Science.gov

Sample records for radioprotection des patients

  1. Radioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Greenberger, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    Over 40% of cancer patients will require radiation therapy during management of their disease. Although radiation therapy improves the survival of a significant number of cancer patients, both acute radiation toxicity (that which manifests during a course of clinical radiotherapy or shortly thereafter), and late toxicity (developing months to years after completion of radiotherapy) compromise overall outcomes for successfully treated cancer patients. PMID:19414422

  2. Radioprotective Effect of Moderate Wine Consumption in Patients With Breast Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Morganti, Alessio G.; Digesu, Cinzia; Panunzi, Simona; De Gaetano, Andrea; Macchia, Gabriella Deodato, Francesco; Cece, M. Grazia; Cirocco, Massimo; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Iacoviello, Licia; Valentini, Vincenzo; Cellini, Numa; Gaetano, Giovanni de

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: Given the high cost and side effects of radioprotective agents such as amifostine, attention has been focused on potentially equally effective but less expensive and toxic natural substances. We evaluated the potential radioprotective effects of wine in preventing skin toxicity in patients with breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Before treatment, the medical history and habits of patients were assessed and the information recorded in their clinical folders. Patients were divided into three groups based on the dose/fractionation scheme used: control group, 60.4 Gy (standard technique); Modulated Accelerated Radiotherapy in Adjuvant treatment of breast cancer (MARA)-1 protocol group, 44 Gy (concomitant boost to tumoral bed); and MARA-2 protocol group, 60 Gy (concomitant boost to tumoral bed). The impact of the following variables on acute skin toxicity was evaluated by chart review: radiotherapy protocol, planning target volume (PTV), comorbidity (e.g., hypertension and diabetes), hemoglobin level before therapy, adjuvant hormone therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and drinking habits. Results: The study population consisted of 348 patients. More severe skin toxicity was significantly associated with the radiotherapy protocol (p < 0.001) and median PTV (p = 0.005). In addition, the incidence of acute toxicity of Grade 2 or greater was higher in patients without alcohol intake (38.4% vs. 22.3%, p = 0.021). The daily amount of alcohol intake also influenced the incidence of skin toxicity, with an incidence of 38.4% in patients with no wine intake, 31.8% in patients drinking half a glass per day, 13.6% in patients drinking one glass per day, and 35.0% in patients drinking two glasses per day. Multivariate analysis showed that wine intake, PTV, and radiotherapy protocol were all significantly correlated with acute toxicity. Conclusions: Our results indicate that wine may have a radioprotective effect; however, prospective studies are needed to

  3. A Randomized, Double-Blind Pilot Trial of Hydrolyzed Rice Bran versus Placebo for Radioprotective Effect on Acute Gastroenteritis Secondary to Chemoradiotherapy in Patients with Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Yoshiyuki; Mizuno, Mika; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Nakahara, Rie; Kubota, Seiji; Ito, Junji; Okada, Tohru; Kawamura, Mariko; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Naganawa, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of hydrolyzed rice bran (HRB) on acute gastroenteritis due to chemoradiotherapy for treatment of cervical cancer. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted as an exploratory investigation of the colitis-inhibiting effects of HRB in alleviating acute-phase gastrointestinal side effects of chemoradiotherapy. The study involved 20 patients (10 in the HRB group, 10 in the control group). The patients in the control group underwent the same chemoradiotherapy regimen as those in the HRB group, but they received a placebo instead of HRB. The diarrheal side effect assessment score was lower in the HRB than control group, and a trend toward a reduction in diarrhea symptoms was observed with the oral intake of HRB. Additionally, no significant difference was observed in the administration of intestinal regulators and antidiarrheal agents, but again the assessment score was lower in the HRB than control group, and diarrhea symptoms were alleviated with the oral intake of HRB. A trend toward no need for strong antidiarrheal agents was seen. Although this study was an exploratory clinical trial, the results suggest that HRB may relieve diarrhea, an acute-phase gastrointestinal side effect of chemoradiotherapy. PMID:26693248

  4. Radioprotective Agents: Strategies and Translational Advances.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Mohammad Zahid; Ranjan, Atul; Kaur, Navrinder; Sur, Souvik; Tandon, Vibha

    2016-04-01

    Radioprotectors are agents required to protect biological system exposed to radiation, either naturally or through radiation leakage, and they protect normal cells from radiation injury in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. It is imperative to study radioprotectors and their mechanism of action comprehensively, looking at their potential therapeutic applications. This review intimately chronicles the rich intellectual, pharmacological story of natural and synthetic radioprotectors. A continuous effort is going on by researchers to develop clinically promising radioprotective agents. In this article, for the first time we have discussed the impact of radioprotectors on different signaling pathways in cells, which will create a basis for scientific community working in this area to develop novel molecules with better therapeutic efficacy. The bright future of exceptionally noncytotoxic derivatives of bisbenzimidazoles is also described as radiomodulators. Amifostine, an effective radioprotectant, has been approved by the FDA for limited clinical use. However, due to its adverse side effects, it is not routinely used clinically. Recently, CBLB502 and several analog of a peptide are under clinical trial and showed high success against radiotherapy in cancer. This article reviews the different types of radioprotective agents with emphasis on the strategies for the development of novel radioprotectors for drug development. In addition, direction for future strategies relevant to the development of radioprotectors is also addressed. PMID:26807693

  5. La planification préalable des soins pour les patients en pédiatrie

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Les progrès médicaux et technologiques ont permis d’ac-croître les taux de survie et d’améliorer la qualité de vie des nourrissons, des enfants et des adolescents ayant des maladies chroniques mettant la vie en danger. La planifi-cation préalable des soins inclut le processus relié aux discussions sur les traitements essentiels au maintien de la survie et la détermination des objectifs des soins de longue durée. Les dispensateurs de soins pédiatriques ont l’obligation éthique d’assimiler cet aspect des soins médicaux. Le présent document de principes vise à aider les dispensateurs de soins à discuter de la planification préalable des soins des patients pédiatriques dans diverses situations. La planification préalable des soins exige des communications efficaces afin de clarifier les objectifs des soins et de s’entendre sur les traitements pertinents ou non pour réaliser ces objectifs, y compris les mesures de réanimation et les mesures palliatives.

  6. Alpha-2-macroglobulin as a radioprotective agent: a review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xueying; Kong, Xiangbo; Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jieyu; Li, Huanyang; Cao, Wanting; Ge, Yaping

    2014-01-01

    Radiation is an important modality in cancer treatment, and eighty percent of cancer patients need radiotherapy at some point during their clinical management. However, radiation-induced damage to normal tissues restricts the therapeutic doses of radiation that can be delivered to tumours and thereby limits the effectiveness of the treatment. The use of radioprotectors represents an obvious strategy to obtain better tumour control using a higher dose in radiotherapy. However, most of the synthetic radioprotective compounds studied have shown inadequate clinical efficacy owing to their inherent toxicity and high cost. Hence, the development of radioprotective agents with lower toxicity and an extended window of protection has attracted a great deal of attention, and the identification of alternative agents that are less toxic and highly effective is an absolute necessity. Recent studies have shown that alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M) possesses radioprotective effects. α2M is a tetrameric, disulfide-rich plasma glycoprotein that functions as a non-selective inhibitor of different types of non-specific proteases and as a carrier of cytokines, growth factors, and hormones. α2M induces protein factors whose interplay underlies radioprotection, which supports the idea that α2M is the central effector of natural radioprotection in the rat. Pretreatment with α2M has also induced a significant reduction of irradiation-induced DNA damage and the complete restoration of liver and body weight. Mihailović et al. concluded that the radioprotection provided by α2M was in part mediated through cytoprotection of new blood cells produced in the bone marrow; these authors also indicated that an important aspect of the radioprotective effect of amifostine was the result of the induction of the endogenous cytoprotective capability of α2M. The radioprotective effects of α2M are possibly due to antioxidant, anti-fibrosis, and anti-inflammatory functions, as well as the maintenance

  7. Alpha-2-macroglobulin as a radioprotective agent: a review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueying; Kong, Xiangbo; Zhang, Zhaoqiang; Chen, Wei; Chen, Jieyu; Li, Huanyang; Cao, Wanting; Ge, Yaping; Fang, Silian

    2014-10-01

    Radiation is an important modality in cancer treatment, and eighty percent of cancer patients need radiotherapy at some point during their clinical management. However, radiation-induced damage to normal tissues restricts the therapeutic doses of radiation that can be delivered to tumours and thereby limits the effectiveness of the treatment. The use of radioprotectors represents an obvious strategy to obtain better tumour control using a higher dose in radiotherapy. However, most of the synthetic radioprotective compounds studied have shown inadequate clinical efficacy owing to their inherent toxicity and high cost. Hence, the development of radioprotective agents with lower toxicity and an extended window of protection has attracted a great deal of attention, and the identification of alternative agents that are less toxic and highly effective is an absolute necessity. Recent studies have shown that alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2M) possesses radioprotective effects. α2M is a tetrameric, disulfide-rich plasma glycoprotein that functions as a non-selective inhibitor of different types of non-specific proteases and as a carrier of cytokines, growth factors, and hormones. α2M induces protein factors whose interplay underlies radioprotection, which supports the idea that α2M is the central effector of natural radioprotection in the rat. Pretreatment with α2M has also induced a significant reduction of irradiation-induced DNA damage and the complete restoration of liver and body weight. Mihailović et al. concluded that the radioprotection provided by α2M was in part mediated through cytoprotection of new blood cells produced in the bone marrow; these authors also indicated that an important aspect of the radioprotective effect of amifostine was the result of the induction of the endogenous cytoprotective capability of α2M. The radioprotective effects of α2M are possibly due to antioxidant, anti-fibrosis, and anti-inflammatory functions, as well as the maintenance

  8. Nutritional approaches to radioprotection: vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Sree; Srinivasan, Venkataraman; Toles, Raymond; Jobe, Lennox; Seed, Thomas M

    2002-02-01

    Low-level radiation injury is dependent on the radiation dose and dose rate. The major military use of any potential radioprotectant is to prevent the short-term effects of lethality and the long-term effects of cancer and other pathologies from radiation exposure that may occur in a nuclear battlefield or in a nuclear material contaminated field of operation. Therefore, a radioprotectant should not affect the ability of military personnel to perform tasks. Because exposure to ionizing radiation induces free radical species, effective antioxidants, either alone or in combination with other agents, can be used as potential radioprotectors. To test this hypothesis, we studied vitamin E for its radioprotective efficacy. Using CD2F1 male mice as the model system, we observed that vitamin E at a dose of 400 IU/kg acts as a good radioprotectant against lethal doses of cobalt-60 radiation. Vitamin E was more efficacious when given subcutaneously than when given orally. PMID:11873518

  9. Experimental study and evaluation of radioprotective drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. E.; Thomson, J. F.

    1968-01-01

    Experimental study evaluates radioprotective drugs administered before exposure either orally or intravenously. Specifically studied are the sources of radiation, choice of radiation dose, choice of animals, administration of drugs, the toxicity of protective agents and types of protective drug.

  10. The mangement of DES-exposed patients at the Medical College of Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, A W

    1976-06-01

    Since diethylstilbestrol (DES)-exposed offspring are mostly asymptomatic the 1st problem is finding these patients. Maternity charts have been examined to determine if DES was taken when the patient was pregnant. New patients in the range of possible DES mothers are questioned regarding DES history. Referring physicians are sent a history of any DES exposure. Where a doubt exists colposcopic examination is made. At the 1st visit Papanicolaou (Pap) smears are taken from the cervix and vaginal walls and colposcopy is done to rule out carcinoma. Intensive colposcopy is done after admission to the hospital. General anesthesia is then used. Areas for excisional biopsies are determined and 8 or 10 excisional biopsies may be taken. Biopsy wounds may be sutured. or Monsel's solution applied to stop bleeding of lesser lesions. Schiller's iodine is applied to determine the extent of cauterization. All abnormal areas are cauterized. After intensive colposcopy a dilatation and curettage may be done. A 2-inch pack is placed in the vagina after application of Sultrin cream. Each piece of removed tissue is put in a separate jar and a sketch is drawn to inform the pathologist of its original site. Glandular tissue from the vagina means adenosis but from the cervix it may be a common finding. The next morning the vaginal pack is removed and the patient is discharged. 2-4 weeks later, a colposcopic examination is made to ensure healing. A repeat Pap smear is made after 6 months. After 12 months the patient is reevaluated, Vaginal tampons are advised at menstruation to prevent vaginal adhesions. If a carcinoma is found colposcopy is needed to determine the extent of indicated surgery or irradiation therapy. Others report doing colposcopy at shorter intervals with no therapy until changes are found. This method is advised only when follow-up is complete. PMID:957353

  11. Development of Antioxidant COX-2 Inhibitors as Radioprotective Agents for Radiation Therapy—A Hypothesis-Driven Review

    PubMed Central

    Laube, Markus; Kniess, Torsten; Pietzsch, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) evolved to be a primary treatment modality for cancer patients. Unfortunately, the cure or relief of symptoms is still accompanied by radiation-induced side effects with severe acute and late pathophysiological consequences. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are potentially useful in this regard because radioprotection of normal tissue and/or radiosensitizing effects on tumor tissue have been described for several compounds of this structurally diverse class. This review aims to substantiate the hypothesis that antioxidant COX-2 inhibitors are promising radioprotectants because of intercepting radiation-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in normal tissue, especially the vascular system. For this, literature reporting on COX inhibitors exerting radioprotective and/or radiosensitizing action as well as on antioxidant COX inhibitors will be reviewed comprehensively with the aim to find cross-points of both and, by that, stimulate further research in the field of radioprotective agents. PMID:27104573

  12. Development of Antioxidant COX-2 Inhibitors as Radioprotective Agents for Radiation Therapy-A Hypothesis-Driven Review.

    PubMed

    Laube, Markus; Kniess, Torsten; Pietzsch, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) evolved to be a primary treatment modality for cancer patients. Unfortunately, the cure or relief of symptoms is still accompanied by radiation-induced side effects with severe acute and late pathophysiological consequences. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) are potentially useful in this regard because radioprotection of normal tissue and/or radiosensitizing effects on tumor tissue have been described for several compounds of this structurally diverse class. This review aims to substantiate the hypothesis that antioxidant COX-2 inhibitors are promising radioprotectants because of intercepting radiation-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in normal tissue, especially the vascular system. For this, literature reporting on COX inhibitors exerting radioprotective and/or radiosensitizing action as well as on antioxidant COX inhibitors will be reviewed comprehensively with the aim to find cross-points of both and, by that, stimulate further research in the field of radioprotective agents. PMID:27104573

  13. Oral antioxidants for radioprotection during medical imaging examinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velauthapillai, Nivethan

    The oncogenic effect of ionizing radiation (IR) is clearly established and occurs in response to DNA damage. Many diagnostic imaging exams make use of IR and the oncogenic risk of IR-based imaging has been calculated. We hypothesized that the DNA damage sustained from IR exposure during medical imaging exams could be reduced by pre-medicating patients with antioxidants. First, we tested and validated a method for measuring DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. Afterwards, we conducted a pilot clinical study in which we administered oral antioxidants to patients undergoing bone scans, prior to radiotracer injection. We showed that oral antioxidant pre-medication reduced the number of DSBs in PBMCs induced by radiotracer injection. Our study shows proof-of-principle for this simple and inexpensive approach to radioprotection in the clinical setting.

  14. Glucan: mechanisms involved in its radioprotective effect

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, M.L.; D'Alesandro, M.M.; Brook, I.; Blakely, W.F.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    It has generally been accepted that most biologically derived agents that are radioprotective in the hemopoietic-syndrome dose range (eg, endotoxin, Bacillus Calmette Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum, etc) exert their beneficial properties by enhancing hemopoietic recovery and hence, by regenerating the host's ability to resist life-threatening opportunistic infections. However, using glucan as a hemopoietic stimulant/radioprotectant, the authors demonstrated the host resistance to opportunistic infection is enhanced in mice even prior to the detection of significant hemopoietic regeneration. This early enhanced resistance microbial invasion in glucan-treated irradiated mice could be correlated with enhanced and/or prolonged macrophage (but not granulocyte) function. These results suggest that early after irradiation glucan may mediate its radioprotection by enhancing resistance to microbial invasion via mechanisms not necessarily predicated on hemopoietic recovery. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests that glucan can also function as an effective free-radical scavenger. Because macrophages have been shown to selectively phagocytize and sequester glucan, the possibility that these specific cells may be protected by virtue of glucan's scavenging ability is also suggested.

  15. Glucan: mechanisms involved in its radioprotective effect

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, M.L.; D'Alesandro, M.M.; Brook, I.; Blakely, W.F.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    It has generally been accepted that most biologically derived agents that are radioprotective in the hemopoietic-syndrome dose range (eg, endotoxin, Bacillus Calmette Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum, etc) exert their beneficial properties by enhancing hemopoietic recovery and hence, by regenerating the host's ability to resist life-threatening opportunistic infections. However, using glucan as a hemopoietic stimulant/radioprotectant, we have demonstrated that host resistance to opportunistic infection is enhanced in these mice even prior to the detection of significant hemopoietic regeneration. This early enhanced resistance to microbial invasion in glucan-treated irradiated mice could be correlated with enhanced and/or prolonged macrophage (but not granulocyte) function. These results suggest that early after irradiation glucan may mediate its radioprotection by enhancing resistance to microbial invasion via mechanisms not necessarily predicated on hemopoietic recovery. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests that glucan can also function as an effective free-radical scavenger. Because macrophages have been shown to selectively phagocytize and sequester glucan, the possibility that these specific cells may be protected by virtue of glucan's scavenging ability is also suggested.

  16. Influence du comportement des accompagnants sur le vécu des patients admis pour hémorragies digestives hautes au CHU campus de Lomé (Togo)

    PubMed Central

    Bagny, Aklesso; Dusabe, Angelique; Bouglouga, Oumboma; Lawson-ananisoh, Mawuli Late; Kaaga, Yeba Laconi; Djibril, Mohaman Awalou; Soedje, Kokou Mensah; Dassa, Simliwa Kolou; Redah, Datouda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'hémorragie digestive haute est une urgence, qui constitue souvent pour les patients un danger mortel suscitant inquiétude et agitation. Dans cet état, le patient dépend de ses accompagnants pour ses soins et pour honorer le traitement; mais souvent, il a été observé une discordance entre l'urgence et les comportements des accompagnants. Le but de cette étude était de décrire les facteurs socioéconomiques et psychologiques pouvant influencer les comportements des accompagnants des patients admis pour HDH, estimer l'indice de relation entre ces comportements et les facteurs associés d'une part et le vécu des patients admis pour HDH d'autre part. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude prospective menée de Septembre 2010 à Juin 2011 (soit 10 mois). Nous avions utilisé l'entretien semi-dirigé et l'observation directe pour collecter nos données, ces dernières avaient été traitées par les méthodes statistiques et d'analyse de contenu. Résultats Dans la présente étude, les comportements des accompagnants des patients admis pour HDH sont en majorité marqués par l'abandon (84%) et le manque de sollicitude (80,2%). Ces comportements sont souvent stimulés par les facteurs socioéconomiques tels que les difficultés économiques (83,2%), des conflits intrafamiliaux (85,1%) et des représentations (maladie incurable ou envoûtement) de la maladie par les accompagnants (73,3%) des cas. Quant aux patients, ils vivent ces comportements comme étant des menaces de mort ou des rejets (77,20%) et comme étant une dévalorisation ou une humiliation de la part de leurs accompagnants (70,30%). Les résultats confirment l'existence de lien significatif entre les comportements des accompagnants et les facteurs socio économiques, entre les comportements des accompagnants et des facteurs psychologiques, et entre le vécu des patients admis pour l'HDH et les comportements des accompagnants. Conclusion Des études ultérieures devraient aborder les points

  17. Radio-protective role of antioxidant agents

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Mahdavi, Seied Rabie; Mohseni, Mehran

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species which attack various cellular components. Radio-protectors act as prophylactic agents to shield healthy cells and tissues from the harmful effects of radiation. Past research on synthetic radio-protectors has brought little success, primarily due to the various toxicity-related problems. Results of experimental research show that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and herbal products and melatonin, are protective against the damaging effects of radiation, with less toxicity and side effects. Therefore, we propose that in the future, antioxidant radio-protective agents may improve the therapeutic index in radiation oncology treatments. PMID:25992214

  18. Radioprotective agents for the prevention of side effects induced by radioiodine-131 therapy.

    PubMed

    Noaparast, Zohreh; Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal

    2013-08-01

    Radioiodine 131 ((131)I) has been used worldwide for the ablation of remnant thyroidal tissue after surgery or as the first-line treatment for Graves' disease. Although the use of (131)I is becoming increasingly prevalent, there is evidence suggesting that this treatment is associated with side effects such as salivary gland dysfunction and an increased risk of leukemia. This article aims to review the potential use of radioprotective agents and the side effects induced by (131)I therapy. Several synthetic and natural compounds have been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies. The protective agents reduced the toxicity of (131)I, mainly in the salivary glands, and mitigated the genetic damage through different mechanisms. There are limited clinical studies evaluating the use of radioprotective agents in patients undergoing radioiodine therapy. However, lemon candies, lemon juice and sugarless chewing gum have been proposed to be beneficial for minimizing the side effects of radioiodine within the salivary glands. PMID:23902246

  19. Radioprotection of normal tissue cells.

    PubMed

    Maier, Patrick; Wenz, Frederik; Herskind, Carsten

    2014-08-01

    Improvements of radiotherapy in combination with surgery and systemic therapy have resulted in increased survival rates of tumor patients. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is still dose limiting. Several strategies have been pursued with the goal to develop substances which may prevent or reduce damage to normal tissue. Drugs applied before radiotherapy are called radioprotectors; those given after radiotherapy to reduce long-term effects are radiomitigators. Despite more than 50 years of research, until now only two substances, amifostine and palifermin, have overcome all obstacles of clinical approval and are applied during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer or total body irradiation, respectively. However, better understanding of the cellular pathways involved in radiation response has allowed the development of several highly promising drugs functioning as scavengers of reactive oxygen species or targeting specific molecules involved in regulation of cell death pathways or cell cycle arrest. The present review describes the major targets for radioprotectors or radiomitigators currently tested in clinical trials. PMID:24638269

  20. Analysis of Minocycline as a Radioprotectant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrotra, Shalini

    Exposure to radiation is increasing in a variety of settings including space exploration, diagnostic medical procedures and radiotherapy. Cells of the hematopoietic system, such as white blood cells (WBC), are especially sensitive to radiation and their decline can result in Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS). Radiotherapy is often used for cancers of the central nervous system (CNS), but includes the risk for normal tissue damage, often leading to cognitive impairment. The literature suggests that tetracyclines can be radioprotectors of the hematopoietic system with potential utility in radiation emergencies and anticancer radiotherapy. Minocycline, a semisynthetic tetracycline derivative, has anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging, anti-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic properties with exceptional penetration into the CNS. These qualities make it a viable candidate for use in combination with radiotherapy for CNS tumors as a normal tissue radioprotectant and for hematopoietoc recovery following whole-body irradiation. This study was undertaken to determine the potential of minocycline as a radioprotective agent of the hematopoietic system and CNS in response to whole-body irradiation with 1, 2 and 3 Gy (γ-rays). C57BL/6 mice were injected with minocycline, 5 times beginning immediately before irradiation. Spleen, blood and brain were collected on days 4 and 32 post-irradiation. WBC and other cell populations were determined in the blood and spleen while cytokines were quantified in CD3-activated splenocytes and homogenized brain supernatants. We also evaluated the impact of minocycline on DNA synthesis and viability of human glioblastoma cells versus astrocytes and microglia. Minocycline increased counts and percentages of splenic macrophages, granulocytes, natural killer (NK), T and CD8 + T cells on day 4 and B cells on day 32. Minocycline up-regulated interleukin-1α (IL-1α)which is radioprotective, as well as

  1. Radioprotective agents for radiation therapy: future trends.

    PubMed

    Johnke, Roberta M; Sattler, Jennifer A; Allison, Ron R

    2014-12-01

    Only two radioprotective compounds, amifostine and palifermin, currently have the US FDA approval for use in radiation therapy. However, several agents have been reported that show therapeutic promise. Many of these agents are free radical scavengers/antioxidants. Superoxide dismutase and superoxide dismutase mimetics, nitroxides and dietary antioxidants are all being investigated. Recently, alternative strategies of drug development have been evolving, which focus on targeting the series of cellular insult recognition/repair responses initiated following radiation. These agents, which include cytokines/growth factors, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and apoptotic modulators, show promise of having significant impact on the mitigation of radiation injury. Herein, we review current literature on the development of radioprotectors with emphasis on compounds with proven or potential usefulness in radiation therapy. PMID:25525844

  2. Étude des anomalies chromosomiques après radiothérapie chez des patients traités pour lymphome malin non-Hodgkinien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahe, M. A.; André, M. J.; Moyon, E.; Le Mevel, A.; Soubeyran, P.; Hamidou, M.; Milpied, N.; Bourdin, S.; Cuillière, J. C.; Chatal, J. F.

    1998-04-01

    Structural chromosome defects were evaluated in the lymphocytes of 30 patients (pts) who had undergone radiotherapy for non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Twelve had received 20 Grays (Gy) over the abdomen (group I), 12 whole body irradiation at 1.5 Gy (group II) and 6 whole body irradiation at 15 Gy (group III). A cohort of 468 unirradiated pts served as controls. For the irradiated group, 7% of cells had aberrations compared to 0.4% in controls {P <10-6}. The frequency of abnormal cells was statistically higher in group I (12%) than in group II (3.5%) and III (2.5%) . In group I, frequency of aberrations was statistically higher in pts who had additionnal extra-abdominal involved field irradiation, those with evolutive NHL and those receiving chemotherapy at the time of the cytogenetic analysis. Les aberrations chromosomiques ont ,été, mesurées sur les lymphocytes de 30 patients (pts) irradiés pour lymphome malin non-hodgkinien (LNH) selon 3 modalités : 20 Grays (Gy) sur l'abdomen (groupe I : 12 pts), Irradiation corporelle totale 1,5 Gy (groupe II : 12 pts), ou 15 Gy (groupe III : 6 pts). Une population non irradiée de 468 pts a servi de témoin. Dans le groupe irradié, 7 % des cellules présentaient des anomalies contre 0,4 % dans le groupe témoin {P <10-6}. Les aberrations ,étaient statistiquement plus nombreuses dans le groupe I (12 % des cellules) que dans les groupes II (3,5 %) et III (2,5 %). Dans le groupe I, les anomalies , étaient statistiquement plus fréquentes chez les pts ayant eu une irradiation localisée extra-abdominale en complément de celle de l'abdomen ainsi que chez ceux en rechute de leur LNH et ceux recevant une chimiothérapie lors de l',étude cytogénétique.

  3. Normal tissue radioprotection by amifostine via Warburg-type effects

    PubMed Central

    Koukourakis, Michael I.; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Zois, Christos E.; Kalamida, Dimitra; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Karagounis, Ilias V.; Yeh, Tzu-Lan; Abboud, Martine I.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Sivridis, Efthimios; Simopoulos, Costantinos; Tokmakidis, Savvas P.; Harris, Adrian L.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of Amifostine (WR-2721) mediated radioprotection is poorly understood. The effects of amifostine on human basal metabolism, mouse liver metabolism and on normal and tumor hepatic cells were studied. Indirect calorimetric canopy tests showed significant reductions in oxygen consumption and of carbon dioxide emission in cancer patients receiving amifostine. Glucose levels significantly decreased and lactate levels increased in patient venous blood. Although amifostine in vitro did not inhibit the activity of the prolyl-hydroxylase PHD2, experiments with mouse liver showed that on a short timescale WR-1065 induced expression of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor HIF1α, lactate dehydrogenase LDH5, glucose transporter GLUT2, phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase pPDH and PDH-kinase. This effect was confirmed on normal mouse NCTC hepatocytes, but not on hepatoma cells. A sharp reduction of acetyl-CoA and ATP levels in NCTC cells indicated reduced mitochondrial usage of pyruvate. Transient changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species ROS production were evident. Amifostine selectively protects NCTC cells against radiation, whilst HepG2 neoplastic cells are sensitized. The radiation protection was correlates with HIF levels. These findings shed new light on the mechanism of amifostine cytoprotection and encourage clinical research with this agent for the treatment of primary and metastatic liver cancer. PMID:27507219

  4. Normal tissue radioprotection by amifostine via Warburg-type effects.

    PubMed

    Koukourakis, Michael I; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Zois, Christos E; Kalamida, Dimitra; Pouliliou, Stamatia; Karagounis, Ilias V; Yeh, Tzu-Lan; Abboud, Martine I; Claridge, Timothy D W; Schofield, Christopher J; Sivridis, Efthimios; Simopoulos, Costantinos; Tokmakidis, Savvas P; Harris, Adrian L

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of Amifostine (WR-2721) mediated radioprotection is poorly understood. The effects of amifostine on human basal metabolism, mouse liver metabolism and on normal and tumor hepatic cells were studied. Indirect calorimetric canopy tests showed significant reductions in oxygen consumption and of carbon dioxide emission in cancer patients receiving amifostine. Glucose levels significantly decreased and lactate levels increased in patient venous blood. Although amifostine in vitro did not inhibit the activity of the prolyl-hydroxylase PHD2, experiments with mouse liver showed that on a short timescale WR-1065 induced expression of the Hypoxia Inducible Factor HIF1α, lactate dehydrogenase LDH5, glucose transporter GLUT2, phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase pPDH and PDH-kinase. This effect was confirmed on normal mouse NCTC hepatocytes, but not on hepatoma cells. A sharp reduction of acetyl-CoA and ATP levels in NCTC cells indicated reduced mitochondrial usage of pyruvate. Transient changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species ROS production were evident. Amifostine selectively protects NCTC cells against radiation, whilst HepG2 neoplastic cells are sensitized. The radiation protection was correlates with HIF levels. These findings shed new light on the mechanism of amifostine cytoprotection and encourage clinical research with this agent for the treatment of primary and metastatic liver cancer. PMID:27507219

  5. New approaches to biochemical radioprotection: antioxidants and DNA repair enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riklis, E.; Emerit, I.; Setlow, R. B.

    Chemical repair may be provided by radioprotective compounds present during exposure to ionizing radiation. Considering DNA as the most sensitive target it is feasible to biochemically improve protection by enhancing DNA repair mechanisms. Protection of DNA by reducing the amount of damage (by radical scavenging and chemical repair) followed by enhanced repair of DNA will provide much improved protection and recovery. Furthermore, in cases of prolonged exposure, such as is possible in prolonged space missions, or of unexpected variations in the intensity of radiation, as is possible when encountering solar flares, it is important to provide long-acting protection, and this may be provided by antioxidants and well functioning DNA repair systems. It has also become important to provide protection from the potentially damaging action of long-lived clastogenic factors which have been found in plasma of exposed persons from Hiroshima & Nagasaki, radiation accidents, radiotherapy patients and recently in ``liquidators'' - persons involved in salvage operations at the Chernobyl reactor. The clastogenic factor, which causes chromatid breaks in non-exposed plasma, might account for late effects and is posing a potential carcinogenic hazard /1/. The enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) has been shown to eliminate the breakage factor from cultured plasma of exposed persons /2/. Several compounds have been shown to enhance DNA repair: WR-2721 /3/, nicotinamide /4/, glutathione monoester (Riklis et al., unpublished) and others. The right combination of such compounds may prove effective in providing protection from a wide range of radiation exposures over a long period of time.

  6. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Decisional Engagement Scale (DES-10): A patient-reported psychosocial survey for quality cancer care.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P; Mohile, Supriya G; Duberstein, Paul R

    2016-09-01

    In light of recent health care reforms, we have provided an illustrative example of new opportunities available for psychologists to develop patient-reported measures related to health care quality. Patient engagement in health care decision making has been increasingly acknowledged as a vital component of quality cancer care. We developed the 10-item Decisional Engagement Scale (DES-10), a patient-reported measure of engagement in decision making in cancer care that assesses patients' awareness of their diagnosis, sense of empowerment and involvement, and level of information seeking and planning. The National Institutes of Health's ResearchMatch recruitment tool was used to facilitate Internet-mediated data collection from 376 patients with cancer. DES-10 scores demonstrated good internal consistency reliability (α = .80), and the hypothesized unidimensional factor structure fit the data well. The reliability and factor structure were supported across subgroups based on demographic, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. Higher DES-10 scores were associated with better health-related quality of life (r = .31). In concurrent validity analyses controlling for age, socioeconomic status, and health-related quality of life, higher DES-10 scores were associated with higher scores on quality-of-care indices, including greater awareness of one's treatments, greater preferences for shared decision making, and clearer preferences about end-of-life care. A mini-measure, the DES-3, also performed well psychometrically. In conclusion, DES-10 and DES-3 scores showed evidence of reliability and validity, and these brief patient-reported measures can be used by researchers, clinicians, nonprofits, hospitals, insurers, and policymakers interested in evaluating and improving the quality of cancer care. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537003

  7. Human Keratinocytes Radioprotection with Mentha Longifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Angela Maria; Berselli, P.; Zava, S.; Negroni, M.; Corsetto, P.; Montorfano, G.; Bertolotti, A.; Ranza, E.; Ottolenghi, A.; Berra, B.

    Antioxidants are suggested to act as radioprotectors, and dietary supplements based on antiox-idants have been proposed for astronauts involved in long-term space missions. Plant extracts with antioxidant properties may be used in dietetic supplements for astronauts; in fact recent nutritional guidelines suggest that "fruits and vegetables may become as important on space-going vessels as limes were on the sea-going vessels of old". Mint presents a large variety of biological properties, such as antiallergenic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, an-tiviral, gastrointestinal protective, hepatoprotective, chemopreventive activities, most of which are attributable to its antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antioxidant properties and protective bio-efficacy of a phenol enriched Mentha longifolia ex-tract on gamma rays stressed human keratinocytes (NCTC2544). We assessed first the in vitro antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH), and then evaluated different stress markers in order to investigate various oxidative stress targets: cell viability (MTT); retained proliferating ca-pability (CA); DNA damage (histone H2AX) and protein damage (HSP70 induction). Results indicate that this Mint extract has a higher antioxidant activity respect to fresh extracts, that could be responsible of its really interesting radio-protective effects.

  8. Promotion of a new radioprotective antioxidative agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, J.; Ikeda, A.; Kinoshita, T.

    1989-05-01

    Radioprotective effects of pre- and post-irradiation treatments giving zinc manganese, or one of biological response modifiers (BRMs), or subjecting mice to stressful conditions on the whole bodily irradiated mice were investigated with respect to MT induction. The normal level of MT in murine liver is as low a 1-2 nano mole/g tissue, but the level can be elevated to several or even twenty times after the administration of a heavy metal or a certain BRM or both. A stress, e.g. dermal excision also induced hepatic MT synthesis. These pretreatments to induce hepatic MT gave a strong tolerance against lethal damage to mice. The effect of combined use of BRM with manganese or zinc was more prominent. Since manganese has less adverse effects and easily eliminated from organs, the spot administration of even after the irradiation was considerably effective. Mice administered manganese manifested a quicker regaining in the number of leucocytes and erythrocyted than control mice. These investigations suggested us a possibility that man can promote their body defense mechanism through the induction of MT in the organs by a certain stimulative measure e.g. the administration of a certain less harmful metal or chemicals, physical exercises or controlling various factors in our environment. Since the induction of MT by taking advantage of body's own biological protection mechanism is versatile with almost no adverse effects, it may opens new vistas of radiation protection in the future.

  9. Les hémodialysés HVC sont-ils vraiment des patients difficiles à traiter?

    PubMed Central

    Krati, Khadija; Cherquaoui, Hind; Oubaha, Sofia; Samlani, Zouhour

    2015-01-01

    L'hépatite C demeure la principale infection virale chez l'hémodialysé, dont la prise en charge thérapeutique ainsi que la gestion de ses effets secondaires restent difficiles. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les patients atteints d'hépatite C chronique ayant une insuffisance rénale chronique sous hémodialyse, suivis au service de gastroentérologie au CHU Mohamed VI de Marrakech sur une période de Janvier 2004 à Décembre 2014. Sur un total de 355 cas d'hépatite virale C, 13 patients étaient hémodialysés (3,66%). Dix patients ont été traités, soit 76,94% des cas. Le traitement n’était pas indiqué chez 2 patients ayant une fibrose minime sans cytolyse. Il était contre-indiqué chez une patiente multitarée. Deux malades ont eu une réponse virologique rapide et 5 une réponse virologique précoce. Le taux de réponse virologique soutenue était de 40%, 30% des patients étaient non répondeurs. Le traitement fut arrêté chez 2 patientes pour effets secondaires sévères. Un seul patient a été candidat à une transplantation rénale. En analyse multivariée, la réponse virologique soutenue a été significativement associée à certains facteurs prédictifs de bonne réponse thérapeutique: Age jeune ≤40 ans (P=0,0057), fibrose minime F1-F2 (P=0,03), génotype non 1 (P=0,0064), charge virale préthérapeutique <800000 UI/ml (P=0,013), et l'absence d'arrêt thérapeutique (P=0,028). La gestion efficace des effets secondaires du traitement de HVC permet d'obtenir chez l'hémodialysé un taux de réponse virologique soutenue avoisinant celui de la population générale. PMID:27022433

  10. Biophysical basis of hypoxic radioprotection by deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, J.T.; Hill, R.P.

    1986-08-01

    Perfusion with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin provides an effective method for inducing hypoxic radioprotection of normal tissues during radiation treatment of tumors. In this study, the dependence of P50, the half-saturation pressure of oxygen binding to dextran-hemoglobin, was analyzed as a function of solution temperature and pH. The variation of attainable radioprotection with P50, and with the amount of collateral blood entering into the perfused region, was calculated. Upon perfusion of canine gracilis muscle with deoxygenated dextran-hemoglobin, a rapid onset of extensive venous hypoxia was observed.

  11. Radio-protective effect of sodium meclofenamate. A prospective clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Mahafzah, M.; Halpern, J.; Nava, H.R.; Huben, R.P.; Sayyid, S.; Bryson, W.; Ambrus, J.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Twentyfour patients treated with irradiation to either their pelvis or their chest for neoplastic disease were included in a randomized study of radioprotection with sodium meclofenamate (Meclomen) (SM). Seventeen patients received SM 100 mg, p.os, t.i.d., and seven received placebo. The long-range radiation related chronic gastrointestinal and urinary tract toxicity was diminished by SM. At 12 months post irradiation, SM treated patients experienced less gastrointestinal and urinary symptoms, as well as less measured bladder contraction, than the controls. Acute gastrointestinal signs of radiotoxicity, however, seemed to have been enhanced by SM. The treated patients suffered from nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. These acute toxic effects were temporary and reversible.

  12. Outcomes of DES in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients with Complex Coronary Artery Disease after Risk Stratification by the SYNTAX Score

    PubMed Central

    Loutfi, Mohamed; Sadaka, Mohamed A.; Sobhy, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the risk of adverse outcomes after coronary revascularization. Controversy persists regarding the optimal revascularization strategy for diabetic patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (MVD). AIM The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of drug-eluting stent (DES) insertion in DM and non-DM patients with complex coronary artery disease (CAD) after risk stratification by the percutaneous coronary intervention with taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score. METHODS AND RESULTS We performed multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for 601 lesions in 243 DM patients and 1,029 lesions in 401 non-DM patients. All included patients had MVD and one or more lesions of type B2/C. The two-year outcomes and event rates were estimated in the DM and non-DM patients using Kaplan–Meier analyses. The baseline SYNTAX score was ≤22 in 84.8% vs. 84%, P = 0.804, and 23–32 in 15.2% vs. 16%, P = 0.804, of the DM and non-DM patients, respectively. The number of diseased segments treated (2.57 ± 0.75 vs. 2.47 ± 0.72; P = 0.066) and stents implanted per patient (2.41 ± 0.63 vs. 2.32 ± 0.54; P = 0.134) were similar in both groups. After a mean follow-up of 642 ± 175 days, there were no differences in the major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; 26.7% vs. 20.9%; P = 0.091), composite end point of all-cause death/myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke (12.3% vs. 9%; P = 0.172), individual MACCE components of death (3.7% vs. 3.2%; P = 0.754), MI (6.6% vs. 4%; P = 0.142), and absence of stroke in the DM and non-DM patients. An increased need for repeat revascularization was observed in DM patients (18.5% vs. 10.2%; P = 0.003). In the multivariate analysis, DM was an independent predictor of repeat revascularization (hazard ratio: 1.818; 95% confidence interval: 1.162–2.843; P = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS DES implantation provides favorable early and mid-term results in both DM and non-DM patients undergoing PCI for

  13. Radioprotection by polyethylene glycol-protein complexes in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, B.H.; Stull, R.W.

