefore considered valid determinants of brain death and may be useful in lieu of contrast cerebral arteriography.

Schwartz, J.A.; Baxter, J.; Brill, D.; Burns, J.R.

1983-01-14

417

Detection of osteoporotic sacral fractures with radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

Osteoporotic sacral fractures usually occur in elerly patients as a result of mild trauma. Clinical symptoms range from localized sacral tenderness to neurologic problems attributable to sacral nerve root irritation or cauda equina compression. Although the radiographic diagnosis is difficult to establish, bone scans show a characteristic H-shaped pattern of radionuclide uptake across the sacrum and sacroiliac joints. Four cases of osteoporotic sacral fracture with confirmation by computed tomography are included in this report.

Ries, T.

1983-03-01

418

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2009  

SciTech Connect

Berkeley Lab operates facilities where radionuclides are handled and stored. These facilities are subject to the EPA radioactive air emission regulations in 40CFR61, Subpart H (EPA 1989). Radionuclides may be emitted from stacks or vents on buildings where radionuclide production or use is authorized or they may be emitted as diffuse sources. In 2009, all Berkeley Lab sources were minor sources of radionuclides (sources resulting in a potential dose of less than 0.1 mrem/yr [0.001 mSv/yr]). These minor sources included more than 100 stack sources and one source of diffuse emissions. There were no unplanned emissions from the Berkeley Lab site. Emissions from minor sources (stacks and diffuse emissions) either were measured by sampling or monitoring or were calculated based on quantities used, received for use, or produced during the year. Using measured and calculated emissions, and building-specific and common parameters, Laboratory personnel applied the EPA-approved computer code, CAP88-PC, to calculate the effective dose equivalent to the maximally exposed individual (MEI). The effective dose equivalent from all sources at Berkeley Lab in 2009 is 7.0 x 10{sup -3} mrem/yr (7.0 x 10{sup -5} mSv/yr) to the MEI, well below the 10 mrem/yr (0.1 mSv/yr) dose standard. The location of the MEI is at the University of California (UC) Lawrence Hall of Science, a public science museum about 1500 ft (460 m) east of Berkeley Lab's Building 56. The estimated collective effective dose equivalent to persons living within 50 mi (80 km) of Berkeley Lab is 1.5 x 10{sup -1} person-rem (1.5 x 10{sup -3} person-Sv) attributable to the Lab's airborne emissions in 2009.

Wahl, Linnea

2010-06-01

419

Sedimentation rate determination by radionuclides mass balances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past, uranium mining activity took place in the area around Limoges, France. Even nowadays, this activity results in an increase in the input and availability of radionuclides in aquifer reservoirs, making of this area a suitable site to better understand the behaviour of radionuclides in the surficial environment. Water was sampled monthly over the entire year 2001 in a brook that collects mine water and in a lake fed by this brook. Samples were filtered through 0.45?m filters to remove particles. Activities of 238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 228Th and 228Ra were measured on particulate (>0.45?m), dissolved (<0.45?m) and total (unfiltered) fractions by gamma spectrometry in the well of a high efficiency, low background, germanium detector settled in an underground laboratory, protected from cosmic rays by 1700 m of rocks (LSM, CNRS-CEA, French Alps). Activities measured in particulate and dissolved fractions were summed and compared to the one measured in unfiltered water to test the filtration yield. No significant loss or contamination were detected. In the brook water, 70% of 238U, 60% of 226Ra and 80% of 210Pb are associated with particles. Activities associated with particles decrease drastically along with the velocity of current when the stream enters the lake. An annual mass balance of radionuclides carried by particles from the stream to the lake was used to determine the sedimentation rate in the lake. The flux of particles deduced from mass balance calculations based on five isotopes corresponds to the thickness of sediment accumulated since the creation of this artificial lake (that is, 1976). This study emphasises the usefulness of radionuclides as tracers for environmental investigations.

Cazala, C.; Reyss, J. L.; Decossas, J. L.; Royer, A.

2003-04-01

420

13. Decorporation of Chernobyl radionuclides.  

PubMed

Tens of thousands of Chernobyl children (mostly from Belarus) annually leave to receive treatment and health care in other countries. Doctors from many countries gratuitously work in the Chernobyl contaminated territories, helping to minimize the consequences of this most terrible technologic catastrophe in history. But the scale and spectrum of the consequences are so high, that no country in the world can cope alone with the long-term consequences of such a catastrophe as Chernobyl. The countries that have suffered the most, especially Ukraine and Belarus, extend gratitude for the help that has come through the United Nations and other international organizations, as well as from private funds and initiatives. Twenty-two years after the Chernobyl releases, the annual individual dose limit in heavily contaminated territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and European Russia exceed 1 mSv/year just because of the unavoidable consumption of locally contaminated products. The 11-year experience of the BELRAD Institute shows that for effective radiation protection it is necessary to establish the interference level for children at 30% of the official dangerous limit (i.e., 15-20 Bq/kg). The direct whole body counting measurements of Cs-137 accumulation in the bodies of inhabitants of the heavily contaminated Belarussian region shows that the official Dose Catalogue underestimates the annual dose burdens by three to eight times. For practical reasons the curative-like use of apple-pectin food additives might be especially helpful for effective decorporation of Cs-137. From 1996 to 2007 a total of more than 160,000 Belarussian children received pectin food additives during 18 to 25 days of treatment (5 g twice a day). As a result, levels of Cs-137 in children's organs decreased after each course of pectin additives by an average of 30 to 40%. Manufacture and application of various pectin-based food additives and drinks (using apples, currants, grapes, sea seaweed, etc.) is one of the most effective ways for individual radioprotection (through decorporation) under circumstances where consumption of radioactively contaminated food is unavoidable. PMID:20002057