    1983-03-01

    Polyethylene glycol of about 5000 D was activated with cyanuric chloride, and the activated compound was complexed to each of three proteins. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase were each radioprotectants when administered prophylactically to female B6CBF1 mice before irradiation. The dose reduction factor for these mice was 1.2 when 5000 units of polyethylene glycol-catalase was administered before /sup 60/Co irradiation. Female B6CBF1 mice administered prophylactic intravenous injections of catalase, polyethylene glycol-albumin, or heat-denatured polyethylene glycol-catalase had survival rates similar to phosphate-buffered saline-injected control mice following /sup 60/Co irradiation. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and polyethylene glycol-catalase have radioprotective activity in B6CBF1 mice, which appears to depend in part on enzymatic activities of the complex. However, no radioprotective effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice injected with each polyethylene glycol-protein complex at either 3 or 24 hr before irradiation. The mechanism for radioprotection by these complexes may depend in part on other factors.

  14. Evaluation du niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion du traitement par les antis vitamines K dans le service de cardiologie de Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Samadoulougou, André; Temoua Naibe, Dangwé; Mandi, Germain; Yameogo, Relwendé Aristide; Kabore, Elisé; Millogo, Georges; Yameogo, Nobila Valentin; Kologo, Jonas Koudougou; Thiam/Tall, Anna; Toguyeni, Boubacar Jean Yves; Zabsonre, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Les antivitamines K (AVK), traitement anticoagulant oral le plus largement prescrit, posent un réel problème de santé publique du fait de leur risque iatrogène. L'objectif de cette étude était de préciser le niveau de connaissance des patients sur la gestion de leur traitement par les AVK. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une enquête transversale descriptive réalisée au CHU-Yalgado Ouédraogo, sur une période de 03 mois : du 1er mars au 31 mai 2012. Un questionnaire a été administré aux patients bénéficiant d'un traitement AVK depuis au moins un mois. Résultats Soixante-dix patients ont été inclus dans l'étude dont 30 hommes. L'âge moyen était de 49 ans ± 16 ans. Les cardiopathies et la maladie thromboembolique veineuse justifiant l'institution du traitement AVK étaient retrouvées respectivement dans 58,6% et 41,4% des cas. Le nom de l'AVK et la raison exacte du traitement étaient connus respectivement dans 91,4% et 67,1% des cas. Plus de la moitié des patients (68,6%) savaient que les AVK rendaient le sang plus fluide. Quarante-six patients (65,7%) citaient l'INR comme examen biologique de surveillance du traitement et seulement 28 patients (40%) connaissaient les valeurs cibles. La majorité des patients ne connaissait pas les risques encourus en cas de surdosage (72,8%) et de sous-dosage (71,4%). Une automédication par anti-inflammatoire non stéroïdien était signalée par 18 patients (25,7%). Les choux (74,3%) et la laitue (62,9%), aliments à consommer avec modération, étaient les plus cités. Conclusion Les connaissances des patients sur la gestion des AVK étaient fragmentaires et insuffisantes pour assurer la sécurité et l'efficacité du traitement. La création d'un programme d'éducation thérapeutique sur les AVK s'avère alors nécessaire. PMID:25870741

  15. Amputation des quatre membres

    PubMed Central

    Feruzi, Maruis Kitembo; Milindi, Cédrick Sangwa; Zabibu, Mireille Kakinga; Mulefu, Jules Panda; Katombe, Francois Tshilombo

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs présentent les cas d'amputation des quatre membres réalisée chez trois patients différents. Ce sont des amputations réalisées pour chaque patient au cours d'une seule hospitalisation et en un seul temps opératoire. Deux patients pour gangrène sèche infectée et un pour amputation traumatique des quatre membres. L'amputation d'urgence a été pratiquée en premier temps suivie de remodelage des moignons d'amputation en second temps. L’évolution de tous les patients a été bonne. PMID:25469177

  16. Approche structurée en pratique familiale pour les patients ayant des problèmes de mémoire

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Linda; Weston, W. Wayne; Heckman, George; Gagnon, Micheline; Lee, F. Joseph; Sloka, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille une approche structurée pour les patients qui présentent des problèmes de mémoire. Sources des données Cette approche se fonde sur un programme agréé de formation clinique sur la mémoire, élaboré par le Centre for Family Medicine Memory Clinic en partenariat avec le Collège des médecins de famille de l’Ontario. Message principal Le recours à une approche structurée de raisonnement clinique peut aider les médecins à poser un diagnostic exact chez des patients qui présentent des problèmes de mémoire. Le délirium, la dépression et les causes réversibles doivent être exclus, pour ensuite faire une différenciation entre le vieillissement cognitif normal, la déficience cognitive légère et la démence. Il est essentiel de procéder à une anamnèse collatérale et à une évaluation fonctionnelle exacte. Les formes courantes de la démence peuvent être cliniquement différenciées par la séquence dans laquelle les symptômes apparaissent et par la façon dont les déficits cognitifs évoluent avec le temps. Habituellement, les signes précoces de la démence d’Alzheimer comportent une déficience de la mémoire épisodique, tandis que la démence due principalement à des causes vasculaires peut se présenter par une perte précoce de la fonction exécutive et de la fonction visuospatiale, ainsi que des caractéristiques cliniques particulières. Conclusion Une approche de raisonnement clinique peut aider les médecins à poser des diagnostics précoces et exacts qui peuvent orienter une prise en charge appropriée et améliorer les soins aux patients qui ont des problèmes de mémoire.

  17. NRF2/miR-140 signaling confers radioprotection to human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Duru, Nadire; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Zhang, Yongshu; Yao, Yuan; Lo, Pang-Kuo; Wolfson, Benjamin; Zhou, Qun

    2015-12-01

    Breast and lung cancer patients who are treated with radiotherapy often have severe side effects, including radiation-induced lung damage and secondary cancers. Activation of the NRF2 pathway is a well-known mechanism that protects cells against radiation induced oxidative stress, but its role in radiation-induced lung damage is not well understood. Using human lung fibroblasts (HLFs) we found that ionizing radiation (IR) leads to BRCA1-dependent activation of NRF2 through the inhibition of KEAP1 function, promoting the nuclear accumulation of NRF2, and activating critical radioprotective mechanisms. We discovered that NRF2 directly binds to the miR-140 promoter and increases its expression in response to IR treatment. Gain and loss of function studies further showed the ability of miR-140 to regulate lung fibroblast self-renewal upon irradiation, a potential mechanism to contribute to the regulation of DNA repair. We verified our in vitro findings using primary lung fibroblast cultures from wild type and Nrf2 (KO) mice. Using these models we showed that IR induces overexpression of Brca1, Nrf2 and miR-140 in lung tissue after irradiation. These data reveal a novel radioprotective mechanism in which IR promotes NRF2 nuclear translocation and subsequent activation of miR-140 transcription in HLFs. PMID:26300493

  18. NRF2/miR-140 signaling confers radioprotection to human lung fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Duru, Nadire; Gernapudi, Ramkishore; Zhang, Yongshu; Yao, Yuan; Lo, Pang-Kuo; Wolfson, Benjamin; Zhou, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Breast and lung cancer patients who are treated with radiotherapy often have severe side effects, including radiation-induced lung damage and secondary cancers. Activation of the NRF2 pathway is a well-known mechanism that protects cells against radiation induced oxidative stress, but its role in radiation-induced lung damage is not well understood. Using human lung fibroblasts (HLFs) we found that ionizing radiation (IR) leads to BRCA1-dependent activation of NRF2 through the inhibition of KEAP1 function, promoting the nuclear accumulation of NRF2, and activating critical radioprotective mechanisms. We discovered that NRF2 directly binds to the miR-140 promoter and increases its expression in response to IR treatment. Gain and loss of function studies further showed the ability of miR-140 to regulate lung fibroblast self-renewal upon irradiation, a potential mechanism to contribute to the regulation of DNA repair. We verified our in vitro findings using primary lung fibroblast cultures from wild type and Nrf2 (KO) mice. Using these models we showed that IR induces overexpression of Brca1, Nrf2 and miR-140 in lung tissue after irradiation. These data reveal a novel radioprotective mechanism in which IR promotes NRF2 nuclear translocation and subsequent activation of miR-140 transcription in HLFs. PMID:26300493

  19. Upregulation of des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin after portal vein embolization in a cirrhotic patient with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sohda, Tetsuro; Iwata, Kaoru; Anan, Akira; Kunimoto, Hideo; Yotsumoto, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Keiji; Morihara, Daisuke; Takeyama, Yasuaki; Shakado, Satoshi; Osame, Akinobu; Kora, Shinichi; Ohishi, Jun; Yamauchi, Yasushi; Noritomi, Tomoaki; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Yamashita, Yuichi; Sakisaka, Shotaro

    2015-10-01

    A 73-year-old female with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) received percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolization (PTPE) before extensive right lobe hepatectomy. Serum levels of des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin (DCP) were increased and remained at a high level until hepatectomy. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that an increased expression of DCP was demonstrated not only in HCC tissues, but also in the non-cancerous liver of the right lobe, where portal blood flow was blocked off as a result of PTPE. The serum level of DCP is known to be greatly increased in patients with HCC accompanied by portal vein invasion. We speculate that this increased DCP level is caused by both increased DCP production in HCC tissue and the surrounding non-cancerous liver, where portal flow is blocked off as a result of portal invasion by HCC. PMID:26374567

  20. Radioprotection by leukotrienes: Is there a receptor mechanism. Scientific report

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, T.L.; Kalinich, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    Leukotrienes are a class of biological mediators derived from arachidonic acid through the lipoxygenase pathway. Early studies showed that lipophilic factors capable of constricting smooth muscle and inducing anaphylaxis were produced in the guinea pig in response to cobra venom. Leukotrienes have pathological roles in inflammation and anaphylaxis, act as vasoactive agents, as chemotactic factors for neutrophils, and are more potent constrictors of smooth muscle than histamine. The lipoxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid have not been as extensively characterized in terms of their cytoprotective and radioprotective properties as have the cyclooxygenase metabolites (prostaglandins, thromboxane, and prostacyclin). Research on the radioprotective properties of leukotrienes is limited by the expense and availability of pure compounds, and very little research has been done in this area thus far. Preliminary studies are presented here with the goal of discussing the current understanding of this problem and to introduce future research directions.

  1. Radioprotection of mice by recombinant rat stem cell factor.

    PubMed Central

    Zsebo, K M; Smith, K A; Hartley, C A; Greenblatt, M; Cooke, K; Rich, W; McNiece, I K

    1992-01-01

    Treatment with recombinant rat stem cell factor (rSCF) protects mice from the lethal effects of irradiation. Mice treated with a single dose of rSCF prior to irradiation of up to 1150 rads [given as a split dose (1 rad = 0.01 Gy)] resulted in > 80% long-term survival, whereas a single injection given after the last dose of irradiation was not radioprotective. The combination of pre- and posttreatment (-20 h, -2 h, and +4 h) with rSCF resulted in 100% survival of otherwise lethally irradiated mice. Using this optimum schedule of rSCF administration, a radioprotective factor of 1.3-1.35 was achieved. The major cause of death in the control animals was massive bacteremia consisting of enteric organisms. The rSCF-treated animals had a much lower frequency of septicemia, due primarily to a rapid hematopoietic recovery of bone marrow function not evident in control animals. PMID:1384054

  2. Proton irradiation of stem cells: Radiation damage and chemical radioprotection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, R. C.; Montour, J. L.; Gurney, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Effects of high energy protons on erythropoietic stem cells and radioprotection by chemicals were investigated in NASA Space Radiation Effects Laboratory. The effects of a parallel beam of 600 MeV protons. The fluence, when converted to dose, were referenced to the synchrocyclotron beam monitors which were then used to administer radiation exposures. Mice were given graded doses to 300 rads to determine dose-response curve. Other mice received saline, AET, or 5-hydroxytryptamine 10 to 15 minutes before exposure.

  3. Tetracycline hydrochloride: A potential clinical drug for radioprotection.

    PubMed

    Alok, Amit; Chaudhury, N K

    2016-02-01

    Radiation exposure in planned scenario necessarily requires radioprotector for protection against radiation injuries in tissues and organs. A large number of potential radioprotectors have been investigated but no approved radioprotector is available. Hence, in quest for radioprotector, repurposing of clinical drug is an approach which aims at finding the radioprotective potential of known drugs so that in case of untoward accident the knowledge could be translated to drug usage. In this study, we have investigated the radical scavenging properties of tetracycline pertaining to radioprotection. Our study suggests that tetracycline hydrochloride efficiently scavenges free radicals in ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assays. Hydroxyl radical scavenging assay has demonstrated its ability to scavenge gamma radiation induced free radicals by lowering the formation of malondialdehyde. Radiation causes damage to macromolecules and hence the protection offered by tetracycline hydrochloride to DNA and protein shows its radioprotective potential. Plasmid DNA relaxation study with pBR322 has shown that tetracycline hydrochloride confers dose modification factor (DMF) of 2 and 4 at 100 μM and 250 μM concentration respectively. Tetracycline hydrochloride has also protected bovine serum albumin (BSA) from radiation induced degradation. The ex vivo studies for lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential further substantiate our findings. The whole body animal survival study has shown the drug to offer 20% protection at a lethal radiation dose of 9 Gy. This study demonstrates the radioprotective potential of the drug by providing some insight into ex vivo and in vivo efficacy. PMID:26763761

  4. Hydrogen as a New Class of Radioprotective Agent

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Liren; Shen, Jianliang; Chuai, Yunhai; Cai, Jianming

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that most of the ionizing radiation-induced damage is caused by hydroxyl radicals (·OH) follows radiolysis of H2O. Molecular hydrogen (H2) has antioxidant activities by selectively reducing ·OH and peroxynitrite(ONOO-). We firstly hypothesized and demonstrated the radioprotective effect of H2 in vitro and in vivo, which was also repeated on different experimental animal models by different departments. A randomized, placebo-controlled study showed that consumption of hydrogen-rich water reduces the biological reaction to radiation-induced oxidative stress without compromising anti-tumor effects. These encouraging results suggested that H2 represents a potentially novel preventative strategy for radiation-induced oxidative injuries. H2 is explosive. Therefore, administration of hydrogen-rich solution (physiological saline/pure water/other solutions saturated with H2) may be more practical in daily life and more suitable for daily consumption. This review focuses on major scientific and clinical advances of hydrogen-rich solution/H2 as a new class of radioprotective agent. PMID:24155664

  5. Design and synthesis of 8-hydroxyquinoline-based radioprotective agents.

    PubMed

    Ariyasu, Shinya; Sawa, Akiko; Morita, Akinori; Hanaya, Kengo; Hoshi, Misato; Takahashi, Ippei; Wang, Bing; Aoki, Shin

    2014-08-01

    In radiation therapy, adverse side effects are often induced due to the excessive cell death that occurs in radiosensitive normal cells. The radiation-induced cell death of normal cells is caused, at least in part, by apoptosis, which undergoes via activation of p53 and increase in the p53 protein, a zinc-containing transcriptional factor, in response to cellular damage. Therefore, radioprotective drugs that can protect normal cells from radiation and thus suppress adverse side effects would be highly desirable. We report herein on the radioprotective activity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) derivatives that were initially designed so as to interact with the Zn(2+) in p53. Indeed, the 5,7-bis(methylaminosulfonyl)-8HQ and 8-methoxyquinoline derivatives considerably protected MOLT-4 cells against γ-ray radiation (10 Gy), accompanied by a low cytotoxicity. However, mechanistic studies revealed that the interaction of these drugs with p53 is weak and the mechanism for inhibiting apoptosis appears to be different from that of previously reported radioprotectors such as bispicen, which inhibits apoptosis via the denaturation of p53 as well as by blocking both transcription-dependent and -independent apoptotic pathways. PMID:25002230

  6. Radioprotection provides functional mechanics but delays healing of irradiated tendon allografts after ACL reconstruction in sheep.

    PubMed

    Seto, Aaron U; Culp, Brian M; Gatt, Charles J; Dunn, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Successful protection of tissue properties against ionizing radiation effects could allow its use for terminal sterilization of musculoskeletal allografts. In this study we functionally evaluate Achilles tendon allografts processed with a previously developed radioprotective treatment based on (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide) crosslinking and free radical scavenging using ascorbate and riboflavin, for ovine anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction was performed using double looped allografts, while comparing radioprotected irradiated and fresh frozen allografts after 12 and 24 weeks post-implantation, and to control irradiated grafts after 12 weeks. Radioprotection was successful at preserving early subfailure mechanical properties comparable to fresh frozen allografts. Twelve week graft stiffness and anterior-tibial (A-T) translation for radioprotected and fresh frozen allografts were comparable at 30 % of native stiffness, and 4.6 and 5 times native A-T translation, respectively. Fresh frozen allograft possessed the greatest 24 week peak load at 840 N and stiffness at 177 N/mm. Histological evidence suggested a delay in tendon to bone healing for radioprotected allografts, which was reflected in mechanical properties. There was no evidence that radioprotective treatment inhibited intra-articular graft healing. This specific radioprotective method cannot be recommended for ACL reconstruction allografts, and data suggest that future efforts to improve allograft sterilization procedures should focus on modifying or eliminating the pre-crosslinking procedure. PMID:23842952

  7. Radioprotectant and Radiosensitizer Effects on Sterility of γ-irradiated Bone

    PubMed Central

    Kattaya, Seema A.; Slama, James

    2008-01-01

    Gamma radiation is widely used to sterilize bone allografts but may impair their strength. While radioprotectant use may reduce radiation damage they may compromise sterility by protecting pathogens. We assessed the radioprotective potential of various agents (L-cysteine, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, L-cysteine-ethyl-ester and L-cysteine-methyl-ester) to identify those which do not protect spores of Bacillus subtilis. We hypothesized charge of these agents will affect their ability to radioprotect spores. We also determined ability of these radioprotectants and a radiosensitizer (nitroimidazole-linked phenanthridinium) to selectively sensitize spores to radiation damage by intercalating into the nucleic acid of spores. Spores were treated either directly in solutions of these agents or treated after being embedded and sealed in bone to assess the ability of these agents to diffuse into bone. L-cysteine and L-cysteine-ethyl-ester did not provide radioprotection. Positively charged L-cysteine-methyl-ester protected the spores, whereas positively charged L-cysteine-ethyl-ester did not, indicating charge does not determine the extent of radioprotection. The spores were sensitized to radiation damage when irradiated in nitroimidazole-linked phenanthridinium solution and sensitization disappeared after rinsing, suggesting nitroimidazole-linked phenanthridinium was unable to intercalate into the nucleic acid of the spores. Some cysteine-derived radioprotectants do not shield bacterial spores against gamma radiation and may be suitable for curbing the radiation damage to bone grafts while achieving sterility. PMID:18484147

  8. Curcumin and trans-resveratrol exert cell cycle-dependent radioprotective or radiosensitizing effects as elucidated by the PCC and G2-assay.

    PubMed

    Sebastià, N; Montoro, A; Hervás, D; Pantelias, G; Hatzi, V I; Soriano, J M; Villaescusa, J I; Terzoudi, G I

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin and trans-resveratrol are well-known antioxidant polyphenols with radiomodulatory properties, radioprotecting non-cancerous cells while radiosensitizing tumor cells. This dual action may be the result of their radical scavenging properties and their effects on cell-cycle checkpoints that are activated in response to radiation-induced chromosomal damage. It could be also caused by their effect on regulatory pathways with impact on detoxification enzymes, the up-regulation of endogenous protective systems, and cell-cycle-dependent processes of DNA damage. This work aims to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the dual action of these polyphenols and investigates under which conditions they exhibit radioprotecting or radiosensitizing properties. The peripheral blood lymphocyte test system was used, applying concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 140μM curcumin and 2.2 to 220μM trans-resveratrol. The experimental design focuses first on their radioprotective effects in non-cycling lymphocytes, as uniquely visualized using cell fusion-mediated premature chromosome condensation, excluding, thus, cell-cycle interference to repair processes and activation of checkpoints. Second, the radiosensitizing potential of these chemicals on the induction of chromatid breaks in cultured lymphocytes following G2-phase irradiation was evaluated by a standardized G2-chromosomal radiosensitivity predictive assay. This assay uses caffeine for G2-checkpoint abrogation and it was applied to obtain an internal control for radiosensitivity testing, which simulates conditions similar to those of the highly radiosensitive lymphocytes of AT patients. The results demonstrate for the first time the cell-cycle-dependent action of these polyphenols. When non-cycling cells are irradiated, the radioprotective properties of curcumin and trans-resveratrol are more prominent. However, when cycling cells are irradiated during G2-phase, the radiosensitizing features of these compounds are more

  9. Physico-chemical pathways in radioprotective action of calmodulin antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varshney, Rajeev; Kale, R. K.

    1996-04-01

    Ghost membranes prepared from erythrocytes of Swiss albino mice were irradiated with gamma rays at a dose rate of 0.9 Gy/s. The fluidity of membrane decreased with radiation dose and in the presence of calmodulin antagonists (CA) like chlorpromazine (CPZ), promethazine (PMZ) and trimeprazine (TMZ) it increased. Radiation induced release of Ca 2+ from membranes. This release was inhibited by CA mainly by CPZ and PMZ. Being Ca 2+ dependent, the changes in the activity of acetylcholine estrase (AchE) following irradiation was also studied. Radiation decreased the activity of AchE in dose dependent manner. Presence of CPZ and PMZ diminished the radiation induced inhibition of AchE but not in the presence of TMZ at the lower concentration tested. It is suggested that apart from scavenging of free radicals, CA perhaps exert their euxoic radioprotective effect through Ca 2+ dependent processes.

  10. Polymer complex of WR 2721. Synthesis and radioprotective efficiency.

    PubMed

    Koseva, Neli; Tsacheva, Ivelina; Mitova, Violeta; Vodenicharova, Elitsa; Molkentine, Jessica; Mason, Kathy; Troev, Kolio

    2014-12-18

    Polymer complex constructed from WR 2721 and poly(hydroxyoxyethylene phosphate) was synthesized. The structure of complex formed was elucidated by (1)H-, (13)C, (31)P NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The radioprotector was immobilized via ionic bonds. Radioprotective efficacy was evaluated by clonal survival of stem cells in crypts of mouse small intestine, and incidence and latency of the acute radiation induced bone marrow syndrome. Protection factors were assessed for WR 2721 and for the polymer complex. Protection factors for the polymer complex ranged from 2.6 for intestinal stem cell survival to 1.35 for 30 day survival (LD50) following whole body radiation exposure. In all cases, the polymer complex was a significantly better radiation protector than the parent compound. PMID:25159838

  11. Free radical scavenging and radioprotective effects of carnosine and anserine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Haiying; Katsumura, Yosuke; Lin, Mingzhang; Muroya, Yusa; Hata, Kuniki; Fujii, Kentaro; Yokoya, Akinari; Hatano, Yoshihiko

    2009-12-01

    Two histidine-containing natural dipeptides, carnosine and anserine (β-alanyl-1-methyl- L-histidine), have been examined for their antioxidant and radioprotective abilities. Pulse radiolysis studies indicated the antioxidative properties of carnosine and anserine aqueous solutions at different pH. The rate constants for the reaction OH radical with carnosine at neutral pH were determined to be 5.3×10 9 M -1 s -1 at 300 nm, and 4.1×10 9 M -1 s -1 at 400 nm, respectively. Carnosine and anserine also protected plasmid pUC18 DNA from X-ray radiation-induced strand breaks as evidenced from the studies by agarose gel electrophoresis. Carnosine showed higher protective efficiency under the experimental conditions. Our data demonstrated that carnosine and anserine may play an important role in the maintenance of the antioxidant system.

  12. Utility of DF-1 for Radioprotection in Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Julia; Casey, Rachael; Wu, Honglu; Huff, Janice; Emami, Kamal; Moore, Valerie; Jeevarajan, Antony

    2007-01-01

    The development of degenerative changes in the vasculature, such as atherosclerosis, is a known consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation, and is thus a concern for astronaut health following long duration space flight. Cellular damage caused by radiation is due to free radical generation and DNA damage. The goal of this project was to assess the ability of a C60-derivative, DF-1, to mitigate cellular damage resulting from radiation exposure in primary human lymphocytes. DF-1 is a water-soluble C60 fullerene encapsulated in dendrimeric functional groups that is proposed to exhibit antioxidant properties. Human lymphocytes are radiosensitive and travel throughout the body potentially causing bystander effects in any tissues they contact. These cells were subjected to varying doses of gamma radiation in the presence or absence of DF-1. Cells were collected at 48 hours post-irradiation for chromosomal aberration studies and at 72 hours post-irradiation for micronuclei studies. These studies showed that the irradiated cells contained more chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei than the control cells. Addition of the DF-1 reduced the amount of observed DNA damage in the irradiated cells. Growth curves were measured for the lymphocytes exposed to 0 and 4 Gray gamma irradiations, and we observed less growth in the cells irradiated at 4 Gy. 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate was used to detect reactive oxygen species production, and increased production of ROS was observed in the irradiated lymphocytes. Human lymphocytes were subjected to varying doses of gamma or photon radiation in the presence and absence of DF-1 and a known radioprotectant, amifostine. After irradiation, the production of reactive oxygen species, growth curves and cell viability were measured. These cells were also collected to quantify chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei formation. We predict that irradiated cells will show the most damage and that DF-1 will provide protective effects similar

  13. Borane-protected phosphines are redox-active radioprotective agents for endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Megan E; Lieven, Christopher J; Thompson, Alex F; Sheibani, Nader; Levin, Leonard A

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to radiation can damage endothelial cells in the irradiated area via the production of reactive oxygen species. We synthesized phosphine-borane complexes that reduce disulfide bonds and had previously been shown to interfere with redox-mediated signaling of cell death. We hypothesized that this class of drugs could interfere with the downstream effects of oxidative stress after irradiation and rescue endothelial cells from radiation damage. Cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells were plated for clonogenic assay prior to exposure to varying doses of irradiation from a (137)Cs irradiator and treated with various concentrations of bis(3-propionic acid methyl ester)phenylphosphine borane complex (PB1) at different time points. The clone-forming ability of the irradiated cells was assessed seven days after irradiation. We compared the radioprotective effects of PB1 with the aminothiol radioprotectant WR1065 and known superoxide scavengers. PB1 significantly protected bovine aortic endothelial cells from radiation damage, particularly when treated both before and after radiation. The radioprotection with 1 µM PB1 corresponded to a dose-reduction factor of 1.24. Radioprotection by PB1 was comparable to the aminothiol WR1065, but was significantly less toxic and required much lower concentrations of drug (1 µM vs. 4 mM, respectively). Superoxide scavengers were not radioprotective in this paradigm, indicating the mechanisms for both loss of clonogenicity and PB1 radioprotection are independent of superoxide signaling. These data demonstrate that PB1 is an effective redox-active radioprotectant for endothelial cells in vitro, and is radioprotective at a concentration approximately 4 orders of magnitude lower than the aminothiol WR1065 with less toxicity. PMID:26188467

  14. [The radioprotective effect of GABA-tropic substances, gamma-hydroxybutyrate and piracetam].

    PubMed

    Kulinskiĭ, V I; Klimova, A D

    1993-01-01

    From experiments in mice, it is shown that with a radiation dose of 8 Gy (LD96) the radioprotective effect was exerted by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), substances that increase its concentration in tissues (progabide and valproate), and synthetic agonists of both receptor types, particularly baclofen, a GABA-receptor agonist. The radioprotective effect is also exerted by gamma-hydroxybutyrate, not piracetam. PMID:8469734

  15. Borane-protected phosphines are redox-active radioprotective agents for endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Megan E.; Lieven, Christopher J.; Thompson, Alex F.; Sheibani, Nader; Levin, Leonard A.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to radiation can damage endothelial cells in the irradiated area via the production of reactive oxygen species. We synthesized phosphine–borane complexes that reduce disulfide bonds and had previously been shown to interfere with redox-mediated signaling of cell death. We hypothesized that this class of drugs could interfere with the downstream effects of oxidative stress after irradiation and rescue endothelial cells from radiation damage. Cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells were plated for clonogenic assay prior to exposure to varying doses of irradiation from a 137Cs irradiator and treated with various concentrations of bis(3-propionic acid methyl ester)phenylphosphine borane complex (PB1) at different time points. The clone-forming ability of the irradiated cells was assessed seven days after irradiation. We compared the radioprotective effects of PB1 with the aminothiol radioprotectant WR1065 and known superoxide scavengers. PB1 significantly protected bovine aortic endothelial cells from radiation damage, particularly when treated both before and after radiation. The radioprotection with 1 µM PB1 corresponded to a dose-reduction factor of 1.24. Radioprotection by PB1 was comparable to the aminothiol WR1065, but was significantly less toxic and required much lower concentrations of drug (1 µM vs. 4 mM, respectively). Superoxide scavengers were not radioprotective in this paradigm, indicating the mechanisms for both loss of clonogenicity and PB1 radioprotection are independent of superoxide signaling. These data demonstrate that PB1 is an effective redox-active radioprotectant for endothelial cells in vitro, and is radioprotective at a concentration approximately 4 orders of magnitude lower than the aminothiol WR1065 with less toxicity. PMID:26188467

  16. [Release of Extracellular DNA after Administration of Radioprotective Combination of α-Tocopherol and Ascorbic Acid].

    PubMed

    Vasilyeval, I N; Bespalov, V G

    2015-01-01

    Radioprotective and apoptotic activities of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) have been studied in 180 Wistar male rats. Rats were administered a single oral dose with vitamin E, vitamin C or their combination at prophylactic doses before or after the single whole body exposure to irradiation at the doses of 2 or 8 Gy. The radioprotective effect was evaluated by the frequency of chromosomal aberrations at metaphase plates of the bone marrow cells, apoptotic--by the level of circulating low-molecular-weight DNA (ImwDNA) in the blood plasma of irradiated rats. Administration of the combination of vitamins E and C before and after the irradiation at the dose of 2 Gy reduced the number of the cells with chromosomal aberrations thus providing the radioprotective effect, but separately administration of these vitamins did not show the significant radioprotective activity. Administration of the combination of vitamins E and C before irradiation with 8 Gy increased the lmwDNA in blood thus providing the apoptotic effect. So, synergy of radioprotective activities has been revealed in vitamins E and C action at prophylactic doses. Radioprotective effect of the combination of vitamins E and C can be associated with the apoptotic activity and can be explained by elimination of the least viable irradiated cells from the cell population. PMID:26863779

  17. Synergistic Radioprotection by Gamma-Tocotrienol and Pentoxifylline: Role of cAMP Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Shilpa; Chakraborty, Kushal; Kumar, K. Sree; Kao, Tzu-Cheg; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Ghosh, Sanchita P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study was designed to determine the efficacy and mechanisms of radioprotection by the combination of gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) and pentoxifylline (PTX) against acute radiation injury. Materials and Methods. Post-irradiation survival was monitored to determine the most efficacious dose and time of administration of PTX. Dose reduction factor (DRF) was calculated to compare the radioprotective efficacy of the combination. To determine the mechanism of synergistic radioprotection by the combination, mevalonate or calmodulin were coadministered with the GT3-PTX combination. Mevalonate was used to reverse the inhibitory effect of GT3 on 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), and calmodulin was used to reverse the inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) by PTX. Results. The combination was most effective when 200 mg/kg of PTX was administered 15 min before irradiation along with 200 mg/kg of GT3 (−24 h) and resulted in a DRF of 1.5. White blood cells and neutrophil counts showed accelerated recovery in GT3-PTX-treated groups compared to GT3. Mevalonate had no effect on the radioprotection of GT3-PTX; calmodulin abrogated the synergistic radioprotection by GT3-PTX. Conclusion. The mechanism of radioprotection by GT3-PTX may involve PDE inhibition. PMID:24959559

  18. Evaluation of operator radioprotection using a new injection device during vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Kim, L; Fargeot, C; Beaussier, H; Payen, S; Chiras, J

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protection granted by a simple device (X'TENS(®), Thiebaud, France) and to provide operators with information on the performance of this new device, which has not yet been assessed. Our assumption is that this device efficiently reduces the radiation dose to the operator. In a prospective clinical study, the radiation dose the operator's hand receives has been assessed using a specific sensor (UNFOR Instrument). Each patient included in the study was to receive at least two injections of cement during the procedure. Exposure was measured with and without the range extender. The data collected were then processed using a Wilcoxon matched pairs test. During 14 interventions, 20 vertebrae were treated with both procedures. Eleven women and three men were included. Seven patients underwent vertebroplasty for metastatic lesions and seven for osteoporotic lesions, bone fractures or vertebral compressions. The average injection time was 1.35 minutes with the device and 1.20 without (p=0.75). The dose to the hand per ml injected was 111.37 vs. 166.91 (p<0.05). Theoretically, the protection granted by the range extender depends on the length of the device. Our results are consistent with the inverse-square law. However, the variations in our results indicate that a proper and rigorous use is mandatory for the device to be effective. Given that radioprotection during fluoroscopy procedures is a frequently raised issue, the need for information for a safer practice increases likewise. PMID:23693040

  19. Haute prévalence du Burnout dans les unités Tunisiennes prenant en charge des patients en fin de vie

    PubMed Central

    Amamou, Badii; Bannour, Ahmed Souhaiel; Ben Hadj Yahia, Meriem; Ben Nasr, Selma; Ben Hadj Ali, Bechir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chez le personnel soignant, le burnout touche un infirmier sur trois. Ce taux est plus élevé dans les unités prenant en charge des patients en fin de vie. L'objectif de notre travail était d'évaluer la fréquence du burnout chez les infirmiers qui travaillent en soins de fin de vie. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive transversale réalisée entre le 1er Avril et le 31 Mai 2010. 60 infirmiers de six services de Sousse et de Monastir (Tunisie) ont été recrutés. L'évaluation du burnout a été réalisée par deux échelles: MBI (Maslach Burnout Inventory) et BMS (Burnout Measure Short version). Résultats La prévalence du burnout était de 70%; il était élevé chez 81.7%. 80% avaient un niveau élevé d'épuisement émotionnel, 70% avaient un niveau élevé de dépersonnalisation et 17% avaient un niveau bas de sentiment d'accomplissement personnel. Le burnout était plus élevé chez les hommes (70,8% vs 69,4%; p=0,013); ceux qui voulaient améliorer les conditions du travail (70.2% vs. 66.7%; p= 0.017); du salaire (70.2% vs. 66.7%; p= 0.017) et chez les infirmiers suivi en psychiatrie (71.4% vs. 69.8%; p= 0.008). Conclusion Dans notre étude le niveau de burnout était élevé chez les infirmiers prenant en charge des patients en fin de vie. Il était associé au sexe masculin et à l'insatisfaction des conditions de travail et du salaire. D'autres études longitudinales sont nécessaires pour suivre l'évolution de ce syndrome et mettre des stratégies de prévention adéquates. PMID:25584122

  20. Antimicrobial activity of a novel des-fluoro (6) quinolone, garenoxacin (BMS-284756), compared to other quinolones, against clinical isolates from cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rolston, Kenneth V I; Frisbee-Hume, Susan; LeBlanc, Barbara M; Streeter, Harriet; Ho, Dah H

    2002-10-01

    The in vitro spectrum of a novel des-fluoro (6) quinolone, garenoxacin (BMS-284756), was compared with that of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and trovafloxacin against 736 clinical isolates from cancer patients. Garenoxacin was the most active agent overall against Gram-positive organisms, with potent activity against Aerococcus spp., Micrococcus spp., Rhodococcus equi, Stomatococcus mucilaginous, Bacillus spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus spp., and all beta-hemolytic and viridans streptococci. Although ciprofloxacin was the most active agent tested against the Enterobacteriaceae garenoxacin inhibited the majority of these isolates at patients. PMID:12458127

  1. Anticancer, chemopreventive and radioprotective potential of black plum (Eugenia jambolana lam.).

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2011-01-01

    Despite good understanding of the molecular basis of the disease and advances in treatment, globally cancer is still a major cause of death. Estimates are that it will surpass cardiovascular disease as the leading cause of death, with higher incidences in the developing countries that have minimal resources. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the two most commonly used treatment modalities, are associated with untoward side effects. This has necessitated the search for alternatives that are effective, non toxic and easily affordable for patients and traditional medicinal plants are an ideal source. Eugenia jambolana Lam., commonly known as black plum or 'jamun' is an important medicinal plant in various traditional systems of medicine. It is effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, inflammation, ulcers and diarrhea and preclinical studies have also shown it to possess antineoplastic, chemopreventive and radioprotective properties. Here, for the first time, the effects of jamun in treatment and prevention of cancer, and the mechanisms responsible for these effects are appraised. Additionally the drawbacks in existing knowledge are also stressed to emphasize the possible avenues that need to be investigated, so that maximum effects on both prevention and cure can be attained. PMID:21517226

  2. Approche au diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque chez les patients ayant une faible densité minérale osseuse ou des fractures de fragilité

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Lorena P.; Khan, Aliya; Sultan, Muhammad; McAssey, Karen; Fouda, Mona A.; Armstrong, David

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux cliniciens une mise à jour sur le diagnostic de la maladie cœliaque (MC), ainsi que des recommandations sur les indications de procéder au dépistage de la MC chez les patients présentant une faible densité minérale osseuse (DMO) ou des fractures de fragilité. Qualité des données Un groupe de travail multidisciplinaire a élaboré des questions cliniquement pertinentes relativement au diagnostic de la MC servant de fondement à une recherche documentaire dans les bases de données MEDLINE, EMBASE et CENTRAL (de janvier 2000 à janvier 2009) à l’aide des mots clés en anglais celiac disease, osteoporosis, osteopenia, low bone mass et fracture. Les ouvrages scientifiques existants comportent des études de niveaux I et II. Message principal La prévalence estimée de la MC asymptomatique est de 2 % à 3 % chez les personnes qui ont une faible DMO. Par ailleurs, un dépistage ciblé est recommandé pour les patients qui ont des T-scores de −1,0 ou moins à la colonne vertébrale ou aux hanches ou des antécédents de fractures de fragilité associées à des symptômes ou à des problèmes reliés à la MC, des antécédents familiaux de MC ou de bas niveaux de calcium urinaire, une insuffisance en vitamine D et des niveaux à la hausse d’hormones parathyroïdiennes en dépit d’un apport suffisant en calcium et en vitamine D. Le dépistage de la MC devrait se faire pendant que le sujet consomme un régime alimentaire contenant du gluten. On procède au dépistage initial par le dosage d’immunoglobuline (Ig) A antitransglutaminase en utilisant la transglutaminase tissulaire humaine recombinante ou une autre transglutaminase tissulaire, en association avec l’immunofluorescence des IgA anti-endomysium. Une biopsie du duodénum est nécessaire pour confirmer le diagnostic de la MC. Le typage des antigènes des leucocytes humains peut aider à confirmer ou à exclure le diagnostic de la MC dans les cas où la s

  3. The radioprotection management of a PET department with a cyclotron and radiopharmacy laboratory, in accordance with Italian legislation.

    PubMed

    Russo, A A; Ferrari, P; Casale, M; Delia, R

    2011-09-01

    The possibility of setting up a positron emission tomography (PET) facility with a cyclotron and radiopharmaceutical laboratory in situ, at a feasible price and in a very restricted space, has led to a steady increase both in the use of the PET technique in diagnostic clinical routine imaging and in the number of cyclotrons for drug production. Owing to the progress made in the PET procedures, it is now possible to have not only a highly innovative system of diagnostic examination, with a remarkable improvement in the diagnostic quality and patient care, but also a considerable increase in the number of daily examinations. In this paper, the authors show how the acquired know-how, with respect to radioprotection, has applied to the planning, running and management of the PET/CT unit, installed in the Imaging Diagnostic Department of the Policlinico Tor Vergata (PTV), at Tor Vergata University, Rome. PMID:22039292

  4. Radionécrose cérébrale chez des patients irradiés pour cancers du nasopharynx: à propos de 3 cas

    PubMed Central

    El Mazghi, Abderrahman; Lalya, Issam; Loukili, Kaoutar; El Kacemi, Hanan; Kebdani, Taieb; Hassouni, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    La radionécrose cérébrale est une complication tardive, iatrogène, relativement rare de la radiothérapie qui survient après plus de six mois suivant le début du traitement. Elle pourrait s'expliquer par la conjonction de lésions vasculaires, gliales et d'ordre immunologiques. Elle peut mettre en jeu le pronostic fonctionnel et vital du malade. La prévention de cette affection redoutable est fondamentale vu l'absence de traitement potentiellement efficace. Nous rapportons 03 nouveaux cas, chez des patients traités par chimiothérapie d'induction puis radio- chimiothérapie concomitante pour des cancers localement avancés du nasopharynx. Le diagnostic a été orienté par l'IRM spectroscopique et l’évolution était favorable sous corticothérapie dans les 03 cas. PMID:25722784

  5. Absorbing materials with applications in radiotherapy and radioprotection.

    PubMed

    Spunei, M; Malaescu, I; Mihai, M; Marin, C N

    2014-11-01

    The radiotherapy centres are using linear accelerators equipped with multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) for treatments of various types of cancer. For superficial cancers located at a maximum depth of 3 cm high-energy electrons are often used, but MLC cannot be used together with electron applicators. Due to the fact that the tumour shape is not square (as electron applicators), searching for different materials that can be used as absorbents or shields for the protection of adjacent organs is of paramount importance. This study presents an experimental study regarding the transmitted dose through some laboratory-made materials when subjected to electron beams of various energies (ranging from 6 to 15 MeV). The investigated samples were composite materials consisting of silicon rubber and micrometre aluminium particles with different thicknesses and various mass fraction of aluminium. The measurements were performed at a source surface distance of 100 cm in the acrylic phantom. The experimental results show that the transmitted dose through tested samples is ranging between ∼1.8 and 90%, depending on the electron beam energy, sample thickness and sample composition. These preliminary results suggest that the analysed materials can be used as absorbers or shields in different applications in radiotherapy and radioprotection. PMID:25071243

  6. Radioprotection by polysaccharides alone and in combination with aminothiols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patchen, Myra L.; Macvittie, Thomas J.; Solberg, Brian D.; D'Alesandro, Michele M.; Brook, Itzhak

    We demonstrated that glucan, a beta-1,3 polysaccharide immunomodulator, enhances survival of mice when administered before radiation exposure. Glucan's prophylactic survival-enhancing effects are mediated by several mechanisms including (1) increasing macrophage-mediated resistance to potentially lethal postirradiation opportunistic infections, (2) increasing the Do of hematopoietic progenitor cells, and (3) accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution. In addition, even when administered shortly after some otherwise lethal doses of radiation, glucan increases survival. Glucan's therapeutic survival-enhancing effects are also mediated through its ability to enhance macrophage function and to accelerate hematopoietic reconstitution; glucan's therapeutic potential, however, is ultimately dependent on the survival of a critical number of hematopoietic stem cells capable of responding to glucan's stimulatory effects. Preirradiation administration of the traditional aminothiol radioprotectants WR-2721 and WR-3689 has been previously demonstrated to be an extremely effective means to increase hematopoietic stem cell survival. Therapeutic glucan treatment administered in combination with preirradiation WR-2721 or WR-3689 treatment synergistically increases both hematopoietic reconstitution and survival. Such combined modality treatments offer new promise in treating acute radiation injury.

  7. In vivo radioprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Rao, A V; Devi, P U; Kamath, R

    2001-09-01

    Radioprotective property of Moringa oleifera leaves was investigated in healthy adult Swiss albino mice. Animals were injected (ip) with 150 mg/kg body weight of 50% methanolic extract (ME) of M. oleifera leaves, as a single dose, or in 5 daily fractions of 30 mg/kg each, and exposed to whole body gamma irradiation (RT, 4 Gy) 1 hr later. Five animals from each group were sacrificed at 1, 2 and 7 days after treatment. Bone marrow protection was studied by scoring aberrations in metaphase chromosomes and micronucleus induction in polychromatic erythrocytes and normochromatic erythrocytes. Pretreatment with a single dose of 150 mg/kg ME significantly reduced the percent aberrant cells to 2/3rd that of RT alone group on day 1 and brought the values to normal range by day 7 post-irradiation. A similar effect was also seen for the micronucleated cells. Fractionated administration of ME (30 mg/kg x 5) gave a higher protection than that given by the same dose administered as a single treatment. ME also inhibited the Fenton reaction-generated free radical activity in vitro in a concentration dependent manner. These results demonstrate that pretreatment with the methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera confers significant radiation protection to the bone marrow chromosomes in mice and this may lead to the higher 30 day survival after lethal whole body irradiation. PMID:11831365

  8. Do Carbamazepine, Gabapentin, or Other Anticonvulsants Exert Sufficient Radioprotective Effects to Alter Responses From Trigeminal Neuralgia Radiosurgery?

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, John C.; Kim, Hyun; Kano, Hideyuki; Greenberger, Joel S.; Arai, Yoshio; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L. Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Laboratory studies have documented radioprotective effects with carbamazepine. We sought to determine whether carbamazepine or other anticonvulsant/neuroleptic drugs would show significant radioprotective effects in patients undergoing high-dose small-volume radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of 200 patients undergoing Gamma Knife (Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia between February 1995 and May 2008. We selected patients treated with a maximum dose of 80 Gy with 4-mm diameter collimators, with no previous microvascular decompression, and follow-up {>=}6 months (median, 24 months; range, 6-153 months). At the time of radiosurgery, 28 patients were taking no anticonvulsants, 62 only carbamazepine, 35 only gabapentin, 21 carbamazepine plus gabapentin, 17 carbamazepine plus other anticonvulsants, and 9 gabapentin plus other anticonvulsants, and 28 were taking other anticonvulsants or combinations. Results: Pain improvement developed post-radiosurgery in 187 of 200 patients (93.5%). Initial complete pain relief developed in 84 of 200 patients (42%). Post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy developed in 27 of 200 patients (13.5%). We could not significantly correlate pain improvement or initial complete pain relief with use of carbamazepine, gabapentin, or use of any anticonvulsants/neuroleptic drugs or other factors in univariate or multivariate analysis. Post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias correlated with the use of gabapentin (1 of 36 patients with gabapentin vs. 7 of 28 without, p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, decreasing age, purely typical pain, and use of gabapentin correlated (p = 0.008, p = 0.005, and p = 0.021) with lower risks of developing post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy. New post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias developed in 3% (1 of 36), 5% (4 of 81), and 13% (23 of 187) of patients on gabapentin alone, with age

  9. Alterations in locomotor activity induced by radioprotective doses of 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2

    SciTech Connect

    Landauer, M.R.; Walden, T.L.; Davis, H.D.; Dominitz, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DiPGE2) is an effective radioprotectant when administered before irradiation. A notable side effect of this compound is sedation. In separate experiments, the dose-response determinations of the time course of locomotor activity and 30-day survival after 10 Gy gamma irradiation (LD100) were made. Adult male CD2F1 mice were injected subcutaneously with vehicle or DiPGE2 in doses ranging from 0.01 to 40 micrograms per mouse. A dose of 0.01 micrograms did not result in alterations in locomotor behaviour or enhance survival. Doses greater than 1 microgram produced ataxia and enhanced radiation survival in a dose-dependent fashion. Full recovery of locomotor activity did not occur until 6 and 30 hr after injection for the 10 microgram and 40 microgram groups, respectively. Radioprotection was observed when DiPGE2 was administered preirradiation but not postirradiation. Doses of 1 and 10 micrograms were maximally effective as a radioprotectant if injected 5 min prior to irradiation (80%-90% survival). A dose of 40 micrograms resulted in 100% survival when injected 5-30 min before irradiation. Therefore, increasing doses of DiPGE2 resulted in an enhanced effectiveness as a radioprotectant. However, the doses that were the most radioprotective were also the most debilitating to the animal.

  10. Génotypes du virus de l'hépatite B et marqueurs évolutifs des patients porteurs chroniques de l'AgHBs à Bujumbura

    PubMed Central

    Ntagirabiri, Rénovat; Munezero, Belyse; Nahimana, Caritas; Ndabaneze, Evariste

    2016-01-01

    Introduction L'infection par le virus de l'hépatite B (VHB) est une affection grave suite à ses complications notamment la cirrhose et le carcinome hépatocellulaire (CHC). Les génotypes du VHB influent beaucoup sur son évolution et sur l'efficacité du traitement. Le but était d’évaluer les génotypes du VHB et les profils évolutifs des patients porteurs chroniques de l'AgHBs. Méthodes Étude transversale, menée au Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Kamenge et au Centre des maladies du tube digestif et du foie « CEMADIF » entre Juin 2013 et Mai 2014. Le génotypage, les dosages quantitatifs de l'AgHBe et de l'ADN virale B ont été réalisés au Laboratoire Cerba, Cergy Pontoise, France. L’évaluation de la fibrose était faite par le Fibrotest ou le FibroScan. Résultats Au total, 143 patients, 52,4% de sexe masculin, âge moyen 38,1 ans ont été inclus. Selon les marqueurs évolutifs, 112 patients (78,3%) avaient un AgHBe négatif. Quant à la charge virale, 106 patients (74,2%) avaient une virémie inférieure à 2000UI/ml et une fibrose minime inférieure à 7kpa selon le FibroScan. Parmi eux, 13 malades avaient un ADN du VHB indétectable (<20UI/ml). Les autres 37 patients (26,8%) avaient une charge virale supérieure à 2000UI/ml et parmi eux, 31 avaient un AgHBe positif (>0,8UI/ml). Il a été possible de déterminer le génotype chez 51 patients qui avaient une virémie assez élevée pour permettre techniquement ce dosage. Ces patients avaient tous un génotype A. Conclusion Le génotype A du VHB est le plus fréquent à Bujumbura. Il est associé à un portage inactif élevé. PMID:27222687

  11. Rasayana drugs from the Ayurvedic system of medicine as possible radioprotective agents in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Meera, Sharake; Vaishnav, Lalit Kumar; Rao, Suresh; Palatty, Princy Louis

    2013-11-01

    The use of ionizing radiation, which is the cornerstone of cancer treatment, is compromised by the radiosensitivity of normal tissues. A chemical that can give selective benefit to the normal cells against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation has been a long-sought goal. However, most of the compounds studied have shown inadequate clinical application owing to their inherent toxicity, undesirable side effects, and high cost. Studies carried out in the past 2 decades have shown that some of the classical Indian Ayurvedic drugs (Amritaprasham, Ashwagandha Rasayana, Brahma Rasayana, Chyavanprasha, Narasimha Rasayana, and Triphala Churna) possess radioprotective effects. In the current review, an attempt is made to summarize the radioprotective observations of these Ayurvedic drugs and the mechanisms responsible for the radioprotective effects. PMID:23737641

  12. Mechanisms of radio-protection by catecholamines in the hamster /Mesocricetus auratus/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prewitt, R. L.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on normal and splenectomized male and female hamsters between 2 and 3 months old subjected to a whole-body exposure of 1000 or 2000 rads in a Co-60 source with a view toward evaluating their radio-protection by norepinephrine, isoproterenol, and phenylephrine. Vasoconstriction hypoxia mechanism of radio-protection is examined along with the hypothesis that isoproterenol protects by hypercalcemia-induced cell proliferation. Radiation experiment results are found to be consistent with the hypothesis that stimulation of alpha receptors results in radio-protection through a tissue hypoxia mechanism. Beta agonists seem to protect by a hypotensive-hypoxia mechanism. The catecholamines protect against the hematopoietic syndrome, but show no evidence of protection against the gastrointestinal syndrome.

  13. Des Moines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This document, intended for elementary students, contains articles and activities designed to acquaint young people with the history of Des Moines, Iowa. The articles are short, and new or difficult words are highlighted and defined for young readers. "The Raccoon River Indian Agency" discusses the archeological exploration of the indian…

  14. Radio-protective effect of some new curcumin analogues.

    PubMed

    El-Gazzar, Marwa G; Zaher, Nashwa H; El-Hossary, Ebaa M; Ismail, Amel F M

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, novel symmetrical curcumin analogues (2-7) have been synthesized by substituting the phenolic OH of curcumin with different linkers providing additional keto-enol tautomerism, very essential for radioprotective activity. The structures of the synthesized compounds (2-7) were elucidated by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and mass spectral data and were found consistent with the assigned structures. The curative effect of these new compounds, against the oxidative stress due to exposure of rats to the whole body γ-irradiation (7Gy) was investigated. Gamma-irradiated rats exhibited elevations of ALT, AST activities, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) levels. Contrariwise, the total protein, albumin, total calcium level, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GST activities and GSH content were decreased. Treatment of gamma-irradiated rats with the new curcumin analogues (2-7) showed significant amelioration in the in-vivo antioxidant status, liver and kidney functions, as well as the anti-inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB). Inhibition of NF-κB could be responsible for the improvement of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status in gamma-irradiated animals, by down-regulation of IL-1β and TNF-α level. In conclusion, the new curcumin analogues (2-7) exhibited post-protective effect on gamma-irradiation, by NF-κB inhibition. PMID:27505300

  15. Radioprotection conferred by dextran sulfate given before irradiation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.M.; Peeke, J.

    1986-02-01

    Dextran sulfate (DS) has been observed to cause mobilization (fivefold) of hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) and leukocytes, primarily lymphocytes, into the peripheral blood of mice within 2-3 h after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. This effect was dose dependent and was prolonged for several hours when the high-molecular-weight version DS500 (500,000 daltons) was used. When DS500 was given 1-3 days before irradiation, hemopoietic recovery was markedly enhanced. Postirradiation injection was ineffective. By ten days after irradiation (7.0 Gy), the number of endogenous spleen colonies (CFUs) and the splenic mass were much larger if DS pretreatment had been given. This effect was dependent on the dose of DS500 and on the time administered, 60 mg/kg producing a maximal effect when given three days before irradiation. DS500 caused a transient anaphylactoid shock, however, in most mice--mild at low doses but potentially lethal at doses above 40 mg/kg (10% mortality within 1-3 days after 60 mg/kg). The following results were obtained with 50 mg/kg, a compromise dose causing minimal mortality (3%) given three days before irradiation. Reticulocyte reappearance was earlier in irradiated mice given DS500, indicating earlier erythropoietic recovery. Some of these reticulocytes were resistant to lysing agents, so their appearance could be detected using the Coulter electronic cell counter, as well as in stained blood smears. The 30-day mortality due to bone marrow failure after irradiation was significantly decreased in DS-treated mice below 9.5 Gy, and the LD50/30 was increased by 0.5 Gy. This study shows that dextran sulfate exerts a radioprotective influence on the hemopoietic system and hence survival when administered prophylactically.

  16. Radioprotective Efficacy of Gamma-Tocotrienol in Nonhuman Primates.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay K; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Fatanmi, Oluseyi O; Wise, Stephen Y; Newman, Victoria L; Romaine, Patricia L P; Hendrickson, Howard; Gulani, Jatinder; Ghosh, Sanchita P; Kumar, K Sree; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2016-03-01

    The search for treatments to counter potentially lethal radiation-induced injury over the past several decades has led to the development of multiple classes of radiation countermeasures. However, to date only granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; filgrastim, Neupogen)and pegylated G-CSF (pegfilgrastim, Neulasta) have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) has demonstrated strong radioprotective efficacy in the mouse model, indicating the need for further evaluation in a large animal model. In this study, we evaluated GT3 pharmacokinetics (PK) and efficacy at different doses of cobalt-60 gamma radiation (0.6 Gy/min) using the nonhuman primate (NHP) model. The PK results demonstrated increased area under the curve with increasing drug dose and half-life of GT3. GT3 treatment resulted in reduced group mean neutropenia by 3-5 days and thrombocytopenia by 1-5 days. At 5.8 and 6.5 Gy total-body irradiation, GT3 treatment completely prevented thrombocytopenia. The capability of GT3 to reduce severity and duration of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia was dose dependent; 75 mg/kg treatment was more effective than 37.5 mg/kg treatment after a 5.8 Gy dose. However, the higher GT3 dose (75 mg/kg) was associated with higher frequency of adverse skin effects (small abscess) at the injection site. GT3 treatment of irradiated NHPs caused no significant difference in animal survival at 60 days postirradiation, however, low mortality was observed in irradiated, vehicle-treated groups as well. The data from this pilot study further elucidate the role and pharmacokinetics of GT3 in hematopoietic recovery after irradiation in a NHP model, and demonstrate the potential of GT3 as a promising radioprotector. PMID:26930378

  17. Potentially-lethal damage and radioprotection in human cells exposed to californium-252

    SciTech Connect

    Schroy, C.B.; Goud, S.N.; Magura, C.; Feola, J.M.; Maruyama, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Cultured human T-1E cells were irradiated with californium-252 neutrons and gamma rays. When 2 mm caffeine was present in the medium for 47 h after irradiation cell survival (assayed by colony formation) was decreased significantly. When 2 m dimethylsulfoxide was present during the irradiations radioprotection was observed using the same assay. The caffeine data indicate that potentially-lethal lesions exist in cells after californium exposure and that these lesions can be made lethal when they would otherwise be repaired. The DMSO data indicate that radioprotection from californium exposure can be achieved and that scanvengable free radicals play an important role in Cf-252 lethality.

  18. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  19. GS-nitroxide (JP4-039)-mediated radioprotection of human Fanconi anemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Mark E; Kim, Hyun; Berhane, Hebist; Epperly, Michael W; Franicola, Darcy; Zhang, Xichen; Houghton, Frank; Shields, Donna; Wang, Hong; Bakkenist, Christopher J; Frantz, Marie-Celine; Forbeck, Erin M; Goff, Julie P; Wipf, Peter; Greenberger, Joel S

    2011-11-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited disorder characterized by defective DNA repair and cellular sensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents. Clinically, FA is associated with high risk for marrow failure, leukemia and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Radiosensitivity in FA patients compromises the use of total-body irradiation for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and radiation therapy for HNSCC. A radioprotector for the surrounding tissue would therefore be very valuable during radiotherapy for HNSCC. Clonogenic radiation survival curves were determined for pre- or postirradiation treatment with the parent nitroxide Tempol or JP4-039 in cells of four FA patient-derived cell lines and two transgene-corrected subclonal lines. FancG(-/-) (PD326) and FancD2(-/-) (PD20F) patient lines were more sensitive to the DNA crosslinking agent mitomycin C (MMC) than their transgene-restored subclonal cell lines (both P < 0.0001). FancD2(-/-) cells were more radiosensitive than the transgene restored subclonal cell line (ñ = 2.0 ± 0.7 and 4.7 ± 2.2, respectively, P = 0.03). In contrast, FancG(-/-) cells were radioresistant relative to the transgene-restored subclonal cell line (ñ = 9.4 ± 1.5 and 2.2 ± 05, respectively, P = 0.001). DNA strand breaks measured by the comet assay correlated with radiosensitivity. Cell lines from a Fanc-C and Fanc-A patients showed radiosensitivity similar to that of Fanc-D2(-/-) cells. A fluorophore-tagged JP4-039 (BODIPY-FL) analog targeted the mitochondria of the cell lines. Preirradiation or postirradiation treatment with JP4-039 at a lower concentration than Tempol significantly increased the radioresistance and stabilized the antioxidant stores of all cell lines. Tempol increased the toxicity of MMC in FancD2(-/-) cells. These data provide support for the potential clinical use of JP4-039 for normal tissue radioprotection during chemoradiotherapy in FA patients. PMID:21939290

  20. GS-Nitroxide (JP4-039)-Mediated Radioprotection of Human Fanconi Anemia Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Mark E.; Kim, Hyun; Berhane, Hebist; Epperly, Michael W.; Franicola, Darcy; Zhang, Xichen; Houghton, Frank; Shields, Donna; Wang, Hong; Bakkenist, Christopher J.; Frantz, Marie-Celine; Forbeck, Erin M.; Goff, Julie P.; Wipf, Peter; Greenberger, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited disorder characterized by defective DNA repair and cellular sensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents. Clinically, FA is associated with high risk for marrow failure, leukemia and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Radiosensitivity in FA patients compromises the use of total-body irradiation for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and radiation therapy for HNSCC. A radioprotector for the surrounding tissue would therefore be very valuable during radiotherapy for HNSCC. Clonogenic radiation survival curves were determined for pre- or postirradiation treatment with the parent nitroxide Tempol or JP4-039 in cells of four FA patient-derived cell lines and two transgene-corrected subclonal lines. FancG–/– (PD326) and FancD2–/– (PD20F) patient lines were more sensitive to the DNA crosslinking agent mitomycin C (MMC) than their transgene-restored subclonal cell lines (both P < 0.0001). FancD2–/– cells were more radiosensitive than the transgene restored subclonal cell line (ñ = 2.0 ± 0.7 and 4.7 ± 2.2, respectively, P = 0.03). In contrast, FancG–/– cells were radioresistant relative to the transgene-restored subclonal cell line (ñ = 9.4 ± 1.5 and 2.2 ± 05, respectively, P = 0.001). DNA strand breaks measured by the comet assay correlated with radiosensitivity. Cell lines from a Fanc-C and Fanc-A patients showed radiosensitivity similar to that of Fanc-D2–/– cells. A fluorophore-tagged JP4-039 (BODIPY-FL) analog targeted the mitochondria of the cell lines. Preirradiation or postirradiation treatment with JP4-039 at a lower concentration than Tempol significantly increased the radioresistance and stabilized the antioxidant stores of all cell lines. Tempol increased the toxicity of MMC in FancD2–/– cells. These data provide support for the potential clinical use of JP4-039 for normal tissue radioprotection during chemoradiotherapy in FA patients. PMID:21939290

  1. Radioprotective Effect of Lidocaine on Function and Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands Receiving Fractionated Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, Samer George; Benedek, Geza Attila; Su Yuxiong; Jacobsen, Hans Christian; Klinger, Matthias; Dendorfer, Andreas; Hemmelmann, Claudia; Meller, Birgit; Nadrowitz, Roger; Rades, Dirk; Sieg, Peter

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common side effect after radiotherapy for head-and-neck malignancies. The aim of the present study was to examine the radioprotective effect of lidocaine hydrochloride during fractionated radiation in an experimental animal model. Methods and Materials: To evaluate the influence of different radiation doses on salivary gland function and the radioprotective effect of lidocaine, rabbits were irradiated with 15, 25, 30, and 35 Gy (equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions equivalent to 24, 40, 48, and 56 Gy, respectively). Lidocaine hydrochloride (10 and 12 mg/kg) was administered before every radiation fraction in the treatment groups. Salivary gland function was assessed by flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy, and the morphologic changes were evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. Results: Functional impairment was first observed after 35 Gy and pretreatment with lidocaine improved radiation tolerance of both parotid and submandibular glands. The use of 12 mg/kg lidocaine was superior and displayed significant radioprotection with regard to flow sialometry and sialoscintigraphy. The ultrastructure was largely preserved after pretreatment with both lidocaine doses. Conclusions: Lidocaine represents an effective radioprotective agent and a promising approach for clinical application to avoid radiation-induced functional impairment of salivary glands.

  2. [Use of metal salts for radioprotection of plants during radioactive pollution of the territory].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, I N; Kitsno, V E; Grisiuk, S N; Tkachenko, G M; Ivanova, E A; Saenko, K V; Gural'chuk, Zh Z

    1999-01-01

    The applying salts of some metals to radionuclide contaminated soddy-podzolic soil in the zone of Chernobyl nuclear power station or the spraying of plants by its solutions are showing the radioprotective effect (salts of iron, zinc, cobalt and manganese) and decreasing the uptake of 90Sr and 137Cs through roots (salts of zinc, manganese, boron, lithium, cobalt and copper). PMID:10366969

  3. Radioprotection of mouse hematopoietic stem cells by leukotriene A4 and lipoxin B4

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The cytoprotective properties of eicosanoids were used for both cyclooxygenase products and, more recently, lipoxygenase products to induce radioprotection. This protection was shown with cells in culture, mouse hematopoietic stem cell in vivo, and with whole animal survival. DRF's of 1.7 or greater can be obtained with DiPGE2, a synthetic derivative of the naturally occurring prostaglandin E2, and with LTC4. These cytoprotective/radioprotective properties have significance in normal physiological processes and also in cancer biology where some tumors produce elevated levels of eicosanoids and may influence therapeutic efficacy. The potent cyto/radioprotective biological activity induced by leukotrienes prompted a search for other lipoxygenase products exhibiting similar properties. Pretreatment of mice with 1 to 20 microgram of leukotriene A(4) before sublethal irradiation induced an increase in the number of endogenous hematopoietic stem cells. Radioprotection was also provided by pretreatment with lipoxin B(4) but not with lipoxin A(4) or with potential lipoxin precursors: 5-HETE, 15-HPETE, 15-HETE, and arachidonic acid. The degree of protection induced by leukotriene A(4) or lipoxin B(4) is less than that previously reported for an equivalent dose of leukotriene C(4). Administration of the lipoxins did not result in any visibly detectable side effects such as diarrhea or ataxia.

  4. [Radioprotection and environmental pollution by the use of the radionuclides 89Sr, 186Re, and 153Sm for pain palliation in metastatic bone diseases. Related calculations].

    PubMed

    Sbonias, Evangelos

    2005-01-01

    Due to the fact that the existing commercial analgesic drugs are not able to reduce effectively the pain caused by the metastatic bone disease, the use of radiopharmaceuticals with avidity to selectively localize in the metastatic skeletal sites, such as strondium-89 chloride (89Sr-Cl2), rhenium-186-hydroxy ethylene diphosphonate (186Re-HEDP), and samarium-153-ethylene diamine tetramethylene (153Sm-EDTMP), is widely accepted. However this medical application may be dangerous for the occupied personnel and more for general public, if radioactive waste is not properly disposed. In the following article we try to estimate the degree and the significance of that risk. For that reason we discuss the physical properties of these radionuclides and their distribution in the body of the patient. We conclude that 89Sr is not harmful for the physician, the attending personnel or those who live with the patient, because it radiates beta-radiation, while its gamma-radiation is negligeable. The radionuclides 186Re and 153Sm besides beta-radiation, also emit a perceptible amount of gamma-radiation. It has been shown that the exposure to gamma-radiation from these radionuclides of the physician, the attending personnel or those who live with the patient is very low as compared to the internationally accepted radioprotection limits. However the environmental contamination per treatment by either of these three radionuclides is not negligeable in comparison to the national and international accepted limits. Patients that are not in good clinical condition may pose an additional contamination danger to those attending them. For limiting radiocontamination, the annual number of treatments by the above three previous radionuclides, should be considered according to the ALARA principle in relation with the correct handling of these patients, and also considering the fundamentals of radioprotection. PMID:16142246

  5. Protection of the environment: how to position radioprotection in an ecological risk assessment perspective.

    PubMed

    Bréchignac, François

    2003-05-20

    The development of a system capable of ensuring adequate protection of the environment from the harmful effects of ionising radiation is at present particularly debated. This need comes both from a restrictive consideration of the environment in the so far existing system for human radioprotection, and the planetary-wide growing concerns about man's technogenic influence on his environment which have yielded 'sustainability' and 'precaution' as guiding principles for environmental protection. Whilst evolving from the field of human radioprotection, the radioprotection of the environment needs to be discussed in a wider perspective, with particular emphasis on the most advanced concepts which emerge from the efforts to deriving improved approaches to Ecological Risk Assessment. For the sake of protection, the environment is traditionally addressed through its biota since these are the sensitive components of ecosystems. Similarities between man and biotas reflect the ubiquitous mechanistic effects of radiation on life which disrupt molecules. However, important differences also arise in a number of perspectives, from the large spectrum of different species of biotas to their hierarchical self-organisation as interacting populations within ecosystems. Altogether, these aspects are prone to promote complex arrays of different responses to stress which lie beyond the scope of human radioprotection due to its focus on individuals of a single species. By means of selected illustrations, this paper reviews and discusses the current challenges faced in proper identification of measurable effect endpoints (stochastic/deterministic, individual/population- or ecosystem-relevant), dose limits in chronic exposure (or levels of concern), and their consideration according to radiation type (RBE) and interactions with other contaminants (synergies/antagonisms) which represent critical gaps in knowledge. The system of human radioprotection has conceptually been targeted at limiting

  6. Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms of Radioprotective Effects of Naringenin, a Phytochemical from Citrus Fruits.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sumit; Tiku, Ashu Bhan

    2016-03-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effects of naringenin in vivo using Swiss albino mice as a model system. Oral administration of 50 mg/kg body weight of naringenin for 7 days prior to radiation exposure protected mice against radiation-induced DNA, chromosomal and membrane damage. Naringenin pretreatment also increased the antioxidant status of irradiated mice. Multiple factors operating at cellular and molecular levels led to increased endogenous spleen colonies and survival of mice. Although naringenin induces apoptosis in cancer cells we found that it can protect against radiation-induced apoptosis in normal cells by modulating the expression of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2. The results from the present study indicate that naringenin inhibits the NF-kB pathway and down regulates radiation-induced apoptotic proteins resulting in radioprotection at the cellular, tissue and organism levels. PMID:26881453

  7. WR-1065 and radioprotection of vascular endothelial cells. I. Cell proliferation, DNA synthesis and damage

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, D.B.; Drab, E.A.; Kang, H.J.; Baumann, F.E.; Blazek, E.R.

    1996-02-01

    Normal tissue toxicity limits radiation therapy and could depend on the extent of damage to the vascular endothelium. Aminothiols such as WR-1065 [N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-diaminopropane] provide radioprotection for normal tissues, but little is known about how the aminothiols specifically affect the endothelium. Bovine aortic endothelial cells in culture were exposed to WR-1065 for 2 h before irradiation ({sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays, 1 Gy/min). Alone, WR-1065 demonstrated an antiproliferative effect that was related to dose (0.5-4 mM) and was evident by lowered counts of adherent cells 48 h after exposure. WR-1065 was clearly radioprotective when assessed by colony formation and incorporation of [{sup 3}H]thymidine. However, when the number of adherent cells was evaluated, radioprotection appeared to be slight and evident only in logarithmically growing cells. WR-1065 at 2 mM suppressed single-strand DNA breaks after 3 Gy by 22% and double-strand breaks after 9 Gy by 47%. Also in the irradiated cells, WR-1065 more than doubled the rate of progression of cells from G{sub 1} to S phase. WR-1065 pretreatment elevated cellular glutathione (GSH) content more than twofold. Although pretreatment with buthionine sulfoximine inhibited the elevation of GSH, the radioprotective impact of WR-1065 on total DNA strand breaks and colony formation was unaffected. These results suggest that WR-1065 may enable tissue recovery from irradiation by promoting the replication of endothelial cells, possibly by mechanisms independent of GSH. 46 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. A facile and rapid access to resveratrol derivatives and their radioprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Uzura, Saori; Sekine-Suzuki, Emiko; Nakanishi, Ikuo; Sonoda, Motohiro; Tanimori, Shinji

    2016-08-15

    A facile and rapid access to resveratrol derivatives has been achieved based on palladium-catalyzed oxidative Heck reaction of aryl boronic acids with styrenes followed by demethylation in moderate to good yields. A series of resveratrol derivatives with various functional groups has been synthesized easily. The radioprotective activity of synthesized compounds has also been evaluated using rat thymocytes. The results revealed that some resveratrol derivatives efficiently protected the thymocytes from radiation-induced apoptosis. PMID:27426305

  9. Early Clinical Experience with a Polymer-Free Biolimus A9 Drug-Coated Stent in DES-Type Patients Who Are Poor Candidates for Prolonged Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kinnaird, Tim; Butt, Mehmood; Abdul, Fairoz; Yazji, Khaled; Hailan, Ahmed; Gallagher, Sean; Ossei-Gerning, Nicholas; Chase, Alexander; Choudhury, Anirban; Smith, David; Anderson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prolonged dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT) may cause excess bleeding in certain patients. The biolimus-A9 drug-coated stent (BA9-DCS) has a rapid drug-elution profile allowing shortened DAPT. Data were gathered on the early experience implanting this stent in drug-eluting stent eligible patients deemed to be at high risk of bleeding. Background and Methods The demographics, procedural data and clinical outcomes were gathered prospectively for 249 patients treated with a BA9-DCS stent at 2 UK centres, and compared to a cohort of patients treated in the same period with drug-eluting stents (PCI-DES). Results Operator-defined BA9-DCS indications included warfarin therapy, age, and anaemia. Patients receiving a BA9-DCS were older (71.6±11.8 vs. 64.8±11.6yrs, p<0.001), more often female (38.2 vs. 26.8%, P<0.001), and more likely to have comorbidity including chronic kidney disease or poor LV function than PCI-DES patients. The baseline Mehran bleed risk score was also significantly higher in the BA9-DCS group (19.4±8.7 vs. 13.1±5.8, p<0.001). Of the BA9-DCS cohort, 95.5% of patients demonstrated disease fitting NICE criteria for DES placement. The number of lesions treated (1.81±1.1 vs. 1.58±0.92, p = 0.003), total lesion length (32.1±21.7 vs. 26.1±17.6mm, p<0.001), number of stents used (1.93±1.11 vs. 1.65±1.4, p = 0.007) and total stent length (37.5±20.8 vs. 32.4±20.3, p<0.01) were greater for BA9-DCS patients. DAPT was prescribed for 3.3±3.9 months for BA9-DCS patients and 11.3±2.4 months for PCI-DES patients (p<0.001). At follow up of 392±124 days despite the abbreviated DAPT course stent related event were infrequent with ischemia-driven restenosis PCI (2.8 vs. 3.4%, p = 0.838), and stent thrombosis (1.6 vs. 2.1%, p = 0.265) rates similar between the BA9-DCS ad PCI-DES groups. After propensity scoring all clinical end-points were similar between both cohorts. Conclusions This early experience using polymer-free BA9 drug-coated stents in

  10. Des-Aspartate-Angiotensin I Attenuates Mortality of Mice Exposed to Gamma Radiation via a Novel Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Sethi, Gautam; Loke, Weng-Keong; Sim, Meng-Kwoon

    2015-01-01

    ACE inhibitors and ARBs (angiotensin receptor blockers) have been shown to attenuate radiation injuries in animal models of lethal gamma irradiation. These two classes of drug act by curtailing the actions of angiotensin II-linked inflammatory pathways that are up-regulated during gamma radiation in organ systems such as the brain, lung, kidney, and bone marrow. ACE inhibitors inhibit ACE and attenuate the formation of angiotensin II from angiotensin I; ARBs block the angiotensin AT1 receptor and attenuate the actions of angiotensin II that are elicited through the receptor. DAA-I (des-aspartate-angiotensin I), an orally active angiotensin peptide, also attenuates the deleterious actions of angiotensin II. It acts as an agonist on the angiotensin AT1 receptor and elicits responses that oppose those of angiotensn II. Thus, DAA-I was investigated for its anticipated radioprotection in gamma irradiated mice. DAA-I administered orally at 800 nmole/kg/day for 30 days post exposure (6.4 Gy) attenuated the death of mice during the 30-day period. The attenuation was blocked by losartan (50 nmole/kg/day, i.p.) that was administered sequential to DAA-I administration. This shows that the radioprotection was mediated via the angiotensin AT1 receptor. Furthermore, the radioprotection correlated to an increase in circulating PGE2 of surviving animals, and this suggests that PGE2 is involved in the radioprotection in DAA-I-treated mice. At the hematopoietic level, DAA-I significantly improved two syndromes of myelosuppression (leucopenia and lymphocytopenia), and mice pre-treated with DAA-I prior to gamma irradiation showed significant improvement in the four myelodysplastic syndromes that were investigated, namely leucopenia, lymphocytopenia, monocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. Based on the known ability of PGE2 to attenuate the loss of functional hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in radiation injury, we hypothesize that PGE2 mediated the action of DAA-I. DAA-I completely

  11. Radioprotection and Cell Cycle Arrest of Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Darinaparsin, a Tumor Radiosensitizer

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Junqiang; Doi, Hiroshi; Saar, Matthias; Santos, Jennifer; Li, Xuejun; Peehl, Donna M.; Knox, Susan J.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: It was recently reported that the organic arsenic compound darinaparsin (DPS) is a cytotoxin and radiosensitizer of tumor cells in vitro and in subcutaneous xenograft tumors. Surprisingly, it was also found that DPS protects normal intestinal crypt epithelial cells (CECs) from clonogenic death after ionizing radiation (IR). Here we tested the DPS radiosensitizing effect in a clinically relevant model of prostate cancer and explored the radioprotective effect and mechanism of DPS on CECs. Methods and Materials: The radiation modification effect of DPS was tested in a mouse model of orthotopic xenograft prostate cancer and of IR-induced acute gastrointestinal syndrome. The effect of DPS on CEC DNA damage and DNA damage responses was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: In the mouse model of IR-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, DPS treatment before IR accelerated recovery from body weight loss and increased animal survival. DPS decreased post-IR DNA damage and cell death, suggesting that the radioprotective effect was mediated by enhanced DNA damage repair. Shortly after DPS injection, significant cell cycle arrest was observed in CECs at both G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, which was accompanied by the activation of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein 45 alpha (GADD45A). Further investigation revealed that DPS activated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), an important inducer of DNA damage repair and cell cycle arrest. Conclusions: DPS selectively radioprotected normal intestinal CECs and sensitized prostate cancer cells in a clinically relevant model. This effect may be, at least in part, mediated by DNA damage response activation and has the potential to significantly increase the therapeutic index of radiation therapy.

  12. Radioprotective and cytoprotective activity of Tinospora cordifolia stem enriched extract containing cordifolioside-A

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Arti; Bigoniya, Papiya; Singh, Chandra Shekhar; Patel, Narayan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective and cytoprotective potential of cordifolioside-A, a primary active constituent of n-butanol fraction of Tinospora Cordifolia (NBTC) against 4 Gy-γ radiation in mice and cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC stem ethanolic extract was confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis. Radioprotective activity was evaluated at 80 and 120 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of NBTC administered 15 days prior to whole body radiation exposure by observing survival rate, change in body weight, hematology, spleen colony forming unit (CFU), and micronucleus (MN) expression. Cytoprotective activity of NBTC was evaluated at 5, 10, and 15 mg/ml concentrations on Allium cepa root meristem growth against cyclophosphamide. Results: HPTLC analysis of standard cordifolioside A, and NBTC confirmed the presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC with the retention factor value of 0.86. Administration of NBTC (120 mg/kg, i.p.) produced significant protection against radiation in terms of increased survival rate, body weight retention, hematological parameters, spleen CFU assay (P < 0.01), and decreased MN expression (P < 0.01). Cytoprotectivity was observed maximally at 10 mg/ml NBTC concentration with significant increase in root growth (P < 0.01), non-toxic mitotic index (MI) (65.9%) and lesser chromosomal aberrations (15.4%). NBTC at 10 mg/ml concentration showed very few C-anaphase compared to aberrations like fragmentation, C-anaphase, multipolarity and sticky chromosome in cyclophosphamide alone. Conclusion: The results suggest that enriched NBTC containing cordifolioside-A has a potential in vivo radioprotective effect as well as in vitro cytoprotective activity. PMID:23833365

  13. Response and Monte Carlo evaluation of a reference ionization chamber for radioprotection level at calibration laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Lucio P.; Vivolo, Vitor; Perini, Ana P.; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2015-07-01

    A special parallel plate ionization chamber, inserted in a slab phantom for the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) determination, was developed and characterized in this work. This ionization chamber has collecting electrodes and window made of graphite, and the walls and phantom made of PMMA. The tests comprise experimental evaluation following international standards and Monte Carlo simulations, employing the PENELOPE code to evaluate the design of this new dosimeter. The experimental tests were conducted employing the radioprotection level quality N-60 established at the IPEN, and all results were within the recommended standards.

  14. Radioprotective effects of ATP in human blood ex vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Swennen, Els L.R. Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Van den Beucken, Twan; Bast, Aalt

    2008-03-07

    Damage to healthy tissue is a major limitation of radiotherapy treatment of cancer patients, leading to several side effects and complications. Radiation-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines is thought to be partially responsible for the radiation-associated complications. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of extracellular ATP on markers of oxidative stress, radiation-induced inflammation and DNA damage in irradiated blood ex vivo. ATP inhibited radiation-induced TNF-{alpha} release and increased IL-10 release. The inhibitory effect of ATP on TNF- {alpha} release was completely reversed by adenosine 5'-O-thiomonophosphate, indicating a P2Y{sub 11} mediated effect. Furthermore, ATP attenuated radiation-induced DNA damage immediate, 3 and 6 h after irradiation. Our study indicates that ATP administration alleviates radiation-toxicity to blood cells, mainly by inhibiting radiation-induced inflammation and DNA damage.

  15. Radioprotective effect of chicory seeds against genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation in human normal lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hosseinimehr, S J; Ghaffari-Rad, V; Rostamnezhad, M; Ghasemi, A; Allahverdi Pourfallah, T; Shahani, S

    2015-01-01

    The search for less-toxic radioprotective agents has led to a growing trend towards natural products. Protective effect of the methanolic extract of chicory seeds (MCS) was investigated against genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation in human lymphocytes. Human peripheral blood samples were collected and incubated with MCS at different concentrations (10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL) for two hours. The whole blood samples were exposed in vitro to X-ray at dose 2.5 Gy. Then, the lymphocytes were cultured with mitogenic stimulation to determine the micronucleus in cytokinesis blocked binucleated cell. The methanolic extract at all doses significantly reduced the frequency of micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes, as compared with similarly irradiated lymphocytes without any extract treatment. The maximum protection was observed at 200 μg/mL of MCS, it completely protected genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation in human lymphocytes. The extract exhibited a concentration-dependent radical scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radicals. HPLC analysis of MCS showed this extract is containing chlorogenic acid as a phenolic compound. These data suggest that the radioprotective effect of methanolic extract of chicory seeds can be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds such as chlorogenic acid which act as antioxidant agents. PMID:26278267

  16. Radioprotective properties of detoxified lipid A from Salmonella minnesota R595

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.L.; Walden, T.L.; Patchen, M.L.; MacVittie, T.J.; Fuchs, P.