Nesterenko, Vassily B; Nesterenko, Alexey V

2009-11-01

421

UPTAKE OF RADIONUCLIDE METALS BY SPME FIBERS  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory currently does not have on site facilities for handling radioactive evidentiary materials and there are no established FBI methods or procedures for decontaminating high explosive (HE) and fire debris (FD) evidence while maintaining evidentiary value. One experimental method for the isolation of HE and FD residue involves using solid phase microextraction or SPME fibers to remove residue of interest. Due to their high affinity for organics, SPME fibers should have little affinity for most metals. However, no studies have measured the affinity of radionuclides for SPME fibers. The focus of this research was to examine the affinity of dissolved radionuclide ({sup 239/240}Pu, {sup 238}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 85}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co and {sup 226}Ra) and stable radionuclide surrogate metals (Sr, Co, Ir, Re, Ni, Ba, Cs, Nb, Zr, Ru, and Nd) for SPME fibers at the exposure conditions that favor the uptake of HE and FD residues. Our results from radiochemical and mass spectrometric analyses indicate these metals have little measurable affinity for these SPME fibers during conditions that are conducive to HE and FD residue uptake with subsequent analysis by liquid or gas phase chromatography with mass spectrometric detection.

Duff, M; S Crump, S; Robert02 Ray, R; Keisha Martin, K; Donna Beals, D

2006-08-28

422

Concrete Property and Radionuclide Migration Tests  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Management Project provides safe, compliant, and cost-effective waste management services for the Hanford Site and the DOE Complex. Part of theses services includes safe disposal of LLW and MLLW at the Hanford Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG) in accordance with the requirements listed in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. To partially satisfy these requirements, a Performance Assessment (PA) analyses were completed and approved. DOE Order 435.1 also requires that continuing data collection be conducted to enhance confidence in the critical assumptions used in these analyses to characterize the operational features of the disposal facility that are relied upon to satisfy the performance objectives identified in the Order. One critical assumption is that concrete will frequently be used as waste form or container material to control and minimize the release of radionuclide constituents in waste into the surrounding environment. Data was collected to (1) quantify radionuclide migration through concrete materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the LLBG, (2) measure the properties of the concrete materials, especially those likely to influence radionuclide migration, and (3) quantify the stability of U-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

Wellman, Dawn M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Powers, Laura; Parker, Kent E.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

2008-10-01

423

Radionuclides in the evaluation of urinary obstruction  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclide renography and renal scanning techniques are ideally suited to the initial and follow-up evaluation of patients with obstructive uropathy. While other modalities are superior in their ability to provide anatomic information, the radionuclide study yields functional information for each kidney without the necessity to resort to invasive studies. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine study is well suited to the evaluation of obstruction where serial studies often are required because of a lower radiation burden compared to urography. This lower radiation dose is especially important in obstruction because of the recurrent nature of several kinds of obstructive uropathy and because of the high incidence in the pediatric age group. The ability to control urine flow rate during the procedure through dehydration or administration of diuretics is an additional benefit. Increasing availability of computerization of nuclear medicine procedures as well as interest in studies employing physiologic intervention (including the diuresis renogram) have assured an important place for radionuclide studies in the evaluation of patients with urinary obstruction.

Scharf, S.C.; Blaufox, M.D.

1982-07-01

424

Determination of spatial and energy distributions of neutrons in experiments on transmutation of radioactive waste using relativistic protons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiments on transmutation of 129I and 237Np using uranium-lead targets surrounded by a paraffin moderator were performed at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Russia). The targets were irradiated by 1.5 GeV and 7.4 GeV protons at the Synchrophasotron of JINR. In the frame of present work spatial and energy distributions of neutrons on the surface of the

I. V. Zhuk; E. M. Lomonosova; S. F. Boulyga; A. I. Kievitskaia; I. L. Rakhno; S. E. Chigrinov; V. Bradnova; M. I. Krivopustov; B. A. Kulakov; R. Brandt; M. Ochs; J.-S. Wan

1999-01-01

425

A new back-end cycle strategy for enhancing separation, transmutation and utilization of materials (Adv.ORIENT cycle)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To minimize the ecological burden originating in nuclear fuel recycling, a new R&D strategy, the Adv.-ORIENT (Advanced Optimization by Recycling Instructive Elements) cycle was set forth. In this context, mutual separation of f-elements, such as minor actinide (MA)\\/lanthanide (Ln) and Am\\/Cm, are essential to enhance the MA (particularly 241Am) burning. Isotope separation before transmutation is also inevitably required in the