    1986-07-01

    In the past, the toxicity of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or its principal bioactive component, lipid A, has detracted from their potential use as radioprotectants. Recently, a relatively nontoxic monophosphoryl Lipid A (LAM) that retains many of the immunobiologic properties of LPS has been isolated from a polysaccharide deficient Re mutant strain of Salmonella minnesota (R595). The ability of the native endotoxic glycolipid (GL) from S. minnesota (R595) as well as diphosphoryl lipid A (LAD) and nontoxic monophosphoryl lipid A (LAM) derived from GL to protect LPS responsive (CD2F1 or C3H/HeN) and nonresponsive (C3H/HeJ) mice from 60Co gamma irradiation has been studied. Administration of GL, LAD, or LAM to CD2F1 or C3H/HeN mice (400 micrograms/kg) 24 h prior to exposure provided significant radioprotection. No protection was afforded to C3H/HeJ mice. Experiments were also conducted to determine the relative abilities of GL, LAD, and LAM to stimulate hematopoiesis as reflected by the endogenous spleen colony (E-CFU) assay. Protection was not correlated with the ability of these substances to increase E-CFUs or to induce colony-stimulating activity (CSA).

  17. Interaction of radiosensitizers and WR-2721. I. Modification of skin radioprotection.

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, A.; Stewart, F. A.; Denekamp, J.

    1982-01-01

    We have studied the radiomodifying action in mouse skin of WR-2721 and misonidazole (MISO) when used alone or in combination. The radioprotection with WR-2721 was drug-dose dependent and highly influenced by the O2 concentration at the time of irradiation. Significant sensitizaton was observed with MISO, especially in air-breathing mice. The combination of WR-2721 and MISO produced a radiation response intermediate between the resistant and sensitive responses to either drug alone. The precise degree of sensitivity was dependent on the relative doses of protector and sensitizer. We have also studied the interaction of both drugs in terms of drug-induced lethality, which showed a clear toxic interaction. The WR-2721 LD50 was reduced by a factor of 1.4 with only 200 mg/kg of MISO. We conclude that the combination of WR-2721 and MISO shows an interaction in terms of drug toxicity and radiation response, such that the radioprotection of skin is reduced or even abolished with low doses of MISO. PMID:6282299

  18. Radioprotective effect of mefenamic acid against radiation-induced genotoxicity in human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nobakht, Reyhaneh; Ghasemi, Arash; Pourfallah, Tayyeb Allahverdi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Mefenamic acid (MEF) as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is used as a medication for relieving of pain and inflammation. Radiation-induced inflammation process is involved in DNA damage and cell death. In this study, the radioprotective effect of MEF was investigated against genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation in human blood lymphocytes. Materials and Methods Peripheral blood samples were collected from human volunteers and incubated with MEF at different concentrations (5, 10, 50, or 100 µM) for two hours. The whole blood was exposed to ionizing radiation at a dose 1.5 Gy. Lymphocytes were cultured with mitogenic stimulation to determine the micronuclei in cytokinesis blocked binucleated lymphocyte. Results A significant decreasing in the frequency of micronuclei was observed in human lymphocytes irradiated with MEF as compared to irradiated lymphocytes without MEF. The maximum decreasing in frequency of micronuclei was observed at 100 µM of MEF (38% decrease), providing maximal protection against ionizing radiation. Conclusion The radioprotective effect of MEF is probably related to anti-inflammatory property of MEF on human lymphocytes. PMID:26484310

  19. Radio-protective effect of polysaccharides isolated from Lactobacillus brevis-fermented Ecklonia cava.

    PubMed

    Lee, WonWoo; Ahn, Ginnae; Lee, Bae-Jin; Wijesinghe, W A J P; Kim, Daekyung; Yang, Hyemi; Kim, Young Mog; Park, Sun Joo; Jee, Youngheun; Jeon, You-Jin

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the radioprotective effects of a polysaccharide isolated from enzymatic extracts of Ecklonia cava (E. cava) fermented by fungi and bacteria. We identified that the aqueous extract of the Lactobacillus brevis-fermented E. cava especially showed the highest proliferation effect. In addition, the enzymatic extract prepared by enzyme-assisted extraction using Viscozyme (VLFE) significantly increased cell proliferation. Further study indicated that the polysaccharides isolated from the >30 kDa fraction of VLFE (VLFEP) significantly enhanced survival and proliferation effects in γ-ray-irradiated cells. Also, VLFEP markedly reduced the DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species, and the percentage of Sub-G(1) DNA contents caused by γ-ray-irradiation. Moreover, VLFEP modulated the expression levels of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2 via inhibition of IκBα degradation and phosphorylation and NFκB p65 translocation into nuclei. These results demonstrate that VLFEP has radioprotective properties including the modulation of apoptosis via the inhibition of the NFκB signaling pathway. PMID:23068138

  20. Whole body radioprotective effect of phenolic extracts from the fruits of Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhenyu

    2016-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of phenolics extracted from the fruits of Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. (MBP-3b) against damage induced by (60)Co γ-irradiation in vivo. MBP-3b could significantly improve the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and the T-AOC, as well as reduce the MDA level in the liver and kidneys of irradiated mice. In addition, pretreatment with MBP-3b at a dose of 150 mg per kg bw could significantly enhance immunomodulation activity by promoting the proliferation of spenocytes and monocyte phagocytosis. The administration of MBP-3b prevented the decline induced by radiation of haematological parameters (WBC, RBC, PLT and HGB). Furthermore, MBP-3b could protect spenocytes from radiation-induced damage by inhibiting cell apoptosis. The results indicated that MBP-3b possesses strong whole body radioprotective and immunomodulatory activities. The main constituents of MBP-3b were tentatively identified as delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, proanthocyanidin C1, quercetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-xyloside/arabinoside, phloretin-2-xyloseglucoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside and phlorizin. MBP-3b could be used as a probable radioprotector against gamma radiation induced oxidative damage. PMID:26741951

  1. Séroprévalence du virus de l'herpès humain-8 chez des patients VIH positif à l'hôpital général de Yaoundé – Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Jacky, Njiki Bikoï; Paul, Ndom; Lilian, Mupang; Sylvie, Agokeng Demanou

    2015-01-01

    L'épidémiologie de l'infection par le virus herpès humain de type 8 (HHV8) associée à celle à VIH, reste encore méconnue au Cameroun, bien que le pays soit considéré comme une zone endémique pour ces deux virus. L'objectif de ce travail était de ressortir le profil de la séroprévalence du HHV8 au sein de notre population d'étude. 57 personnes ont été recrutées à l'Hôpital Général de Yaoundé et suivies sur une durée 12 mois. Des anticorps IgG anti-HHV8 ont été déterminés par ELISA. Des paramètres autres, tels que l'âge, le sexe, le stade des maladies (SK et VIH/SIDA), le protocole ARV, ainsi que les taux de CD4 ont été utilisés pour déterminer les variables associées à la séropositivité au HHV8. Cette association a été évaluée par le test khi carré. La séroprévalence du HHV8 était de 90% dans notre population en début d'étude et de 74% douze mois plus tard, une séroprévalence qui restait élevée quelque soit le profil clinique, la tranche d'âge, le sexe ou le taux de CD4+ de l'individu. Aucune variable de l'étude n'était significativement associée à la séropositivité du HHV8. Le virus HHV8 semblait circuler au sein de notre population d'étude. Cependant l'on constate, douze mois plus tard, l'absence de manifestations cliniques du SK chez les patients VIH+ positifs, malgré des titres très élevés en IgG anti-HHV8. PMID:26090027

  2. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Comparison of Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants radioprotection potency.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliev, Slava; Popov, Dmitri; Lisenkov, Nikolai

    Introduction: This experimental study of biological effects of the Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants which were used for prophylaxis and treatment of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by high doses of the low-LET radiation. An important role of Reactive Oxyden Species (Singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and bio-radicals)in development of the Acute Radiation Syndromes could be defined as a "central dogma" of radiobiology. Oxida-tion and damages of lipids, proteins, DNA, and RNA are playing active role in development of postradiation apoptosis. However, the therapeutic role of antioxidants in modification of a postradiation injury caused by high doses of radiation remains controversial.Previous stud-ies had revealed that antioxidants did not increase a survival rate of mammals with severe forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by High Doses of the low-LET radiation. The Antiradiation Vaccine(ARV) contains toxoid forms of the Radiation Toxins(RT) from the Specific Radiation Determinants Group (SRD). The RT SRD has toxic and antigenic prop-erties at the same time and stimulates a specific antibody elaboration and humoral response form activated acquired immune system. The blocking antiradiation antibodies induce an im-munologically specific effect and have inhibiting effects on radiation induced neuro-toxicity, vascular-toxicity, gastrointestinal toxcity, hematopoietic toxicity, and radiation induced cytol-ysis of selected groups of cells that are sensitive to radiation. Methods and materials: Scheme of experiments: 1. Irradiated animals with development of Cerebrovascular ARS (Cv-ARS), Cardiovascular ARS (Cr-ARS) Gastrointestinal ARS(GI-ARS), Hematopoietic ARS (H-ARS) -control -were treated with placebo administration. 2. Irradiated animals were treated with antioxidants prophylaxisis and treatment of Cv-ARS, Cr-SRS, GI-ARS, Hp-ARS forms of the ARS. 3. irradiated animals were treated with radioprotection by Antiradiation Vaccine

  3. Radioprotective effectiveness and toxicity of ATP, AET and serotonin applied individually or simultaneously to mice. III. Radioprotective effects of pair combinations.

    PubMed

    Benova, D

    1977-08-01

    The work reported was done as part of an intensive investigation on toxic and radioprotective properties of three substances, ATP, AET and serotonin, administered singly or in combination to mice, with a view to identifying optimal dose ratios for cocktails. Male C57BL mice were exposed to 850 R X-rays (LD100/11) following pretreatment with drug pairs at various dose ratios. Thirty-day survival was scored. For ATP-AET, protection increased with the amount of ATP in the combination; this pair was found to be most effective at an ATP-to-AET ratio of 11:1. A similar trend was observed with ATP-Serotonin, though only up to a certain ATP level beyond which no further increase in protective effect were produced; the most favorable ratio was of 24:1. A maximum synergistic action was displayed by the AET-Serotonin pair as compared to the other two pairs; its best ratio was of 4:1. Using probit analysis, a number of PD50 (protectant dose affording 50% survival in lethal irradiation) values were estimated for the three pairs of protective agents. PMID:898225

  4. Radioprotective effects of valproic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, YONG; NIU, JUNJIE; LI, SHUPENG; HOU, HUAYING; XU, YING; ZHANG, WEI; JIANG, YUHUA

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of brain tumors but can cause significant damage to surrounding normal brain. The radioprotective effects of valproic acid (VPA) on normal tissue in the rat brain were evaluated following irradiation. Male Wistar rats were used in the present study and 48 rats were randomly divided into four groups consisting of 12 rats each. The whole-brain irradiation (WBI) was delivered by X-ray and the rats received the following treatment once a day for 5 days. The control group (sham-exposed group) received sham irradiation plus physiological saline. The VPA group received sham irradiation plus 150 mg VPA/kg. The X-ray group received WBI plus physiological saline. The combined group received WBI plus 150 mg/kg intraperitoneally VPA. A total of 6 months post-irradiation, the rats were sacrificed and the brains were harvested. Cell apoptosis in the cortex was determined by immunohistochemistry 24 h post-irradiation using an antibody for protein caspase-3. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analyses were used to assess the effects of VPA on the radioprotection of rat normal brain cells 6 months post-irradiation. The weights of the animals in the TEM group measured over the two weeks after the first injection of VPA were also observed. Histological findings demonstrated that apoptosis occurred on the cortex 1 day after treatment, peaking in the X-ray group. The cells of the combined group showed a moderate caspase-3 staining compared to the X-ray group. There was a trend towards a lower body weight of the X-ray group following irradiation compared to either no-irradiation or rats of the combined group, although there was no significant difference in the average weight between the combined group and irradiated rats. Mild swelling of the capillary endothelial cells in the irregular lumen was observed in the combined group, whereas the X-ray group showed a severe structural disorder. In conclusion, VPA supplementation during

  5. Prospects in the development of natural radioprotective therapeutics with anti-cancer properties from the plants of Uttarakhand region of India.

    PubMed

    Painuli, Sakshi; Kumar, Navin

    2016-03-01

    Radioprotective agents are substances those reduce the effects of radiation in healthy tissues while maintaining the sensitivity to radiation damage in tumor cells. Due to increased awareness about radioactive substances and their fatal effects on human health, radioprotective agents are now the topic of vivid research. Scavenging of free radicals is the most common mechanism in oncogenesis that plays an important role in protecting tissues from lethal effect of radiation exposure therefore radioprotectors are also good anti-cancer agents. There are numerous studies indicating plant-based therapeutics against cancer and radioprotection. Such plants could be further explored for developing them as promising natural radioprotectors with anti-cancer properties. This review systematically presents information on plants having radioprotective and anti-cancer properties. PMID:27240731

  6. Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    C. Jagetia, Ganesh

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities. PMID:18188408

  7. Evaluation of radioprotective effects of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) extract in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Anita; Kumar, Ashok

    2005-06-01

    The radioprotective efficacy of aqueous extract of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) leaves against whole body gamma radiation was studied in Swiss albino mice. The oral administration of Rajgira extract at 800 mg/kg body weight/day for 15 consecutive days before whole body exposure to radiation was found to be effective with the LD50/30 values of 6.33 and 8.62 Gy for irradiation alone and Rajgira+irradiation group, respectively, giving a dose reduction factor of 1.36. This effect of Rajgira accompanied the increased endogenous spleen colonies and the spleen weight without any side effect or toxicity, as well as the modulation of the radiation-induced decrease of reduced glutathione and the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation assessed in the liver and the blood. PMID:15988142

  8. Radioprotective Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hainan; Cao, Kun; Sun, Ding; Yang, Yanyong; Liu, Cong; Cui, Jianguo; Cheng, Ying; Li, Bailong; Cai, Jianming; Gao, Fu

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated that grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) could effectively scavenge hydroxyl radical (•OH) in a dose-dependent manner. Since most of the ionizing radiation- (IR-) induced injuries were caused by •OH, this study was to investigate whether GSPs would mitigate IR-induced injuries in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that GSPs could significantly reduce IR-induced DNA strand breaks (DSBs) and apoptosis of human lymphocyte AHH-1 cells. This study also showed that GSPs could protect white blood cells (WBC) from IR-induced injuries, speed up the weight of mice back, and decrease plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), thus improving the survival rates of mice after ionizing radiation. It is suggested that GSPs have a potential as an effective and safe radioprotective agent. PMID:27429710

  9. Radioprotective effects of active compounds from Acanthopanax senticosus of Lesser Khingan Mountain in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weihong; Sun, Yeqing; Shi, Jinming

    Bioactive compounds including polysaccharides, flavones, syringin and eleutheroside E were extracted from wild Acanthopanax senticosus and purified by chromatography. In vitro and in vivo anti-radiation activities of the compounds were compared. In vitro radical scavenging results showed that polysaccharides and flavones were more effective than syringin and eleutheroside E in In vivo study proved that polysaccharides and flavones were effective in protecting mice from heavy ion radiation induced oxidative damages. Also, the activity of polysaccharides and flavones in repressing expression changes of radiation response proteins including heat shock protein, disulfide-isomerase and glutathione S-transferase were also found by our results. Moreover, the radioprotective effects were more significant when polysaccharides and flavones were used together.

  10. Antioxidant marine algae phlorotannins and radioprotection: a review of experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Shin, Taekyun; Ahn, Meejung; Hyun, Jin Won; Kim, Sung Ho; Moon, Changjong

    2014-06-01

    Radiation has been widely used for cancer therapy in human medicine. However, the side effects of radiation are problematic and can limit its application. Radiation generates reactive oxygen species, leading to cell death via multiple signaling pathways. The blocking of certain signaling cascades using antioxidants represents a compensatory therapy of radiation-induced tissue injury. Although synthetic chemicals have been investigated in recent decades, anti-oxidants from natural resources have been searched for continuously. Among them, phlorotannins from marine algae, including Ecklonia cava, have been shown to protect cells from radiation-induced injury as well as oxidative stress. In the present review, the radioprotective capacity of phlorotannins derived from marine algae and the mechanisms involved are discussed. PMID:24751171

  11. Traitement des fractures des plateaux externes par vissage percutané assisté par arthroscopie

    PubMed Central

    Abouchane, Merouane; Belmoubarik, Amine; Benameur, Hamza; Haddoun, Ahmed Reda; Nechad, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Le but de notre étude est d'évaluer les résultats de fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes traitées par ostéosynthèse percutanée assistée par arthroscopie. Dix patients (8 hommes et 2 femmes) de 32 ans en moyenne ont subi cette intervention afin de réparer des fractures des plateaux tibiaux Schatzker I-III. Après avoir appliqué un garrot pneumatique, nous avons réduit et fixé la fracture au moyen de vis cannelées souschondrales. Lésions associées retrouvent deux lésions partielles du ménisque externe ont été retrouvé, traitées par résection partielle. Une orthèse de genou été de mise à but antalgique et protectrice pendant six semaines avec béquillage et interdiction de l'appui pour une durée de douze semaines avec reprise d'appui partiel au delà. La durée d'hospitalisation été d'une moyenne de cinq jours. La rééducation passive a été commence le lendemain de l'intervention et continuait dans chez un kinésithérapeute à la sortie du patient du service. Le suivi été à J7, J15, 1mois, 3mois, 6 mois puis tous les 6 mois. Neuf de nos patients ont été revu régulièrement sauf un perdu de vue. Le recul moyen de notre série été de 16 mois (10 et 24 mois). Le score de Lysholm a été utilisé pour évaluer les résultats cliniques chez nos neuf patients: excellent chez trois patients bons chez trois moyen chez un seul et mauvais chez deux patients. Tous nos neuf patients ont consolidé (figure 10 contrôle scopique d un article). Aucune gonarthrose n'a été note chez nos neuf patients due essentiellement au recul moyen faible de 16 mois. Le traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux externes assisté par arthroscopie produit des résultats satisfaisants et peut être accepté comme solution de rechange efficace au traitement des fractures des plateaux tibiaux causées par un choc de faible énergie. PMID:26587137

  12. In vitro evaluation of Cordyceps militaris as a potential radioprotective agent.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Min-Ho; Park, You-Soo; Jeong, Dong-Hyeok; Lee, Chang-Geun; Kim, Joong-Sun; Oh, Su-Jung; Jeong, Soo-Kyung; Yang, Kwangmo; Jo, Wol-Soon

    2014-11-01

    Radiation is an important component of therapy for a wide range of malignant conditions. However, it triggers DNA damage and cell death in normal cells and results in adverse side-effects. Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris), a traditional medicinal mushroom, produces the bioactive compound, cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) and has multiple pharmacological activities, such as antitumor, antimetastatic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether CM-AE, an extract obtained from C. militaris exerts protective effects against radiation-induced DNA damage. The protective effects of CM-AE were compared with those of cordycepin. CM-AE effectively increased free radical scavenging activity and decreased radiation-induced plasmid DNA strand breaks in in vitro assays. CM-AE significantly inhibited the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular DNA damage in 2 Gy irradiated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells. Moreover, treatment with CM-AE induced similar levels of phosphorylated H2AX in the cells, which reflects the initial DNA double-strand breaks in the irradiated cells compared with the non-irradiated CHO-K1 cells. However, cordycepin did not show free radical scavenging activity and did not protect against radiation-induced plasmid DNA or cellular DNA damage. These results suggest that the free radical scavenging activity of CM-AE contributes towards its DNA radioprotective effects and that the protective effects of CM-AE are much more potent to those of cordycepin. The data presented in this study may provide useful information for the screening of potent radioprotective materials. PMID:25176413

  13. The Knowledge of Radiation and the Attitude Towards Radio-Protection among Urology Residents in India

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to radiation is a hazard and precautions are necessary to limit it. This study was done to assess the knowledge of radiation and the attitude towards radio-protection among urology residents in India. Materials and Methods A questionnaire was administered to assess the knowledge and attitude of urology residents who came from all over the country to attend a clinical meeting at Apollo Gleneagles Hospital, Kolkata, India. Results All the respondents agreed to being exposed to radiation, with 78.2% using radiation in more than five cases a week. Only 65.2% always took some steps for radio-protection. Lead aprons and thyroid shields were the most common radiation protection devices used. None of the residents ever used lead gloves or protective eye glasses or dosimeters. An 82.6% felt that they did not have adequate knowledge, 85.4% of residents did not receive any formal classes regarding the risk of radiation, 21.7% either rarely or never moved out of the operating room when the radiation was being used, 42.4% did not know that the SI unit of the equivalent absorbed dose of radiation & 52.1% did not know about the amount of radiation delivered to an adult during a contrast enhanced CT scan of the abdomen. Conclusion Results of the present study reveal that the urology residents of India lack knowledge about the risks of radiation exposure. Majority of them did not take necessary precautions to limit their exposure to radiation. PMID:26816919

  14. Cerebral radioprotection by pentobarbital: Dose-response characteristics and association with GABA agonist activity

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.J.; Friedman, R.; Orr, K.; Delaney, T.; Oldfield, E.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Pentobarbital reduces cerebral radiation toxicity; however, the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. As an anesthetic and depressant of cerebral metabolism, pentobarbital induces its effects on the central nervous system by stimulating the binding of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to its receptor and by inhibiting postsynaptic excitatory amino acid activity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of these actions as well as other aspects of the radioprotective activity of pentobarbital. Fischer 344 rats were separated into multiple groups and underwent two dose-response evaluations. In one set of experiments to examine the relationship of radioprotection to pentobarbital dose, a range of pentobarbital doses (0 to 75 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally prior to a constant-level radiation dose (70 Gy). In a second series of experiments to determine the dose-response relationship of radiation protection to radiation dose, a range of radiation doses (10 to 90 Gy) were given with a single pentobarbital dose. Further groups of animals were used to evaluate the importance of the timing of pentobarbital administration, the function of the (+) and (-) isomers of pentobarbital, and the role of an alternative GABA agonist (diazepam). In addition, the potential protective effects of alternative methods of anesthesia (ketamine) and induction of cerebral hypometabolism (hypothermia) were examined. Enhancement of survival time from acute radiation injury due to high-dose single-fraction whole-brain irradiation was maximal with 60 mg/kg of pentobarbital, and occurred over the range of all doses examined between 30 to 90 Gy. Protection was seen only in animals that received the pentobarbital before irradiation. Administration of other compounds that enhance GABA binding (Saffan and diazepam) also significantly enhanced survival time.

  15. In vitro radioprotection studies of organoselenium compounds: differences between mono- and diselenides.

    PubMed

    Kumar, B Santhosh; Kunwar, Amit; Ahmad, A; Kumbhare, L B; Jain, V K; Priyadarsini, K I

    2009-11-01

    Organoselenium compounds belonging to the class of monoselenides, such as selenomethionine (SeM) and methylselenocysteine (MSeCys) and diselenides including selenocystine (SeCys) and selenopropionic acid (SePA), were examined for their comparative radioprotective effects using in vitro models. Effects of these compounds on the inhibition of gamma-radiation induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes, protein carbonylation in bovine serum albumin (BSA) and strand breaks in pBR322 plasmid DNA, assessed, respectively, by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, formation of 2,2'-dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) carbonyl complex and horizontal gel electrophoresis, were used to compare their radioprotective ability. The IC 50 values for SeCys, SePA, SeM and MSeCys for lipid peroxidation were 27 +/- 1, 33 +/- 2, 200 +/- 8 and 163 +/- 4 microM, respectively, and the values for inhibition of protein carbonylation were >200, 300 +/- 6, 464 +/- 8 and 436 +/- 3 microM, respectively. Inhibition of DNA strand break formation was tested at 200 microM for all the compounds and SePA and SeCys exhibited a protective effect on DNA, while SeM and MSeCys did not lead to any protection. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies in normal and tumor cells revealed that MSeCys and SeM were not cytotoxic to lymphocytes and EL4 tumor cells at the concentrations employed. In contrast, SeCys was toxic, with a higher effect on tumor cells than lymphocytes. Our studies suggest that the non-toxic diselenides like SePA should be explored as protective agents against gamma-irradiation induced damage. PMID:19756688

  16. Des ballons pour demain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Régipa, R.

    A partir d'une théorie sur la détermination des formes et des contraintes globales d'un ballon de révolution, ou s'en rapprochant, une nouvelle famille de ballons a été définie. Les ballons actuels, dits de ``forme naturelle'', sont calculés en général pour une tension circonférencielle nulle. Ainsi, pour une mission donnée, la tension longitudinale et la forme de l'enveloppe sont strictement imposées. Les ballons de la nouvelle génération sont globalement cylindriques et leurs pôles sont réunis par un câble axial, chargé de transmettre une partie des efforts depuis le crochet (pôle inférieur), directement au pôle supérieur. De plus, la zone latérale cylindrique est soumise à un faible champ de tensions circonférencielles. Ainsi, deux paramètres permettent de faire évoluer la distribution des tensions et la forme de l'enveloppe: - la tension du câble de liaison entre pôles (ou la longueur de ce câble) - la tension circonférencielle moyenne désirée (ou le rayon du ballon). On peut donc calculer et réaliser: - soit des ballons de forme adaptée, comme les ballons à fond plat pour le bon fonctionnement des montgolfières infrarouge (projet MIR); - soit des ballons optimisés pour une bonne répartition des contraintes et une meilleure utilisation des matériaux d'enveloppe, pour l'ensemble des programmes stratosphériques. Il s'ensuit une économie sensible des coûts de fabrication, une fiabilité accrue du fonctionnement de ces ballons et une rendement opérationnel bien supérieur, permettant entre autres, d'envisager des vols à très haute altitude en matériaux très légers.

  17. Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure

    PubMed Central

    Christophersen, Olav Albert

    2012-01-01

    There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs), but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotective effects apparently going beyond what might be expected just as a consequence of correcting the harmful consequences of taurine deficiency per se. The mechanisms accounting for the radioprotective effects of taurine are, however, very incompletely understood. In this article an attempt is made to survey various mechanisms that potentially might be involved as parts of the explanation for the overall beneficial effect of high levels of taurine that has been found in experiments with animals or isolated cells exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. It is proposed that taurine may have radioprotective effects by a combination of several mechanisms: (1) during the exposure to ionizing radiation by functioning as an antioxidant, but perhaps more because it counteracts the prooxidant catalytic effect of iron rather than functioning as an important scavenger of harmful molecules itself, (2) after the ionizing radiation exposure by helping to reduce the intensity of the post-traumatic inflammatory response, and thus reducing the extent of tissue damage that develops because of severe inflammation rather than as a direct effect of the ionizing radiation per se, (3) by functioning as a growth factor helping to enhance the growth rate of leukocytes and leukocyte progenitor cells and perhaps also of other rapidly proliferating cell types, such as enterocyte progenitor cells, which may be important for immunological recovery and perhaps also for rapid repair of various damaged

  18. Radiation protection following nuclear power accidents: a survey of putative mechanisms involved in the radioprotective actions of taurine during and after radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Christophersen, Olav Albert

    2012-01-01

    There are several animal experiments showing that high doses of ionizing radiation lead to strongly enhanced leakage of taurine from damaged cells into the extracellular fluid, followed by enhanced urinary excretion. This radiation-induced taurine depletion can itself have various harmful effects (as will also be the case when taurine depletion is due to other causes, such as alcohol abuse or cancer therapy with cytotoxic drugs), but taurine supplementation has been shown to have radioprotective effects apparently going beyond what might be expected just as a consequence of correcting the harmful consequences of taurine deficiency per se. The mechanisms accounting for the radioprotective effects of taurine are, however, very incompletely understood. In this article an attempt is made to survey various mechanisms that potentially might be involved as parts of the explanation for the overall beneficial effect of high levels of taurine that has been found in experiments with animals or isolated cells exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation. It is proposed that taurine may have radioprotective effects by a combination of several mechanisms: (1) during the exposure to ionizing radiation by functioning as an antioxidant, but perhaps more because it counteracts the prooxidant catalytic effect of iron rather than functioning as an important scavenger of harmful molecules itself, (2) after the ionizing radiation exposure by helping to reduce the intensity of the post-traumatic inflammatory response, and thus reducing the extent of tissue damage that develops because of severe inflammation rather than as a direct effect of the ionizing radiation per se, (3) by functioning as a growth factor helping to enhance the growth rate of leukocytes and leukocyte progenitor cells and perhaps also of other rapidly proliferating cell types, such as enterocyte progenitor cells, which may be important for immunological recovery and perhaps also for rapid repair of various damaged

  19. Early Decreases in α-Fetoprotein and Des-γ-carboxy Prothrombin Predict the Antitumor Effects of Hepatic Transarterial Infusion Chemotherapy with Cisplatin (CDDP) Powder in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Takeshi; Kakizaki, Satoru; Shimada, Yasushi; Takizawa, Daichi; Katakai, Kenji; Yamazaki, Yuichi; Sato, Ken; Kusano, Motoyasu; Yamada, Masanobu

    2016-01-01

    Objective We retrospectively investigated the relationship between the tumor response and serial changes in α-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) during hepatic arterial infusion of a cisplatin powder formulation (CDDP powder) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods Seventy-six advanced HCC patients were analyzed. All HCC patients received high-concentration cisplatin (1.43 mg/mL) via the haptic artery at a dose of 65 mg/m(2). AFP and DCP were measured at baseline and four to eight weeks after treatment, and the antitumor responses were evaluated according to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (RECIST) criteria after one or two courses of treatment. The patients were classified into two groups, a decreased group and a non-decreased group, according to the change in the serum levels of AFP and DCP at four to eight weeks compared to baseline. Results The response to treatment of the decreased group (n=16) and non-decreased group (n=60) was complete response/partial response/stable disease/progressive disease (CR/PR/SD/PD) in 4/4/5/3 and 1/11/8/40 patients, respectively. The response rate and disease control rate of the decreased group were significantly higher than those of the non-decreased group (p=0.016 and p<0.001, respectively). The median survival time (MST) of the decreased/non-decreased groups were 25.9/10.6 months, respectively. The cumulative survival rates for the decreased group were significantly higher than those of the non-decreased group (p=0.042). In the multivariate analysis, vascular invasion and the decreased group were significant factors that affected the therapeutic efficacy. Conclusion A decrease in the levels of AFP and DCP after the first treatment with CDDP powder is a good predictor for the antitumor effect and the prognosis. PMID:27522991

  20. Haematopoiesis radioprotection in Balb/c mice by an aqueous mycelium extract from the Basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom.

    PubMed

    Llauradó, G; Morris, H J; Tamayo, V; Lebeque, Y; Beltrán, Y; Marcos, J; Moukha, S; Creppy, E E; Bermúdez, R C

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the radioprotective activity of an aqueous extract from Pleurotus ostreatus mycelium administered to Balb/c mice. Male mice were whole-body irradiated on day 0 ((60)Co, at 0.43 Gy/min) and divided into two groups. The extract was administered intraperitoneally to one group (100 mg/kg) on days - 10 to - 6 and - 2 to +1 with respect to the irradiation. The irradiated-control group was injected with saline solution; non-irradiated mice were used as negative controls. The radioprotective effect was evident by increases in bone marrow cellularity (5.1 × 10(6)/femur vs. 1.1 × 10(6)/femur in saline-control mice, p < 0.05), leucocyte counts (10.5 × 10(9)/L vs. 4.5 × 10(9)/L, p < 0.05), and spleen cellularity (11.2 × 10(7)/spleen vs. 6.2 × 10(7)/spleen, p < 0.05). The extract stimulated macrophage phagocytic activity as judged by a faster rate of carbon clearance in terms of absorbance ratios (1.62 vs. 2.01, p < 0.05). Therefore, this extract may be a candidate therapeutic agent with radioprotective activity for haematopoiesis damage, particularly to cells involved in immune function. PMID:25423080

  1. Medical Management of Acute Radiation Syndromes : Comparison of Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants radioprotection potency.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliev, Slava; Popov, Dmitri; Lisenkov, Nikolai

    Introduction: This experimental study of biological effects of the Antiradiation Vaccine and Antioxidants which were used for prophylaxis and treatment of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by high doses of the low-LET radiation. An important role of Reactive Oxyden Species (Singlet oxygen, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anions and bio-radicals)in development of the Acute Radiation Syndromes could be defined as a "central dogma" of radiobiology. Oxida-tion and damages of lipids, proteins, DNA, and RNA are playing active role in development of postradiation apoptosis. However, the therapeutic role of antioxidants in modification of a postradiation injury caused by high doses of radiation remains controversial.Previous stud-ies had revealed that antioxidants did not increase a survival rate of mammals with severe forms of the Acute Radiation Syndromes caused by High Doses of the low-LET radiation. The Antiradiation Vaccine(ARV) contains toxoid forms of the Radiation Toxins(RT) from the Specific Radiation Determinants Group (SRD). The RT SRD has toxic and antigenic prop-erties at the same time and stimulates a specific antibody elaboration and humoral response form activated acquired immune system. The blocking antiradiation antibodies induce an im-munologically specific effect and have inhibiting effects on radiation induced neuro-toxicity, vascular-toxicity, gastrointestinal toxcity, hematopoietic toxicity, and radiation induced cytol-ysis of selected groups of cells that are sensitive to radiation. Methods and materials: Scheme of experiments: 1. Irradiated animals with development of Cerebrovascular ARS (Cv-ARS), Cardiovascular ARS (Cr-ARS) Gastrointestinal ARS(GI-ARS), Hematopoietic ARS (H-ARS) -control -were treated with placebo administration. 2. Irradiated animals were treated with antioxidants prophylaxisis and treatment of Cv-ARS, Cr-SRS, GI-ARS, Hp-ARS forms of the ARS. 3. irradiated animals were treated with radioprotection by Antiradiation Vaccine

  2. Comparative efficacy and the window of radioprotection for adrenergic and serotoninergic agents and aminothiols in experiments with small and large animals

    PubMed Central

    Vasin, Mikhail V.; Ushakov, Igor B.

    2015-01-01

    This review gives a comparative evaluation of the radioprotective properties and the therapeutic index (TI) of radioprotectors from various pharmacological group in experiments on both small and large animals. It presents a hypothesis explaining the decrease in the TI of cystamine and 5-methoxytryptamine (mexamine), and the retention of that of α1-adrenomimetic indralin, and also compares the effects on large and small animals. The considerable differences in the therapeutic indices of catecholamines, serotonin and cystamine are a consequence of specific features of their mechanisms of radioprotective action. Radioprotectors acting via receptor mediation tend to provide a more expanded window of protection. The reduction in the TI of cystamine in larger animals, such as dogs, may be caused by the greater increase in toxicity of aminothiols in relation to the decrease in their optimal doses for radioprotective effect in going from mice to dogs, which is a consequence of the slower metabolic processes in larger animals. The somatogenic phase of intoxication by cystamine is significantly longer than the duration of its radioprotective effect, and increases with irradiation. The decrease in the radioprotective effect and the TI of mexamine in experiments with dogs may be caused by their lower sensitivity to the acute hypoxia induced by the mexamine. This is because of lower gradient in oxygen tension between tissue cells and blood capillaries under acute hypoxia that is determined by lower initial oxygen consumption in a large animal as compared with a small animal. Indralin likely provides optimal radioprotective effects and a higher TI for large animals via the increased specificity of its adrenergic effect on tissue respiration, which supports the development of acute hypoxia in the radiosensitive tissues of large animals. The stimulatory effect of indralin on early post-irradiation haematopoietic recovery cannot provide a high level of radioprotective action for

  3. Comparative efficacy and the window of radioprotection for adrenergic and serotoninergic agents and aminothiols in experiments with small and large animals.

    PubMed

    Vasin, Mikhail V; Ushakov, Igor B

    2015-01-01

    This review gives a comparative evaluation of the radioprotective properties and the therapeutic index (TI) of radioprotectors from various pharmacological group in experiments on both small and large animals. It presents a hypothesis explaining the decrease in the TI of cystamine and 5-methoxytryptamine (mexamine), and the retention of that of α1-adrenomimetic indralin, and also compares the effects on large and small animals. The considerable differences in the therapeutic indices of catecholamines, serotonin and cystamine are a consequence of specific features of their mechanisms of radioprotective action. Radioprotectors acting via receptor mediation tend to provide a more expanded window of protection. The reduction in the TI of cystamine in larger animals, such as dogs, may be caused by the greater increase in toxicity of aminothiols in relation to the decrease in their optimal doses for radioprotective effect in going from mice to dogs, which is a consequence of the slower metabolic processes in larger animals. The somatogenic phase of intoxication by cystamine is significantly longer than the duration of its radioprotective effect, and increases with irradiation. The decrease in the radioprotective effect and the TI of mexamine in experiments with dogs may be caused by their lower sensitivity to the acute hypoxia induced by the mexamine. This is because of lower gradient in oxygen tension between tissue cells and blood capillaries under acute hypoxia that is determined by lower initial oxygen consumption in a large animal as compared with a small animal. Indralin likely provides optimal radioprotective effects and a higher TI for large animals via the increased specificity of its adrenergic effect on tissue respiration, which supports the development of acute hypoxia in the radiosensitive tissues of large animals. The stimulatory effect of indralin on early post-irradiation haematopoietic recovery cannot provide a high level of radioprotective action for

  4. Human fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF-20; CG53135-05): a novel cytoprotectant with radioprotective potential.

    PubMed

    Maclachlan, T; Narayanan, B; Gerlach, V L; Smithson, G; Gerwien, R W; Folkerts, O; Fey, E G; Watkins, B; Seed, T; Alvarez, E

    2005-08-01

    The aim was to evaluate the radioprotective properties of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF-20; CG53135-05) in vitro and in vivo and to examine its effects on known cellular pathways of radioprotection. Relative transcript levels of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), Mn-super oxide dismutase (SOD), CuZn-SOD, extracellular (EC)-SOD, nuclear respiratory factor 2 (Nrf2), glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and intestinal trefoil factor 3 (ITF3) genes, which are involved in radiation response pathways, were assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in NIH/3T3, IEC18, CCD-18Co, CCD-1070sk and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cells exposed to FGF-20. Activation of the radioprotective signal transduction pathways initiating with the serine/threonine Akt kinase and the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) were analysed. Levels of intracellular hydrogen peroxide and cytosolic redox potential were also measured in irradiated and unirradiated cells in the presence or absence of FGF-20. The effects of FGF-20 on cell survival in vitro following ionizing radiation were evaluated using clonogenic assays. To test the potential activity of FGF-20 as a radioprotectant in vivo, mice were administered a single dose of FGF-20 (4 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally (i.p.) 1 day before lethal total-body irradiation and evaluated for survival. In vitro exposure to FGF-20 increased expression of the Nrf2 transcription factor and oxygen radical scavenging enzymes such as MnSOD, activated signal transduction pathways (ERK and Akt) and resulted in increased survival of irradiated cells in vitro. FGF-20 treatment also resulted in a concomitant reduction in intracellular levels of injurious reactive oxygen species (ROS) following acute ionizing irradiation. Finally, prophylactic administration of FGF-20 to mice before potentially lethal, whole-body X-irradiation led to significant increases in overall survival. FGF-20 reduced the lethal effects of acute

  5. Immunomodulatory and radioprotective effects of lignans derived from fresh nutmeg mace (Myristica fragrans) in mammalian splenocytes.

    PubMed

    Checker, Rahul; Chatterjee, Suchandra; Sharma, Deepak; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad; Sharma, Arun; Poduval, T B

    2008-05-01

    Recently, the lignans present in the aqueous extract of fresh nutmeg mace (aril of the fruit of Myristica fragrans) were shown to possess antioxidant properties in cell free systems and protected PUC18 plasmid against radiation-induced DNA damage. The present report describes the immunomodulatory and radiomodifying properties of lignans present in the aqueous extract of fresh nutmeg mace in mammalian splenocytes. These macelignans (ML) inhibited the proliferation of splenocytes in response to polyclonal T cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A). This inhibition of proliferation was due to cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and augmentation of apoptosis as shown by increase in pre G1 cells. The increase in activation induced cell death by ML was dose dependent. It was found to inhibit the transcription of IL-2 and IL-4 genes in response to Con A. The production of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-gamma cytokines was significantly inhibited by ML in Con A-stimulated lymphocytes in a dose dependent manner. ML protected splenocytes against radiation-induced intracellular ROS production in a dose dependent manner. ML was not cytotoxic towards lymphocytes. On the contrary, it significantly inhibited the radiation-induced DNA damage in splenocytes as indicated by decrease in DNA fragmentation. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the antioxidant, radioprotective and immunomodulatory effects of lignans in mammalian cells. PMID:18387508

  6. The effects of selenium on glutathione peroxidase activity and radioprotection in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, A.M.; Murray, J.L.; Dale, P.; Tritz, R.; Grdina, D.J.