Masaki Ozawa; Tatsuya Suzuki; Shin-ichi Koyama; Hiroshi Akatsuka; Hitoshi Mimura; Yasuhiko Fujii

2008-01-01

426

Review of research and development of accelerator-driven system in Japan for transmutation of long-lived nuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active and comprehensive studies on an accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS) for transmutation of long-lived nuclides have been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). In the late 1970's, JAERI started the basic study of this subject and later, comprehensive studies have been performed under the “OMEGA” program of Japan: the long-term program for research and development on

Takehiko Mukaiyama; Takakazu Takizuka; Motoharu Mizumoto; Yujiro Ikeda; Toru Ogawa; Akira Hasegawa; Hiroshi Takada; Hideki Takano

2001-01-01

427

Fusion transmutation of waste and the role of the In-Zinerator in the nuclear fuel cycle.  

SciTech Connect

The Z-Pinch fusion experiment at Sandia National Laboratories has been making significant progress in developing a high-energy fusion neutron source. This source has the potential to be used for the transmutation of nuclear waste. The goal of this research was to do a scoping-level design of a fusion-based transmuter to determine potential transmutation rates along with the fusion yield requirements. Two ''In-Zinerator'' designs have been developed to transmute the long-lived actinides that dominate the heat production in spent fuel. The first design burns up all transuranics (TRU) in spent fuel (Np, Pu, Am, Cm), and the second is focused only on burning up Am and Cm. The TRU In-Zinerator is designed for a fuel cycle requiring burners to get rid of all the TRU with no light water reactor (LWR) recycle. The Am/Cm In-Zinerator is designed for a fuel cycle with Np/Pu recycling in LWRs. Both types of In-Zinerators operate with a moderate fusion source driving a sub-critical actinide blanket. The neutron multiplication is 30, so a great deal of energy is produced in the blanket. With the design goal of generating 3,000 MW{sub th}, about 1,200 kg/yr of actinides can be destroyed in each In-Zinerator. Each TRU In-Zinerator will require a 20 MW fusion source, and it will take a total of 20 units (each producing 3,000 MWth) to burn up the TRU as fast as the current LWR fleet can produce it. Each Am/Cm In-Zinerator will require a 24 MW fusion source, and it will take a total of 2 units to burn up the Am/Cm as fast as the current LWR fleet can produce it. The necessary fusion yield could be achieved using a 200-240 MJ target fired once every 10 seconds.

Cipiti, Benjamin B.

2006-06-01

428

Infiltration of highly radioactive materials: a novel approach to the fabrication of targets for the transmutation and incineration of actinides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure based on infiltration of aqueous metal solutions into pellets has been demonstrated for the production of targets containing highly radioactive materials. These targets will be used in the study of actinide transmutation and incineration (EFTTRA-T4). Impregnation of MgAl2O4 (spinel) pellets, with a green density of 50%, by an americium nitrate solution yielded pellets containing 8% americium. Following sintering

K. Richter; A. Fernandez; J. Somers

1997-01-01

429

Increasing the Acceptance of Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal by the Transmutation of Minor Actinides Using an Accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main challenge in nuclear fuel cycle closure is the reduction of the potential radiotoxicity of spent LWR nuclear fuel, or the length of time in which that potential hazard exists. Partitioning and accelerator-based transmutation in combination with geological disposal can lead to an acceptable societal solution for the nuclear spent fuel management problem. Nuclear fuel seems ideally suited for recycling. Only a small fraction of the available energy in the fuel is extracted in a single pass and the problem isotopes, consisting of the transuranic elements plutonium, neptunium, americium, curium and the long-lived fission products iodine and technetium, could be burned in fast-neutron spectrum reactors or sub-critical accelerator driven transmuters. Most of the remaining wastes have half-lives of a few hundred years and can be safely stored in man-made containment structures (casks or glass). The very small amount of remaining long-lived waste could be safely stored in a small geologic repository. The problem for the next 100 years is that a sufficient number of fast reactors are unlikely to be built by industry to burn its own waste and the waste from existing and new light water reactors (LWRs). So an interim solution is required to transition to a fast reactor economy. The goals of accelerator transmutation are some or all of the following: 1) to significantly reduce the impacts due to the minor actinides on the packing density and long-term radiotoxicity in the repository design, 2) preserve/use the energy-rich component of used nuclear fuel, and 3) reduce proliferation risk. Accelerator-based transmutation could lead to a greater percentage of our power coming from greenhouse-gas emission-free nuclear power and provide a long-term strategy enabling the continuation and growth of nuclear power in the U.S. )

Sheffield, Richard L.

2010-02-01

430

Fukushima's forgotten radionuclides: a review of the understudied radioactive emissions.  

PubMed

In environmental monitoring campaigns for anthropogenic radionuclides released in the course of the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), most focus had been on gamma-emitting radionuclides. More than 99% of the released activity was due to radionuclides of the elements Kr, Te, I, Xe, and Cs. However, little work had been done on the monitoring of radionuclides other than (131)I, (132)Te, (134)Cs, (136)Cs, and (137)Cs. Radionuclides such as those of less volatile elements (e.g., (89)Sr, (90)Sr, (103)Ru, (106)Ru, plutonium), pure beta-emitters ((3)H, (14)C, (35)S), gaseous radionuclides ((85)Kr, (133)Xe, (135)Xe) or radionuclides with very long half-lives (e.g., (36)Cl, (99)Tc, (129)I, some actinides such as (236)U) have been understudied by comparison. In this review, we summarize previous monitoring work on these "orphan" radionuclides in various environmental media and outline further challenges for future monitoring campaigns. Some of the understudied radionuclides are of radiological concern, others are promising tracers for environmental, geochemical processes such as oceanic mixing. Unfortunately, the shorter-lived nuclides of radioxenon, (103)Ru, (89)Sr and (35)S will no longer exhibit detectable activities in the environment. Activity concentrations of other radionuclides such as tritium, (14)C, or (85)Kr will become blurred in the significant background of previous releases (nuclear explosions and previous accidents). Isotope ratios such as (240)Pu/(239)Pu will allow for the identification of Fukushima plutonium despite the plutonium background. PMID:24754713

Steinhauser, Georg

2014-05-01

431

Transmutations, L-bases and complete families of solutions of the stationary Schrödinger equation in the plane  

E-print Network

An L-basis associated to a linear second-order ordinary differential operator L is an infinite sequence of functions {\\phi_k}_{k=0}^{\\infty} such that L\\phi_k=0 for k=0,1, L\\phi_k=k(k-1)\\phi_{k-2}, for k=2,3,... and all \\phi_k satisfy certain prescribed initial conditions. We study the transmutation operators related to L in terms of the transformation of powers of the independent variable {(x-x_{0})^k}_{k=0}^{\\infty} to the elements of the L-basis and establish a precise form of the transmutation operator realizing this transformation. We use this transmutation operator to establish a completeness of an infinite system of solutions of the stationary Schr\\"odinger equation from a certain class. The system of solutions is obtained as an application of the theory of bicomplex pseudoanalytic functions and its completeness was a long sought result. Its use for constructing reproducing kernels and solving boundary and eigenvalue problems has been considered even without the required completeness justification. The obtained result on the completeness opens the way for further development and application of the tools of pseudoanalytic function theory.

Hugo M. Campos; Vladislav V. Kravchenko; Sergii M. Torba

2011-09-27

432

Influence of transmutation on microstructure, density change, and embrittlement of vanadium and vanadium alloys irradiated in HFIR  

SciTech Connect

Addition of 1 at.% nickel to vanadium and V-10Ti, followed by irradiation along with the nickel-free metals in HFIR to 2.3 {times} 10{sup 22}n cm{sup {minus}2}, E > 0.1MeV (corresponding to 17.7 dpa) at 400 C, has been used to study the influence of helium on microstructural evolution and embrittlement. Approximately 15.3% of the vanadium transmuted to chromium in these alloys. The {approximately}50 appm helium generated from the {sup 58}Ni(n,{gamma}){sup 59}Ni(n,{alpha}){sup 56}Fe sequence was found to exert much less influence than either the nickel directly or the chromium formed by transmutation. The V-10Ti and V-10Ti-1Ni alloys developed an extreme fragility and broke into smaller pieces in response to minor physical insults during density measurements. A similar behavior was not observed in pure V or V-1Ni. Helium`s role in determination of mechanical properties and embrittlement of vanadium alloys in HFIR is overshadowed by the influence of alloying elements such as titanium and chromium. Both elements have been shown to increase the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) rather rapidly in the region of 10% (Cr + Ti). Since Cr is produced by transmutation of V, this is a possible mechanism for the embrittlement. Large effects on the DBTT may have also resulted from uncontrolled accumulation of interstitial elements such as C, N, and O during irradiation.

Ohnuki, S.; Takahashi, H. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan); Shiba, K.; Hishinuma, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai (Japan); Pawel, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Garner, F.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-06-01

433

Determination of transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. 1997 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'A team from two national laboratories is studying transmutation effects in crystalline waste forms. Analyses are being done with 18 year old samples of {sup 137}Cs-bearing pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6} \\267 0.5 H{sub 2}O) obtained from a French company. These samples are unique in that the pollucite was made with various amounts of {sup 137}Cs, which was then sealed in welded stainless- steel capsules to be used as tumor irradiation sources. Over the past 18 years, the {sup 137}Cs has been decaying to stable Ba in the capsules, i.e., in the absence of atmospheric effects. This material serves as an analogue to a crystalline waste form in which such a transmutation occurs to possibly disrupt the integrity of the original waste form. Work this year consisted of determining the construction of the capsule and state of the pollucite in the absence of details about these components from the French company. The authors have opened one capsule containing nonradioactive pollucite. The information on the construction of the stainless-steel capsule is useful for the work that the authors are preparing to do on capsules containing radioactive pollucite. Microscopic characterization of the nonradioactive pollucite revealed that there are at least two compounds in addition to pollucite: a Cs-silicate and a Cs-aluminosilicate (CsAlSiO{sub 4}). These findings may complicate the interpretation of the planned experiments using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (flourescence) have been used to characterize the nonradioactive pollucite. They have investigated the stability of the nonradioactive pollucite to {beta} radiation damage by use of 200 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope. The samples were found to become amorphous in less than 10 minutes with loss of Cs. This is equivalent to many more years of {beta} radiation damage than under normal decay of the {sup 137}Cs. In fact, the dose was equivalent to several thousand years of normal radiation damage from the decay of {sup 137}Cs. Of course, there would not be any {sup 137}Cs remaining after that length of time because the half-life of {sup 137}Cs is 30 y. Preparations have been started to study the radioactive pollucite samples at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. The calculations show that by thinning the base of the capsules the authors should be able to obtain about a factor of ten increase in the fluorescence signal. Procedures for thinning capsules containing the radioactive pollucite and examining the samples at the Stanford synchrotron are in place.'