    1995-09-05

    The media of representative mammalian cell lines were supplemented with low levels of selenium in the form of sodium selenite in order to investigate the effects of selenium on mammalian cells. Following incubation in 30 nM sodium selenite, these cells were assayed for changes in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. The cells examined included NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts, PC12 rat sympathetic precursor cells, SupT-1 human lymphocytes, MCF-7{sup adr} human breast carcinoma cells and AA8 Chinese hamster ovary cells. Selenium supplementation resulted in a marginal increase in GPx activity for the NIH 3T3, MCF-7{sup adr} and Supt-1 cells but stimulated GPx activity approximately 5-fold in PC12 and AA8 cells. AA8 cells were selected to evaluate whether selenium supplementation was radioprotective against {sup 60}cobalt gamma irradiation. Protection against radiation-induced mutation was measured by evaluating mutation frequency at the hprt locus. In this assay, preincubation of AA8 CHO cells significantly protected these cells from exposure to 8 Gy.

  7. Free radical scavenging and metal chelation by Tinospora cordifolia, a possible role in radioprotection.

    PubMed

    Goel, H C; Prem Kumar, I; Rana, S V S

    2002-06-01

    Aqueous extract of T. cordifolia inhibited Fenton (FeSO4) reaction and radiation mediated 2-deoxyribose degradation in a dose dependent fashion with an IC50 value of 700 microg/ml for both Fenton and radiation mediated 2-DR degradation. Similarly, it showed a moderate but dose dependent inhibition of chemically generated superoxide anion at 500 microg/ml concentration and above with an IC50 value of 2000 microg/ml. Aqueous extract inhibited the formation of Fe2+-bipiridyl complex and formation of comet tail by chelating Fe2+ ions in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of 150 microg/ml for Fe2+-bipirydyl formation and maximally 200 microg/ml for comet tail formation, respectively. The extract inhibited ferrous sulphate mediated lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 1300 microg/ml and maximally (70%) at 2000 microg/ml. The results reveal that the direct and indirect antioxidant actions of T. cordifolia probably act in corroboration to manifest the overall radioprotective effects. PMID:12587720

  8. Radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin in gamma induced acute radiation syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kindekov, Ivan; Mileva, Milka; Krastev, Dimo; Vassilieva, Vladimira; Raynova, Yuliana; Doumanova, Lyuba; Aljakov, Mitko; Idakieva, Krassimira

    2014-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Rapana thomasiana hemocyanin (RtH) against radiation-induced injuries (stomach ulcers, survival time and endogenous haemopoiesis) and post-radiation recovery was investigated in male albino mice (C3H strain). Radiation course was in a dose of 7.5 Gy (LD 100/30 – dose that kills 100% of the mice at 30 days) from 137Cs with a dose of 2.05 Gy/min. Radiation injuries were manifested by inducing а hematopoietic form of acute radiation syndrome. RtH was administered intraperitoneally in a single dose of 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b. w.) once a day for five consecutive days before irradiation. The results obtained showed that radiation exposure led to (1) 100% mortality rate, (2) ulceration in the stomach mucosa and (3) decrease formation of spleen colonies as a marker of endogenous haemopoiesis. Administration of RtH at a dose of 200 mg/kg provided better protection against radiation-induced stomach ulceration, mitigated the lethal effects of radiation exposure and recovered endogenous haemopoiesis versus irradiated but not supplemented mice. It could be expected that RtH will find a use in mitigating radiation induced injury and enhanced radiorecovery. PMID:26019540

  9. Radioprotective effects of a protein-free hemodialysate in human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Beetz, A; Machicao, F; Ried, C; Ruzicka, T; Michel, G

    1996-01-01

    The accidental or therapeutic exposure of human skin to ionizing radiation is known to cause the radiation syndrome with its various manifestations. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential radioprotective effects of the protein-free hemodialysate Actovegin. After exposure to X-rays (single dose, 6 Gy), 70% of the cells died. In the presence of the hemodialysate, irradiation did not lead to cell death. Instead a slight increase in cell number was observed. A 5-fold increased cell number was found after 6 days when the cells were treated with the hemodialysate alone. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of the observed biological effects the correlation between the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the demonstrated growth activation was investigated. Radiation alone resulted in a clear induction of EGFR, whereas the combination of irradiation and Actovegin treatment led to a strong downregulation after 2 days. Thus, the hemodialysate suppressed one of the radiation-induced effects. Further investigations have to elucidate the role of other proteins which are involved in the signal transduction cascade of tyrosine kinases (e.g. Ras, Raf, MAP kinases) leading to the transcription factor AP-1 in response to radiation under Actovegin treatment. PMID:8737917

  10. Radioprotection against DNA damage by an extract of Indian green mussel, Perna viridis (L).

    PubMed

    Kumaran, Sreekumar P; Kutty, Binoj C; Chatterji, Anil; Subrayan, Parameswaran P; Mishra, Kaushala Prasad

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the radioprotective ability of a hydrolysate prepared using an enzyme-acid hydrolysis method from the green mussel Perna viridis in terms of its ability to prevent radiation-induced damage in plasmid DNA, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and DNA damage in mice lymphocytes. The mussel hydrolysate (MH) present during irradiation showed significant protection from gamma-radiation-induced strand breaks in plasmid DNA as evaluated by gel electrophoresis. Viability studies by trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT assay showed that preincubation of mice splenic lymphocytes with MH protected them from gamma-radiation-mediated killing. Moreover, the presence of MH during irradiation of isolated mice lymphocytes significantly decreased the DNA damage, as measured by comet assay. Measurement of intracellular ROS by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence revealed that the presence of MH effectively reduced the ROS generated in lymphocytes by both chemical method and gamma-irradiation. Prevention of DNA damage both in plasmid and lymphocytes and cell death in lymphocytes appears correlated with reduction of oxidatively generated free radicals. It is concluded that protection against radiation-induced cell death and DNA damage by MH was attributable to reduction of reactive free radical species generated by gamma-radiation. PMID:18197824

  11. Nanoparticle-mediated Gene Silencing Confers Radioprotection to Salivary Glands In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Arany, Szilvia; Benoit, Danielle SW; Dewhurst, Stephen; Ovitt, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    Radiation treatment of head and neck cancers causes irreversible damage of the salivary glands (SG). Here, we introduce a preclinical mouse model for small-interfering RNA (siRNA)-based gene silencing to provide protection of SG from radiation-induced apoptosis. Novel, pH-responsive nanoparticles complexed with siRNAs were introduced into mouse submandibular glands (SMG) by retroductal injection to modulate gene expression in vivo. To validate this approach, we first targeted Nkcc1, an ion transporter that is essential for saliva secretion. Nkcc1 siRNA delivery resulted in efficient knockdown, as quantified at the mRNA and the protein levels, and the functional result of Nkcc1 knockdown phenocopied the severe decrease in saliva secretion, characteristic of the systemic Nkcc1 gene knockout. To establish a strategy to prevent apoptotic cell loss due to radiation damage, siRNAs targeting the proapoptotic Pkcδ gene were administered into SMG before ionizing radiation. Knockdown of Pkcδ not only reduced the number of apoptotic cells during the acute phase of radiation damage, but also markedly improved saliva secretion at 3 months in irradiated animals, indicating that this treatment confers protection from hyposalivation. These results demonstrate that nanoparticle delivery of siRNAs targeting a proapoptotic gene is a localized, nonviral, and effective means of conferring radioprotection to the SGs. PMID:23511246

  12. Micronuclei Assessment of The Radioprotective Effects of Melatonin and Vitamin C in Human Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Aram; Moosavi, Seyed Akbar; Dianat Moghadam, Hassan; Bolookat, Eftekhar Rajab

    2016-01-01

    Objective Critical macromolecules such as DNA maybe damaged by free radicals that are generated from the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological systems. Melatonin and vitamin C have been shown to be direct free radical scavengers. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo/in vitro radioprotective effects of melatonin and vitamin C separately and combined against genotoxicity induced by 6 MV x-ray irradiation in human cultured blood lymphocytes. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, fifteen volunteers were divided into three groups of melatonin, vitamin C and melatonin plus vitamin C treatment. Peripheral blood samples were collected from each group before, and 1, 2 and 3 hours after melatonin and vitamin C administration (separately and combined). The blood samples were then irradiated with 200 cGy of 6 MV x-ray. In order to characterize chromosomal aberrations, the lymphocyte samples were cultured with mitogenic stimulus on cytokinesisblocked binucleated cells. Results The samples collected 1hour after melatonin and vitamin C (separately and combined) ingestion exhibited a significant decrease in the incidence of micronuclei compared with their control group (P<0.05). The maximum synergic protection and reduction in frequency of micronuclei (57%) was observed 1 hour after vitamin C and melatonin administration combined. Conclusion We conclude that simultaneous administration of melatonin and vitamin C as radioprotector substances before irradiation may reduce genotoxicity caused by x-ray irradiation. PMID:27054118

  13. Radioprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Resveratrol in Hippocampus by Activating Sirt1

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianguo; Feng, Li; Xing, Yonghua; Wang, Yan; Du, Liqing; Xu, Chang; Cao, Jia; Wang, Qin; Fan, Saijun; Liu, Qiang; Fan, Feiyue

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species can lead to functional alterations in lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, and an accumulation of ROS (Reactive oxygen species) is considered to be one factor that contributes to neurodegenerative changes. An increase in ROS production occurs following irradiation. Neuronal tissue is susceptible to oxidative stress because of its high oxygen consumption and modest antioxidant defenses. As a polyphenolic compound, resveratrol is frequently used as an activator of Sirt1 (Sirtuin 1). The present study was designed to explore the radioprotective and antioxidant effect of resveratrol on Sirt1 expression and activity induced by radiation and to provide a new target for the development of radiation protection drugs. Our results demonstrate that resveratrol inhibits apoptosis induced by radiation via the activation of Sirt1. We demonstrated an increase in Sirt1 mRNA that was present on 21 days of resveratrol treatment following irradiation in a concentration-dependent manner. Such mRNA increase was accompanied by an increase of Sirt1 protein and activity. Resveratrol effectively antagonized oxidation induced by irradiation, supporting its cellular ROS-scavenging effect. These results provide evidence that the mitochondrial protection and the antioxidant effect of resveratrol contribute to metabolic activity. These data suggest that Sirt1 may play an important role to protect neurons from oxidative stress. PMID:24722566

  14. Effect of radioprotectant WR 2721 on cyclic nucleotides, prostaglandins, and lysosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Trocha, P.J.; Catravas, G.N.

    1983-05-01

    Within 1 hr after ip injection of the radioprotectant WR 2721 into rats, splenic cGMP levels dropped and remained suppressed for 6 hr before returning to normal. However, if rats were exposed to ionizing radiation 30-40 min after WR 2721 treatment, they had higher cGMP levels at 3 hr postirradiation than the nonirradiUted, drug-treated controls, but the cGMP content was still found to be lower than that of the irradiated nondrug-treated controls. Radiation exposure of animals pretreated with WR 2721 also resulted in higher liver and spleen levels of cAMP and additional elevations in spleen prostaglandin content, compared with irradiated controls at 3-6 hr after radiation treatment. The secondary fluctuations of lysosomal enzyme activities, prostaglandin content, and cyclic nucleotide levels were also altered in irradiated rats pretreated with WR 2721 when compared with irradiated controls. Liver and spleen lysosomal ..beta..-glucuronidase activities, spleen cAMP and cGMP levels, and spleen prostaglandin concentrations were closer to physiological levels at 3 days postirradiation in rats given WR 2721 before the radiation treatment.

  15. Radioprotective effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex. Fr. ) Karst after X-ray irradiation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, H.Y.; Lian, S.L.; Lin, C.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Six to seven week old male mice of ICR strain were exposed to 500 or 650 cGy of X-ray during experiments to determine if Ganoderma lucidum could be a factor in modification of radiation damage. Continuous intraperitoneal injection of the extract from Ganoderma lucidum before or after irradiation of 500 and 650 cGy of X-ray was found to improve the 30-day survival fractions of ICR mice, but wasn't significant by statistical analysis. The administration also enhanced the recoveries of the body weights and increased the recovery of hemograms of irradiated mice from radiation damage by injecting before or after radiation exposure, especially for the treatment of 500 cGy irradiation. The 10-day CFUs was significantly higher for Ganoderma lucidum treated groups than for untreated groups. However, the differences of radioprotective effect between the X-ray irradiated groups with Ganoderma lucidum pretreated and post-treated were not significant (p greater than 0.05).

  16. Radioprotective Effect of Achillea millefolium L Against Genotoxicity Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Human Normal Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Somayeh; Rostamnezhad, Mostafa; Ghaffari-rad, Vahid; Ghasemi, Arash; Allahverdi Pourfallah, Tayyeb

    2015-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Achillea millefolium L (ACM) extract was investigated against genotoxicity induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in human lymphocytes. Peripheral blood samples were collected from human volunteers and incubated with the methanolic extract of ACM at different concentrations (10, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL) for 2 hours. At each dose point, the whole blood was exposed in vitro to 2.5 Gy of X-ray and then the lymphocytes were cultured with mitogenic stimulation to determine the micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked binucleated cell. Antioxidant capacity of the extract was determined using free radical-scavenging method. The treatment of lymphocytes with the extract showed a significant decrease in the incidence of micronuclei binucleated cells, as compared with similarly irradiated lymphocytes without any extract treatment. The maximum protection and decrease in frequency of micronuclei were observed at 200 μg/mL of ACM extract which completely protected genotoxicity induced by IR in human lymphocytes. Achillea millefolium extract exhibited concentration-dependent radical-scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radicals. These data suggest that the methanolic extract of ACM may play an important role in the protection of normal tissues against genetic damage induced by IR. PMID:26675116

  17. ULTRASTRUCTURAL EVALUATION OF THE RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF SODIUM SELENITE ON SUBMANDIBULAR GLANDS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Pontual, Maria Luiza dos Anjos; Tuji, Fabrício Mesquita; Barros, Silvana Pereira; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto; Novaes, Pedro Duarte; de Almeida, Solange Maria

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotector effect of sodium selenite on the ultrastructure of submandibular glands in rats. Fifty-seven male albino Wistar rats were randomized to 4 groups: control, irradiated, sodium selenite and irradiated/sodium selenite. The animals in the sodium selenite and irradiated/sodium selenite groups received intraperitoneal injections of sodium selenite (0.5 mg/kg body weight) 24 h before irradiation. The animals belonging to the irradiated and irradiated/sodium selenite groups were submitted to 15 Gy of gamma radiation in the head and neck region. The submandibular glands were removed at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation. The ionizing radiation induced damage to the secretory cells, especially the serous cells, right from the first period. Vacuolization, lysis of cytoplasmic inclusions and nuclear alterations occurred. The sodium selenite group also presented cellular alterations in the study periods, but with less damage compared to that caused by radiation. There was greater similarity between the irradiated/sodium selenite group and the control group than with the other groups treated in all study periods. Despite the alterations observed in the sodium selenite group, sodium selenite presented a radioprotective action on the secretory cells of submandibular glands. PMID:19089124

  18. Appréciation de la sévérité de l'affection des patients admis en réanimation par la mesure de la CRP

    PubMed Central

    Djuma, Jackson; Kalenga, Prosper; Kazadi, Costa; Orbegozo, Diego; Vincent, Jean Louis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La CRP est produite en grande quantité dans les processus inflammatoires aigus et chroniques. L'hypothèse de ce travail est que la CRP permet, à faible coût, d'apprécier la sévérité des patients admis en réanimation. Méthodes La valeur journalière du taux sérique de CRP a été corrélée aux scores APACHE II à l'admission et SOFA pris quotidiennement durant le séjour en réanimation. La population étudiée était constituée de 100 patients admis en réanimation aux cliniques universitaires de Bruxelles. Résultats Les patients septiques avaient un taux de CRP plus élevé comparé aux non septiques. Les patients ayant une CRP élevée avaient les scores APACHE (26 ± 6 vs 20 ± 9, p < 0,05), SOFA à l'admission (8 ± 4 vs 4 ± 3, p < 0.05), SOFA maximum plus élevés (9 ± 4 vs 7 ± 3 et 9 ± 4 vs 7 ± 3, p < 0.05) et un séjour en réanimation plus long. Les patients ayant un plus grand nombre d'organes défaillants ont la CRP la plus élevée (365 mg/L vs 80 mg/L, 205 mg/L vs 60 mg/L, 110 mg/L vs 60 mg/L, 150 mg/L vs 60 mg/L). Conclusion Chez les patients présentant un taux sérique de CRP élevé, les scores de gravité (APACHE et SOFA), le pourcentage de patients présentant une infection et la durée du séjour en réanimation sont plus élevés. PMID:26301005

  19. Identifying patients with a high risk of relapse in quiescent Crohn's disease. The GETAID Group. The Groupe d'Etudes Thérapeutiques des Affections Inflammatoires Digestives.

    PubMed Central

    Sahmoud, T; Hoctin-Boes, G; Modigliani, R; Bitoun, A; Colombel, J F; Soule, J C; Florent, C; Gendre, J P; Lerebours, E; Sylvester, R

    1995-01-01

    No reliable identification of quiescent Crohn's disease (CD) patients with a high risk of relapse is available. The aim of this study was to develop a prognostic index to identify those patients. Untreated adult patients with quiescent disease (not induced by surgery) included in three phase III clinical trials were analysed retrospectively with respect to time to relapse. Nineteen factors related to biology, disease history, and topography were investigated. A relapse was defined as either a CD Activity Index (CDAI) > or = 200, a CDAI > or = 150 but over the baseline value by more than 100, or acute complications requiring surgery. The inclusion criteria were fulfilled by 178 patients. The median follow up was 23 months. The Cox model retained the following bad prognostic factors: age < or = 25 years, interval since first symptoms > 5 years, interval since previous relapse < or = 6 months, and colonic involvement (p < 0.001). Bootstrapping confirmed the variable selection. Patients were classified into three groups with an increasing risk of relapse (p < 0.001). The worst risk group was composed of patients presenting at least three of the four bad prognostic factors. These results make possible the design of clinical trials in quiescent CD patients with a high risk of relapse. PMID:8537053

  20. Clinical utility of simultaneous measurement of alpha-fetoprotein and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin for diagnosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in China: A multi-center case-controlled study of 1,153 subjects.

    PubMed

    Song, Peipei; Feng, Xiaobin; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Song, Tianqiang; Zhang, Keming; Wang, Zhigang; Zheng, Shuguo; Ma, Kuansheng; Li, Qiang; Kong, Dalu; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Ti; Zhao, Xin; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro; Tang, Wei

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical utility of simultaneous measurement of alphafetoprotein (AFP) and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis in Chinese patients predominantly caused by hepatitis B virus infection by a multi-center case-controlled study. Subjects were 1,153 individuals from three major hospitals in China, including 550 cases in HCC group, 164 in Malignant disease group, 182 in Benign disease group, 85 in Chronic liver disease group, and 173 in Normal group. Serum levels of AFP and DCP were measured and clinicopathological features were determined for all subjects. Results showed that the levels of DCP and AFP were significantly higher in HCC group (550 patients, 74.18% with HBV infection) than that in other four groups (P < 0.001). Receiver operating curves (ROC) indicated the optimal cut-off value was 86 mAU/mL for DCP with a sensitivity of 71.50% and specificity of 86.30%, and 21 ng/mL for AFP with a sensitivity of 68.00% and specificity of 93.20%. The area under ROC curve was 0.846 for DCP, 0.832 for AFP, and 0.890 for the combination of DCP and AFP. The combination of DCP and AFP resulted in a higher Youden index and a sensitivity of approximately 90%, even for small tumors. The simultaneous measurement of AFP and DCP could achieve a better sensitivity in diagnosing Chinese HCC patients, even for small tumors. PMID:25382443

  1. Des Vents et des Jets Astrophysiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauty, C.

    well expected result from the theory. Although, collimation may be conical, paraboloidal or cylindrical (Part 4), cylindrical collimation is the more likely to occur. The shape of outflows may then be used as a tool to predict physical conditions on the flows or on their source. L'éjection continue de plasma autour d'objets massifs est un phénomène largement répandu en astrophysique, que ce soit sous la forme du vent solaire, de vents stellaires, de jets d'étoiles en formation, de jets stellaires autour d'objets compacts ou de jets extra-galactiques. Cette zoologie diversifiée fait pourtant l'objet d'un commun effort de modélisation. Le but de cette revue est d'abord de présenter qualitativement le développement, depuis leur origine, des diverses théories de vents (Partie 1) et l'inter disciplinarité dans ce domaine. Il s'agit d'une énumération, plus ou moins exhaustive, des idées proposées pour expliquer l'accélération et la morphologie des vents et des jets, accompagnée d'une présentation sommaire des aspects observationnels. Cette partie s'abstient de tout aspect faisant appel au formalisme mathématique. Ces écoulements peuvent être décrits, au moins partiellement, en résolvant les équations magnétohydrodynamiques, axisymétriques et stationnaires. Ce formalisme, à la base de la plupart des théories, est exposé dans la Partie 2. Il permet d'introduire quantitativement les intégrales premières qu'un tel système possède. Ces dernières sont amenées à jouer un rôle important dans la compréhension des phénomènes d'accélération ou de collimation, en particulier le taux de perte de masse, le taux de perte de moment angulaire ou l'énergie du rotateur magnétique. La difficulté de modélisation réside dans l'existence de points critiques, propres aux équations non linéaires, qu'il faut franchir. La nature physique et la localisation de ces points critiques fait l'objet d'un débat important car ils sont la clef de voute de la r

  2. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Wilson, Lynn; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique sur la prescription d’opioïdes à des populations particulières en se fondant sur les recommandations faites dans les lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale en insistant plus précisément sur les études de l’efficacité et de la sécurité des opioïdes dans des populations particulières. Message principal Les médecins de famille peuvent atténuer les risques de surdose, de sédation, d’usage abusif et de dépendance grâce à des stratégies adaptées à l’âge et à l’état de santé des patients. Dans le cas de patients à risque de dépendance, on devrait réserver les opioïdes aux douleurs nociceptives ou neuropathiques bien définies qui n’ont pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. Il faut procéder lentement au titrage des opioïdes, avec des dispensations fréquentes et une étroite surveillance pour dépister tout signe d’usage abusif. Une dépendance aux opioïdes suspectée est prise en charge au moyen d’une thérapie structurée aux opioïdes, d’un traitement à la méthadone ou à la buprénorphine ou encore d’un traitement fondé sur l’abstinence. Les patients souffrant de troubles de l’humeur ou d’anxiété ont tendance à avoir une réponse analgésique atténuée aux opioïdes, sont à risque plus élevé d’usage abusif et prennent souvent des sédatifs qui interagissent défavorablement avec les opioïdes. Il faut prendre des précautions semblables à celles utilisées avec d’autres patients à risque élevé. Il faut faire un sevrage progressif si la douleur du patient demeure sévère même avec un essai adéquat de thérapie aux opioïdes. Chez les personnes âgées, la s

  3. Radioprotective effect of the Barbados Cherry (Malpighia glabra L.) against radiopharmaceutical Iodine-131 in Wistar rats in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables has contributed to the improvement of populational health, due in part, to the abundance of antioxidants in these foods. Antioxidants reduce the level of oxidative damage to DNA caused by free radicals and ionizing radiation, including the radioisotope iodine-131 (131I). This isotope is used for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid injuries, such as hyperthyroidism and cancer. Methods This study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective and cytotoxic activity of acute and subchronic treatments with Barbados Cherry (BC) (Malpighia glabra L.) fruit juice (5 mg), which is rich in potent antioxidants such as vitamin C, phenols, carotenoids, anthocyanins and yellow flavonoids and its activity against the mutagenic activity of the therapeutic dose of 25 μCi of radioiodine for hyperthyroidism. The test system used was the bone marrow cells of Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) that were treated in vivo by gavage. Results BC showed radioprotective activity in acute treatments, which is most likely due to the joint action of its antioxidant components. In subchronic treatments, the continuous treatment presented an effective radioprotective activity, which was significantly different from treatment with the radiopharmaceutical only. Treatment with BC prior to (PRE) and simultaneous with (SIM) ionizing radiation decreased the number of induced chromosomal alterations, while post-treatment produced no protective effect. In addition, BC exhibited no cytotoxic activity. Conclusions These data serve as evidence that BC can be used as a preventive health measure to improve public health quality by countering the action of inevitable exposure to mutagens, such as 131I. PMID:24479389

  4. Cellular Internalization of Fibroblast Growth Factor-12 Exerts Radioprotective Effects on Intestinal Radiation Damage Independently of FGFR Signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Fumiaki; Umeda, Sachiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Fujita, Mayumi; Asada, Masahiro; Meineke, Viktor; Imamura, Toru; Imai, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Several fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were shown to inhibit radiation-induced tissue damage through FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling; however, this signaling was also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of several malignant tumors. In contrast, FGF12 cannot activate any FGFRs. Instead, FGF12 can be internalized readily into cells using 2 cell-penetrating peptide domains (CPP-M, CPP-C). Therefore, this study focused on clarifying the role of FGF12 internalization in protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury. Methods and Materials: Each FGF or peptide was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 hours before or after total body irradiation with γ rays at 9 to 12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Administration of FGF12 after radiation exposure was as effective as pretreatment in significantly promoting intestinal regeneration, proliferation of crypt cells, and epithelial differentiation. Two domains, comprising amino acid residues 80 to 109 and 140 to 169 of FGF12B, were identified as being responsible for the radioprotective activity, so that deletion of both domains from FGF12B resulted in a reduction in activity. Interestingly, these regions included the CPP-M and CPP-C domains, respectively; however, CPP-C by itself did not show an antiapoptotic effect. In addition, FGF1, prototypic FGF, possesses a domain corresponding to CPP-M, whereas it lacks CPP-C, so the fusion of FGF1 with CPP-C (FGF1/CPP-C) enhanced cellular internalization and increased radioprotective activity. However, FGF1/CPP-C reduced in vitro mitogenic activity through FGFRs compared with FGF1, implying that FGFR signaling might not be essential for promoting the radioprotective effect of FGF1/CPP-C. In addition, internalized FGF12 suppressed the activation of p38α after irradiation, resulting in reduced radiation-induced apoptosis. Conclusions: These findings indicate that FGF12 can protect the

  5. In vivo study of radioprotective effect of NO-synthase inhibitors and acetyl-L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Babicová, A; Havlínová, Z; Hroch, M; Rezáčová, M; Pejchal, J; Vávrová, J; Chládek, J

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of two nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 mg/kg i.p.) and aminoguanidine (AG, 400 mg/kg i.p.), and an antioxidant acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC, 250 mg/kg i.p., once daily for five days) against radiation-induced damage in Wistar rats. Blood samples were collected 6 h after whole-body irradiation with 8 Gy. Plasma concentrations of nitrite+nitrate (NO(x)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. A single injection of L-NAME one hour before exposure effectively prevented the radiation-induced elevation of plasma NO(x) and it reduced 2.6-fold the risk for death during the subsequent 30-day period. Pretreatment with ALC prevented the radiation-induced increase in plasma MDA and it had similar effect on mortality as L-NAME did. Presumably due to its short half-life, the partially iNOS-selective inhibitor and antioxidant AG given in a single dose before exposure did not attenuate MDA and NO(x) and it failed to significantly improve the 30-day survival. In conclusion, pretreatment with both the nonspecific NOS inhibitor L-NAME and the antioxidant ALC markedly reduce mortality to radiation sickness in rats. The radioprotective effect may be directly related to effective attenuation of the radiation-induced elevation of NO production by L-NAME and of oxidative stress by ALC. PMID:23869893

  6. Podophyllum hexandrum Offers Radioprotection by Modulating Free Radical Flux: Role of Aryl-Tetralin Lignans

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Raman; Arora, Rajesh; Singh, Shikha; Sagar, R.K.; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, R.; Sharma, A.; Tripathi, R. P.; Puri, S. C.; Khan, H. A.; Shawl, A. S.; Sultan, P.; Krishan, Tej; Qazi, G. N.

    2006-01-01

    We have evaluated the effect of variation in aryl-tetralin lignans on the radioprotective properties of Podophyllum hexandrum. Two fractionated fractions of P. hexandrum [methanolic (S1) and chloroform fractions (S2)], with varying aryl-tetralin lignan content were utilized for the present study. The peroxyl ion scavenging potentials of S1 and S2 were found to be comparable [i.e. 45.88% (S1) and 41% (S2)] after a 48 h interval in a time-dependent study, whereas in a 2 h study, S2 exhibited significant (P < 0.05) antioxidant activity in different metal ion + flux states. In the aqueous phase, S2 exhibited non-site-specific reactive oxygen species scavenging activity, i.e. 73.12% inhibition at 500 μg ml−1. S1 exhibited 58.40 ± 0.8% inhibition (at 0.025 μg ml−1) of the formation of reactive nitrite radicals, comparable to S2 (52.45 ± 0.825%), and also showed 45.01% site-specific activity (1000 μg ml−1), along with significant (P < 0.05) electron donation potential (50–2000 μg ml−1) compared to S2. Such activities of S1 could be attributed to the significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of podophyllotoxin β-d-glucopyranoside (16.5 times) and demethyl podophyllotoxin glucoside (2.9 times) compared with S2. Together, these findings clearly prove that aryl-tetralin lignan content influences the radiation protective potential of the Podophyllum fractions to a great extent. PMID:17173115

  7. Radioprotective effect of rhizome extract of Zingiber montanum in Rattus norvegicus.

    PubMed

    Thokchom, D S; Sharma, T D; Sharma, G J

    2012-08-01

    The present study aims at determining the ability of 60% ethanol extract of the rhizome of Zingiber montanum (J. König) A. Dietr. to protect bone marrow cells in vivo from radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations. Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus, 2n = 42) were used to carry out investigations on the radioprotective properties of Z. montanum. Acute toxicity of the extract was determined, and a suitable injectable dose was selected for intra-peritoneal administration. The LD(50) of the extract calculated for 72 h was 2.9 g/kg, and the calculated LD(10) dose was 1.7 g/kg. The calculated maximum tolerated dose of the rhizome extract was 1.3 g/kg. Rats were divided into 12 groups (with or without the administration of extract) and exposed to different radiation doses from 1 to 5 Gy. Whole-body irradiation of rats showed a significant dose-dependent increase in different types of chromosomal aberrations. The most common chromosomal aberrations were breaks, fragments, gaps, rings, endoreduplications and dicentric chromosomes. Ethanol extract of rhizome at a dose of 0.5 g/kg did not show any significant increase in chromosomal aberrations in unirradiated animals as compared to that of the control group. Intra-peritoneal administration of the extract at a dose of 0.5 g/kg considerably reduced the frequency of the aberrations stated above in irradiated animals with DMF value of 1.36 at 1 to 5 Gy dose range of gamma radiation. The incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes due to the radiation exposure was considerably reduced in extract-treated groups of animals with DMFs 1.34 and 1.17, respectively, as compared to that of the extract-untreated groups. Our results suggest that rhizome extract of Z. montanum may have a potential in protecting normal hematopoietic cells from radiation-induced damage. PMID:22678694

  8. Recent trends in radioprotection dosimetry: Promising solutions for personal neutron dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasino, L.

    1987-03-01

    Conventional detectors used in radiation protection dosimetry (for a given amount of energy deposited in their macroscopic volumes) are more sensitive to sparse radiations (electrons, X or gamma) than to fast neutrons or high-LET particles, i.e. those particles characterized by high biological effectiveness. By contrast, detectors needed in radiation protection monitoring should have a registration sensitivity which follows the opposite trend. With conventional detectors, in order to register the high-LET component in mixed fields, it is necessary to count individual energy-depositing tracks thus requiring elaborate electronics or complex automatic systems. In this paper new detecting methods will be described, which are very sensitive to fast neutrons and are completely insensitive to gamma radiations. These new detectors are based on the same properties of highly ionizing particles which determine their high biological effectiveness, namely the high deposition of energy at microscopic and submicroscopic distances from the particle trajectory in solid materials. Another important characteristic, common to these new detecting methods, is the exploitation of the high-energy deposition in the vicinity of the track to initiate avalanche-type of processes, which can be easily detected. These new registration techniques are respectively the electrochemically etched damage track detectors and the bubble damage polymer detectors. The simplicity, low cost and small size of these new detecting systems, together with their high sensitivity and their ability to discriminate against large fluxes of sparsely ionizing radiations make it possible to tackle some of the most difficult problems yet to be solved in radioprotection monitoring, such as personnel neutron dosimetry.

  9. Antioxidative and radioprotective activities of semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD) isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Bansal, Deen Dayal; Patel, Dev Dutt; Mishra, Saurabh; Karamalakova, Yana; Zheleva, A; Gadjeva, Vessilina; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2011-03-01

    A semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD) was isolated from a radioresistant bacterium Bacillus sp. INM-1 and its antioxidant and radioprotective activities were evaluated using in vitro assays. Natural stable free radical properties of SQGD in solid as well as in solution form were estimated using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectrometry. Results of the study were demonstrated high reducing power (1.267 ± 0.03356 U(abs)) and nitric oxide radicals scavenging activity (34.684 ± 2.132%) of SQGD. Maximum lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity of SQGD was found to be 74.09 ± 0.08% at 500 μg/ml concentration. Similarly, significant (39.54%; P < 0.05) protection to the liposomal artificial membrane against gamma radiation was observed by SQGD in terms of neutralization of gamma radiation-induced TBARS radicals in vitro. OH(-) radicals scavenging efficacy of SQGD was estimated in terms of % inhibition in deoxy D: -ribose degradation by non-site-specific and site-specific assay. The maximum (54.01 ± 1.01%) inhibition of deoxy D: -ribose degradation was observed in non-site-specific manner, whereas, site-specific inhibition was observed to be 46.36 ± 0.5% at the same concentration (250 μg/ml) of SQGD. EPR spectroscopic analysis of the SQGD indicated ~80% reduction of DPPH radicals at 6.4% concentration. EPR spectral analysis of SQGD was revealed an appearance of very strong EPR signal of 2.00485 (crystalline form) and 2.00520 (solution form) g(y) tensor value, which were an established characteristic of o-semiquinone radicals. Therefore, it can be concluded that SQGD is a natural stable o-semiquinone-type radical, possessing strong antioxidant activities and can effectively neutralize radiation induced free radicals in biological system. PMID:21116688

  10. Les sarcomes des tissus mous: à propos de 33 cas

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Jiddou; Elkabous, Mustapha; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de cette étude est de rapporter les particularités épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives des sarcomes des tissus mous à l'Institut National d'Oncologie et de définir les facteurs influençant la survie des patients. C'est une étude rétrospective de 33 cas de sarcome des tissus mous, colligés entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2010. Les critères d’éligibilité étaient un âge supérieur à 16 ans, une épreuve histologique d'un sarcome des tissus mous à l'exclusion des tumeurs stromales gastro-intestinales (GIST). Les items recueillis étaient: épidémiologiques, cliniques, histologiques, Radiologiques, et thérapeutiques. Des analyses univariées puis multivariées ont été réalisées à la recherche de facteurs influençant la survie à 2 ans. Il s'agit de 33 cas, 17 Hommes et 16 Femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,21 ans (Extrêmes= 18-76 ans). La tumeur était localisée aux extrémités dans 24 cas (72,72%). Le type histologique prédominant était le Liposarcome dans 9 cas (27,27%). Le stade tumoral était localisé dans 25 cas (75,8%), métastatique dans 8 cas (24,2%). Vingt-cinq tumeurs ont été traitées chirurgicalement dont 21 cas (84%) de chirurgie conservatrice et 4 cas (16%) de chirurgie radicale. La radiothérapie a été réalisée chez 10 patients (30,3%). La chimiothérapie a été faite chez 20 patients. En analyse univariée les facteurs pronostiques étaient l’âge (p=0,03) et le stade tumoral (p=0,09). L’âge et le stade tumoral sont des facteurs pronostiques influençant la survie des sarcomes des tissus mous. PMID:27022434

  11. Micro-CT evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the mandibular incisors of irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Gabriella Lopes de Rezende; Pimenta, Luiz André; Almeida, Solange Maria de

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a microcomputed tomographic evaluation of the radioprotective effect of resveratrol on the volume of mandibular incisors of irradiated rats. A second aim was to make a quantitative assessment of the effect of x-ray exposure on these dental tissues. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups: control, irradiated control, resveratrol, and irradiated resveratrol. The resveratrol groups received 100 mg/kg of resveratrol, whereas the irradiated groups were exposed to 15 Gy of irradiation. The animals were sacrificed 30 days after the irradiation procedure, and their mandibles were removed and scanned in a microcomputed tomography unit. The images were loaded into Mimics software to allow segmentation of the mandibular incisor and assessment of its volume. The results were compared by One-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test, considering a 5% significance level. The irradiated groups showed significantly diminished volumes of the evaluated teeth, as compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The resveratrol group presented higher values than those of the irradiated groups, and volumes similar to those of the control group. High radiation doses significantly affected tooth formation, resulting in alterations in the dental structure, and thus lower volumes. Moreover, resveratrol showed no effective radioprotective impact on dental tissues. Future studies are needed to evaluate different concentrations of this substance, in an endeavor to verify its potential as a radioprotector for these dental tissues. PMID:26981750

  12. Fabrication of BSA-Green Tea Polyphenols-Chitosan Nanoparticles and Their Role in Radioprotection: A Molecular and Biochemical Approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sumit; Meena, Ramovatar; Rajamani, Paulraj

    2016-08-01

    Normal tissue damage from ionizing radiation during radiotherapy is a major concern in cancer treatment. Tea polyphenols (TPs) have been shown to reduce radiation-induced damage in multiple studies, but their pharmacological application is still limited due to poor bioavailability. The present study was aimed at to increase the TPs bioavailability by nanoformulation by using BSA as the matrix and chitosan as the external shell. Encapsulated TPs nanoparticles were spherical in size and promoted TPs stability in normal and gastrointestinal conditions without losing antioxidant activity. Oral administration of nanoparticles for 3 days prior to irradiation exposure has been shown to protect mice from hematological injuries that result in the reduction of radiation-induced lethality. TPs reduce radiation-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis by restoring the redox status through the Nrf2-ERK pathway and reducing Bax expression, respectively. Regarding potency, encapsulated TPs have shown a significantly higher level of radioprotection than TPs, suggesting that TP nanoparticles can be explored as valuable radioprotective and pharmacotherapeutic agent. PMID:27389300

  13. Radioprotective properties of Cumaside, a complex of triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria japonica and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Aminin, Dmitry L; Zaporozhets, Tatiana S; Adryjashchenko, Pelageya V; Avilov, Sergey A; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Stonik, Valentin A

    2011-05-01

    The radioprotective activity has been studied of a new immunomodulatory lead material, Cumaside, which is a complex of monosulfated triterpene glycosides from the edible sea cucumber Cucumaria japonica and cholesterol. Female CD-1 strain mice administered with prophylactic doses of Cumaside were irradiated using a Gamma-therapeutic device with a 60Co source (exposure dose 6.5 Gy, dose rate 1.14 Gy/min) and the average life span of the mice was determined. The animals administrated with Cumaside and irradiated were killed by pervisceral dislocation on days 4 and 9. Peripheral blood cell composition indexes, blood forming function and cell number in blood-forming organs and the number of pluripotent blood-forming stem cells were determined using standard procedures and the results compared with those of non-treated irradiated mice. The survivability percentage and average life span of the irradiated mice that were not treated with Cumaside were decreased in comparison with the Cumaside-treated groups. Especially, the leukocyte and neutrophil numbers in the blood (bone marrow from hip), and the weight and cell number of lymphoid organs were higher in the Cumaside-treated groups compared with the non-treated irradiated mice. It was concluded that at low prophylactic doses Cumaside possesses moderate radioprotective properties. PMID:21615013

  14. A prospective, multi-centric, observational registry to evaluate performance of Excel™ DES in ‘Real World, All Comers’ patient population

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Shirish; Chandra, Praveen; Desai, Devang; Sivakumar, R.; Selvamani, S.; Srinivasan, Anand; Paulose, Madhu; Jose, Sajy; Kalmath, B.C.; Magarkar, Vilas.P.; Pathak, Abhijeet; Mhetre, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to assess the safety and efficacy of a biodegradable polymer-coated Rapamycin-Eluting Stent (Excel) used in conjunction with six-month dual antiplatelet therapy in daily practice. Background The polymeric material of cardiac stents has been reported to adversely affect the safety profile of the drug-eluting stents and is also suspected to cause serious long-term complications. It has been proposed that the biodegradable polymer coatings may reduce such late-stage adverse effects. Methods This is a prospective, multi-center registry of 654 patients from across 9 cardiology centers in India, who were enrolled and exclusively treated with Excel stents between February 2008 and May 2010. The recommended antiplatelet regimen included clopidogrel and aspirin for 6 months period, followed by lifelong aspirin therapy. Results The study population included 46.94% diabetics, 24.31% smokers, 48.93% hypertensives and 14.98% hyperlipidemics. The cumulative rates of major adverse cardiac events were 0.153% at discharge and 1.38% at 12 months. The mean percentage of stenosis was 88.24 ± 9.17% No events occurred between 6 and 12 months. Conclusions This multi-center registry study on “real world, all comers” has, thus, showed that EXCEL™ stent which is PLA-coated biodegradable Rapamycin-Eluting Stent exhibited high efficacy and safety profile in treatment of patients undergoing PCI as evidenced by significantly lower rates of MACE and no case of stent thrombosis. There was no event even after DAPT was discontinued after 6 months. PMID:25634407

  15. Reticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landrevy, Christel

    Pour faire face à la crise économique la conception de papier à valeur ajoutée est développée par les industries papetières. Le but de se projet est l'amélioration des techniques actuelles de réticulation des fibres lignocellulosiques de la pâte à papier visant à produire un papier plus résistant. En effet, lors des réactions de réticulation traditionnelles, de nombreuses liaisons intra-fibres se forment ce qui affecte négativement l'amélioration anticipée des propriétés physiques du papier ou du matériau produit. Pour éviter la formation de ces liaisons intra-fibres, un greffage sur les fibres de groupements ne pouvant pas réagir entre eux est nécessaire. La réticulation des fibres par une réaction de « click chemistry » appelée cycloaddition de Huisgen entre un azide et un alcyne vrai, catalysée par du cuivre (CuAAC) a été l'une des solutions trouvée pour remédier à ce problème. De plus, une adaptation de cette réaction en milieux aqueux pourrait favoriser son utilisation en milieu industriel. L'étude que nous désirons entreprendre lors de ce projet vise à optimiser la réaction de CuAAC et les réactions intermédiaires (propargylation, tosylation et azidation) sur la pâte kraft, en milieu aqueux. Pour cela, les réactions ont été adaptées en milieu aqueux sur la cellulose microcristalline afin de vérifier sa faisabilité, puis transférée à la pâte kraft et l'influence de différents paramètres comme le temps de réaction ou la quantité de réactifs utilisée a été étudiée. Dans un second temps, une étude des différentes propriétés conférées au papier par les réactions a été réalisée à partir d'une série de tests papetiers optiques et physiques. Mots Clés Click chemistry, Huisgen, CuAAC, propargylation, tosylation, azidation, cellulose, pâte kraft, milieu aqueux, papier.

  16. Radio-protective effect of cinnamic acid, a phenolic phytochemical, on genomic instability induced by X-rays in human blood lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cinkilic, Nilufer; Tüzün, Ece; Çetintaş, Sibel Kahraman; Vatan, Özgür; Yılmaz, Dilek; Çavaş, Tolga; Tunç, Sema; Özkan, Lütfi; Bilaloğlu, Rahmi

    2014-08-01

    The present study was designed to determine the protective activity of cinnamic acid against induction by X-rays of genomic instability in normal human blood lymphocytes. This radio-protective activity was assessed by use of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test and the alkaline comet assay, with human blood lymphocytes isolated from two healthy donors. A Siemens Mevatron MD2 (Siemens AG, USA, 1994) linear accelerator was used for the irradiation with 1 or 2 Gy. Treatment of the lymphocytes with cinnamic acid prior to irradiation reduced the number of micronuclei when compared with that in control samples. Treatment with cinnamic acid without irradiation did not increase the number of micronuclei and did not show a cytostatic effect in the lymphocytes. The results of the alkaline comet assay revealed that cinnamic acid reduces the DNA damage induced by X-rays, showing a significant radio-protective effect. Cinnamic acid decreased the frequency of irradiation-induced micronuclei by 16-55% and reduced DNA breakage by 17-50%, as determined by the alkaline comet assay. Cinnamic acid may thus act as a radio-protective compound, and future studies may focus on elucidating the mechanism by which cinnamic acid offers radioprotection. PMID:25344167

  17. Dermatomyosite et panniculite: place des immunoglobulines

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhafidh, Nadia Ben; Toujeni, Sana; Kefi, Asma; Bousetta, Najeh; Sayhi, Sameh; Gharsallah, Imen; Othmani, Salah

    2016-01-01

    La panniculite est une maladie inflammatoire du tissu adipeux sous-cutané rarement associée à la dermatomyosite. Elle peut survenir avant, après ou en même temps que l'atteinte musculaire. Dans la plupart des cas, l’évolution de la panniculite et des autres atteintes de la dermatomyosite est favorable sous traitement corticoïde et/ou immunosuppresseur. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 48 ans ayant présenté des lésions de panniculite précédant de 2 mois les signes musculaires. L'atteinte cutanée était résistante au traitement corticoïde associés aux immunosuppresseurs ce qui a nécessité le recours au traitement par Immunoglobulines polyvalentes permettant ainsi une amélioration à la fois de l'atteinte cutanée et musculaire.

  18. Choice of DES: is there a difference?

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, U; Bhatia, V

    2009-01-01

    Restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions has been a major limitation of this otherwise very well-accepted method of coronary revascularisation. Coronary stents work by scaffolding the intimal flaps and preventing elastic recoil, which was a major problem after balloon angioplasty. The neointimal growth response to stenting contributes significantly to the restenotic process. Randomised studies comparing coronary artery bypass surgery with coronary stenting especially in multivessel disease clearly highlighted this problem. The problem has been greater in magnitude in special subgroups: diabetics, patients with small vessels (≤2.5 mm in diameter), long segments of disease (≥20 mm in length), etc. These limitations of Bare metal stents have been addressed by drug-eluting stents (DESs). Third-generation stents with bioabsorbable polymers like the Biolimus releasing Biomatrix stent have already become available in Europe and parts of Asia. A longer follow-up will prove their long-term safety vis-à-vis first-generation DES. The polymer-free stent with capability of using more than one drug, though very attractive, needs larger multicentric studies before gaining wider acceptance. The fully bioabsorbable stent is yet another promising concept. The feasibility has already been demonstrated, and finer refinements are under way. The future of newer DES thus is very promising, and most of the issues related to first-generation DES are at the threshold of being solved.

  19. Etude des facteurs liés à l'observance au traitement antirétroviral chez les patients suivis à l'Unité de Prise En Charge du VIH/SIDA de l'Hôpital de District de Dschang, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Dempouo Djomassi, Lucienne; Monebenimp, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Etudier les facteurs liés à l'observance au traitement antirétroviral chez les patients adultes suivis à l'Unité de Prise en Charge du VIH/SIDA (UPEC) de l'hôpital de District de Dschang. Méthodes Dans une étude descriptive transversale conduite à l'hôpital de District de Dschang, l'observance a été évaluée sur la base des déclarations des patients et sur la régularité du renouvellement de leurs ordonnances (observance calculée). Résultats Parmi les 389 patients répondant à nos critères d'inclusion, 356 ont été interrogés. La durée moyenne du suivi était de 27 mois. La moyenne d’âge était égale à 41 ans et le sexe ratio 2,46 en faveur du sexe féminin. Le statut sérologique était découvert pour 60,56% des patients à l'occasion d'un épisode maladif. Le niveau d'observance déclarée était significativement plus élevé que le niveau global de l'observance calculée (80,2% vs 51,5%, p<10−5). Les deux principales barrières à l'observance étaient l'oubli et le travail. Les patients référés dans cette UPEC étaient moins bien observants (p<10−4). L'observance au traitement antirétroviral était d'autant meilleure quand le taux de CD4 en début de traitement était élevé (p= 0,01) et que la durée du traitement était prolongée (p=0,00). Conclusion La discordance observée entre les résultats des deux méthodes utilisées pour estimer l'observance, tout en soulévant les contraintes liées à l’évaluation de l'observance thérapeutique, souligne l'importance des méthodes biologiques. Les facteurs individuels se sont avérés être les principales raisons de non-observance. Enfin, un accent devrait être mis sur les consultations d’éducation thérapeutique et le suivi psycho-social des patients sous traitement antirétroviral dans cette UPEC. PMID:22937195

  20. Approche à l’égard des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux en pratique familiale

    PubMed Central

    Douketis, James; Bell, Alan David; Eikelboom, John; Liew, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Comparer les caractéristiques principales des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux (NACO), soit le dabigatran, le rivaroxaban et l’apixaban, et répondre aux questions qui font surface lors de la comparaison de ces agents. Qualité des données Une recherche dans PubMed a été effectuée afin de relever les études cliniques récentes (de janvier 2008 à la semaine 32 de 2013) portant sur l’emploi des NACO pour la prévention des AVC dans les cas de fibrillation auriculaire (FA) et pour le traitement de la thromboembolie veineuse aiguë. Message principal Selon 3 essais d’envergure, tous les NACO sont au moins aussi efficaces que la warfarine dans la prévention des AVC chez les patients atteints d’une FA non valvulaire, et au moins aussi sûrs pour ce qui est du risque de saignement. Des méta-analyses de ces essais ont montré que, comparativement au traitement par la warfarine, les NACO avaient réduit la mortalité totale, la mortalité d’origine cardiovasculaire et les saignements intracrâniens, et était aussi ressortie une tendance vers la réduction des saignements généraux. Du côté pratique, les avantages des NACO par rapport à la warfarine sont : posologie orale fixe uniquotidienne ou biquotidienne sans devoir surveiller la coagulation et peu d’interactions connues ou définies avec d’autres médicaments ou des aliments. Les désavantages potentiels des NACO sont notamment un risque de saignement qui serait accru chez les patients de plus de 75 ans, une hausse des saignements gastro-intestinaux majeurs avec des doses élevées de dabigatran, une hausse des cas de dyspepsie avec le dabigatran, l’absence d’un test de laboratoire de routine visant à mesurer de façon fiable l’effet anticoagulant et l’absence d’antidote pour renverser l’effet anticoagulant. Aucun essai randomisé contrôlé n’a effectué de comparaison directe des NACO, et le choix d’un NACO est influencé par les caract

  1. A New Orally Active, Aminothiol Radioprotector-Free of Nausea and Hypotension Side Effects at Its Highest Radioprotective Doses

    SciTech Connect

    Soref, Cheryl M.; Hacker, Timothy A.; Fahl, William E.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: A new aminothiol, PrC-210, was tested for orally conferred radioprotection (rats, mice; 9.0 Gy whole-body, which was otherwise lethal to 100% of the animals) and presence of the debilitating side effects (nausea/vomiting, hypotension/fainting) that restrict use of the current aminothiol, amifostine (Ethyol, WR-2721). Methods and Materials: PrC-210 in water was administered to rats and mice at times before irradiation, and percent-survival was recorded for 60 days. Subcutaneous (SC) amifostine (positive control) or SC PrC-210 was administered to ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) and retching/emesis responses were recorded. Intraperitoneal amifostine (positive control) or PrC-210 was administered to arterial cannulated rats to score drug-induced hypotension. Results: Oral PrC-210 conferred 100% survival in rat and mouse models against an otherwise 100% lethal whole-body radiation dose (9.0 Gy). Oral PrC-210, administered by gavage 30-90 min before irradiation, conferred a broad window of radioprotection. The comparison of PrC-210 and amifostine side effects was striking because there was no retching or emesis in 10 ferrets treated with PrC-210 and no induced hypotension in arterial cannulated rats treated with PrC-210. The tested PrC-210 doses were the ferret and rat equivalent doses of the 0.5 maximum tolerated dose (MTD) PrC-210 dose in mice. The human equivalent of this mouse 0.5 MTD PrC-210 dose would likely be the highest PrC-210 dose used in humans. By comparison, the mouse 0.5 MTD amifostine dose, 400 {mu}g/g body weight (equivalent to the human amifostine dose of 910 mg/m{sup 2}), when tested at equivalent ferret and rat doses in the above models produced 100% retching/vomiting in ferrets and 100% incidence of significant, progressive hypotension in rats. Conclusions: The PrC-210 aminothiol, with no detectable nausea/vomiting or hypotension side effects in these preclinical models, is a logical candidate for human drug development to use in healthy

  2. Approche à l’endroit des blessures traumatiques à la main en soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Kevin; Hatchell, Alexandra; Thoma, Achilleas

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue la prise en charge initiale des blessures traumatiques communes à la main que voient les médecins de soins primaires. Sources des données Nous avons examiné les données cliniques probantes et les ouvrages spécialisés récents cernés par des recherches dans la base de données électronique MEDLINE. Nous avons utilisé l’opinion d’experts pour compléter les recommandations dans les domaines où les données scientifiques étaient rares. Message principal Les médecins de soins primaires sont couramment appelés à prendre en charge des patients victimes de blessures traumatiques à la main. Dans le contexte d’un cas clinique, nous examinons l’évaluation, le diagnostic et la prise en charge initiale des traumatismes communs à la main. La présentation et la prise en charge des blessures au lit de l’ongle, des amputations de l’extrémité du doigt, des doigts en maillet, des fractures à la main, des lacérations de tendons, des morsures et de la ténosynovite infectieuse seront aussi discutées. Les principes de la prise en charge des blessures traumatiques à la main comportent la réduction et l’immobilisation des fractures, la prescription d’imagerie radiographique post-réduction, l’obtention d’un recouvrement par les tissus mous, la prévention et le traitement des infections et l’assurance d’une prophylaxie antitétanique. Conclusion Il est essentiel d’assurer une évaluation et une prise en charge appropriées des blessures traumatiques à la main pour prévenir une morbidité considérable à long terme dans une population autrement en santé. La reconnaissance sans délai des blessures qui nécessitent une demande de consultation urgente ou rapide auprès d’un chirurgien spécialiste de la main est également critique.

  3. Synthesis, pulse radiolysis, and in vitro radioprotection studies of melatoninolipoamide, a novel conjugate of melatonin and alpha-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, S R; Salaskar, A; Chattopadhyay, A; Barik, A; Mishra, B; Gangabhagirathi, R; Priyadarsini, K I

    2006-09-15

    A novel conjugate of melatonin 2 and alpha-lipoic acid 4 has been prepared using DCC mediated coupling. The conjugate named melatoninolipoamide has been assigned its structure 1 on the basis of spectral analysis (UV, IR, NMR, and EI-MS). Pulse radiolysis studies of the conjugate were carried out in aqueous solutions with both oxidizing and reducing radicals. The results indicate that the melatonin moiety of the conjugate reacts preferably with oxidizing radicals and the lipoic acid moiety exhibits preferential reaction with reducing radicals. The in vitro radioprotection ability of 1 was examined by gamma-radiation induced lipid peroxidation in liposomes and hemolysis of erythrocytes, and compared the results with those of melatonin and alpha-lipoic acid. The studies suggest that the conjugate can be explored as a probable radioprotector. PMID:16766192

  4. Lycopene as A Carotenoid Provides Radioprotectant and Antioxidant Effects by Quenching Radiation-Induced Free Radical Singlet Oxygen: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Pirayesh Islamian, Jalil; Mehrali, Habib

    2015-01-01

    Radio-protectors are agents that protect human cells and tissues from undesirable effects of ionizing radiation by mainly scavenging radiation-induced free radicals. Although chemical radio-protectors diminish these deleterious side effects they induce a number of unwanted effects on humans such as blood pressure modifications, vomiting, nausea, and both local and generalized cutaneous reactions. These disadvantages have led to emphasis on the use of some botanical radio-protectants as alternatives. This review has collected and organized studies on a plant-derived radio-protector, lycopene. Lycopene protects normal tissues and cells by scavenging free radicals. Therefore, treatment of cells with lycopene prior to exposure to an oxidative stress, oxidative molecules or ionizing radiation may be an effective approach in diminishing undesirable effects of radiation byproducts. Studies have designated lycopene to be an effective radio-protector with negligible side effects. PMID:25685729

  5. Radioprotective drugs: a synopsis of current research and a proposed research plan for the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R.; Anspaugh, L.

    1985-04-01

    FEMA has broad roles in the management of disasters potentially involving substantial amounts of radioactive contamination. These could be either peacetime or wartime disasters. A meeting was held in March 1985 to see if there are any research contributions that FEMA might reasonably make in the area of radioprotective drugs that would substantially enhance its ability to perform its mission. The other federal agencies presently sponsoring research in the field were represented at the meeting. A few selected researchers also participated to provide complementary viewpoints. Activities of a modest scale that FEMA might undertake were identified, as were larger scale activities that might be undertaken in the event of long-term, major funding-level increases for FEMA. 2 refs.

  6. DMA, a Bisbenzimidazole, Offers Radioprotection by Promoting NFκB Transactivation through NIK/IKK in Human Glioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Navrinder; Ranjan, Atul; Tiwari, Vinod; Aneja, Ritu; Tandon, Vibha

    2012-01-01

    Background Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure often occurs for human beings through occupational, medical, environmental, accidental and/or other sources. Thus, the role of radioprotector is essential to overcome the complex series of overlapping responses to radiation induced DNA damage. Methods and Results Treatment of human glioma U87 cells with DMA (5- {4-methylpiperazin-1-yl}-2-[2′-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5′-benzimidazolyl] in the presence or absence of radiation uncovered differential regulation of an array of genes and proteins using microarray and 2D PAGE techniques. Pathway construction followed by relative quantitation of gene expression of the identified proteins and their interacting partners led to the identification of MAP3K14 (NFκB inducing kinase, NIK) as the candidate gene affected in response to DMA. Subsequently, over expression and knock down of NIK suggested that DMA affects NFκB inducing kinase mediated phosphorylation of IKKα and IKKβ both alone and in the presence of ionizing radiation (IR). The TNF-α induced NFκB dependent luciferase reporter assay demonstrated 1.65, 2.26 and 3.62 fold increase in NFκB activation at 10, 25 and 50 µM DMA concentrations respectively, compared to control cells. This activation was further increased by 5.8 fold in drug + radiation (50 µM +8.5 Gy) treated cells in comparison to control. We observed 51% radioprotection in control siRNA transfected cells that attenuated to 15% in siRNA NIK treated U87 cells, irradiated in presence of DMA at 24 h. Conclusions Our studies show that NIK/IKK mediated NFκB activation is more intensified in cells over expressing NIK and treated with DMA, alone or in combination with ionizing radiation, indicating that DMA promotes NIK mediated NFκB signaling. This subsequently leads to the radioprotective effect exhibited by DMA. PMID:22745752

  7. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  8. Towards a Dynamic DES model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbareddy, Pramod; Candler, Graham

    2009-11-01

    Hybrid RANS/LES methods are being increasingly used for turbulent flow simulations in complex geometries. Spalart's detached eddy simulation (DES) model is one of the more popular ones. We are interested in examining the behavior of the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) model in its ``LES mode.'' The role of the near-wall functions present in the equations is analyzed and an explicit analogy between the S-A and a one-equation LES model based on the sub-grid kinetic energy is presented. A dynamic version of the S-A DES model is proposed based on this connection. Validation studies and results from DES and LES applications will be presented and the effect of the proposed modification will be discussed.

  9. Vecteurs Singuliers des Theories des Champs Conformes Minimales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Louis

    En 1984 Belavin, Polyakov et Zamolodchikov revolutionnent la theorie des champs en explicitant une nouvelle gamme de theories, les theories quantiques des champs bidimensionnelles invariantes sous les transformations conformes. L'algebre des transformations conformes de l'espace-temps presente une caracteristique remarquable: en deux dimensions elle possede un nombre infini de generateurs. Cette propriete impose de telles conditions aux fonctions de correlations qu'il est possible de les evaluer sans aucune approximation. Les champs des theories conformes appartiennent a des representations de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Virasoro, une extension centrale de l'algebre conforme du plan. Ces representations sont etiquetees par h, le poids conforme de leur vecteur de plus haut poids, et par la charge centrale c, le facteur de l'extension centrale, commune a toutes les representations d'une meme theorie. Les theories conformes minimales sont constituees d'un nombre fini de representations. Parmi celles-ci se trouvent des theories unitaires dont les representation forment la serie discrete de l'algebre de Virasoro; leur poids h a la forme h_{p,q}(m)=[ (p(m+1) -qm)^2-1] (4m(m+1)), ou p,q et m sont des entiers positifs et p+q<= m+1. L'entier m parametrise la charge centrale: c(m)=1 -{6over m(m+1)} avec n>= 2. Ces representations possedent un sous-espace invariant engendre par deux sous-representations avec h_1=h_{p,q} + pq et h_2=h_{p,q} + (m-p)(m+1-q) dont chacun des vecteurs de plus haut poids portent le nom de vecteur singulier et sont notes respectivement |Psi _{p,q}> et |Psi_{m-p,m+1-q}>. . Les theories super-conformes sont une version super-symetrique des theories conformes. Leurs champs appartiennent a des representation de plus haut poids de l'algebre de Neveu-Schwarz, une des deux extensions super -symetriques de l'algebre de Virasoro. Les theories super -conformes minimales possedent la meme structure que les theories conformes minimales. Les representations

  10. Lignes directrices sur l’aiguillage des cas soupçonnés de cancer colorectal par un médecin de famille ou autre professionnel des soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, M. Elisabeth; Vella, Emily T.; Hey, Amanda; Simunovic, Marko; Harris, William; Levitt, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Ces lignes directrices ont pour but d’aider les médecins de famille et les autres professionnels des soins primaires à reconnaître les caractéristiques qui devraient susciter leurs soupçons quant à la présence d’un cancer colorectal (CCR) chez leurs patients. Composition du comité Les membres du comité ont été choisis parmi les dirigeants régionaux des soins primaires au sein du Réseau provincial des soins primaires et de la lutte contre le cancer, les membres du Comité consultatif sur le dépistage du cancer colorectal de l’Ontario et les membres du Groupe sur le siège de la maladie, Cancer gastrointestinal, d’Action Cancer Ontario. Méthodes Ces lignes directrices sont le fruit d’une revue systématique et d’une synthèse des données probantes, ainsi que d’un examen formel par des intervenants canadiens pour valider la pertinence des recommandations. Rapport Des lignes directrices fondées sur des données probantes ont été élaborées pour améliorer la prise en charge des patients qui présentent des caractéristiques cliniques d’un CCR et ce, dans le contexte canadien. Conclusion Un équilibre judicieux entre une suspicion de CCR et le niveau de risque d’un tel cancer devrait favoriser une demande de consultation en temps opportun par les médecins de famille et les professionnels des soins primaires. Ces lignes directrices pourraient aussi orienter les décisions de demander une consultation à des programmes d’évaluation diagnostique du CCR.

  11. In vivo effects and interactions of recombinant interleukin 1 and tumor-necrosis factor in radioprotection and induction of fibrinogen. Scientific report

    SciTech Connect

    Neta, R.

    1988-01-01

    Although interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are both produced by stimulated macrophage-monocytes, they are molecularly distinct, act via separate receptors, but show striking resemblance in their biological activity. Both cytokines are pyrogenic, induce colony-stimulating factor and acute-phase proteins, activate neutrophils, reduce cytochrome P-450 functions, and inhibit lipoprotein lipase. Furthermore, IL-1 and TNF have been reported to induce the release of one another. Because of this mutual induction, the relative contribution of IL-1 or TNF to the induction of a given activity becomes difficult to establish. In an attempt to determine whether these two cytokines act independently, the effect of administrating them separately or in combination is compared on the radioprotection and on the induction of an acute-phase reactant - fibrinogen. IL-1 and TNF have synergistic effects on radioprotection and on the levels of circulating fibrinogen.

  12. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Wilson, Lynn; Srivastava, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille un résumé clinique pratique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur l’utilisation sécuritaire et efficace des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, produites par le National Opioid Use Guideline Group. Qualité des données Pour produire les lignes directrices, les chercheurs ont effectué une synthèse critique de la littérature médicale sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité des opioïdes pour la douleur chronique non cancéreuse et ont rédigé une série de recommandations. Un panel de 49 cliniciens experts de toutes les régions du Canada ont passé en revue l’ébauche et ont atteint un consensus sur 24 recommandations. Message principal Il est recommandé de faire un dépistage du risque de dépendance avant de prescrire des opioïdes. On recommande des opioïdes faibles (codéine et tramadol) pour une douleur de légère à modérée qui n’a pas répondu aux traitements de première intention. On peut essayer l’oxycodone, l’hydromorphone et la morphine chez les patients qui n’ont pas eu de soulagement avec des opioïdes plus faibles. Une faible dose initiale et une lente hausse du titrage sont recommandées, ainsi qu’une étroite surveillance du patient qu’on a d’abord renseigné. Les médecins doivent surveiller l’apparition de complications comme l’apnée du sommeil. La dose optimale est celle qui améliore le fonctionnement ou atténue les cotes d’évaluation de la douleur d’au moins 30 %. Pour la grande majorité des patients, la dose optimale sera bien en deçà de l’équivalent de 200 mg de morphine par jour. On recommande le sevrage progressif pour les patients qui n’ont pas répondu à un essai d’opioïdes adéquat. Conclusion Les opioïdes jouent un rôle important dans la prise en charge de la douleur chronique non cancéreuse, mais il faut en prescrire avec prudence pour limiter les dommages potentiels. Les nouvelles lignes directrices

  13. Analyse des facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires : à propos de 500 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouaity, Brahim; Darouassi, Youssef; Chihani, Mehdi; Touati, Mohamed Mliha; Ammar, Haddou

    2016-01-01

    Les nodules thyroïdiens sont très fréquents et moins de 10% d'entre eux sont malin. Ils posent un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique surtout par rapport à leur nature bénigne ou maligne. L’étude de certains facteurs cliniques et paracliniques de présomption de malignité permet de bien codifier la stratégie thérapeutique. Le but de ce travail est d’étudier les facteurs prédictifs de malignité des goitres nodulaires et comparer nos résultats à ceux de la littérature. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective à propos de 500 cas de goitres nodulaires opérés au service d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie (ORL) et Chirurgie cervico-faciale (CCF) de l'hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech entre 2006 et 2012. Le pourcentage de cancers a été de 6,8%. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 46 ans, avec une sex-ratio de 5 (F/H). A la palpation cervicale; le caractère dure du nodule a été constaté dans 94,4% des cas de cancer, avec des limites irrégulières dans 64,70% des cas de cancer. Trois nodules étaient fixes et ils étaient tous malins. Les adénopathies cervicales ont été constatées chez 8 malades dont 7 présentaient des cancers. A l’échographie, 61,8% des nodules malins présentaient un aspect hypoéchogène, avec des contours flous dans 88,24% des cas. La vascularisation intra nodulaire était présente dans 35,3% de ces cas des cancers avec des microcalcifications chez 55,9% d'entre eux. Le halo hypoéchogene périnodulaire était incomplet dans 73,5% des cas de cancer. Nos patients étaient en euthyroïdie dans 84,6% des cas. Les facteurs prédictifs de malignité d'un goitre nodulaire, étaient donc dans notre étude d'abord cliniques: l’âge supérieur à 60 ans, la consistance dure du nodule, sa fixité, son caractère irrégulier et mal limité à la palpation, ainsi que la présence d'adénopathie(s) cervicale(s) à l'examen; et échographiques: le caractère hypoéchogène, les limites floues, la présence de

  14. Le traitement familial des enfants et des adolescents anorexiques : Des lignes directrices pour le médecin communautaire

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, S; Pinzon, J; Taddeo, D; Katzman, DK

    2010-01-01

    L’anorexie mentale (AM) est une maladie grave qui met la vie en danger et qui fait généralement son apparition pendant l’adolescence. Les données probantes au sujet du traitement optimal de l’AM chez les enfants et les adolescents sont en croissance, mais il reste beaucoup à apprendre. Même si les démarches thérapeutiques actuelles varient au Canada et ailleurs, les données jusqu’à présent indiquent que le traitement familial (TF) est le plus efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents anorexiques. Un élément essentiel du modèle de TF, c’est que les parents sont investis de la responsabilité de rétablir la santé physique de leur enfant et de s’assurer de la reprise complète de son poids. Le médecin qui comprend les principes fondamentaux et la philosophie du TF peut mettre en place les éléments de cette intervention fondée sur des faits probants auprès des jeunes patients anorexiques et de leur famille.

  15. L'Infection Nosocomiale en Reanimation des Brules

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Belefqih, R.; Elouennass, M.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ihrai, I.

    2009-01-01

    Summary L'infection nosocomiale bactérienne étant l'une des principales causes de morbidité et de mortalité chez le brûlé, nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 84 patients hospitalisés au sein du service de réanimation des brûlés de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat, sur une période de 3 ans, du premier janvier 2001 au 31 décembre 2003. Les critères d'infection nosocomiale étaient ceux du Center for Disease Control d'Atlanta de 1988. Les taux d'incidence ont été calculés. La population infectée a été comparée à celle non infectée. L'écologie bactérienne du service a été décrite comme aussi l'antibiotype. Il ressort de cette étude la survenue de 87 infections nosocomiales chez 27 patients. L'incidence cumulative était de 103 infections pour 1000 jours de traitement. Pour ce qui est des caractéristiques des infections bactériennes, les sites infectés étaient la peau (77%), le sang (13,8%), les voies urinaires (8%) et les poumons (1,1%). Les principaux germes étaient: Staphylococcus sp. (33,3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23%), Enterococcus faecalis et Acinetobacter (8%). Les staphylocoques étaient méticillo-résistants dans 22,2% des cas. Le Pseudomonas et l'Acinetobacter étaient multirésistants (60%). Dans notre étude les facteurs prédictifs de survenue des infections nosocomiales que nous avons retenus après l'étude comparative des populations infectées et non infectées ont été l'âge, le body mass index, l'abbreviated burn severity index et le remplissage initial. En isolant ces paramètres, nous avons pu établir une équation à valeur prédictive de survenue d'infection nosocomiale chez le patient brûlé. PMID:21991158

  16. Peste des petits ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Parida, S.; Muniraju, M.; Mahapatra, M.; Muthuchelvan, D.; Buczkowski, H.; Banyard, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants. PMID:26443889

  17. Contrôler la douleur et réduire l’usage abusif d’opioïdes

    PubMed Central

    Kotalik, Jaro

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Aider les médecins de famille à faire un juste équilibre sur le plan de l’éthique dans leurs pratiques de prescription d’opioïdes. Source des données Une recension des articles en anglais publiés entre 1985 et 2011 a été effectuée dans MEDLINE. La majorité des données probantes étaient de niveau III. Message principal Il est essentiel de suivre les guides de pratique clinique quand on prescrit des opioïdes, sauf s’il est démontré qu’une autre option est justifiée. De plus, quand on réfléchit à la pertinence de prescrire des opioïdes et aux nombreuses implications sur le plan de l’éthique, il est utile de fonder sa décision sur l’application des principes éthiques de la bienfaisance, de la non-malfaisance, du respect de l’autonomie et de la justice. En outre, il est essentiel de se tenir au fait des changements dans les lois et la règlementation, ainsi qu’à propos des registres électroniques provinciaux des ordonnances d’opioïdes. Conclusion Les médecins doivent s’assurer que la douleur de leurs patients est bien évaluée et prise en charge. Le contrôle optimal de la douleur peut exiger la prescription d’opioïdes. Cependant, l’obligation de soulager la douleur doit être exercée en juste équilibre avec l’acquittement de la responsabilité tout aussi importante de ne pas exposer les patients au risque de dépendance et de ne pas créer de possibilités de détournement de drogues, de trafic et de dépendance chez d’autres personnes. Les principes éthiques fondamentaux offrent un cadre de réflexion qui peut aider les médecins à prendre des décisions appropriées sur le plan de l’éthique au sujet de la prescription d’opioïdes.

  18. Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.C.; LaNasa, P.; Hanson, W.R.

    1994-07-01

    Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. A comparative study on radioprotective effect of N-acetylcysteine against 12C6+ ion versus X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Luwei

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the different protective efficacy of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 200 mg/kg dose) against 12C6+ ion (4 Gy) and X-rays (4 Gy) - induced damage in vivo model. Method: Kung-Ming female mice were divided into six groups, each composed of twelve animals: control group, two irradiation groups, and two NAC-treated groups, as well as NAC alone-treated group. An acute study was carried out to determine alterations in the oxidative stress (malondialdehyde level) using with colorimetric method and cell apoptosis measuring by flow cytometry as well as DNA-single strand break analyzing by comet assay at 2h after irradiation in mouse liver. Results: Compared with respective irradiation group, NAC can significantly ameliorate injury induced by two types of ionizing irradiation, which marked by the decrease of malondialdehyde level, and the reduction of apoptosis cells percentage and DNA damage. But the greater efficacy of NAC was prominently observed to inhibit the damage induced by X-rays, suggesting that NAC-mediated protective effect is more advisable to X-rays than 12C6+ ion irradiation. Moreover, NAC treatment alone did not result in any damage as compared to the control group. Conclusion: NAC may merit development as a potential radioprotective agent. Furthermore, NAC might exert its best effort to respond X rays-caused damage.

  20. Amifostine, a radioprotectant agent, protects rat brain tissue lipids against ionizing radiation induced damage: An FTIR microspectroscopic imaging study

    SciTech Connect

    Cakmak G.; Miller L.; Zorlu, F.; Severcan, F.

    2012-03-03

    Amifostine is the only approved radioprotective agent by FDA for reducing the damaging effects of radiation on healthy tissues. In this study, the protective effect of amifostine against the damaging effects of ionizing radiation on the white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) regions of the rat brain were investigated at molecular level. Sprague-Dawley rats, which were administered amifostine or not, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 800 cGy, decapitated after 24 h and the brain tissues of these rats were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The results revealed that the total lipid content and CH{sub 2} groups of lipids decreased significantly and the carbonyl esters, olefinic=CH and CH{sub 3} groups of lipids increased significantly in the WM and GM after exposure to ionizing radiation, which could be interpreted as a result of lipid peroxidation. These changes were more prominent in the WM of the brain. The administration of amifostine before ionizing radiation inhibited the radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. In addition, this study indicated that FTIRM provides a novel approach for monitoring ionizing radiation induced-lipid peroxidation and obtaining different molecular ratio images can be used as biomarkers to detect lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

  1. Radioprotection of mice with interleukin-1: Relationship to the number of erythroid and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, G.N.; Patchen, M.L.; Neta, R.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of changes in the number of erythroid and granulocyte-macrophage colony forming cells (GM-CFC) that had occurred in tissues of normal B6D2F1 mice 20 h after administration of a radioprotective dose (150 ng) of human recombinant interleukin-1 (rIL-1). Neutrophilia in the peripheral blood and changes in the tissue distribution of GM-CFC demonstrated that cells were mobilized from the bone marrow in response to rIL-1 injection. For example, 20 h after rIL-1 injection marrow GM-CFC numbers were 80% of the numbers in bone marrow from saline-injected mice. Associated with this decrease there was a twofold increase in the number of peripheral blood and splenic GM-CFC. Also, as determined by hydroxyurea injection, there was an increase in the number of GM-CFC in S phase of the cell cycle in the spleen, but not in the bone marrow. Data in this report suggest that when compared to the spleen, stimulation of granulopoiesis after rIL-1 injection is delayed in the bone marrow.

  2. Radioprotective effect of geraniin via the inhibition of apoptosis triggered by γ-radiation-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyoung Ah; Lee, In Kyung; Zhang, Rui; Piao, Mei Jing; Kim, Ki Cheon; Kim, Sang Young; Shin, Taekyun; Kim, Bum Joon; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Jin Won

    2011-04-01

    The radioprotective effect of geraniin, a tannin compound isolated from Nymphaea tetragona Georgi var. (Nymphaeaceae), against γ-radiation-induced damage was investigated in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells. Geraniin recovered cell viability detected by MTT test and colony formation assay, which was compromised by γ-radiation, and reduced the γ-radiation-induced apoptosis by the inhibition of loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Geraniin protected cellular components (lipid membrane, cellular protein, and DNA) damaged by γ-radiation, which was detected by lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl formation, and comet assay. Geraniin significantly reduced the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species generated by γ-radiation, which was detected using spectrofluorometer, flow cytometer, and confocal microscope after 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate staining. Geraniin normalized the superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, which were decreased by γ-radiation. These results suggest that geraniin protects cells against radiation-induced oxidative stress via enhancing of antioxidant enzyme activities and attenuating of cellular damage. PMID:20680428

  3. Antimutagenic properties of selected radioprotective drug mixtures with regard to X-ray-induced reciprocal translocations in mouse spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Benova, D K

    1986-01-01

    The radioprotective drugs AET, serotonin, and ATP were tested for antimutagenic activity against induction by 4.0 Gy X-rays of reciprocal translocations in mouse spermatogonia. Single drugs administered in doses of 8, 24 and 360 mg/kg b.wt., respectively, had no effect on translocation yields recorded in diakinesis-metaphase I spermatocytes. Two-drug mixtures afforded insignificant protection. Three-drug mixtures, however, were found to reduce radiation damage considerably, and the extent of protection was dependent in part on the amount of ATP. The best effect was obtained with formulations of serotonin-AET-ATP at the following doses, respectively: 8 + 24 + 360 mg/kg, 16 + 24 + 336 mg/kg, and 16 + 32 + 264 mg/kg. Less effective were the serotonin-AET-ATP formulations: 16 + 32 + 120 mg/kg, and 8 + 24 + 480 mg/kg. Treatment with drugs omitting radiation exposure was observed to raise, though insignificantly, the level of spontaneous translocation frequency. PMID:3941667

  4. Apport des moyens endoscopiques dans la dilatation des sténoses caustiques de l’œsophage

    PubMed Central

    Seydou, Togo; Abdoulaye, Ouattara Moussa; xing, Li; Zi, Sanogo Zimogo; sekou, Koumaré; Wen, Yang Shang; Ibrahim, Sankare; Sekou, Toure Cheik Ahmed; Boubacar, Maiga Ibrahim; Saye, Jacque; Jerome, Dakouo Dodino; Dantoumé, Toure Ousmane; Sadio, Yena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Toutes les sténoses symptomatiques de l’œsophage peuvent être dilatées par voie endoscopique. Nous évaluons l'apport des moyens endoscopiques dans la prise en charge de la dilatation œsophagienne pour sténose caustique de l’œsophage (SCO) au Mali. Méthodes IL s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et prospective réalisée dans le service de chirurgie thoracique à l'hôpital du Mali. Au total 46 dossiers cliniques de patients on été enregistrés et subdivisés en 4 groupes en fonction de la topographie des lésions cicatricielles. Le nombre de cas d'assistance endoscopique réalisé a été déterminé afin de comprendre l'apport des moyens endoscopiques dans le succès de la dilatation des SCO. Pour les 2 différentes méthodes de dilatation utilisées, le résultat du traitement et le coût ont comparés. Résultats La FOGD a été utilisée dans 19 cas (41.30%) de dilatation avec la bougie de Savary Guillard et dans 47.82% des cas dans la dilatation de Lerut. La vidéo-laryngoscopie a été utilisé 58.69% des cas de dilatation à la bougie de Lerut. Le passage de guide métallique et / ou de fil-guide a été réalisée dans 39.13% avec la vidéo laryngoscopie et dans 58.68% avec la FOGD. Dans la comparaison des deux méthodes, il existe une différence significative dans la survenue des complications (p=0.04075), l'anesthésie générale (p=0.02287), l'accessibilité à la méthode (p=0.04805) et la mortalité (p=0.00402). Conclusion La SCO est une pathologie grave et sous évaluée au Mali. Les moyens endoscopiques contribuent considérablement au succès de la dilatation œsophagienne pour sténose caustique dans les différentes méthodes utilisées. PMID:27200129

  5. Etat des lieux des mycobactérioses atypiques au Burkina Faso: résultats d'une enquête régionale

    PubMed Central

    Zida, Sylvie; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Kaboré, Antoinette; Zingué, Dézémon; Hien, Hervé; Sanou, Adama; Michel Gomgnimbou, Kireopori; Nouctara, Moumini; Ouédraogo, Mamoudou; Ouédraogo, Oumarou; Godreuil, Sylvain; Méda, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L’étude avait pour but de déterminer la fréquence d'isolement des mycobactéries atypiques chez les patients déclarés tuberculeux pulmonaire à microscopie positive (TPM+) au Burkina Faso. Méthodes Il s'est agit d'une étude transversale qui s'est déroulée de mars 2011 à février 2012. Les patients TPM+ de plus de 15 ans ont été inclus dans l’étude de manière systématique dans les centres de diagnostic et de traitement (CDT) de la région sanitaire des Hauts Bassins. Une culture des mycobactéries et une identification biochimique ont été réalisées sur les échantillons des patients TPM+ La sérologie VIH a été réalisée par des tests rapides. Résultats Une fréquence de 11% (8/73) de mycobactéries atypiques et 89,0% (65/73) de mycobactéries du complexe tuberculosis ont été identifiées des 73 patients TPM+ inclus dans l’étude. La tranche d’âge de 20 à 40 ans était la plus touchée par les mycobactérioses en général et constituait 48% de l’échantillon. Nous avons trouvé 12,2% (8 / 66) de patients VIH positif, 83,3% (55 / 66) de patients VIH négatif et 4,5% (3 / 66) de patients dont le statut VIH était indéterminé. Conclusion Notre étude a mis en lumière l'implication des mycobactéries atypiques dans la pathogénie de certains patients déclarés TPM+. Le rôle des mycobactéries atypiques dans les infections pulmonaires est probablement sous estimé et devra être examiné avec plus de détails et sur un échantillon plus grand. PMID:25396014

  6. Classification of 20 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, T. M.; Kim, A. G.; Macualay, E.; Lidman, C.; Sharp, R.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lewis, G. F.; Sommer, N. E.; Martini, P.; Mould, J.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  7. Classification of 15 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, F.; Tucker, B. E.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Gshwend, Julia; Moller, A.; Zhang, B.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  8. Classification of 3 DES Supernovae with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moller, A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Macaulay, E.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  9. Classification of 4 DES supernovae by OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, K.; Amon, A.; Lidman, C.; Martini, P.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  10. Classification of 6 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G. F.; Mould, J.; Lidman, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Martini, P.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATEL #4668). The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  11. Classification of 14 DES Supernova with OzDES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Sharp, R.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Lidman, C.; Davis, T. M.; Hinton, S.; Mould, J.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Brout, D. J.; Fischer, J. A.; Gladney, L.; March, M.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Childress, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.