Strachan, D.M.; Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Hess, N.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (US)

1997-01-01

434

Radiation doses to members of the U.S. population from ubiquitous radionuclides in the body: Part 1, autopsy and in vivo data.  

PubMed

This paper is Part 1 of a three-part series investigating steady-state effective dose rates to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling (222)Rn, (220)Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. In this work, it is assumed that instantaneous dose rates in target organs are proportional to steady-state radionuclide concentrations in source regions. The goal of Part 1 of this work was to review, summarize, and characterize all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Forty-five papers and reports were obtained and their data reviewed, and three data sets were obtained via private communication. The 45 radionuclides of interest are the (238)U series (14 nuclides), the actinium series (headed by (235)U; 11 nuclides), and the (232)Th series (11 nuclides); primordial radionuclides (87)Rb and (40)K; cosmogenic and fallout radionuclides (14)C and (3)H; and purely anthropogenic radionuclides (137)Cs-(137m)Ba, (129)I, and (90)Sr-(90)Y. Measurements judged to be relevant were available for only 15 of these radionuclides: (238)U, (235)U, (234)U, (232)Th, (230)Th, (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (137)Cs, (87)Rb, (40)K, (14)C, and (3)H. Recent and relevant measurements were not available for (129)I and (90)Sr-(90)Y. A total of 11,741 radionuclide concentration measurements were found in one or more tissues or organs from 14 states. Data on age, gender, geographic locations, height, and weight of subjects were available only sporadically. Too often authors did not provide meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements, so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. The following papers detail how these shortcomings are overcome to achieve the goals of the three-part series. PMID:21350344

Watson, David J; Strom, Daniel J

2011-04-01

435

Mathematical simulation of sediment and radionuclide transport in estuaries  

SciTech Connect

The finite element model LFESCOT (Flow, Energy, Salinity, Sediment and Contaminant Transport Model) was synthesized under this study to simulate radionuclide transport in estuaries to obtain accurate radionuclide distributions which are affected by these factors: time variance, three-dimensional flow, temperature, salinity, and sediments. Because sediment transport and radionuclide adsorption/desorption depend strongly on sizes or types of sediments, FLESCOT simulates sediment and a sediment-sorbed radionuclide for the total of three sediment-size fractions (or sediment types) of both cohesive and noncohesive sediments. It also calculates changes of estuarine bed conditions, including bed elevation changes due to sediment erosion/deposition, and three-dimensional distributions of three bed sediment sizes and sediment-sorbed radionuclides within the bed. Although the model was synthesized for radionuclide transport, it is general enough to also handle other contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, or toxic chemicals. The model was checked for its capability for flow, water surface elevation change, salinity, sediment and radionuclide transport under various simple conditions first, confirming the general validity of the model's computational schemes. These tests also revealed that FLESCOT can use large aspect ratios of computational cells, which are necessary in handling long estuarine study areas. After these simple tests, FLESCOT was applied to the Hudson River estuary between Chelsea and the mouth of the river to examine how well the model can predict radionuclide transport through simulating tidally influenced three-dimensional flow, salinity, sediment and radionuclide movements with their interactions.

Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.

1982-11-01

436

Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M. [and others

1994-04-01

437

Effect of chelating agents on the migration of radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

It has been stated that chelate formation of radionuclides with chelating agents such as decontamination reagents (e.g., ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and natural organic compounds (e.g., fulvic and humic acids) found in groundwater significantly influence the migration behavior of radionuclides. They form extremely strong chelates with radionuclides and mobilizes these radionuclides from the radioactive waste (especially from low-level waste) repository. In this study, a new retardation factor incorporating a chelation effect is introduced. A general convection-dispersion transport equation that includes a degradation of solute caused by various physicochemical reactions in porous medium is used and solved by an analytical method.