    2015-10-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by OzDES of supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (370-885nm) were obtained with the AAOmega Spectrograph (Saunders et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 389) and the 2dF fibre positioner at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT).

  12. Prise en charge des complications des fistules artério-veineuses pour hémodialyse chronique

    PubMed Central

    Jiber, Hamid; Zrihni, Youssef; Zaghloul, Rachid; Hajji, Rita; Zizi, Othman; Bouarhroum, Abdellatif

    2015-01-01

    La fistule artério-veineuse native est l'accès vasculaire de choix pour l'hémodialyse chronique en raison de sa longévité, son taux faible de complication et de mortalité par rapport aux pontages artério-veineux et aux cathéters. Cependant, il arrive assez souvent que l'on assiste à des complications qui sont dominées par la sténose et la thrombose. C'est une étude rétrospective des complications ayants survenues pour 31 fistules artério-veineuses pour hémodialyse chronique des 200 fistules réalisées chez 200 patients au sein du service de chirurgie vasculaire du CHU Hassan II de Fès sur une période de trois ans, étendue de Janvier 2007 à Décembre 2009. Ces complications ont été présentés par les thromboses dans 14 cas soit 45,15% de l'ensemble des complications, les sténoses dans 4 cas (12,90%,) les anévrismes dans 4 cas (12,90%), les complications ischémiques dans 3 cas (9,67%), l'infection dans 3 cas (9,67%), l'hémorragie dans 2 cas (6,45%) et l’ hyperdébit dans un seul cas soit 3,22%. On a pu conserver 22 fistules soit 70,96% par traitement chirurgical ou endovasculaire, on a confectionné une nouvelle fistule dans 8 cas soit 25,80%, et on a adressé une patiente (3,22%) pour pose d'un cathéter veineux tunnelisé permanent. Les complications des fistules artério-veineuses pour l'hémodialyse chronique sont la principale cause de morbidité chez les patients hémodialysés, il est donc important de s'impliquer lors de leur création, et de donner un maximum d'attention quand ils sont manipulés. Ceci suggère la mise en place d'un programme de surveillance de ces fistules en raison de l'impact des complications sur la morbi-mortalité du patient hémodialysé et sur le plan financier. PMID:26113933

  13. La prise en charge des troubles de santé mentale par les omnipraticiens du Québec

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Farand, Lambert; Aubé, Denise; Imboua, Armelle

    2012-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Cette recherche vise à documenter la prise en charge des troubles mentaux (TM) par les omnipraticiens. Type d’étude Il s’agit d’une étude mixte intégrant un questionnaire auto-administré et des entrevues qualitatives. La banque de données administratives des actes médicaux de la Régie de l’assurance maladie du Québec a aussi été analysée. Contexte La province de Québec. Participants Un total de 1415 omnipraticiens de différents lieux de pratiques ont été sollicités pour le questionnaire; 970 ont été rejoints. Un sous-groupe de 60 omnipraticiens a été rejoint pour les entrevues. Principaux paramètres à l'étude La prévalence annuelle des consultations reliées à des TM courants (TMC) ou graves (TMG), les pratiques cliniques, les pratiques de collaboration, les facteurs facilitant ou entravant la prise en charge des TM, ainsi que les recommandations pour l’amélioration du système de soins. Résultats Le taux de réponse a été de 41% (n = 398 omnipraticiens) pour le questionnaire et de 63% (n = 60) pour les entrevues. Environ 25 % des visites chez les omnipraticiens sont associées à des TM. Presque tous les omnipraticiens prennent en charge des TMC et se sentent compétents pour le faire, à l’inverse de la situation retrouvée pour les TMG. Près de 20 % des TMC sont référés (principalement à des intervenants psychosociaux), alors que près de 75 % des TMG sont référés (surtout en psychiatrie et à l’urgence). Plus de 50 % des omnipraticiens affirment n’entretenir aucun contact avec l’une ou l’autre des ressources de santé mentale. Plusieurs facteurs influencent la prise en charge des TM: les profils des patients (complexité des TM, troubles concomitants); les caractéristiques des omnipraticiens (réseau informel, formation); la culture professionnelle (travail en silo, mécanismes cliniques formalisés); le milieu institutionnel (multidisciplinarité, salariat); l’organisation des

  14. Antimutagenic properties of WR 2721 and of a radioprotective mixture, ATP-AET-serotonin, with regard to X ray induced reciprocal translocations in mouse spermatogonia

    SciTech Connect

    Benova, D.

    1987-01-01

    Pretreatment by intraperitoneal administration of WR 2721 at 400 mg/kg body weight in mice receiving 4.0 Gy X rays was found to have an appreciable antimutagenic effect with regard to reciprocal translocation induction in spermatogonia. The effectiveness of the product tested proved superior to that of a radioprotective mixture of ATP-AET-serotonin given at optimal dose ratio--360, 24, and 8 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The RF (Reduction Factor) was 2.4 for WR 2721 and 1.8 for the mixture. The effect observed indicated WR 2721 to have potential capabilities for reducing the genetic risk of radiation in male individuals.

  15. Antimutagenic properties of WR 2721 and of a radioprotective mixture, ATP-AET-serotonin, with regard to X ray induced reciprocal translocations in mouse spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Benova, D

    1987-01-01

    Pretreatment by intraperitoneal administration of WR 2721 at 400 mg/kg body weight in mice receiving 4.0 Gy X rays was found to have an appreciable antimutagenic effect with regard to reciprocal translocation induction in spermatogonia. The effectiveness of the product tested proved superior to that of a radioprotective mixture of ATP-AET-serotonin given at optimal dose ratio--360, 24, and 8 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The RF (Reduction Factor) was 2.4 for WR 2721 and 1.8 for the mixture. The effect observed indicated WR 2721 to have potential capabilities for reducing the genetic risk of radiation in male individuals. PMID:3027009

  16. Effects of high-dose gamma irradiation on tensile properties of human cortical bone: Comparison of different radioprotective treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Allaveisi, Farzaneh; Mirzaei, Majid

    2016-08-01

    There are growing interests in the radioprotective methods that can reduce the damaging effects of ionizing radiation on sterilized bone allografts. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 50kGy (single dose, and fractionated) gamma irradiation, in presence and absence of l-Cysteine (LC) free radical scavenger, on tensile properties of human femoral cortical bone. A total of 48 standard tensile test specimens was prepared from diaphysis of femurs of three male cadavers (age: 52, 52, and 54 years). The specimens were assigned to six groups (n=8) according to different irradiation schemes, i.e.; Control (Non-irradiated), LC-treated control, a single dose of 50kGy (sole irradiation), a single dose of 50kGy in presence of LC, 10 fractions of 5kGy (sole irradiation), and 10 fractions of 5kGy in presence of LC. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out to evaluate the variations in tensile properties of the specimens. Fractographic analysis was performed to examine the microstructural features of the fracture surfaces. The results of multivariate analysis showed that fractionation of the radiation dose, as well as the LC treatment of the 50kGy irradiated specimens, significantly reduced the radiation-induced impairment of the tensile properties of the specimens (P<0.05). The fractographic observations were consistent with the mechanical test results. In summary, this study showed that the detrimental effects of gamma sterilization on tensile properties of human cortical bone can be substantially reduced by free radical scavenger treatment, dose fractionation, and the combined treatment of these two methods. PMID:27124804

  17. Family Violence Among Older Adult Patients Consulting in Primary Care Clinics: Results From the ESA (Enquête sur la santé des aînés) Services Study on Mental Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Préville, Michel; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Mathieu, Véronique; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Berbiche, Djamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective To document the reliability and construct validity of the Family Violence Scale (FVS) in the older adult population aged 65 years and older. Method: Data came from a cross-sectional survey, the Enquête sur la santé des aînés et l’utilisation des services de santé (ESA Services Study), conducted in 2011–2013 using a probabilistic sample of older adults waiting for medical services in primary care clinics (n = 1765). Family violence was defined as a latent variable, coming from a spouse and from children. Results: A model with 2 indicators of violence; that is, psychological and financial violence, and physical violence, adequately fitted the observed data. The reliability of the FVS was 0.95. According to our results, 16% of older adults reported experiencing some form of family violence in the past 12 months of their interview, and 3% reported a high level of family violence (FVS > 0.36). Our results showed that the victim’s sex was not associated with the degree of violence (β = 0.02). However, the victim’s age was associated with family violence (β = −0.12). Older adults, aged 75 years and older, reported less violence than those aged between 65 and 74 years. Conclusion: Our results lead us to conclude that family violence against older adults is common and warrants greater public health and political attention. General practitioners could play an active role in the detection of violence among older adults. PMID:25161067

  18. Radioprotection by Macerated Extract of Nigella sativa in Normal Tissues of Fibrosarcoma Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Velho-Pereira, Reelma; Kumar, A.; Pandey, B. N.; Mishra, K. P.; Jagtap, Aarti G.

    2012-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to study the effect of a macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds in normal as well as in tumour bearing mice against gamma radiation-induced cellular damage to normal tissues. This was done to mimic the clinical setting where in, normal tissues of cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy are exposed to the deleterious effects of radiation. The protection of cellular DNA was analysed in peripheral blood leucocytes of whole body irradiated mice following pretreatment with macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds (100 mg/kg), using alkaline comet assay, and also estimating biochemical and blood parameters such as levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein oxidation in organs such as spleen, liver, brain and intestine haemoglobin and total leucocyte count, respectively. The results showed that the macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds protected the liver, spleen, brain and intestines both in normal as well as tumour bearing mice. This study concludes that macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds has protective effects against radiation-induced damage and biochemical alterations which could be attributed to the ability to scavenge free radicals and its antioxidant properties. Hence macerated extract of Nigella sativa seeds, could be used in combination with radiation to protect against oxidative stress in normal tissues and improving the quality of life of cancer patients by mitigating unwanted side effects of radiation in normal tissues. PMID:23716868

  19. Lignes directrices sur la prise en charge en soins primaires des céphalées chez l’adulte

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Werner J.; Findlay, Ted; Moga, Carmen; Scott, N. Ann; Harstall, Christa; Taenzer, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Accroître l’utilisation d’approches éclairées par des données probantes pour diagnostiquer, investiguer et traiter en soins primaires les céphalées des patients. Qualité des données Une recherche documentaire exhaustive a été effectuée pour trouver des lignes directrices et des révisions systématiques publiées entre janvier 2000 et mai 2011. La grille d’évaluation de la qualité des recommandations pour la pratique clinique AGREE a servi à l’analyse critique des lignes directrices. Les 6 guides de pratique clinique de la plus grande qualité ont servi de base dans le processus d’adaptation. Message principal Un groupe d’élaboration multidisciplinaire de professionnels des soins primaires ont formulé 91 recommandations précises à l’aide d’un processus consensuel. Les recommandations portent sur le diagnostic, l’investigation et la prise en charge de la migraine, de la céphalée de tension, de la céphalée due à une surmédication et de la céphalée vasculaire de Horton. Conclusion Un guide de pratique clinique adapté au contexte des soins de santé au Canada a été produit en suivant un processus d’adaptation de lignes directrices dans le but d’aider les professionnels de toutes les disciplines des soins primaires à dispenser des soins éclairés par des données probantes aux patients souffrant de céphalées.

  20. Soins primaires des personnes victimes d’une lésion médullaire

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; McColl, Alexander; Sakakibara, Brodie; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    des données de niveaux 4 et 5 concernant des besoins en matière de santé non satisfaits qu’ont des personnes victimes d’une LME vivant dans la communauté. En dépit du fait que les patients atteints d’une LME utilisent beaucoup les soins primaires et les services de santé en général, les données scientifiques font valoir que les besoins de renseignements de ces patients en particulier ne sont pas adéquatement satisfaits. Conclusion Un solide système de soins primaires représente la meilleure assurance de bons résultats sur le plan de la santé et d’une utilisation raisonnable des services de santé chez les personnes victimes d’une LME, notamment un bilan de santé annuel complet, un recours approprié aux autres spécialistes et une attention accordée à l’accessibilité et aux besoins insatisfaits.

  1. Stratégie de prise en charge de l'hypertension artérielle en hémodialyse chronique: un modèle appliqué d’éducation thérapeutique des patients (ETP)

    PubMed Central

    El Harraqui, Ryme; Naima, Abda; Yassamine, Bentata; Haddiya, Intissar

    2014-01-01

    Même après l'entrée en dialyse, la prévalence de l'hypertension artérielle (HTA) reste élevée. Elle est souvent greffée d'une forte morbi-mortalité, et altère la qualité de vie des patients hémodialysés chroniques. La « méthode du poids sec (PS) », établie par Scribner, présente un intérêt indéniable dans la gestion de l'HTA chez le patient hémodialysé. Le but de notre travail était de déterminer la prévalence et les facteurs de risque (FDR) de l'HTA chez nos hémodialysés chroniques et d'en tenter une réduction en nous basant sur une stratégie d’éducation thérapeutique basée sur les recommandations de Scribner. Nous avons mené une étude prospective interventionnelle en trois mois et en trois phases, auprès des 93 hémodialysés chroniques de l'Hôpital Al Farabi d'Oujda. En phase 1, nous avons déterminé la prévalence de l'HTA par la surveillance horaire de la tension artérielle (TA) durant la séance de dialyse pendant deux semaines, soit sur un total de 442 séances. Les patients ont également mesuré leur pression artérielle (PA) hors-centre de façon biquotidienne les jours de non-dialyse, soit un total de 1720 mesures hors-centre. L'HTA a été définie par une Pression Artérielle Systolique (PAS) supérieure ou égale à 140mmHg et/ou une Pression Artérielle Diastolique (PAD) supérieure ou égale à 90mmHg sur au moins 2 mesures. En phase 2, les patients hypertendus ont bénéficié d'une prise en charge basée sur les recommandations de Scribner et une éducation thérapeutique (ETP). En phase 3, nous évalué les retombées de notre prise en charge. Une HTA a été notée sur 231 séances chez 57 patients, soit une prévalence de 61,3%. La PAS moyenne était de 172,75±17,69 (145-220) mmHg. Les FDR retenus sont: l’âge, la PPID importante, le non respect des règles hygiéno-diététiques (RHD) et le rythme de 2 séances de dialyse/semaine. Au départ, 13 patients (22,8%) étaient dialysés trois fois par

  2. État de santé des nouveaux réfugiés à Toronto, en Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Redditt, Vanessa J.; Janakiram, Praseedha; Graziano, Daniela; Rashid, Meb

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la prévalence de certaines maladies infectieuses parmi les patients nouvellement réfugiés et la présence ou non d’une variation en fonction de facteurs démographiques clés. Conception Revue rétrospective de dossiers. Contexte Clinique de soins primaires pour patients réfugiés à Toronto, en Ontario. Participants Au total, 1063 patients réfugiés inscrits à la clinique entre décembre 2011 à juin 2014. Principaux paramètres à l’étude Données démographiques (âge, sexe et pays de naissance); prévalence de VIH, d’hépatite B, d’hépatite C, d’infections à strongyloïdes, à schistosomes, à parasite intestinal, de gonorrhée, de chlamydia et de syphilis; et immunité contre la varicelle. Résultats L’âge médian des patients était de 29 ans et 56 % étaient de sexe féminin. Les réfugiés étaient nés dans 87 pays différents. Environ 33 % des patients étaient originaires d’Afrique, 28 % d’Europe, 14 % de la région de la Méditerranée orientale, 14 % d’Asie et 8 % des Amériques (à l’exception de 4 % nés au Canada ou aux États-Unis). Le taux global de VIH était de 2 %. La prévalence d’hépatite B était de 4 %, ce taux étant supérieur parmi les réfugiés originaires d’Asie (12 %, p < 0,001). L’immunité contre l’hépatite B était de 39 %, ce taux étant supérieur parmi les réfugiés originaires d’Asie (64 %, p < 0,001) et les enfants de moins de 5 ans (68 %, p < 0,001). Le taux d’hépatite C se situait à moins de 1 %. Une infection à strongyloïdes a été dépistée chez 3 % des patients testés, ce taux étant supérieur parmi les réfugiés originaires d’Afrique (6 %, p = 0,003). Une infection à schistosomes a été dépistée chez 15 % des patients africains. Des parasites intestinaux ont été observés chez 16 % des patients ayant soumis un échantillon de selles. Environ 8 % des patients n’étaient pas immunisés contre la varicelle, ce taux étant sup

  3. Annuaire du Bureau des longitudes - 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imcce; Bureau Des Longitudes

    2005-07-01

    This annual publication provides ephemerides and data to the use of professionnal and amateur astronomers. Divided in 11 chapters it covers concordance of various calendars, explanation of fondamental astronomy and various time scales, explanation for the use of ephemerides; tables provide ephemerides (positions, rise/set/passage) of the Sun and the Moon, planets, planetary satellites, asteroids, comets, bright stars; data and explanation for the physical observation of the surface of the Sun, the Moon, and planets; chart of the sky and a list of constellations and galaxies; prediction and ephemerides for astronomical phenomenon: occultation by the moon, stellar occultations by asteroids and appulses, solar eclipses and lunar eclipses; and an additional review about a hot scientific topic, this year: "Legendre et le méridien terrestre, 200 ans après". Cette publication annuelle fournit des éphémérides et des données à l'usage des astronomes professionnels et des astronomes amateurs. Composée de 11 chapitres elle comprend les rubriques sur les différents calendriers et leurs concordance, les fêtes légales en France, les dates et décrets sur les heures légales en France métropolitaine ; une introduction à l'astronomie fondamentale et aux différentes échelles de temps, des explications sur l'utilisation des éphémérides ; des tables fournissent les éphémérides (positions, heures de lever/coucher/passage) du Soleil et de la Lune, de planètes, de satellites naturels, d'astéroïdes, de comètes, d'étoiles brillantes ; des données pour l'observation de la surface du Soleil, de la Lune, et des planètes ; des cartes du ciel ainsi qu'une liste de constellations et de galaxies ; des prédictions des phénomènes astronomiques : occultation par la Lune, occultation stellaires par des astéroïdes et appulses, éclipses de Soleil et de la Lune; la liste et les coordonnées des observatoires astronomiques les plus connus ; et enfin un cahier th

  4. [Experimental Evaluation of Radioprotective Efficacy of Synthetic Genistein on Criteria of Glutathione System and Lipid Peroxidation in Erythrocytes of Peripheral Blood in Irradiated Rats].

    PubMed

    Grebenyuk, A N; Tarumov, R A; Basharin, V A; Kovtun, V U

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate experimentally the radioprotective effectiveness of synthetic genistein in terms of the glutathione system and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes of irradiated rats. The animals were exposed to single acute X-ray irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy. Genistein was administered intraperitoneally at 200 mg/kg 1 hour before radiation exposure. The irradiation caused the initiation of lipid peroxidation in the background depletion of reduced glutathione. Decrease by 25% in the number of malondialdehyde in the rats treated with genistein was registered 5 min after irradiation compared with the control. It is established thatl day after irradiation the level of reduced glutathione in the rats treated with genistein was 26% higher. However, intraperitoneal administration of genistein did not cause statistically significant changes in the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase during the whole period of observation. The results suggest that the radioprotective effect of synthetic genistein is implemented, along with other mechanisms, by stimulating the glutathione system and reducing the severity of lipid peroxidation. PMID:26863780

  5. Transport quantique dans des nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naud, C.

    2002-09-01

    structure des oscillations de conductance en fonction du flux du champ magnétique de période h/e dont l'amplitude est beaucoup plus importante que celle mesurée sur un réseau carré de même dimension. Cette différence constitue une signature d'un effet de localisation induit par le champ magnétique sur la topologie mathcal{T}3. Pour des valeurs spécifiques du champ magnétique, du fait des interférences destructives Aharonov-Bohm, la propagation des fonctions d'ondes est limitée à un ensemble fini de cellule du réseau appelé cage. De la dépendance en température des oscillations de période h/e mesurées sur le réseau mathcal{T}3 nous avons tiré une longueur caractéristique qui peut être rattachée au périmètre des cages. Un phénomène inattendu fut l'observation, pour des champs magnétiques plus importants, d'un doublement de fréquence des oscillations. Ces oscillations de période h/2e pouvant avoir une amplitude supérieure aux oscillations de période h/e, une interprétation en terme d'harmonique n'est pas possible. Enfin, l'influence de la largeur électrique des fils constituant le réseau et donc celle du nombre de canaux par brin a été étudiée en réalisant des grilles électrostatique. Les variations de l'amplitude des signaux en h/e et h/2e en fonction de la tension de grille ont été mesurés.

  6. In Vitro Metabolism and Drug-Drug Interaction Potential of UTL-5g, a Novel Chemo- and Radioprotective Agent

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianmei; Shaw, Jiajiu; Dubaisi, Sarah; Valeriote, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    N-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-1,2-oxazole-3-carboxamide (UTL-5g), a potential chemo- and radioprotective agent, acts as a prodrug requiring bioactivation to the active metabolite 5-methylisoxazole-3-carboxylic acid (ISOX). UTL-5g hydrolysis to ISOX and 2,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) has been identified in porcine and rabbit liver esterases. The purpose of this study was to provide insights on the metabolism and drug interaction potential of UTL-5g in humans. The kinetics of UTL-5g hydrolysis was determined in human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant human carboxylesterases (hCE1b and hCE2). The potential of UTL-5g and its metabolites for competitive inhibition and time-dependent inhibition of microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450) was examined in HLM. UTL-5g hydrolysis to ISOX and DCA in HLM were NADPH-independent, with a maximum rate of reaction (Vmax) of 11.1 nmol/min per mg and substrate affinity (Km) of 41.6 µM. Both hCE1b and hCE2 effectively catalyzed UTL-5g hydrolysis, but hCE2 exhibited ∼30-fold higher catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) than hCE1b. UTL-5g and DCA competitively inhibited microsomal CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP2C19 (IC50 values <50 µM), and exhibited time-dependent inhibition of microsomal CYP1A2 with the inactivation efficiency (kinact/KI) of 0.68 and 0.51 minute−1·mM−1, respectively. ISOX did not inhibit or inactivate any tested microsomal P450. In conclusion, hCE1b and hCE2 play a key role in the bioactivation of UTL-5g. Factors influencing carboxylesterase activities may have a significant impact on the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of UTL-5g. UTL-5g has the potential to inhibit P450-mediated metabolism through competitive inhibition or time-dependent inhibition. Caution is particularly needed for potential drug interactions involving competitive inhibition or time-dependent inhibition of CYP1A2 in the future clinical development of UTL-5g. PMID:25249693

  7. Daily practice management of myelodysplastic syndromes in France: data from 907 patients in a one-week cross-sectional study by the Groupe Francophone des Myélodysplasies

    PubMed Central

    Kelaidi, Charikleia; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Quesnel, Bruno; Guerci, Agnes; Dreyfus, François; Brechignac, Sabine; Berthou, Christian; Prebet, Thomas; Hicheri, Yosr; Hacini, Maya; Delaunay, Jacques; Gourin, Marie-Pierre; Camo, Jean-Marie; Zerazhi, Hacene; Taksin, Anne-Laure; Legros, Laurence; Choufi, Bachra; Fenaux, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Background There is little published information on the everyday clinical management of myelodysplastic syndromes in real world practice. Design and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of all patients with myelodysplastic syndromes attending 74 French centers in a 1-week period for inpatient admission, day-hospital care or outpatient visits. Results Nine hundred and seven patients were included; 67.3% had lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (International Prognostic Scoring System: low or intermediate-1). Karyotype had been analyzed in 82.5% of the cases and was more often of intermediate or poor risk in patients under 65 years old compared with those who were older. Red blood cell transfusions accounted for as many as 31.4% of the admissions. Endogenous erythropoietin level was less than 500 IU/L in 88% of the patients tested. Erythroid stimulating agents had been or were being used in 36.8% of the lower risk patients, iron chelation in 31% of lower risk patients requiring red blood cell transfusions and lenalidomide in 41% of lower risk patients with del 5q. High-dose chemotherapy, hypomethylating agents, low dose cytarabine and allogeneic stem cell transplantation had been or were being used in 14.8%, 31.1%, 8.8% and 5.1%, respectively, of higher-risk patients. Conclusions Karyotype is now assessed in most patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, and patients under 65 years old may have more aggressive disease. Apart from erythroid-stimulating agents and, in higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes, hypomethylating agents, specific treatments are used in a minority of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and red blood cell transfusions still represent the major reason for hospital admission. PMID:20015890

  8. Approche aux soins en milieu communautaire à des adultes ayant une déficience développementale

    PubMed Central

    Osmun, W.E.; Chan, Nelson; Solomon, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les obligations d’ordre médical, éthique et juridique dans les soins aux adultes ayant une déficience développementale (DD) qui vivent dans la communauté. Sources des données Des recherches ont été faites dans Google et MEDLINE à l’aide des mots disabled, disability, vulnerable et community. Les lois pertinentes ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Message principal Le traitement d’un patient ayant une DD varie en fonction de facteurs comme la pathogenèse du problème actuel du patient, ses affections concomitantes, la gravité de ses déficiences et ses soutiens sociaux habituels. Bien que l’on s’entende sur les bienfaits du transfert des soins institutionnels vers des soins communautaires pour les patients ayant une DD, il s’est révélé difficile de leur dispenser des soins de grande qualité en milieu communautaire. Par ailleurs, il existe peu de travaux de recherche sur les façons d’offrir efficacement des soins aux adultes ayant une DD. En tant que professionnels des soins primaires, les médecins de famille sont souvent le premier point de contact pour les patients et sont à la fois responsables de la coordination et de la continuité des soins. Compte tenu de l’importance accrue accordée aux soins préventifs et à la détection précoce des maladies, la participation active du patient revêt aussi une grande importance. Les valeurs et les objectifs du patient sont des éléments essentiels à prendre en compte, même s’ils vont à l’encontre de la bonne santé du patient ou des propres valeurs du clinicien. Les lois s’appliquant aux personnes vulnérables varient d’une province à l’autre. Par conséquent, l’obligation de signaler des mauvais traitements suspectés pourrait différer selon que la personne vulnérable habite dans un centre de soins ou la communauté, que la personne qui soupçonne le comportement abusif est un fournisseur de services ou un professionnel de la santé ou

  9. La dysplasie fibreuse: état des lieux

    PubMed Central

    Akasbi, Nessrine; Abourazzak, Fatima Ezzahra; Talbi, Sofia; Tahiri, Latifa; Harzy, Taoufik

    2015-01-01

    La dysplasie fibreuse des os est une affection osseuse bénigne congénitale mais non héréditaire, où l'os normal est remplacé par un tissu fibreux renfermant une ostéogenèse immature. Elle est due à une mutation du gène GNAS 1sur le chromosome 20q13, une mutation activatrice de la sous-unité α de la protéine G. C'est une pathologie qui est le plus souvent silencieuse, de découverte fortuite sur une radiographie standard ou révélée par une douleur osseuse ou une fracture pathologique. L'imagerie et l'histologie, quand elle est nécessaire, permettent d’établir le diagnostic. Bien qu'il ne s'agisse pas d'une tumeur, elle est souvent classée dans la catégorie des tumeurs osseuses bénignes pour des raisons de diagnostic différentiel radiographique et anatomopathologique. Elle peut être monostotique ou polyostotique. L'approche thérapeutique est essentiellement symptomatique. Quelques publications récentes ont suggéré l'intérêt majeur d'un bisphosphonate, en particulier le pamidronate, qui diminuerait les douleurs et stimulerait une reminéralisation progressive des zones ostéolytiques chez les patients traités. D'autres traitements tels que la thérapie ciblée sont en cours d’évaluation. PMID:26401215

  10. Approche à l’égard des nouveaux anticoagulants oraux en pratique familiale

    PubMed Central

    Douketis, James; Bell, Alan David; Eikelboom, John; Liew, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Traiter des différentes éventualités pouvant survenir durant le suivi clinique et la prise en charge prolongés des patients prenant de nouveaux anticoagulants oraux (NACO). Qualité des données Aux fins de cette révision narrative (non systématique), nous avons effectué une recherche dans la base de données PubMed afin de relever des études cliniques récentes (soit de janvier 2008 à la semaine 32 de 2013) portant sur l’emploi des NACO pour la prévention des AVC dans les cas de fibrillation auriculaire et le traitement de la thromboembolie veineuse aiguë. Nous avons utilisé cette base de données probantes pour répondre à nos questions prédéfinies ayant trait à l’emploi des NACO en pratique générale. Message principal Le dabigatran et le rivaroxaban doivent être pris avec les repas afin de limiter la dyspepsie et de favoriser l’absorption, respectivement. Aucun NACO n’est accompagné de restrictions alimentaires, à l’exception de la consommation modérée d’alcool, et le rivaroxaban et l’apixaban peuvent être écrasés, au besoin. Les antiacides ne semblent pas perturber l’efficacité des NACO. Comme c’est le cas avec la warfarine, les patients traités aux NACO doivent éviter l’emploi prolongé d’anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens et d’antiplaquettaires. Chez les patients devant subir une chirurgie, il faut interrompre la prise de NACO de 2 à 5 jours avant l’intervention, en fonction du risque de saignement, et le traitement par le NACO doit être habituellement repris au moins 24 heures après la chirurgie. Il n’est habituellement pas nécessaire d’effectuer un test préopératoire de coagulation. Chez les patients qui développent un saignement, un saignement mineur ne justifie habituellement pas un test de laboratoire ni l’interruption du traitement par le NACO; dans le cas des saignements majeurs, il faut se concentrer sur l’application de mesures localisées visant à endiguer le

  11. Angiomyolipomes épithélioïdes rénal bénin: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Bagayogo, Tidiani; Othmane, Yddoussalah; Tarik, Karmouni; Khalid, Elkhader; Abdellatif, Koutani; Ahmed, Ibn Attya Andaloussi

    2015-01-01

    Les angiomyolipomes épithélioïdes rénaux (AMLeR) sont des tumeurs rares (identifiées chez moins de 0,1 patients pour 1000 habitants) et représentent 8% des angiomyolipomes (AML) opérés. Il a longtemps été considérécomme un hamartome mais plusieurs articles récents font penser qu'il s'agir d'une tumeur dérivant de cellules épithélioïdespérivasculaires. L'angiomyolipome épithélioïde est une forme rare d'angiomyolipome à potentiel malin, composé decellules épithélioïdes posant des problèmes de diagnostic différentiel avec les carcinomes à cellules rénales. L'immunohistochimie,en révélant la positivité des cellules épithélioïdes au marqueur HMB45 est essentielle au diagnostic. Les auteursrapportent l'aspect tomodensitométrique et histologique d'angiomyolipomes épithélioïdes chez deux patientes. PMID:26953738

  12. Prise en charge en soins primaires des troubles liés à l’usage d’alcool et de la consommation à risque

    PubMed Central

    Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de soins primaires des renseignements et des conseils fondés sur des données probantes concernant la prise en charge de la consommation à risque et des troubles liés à l’usage d’alcool (TUA). Sources des données Nous avons entrepris une recherche documentaire non systématique à l’aide d’expressions de recherche en anglais, notamment primary care; screening, interventions, management et treatment; et at-risk drinking, alcohol use disorders, alcohol dependence et alcohol abuse; ainsi que des interventions spécifiques en médecine et en counseling pertinentes aux soins primaires. Principaux messages Dans le cas de patients ayant une consommation à risque ou un TUA, les médecins devraient offrir du counseling et, au besoin (p. ex. les patients dont le TUA est de modéré à grave), prescrire et connecter. Counseling : Offrir à tous les patients ayant une consommation à risque une brève séance de counseling et un suivi. Offrir à tous les patients ayant un TUA des séances de counseling et un suivi constant (fréquent et régulier). Prescrire : Offrir des médicaments (disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate) à tous les patients ayant un TUA de modéré à grave. Connecter : Encourager les patients souffrant d’un TUA à suivre des programmes de counseling de jour ou en résidence et d’adhérer à des groupes d’entraide. S’il est indiqué de le faire, demander une consultation pour le patient auprès d’un spécialiste en médecine des dépendances, de services concurrents en santé mentale et en toxicomanie ou une thérapie spécialisée pour traumatisme. Conclusion Les médecins de famille peuvent prendre en charge efficacement les patients qui ont une consommation à risque ou des TUA.

  13. Switching types of drug-eluting stents does not prevent repeated in-stent restenosis in patients with coronary drug-eluting stent restenosis

    PubMed Central

    Yasuoka, Yoshinori; Kume, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Hidenori; Hattori, Susumu; Matsutera, Ryo; Kohama, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We treated patients experiencing drug-eluting stent (DES) restenosis with plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA), implantation of the same type of DES [homogeneous drug-eluting stent (HOMO-DES)], or implantation of a different type of DES [heterogeneous drug-eluting stent (HETERO-DES)], and compared the efficacy and safety of these procedures for the prevention of repeated in-stent restenosis (ISR). Background In patients with de-novo coronary lesions, DES implantation is associated with a markedly reduced restenosis rate as compared with that associated with a bare metal stent and POBA. However, the optimal management strategy for patients with DES ISR remains unknown. Patients and methods We identified 191 consecutive DES ISR lesions from 183 patients who required clinically driven revascularization and divided them into three groups according to the treatment: 38 lesions were treated with POBA, 38 with HOMO-DES, and 115 with HETERO-DES. Results The incidence of target lesion revascularization (TLR) was 42.1% (16/38), 15.8% (6/38), and 16.5% (19/115) in the POBA, HOMO-DES, and HETERO-DES groups (POBA vs. HOMO, HETERO-DES; P=0.002, respectively). Multivariate analysis indicated that diabetes [odds ratio (OR), 3.4], hemodialysis (OR, 7.74), nonfocal ISR patterns (OR, 3.35), previous myocardial infarction (OR, 3.26), and POBA (OR, 8.84) were independent predictors of TLR. Conclusion A strategy involving repeated DES implantation was superior to POBA for preventing recurrent restenosis. Treatment with a different type or generation of DES does not appear to reduce the incidence of TLR. Moreover, we identified certain useful factors for facilitating appropriate and early triage in the patients with repeated DES ISR. PMID:25076360

  14. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  15. Aspects cliniques des cancers bronchopulmonaires primitifs au service d'oncologie du CHUA-HUJRA Antananarivo

    PubMed Central

    Refeno, Valéry; Hasiniatsy, Nomeharisoa Rodrigue Emile; Andrianandrasana, Ny Ony Tiana Florence; Ramahandrisoa, Andriatsihoarana Voahary Nasandratriniavo; Rakotonarivo, Jean Marc; Maevazaka, Joée Larissa; Rakotovao, Hanitrala Jean Louis; Rafaramino, Florine

    2015-01-01

    Le retard de diagnostic des cancers broncho-pulmonaires est l'une des sources du retard de leur prise en charge dans les pays en développement. A notre connaissance, l'aspect clinique des cancers broncho-pulmonaires au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire d'Antananarivo-Hôpital Universitaire Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona (CHUA-HUJRA) n'a jamais été étudié. L'objectif était de décrire les aspects cliniques des cancers broncho-pulmonaires primitifs dans le plus grand centre de cancérologie de Madagascar. C'est une étude rétrospective et descriptive des patients atteints de cancers broncho-pulmonaires primitifs vus au service d'oncologie du CHUA-HUJRA du 1er janvier 2008 au 31 décembre 2013. Nous avons recensé 101 patients (80 hommes et 21 femmes). Les circonstances de découverte sont principalement la toux chronique (n = 29), la dyspnée (n = 16) et l'association d'une hémoptysie à la toux chronique (n = 12). Soixante et onze patients avaient un index de performans status ≥ à 2 au moment du diagnostic. On a retrouvé des bacilles de Koch actives dans le crachat de deux patients. Le délai moyen entre l'apparition des premiers signes et la première consultation était de 11 mois. Le délai moyen entre la première consultation et le diagnostic anatomopathologique était de 3 mois. Le cancer broncho-pulmonaire peut avoir des manifestations cliniques non spécifiques parfois trompeuses qui peuvent retarder leur prise en charge. De ce fait, il doit être recherché devant tout signe respiratoire persistant. Par ailleurs, le délai de prise en charge pré-hospitalière et hospitalière de ces cancers doit être amélioré. PMID:26958134

  16. Approche pour les comportements sexuels inappropriés chez des personnes atteintes de démence

    PubMed Central

    Joller, Petra; Gupta, Neeraj; Seitz, Dallas P.; Frank, Christopher; Gibson, Michelle; Gill, Sudeep S.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille une mise à jour sur l’approche au diagnostic et à la prise en charge des comportements sexuels inappropriés (CSI) chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Sources des données On a fait une recherche dans MEDLINE et EMBASE pour cerner des articles pertinents publiés avant juin 2012. On n’a trouvé aucune étude de niveau I; la plupart des articles fournissaient des données probantes de niveau III. Message principal Les comportements sexuels inappropriés sont fréquents chez les personnes atteintes de démence. Divers facteurs (p. ex., culturels, religieux, perspectives sociétales de la sexualité gériatrique, questions médicolégales) pourraient compliquer l’évaluation de tels comportements et doivent être pris en compte pour permettre une prise en charge appropriée à chaque patient. Il existe des outils pour documenter les CSI. Des interventions créatives non pharmacologiques pour les CSI pourraient être efficaces quand elles sont adaptées à chaque patient. Certaines pharmacothérapies (p. ex., antidépresseurs, antiandrogènes, antipsychotiques et anticonvulsifs) ont été proposées pour les symptômes qui ne répondent pas aux interventions non pharmacologiques. Par ailleurs, les données probantes à l’appui des traitements à l’aide de médicaments sont limitées, les effets secondaires demeurent un aspect important à considérer et il est incertain s’ils devraient être utilisés comme traitement de première ou de deuxième intention. Conclusion Quoiqu’il n’y ait pas d’algorithme de traitements empiriquement établi pour les CSI reliés à la démence, les ouvrages actuels offrent certaines données probantes concernant diverses thérapies pharmacologiques et non pharmacologiques. Des recherches de grande qualité plus approfondies sont nécessaires de toute urgence pour guider les médecins de famille qui prennent en charge des patients qui ont des CSI reliés à la

  17. Les conseils des cliniciens canadiens en matière de commotion dans le sport sont-ils cohérents?

    PubMed Central

    Carson, James D.; Rendely, Alexandra; Garel, Alisha; Meaney, Christopher; Stoller, Jacqueline; Kaicker, Jatin; Hayden, Leigh; Moineddin, Rahim; Frémont, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Comparer les connaissances et l’utilisation des recommandations concernant la prise en charge de la commotion dans le sport (CDS) démontrées par les spécialistes de la médecine du sport et de l’exercice (SMSE) et les urgentologues afin d’évaluer la réussite du transfert des connaissances sur la CDS au Canada. Conception Un sondage à choix multiples envoyé par courriel et autoadministré par des SMSE et des urgentologues. La validité du contenu du sondage a fait l’objet d’une évaluation. Contexte Canada. Participants Le sondage a été complété entre mai et juillet 2012 par des SMSE qui ont réussi l’examen menant au diplôme de l’Académie canadienne de la médecine du sport et de l’exercice et des urgentologues qui n’avaient pas ce diplôme. Principaux paramètres à l’étude La connaissance et l’identification des sources d’information sur la prise en charge des commotions, l’utilisation des stratégies de diagnostic de la commotion et l’utilisation d’une terminologie courante et cohérente dans l’explication des stratégies de repos aux patients après une CDS. Résultats Le taux de réponse était de 28 % (305 sur 1085). Les taux de réponse par les SMSE et les urgentologues se situaient respectivement à 41 % (147 sur 360) et 22 % (158 sur 725). Parmi les répondants, 41 % des urgentologues et 3 % des SMSE n’étaient pas au courant de l’existence de déclarations consensuelles sur la commotion dans le sport; 74 % des SMSE utilisaient « habituellement ou toujours » la version 2 de l’Outil d’évaluation de la commotion dans le sport (SCAT2), tandis que 88 % des urgentologues n’utilisaient jamais le SCAT2. Aucune réponse uniforme n’a été documentée à la question visant à connaître les meilleurs modes de repos cognitif. Conclusion Nous avons cerné des différences et un manque d’uniformité chez les SMSE et les urgentologues dans la mise en application des recommandations