Min Hoon Baik; Kun Jai Lee

1991-11-01

438

Transmutation and activation of reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel in molten salt cooled fusion power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron activation analysis was conducted for the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel used in flibe molten-salt cooled fusion blankets. After 22.4 MW yr/m 2 of neutron exposure, the RAFM steel first wall in a molten salt blanket with 40% lithium-6 enrichment in lithium was found to be within 1 mSv/h in contact dose rate after 100 yr of cooling. The contact dose rate drops to 30 and 20 ?Sv/h or less, respectively, when the cooling times are 300 and 500 yr after discharge. The RAFM steel discharged from the high-temperature shield component would be allowed for hands-on recycling after 100 yr of cooling, when the contact dose rate is 10 ?Sv/h or less. The most significant changes found in the RAFM steel first wall due to nuclear transmutation, are 10% decrease in W and 10% increase in Ti. Additionally, there are minor elements produced: Mn - <1.2%, V - <0.26%, Re - <0.2%, Ta - <0.08%, and Os - <0.1%, all in weight percent. The gaseous elements generated are H and He, and the, respectively, accumulated quantities are about 260 and 190 wppm.

Cheng, E. T.

2004-08-01

439

Plasmon transmutation: inducing new modes in nanoclusters by adding dielectric nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Planar clusters of coupled plasmonic nanoparticles support nanoscale electromagnetic "hot spots" and coherent effects, such as Fano resonances, with unique near and far field signatures, currently of prime interest for sensing applications. Here we show that plasmonic cluster properties can be substantially modified by the addition of individual, discrete dielectric nanoparticles at specific locations on the cluster, introducing new plasmon modes, or transmuting existing plasmon modes to new ones, in the resulting metallodielectric nanocomplex. Depositing a single carbon nanoparticle in the junction between a pair of adjacent nanodisks induces a metal-dielectric-metal quadrupolar plasmon mode. In a ten-membered cluster, placement of several carbon nanoparticles in junctions between multiple adjacent nanoparticles introduces a collective magnetic plasmon mode into the Fano dip, giving rise to an additional subradiant mode in the metallodielectric nanocluster response. These examples illustrate that adding dielectric nanoparticles to metallic nanoclusters expands the number and types of plasmon modes supported by these new mixed-media nanoscale assemblies. PMID:22924627

Wen, Fangfang; Ye, Jian; Liu, Na; Van Dorpe, Pol; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

2012-09-12

440

Assessment of SFR fuel pin performance codes under advanced fuel for minor actinide transmutation  

SciTech Connect

Americium is a strong contributor to the long term radiotoxicity of high activity nuclear waste. Transmutation by irradiation in nuclear reactors of long-lived nuclides like {sup 241}Am is, therefore, an option for the reduction of radiotoxicity and residual power packages as well as the repository area. In the SUPERFACT Experiment four different oxide fuels containing high and low concentrations of {sup 237}Np and {sup 241}Am, representing the homogeneous and heterogeneous in-pile recycling concepts, were irradiated in the PHENIX reactor. The behavior of advanced fuel materials with minor actinide needs to be fully characterized, understood and modeled in order to optimize the design of this kind of fuel elements and to evaluate its performances. This paper assesses the current predictability of fuel performance codes TRANSURANUS and GERMINAL V2 on the basis of post irradiation examinations of the SUPERFACT experiment for pins with low minor actinide content. Their predictions have been compared to measured data in terms of geometrical changes of fuel and cladding, fission gases behavior and actinide and fission product distributions. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results, although improvements are also pointed out for further studies, especially if larger content of minor actinide will be taken into account in the codes. (authors)

Bouineau, V.; Lainet, M.; Chauvin, N.; Pelletier, M. [French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission - CEA, CEA Cadarache, DEN/DEC/SESC, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Di Marcello, V.; Van Uffelen, P.; Walker, C. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D- 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2013-07-01

441

Transmutations of supersymmetry through soliton scattering, and self-consistent condensates  

E-print Network

We consider the two most general families of the (1+1)D Dirac systems with transparent scalar potentials, and two related families of the paired reflectionless Schrodinger operators. The ordinary N=2 supersymmetry for such Schrodinger pairs is enlarged up to an exotic N=4 nonlinear centrally extended supersymmetric structure, which involves two bosonic integrals composed from the Lax-Novikov operators for the stationary Korteweg-de Vries hierarchy. Each associated single Dirac system displays a proper N=2 nonlinear supersymmetry with a non-standard grading operator. One of the two families of the first and second order systems exhibits the unbroken supersymmetry, while another is described by the broken exotic supersymmetry. The two families are shown to be mutually transmuted by applying a certain limit procedure to the soliton scattering data. We relate the topologically trivial and nontrivial transparent potentials with self-consistent inhomogeneous condensates in Bogoliubov-de Gennes and Gross-Neveu models, and indicate the exotic N=4 nonlinear supersymmetry of the paired reflectionless Dirac systems.

Adrian Arancibia; Mikhail S. Plyushchay

2014-01-27

442

Transmutations of supersymmetry through soliton scattering and self-consistent condensates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the two most general families of the (1+1)D Dirac systems with transparent scalar potentials and two related families of the paired reflectionless Schrödinger operators. The ordinary N=2 supersymmetry for such Schrödinger pairs is enlarged up to an exotic N=4 nonlinear centrally extended supersymmetric structure, which involves two bosonic integrals composed from the Lax-Novikov operators for the stationary Korteweg-de Vries hierarchy. Each associated single Dirac system displays a proper N=2 nonlinear supersymmetry with a nonstandard grading operator. One of the two families of the first- and second-order systems exhibits the unbroken supersymmetry, while another is described by the broken exotic supersymmetry. The two families are shown to be mutually transmuted by applying a certain limit procedure to the soliton scattering data. We relate the topologically trivial and nontrivial transparent potentials with self-consistent inhomogeneous condensates in the Bogoliubov-de Gennes and Gross-Neveu models and indicate the exotic N=4 nonlinear supersymmetry of the paired reflectionless Dirac systems.

Arancibia, Adrián; Plyushchay, Mikhail S.

2014-07-01

443

Spallation radiation damage and dosimetry for accelerator transmutation of waste applications  

SciTech Connect

Proposals are currently being made for systems to treat radioactive waste based on the use of accelerator-driven neutron sources. A linear proton accelerator with energies as high as 1600 MeV and currents up to 250 ma are anticipated for the driver. The neutron fluxes may reach up to 10{sup 20} neutrons/m{sup 2}s as generated by the spallation reactions that occur when the protons strike target materials. Calculations are described to determine radiation fluxes and flux spectra inherent in such systems and to estimate likely radiation effects on system components. The calculations use LAHET, a Monte Carlo high-energy transport code, and MCNP, a generalized-geometry, coupled neutron-photon Monte Carlo transport code. Cross sections for displacement and helium production are presented for spallation neutrons of energies from 21 MeV to 1600 MeV for Inconel 718 (Ni plus 18.5, 18.5, 5.1, and 3 wt % of Cr, Fe, Nb, and Mo, respectively), an alloy that is used for the proton beam entry window in several accelerators. In addition, results for this alloy are presented for the primary knocked-on atom (PKA) spectrum and the transmutation yield for 1600 MeV incident neutrons.

Wechsler, M.S.; Lin, C. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Ferguson, P.D. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Sommer, W.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-10-01

444

Neutron Data Measurements for Energy Applications and Nuclear Waste Transmutation at JRC-IRMM  

SciTech Connect

Studies in nuclear energy and transmutation of radioactive waste require neutron data for conceptual and performance studies, to determine the viability of advanced ideas such as an Accelerator Driven System and to fix the safety margins of any new concepts. IRMM's neutron data-measurement program addresses data needs associated with Accelerator Driven Systems, management of radioactive waste, the thorium fuel cycle, safety issues of conventional reactors. Ongoing and recently completed activities include capture and total cross-section measurements for 127,129I, 206Pb, and 232Th; precision total cross-section measurements for 240,242Pu; inelastic-scattering measurements for 52Cr, 58Ni, 209Bi, and 207Pb; (n,2n) measurements for 207Pb, and (n,xp); and (n,x{alpha}) and (n,xn) cross-section measurements with the activation technique. Capture, total, and inelastic cross-section measurements make use of the pulsed white neutron source Gelina, whereas activation cross sections are determined at the Van de Graaff laboratory. An overview will be given of the above-mentioned activities and an outlook will be provided for the measurements in the near future.

Plompen, Arjan [EC-JRC Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Retieseweg 111, 2440 Geel (Belgium)

2005-05-24

445

Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

1999-03-23

446

Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

Bray, Lane A. (Richland, WA); Ryan, Jack L. (West Richland, WA)

1999-01-01

447

COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The CPFM technology is designed to remove trace to moderate levels of nontritium radionuclides and heavy metal pollutants from water. he technology uses a proprietary compound that consists of inorganic, oxide-based granules. his mixed is designed to remove heavy metals and radio...

448

COLLOID POLISHING FILTER METHOD - FILTER FLOW TECHNOLOGY, INC. - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The CPFM technology is designed to remove trace to moderate levels of nontritium radionuclides and heavy metal pollutants from water. The technology uses a proprietary compound that consists of inorganic, oxide-based granules. This mixed is designed to remove heavy metals and rad...

449

Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.  

PubMed Central

The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2 x 10(2). Although these are hypothetical risks, they show that the radiologic impact of man-made sources is very small compared to the effects of normal background radiation. PMID:8635444

Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

1995-01-01

450

Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides  

SciTech Connect

We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

Welch, M.J.

1992-06-01

451

An overview of BORIS: Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils.  

PubMed

The ability to predict the consequences of an accidental release of radionuclides relies mainly on the level of understanding of the mechanisms involved in radionuclide interactions with different components of agricultural and natural ecosystems and their formalisation into predictive models. Numerous studies and databases on contaminated agricultural and natural areas have been obtained, but their use to enhance our prediction ability has been largely limited by their unresolved variability. Such variability seems to stem from incomplete knowledge about radionuclide interactions with the soil matrix, soil moisture, and biological elements in the soil and additional pollutants, which may be found in such soils. In the 5th European Framework Programme entitled Bioavailability of Radionuclides in Soils (BORIS), we investigated the role of the abiotic (soil components and soil structure) and biological elements (organic compounds, plants, mycorrhiza, and microbes) in radionuclide sorption/desorption in soils and radionuclide uptake/release by plants. Because of the importance of their radioisotopes, the bioavailability of three elements, caesium, strontium, and technetium has been followed. The role of one additional non-radioactive pollutant (copper) has been scrutinised in some cases. Role of microorganisms (e.g., K(d) for caesium and strontium in organic soils is much greater in the presence of microorganisms than in their absence), plant physiology (e.g., changes in plant physiology affect radionuclide uptake by plants), and the presence of mycorrhizal fungi (e.g., interferes with the uptake of radionuclides by plants) have been demonstrated. Knowledge acquired from these experiments has been incorporated into two mechanistic models CHEMFAST and BIORUR, specifically modelling radionuclide sorption/desorption from soil matrices and radionuclide uptake by/release from plants. These mechanistic models have been incorporated into an assessment model to enhance its prediction ability by introducing the concept of bioavailability factor for radionuclides. PMID:18061320