  18. Dry Eye Syndrome Risks in Patients With Fibromyalgia: A National Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Hsien; Yang, Tse-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chen, Chih-Sheng; Lin, Wei-Ming; Kuo, Chia-Nan; Lin, Ming-Chia; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence of fibromyalgia (FM) and dry eye syndrome (DES) has been previously reported. However, there are few studies on how patients with FM may develop concomitant DES. Patients with chronic widespread pain, like FM, chronic fatigue syndrome, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), was concerned for the rheumatic or psychosomatic disorders which might adequately reflect the long-term risk of DES. We retrieved data on FM patients from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan covering the years 2000 to 2011. Our FM population consisted of 25,777 patients versus 103,108 patients in the non-FM group: the overall incidence of DES in these populations was 7.37/10,000 and 4.81/10,000, respectively. Male FM patients had a higher incidence of DES, with a 1.39-fold DES risk for males and a 1.45-fold for females after adjustment for confounding factor. Notably, FM patients aged ≤49 years had an elevated 80% risk of DES compared with the non-FM group. Without comorbidities, FM patients had an approximately 1.40-fold risk of DES than those without FM. The additive effects of FM and IBS or FM and sleep disturbance were pointed out that the risk for DES would be elevated when the FM patients with IBS or sleep disturbance. FM patients have a higher incidence of DES than that of non-FM patients. They carry long-term DES risks from a relatively young age, particularly those with psychiatric problems. Risk stratification for a timely psychiatric medication intervention and risk modifications are not intended. PMID:26825913

  19. Intraoral Mitochondrial-Targeted GS-Nitroxide, JP4-039, Radioprotects Normal Tissue in Tumor-Bearing Radiosensitive Fancd2(-/-) (C57BL/6) Mice.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Ashwin; Berhane, Hebist; Rhieu, Byung Han; Kalash, Ronny; Xu, Karen; Goff, Julie; Epperly, Michael W; Franicola, Darcy; Zhang, Xichen; Dixon, Tracy; Shields, Donna; Wang, Hong; Wipf, Peter; Parmar, Kalindi; Guinan, Eva; Kagan, Valerian; Tyurin, Vladimir; Ferris, Robert L; Zhang, Xiaolan; Li, Song; Greenberger, Joel S

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated normal tissue specific radioprotection of the oral cavity in radiosensitive Fanconi Anemia (FA) Fancd2(-/-) mice with orally established tumors using mitochondrial-targeted GS-nitroxide (JP4-039). Adult (10-12 weeks old) Fancd2(+/+), Fancd2(+/-) and Fancd2(-/-) mice (C57BL/6 background) and subgroups with orally established TC-1 epithelial cell tumors received a single fraction of 28 Gy or four daily fractions of 8 Gy to the head and neck. Subgroups received JP4-039 in F15 emulsion (F15/JP4-039; 0.4 mg/mouse), 4-amino-Tempo in F15 emulsion (F15/4-amino-Tempo; 0.2 mg/mouse) or F15 emulsion alone prior to each irradiation. Oral mucosa of Fancd2(-/-) mice showed baseline elevated RNA transcripts for Sod2, p53, p21 and Rad51 (all P < 0.0012) and suppressed levels of Nfkb and Tgfb, (all P < 0.0020) compared with Fancd2(+/+) mice. The oral mucosa in tumor-bearing mice of all genotypes showed decreased levels of p53 and elevated Tgfb and Gadd45a (P ≤ 0.0001 for all three genotypes). Intraoral F15/JP4-039, but not F15/4-amino-Tempo, modulated radiation-induced normal tissue transcript elevation, ameliorated mucosal ulceration and reduced the depletion of antioxidant stores in oral cavity tissue of all genotypes, but did not radioprotect tumors. Mitochondrial targeting makes F15/JP4-039 an effective normal tissue radioprotector for Fancd2(-/-) mice, as well as wild-type mice. PMID:26789701

  20. Prise en charge des traumatismes graves du rein

    PubMed Central

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Jarir, Redouane; Sadiki, Bader; Zehraoui; Bentani; Wakrim, Bader; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni; Sarf, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes graves du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'Amercan Society for Surgery For Trauma (ASST) sont plus rares et se retrouvent dans 5% des cas en moyenne. Leur prise en charge est souvent délicate, nécessitant alors des centres expérimentés dotés de moyen adéquats d'imagerie (scanner spiralé). Cependant, durant ces dernières années, la prise en charge de ces traumatismes a évolué vers une attitude de moins en moins chirurgicale grâce à l’évolution des techniques de la radiologie interventionnelle, de l'endourologie et des moyens de surveillance aux urgences et de réanimation. L'objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer notre expérience dans la prise en charge des traumatismes rénaux de haut grade. Notre étude rétrospective porte sur 25 cas de traumatismes grave du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'ASST, colligés entre Janvier 2002 et Juin 2009 au service d'urologie du centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mohammed VI, Université Cadi Ayyad de Marrakech, Maroc. Nous avons étudié les données épidémiologiques, les signes cliniques et biologiques à l'admission (état de choc hémorragique, taux d'hémoglobine), les données radiologiques (échographie et scanner), les lésions associées, la prise en charge thérapeutique et les complications. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 24,9 ans 15 et 58 ans, avec une prédominance masculine (sex-ratio = 7, 3). Le rein droit était intéressé dans 15 cas (60%). Le traumatisme rénal était fermé dans 15 cas, et ouvert par arme blanche dans 10 cas. Huit patients se sont présentés en état de choc hémorragique (32%). Une anémie inférieur à 10g /100ml a été observée dans 10 cas (40%). L'uroscanner fait systématiquement à l'admission a retrouvé un grade III (10 cas), grade IV (13 cas) et grade V (2 cas). La prise en charge a consisté en une exploration chirurgicale avec néphrectomie chez 2 cas de Grade IV pour une instabilité h

  1. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    PubMed

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat. PMID:27112279

  2. The enhancement of existing DES Maplet interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Nur Lina; Mutalip, Rasidah Abdull; Abdullah, Kamilah

    2014-07-01

    This study pertains to the process of Data Encryption Standard, DES. DES consists of encryption and decryption processes linked with mathematical elements such as algebra and number theory. Preliminary, studies revealed that most of mathematics students face a problem in understanding the complicated process of DES. In modern learning methods, learning environment becomes more interesting with the use of computer and a variety of mathematical software packages. Several mathematical softwares such as Maple, Mathematica, Mathlab and Sage were developed in order to fulfill the specific calculation requirements. Correspondingly, motivated from that, this study incorporated with Maple to enhance the existing DES Maplet interface to be more interactive and user-friendly compared to the original version.

  3. Etiologies des hypertensions artérielles endocrines: à propos d'une série de cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouznad, Naima; El Mghari, Ghizlane; El Ansari, Nawal

    2016-01-01

    Les hypertensions artérielles (HTA) d'origine endocrine restent une cause rare d'HTA, sa prévalence globale n'excède pas 4% des hypertendus. L'intérêt de la recherche des HTA endocrines réside dans la gravité de certaines formes parfois mortelles et le caractère potentiellement curable et réversible de ces HTA. Le but du travail est de déterminer le profil clinique, para clinique, étiologique et thérapeutique des HTA secondaires d'origine endocrine chez les patients suivis au service d'endocrinologie au CHU Mohamed IV à Marrakech. Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive prospective s’étalant sur une période de 4 ans incluant 45 patients ayant une HTA endocrinienne. La moyenne d’âge est de 44,89 ans, avec une nette prédominance du sexe féminine (sexe ratio de 0,49). Les étiologies des HTA endocrines étaient dominées par le phéochromocytome (17 cas), l'hypercorticisme (11 cas) et l'acromégalie (8 cas). L'HTA était paroxystique dans 24,4%. Elle était d'emblée sevère classée grade 3 dans 40% des cas. L'HTA a été compliquée de cardiopathie dans 24% des cas et de néphropathie dans 20% des cas. Le traitement curatif a permis une guérison de l'HTA chez 60% (27 cas). Le diagnostic des HTA secondaires endocrines est parfois difficile du fait de l'absence de spécificité clinique. Il n'est pas exceptionnel que l'HTA soit l'unique manifestation de la maladie. Dans notre travail nous notons le caractère paroxystique et sévère de l'HTA. Le caractère éventuellement curable des HTA endocrines, dans plus des deux tiers des cas, fait qu'il est important de la dépister devant toute HTA sévère, résistante au traitement, ou en présence de signes cliniques, biologiques ou radiologiques évocateurs. PMID:27303586

  4. Prise en charge en soins primaires des troubles liés à l’usage d’alcool et de la consommation à risque

    PubMed Central

    Spithoff, Sheryl; Kahan, Meldon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Fournir aux médecins de soins primaires de l’information et des conseils fondés sur des données probantes sur le dépistage et l’évaluation de la consommation d’alcool à risque et des troubles liés à l’usage d’alcool (TUA). Sources des données Nous avons effectué une recherche documentaire non systématique en utilisant des expressions de recherche portant sur les soins primaires, les TUA, la dépendance à l’alcool, l’abus d’alcool, l’usage abusif d’alcool, la consommation d’alcool néfaste pour la santé, ainsi que le dépistage, la détermination et l’évaluation dans le contexte des soins primaires. Principaux messages Les médecins de famille devraient faire passer un test validé de dépistage de l’abus d’alcool à tous les patients, au moins une fois par année. Dépister les patients qui se présentent avec des problèmes médicaux ou psychosociaux pouvant être reliés à l’usage d’alcool. Déterminer si les patients qui obtiennent des résultats positifs lors du dépistage sont des consommateurs d’alcool à risque ou s’ils ont des TUA. Si les patients ont des TUA, déterminer si les troubles sont légers, modérés ou sévères en utilisant les critères de la 5e édition du Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux. Communiquer le diagnostic aux patients et leur offrir de l’aide. Effectuer une évaluation plus approfondie des patients ayant des TUA. Procéder à un dépistage de la consommation d’autres substances, des troubles concomitants et des traumatismes. Déterminer s’il est nécessaire de rapporter le cas aux services de protection de l’enfance ou au ministère des Transports. Déterminer les besoins en matière de prise en charge médicale du sevrage alcoolique. Effectuer un bref examen physique et prescrire l’exécution de tests de laboratoire pour évaluer la formule sanguine complète et les taux de transaminases hépatiques, comprenant les

  5. Copernic: la piste des influences arabes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalatbari, A.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    Copernic a-t-il connu le travail des astronomes du Moyen-Orient ? S'en est-il inspiré pour élaborer sa théorie de l'héliocentrisme ? C'est l'hypothèse avancée par certains historiens des sciences pour comprendre le génie de celui qui, le premier, a placé le Soleil au centre du monde. Enquête.

  6. An atypical presentation of an extremely late stent thrombosis after more than 7 years (2634 days) of DES implantation in a patient without obvious risk factors on regular dual antiplatelet therapy

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Pritesh; Agrawal, Navin; Vasavada, Apurva; Vinchurkar, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Very late stent thrombosis is a rare complication of percutaneous coronary intervention in the era of dual antiplatelet therapy. The risk factors for stent thrombosis are drug default, age, diabetes, renal dysfunction, left ventricular dysfunction, smoking or procedure-related factors and complications. We are describing the case of a 55-year-old non-smoker patient without the conventional risk factors for stent thrombosis maintaining good compliance with dual antiplatelet (aspirin and clopidogrel) drugs in standard doses. The patient had a history of having received a Cypher stent more than 7 years (2634 days) ago in the left circumflex artery for the management of in-stent restenosis of a bare metal stent implanted previously. He was referred with acute stent thrombosis with an atypical presentation of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction having unexplainable spontaneous resolution of electrocardiographic changes. The patient was successfully managed with newer generation drug-eluting stents reimplantation. The presence of acute onset of symptoms and thrombus containing soft lesion as documented during intervention supported the diagnosis of acute stent thrombosis. To the best of our knowledge this case is one of the longest duration of presentation with acute stent thrombosis after stent implantation ever reported in literature and is also unique in its unusual mode of presentation. PMID:25028419

  7. L'Apport de la Greffe de Peau Totale dans le Traitement des Sequelles des Brulures de la Main: a Propos de 14 Cas

    PubMed Central

    Ettalbi, S.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Rachid, M.; Bahaichar, N.; Boukind, H.

    2007-01-01

    Summary La main est fréquemment exposée aux brûlures, ce qui entraîne des séquelles cutanées. A partir d'une série de 14 patients suivis dans notre service sur une année, nous avons essayé d'établir la simplicité, l'efficacité et le rôle de la greffe de peau totale dans le traitement de ces séquelles (les organes nobles ne sont pas mis à nu). La greffe de peau totale associée à une rééducation efficace permet aux patients de reprendre la mobilité des mains dans les brefs délais. PMID:21991094

  8. Diffusion des Metaux et Evolution Stellaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcotte, Sylvain

    Nous presentons dans cette these des modeles d'evolution stellaire incorporant la diffusion microscopique de maniere consistante. Pour la premiere fois, on a calcule l'evolution d'etoiles en tenant compte en detail de l'impact des variations d'abondances sur leur structure. Nous utilisons des spectres monochromatiques pour chacun des elements les plus abondants dans un melange solaire pour recalculer l'opacite pour les abondances et les conditions locales dans l'interieur d'une etoile au cours de son evolution. Nos modeles montrent que la diffusion atomique des metaux a un effet important sur les opacites dan les etoiles de plus de 1.3Msolar ou l'abondance du fer et des autres elements du pic du fer varient substantiellement. Ces etoiles, sans rotation ou champ magnetique, sont proches des etoiles de type Fm-Am dans lesquelles on observe une legere surabondance d'elements du pic du fer en plus d'une sous-abondance de calcium, sous-abondance que l'on obtient egalement. Nous obtenons cependant des surabondances depassant un facteur 10 pour les etoiles de plus de 1.4Msolar ce qui suggere qu'il existe un ou plusieurs mecanismes limitant la diffusion microscopique. La surabondance du fer en surface cause une augmentation, qui peut atteindre un facteur sept, de l'opacite a la limite de la zone convective. Ceci cause un accroissement de la temperature effective et de la masse de la zone convective comparativement aux modeles n'incluant que la diffusion de l'helium. Il s'agit la du principal effet de la diffusion sur la structure interne de ces etoiles. La diffusions n'a pas d'influence sur l'evolution de coeur stellaire dans les etoiles significativement plus massives quie le Soleil. Nous avons verife que l'utilisation de modeles consistants avec diffusion n'apporte pas d'amelioration sensible aux modeles solaires. Les forces radiatives calculees a partir des spectres d'OPAL pour les elements du pic du fer representent une fraction importante de la gravite. On obtient des

  9. La Prise en Charge des Brulures Electriques: a Propos de 30 Cas

    PubMed Central

    Bakkali, H.; Ababou, K.; Bellamari, H.; Ennouhi, A.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Achbouk, A.; Moussaoui, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures électriques sont rares mais graves nécessitant une prise en charge urgente et adéquate car l'évolution peut être émaillée de complications graves, notamment cardiaques, neurologiques et rénales, et les séquelles sont importantes. A travers une étude analytique et rétrospective de janvier 2000 à novembre 2007 ayant inclus 30 patients admis au Service des Brûlés de l'Hôpital Militaire d'Instruction Mohamed V de Rabat, Maroc, pour prise en charge de brûlures électriques, il a été relaté les mécanismes des brûlures électriques, comme aussi les complications, la morbidité et la mortalité, dues aux brûlures électriques, tout en insistant sur les modalités de prise en charge initiale chez ces patients. La prévention reste le point capital pour réduire l'incidence de ces accidents. Cette prévention se base sur la surveillance des enfants et l'élimination de facteurs de risque à la maison, par la maintenance des installations électriques et par l'information et l'éducation du public. PMID:21991148

  10. L’inhalation de corticostéroïdes est-elle sécuritaire durant la grossesse?

    PubMed Central

    Smy, Laura; Chan, Alvin C.H.; Bozzo, Pina; Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Une femme atteinte d’asthme léger à modéré, autrement en santé, s’est présentée à ma clinique aujourd’hui après avoir appris qu’elle était enceinte. Elle m’a demandé si elle devait continuer à prendre ses corticostéroïdes en inhalation (CSI) et, dans l’affirmative, s’il pourrait y avoir des risques pour son enfant à naître. Quels seraient vos conseils à ce propos? Réponse Compte tenu des données probantes publiées, les CSI devraient être continués durant toute la grossesse à des doses allant de faibles à modérées et suffisantes pour contrôler les symptômes de l’asthme et prévenir les exacerbations. Il faut toutefois être prudent quand il s’agit de doses de plus de 1 000 µg/j (d’équivalent de béclométasone avec chlorofluorocarbures), quoiqu’il soit actuellement questionnable si de telles doses causeraient des effets indésirables. Il faut renseigner de manière continue les patientes sur l’administration appropriée des CSI et l’observance du traitement, y compris durant le premier trimestre. Un bon contrôle de l’asthme réduira la nécessité de doses plus fortes de CSI et de l’exposition possible à des corticostéroïdes systémiques et diminuera ainsi le risque de résultats périnatals ou de grossesse indésirables.

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation and pretreatment with (D-Leu6,des-Gly10) luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide on developing rat ovarian follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; McMahon, A.; Barr, R.; O'Connell, G.; Belbeck, L.

    1987-10-01

    To assess the effects of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, (D-Leu6,des-Gly10) luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone ethylamide, in ameliorating the damage caused by ionizing radiation, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist was administered to rats from day 22 to 37 of age in doses of 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 microgram/day or vehicle and the rats were sacrificed on day 44 of age. There were no effects on estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing, or follicle-stimulating hormone, nor an effect on ovarian follicle numbers or development. In separate experiments, rats treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in doses of 0.04, 0.1, 0.4, or 1.0 microgram/day were either irradiated or sham irradiated on day 30 and all groups sacrificed on day 44 of age. Irradiation produced a reduction in ovarian weight and an increase in ovarian follicular atresia. Pretreatment with the agonist prevented the reduction in ovarian weight and numbers of primordial and preantral follicles but not healthy or atretic antral follicles. Such putative radioprotection should be tested on actual reproductive performance.

  12. Clinical Outcome of First- vs Second-Generation DES According to DAPT Duration: Results of ARCTIC-Generation.

    PubMed

    Collet, Jean-Philippe; Silvain, Johanne; Kerneis, Mathieu; Cuisset, Thomas; Meneveau, Nicolas; Boueri, Ziad; Barthélémy, Olivier; Rangé, Grégoire; Cayla, Guillaume; Belle, Eric Van; Elhadad, Simon; Carrié, Didier; Caussin, Christophe; Rousseau, Hélène; Aubry, Pierre; Monségu, Jacques; Sabouret, Pierre; O'Connor, Stephen A; Abtan, Jérémie; Saint-Etienne, Christophe; Beygui, Farzin; Vicaut, Eric; Montalescot, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    There is an apparent benefit with extension of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) beyond 1 year after implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES). Assessment by a Double Randomization of a Conventional Antiplatelet Strategy vs a Monitoring-Guided Strategy for Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation, and of Treatment Interruption vs Continuation One Year After Stenting (ARCTIC)-Generation assessed whether there is a difference of outcome between first- vs second-generation DES and if there is an interaction with DAPT duration in the ARCTIC-Interruption study. ARCTIC-Interruption randomly allocated 1259 patients 1 year after stent implantation to a strategy of interruption of DAPT (n = 624), in which aspirin antiplatelet treatment only was maintained, or DAPT continuation (n = 635) for 6 to 18 additional months. The primary endpoint was the composite of death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, stroke, or urgent revascularization. A total of 520 and 722 patients received a first- and a second-generation DES, respectively. After a median follow-up of 17 months (interquartile range, 15-18 months) after randomization, the primary endpoint occurred in 32 (6.2%) and 19 (2.6%) patients with first- and second-generation DES, respectively (hazard ratio: 2.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.31-4.07, P = 0.004). This was observed irrespective of the strategy of interruption or continuation of DAPT and timing of study recruitment. Major bleeding events occurred in 4 (0.8%) and 3 patients (0.4%) with first- and second-generation DES, respectively (hazard ratio: 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.40-8.02, P = 0.44). Results did not change after multiple adjustments for potential confounding variables. ARCTIC-Generation showed worse clinical outcome with first- vs second-generation DES, a difference that appeared to persist even with prolonged DAPT. PMID:26880570

  13. Lignes directrices sur l’aiguillage des cas soupçonnés de cancer du poumon par un médecin de famille ou autre professionnel des soins primaires

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, M. Elisabeth; Young, Sheila-Mae; Vella, Emily T.; Ash, Marla; Bansal, Praveen; Robinson, Andrew; Skrastins, Roland; Ung, Yee; Zeldin, Robert; Levitt, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Les présentes lignes directrices visent à aider les médecins de famille et autres généralistes à reconnaître les manifestations cliniques devant éveiller les soupçons quant à la présence d’un cancer du poumon chez les patients. Composition du comité Les membres du comité ont été choisis parmi les leaders régionaux en soins primaires du Réseau provincial des soins primaires et de la lutte contre le cancer d’Action Cancer Ontario et parmi les membres du Groupe sur le siège de la maladie, Cancer du poumon d’Action Cancer Ontario. Méthodes Les présentes lignes directrices sont le fruit d’une revue systématique des données probantes, d’une synthèse des données et d’un examen externe formel effectué par des intervenants canadiens qui ont validé la pertinence des recommandations. Rapport Ces lignes directrices fondées sur des données probantes ont été formulées pour améliorer la prise en charge en contexte canadien des patients qui présentent des manifestations cliniques du cancer du poumon. Conclusion Le dépistage et l’aiguillage précoces des patients atteints de cancer du poumon pourraient en fin de compte aider à réduire les morbidités et mortalités liées au cancer. Ces lignes directrices pourraient aussi s’avérer utiles dans la mise sur pied de programmes de diagnostic du cancer du poumon et pour aider les décideurs à veiller à ce que les ressources appropriées soient en place.

  14. Résultats du traitement du synovialosarcome des members

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; El Bardouni, Ahmed; Ismail, Farid; Kharmaz, Mohammed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les synovialosarcomes, sarcomes de haut grade, sont de diagnostic tardif et le traitement est complexe et onéreux, nécessitant la mise en œuvre d'une équipe pluridisciplinaire. Le but de ce travail était d'apprécier les résultats de l'association de la chirurgie à la radio chimiothérapie des synovialosarcomes des membres. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective portant sur des patients présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres pris en charge dans le service de chirurgie orthopédique et traumatologique du CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat allant de Janvier 2006 à Décembre 2011 (6 ans). Nous avons inclus les malades présentant de synovialosarcomes des membres dont la clinique et l'imagerie médicale étaient en faveur, confirmés par l'examen anatomopathologique et la prise en charge effectuée dans le service. Les patients ont été revus avec un recul moyen de 3 ans. Nous n'avons pas retenu les patients dont les dossiers étaient incomplets, perdus de vue. Nous avons apprécié les résultats selon les critères carcinologiques et le score MSTS (Musculoskeletal Tumor Society). La saisie et l'analyse des données ont été faites sur le logiciel SPSS Stastic 17.0 Nous avons colligé 20 cas de synovialosarcome des membres dans le Service de Chirurgie Orthopédique et Traumatologique au CHU Ibn SINA de Rabat Le sexe masculin a prédominé avec 65% (n = 13) avec un sex ratio 1,85. L’âge moyen a été de 42,6 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 20 ans et 70 ans. Notre délai moyen de consultation était de 14,42 mois. Tous les malades ont consulté pour une tuméfaction dans 100% (localisée au membre inférieur dans 65% (n = 13), membre supérieur dans 35% (n = 7). La douleur était associée à la tuméfaction dans 55% (n = 11), quant à l'altération de l’état général et l'ulcération de la masse, elles ont été notées dans 3 cas chacune. Nous avons réalisé un bilan d'imagerie médicale comprenant: radiographie standard, échographie, écho doppler

  15. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  16. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  17. 33 CFR 117.439 - Des Allemands Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Des Allemands Bayou. 117.439... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.439 Des Allemands Bayou. (a) The draw of the S631 bridge, mile 13.9 at Des Allemands, shall open on signal if at least four hours notice...

  18. Profil bactériologique du pied diabétique et son impact sur le choix des antibiotiques

    PubMed Central

    Zemmouri, Adil; Tarchouli, Mohamed; Benbouha, Abdellatif; Lamkinsi, Tarik; Bensghir, Mustapha; Elouennass, Mostafa; Haimeur, Cherqui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Analyse du profil bactériologique des pieds diabétiques pris en charge à l'hôpital militaire de Rabat et son influence sur l'antibiothérapie de première intention. Méthodes Etude prospective non randomisée étalée sur 18 mois, ayant concerné 105 patients. Après recueil des données et en attente des résultats bactériologiques nos patients ont été divisés en deux groupes: un groupe a été mis sous Amoxicilline + Acide clavulanique + Gentamycine (59 patients) et un groupe sous Ertapénème±Gentamycine (46 patients). Résultats L’étude a regroupé 85 hommes et 20 femmes (sexe ratio = 4.26). L’âge moyen est de 64.4 ans. La gangrène a été observée chez 79% des malades; elle était humide-donc surinfectée en principe- dans 43% des cas. Par ailleurs, 67% des malades ont un chiffre de globules blancs 12000 définissant une infection sévère. L'ostéolyse a été mise en évidence chez 27% de nos patients. Parmi les différentes techniques de prélèvements: 81% ont été profonds dont 21% de biopsie osseuse per opératoire et 14% de prélèvements combinés. 42% de ces prélèvements sont poly microbiens et 21% sont stériles. Les résultats bactériologiques viennent confirmer la prédominance des bactéries aérobies à Gram positif. Le taux de remplacement de l'Ertapénème est de 22% contre un taux de 50% pour l'Amoxiclav. Conclusion L'antibiothérapie ne doit être instaurée qu'en cas d'infection du pied diabétique diagnostiquée sur les critères cliniques établis par les consensus internationaux récents. Le respect des mesures de lutte contre la diffusion de la résistance bactérienne s'avère primordiale. PMID:27386024

  19. MASM, a Matrine Derivative, Offers Radioprotection by Modulating Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Multiple Signaling Pathways in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Jing; Lu, Yiming; Qiu, Lei; Xu, Weiheng; Lu, Bin; Hu, Zhenlin; Chu, Zhiyong; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2016-01-01

    Matrine is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens Ait and has many biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anti-fibrosis, and immunosuppressive properties. In our previous studies, the matrine derivative MASM was synthesized and exhibited potent inhibitory activity against liver fibrosis. In this study, we mainly investigated its protection against lethal total-body irradiation (TBI) in rats. Administration of MASM reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of rats before or after lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that pretreatment of rats with MASM significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed that pretreatment with MASM had a dramatic effect on gene expression changes caused by TBI. Pretreatment with MASM prevented differential expression of 53% (765 genes) of 1445 differentially expressed genes induced by TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 21 pathways, such as metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Our data indicated that pretreatment of rats with MASM modulated these pathways induced by TBI, suggesting that the pretreatment with MASM might provide the protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways, such as multiple MAPK pathways. Therefore, MASM has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radioprotective agent to minimize irradiation damages and in combination with radiotherapy to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy. PMID:27196884

  20. Radioprotective effect of Haberlea rhodopensis (Friv.) leaf extract on gamma-radiation-induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant levels in rabbit blood.

    PubMed

    Georgieva, Svetlana; Popov, Borislav; Bonev, Georgi

    2013-01-01

    Different concentrations of H. rhodopensis total extract (HRE; 0.03, 0.06 and 0.12 g/kg body weight) were injected im, into rabbits 2 h before collecting the blood samples. The whole blood samples were exposed in vitro to 2.0 Gy 60Co gamma-radiation. The radiation-induced changes were estimated by using the chromosome aberration test (CA) and cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) in peripheral lymphocytes, and by determining the malondialdehyde levels (MDA) in blood plasma and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in erythrocytes. Radiation significantly increased the chromosome aberration and micronuclei frequencies as well as MDA levels and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activity. On the other hand, the HRE pretreatment significantly decreased the CA, MN frequencies and MDA levels and increased the SOD and CAT activity in a concentration dependent manner. The most effective was the highest concentration of HRE (0.12 g/kg body weight). The results suggest that HRE as a natural product with a nantioxidant capacity could play a modulatory role against the cellular damage induced by gamma-irradiation. The possible mechanism involved in the radioprotective potential of HRE is discussed. PMID:23441477

  1. Potent radioprotective effects of combined regimens of famotidine and vitamin C against radiation-induced micronuclei in mouse bone marrow erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zangeneh, M; Mozdarani, H; Mahmoudzadeh, A

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the radioprotective effect of the combination of famotidine and vitamin C against radiation-induced micronucleus formation in mouse bone marrow erythrocytes, various doses of famotidine or vitamin C or combinations thereof were administered intraperitoneally to adult male NMRI mice 2 h before 2 and 4 Gy γ-irradiation. The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) was scored in 5,000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs), and the cell proliferation ratio [PCE/(PCE + NCE); NCE = normochromatic erythrocytes] was also calculated for each treatment group. Data were statistically evaluated using one-way ANOVA test. The results show that pretreatment with various doses of famotidine and vitamin C before γ-irradiation significantly reduced the frequency of MnPCEs with a protection factor (PF) of 2 and 1.7, respectively. Pretreatment with vitamin C also significantly increased the cell proliferation ratio, while famotidine had no effect. Combination of famotidine and vitamin C was more effective in reducing MnPCEs than each compound alone, leading to a PF of 4.3 after irradiation. Cell proliferation ratio was also significantly improved by the combination compared with the irradiated control groups. Both famotidine and vitamin C are potent scavengers of free radicals and reactive oxygen species, especially OH(·). The combination of the two compounds probably further enhances this activity, thus leading to high bone marrow protection. PMID:25634516

  2. The GBT-SerDes ASIC prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, P.; Baron, S.; Bonacini, S.; Cobanoglu, O.; Faccio, F.; Feger, S.; Francisco, R.; Gui, P.; Li, J.; Marchioro, A.; Paillard, C.; Porret, D.; Wyllie, K.

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of the GigaBit Transceiver project (GBT), a prototype, the GBT-SerDes ASIC, was developed, fabricated and tested. To sustain high radiation doses while operating at 4.8Gb/s, the ASIC was fabricated in a commercial 130 nm CMOS technology employing radiation tolerant techniques and circuits. The transceiver serializes-deserializes the data, Reed-Solomon encodes and decodes the data and scrambles and descrambles the data for transmission over optical fibre links. This paper describes the GBT-SerDes architecture, and presents the test results.

  3. Apport de l'orientation clinique dans le diagnostic des hypertensions arterielles endocriniennes

    PubMed Central

    El Aziz, Siham; Chadli, Asma; Louda, Fatima; El Ghomari, Hassan; Farouqi, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    L'hypertension artérielle d'origine endocrinienne représente une cause curable d'hypertension artérielle (HTA), ce qui en justifie le dépistage. Une orientation clinique est souhaitable afin de prescrire les bilans adéquats, notamment dans les pays en voie de développement. L'objectif de notre étude est décrire les aspects cliniques des patients ayant une HTA endocrinienne diagnostiquée au CHU de Casablanca. Méthodes: Il s'agit d'une étude descriptive rétrospective de 2004 à 2011, incluant tout patient ayant une HTA endocrinienne (en dehors des dysthyroïdies) admis en Endocrinologie. Les données concernant les facteurs cliniques, paracliniques et thérapeutiques ont été colligées. Au cours de la période étudiée, 53 cas d'HTA endocrinienne ont été admis, avec une age moyen au diagnostic de 39,3 ans et un sex-ratio F/H de 3,9. Trente patients (56.6%) ont un age ont un âge inférieur à 40 ans. On ne retrouve pas d'hérédité tensionelle chez 88.7% des patients. Les étiologies sont le Syndrome de cushing (41.5%), le phéochromocytome (32%), les adénomes somatotropes (15%) et les hyperaldostéronismes primaire (7.5%). L'HTA est essentiellement de grade un ou deux (69.8%), avec un retentissement cardio-vasculaire chez 11 patients (20.7%). Les patients ayant un SC avaient tous des signes cutanés spécifiques. Il s'agissait de sujets jeunes avec plusieurs facteurs de risque cardiovasculaire. Nous avons retrouvé un amaigrissement chez 37.5% des patients ayant un phéochromocytome avec un indice de masse corporel moyen de 20 kg/m2. L'HTA était permanente dans 5 cas de phéochromocytomes. Il n'existait pas d'hypokaliémie chez 50% des patients ayant un hyperaldostéronisme. Les signes cliniques des patients ayant une acromégalie étaient francs, avec un age moyen plus élevé de 50 ans. Nous avons noté une régression de l'HTA chez 59% de ces patients après guérison de l'endocrinopathie en cause. Plusieurs signes cliniques peuvent nous

  4. Developpement des betons semi autoplacants a rheologie adaptee pour des infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor Cruz, Cristian Daniel

    Au cours des dernières décennies, les infrastructures canadiennes et québécoises comportent plusieurs structures en béton armé présentant des problèmes de durabilité dus aux conditions climatiques sévères, à la mauvaise conception des structures, à la qualité des matériaux, aux types des bétons choisis, aux systèmes de construction ou à l'existence d'événements incontrôlables. En ce qui concerne le choix du béton pour la construction des infrastructures, une vaste gamme de béton divisée en deux principaux types peut être utilisée: le béton conventionnel vibré (BCV) et le béton autoplaçant (BAP). Dans le cas d'un BCV, la consolidation inadéquate par vibration a été un problème récurrent, occasionnant des dommages structuraux. Ceci a conduit à une réduction de la durabilité et à une augmentation du coût d'entretien et de réparation des infrastructures. Rien que l'utilisation d'un BAP a des avantages tels que l'élimination de la vibration, la réduction des coûts de main d'oeuvre et l'amélioration de la qualité des structures, néanmoins, le coût initial d'un BAP par rapport à un BCV ne permet pas encore de généraliser son utilisation dans l'industrie de la construction. Ce mémoire présente la conception d'une nouvelle gamme de béton semi-autoplaçant pour la construction des infrastructures (BSAP-I) exigeant une vibration minimale. Il s'agit de trouver un équilibre optimal entre la rhéologie et le coût initial du nouveau béton pour conférer une bonne performance structurale et économique aux structures. Le programme expérimental établi a premièrement permis d'évaluer la faisabilité d'utilisation des BSAP-I pour la mise en place des piliers d'une infrastructure de pont à Sherbrooke. En plus, l'utilisation d'un plan d'expériences a permis l'évaluation de trois paramètres de formulation sur les propriétés des mélanges de BSAP-I à l'état frais et durci. Finalement, l'évaluation de la performance des

  5. Etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs de dioxyde de carbone operant dans des conditions de givrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendaoud, Adlane Larbi

    Les evaporateurs de refrigeration sont surtout du type tube a ailettes, appeles serpentins, et fonctionnent dans l'une des conditions suivantes: seche, humide ou avec formation de givre. Il a ete demontre que la formation du givre sur la paroi exterieure de l'echangeur engendre une surconsommation energetique a cause des operations de degivrage puisque 15 a 20% seulement de la chaleur produite sert au degivrage tandis que le reste est dissipee dans l'environnement [1]. Avec l'avenement des nouveaux refrigerants, moins nocifs envers l'environnement, l'industrie du froid se trouve penalisee du fait que peu ou pas de composantes mecaniques (compresseur, pompe, echangeur...etc.) adaptees sont disponibles [3]. Il s'agit pour la communaute des frigoristes de combler ce retard technologique en redeveloppant ces composantes mecaniques afin qu'elles soient adaptees aux nouveaux refrigerants. Dans cette optique, et afin de mieux comprendre le comportement thermique des evaporateurs au CO2 fonctionnant dans des conditions seches, qu'un groupe de chercheurs du CanmetENERGIE avaient lance, en 2000, un programme de R & D. Dans le cadre de programme un outil de simulation des evaporateurs au CO2 a ete developpe et un banc d'essai contenant une boucle secondaire de refrigeration utilisant le CO2 comme refrigerant a ete construit. Comme continuite de ce travail de recherche, en 2006 ce meme groupe de recherche a lance un nouveau projet qui consiste a faire une etude theorique et experimentale des evaporateurs au CO2 operants dans des conditions de givrage. Et, c'est exactement dans le cadre de ce projet que se positionne ce travail de these. Ce travail de recherche a ete entrepris pour mieux comprendre le comportement thermique et hydrodynamique des serpentins fonctionnant dans des conditions de givrage, l'effet des circuits de refrigerant ainsi que celui des parametres geometriques et d'operation. Pour cela, un travail theorique supporte par une etude experimentale a ete effectue

  6. Les luxations bilatérales antérieures pures des épaules à mécanisme particulier: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Koufagued, Kaldadak; Chafry, Bouchaib; Bouabid, Salim; Chagar, Belkacem

    2015-01-01

    Les luxations bilatérales antérieures pures des épaules sont des entités cliniques rares. Une trentaine de cas sont décrits dans la littérature. Le mécanisme varie d'un cas à l'autre, les épaules en abduction et en rétro-pulsion, coudes en extention et en supination a été décrite une seule fois dans la littérature. A ce propos, les auteurs rapportent ce même mécanisme particulier de luxation antérieure bilatérale pure des épaules chez deux jeunes patients, et discutent des circonstances, mécanisme de survenue, du traitement et du pronostique. PMID:26918074

  7. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  8. The "Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The overall mission of the Conservatoire national des arts et metiers--(CNAM) [National Conservatory of Industrial Arts and Trades] is outlined. One of its centers, the "Centre national de l'entrepreneuriat"--(CNE) [National Center for Entrepreneurship] is described in greater detail. In particular, this center offers various services, notably…

  9. Fiabilité des structures mécaniques adaptatives: effet de la panne des actionneurs ou des capteurs sur la stabilité

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, H.; Charon, W.; Kouta, R.

    2002-12-01

    Ces dernières décennies, des activités significatives dans le monde étaient dirigées autour du contrôle actif. Le but de ces recherches était essentiellement d'améliorer les performances, la fiabilité et la sécurité des systèmes. Notamment dans le cas des structures soumises à des vibrations aléatoires. D'importants travaux ont été consacré à l'utilisation des “matériaux intelligents” comme capteurs et actionneurs. Cette article propose l'analyse de la fiabilité des systèmes mécaniques en étudiant les pannes des actionneurs ou des capteurs. L'effet de ces pannes sur la stabilité et la performance du système y est démontré. Les méthodologies de conception y sont rappelées. Des exemples numériques sont fournis à travers le contrôle d'un panneau sous chargement dynamique pour illustrer la méthode proposée.

  10. Dépistage précoce des retards du développement moteur

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Décrire le test HINT (Harris Infant Neuromotor Test), un test d’évaluation du développement neuromoteur chez les nourrissons publié en 2010, qui s’appuie sur les normes canadiennes et peut être utilisé pour dépister les retards du développement moteur durant la première année de la vie. Qualité des données D’abondantes recherches ont été publiées sur la fiabilité intra-évaluateur, inter-évaluateur et test-retest ainsi que sur la validité convergente, prédictive, du contenu et des groupes connus du test HINT, de même que sur la sensibilité, la spécificité et les valeurs prédictives négatives et positives des inquiétudes des parents, telles qu’évaluées par le test HINT. La plupart des données probantes sont de niveau II. Message principal Il est important de diagnostiquer les retards du développement moteur durant la première année de vie, car ils sont souvent le signe de retards du développement généralisés ou de déficiences précises, telles que la paralysie cérébrale. Les inquiétudes des parents quant au développement moteur de leur enfant sont une valeur prédictive robuste de diagnostics subséquents de retard du développement moteur. Conclusion Seul le dépistage précoce des retards du développement moteur, initialement par l’entremise d’outils de dépistage comme le test HINT, permet de recommander le patient à une intervention précoce qui profiterait tant à l’enfant qu’à sa famille. PMID:27521405