Tamponnet, C; Martin-Garin, A; Gonze, M-A; Parekh, N; Vallejo, R; Sauras-Yera, T; Casadesus, J; Plassard, C; Staunton, S; Norden, M; Avila, R; Shaw, G

2008-05-01

452

Current status of radionuclide scrotal imaging  

SciTech Connect

Scrotal imaging with technetium-99m sodium pertechnetate consists of a radionuclide angiogram and static scrotal scans. Utilization of this study in patients presenting with an acute scrotum can dramatically reduce the number of surgical explorations for acute epididymitis. It can also aid in other aspects of differential diagnosis in patients presenting with either an acutely enlarged and/or painful scrotum or a scrotal mass. Ambiguities in previous descriptions of perfusion through the spermatic and extraspermatic cord vessels are described and distinguished from scrotal perfusion. The clinical and scintigraphic spectrum of testicular torsion, including spontaneous detorsion, early acute testicular torsion, midphase testicular torsion, and late phase or ''missed testicular torsion,'' is discussed and illustrated. The variety of patterns seen in acute epididymitis, including lateral and medial epididymal location, and focal epididymitis are described, as is the appearance of hydrocele as both a primary and secondary entity. The relationship of scrotal imaging to the overall clinical presentation and evaluation of these patients is emphasized in testicular torsion, torsion of the testicular appendages, epididymitis, abscess, trauma, tumor, spermatocele, and varicocele. The techniques, clinical utility, and relationship to radionuclide imaging of Doppler ultrasound and gray scale ultrasound scanning are reviewed. Doppler ultrasound results in many false negative studies in testicular torsion. Gray scale ultrasound is useful in clarifying the nature of scrotal masses.

Holder, L.E.; Melloul, M.; Chen, D.

1981-10-01

453

Preparation of proton rich radionuclides in support of radiochemical analysis.  

PubMed

The production of proton rich radionuclides supports a wide range of radiochemical analyses via radioactive yield tracers ((95m)Tc and (236)Pu). In recent years, NPL and the University of Birmingham cyclotron have collaborated to produce these, and other, radionuclides. PMID:22658338

Jerome, Simon; Larijani, Cyrus; Parker, David

2012-09-01

454

21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...radionuclide brachytherapy source is a device that consists of a radionuclide which may be enclosed in a sealed container made of gold, titanium, stainless steel, or platinum and intended for medical purposes to be placed onto a body surface or into a body cavity...

2011-04-01

455

Containment of Toxic Metals and Radionuclides in Porous and Fractured  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to provide an improved understanding and predictive capability of the mechanisms that allow metal-reducing bacteria to be effective in the bioremediation of subsurface environments contaminated with toxic metals and radionuclides. The study is motivated by the likelihood that subsurface microbial activity can effectively alter the redox state of toxic metals and radionuclides so that

Philip M. Jardine; James Saiers; Scott E. Fendorf

1999-01-01

456

Dosimetry of Heterogeneously Distributed Radionuclides with Applications to Radioimmunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides has been investigated for applications to radioimmunotherapy. The assumptions inherent in the MIRD method of dose calculation are shown to be inappropriate to the task of dosimetry for nonuniformly distributed radionuclides emitting lowly penetrating radiations. A method using the concept of dose point kernels has been developed, expanding the MIRD method to regions of

Douglas John Simpkin

1991-01-01

457

Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior

Qin-Hong Hu; Jian-Qing Weng; Jin-Sheng Wang

2010-01-01

458

Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with low concentrations of radionuclides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecosystems throughout the world have been contaminated with radionuclides by above-ground nuclear testing, nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear power generation. Radioisotopes characteristic of nuclear fission, such as 137Cs and 90Sr, that are released into the environment can become more concentrated as they move up the food chain often becoming human health hazards. Natural environmental processes will redistribute long lived radionuclides

James A. Entry; Nan C. Vance; Melinda A. Hamilton; Darlene Zabowski; Lidia S. Watrud; Domy C. Adriano

1996-01-01

459

Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

2008-08-01

460

Decontamination of Radionuclides from Concrete During and After Thermal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project will determine the effect of heating concrete on its engineering properties and the potential to aid in removal of common DOE radionuclide contaminants including 137Cs, 90Sr, 60Co, and U. In the chemical properties subtask, effects on direct volatilization of radionuclides during heating, as well as their subsequent extractability behavior, will be established over a range of temperatures up

Brian P. Spalding; Zdenek P. Bazant; Walter P. Murphy

2000-01-01